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Sample records for px restricted anti-hiv-1

  1. Rapid progressing allele HLA-B35 Px restricted anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T cells recognize vestigial CTL epitopes.

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    Christian B Willberg

    Full Text Available The HLA-B*35-Px allele has been associated with rapid disease progression in HIV-1 infection, in contrast to the HLA-B*35-Py allele.Immune responses to two HLA-B*35 restricted HIV-1 specific CTL epitopes and their variants were followed longitudinally during early HIV-1 infection in 16 HLA-B*35+ individuals. Subjects expressing HLA-B*35-Px alleles showed no difference in response to the consensus epitopes compared to individuals with HLA-B*35-Py alleles. Surprisingly, all the HLA-B*35-Px+ individuals responded to epitope-variants even in the absence of a consensus response. Sequencing of the viral population revealed no evidence of variant virus in any of the individuals.This demonstrates a novel phenomenon that distinguishes individuals with the HLA-B*35-Px rapid progressing allele and those with the HLA-B*35-Py slower progressing allele.

  2. Effects of Alpha Interferon Treatment on Intrinsic Anti-HIV-1 Immunity In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Deng, Xutao; Liegler, Teri; Guatelli, John C; Salama, Mohamed S; Ghanem, Hussam El-din A; Rauch, Andri; Ledergerber, Bruno; Steven G Deeks; Huldrych F Günthard; Wong, Jospeh K.; Pillai, Satish K.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-α) suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro by inducing cell-intrinsic retroviral restriction mechanisms. We investigated the effects of IFN-α/ribavirin (IFN-α/riba) treatment on 34 anti-HIV-1 restriction factors in vivo. Expression of several anti-HIV-1 restriction factors was significantly induced by IFN-α/riba in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected individuals. Fold induction of cumulative restriction factor expression in CD4+ T c...

  3. Anti-HIV-1 Activities of 4 Telomerase Restrictors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xin; WANG Jinghui; de Giuli Morghen; Radaelli A; Zanotto C; Beggio P

    2007-01-01

    MTT Cell Proliferation Assay was used to optimize the concentration of Telomerase Restrictors(TRs) with minimum toxicity to the selected cells. FACSort flow cytometer and Innotest P24 HIV(Human immunodeficiency Virus) antigen mAb ELISA Kit were used to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activities of TRs. The results showed that TRs had low cytotoxicity to the PBMC (Peripheral Blood mononuclear cells) and CEM/GFP if the concentration of TRs was at 50 μmol/L or below, and the supernatant from PBMC pretreated with SHIV and TR1-001 /TR1-002 could not infect the PBMC, while can infect the C8166 with reduced infectivity, which suggested that the TRs may be one of the novel resources for screening anti-HIV-1 agents.

  4. Developments of indoles as anti-HIV-1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Lv, Min

    2009-01-01

    Since the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported in 1981, AIDS has always been a global health threat and the leading cause of deaths due to the rapid emergence of drug-resistance and unwanted metabolic side effects. Every day in 2007 an estimated 6850 people were newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Over the past 28 years the rapid worldwide spread of AIDS has prompted an intense research effort to discover compounds that could effectively inhibit HIV. The development of new, selective and safe inhibitors for the treatment of HIV, therefore, still remains a high priority for medical research. To the best of our knowledge, the indole derivatives have been considered as one class of promising HIV-1 inhibitors, such as delavirdine approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1997 for use in combination with other antiretrovirals in adults with HIV infection. In this review we focus on the synthesis and anti-HIV-1 activity of indole derivatives, in the meantime, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for some derivatives are also surveyed. It will pave the way for the design of indole derivatives as anti-HIV-1 drugs in the future.

  5. Anti-HIV-1 activity of eight monofloral Iranian honey types.

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    Mandana Behbahani

    Full Text Available Monofloral Iranian honeys from eight floral sources were analyzed to determine their anti-HIV-1 activities as well as their effects on lymphocyte proliferation. The Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs used in this study were prepared from five healthy volunteers who were seronegative for HIV, HCV, HBV and TB. The anti-HIV-1 activity of eight different honeys was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay and high pure viral nucleic acid kit. The results demonstrated that monofloral honeys from Petro selinum sativum, Nigella sativa, Citrus sinensis, Zataria multiflora, Citrus aurantium and Zizyphus mauritiana flowers had potent anti-HIV-1 activity with half maximal effective concentration (EC50 values of 37.5, 88, 70, 88, 105 and 5 µg/ml respectively. However, monofloral Iranian honeys from Astragalus gummifer and Chamaemelum nobile flowers had weak anti-HIV-1 activity. The frequency and intensity of CD4 expression on PBMCs increased in the presence of all honey types. CD19 marker were also increased after the treatment with monofloral honeys from Z. multiflora and N. sativa. The anti-HIV-1 agent in monofloral honeys from P. sativum, N. sativa, Z. multiflora and Z. mauritiana flowers was detected by spectroscopic analysis as methylglyoxal. Time of drug addition studies demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is higher on the late stage of HIV-1 infection. The result demonstrated that methylglyoxal isolated from monofloral honey types is a good candidate for preclinical evaluation of anti-HIV-1 therapies.

  6. Anti-HIV-1 activity of eight monofloral Iranian honey types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    Monofloral Iranian honeys from eight floral sources were analyzed to determine their anti-HIV-1 activities as well as their effects on lymphocyte proliferation. The Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) used in this study were prepared from five healthy volunteers who were seronegative for HIV, HCV, HBV and TB. The anti-HIV-1 activity of eight different honeys was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and high pure viral nucleic acid kit. The results demonstrated that monofloral honeys from Petro selinum sativum, Nigella sativa, Citrus sinensis, Zataria multiflora, Citrus aurantium and Zizyphus mauritiana flowers had potent anti-HIV-1 activity with half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 37.5, 88, 70, 88, 105 and 5 µg/ml respectively. However, monofloral Iranian honeys from Astragalus gummifer and Chamaemelum nobile flowers had weak anti-HIV-1 activity. The frequency and intensity of CD4 expression on PBMCs increased in the presence of all honey types. CD19 marker were also increased after the treatment with monofloral honeys from Z. multiflora and N. sativa. The anti-HIV-1 agent in monofloral honeys from P. sativum, N. sativa, Z. multiflora and Z. mauritiana flowers was detected by spectroscopic analysis as methylglyoxal. Time of drug addition studies demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is higher on the late stage of HIV-1 infection. The result demonstrated that methylglyoxal isolated from monofloral honey types is a good candidate for preclinical evaluation of anti-HIV-1 therapies.

  7. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of fucoidan from Sargassum swartzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Subramaniam; Menon, Thangam; Hanna, Luke E; Suresh, V; Sathuvan, M; Manikannan, M

    2016-01-01

    Sargassum swartzii, a marine brown algae with wide range of biological properties belongs to the family Sargassaceae. Bioactive fucoidan fractions (CFF, FF1 and FF2) were isolated from S. swartzii and characterized by linear gradient anion-exchange chromatography and FT-IR. The characterized fucoidan fractions contained mainly sugars, sulfate and uronic acid. In the present study, anti-HIV-1 property of the fucoidan fractions was investigated. Fraction FF2 was found to exhibit significant anti-HIV-1 activity at concentrations of 1.56 and 6.25 μg/ml as observed by >50% reduction in HIV-1 p24 antigen levels and reverse transcriptase activity. Fucoidan fractions have no cytotoxic effects on PBMCs at the concentration range of 1.56-1000 μg/ml. These results suggest that fucoidan fractions could have inhibitory activity against HIV and has potential as an anti-HIV-1 agent.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and anti-HIV-1 efficacy of negatively charged human serum albumins in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M E; Swart, P J; Schutten, M; Smit, C; Proost, J H; Osterhaus, A D; Meijer, D K

    1997-01-01

    Negatively charged albumins (NCAs, with the prototypes succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) and aconitylated human serum albumin (Aco-HSA)), modified proteins with a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) activity in vitro, were studied for their pharmacokinetic behaviour

  9. Semi-synthesis of oxygenated dolabellane diterpenes with highly in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; Ramos, Freddy A; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; Stephens, Paulo Roberto; Paixão, Izabel Christina Palmer; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-09-15

    Research on dolabellane diterpenes of brown algae Dictyota spp. has shown that these diterpenoids have strong anti-HIV-1 activity, but there are not data about antiviral activity of dolabellane diterpenes isolated from octocorals, which are antipodes of those isolated from the brown algae. Dolabellanes 13-keto-1(R),11(S)-dolabella-3(E),7(E),12(18)-triene (1) and β-Araneosene (2) were isolated from the Caribbean octocoral Eunicea laciniata, and both showed low anti-HIV-1 activity and low toxicity. Since it was shown that oxygenated dolabellanes from algae have better anti-HIV-1 activity, in this work some derivatives of the main dolabellane of E. laciniata1 were obtained by epoxidation (3), epoxide opening (4), and allylic oxidation (5). The derivatives showed significant improvement in the anti-HIV-1potency (100-fold), being compounds 3 and 5 the most active ones. Their high antiviral activities, along with their low cytotoxicity, make them promissory antiviral compounds; and it is worth noting that the absolute configuration at the ring junction in the dolabellane skeleton does not seem to be determinant in the antiviral potency of these diterpeneoids.

  10. New anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, and antifungal compounds from Terminalia bellerica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsaraj, R; Pushpangadan, P; Smitt, U W;

    1997-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided fractionation of an extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit rind led to the isolation of two new lignans named termilignan (1) and thannilignan (2), together with 7-hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy)flavan (3) and anolignan B (4). All four compounds possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-1...

  11. Anti-HIV-1 activity of propolis in CD4(+) lymphocyte and microglial cell cultures.

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    Gekker, Genya; Hu, Shuxian; Spivak, Marla; Lokensgard, James R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2005-11-14

    An urgent need for additional agents to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection led us to assess the anti-HIV-1 activity of the natural product propolis in CD4(+) lymphocytes and microglial cell cultures. Propolis inhibited viral expression in a concentration-dependent manner (maximal suppression of 85 and 98% was observed at 66.6 microg/ml propolis in CD4(+) and microglial cell cultures, respectively). Similar anti-HIV-1 activity was observed with propolis samples from several geographic regions. The mechanism of propolis antiviral property in CD4(+) lymphocytes appeared to involve, in part, inhibition of viral entry. While propolis had an additive antiviral effect on the reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine, it had no noticeable effect on the protease inhibitor indinavir. The results of this in vitro study support the need for clinical trials of propolis or one or more of its components in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  12. 7,8-secolignans from Schisandra neglecta and their anti-HIV-1 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuemei; Mu, Huaixue; Hu, Qiufen, E-mail: huqiufena@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources, State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan University of Nationalities (China); Wang, Ruirui; Yang, Liumeng; Zheng, Yongtang [Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Sun, Handong; Xiao, Weilie, E-mail: xwl@mail.kib.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China)

    2012-10-15

    Four new 7,8-secolignans (neglectahenols A-D), together with two known 7,8-secolignans, were isolated from leaves and stems of Schisandra neglecta. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive one and two dimension NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) techniques. 7,8-Secolignans and neglectahenols A-D were also tested for their anti-HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) activities, and all of them showed modest activities. (author)

  13. Hydroxytyrosol: a new class of microbicide displaying broad anti-HIV-1 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Luis M.; Beltrán, Manuela; Obregón-Calderón, Patricia; García-Pérez, Javier; de la Torre, Humberto E.; González, Nuria; Pérez-Olmeda, Mayte; Auñón, David; Capa, Laura; Gómez-Acebo, Eduardo; Alcamí, José

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxicity and activity against HIV of 5-hydroxytyrosol as a potential microbicide. Design: The anti-HIV-1 activity of 5-hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound, was tested against wild-type HIV-1 and viral clones resistant to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors and integrase inhibitors. In addition to its activity against founder viruses, different viral subtypes and potential synergy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and emtricitabine was also tested. 5-Hydroxytyrosol toxicity was evaluated in vivo in rabbit vaginal mucosa. Methods: We have cloned pol gene from drug-resistant HIV-1 isolated from infected patients and env gene from Fiebeg III/IV patients or A, C, D, E, F and G subtypes in the NL4.3-Ren backbone. 5-Hydroxytyrosol anti-HIV-1 activity was evaluated in infections of MT-2, U87-CCR5 or peripheral blood mononuclear cells preactivated with phytohemagglutinin + interleukin-2 with viruses obtained through 293T transfections. Inhibitory concentration 50% and cytotoxic concentration 50% were calculated. Synergy was analysed according to Chou and Talalay method. In-vivo toxicity was evaluated for 14 days in rabbit vaginal mucosa. Results: 5-Hydroxytyrosol inhibited HIV-1 infections of recombinant or wild-type viruses in all the target cells tested. Moreover, 5-hydroxytyrosol showed similar inhibitory concentration 50% values for infections with NRTIs, NNRTIs, protease inhibitors and INIs resistant viruses; founder viruses and all the subtypes tested. Combination of 5-hydroxytyrosol with tenofovir was found to be synergistic, whereas it was additive with lamivudine and emtricitabine. In-vivo toxicity of 5-hydroxytyrosol was very low even at the highest tested doses. Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytyrosol displayed a broad anti-HIV-1 activity in different cells systems in the absent of in-vivo toxicity, therefore supporting its

  14. Mangiferin, an Anti-HIV-1 Agent Targeting Protease and Effective against Resistant Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Rui-Rui Wang; Yue-Dong Gao; Chun-Hui Ma; Xing-Jie Zhang; Cheng-Gang Huang; Jing-Fei Huang; Yong-Tang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The anti-HIV-1 activity of mangiferin was evaluated. Mangiferin can inhibit HIV-1ⅢB induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) at 16.90 μM and a therapeutic index (TI) above 140. Mangiferin also showed good activities in other laboratory-derived strains, clinically isolated strains and resistant HIV-1 strains. Mechanism studies revealed that mangiferin might inhibit the HIV-1 protease, but is still effective against HIV peptidic prot...

  15. Absolute configuration of anti-HIV-1 agent (-)-concentricolide: total synthesis of (+)-(R)-concentricolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2011-05-20

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-(R)-concentricolide, the enantiomer of an anti-HIV-1 agent isolated from Daldinia concentrica, from 2-iodophenol in 7 steps reveals the (S)-configuration for the natural form of the furanophthalide. The key features include an anionic ortho-Fries rearrangement to furnish 3-iodosalicylamide, facile construction of the benzofuran system employing the tandem Sonogashira coupling annulation reaction, directed ortho metalation to introduce a propanoyl group, as well as CBS reduction, establishing the stereocenter enantioselectively.

  16. Synthesis, Antimicrobial, and Anti-HIV1 Activity of Quinazoline-4(3H-one Derivatives

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    K. Vijayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to synthesize 11 compounds of quinazoline-1 derivatives and to test their antimicrobial and anti-HIV1 activities. A quick-witted method was developed for the synthesis of novel substituted quinazolinone derivatives by summarizing diverse diamines with benzoxazine reactions, and it demonstrated the benefits of typical reactions, handy operation, and outstanding product yields. These compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, I R, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectra. Then antimicrobial and anti-HIV1 activities of the compounds were tested in-vitro. It was found that compounds 7–11 possessed a wide range of anti microbial and anti-HIV1 activity.

  17. Ligand-Based Virtual Screening in a Search for Novel Anti-HIV-1 Chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczyk, Agata; Warszycki, Dawid; Musiol, Robert; Kafel, Rafał; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2015-10-26

    In a search for new anti-HIV-1 chemotypes, we developed a multistep ligand-based virtual screening (VS) protocol combining machine learning (ML) methods with the privileged structures (PS) concept. In its learning step, the VS protocol was based on HIV integrase (IN) inhibitors fetched from the ChEMBL database. The performances of various ML methods and PS weighting scheme were evaluated and applied as VS filtering criteria. Finally, a database of 1.5 million commercially available compounds was virtually screened using a multistep ligand-based cascade, and 13 selected unique structures were tested by measuring the inhibition of HIV replication in infected cells. This approach resulted in the discovery of two novel chemotypes with moderate antiretroviral activity, that, together with their topological diversity, make them good candidates as lead structures for future optimization.

  18. Anti-HIV-1 activity of a new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7.

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    Yaoqing Chen

    Full Text Available For over 30 years, HIV/AIDS has wreaked havoc in the world. In the absence of an effective vaccine for HIV, development of new anti-HIV agents is urgently needed. We previously identified the antiviral activities of the scorpion-venom-peptide-derived mucroporin-M1 for three RNA viruses (measles viruses, SARS-CoV, and H5N1. In this investigation, a panel of scorpion venom peptides and their derivatives were designed and chosen for assessment of their anti-HIV activities. A new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7 was identified as the most potent anti-HIV-1 peptide by screening assays with an EC(50 value of 2.76 µg/ml (1.65 µM and showed low cytotoxicity to host cells with a selective index (SI of 13.93. Kn2-7 could inhibit all members of a standard reference panel of HIV-1 subtype B pseudotyped virus (PV with CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 PV strain. Furthermore, it also inhibited a CXCR4-tropic replication-competent strain of HIV-1 subtype B virus. Binding assay of Kn2-7 to HIV-1 PV by Octet Red system suggested the anti-HIV-1 activity was correlated with a direct interaction between Kn2-7 and HIV-1 envelope. These results demonstrated that peptide Kn2-7 could inhibit HIV-1 by direct interaction with viral particle and may become a promising candidate compound for further development of microbicide against HIV-1.

  19. Role of seminal plasma in the anti-HIV-1 activity of candidate microbicides

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    Li Yun-Yao

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of microbicides for prevention of HIV-1 infection in macaque models for vaginal infection has indicated that the concentrations of active compounds needed for protection by far exceed levels sufficient for complete inhibition of infection in vitro. These experiments were done in the absence of seminal plasma (SP, a vehicle for sexual transmission of the virus. To gain insight into the possible effect of SP on the performance of selected microbicides, their anti-HIV-1 activity in the presence, and absence of SP, was determined. Methods The inhibitory activity of compounds against the X4 virus, HIV-1 IIIB, and the R5 virus, HIV-1 BaL was determined using TZM-bl indicator cells and quantitated by measuring β-galactosidase induced by infection. The virucidal properties of cellulose acetate 1,2-benzene-dicarboxylate (CAP, the only microbicide provided in water insoluble, micronized form, in the presence of SP was measured. Results The HIV-1 inhibitory activity of the polymeric microbicides, poly(naphthalene sulfonate, cellulose sulfate, carrageenan, CAP (in soluble form and polystyrene sulfonate, respectively, was considerably (range ≈ 4 to ≈ 73-fold diminished in the presence of SP (33.3%. Formulations of micronized CAP, providing an acidic buffering system even in the presence of an SP volume excess, effectively inactivated HIV-1 infectivity. Conclusion The data presented here suggest that the in vivo efficacy of polymeric microbicides, acting as HIV-1 entry inhibitors, might become at least partly compromised by the inevitable presence of SP. These possible disadvantages could be overcome by combining the respective polymers with acidic pH buffering systems (built-in for formulations of micronized CAP or with other anti-HIV-1 compounds, the activity of which is not affected by SP, e.g. reverse transcriptase and zinc finger inhibitors.

  20. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 activity of a new iridoid glycoside isolated from Avicenna marina, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to check the efficacy of methanol seed extract of Avicenna marina and its column chromatographic fractions on Peripheral Blood Mono nuclear Cells (PBMCs) toxicity and HIV-1 replication. The anti-HIV-1 activities of crude methanol extract and its fractions were performed by use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and HIV-1 p24 antigen kit. A time of drug addiction approach was also done to identify target of anti-HIV compound. The activity of the extracts on CD4, CD3, CD19 and CD45 expression in lymphocytes population was performed by use of flow cytometry. The most active anti-HIV agent was detected by spectroscopic analysis as 2'-O-(4-methoxycinnamoyl) mussaenosidic acid. The apparent effective concentrations for 50% virus replication (EC50) of methanol extract and iridoid glycoside were 45 and 0.1 μg/ml respectively. The iridoid glycoside also did not have any observable effect on the proportion of CD4, CD3, CD19 and CD45 cells or on the intensity of their expressions on PBMCs. In addition, the expression level of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) on CD4(+) T cells were decreased in cells treated with this iridoid glycoside. The reduction of these two HIV coreceptors and the result of time of addition study demonstrated that this iridoid glycoside restricts HIV-1 replication on the early stage of HIV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole;

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this in...

  2. Mangiferin, an Anti-HIV-1 Agent Targeting Protease and Effective against Resistant Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rui Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The anti-HIV-1 activity of mangiferin was evaluated. Mangiferin can inhibit HIV-1ⅢB induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50 at 16.90 μM and a therapeutic index (TI above 140. Mangiferin also showed good activities in other laboratory-derived strains, clinically isolated strains and resistant HIV-1 strains. Mechanism studies revealed that mangiferin might inhibit the HIV-1 protease, but is still effective against HIV peptidic protease inhibitor resistant strains. A combination of docking and pharmacophore methods clarified possible binding modes of mangiferin in the HIV-1 protease. The pharmacophore model of mangiferin consists of two hydrogen bond donors and two hydrogen bond acceptors. Compared to pharmacophore features found in commercially available drugs, three pharmacophoric elements matched well and one novel pharmacophore element was observed. Moreover, molecular docking analysis demonstrated that the pharmacophoric elements play important roles in binding HIV-1 protease. Mangiferin is a novel nonpeptidic protease inhibitor with an original structure that represents an effective drug development strategy for combating drug resistance.

  3. Aaptamine Derivatives with Antifungal and Anti-HIV-1 Activities from the South China Sea Sponge Aaptos aaptos

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    Hao-Bing Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new alkaloids of aaptamine family, compounds (1–5 and three known derivatives (6–8, have been isolated from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, as well as by comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1–2 are characterized with triazapyrene lactam skeleton, whereas compounds 4–5 share an imidazole-fused aaptamine moiety. These compounds were evaluated in antifungal and anti-HIV-1 assays. Compounds 3, 7, and 8 showed antifungal activity against six fungi, with MIC values in the range of 4 to 64 μg/mL. Compounds 7–8 exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity, with inhibitory rates of 88.0% and 72.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μM.

  4. QSAR study for anti-HIV-1 activities of HEPT derivatives using MLR and PLS

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    Ivan Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A QSAR study using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR and a Partial Least Squares (PLS methodology was performed for a series of 127 derivatives of 1-(2-hydroxy-ethoxymethyl]-6-(phenylthio-timine (HEPT, a potent inhibitor of the of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT. To explore the relationship between a pool of HEPT derivative descriptors (as independent variables and anti-HIV-1 activity expressed as log (1/EC50, as dependent variable MLR and PLS methods have been employed. Using Dragon descriptors, the present study aims to develop a predictive and robust QSAR model for predicting anti-HIV activity of the HEPT derivatives for better understanding the molecular features of these compounds important for their biological activity. According to the squared correlation coefficients, which had values between 0.826 and 0.809 for the MLR and PLS methods, the results demonstrate almost identical qualities and good predictive ability for both MLR and PLS models. After dividing the dataset into training and test sets, the model predictability was tested by several parameters, including the Golbraikh-Tropsha external criteria and the goodness of fit tested with the Y-randomization test. [Acknowledgements. This project was financially supported by Project 1.1 and 1.2 of the Institute of Chemistry of the Romanian Academy. STATISTICA, MobyDigs and SIMCA-P+ acquisition was funded by Ministerul Educatiei, Cercetarii si Tineretului - Autoritatea Nationala pentru Cercetare Stiintifica (MedC-ANCS, contract grant number: 71GR/2006

  5. Anti-HIV-1 integrase and anti-allergic activities of Bauhinia strychnifolia

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    Kingkan Bunluepuech

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A stem ethanol extract of Bauhinia strychnifolia and its compounds were investigated for their anti-HIV-1 integrase (IN and anti-allergic activities. From bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds including quercetin (1, 3,5,7,3',5' pentahydroxyflavanonol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (2, 3,5,7-trihydroxychromone-3-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (3 and a mixture of β-sitosterol (4 and stigmasterol (5 were isolated. Of the tested samples, compound 1 (quercetin showed the highest activity against HIV-1 IN with an IC50 value of 15.2 µM, followed by 3 (3,5,7-trihydroxychromone-3-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, 4+5 (mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol and 2 (3,5,7,3',5'-pentahydroxyflavanonol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside with % inhibition of 28.2, 26.2 and 6.7 at 100 µM, respectively. With regard to anti-allergic activity, quercetin (1 possessed the highest anti-allergic activity with an IC50 of 8.1 µM, followed by 3 (3,5,7-trihydroxychromone-3-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and 4+5 (mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol with IC50 values of 52.1 and 77.5 µM, respectively. Whereas compound 2 (3,5,7,3',5'-pentahydroxyflavanonol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside was inactive. The present study is the first report of chemical constituents and biological activities of Bauhinia strychnifolia.

  6. Enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of G-quadruplexes comprising locked nucleic acids and intercalating nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Nielsen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Two G-quadruplex forming sequences, 50-TGGGAG and the 17-mer sequence T30177, which exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity on cell lines, were modified using either locked nucleic acids (LNA) or via insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (intercalating nucleic acid, INA) or (R)-1-O-[4-(1-pyrenylet......Two G-quadruplex forming sequences, 50-TGGGAG and the 17-mer sequence T30177, which exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity on cell lines, were modified using either locked nucleic acids (LNA) or via insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (intercalating nucleic acid, INA) or (R)-1-O-[4......-(1-pyrenylethynyl)phenylmethyl]glycerol (twisted intercalating nucleic acid, TINA). Incorporation of LNA or INA/TINA monomers provide as much as 8-fold improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. We demonstrate for the first time a detailed analysis of the effect the incorporation of INA/TINA monomers in quadruplex forming...

  7. Is wetter better? An evaluation of over-the-counter personal lubricants for safety and anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezzutti, Charlene S; Brown, Elizabeth R; Moncla, Bernard; Russo, Julie; Cost, Marilyn; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya P; Pryke, Kara; Pickett, Jim; Leblanc, Marc-André; Rohan, Lisa C

    2012-01-01

    Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n = 10), lipid- (n = 2), and silicone-based (n = 2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9), KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm.

  8. Is wetter better? An evaluation of over-the-counter personal lubricants for safety and anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene S Dezzutti

    Full Text Available Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC aqueous- (n = 10, lipid- (n = 2, and silicone-based (n = 2 products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9, KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm.

  9. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole;

    1994-01-01

    on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... to CD4 and that post binding events may be common to the infection of lymphocytes. Anti HIV-1 sera showed neutralizing activity against heterologous and even autologous escape virus. This finding, together with the observation that monocytes and M phi s are infected in vivo, suggests that protection...

  10. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activities of kaempferol and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside isolated from Securigera securidaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, M; Sayedipour, S; Pourazar, A; Shanehsazzadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that the kaempferol and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside isolated from Securigera securidaca showed potent anti-HSV activity. In the present study the anti-HIV-1 activities of kaempferol and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside are investigated at different concentrations (100, 50, 25 and 10 μg/ml) using HIV-1 p24 Antigen kit. Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was also used for quantification of full range of virus load observed in treated and untreated cells. According to the results of RT- PCR, tested compounds at a concentration of 100 μg/ml exerted potent inhibitory effect. Time of drug addition experiments demonstrated that these compounds exerted their inhibitory effects on the early stage of HIV infection. The results also showed potent anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity. Antiviral activity of kaempferol-7-O-glucoside was more pronounced than that of kaempferol. These findings demonstrate that kaempferol-7-O-glucoside could be considered as a new potential drug candidate for the treatment of HIV infection which requires further assessments.

  11. Docking of anti-HIV-1 oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone derivatives as potential HSV-1 DNA polymerase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Julliane Diniz; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; Leal, Kátia Zaccur; Santos, Fernanda da Costa; Batalha, Pedro Netto; Brozeguini, Leonardo; Seidl, Peter R.; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Cunha, Anna Cláudia; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Giongo, Viveca A.; Cirne-Santos, Cláudio; Paixão, Izabel C. P.

    2014-09-01

    Although there are many antiviral drugs available for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, still the synthesis of new anti-HSV candidates is an important strategy to be pursued, due to the emergency of resistant HSV strains mainly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. Some 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinolines, such as PNU-183792 (1), show a broad spectrum antiviral activity against human herpes viruses, inhibiting the viral DNA polymerase (POL) without affecting the human POLs. Thus, on an ongoing antiviral research project, our group has synthesized ribonucleosides containing the 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline (quinolone) heterocyclic moiety, such as the 6-Cl derivative (2), which is a dual antiviral agent (HSV-1 and HIV-1). Molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes of 1 and 2 with the HSV-1 POL suggest that structural modifications of 2 should increase its experimental anti-HSV-1 activity, since its ribosyl and carboxyl groups are highly hydrophilic to interact with a hydrophobic pocket of this enzyme. Therefore, in this work, comparative molecular docking simulations of 1 and three new synthesized oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone HIV-1 inhibitors (3-5), which do not contain those hydrophilic groups, were carried out, in order to access these modifications in the proposition of new potential anti-HSV-1 agents, but maintaining the anti-HIV-1 activity. Among the docked compounds, the oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 3 is the best candidate for an anti-HSV-1 agent, and, in addition, it showed anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 3.4 ± 0.3 μM). Compounds 2 and 3 were used as templates in the design of four new oxoquinoline-acylhydrazones (6-9) as potential anti-HSV-1 agents to increase the antiviral activity of 2. Among the docked compounds, oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 7 was selected as the best candidate for further development of dual anti-HIV/HSV activity.

  12. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Pasetto

    Full Text Available HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic, H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic, and the dual tropic (X4R5 HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research.

  13. The C-terminal sequence of IFITM1 regulates its anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jia

    Full Text Available The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM proteins inhibit a wide range of viruses. We previously reported the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strain BH10 by human IFITM1, 2 and 3. It is unknown whether other HIV-1 strains are similarly inhibited by IFITMs and whether there exists viral countermeasure to overcome IFITM inhibition. We report here that the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain (HIV-1NL4-3 is not restricted by IFITM1 and its viral envelope glycoprotein is partly responsible for this insensitivity. However, HIV-1NL4-3 is profoundly inhibited by an IFITM1 mutant, known as Δ(117-125, which is deleted of 9 amino acids at the C-terminus. In contrast to the wild type IFITM1, which does not affect HIV-1 entry, the Δ(117-125 mutant diminishes HIV-1NL4-3 entry by 3-fold. This inhibition correlates with the predominant localization of Δ(117-125 to the plasma membrane where HIV-1 entry occurs. In spite of strong conservation of IFITM1 among most species, mouse IFITM1 is 19 amino acids shorter at its C-terminus as compared to human IFITM1 and, like the human IFITM1 mutant Δ(117-125, mouse IFITM1 also inhibits HIV-1 entry. This is the first report illustrating the role of viral envelope protein in overcoming IFITM1 restriction. The results also demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal region of IFITM1 in modulating the antiviral function through controlling protein subcellular localization.

  14. Fluorine Substituted 1,2,4-Triazinones as Potential Anti-HIV-1 and CDK2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. I. Makki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine substituted 1,2,4-triazinones have been synthesized via alkylation, amination, and/or oxidation of 6-(2-amino-5-fluorophenyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H-one 1 and 4-fluoro-N-(4-fluoro-2-(5-oxo-3-thioxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-6-ylphenylbenzamide 5 as possible anti-HIV-1 and CDK2 inhibitors. Alkylation on positions 2 and 4 in 1,2,4-triazinone gave compounds 6–8. Further modification was performed by selective alkylation and amination on position 3 to form compounds 9–15. However oxidation of 5 yielded compounds 16–18. Structures of the target compounds have been established by spectral analysis data. Five compounds (5, 11, 14, 16, and 17 have shown very good anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cells. Similarly, five compounds (1, 3, and 14–16 have exhibited very significant CDK2 inhibition activity. Compounds 14 and 16 were found to have dual anti-HIV and anticancer activities.

  15. Epitope Mapping of Ibalizumab, a Humanized Anti-CD4 Monoclonal Antibody with Anti-HIV-1 Activity in Infected Patients▿

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ruijiang; Franco, David; Kao, Chia-Ying; Yu, Faye; Huang, Yaoxing; Ho, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). With its unique specificity for domain 2 of CD4, this antibody potently and broadly blocks HIV-1 infection in vitro by inhibiting a postbinding step required for viral entry but without interfering with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-mediated immune function. In clinical trials, ibalizumab has demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity in patients...

  16. Novel Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of 2-Arylthio-6-benzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrimidin-4-ones (Aryl S-DABOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Youssef L.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.; La Colla, Paolo;

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis and the anti-HIV-1 activity of a series of 2-arylthio-6-benzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrimidin-4-ones (aryl S-DABOs) are reported. These compounds were synthesized via a coupling reaction of the corresponding 6-benzyl-2-thiouracils with aryl iodides in the presence of neocuproine hydrate......, copper(I) iodide, and sodium tert-butoxide. Target compounds showed moderate activity against HIV-1....

  17. Identification of a Small Molecular Anti - HIV - 1 Compound that Interferes with Formation of the Fusion - active gp41 Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV - 1 ) envelope glycoprotein gp41 plays a critical role in the fusion of viral and target cell membranes. The gp41 extracellular domain, which contains fusion peptide (FP), N - and C - terminal hydrophobic heptad repeats (NHR and CHR, respectively). Peptides derived from NHR and CHR regions,designated N- and C- peptides, respectively, can interact with each other to form a six - stranded coiled - coil domain, representing the fusion-active gp41 core. Our previous studies demonstrated that the C- peptides have potent inhibitory activity against HIV- 1 infection.These peptides inhibit HIV- 1 -mediated membrane fusion by binding to NHR regions for preventing the formation of fusion- active gp41 core. One of the C - peptides, T - 20, which is in the phase Ⅲ clinical trails, is expected to become the first peptide HIV fusion inhibitory drug in the near future. However, this peptide HIV fusion inhibitor lacks oral availability and is sensitive to the proteolytic digestion.Therefore, it is essential to develop small molecular non -peptide HIV fusion inhibitors having similar mechanism of action as the C- peptides. We have established an ELISA- based screening assay using a unique monoclonal antibody, NC- 1, which can specifically bind to a conformational epitope on the gp41 core domain. Using this screening assay, we have identified a small molecular anti- HIV- 1 compound,named ADS-Jl, which inhibits HIV- 1- mediated membrane fusion by blocking the interaction between the NHR and CHR regions to form the fusion - active gp41 core. This compound will be used as a lead to design and develop novel HIV fusion inhibitors as new drugs for the treatment of HIV infection and/or AIDS.

  18. Anti-HIV-1 response elicited in rabbits by anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies mimicking the CD4-binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Burioni

    Full Text Available Antibodies against conserved epitopes on HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env, such as the gp120 CD4-binding site (CD4bs, could contribute to protection against HIV-1. Env-based immunogens inducing such a response could be a major component of future anti-HIV-1 strategies. In this proof-of-concept study we describe the generation of two anti-idiotype (AI murine antibodies mimicking the CD4bs epitope. Sera were collected from long-term non-progressor patients to obtain CD4bs-directed IgG, through sequential purification steps. The purified IgG were then used as Fab fragments to immunize mice for hybridoma generation. Two hybridomas (P1 and P2, reacting only against the CD4bs-directed IgG, were identified and characterized. The P1 and P2 antibodies were shown to recognize the idiotype of the broadly neutralizing anti-CD4bs human mAb b12. Both P1 and P2 Fabs were able to induce a strong anti-gp120 response in rabbits. Moreover, the rabbits' sera were shown to neutralize two sensitive tier 1 strains of HIV-1 in an Env-pseudotype neutralization assay. In particular, 3/5 rabbits in the P1 group and 1/5 in the P2 group showed greater than 80% neutralizing activity against the HXB2 pseudovirus. Two rabbits also neutralized the pseudovirus HIV-MN. Overall, these data describe the first anti-idiotypic vaccine approach performed to generate antibodies to the CD4bs of the HIV-1 gp120. Although future studies will be necessary to improve strength and breadth of the elicited neutralizing response, this proof-of-concept study documents that immunogens designed on the idiotype of broadly neutralizing Abs are feasible and could help in the design of future anti-HIV strategies.

  19. Anti-HIV-1 activity of myo-inositol hexaphosphoric acid (IP6) and myo-inositol hexasulfate(IS6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, T; Mori, H; Morimoto, M; Miyano, K; Ueba, N; Oishi, I; Kunita, N; Kurimura, T

    1999-01-01

    It is known that polysulfates have some anti-HIV-1 activity. We investigated the anti-HIV-1 activity of myo-inositol hexaphosphoric acid (IP6) and myo-inositol hexasulfate(IS6), low molecular weight carbohydrates. IP6 and IS6 inhibited the replication of HIV-1 in a T cell line as well as that of a freshly isolated strain in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Neither substance inhibited HIV-1-induced giant cell formation, but addition of IS6 when infecting cells with HIV-1 inhibited the replication of HIV-1. Neither substance inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in vitro and no influence on late stage replication was noted. Although the mechanisms of IP6 and IS6 action remain unclear, it can be speculated that they act on HIV-1 early replicative stage. Although it is not possible to develop IP6 and IS6 themselves as anti-AIDS drugs, studies of these anti-HIV agents might be expected to provide seed for eventual production of superior drugs for AIDS treatment.

  20. In vitro anti-HIV-1 antibody production in subjects in different stages of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, S; Riva, A; Meroni, L; Zehender, G; Cocchi, F; Scapellato, L; Galli, M

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro antibody production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) against HIV-1 proteins in infected adults. Fifty-four HIV-1 infected patients (four recent seroconverters, 15 asymptomatics with a CD4 count higher than 500/microliters, 27 asymptomatics with a CD4 count between 200 and 500/microliters and eight symptomatic patients) were tested. PBMC were incubated in the presence or absence of 1% pokeweed mitogen (PWM) at 37 degrees C for 8 days. Western blot assay, p24 antigen ELISA and anti-p24 antibody ELISA were performed on serum and culture supernatants. Spontaneous production of anti-env antibody in culture supernatants was evidenced in all subjects. All the positive supernatants for anti-core antibodies (18/54) were derived from asymptomatic patients. PBMC from recent seroconverters and from symptomatic patients did not produce any anti-core antibody. Antibody production decreased after stimulation with PWM. The concentration of p24 antigen did not significantly increase in p24 positive supernatants following acidification (P = 0.1), suggesting that the inability to detect p24 antibody was not due to the anti-p24 antibody complexed to p24 antigen in culture supernatants. In vitro production of anti-p24 antibodies was significantly more frequent in asymptomatic subjects with high CD4+ cell counts (P = 0.02) and was absent in recent seroconverters. This last finding suggests that during the initial phases of the infection, anti-p24 antibody production may be restricted to cells residing in lymphoid organs. In addition, the lower percentage of anti-core antibody in people with low CD4+ cell counts is not merely a consequence of the binding of the antibody to an increased amount of antigen, but probably reflects an impaired production or a sequestration of producing cells in lymphoid tissue during the late stages of the infection. PMID:7554395

  1. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity Evaluation for Novel 3a,6a-Dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole-4,6-dione Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Nan Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for new molecular constructs that resemble the critical two-metal binding pharmacophore and the halo-substituted phenyl functionality required for HIV-1 integrase (IN inhibition represents a vibrant area of research within drug discovery. As reported herein, we have modified our recently disclosed 1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl]-pyrrole-2,5-dione scaffolds to design 35 novel compounds with improved biological activities against HIV-1. These new compounds show single-digit micromolar antiviral potencies against HIV-1 and low toxicity. Among of them, compound 9g and 15i had potent anti-HIV-1 activities (EC50 < 5 μM and excellent therapeutic index (TI, CC50/EC50 > 100. These two compounds have potential as lead compounds for further optimization into clinical anti-HIV-1 agents.

  2. Epitope Mapping of Ibalizumab, a Humanized Anti-CD4 Monoclonal Antibody with Anti-HIV-1 Activity in Infected Patients▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruijiang; Franco, David; Kao, Chia-Ying; Yu, Faye; Huang, Yaoxing; Ho, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). With its unique specificity for domain 2 of CD4, this antibody potently and broadly blocks HIV-1 infection in vitro by inhibiting a postbinding step required for viral entry but without interfering with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-mediated immune function. In clinical trials, ibalizumab has demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity in patients without causing immunosuppression. Thus, a characterization of the ibalizumab epitope was conducted in an attempt to gain insight into the underlying mechanism of its antiviral activity as well as its safety profile. By studying mouse/human chimeric CD4 molecules and site-directed point mutants of CD4, amino acids L96, P121, P122, and Q163 in domain 2 were found to be important for ibalizumab binding, with E77 and S79 in domain 1 also contributing. All these residues appear to cluster on the interface between domains 1 and 2 of human CD4 on a surface opposite the site where gp120 and the MHC-II molecule bind on domain 1. Separately, the epitope of M-T441, a weakly neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody that competes with ibalizumab, was localized entirely within domain 2 on residues 123 to 125 and 138 to 140. The results reported herein not only provide an appreciation for why ibalizumab has not had significant adverse immunological consequences in infected patients to date but also raise possible steric hindrance mechanisms by which this antibody blocks HIV-1 entry into a CD4-positive cell. PMID:20463063

  3. Epitope mapping of ibalizumab, a humanized anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody with anti-HIV-1 activity in infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruijiang; Franco, David; Kao, Chia-Ying; Yu, Faye; Huang, Yaoxing; Ho, David D

    2010-07-01

    Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). With its unique specificity for domain 2 of CD4, this antibody potently and broadly blocks HIV-1 infection in vitro by inhibiting a postbinding step required for viral entry but without interfering with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-mediated immune function. In clinical trials, ibalizumab has demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity in patients without causing immunosuppression. Thus, a characterization of the ibalizumab epitope was conducted in an attempt to gain insight into the underlying mechanism of its antiviral activity as well as its safety profile. By studying mouse/human chimeric CD4 molecules and site-directed point mutants of CD4, amino acids L96, P121, P122, and Q163 in domain 2 were found to be important for ibalizumab binding, with E77 and S79 in domain 1 also contributing. All these residues appear to cluster on the interface between domains 1 and 2 of human CD4 on a surface opposite the site where gp120 and the MHC-II molecule bind on domain 1. Separately, the epitope of M-T441, a weakly neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody that competes with ibalizumab, was localized entirely within domain 2 on residues 123 to 125 and 138 to 140. The results reported herein not only provide an appreciation for why ibalizumab has not had significant adverse immunological consequences in infected patients to date but also raise possible steric hindrance mechanisms by which this antibody blocks HIV-1 entry into a CD4-positive cell.

  4. Anti-HIV-1 Activity Prediction of Novel Gp41 Inhibitors Using Structure-Based Virtual Screening and Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Saghi; Saghaie, Lotfollah; Fassihi, Afshin

    2016-10-12

    The fusion of viral and host cell membranes is mediated using gp41 subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein. As the HIV-1 enters the host cells, the two helical regions (HR1 and HR2) in the ectodomain of gp41 form a six-helix bundle, which carries the target and viral cell membranes to close proximity. Steps of this process serve as attractive targets for developing HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. Identification of some novel HIV fusion inhibitors with the goal of blocking the formation of the six-helix bundle was accomplished by computer-aided drug design techniques. A virtual screening strategy was employed to recognize small molecules presumably able to bind the gp41 at the internal interface of the NHR helices at the core native viral six-helix. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a library of more than seven thousand compounds was collected from ZINC, PubChem and BindingDB databases and protein data bank. Key contacts of known inhibitors with gp41 binding site residues were considered as the collecting criteria. In the second stage series of filtering processes were performed on this library in subsequent steps to find the potential gp41 inhibitors. The filtering criteria included pharmacokinetic and ADMET properties as well as in silico anti-HIV-1 prediction. Molecular docking simulation was carried out to identify interactions of the filtered molecules with the key residues in the gp41 binding site. Finally, molecular dynamics simulation indicates the superior inhibitory ability of three selected compounds over the known gp41inhibitor, NB-64.

  5. A Positive Energy Theorem for $P(X, \\phi)$ Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Elder, Benjamin; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    We descibe a positive energy theorem for Einstein gravity coupled to scalar fields with first-derivative interactions, so-called $P(X, \\phi)$ theories. We offer two independent derivations of this result. The first method introduces an auxiliary field to map the theory to a lagrangian describing two canonical scalar fields, where one can apply a positive energy result of Boucher and Townsend. The second method works directly at the $P(X, \\phi)$ level and uses spinorial arguments introduced by Witten. The latter approach follows that of arXiv:1310.1663, but the end result is less restrictive. We point to the technical step where our derivation deviates from theirs. One of the more interesting implications of our analysis is to show it is possible to have positive energy in cases where dispersion relations following from locality and S-Matrix analyticity are violated.

  6. A role for microRNA-155 modulation in the anti-HIV-1 effects of Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul Swaminathan

    2012-09-01

    reporter assay suggested they are authentic miR-155 targets. Our findings provide evidence that miR-155 exerts an anti-HIV-1 effect by targeting several HIV-1 dependency factors involved in post-entry, pre-integration events, leading to severely diminished HIV-1 infection.

  7. A role for microRNA-155 modulation in the anti-HIV-1 effects of Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Gokul; Rossi, Fiorella; Sierra, Luz-Jeannette; Gupta, Archana; Navas-Martín, Sonia; Martín-García, Julio

    2012-09-01

    assay suggested they are authentic miR-155 targets. Our findings provide evidence that miR-155 exerts an anti-HIV-1 effect by targeting several HIV-1 dependency factors involved in post-entry, pre-integration events, leading to severely diminished HIV-1 infection.

  8. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8{sup +} T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Masakazu, E-mail: masa3k@ucla.edu [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, Patrick Y. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ng, Hwee L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ringpis, Gene-Errol E.; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O' Connor, Sean [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yang, Otto O. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chen, Irvin S.Y. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8{sup +} T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8{sup +} T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24{sup Gag} in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance. - Highlights: • Ectopic expression of CD4ζ CAR in CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection. • Co-expression of two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection. • Protecting CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection suppresses its cytopathic effect.

  9. Synthesis of an allergy inducing tetrasaccharide "4P-X".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi; Nagahata, Naoki; Odaka, Rei; Nakamura, Hirohide; Yoshikawa, Jun; Kurashima, Katsumi; Saito, Tadao

    2017-02-01

    4P-X (β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-glucopyranose) is included in galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) produced by β-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans. 4P-X has been known to induce particularly strong allergies. High purity 4P-X is essential for use as a standard to quantify the amount of 4P-X in GOSs; however, the isolation of high purity 4P-X has never been reported. In this study, we achieved the synthesis of 4P-X by a combination of organic and enzymatic chemical syntheses in a short time. This is the first report of isolated, high purity 4P-X.

  10. Anti-HIV-1 activity and structure-activity relationship of pyranocoumarin analogs%吡喃香豆素衍生物对HIV-1的抑制作用及其构效关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董飚; 马涛; 章天; 周春梅; 刘刚; 王琳; 陶佩珍; 张兴权

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)/protease (PR) activity and inhibition of virus replication in cell cultures of novel coumarin analogs and determine their structure-activity relationship. Coumarin derivatives have been demonstrated to inhibit the activity of HIV-1 RT/PR in cell free system. It also shows inhibition effects to HIV-1 replication in cell culture. Based on the Chinese traditional pharmacological characteristics and protein three dimension computer aided design, analogs of tetracyclic dipyranocoumarin were synthesized from natural leading compounds. We studied the relationship of antiviral effects and chemical structures via HIV-1 PR/RT enzyme models and cell culture model system. Seven compounds were designed and tested. Several compounds showed anti-HIV-1 activity in varying degrees, especially V0201 showed much higher anti-HIV-1 activity with 3.56 and 0.78 μmol·L-1 of IC50 against HIV-1 PR/RT and 0.036 μmol·L-1 against HIV-1 replication in PBMC cultures. V0201 with a novel structure may be a new leading compound. These new compounds are valuable for development of new anti-HIV drugs in the future.%研究香豆素衍生物对人类免疫缺陷病毒l型逆转录酶(HIV-1 RT)、蛋白酶(HIV-1 PR)和细胞内复制的抑制作用及其构效关系.不同香豆素衍生物具有抑制HIV-1 RT、HIV-1 PR活性,且在细胞内显示出抑制HIV-1复制的作用已见报道.本课题根据国内传统药学的特点,考察以天然产物为先导化合物、结合HIV-1蛋白酶三维结构计算机辅助药物设计、合成的四环双吡喃香豆素及其类似物.以HIV-1 RT及HIV-1 PR以及细胞内病毒复制为靶点,利用酶学模型和细胞培养模型进行药物筛选及其构效关系研究,设计合成的7个化合物的药效学实验结果显示.部分化合物显示了不同程度的抗HIV-1活性.其中V0201作用最强,它对HIV-1 PR和HIV-1 RT的IC50分别为3.56和0.78 μmol·L-1;

  11. PX Andromedae superhumps and variable eclipse depth

    CERN Document Server

    Stanishev, V; Boffin, H M J; Genkov, V

    2002-01-01

    Results of a photometric study of the SW Sex novalike PX And are presented. The periodogram analysis of the observations obtained in October 2000 reveals the presence of three signals with periods of 0.142, 4.8 and 0.207 days. The first two periods are recognized as "negative superhumps" and the corresponding retrograde precession period of the accretion disk. The origin of the third periodic signal remains unknown. The observations in September-October 2001 point only to the presence of "negative superhumps" and possibly to the precession period. The origin of the "negative superhumps" is discussed and two possible mechanisms are suggested. All light curves show strong flickering activity and power spectra with a typical red noise shape. PX And shows eclipses with highly variable shape and depth. The analysis suggests that the eclipse depth is modulated with the precession period and two possible explanations of this phenomenon are discussed. An improved orbital ephemeris is also determined: T_min[HJD]=49238...

  12. Rational design, synthesis, anti-HIV-1 RT and antimicrobial activity of novel 3-(6-methoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-1-(piperazin-1-yl)propan-1-one derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Subhash; Wang, Ping; Ashok, Penta; Yang, Liu-Meng; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Murugesan, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, fifteen novel 3-(6-methoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-1-(piperazin-1-yl)propan-1-one (6a-o) derivatives were designed as inhibitor of HIV-1 RT using ligand based drug design approach and in-silico evaluated for drug-likeness properties. Designed compounds were synthesized, characterized and in-vitro evaluated for RT inhibitory activity against wild HIV-1 RT strain. Among the tested compounds, four compounds (6a, 6b, 6j and 6o) exhibited significant inhibition of HIV-1 RT (IC50⩽10μg/ml). All synthesized compounds were also evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity as well as cytotoxicity on T lymphocytes, in which compounds 6b and 6l exhibited significant anti-HIV activity (EC50 values 4.72 and 5.45μg/ml respectively) with good safety index. Four compounds (6a, 6b, 6j and 6o) found significantly active against HIV-1 RT in the in-vitro assay were in-silico evaluated against two mutant RT strains as well as one wild strain. Further, titled compounds were evaluated for in-vitro antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) activities.

  13. Cross-neutralizing anti-HIV-1 human single chain variable fragments(scFvs) against CD4 binding site and N332 glycan identified from a recombinant phage library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Lubina; Kumar, Rajesh; Thiruvengadam, Ramachandran; Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Kumar, Sanjeev; Aggarwal, Heena; Mohata, Madhav; Hussain, Abdul Wahid; Das, Raksha; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Vajpayee, Madhu; Murugavel, K. G.; Solomon, Suniti; Sinha, Subrata; Luthra, Kalpana

    2017-01-01

    More than 50% of HIV-1 infection globally is caused by subtype_C viruses. Majority of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting HIV-1 have been isolated from non-subtype_C infected donors. Mapping the epitope specificities of bnAbs provides useful information for vaccine design. Recombinant antibody technology enables generation of a large repertoire of monoclonals with diverse specificities. We constructed a phage recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) library with a diversity of 7.8 × 108 clones, using a novel strategy of pooling peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of six select HIV-1 chronically infected Indian donors whose plasma antibodies exhibited potent cross neutralization efficiency. The library was panned and screened by phage ELISA using trimeric recombinant proteins to identify viral envelope specific clones. Three scFv monoclonals D11, C11 and 1F6 selected from the library cross neutralized subtypes A, B and C viruses at concentrations ranging from 0.09 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL. The D11 and 1F6 scFvs competed with mAbs b12 and VRC01 demonstrating CD4bs specificity, while C11 demonstrated N332 specificity. This is the first study to identify cross neutralizing scFv monoclonals with CD4bs and N332 glycan specificities from India. Cross neutralizing anti-HIV-1 human scFv monoclonals can be potential candidates for passive immunotherapy and for guiding immunogen design. PMID:28332627

  14. A Cinnamon-Derived Procyanidin Compound Displays Anti-HIV-1 Activity by Blocking Heparan Sulfate- and Co-Receptor- Binding Sites on gp120 and Reverses T Cell Exhaustion via Impeding Tim-3 and PD-1 Upregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Bridgette Janine; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Yousfi, Rahima; Mohan, Viswaraman; Posch, Wilfried; Wilflingseder, Doris; Moog, Christiane; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Clayette, Pascal; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the many strategies aiming at inhibiting HIV-1 infection, blocking viral entry has been recently recognized as a very promising approach. Using diverse in vitro models and a broad range of HIV-1 primary patient isolates, we report here that IND02, a type A procyanidin polyphenol extracted from cinnamon, that features trimeric and pentameric forms displays an anti-HIV-1 activity against CXCR4 and CCR5 viruses with 1–7 μM ED50 for the trimer. Competition experiments, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding assay, revealed that IND02 inhibited envelope binding to CD4 and heparan sulphate (HS) as well as to an antibody (mAb 17b) directed against the gp120 co-receptor binding site with an IC50 in the low μM range. IND02 has thus the remarkable property of simultaneously blocking gp120 binding to its major host cell surface counterparts. Additionally, the IND02-trimer impeded up-regulation of the inhibitory receptors Tim-3 and PD-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, thereby demonstrating its beneficial effect by limiting T cell exhaustion. Among naturally derived products significantly inhibiting HIV-1, the IND02-trimer is the first component demonstrating an entry inhibition property through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein. These data suggest that cinnamon, a widely consumed spice, could represent a novel and promising candidate for a cost-effective, natural entry inhibitor for HIV-1 which can also down-modulate T cell exhaustion markers Tim-3 and PD-1. PMID:27788205

  15. Internal Indpendent Assessment Report - CASTLE-PX SQA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dancy, L. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, V. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This IIA assessed the flow down of institutional 830 Software Quality Assurance requirements through three required document templates to the CASTLE-PX software effort and the implementation of those SQA requirements. The templates flow down the DOE O 414.1D consensus standard requirements for Safety Software. This assessment did not include the flow down of NAP-24, Weapon Quality Policy, requirements. The assessment focused on the CASTLE-PX project’s software development and release processes. It did not assess Pantex’s acceptance or usage of the software. The assessment resulted in 3 Deficiencies, 5 Observations, 1 Recommendation, and 3 Strengths. Overall the CASTLE-PX team demonstrated it values quality and has worked to integrate quality practices into its software development processes. Improvement in documentation will enhance their SQA implementation.

  16. Restriction Enzyme Mapping: A Simple Student Practical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An experiment that uses the recombinant plasmid pX1108 to illustrate restriction mapping is described. The experiment involves three restriction enzymes and employs single and double restriction enzyme digestions. A list of needed materials, procedures, safety precautions, results, and discussion are included. (KR)

  17. Point 5 - civil engineering : surface site, SX, pit, buildings, PX

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    > de 00 :00 à 13 :15 le 06 janvier 2000 - vues extérieures du montage du bâtiment SX, du chantier, du puit PX dont le pourtour est congelé- installation des tubes de congélation du sol- bâtiments de la Cryogénie, avec mur anti-bruit- fond des puits creusement et évacuation des déblais > de 13 :17 à 17 :38 le 10 février 2000 - avancement du montage du SX - vues générales du chantier en surface > de 13 :40 à 24 :00 le 10 février 2000 - bâtiment SX vide, fin d’installation des ponts roulants - ferraillage de la dalle d’un bâtiment

  18. MATRIX EQUATION AXB = E WITH PX = sXP CONSTRAINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The matrix equation AXB = E with the constraint PX = sXP is considered, where P is a given Hermitian matrix satisfying P2 = I and s = ±1. By an eigenvalue decomposition of P, the constrained problem can be equivalently transformed to a well-known unconstrained problem of matrix equation whose coefficient matrices contain the corresponding eigenvector, and hence the constrained problem can be solved in terms of the eigenvectors of P. A simple and eigenvector-free formula of the general solutions to the constrained problem by generalized inverses of the coefficient matrices A and B is presented.Moreover, a similar problem of the matrix equation with generalized constraint is discussed.

  19. Structural Rigidity of Paranemic (PX) and Juxtapose (JX) DNA Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; 10.1016/j.bpj.2011.08.007

    2011-01-01

    Crossover motifs are integral components for designing DNA based nanostructures and nanomechanical devices due to their enhanced rigidity compared to the normal B-DNA. Although the structural rigidity of the double helix B-DNA has been investigated extensively using both experimental and theoretical tools, to date there is no quantitative information about structural rigidity and the mechanical strength of parallel crossover DNA motifs. We have used fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent to get the force-extension curve of parallel DNA nanostructures to characterize their mechanical rigidity. In the presence of mono-valent Na+ ions, we find that the stretch modulus (\\gamma_1) of the paranemic crossover (PX) and its topo-isomer JX DNA structure is significantly higher (~ 30%) compared to normal B-DNA of the same sequence and length. However, this is in contrast to the original expectation that these motifs are almost twice rigid compared to the double-stranded B-DNA. When the DNA mo...

  20. Understanding the PxS Aspect of Within-Person Variation: A Variance Partitioning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eLakey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews a variance partitioning approach to within-person variation based on Generalizability (G Theory and the Social Relations Model (SRM. The approach conceptualizes an important part of within-person variation as Person x Situation (PxS interactions: differences among persons in their profiles of responses across the same situations. The approach provided the first quantitative method for capturing within-person variation and demonstrated very large PxS effects for a wide range of constructs. These include anxiety, five-factor personality traits, perceived social support, leadership, and task performance. Although PxS effects are commonly very large, conceptual and analytic obstacles have thwarted consistent progress. For example, how does one develop a psychological, versus purely statistical, understanding of PxS effects? How does one forecast future behavior when the criterion is a PxS effect? How can understanding PxS effects contribute to psychological theory? This review describes potential solutions to these and other problems developed in the course of conducting research on the PxS aspect of social support. Additional problems that need resolution are identified.

  1. APOBEC3G抗HIV-1的分子机制及Vif基因对其拮抗作用研究进展%Research and Development of Molecular Mechanism of APOBEC3G's Anti HIV-1 Effects and Vif's Antagonism to Them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠燕捷

    2012-01-01

    The high pathogenic rate and high mortality rates of AIDS have caught more attention for recent three decades. The expectation is focused on HIV/AIDS prevention and great breakthrough in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) research. This article introduced research and development of molecular mechanism of APOBEC3G's anti HIV-1 effects and the gene vif's antagonism to them. The goal is to discuss the significance of HIV gene therapy and the potential research direction of TCM for HIV treatment.%近30年,艾滋病的高致病率和高死亡率一直被医学界高度关注,期望通过中医药研究在艾滋病防治上寻求突破,从而引发了中医药研究与分子生物学研究交叉与结合.由于近10年HIV的分子生物学研究文献,发现HIV的辅助蛋白vif和APOBEC3G为当前艾滋病致病机制研究的热点.本文对HIV的辅助蛋白vif的生物学特性、APOBEC3G抗HIV-1的分子机制及vif与APOBEC3G相互作用的新近研究成果进行整理分析,探讨基于此进行HIV基因治疗的意义以及中医药治疗HIV可能的研究方向.

  2. On Diophantine equation px4 - ( p-1) y2 =z4%关于丢番图方程px4-(p-1)y2=z4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜信君; 佟瑞洲

    2012-01-01

    对任意的奇素数p,还没有找到给出丢番图方程px4(p1)y2=z4的全部正整数解的统一的初等方法,目前只解决了某类特殊的奇素数p的求解问题,例如王洪昌等人完全解决了p-1=Q2;或2Q2;或qQ2,2|Q,q≡3(mod4)为奇素数,Q为正整数的情形.认为对某类特殊的奇素数p求解丢番图方程px4-(p-1)y2=z4,目的是对任意的奇素数p,寻找给出丢番图方程px4-(p-1)y2=z4的全部正整数解的统一解法,当p=2q+1,q≡5(mod8),p,q为奇素数时,利用初等方法把方程px4-(p- 1)y2=z4化为方程x2 +my2=z2,从而给出方程px4-(p-1)y2=z4的全部正整数解;当q为任意正整数时,上述解法仍然适用,因此对任意给定的奇素数p,实际上已经给出了丢番图方程px4-(p-1)y2=z4的全部正整数解的统一解法.%When p is an arbitrary odd prime number, there is no unified primary method of all positive integer solutions to the Diophantine equation px4 (p- l)y2 = z4, but only the solution of some certain types of special odd primes number p.such as Wang Hongchang etc have completely resolved p-l = Q2:Or 2Q2 :orqQ2,2|Q, q≡3(modk) with q is an odd prime number and Q is a positive integer. People solve the Diophantine equation px4 - (p-l)y2 = z4 with some special types of odd prime number p to find a unified approach of all positive integer solutions to Diophantine equation px4 -(p-1) y2=z4. When p=2q+l,q≡5(mod8) ,p,q is an odd prime number, we put equation px4 - (p-l)y2 = z4 into equation χ =z2 by the elementary methods, by which we give the all solution to Diophantine equation px4-(p-l)y2=z4. When q is an arbitrary positive integer, the above solution is still applicable. In fact, we have given a unified method of all positive integer solutions to Diophantine equations px4 - (p- l)y2 = z4, when p is an arbitrary given odd prime number.

  3. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 mutagenic nucleoside analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-02

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of "lethal mutagenesis" that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively.

  4. 无限畅快 丽台Winfast PX6800 GS TDH显卡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    不久前,丽台科技(Leadtek),发表了玩家级3D绘图显示卡-WinFast PX6800 GS。WinFast PX6800 GS的出现将效能以及兼容性推向另一个顶点,支持Microsoft Dierct X 9.0c Shader Model 3.0与OpenGL.2.0。

  5. Molecular Mechanism of Macrocyclic Polyamines with Anti-HIV-1 Activity to Recognize RNA and Its Effect on Apoptosis%抗HIV-1活性的大环多胺类化合物与RNA的识别作用及其对细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝美荣; 杨铭; 卜显和

    2002-01-01

    研究了具有抗HIV-1活性的大环多胺类化合物与RNA的识别作用,以及其对 cos-7细胞凋亡的影响,以进一步探讨其抗HIV-1的作用机理.实验采用琼脂糖凝胶电泳方法, 观察化合物与RNA的识别作用;通过流式细胞计数法探讨其对cos-7细胞凋亡的影响; 运用计算机分子模型, 从理论上Docking计算化合物与TAR RNA结合的可能性.结果表明, 大环多胺类化合物MP-1、MP-2和MP-3不仅具有断裂RNA的作用,并可抑制Tat-RNA的相互作用, 还可影响cos-7细胞亚二倍体的含量; 理论化学计算数据与实验结果基本一致.这一结果提示化合物的抗HIV-1活性可能通过作用于病毒基因组RNA而发挥作用,是多靶作用的结果.%The molecular recognition of macrocyclic polyamines (MP-1 ,MP-2 and MP-3) to RNA, and its effects on apoptosis of cos-7 cells were stu died in order to explore their mechanism of anti-HIV-1 activity. Cleavage of R NA was observed by agarose electrophoresis; and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry assay. Computer modeling was used to investigate the theoretical poss ibility of compounds binding to TAR RNA. Results showed that: (1) Compounds MP -1,MP-2 and MP-3 could not only cleave the polyA *polyU and TAR RNA, but al so inhibit the interaction of Tat-RNA. (2) Compounds could affect the percentag e of hypodiploid cell. It is proposed that compounds MP-1,MP-2 and MP-3 cou ld recognize the polyA*polyU and TAR RNA molecules and cleave them, and affect the interaction of Tat-RNA. The compounds may affect the apoptosis of cos-7 ce lls.

  6. The PX-EM algorithm for fast stable fitting of Henderson's mixed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dyk David A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents procedures for implementing the PX-EM algorithm of Liu, Rubin and Wu to compute REML estimates of variance covariance components in Henderson's linear mixed models. The class of models considered encompasses several correlated random factors having the same vector length e.g., as in random regression models for longitudinal data analysis and in sire-maternal grandsire models for genetic evaluation. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the procedures. Much better results in terms of convergence characteristics (number of iterations and time required for convergence are obtained for PX-EM relative to the basic EM algorithm in the random regression.

  7. Polarization of cumulative protons in the reaction. gamma. A r arrow pX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R.O.; Avetisyan, A.E.; Arestakesyan, G.A.; Bartikyan, M.V.; Garibyan, Y.A.; Grigoryan, A.E.; Eganov, V.S.; Karapetyan, A.P.; Karapetyan, M.P.; Keropyan, I.A.; and others

    1989-02-01

    The polarization of cumulative protons has been measured in the reaction {gamma}{ital A}{r arrow}{ital pX} in the proton-energy region 170--270 MeV for C and Sn nuclei in bremsstrahlung beams produced by 4.5- and 1.5-GeV electrons. The measured polarization value is close to zero.

  8. INFERENCE ON P(X < Y FOR EXPONENTIATED FAMILY OF DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhansu S. Maiti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inference on R = P(X < Y has been considered when X and Y belong to independent exponentiated family of distributions. Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE, Uniformly Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimator (UMVUE and Bayes Estimator of R has been derived and compared through simulation study. Exact and approximate confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals have also been derived.

  9. Implementation of innovative pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) environmental cleaning in an acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornwalt, Lori; Riddell, Brad

    2014-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the hospital environment is an important reservoir for many of the pathogenic microbes associated with health care-associated infections (HAIs). Environmental cleaning plays an important role in the prevention and containment of HAIs, in patient safety, and the overall experience of health care facilities. New technologies, such as pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) light systems are an innovative development for enhanced cleaning and decontamination of hospital environments. A portable PX-UV disinfection device delivers pulsed UV light to destroy microbial pathogens and spores, and can be used in conjunction with manual environmental cleaning. In addition, this technology facilitates thorough disinfection of hospital rooms in 10-15 minutes. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether the introduction of the PX-UV device had a positive impact on patient satisfaction. Satisfaction was measured using the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey. In 2011, prior to the introduction of the PX-UV system, patient HCAHPS scores for cleanliness averaged 75.75%. In the first full quarter after enhanced cleaning of the facility was introduced, this improved to 83%. Overall scores for the hospital rose from 76% (first quarter, 2011) to 87.6% (fourth quarter, 2012). As a result of this improvement, the hospital received 1% of at-risk reimbursement from the inpatient prospective payment system as well as additional funding. Cleanliness of the hospital environment is one of the questions included in the HCAHPS survey and one measure of patient satisfaction. After the introduction of the PX-UV system, the score for cleanliness and the overall rating of the hospital rose from below the fiftieth to the ninety-ninth percentile. This improvement in the patient experience was associated with financial benefits to the hospital.

  10. Implementation of innovative pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV environmental cleaning in an acute care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornwalt L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lori Fornwalt,1 Brad Riddell1,2 1Departments of Infection Prevention and Environmental Services, Trinity Medical Centre, Birmingham, AL, 2Environmental Services, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that the hospital environment is an important reservoir for many of the pathogenic microbes associated with health care-associated infections (HAIs. Environmental cleaning plays an important role in the prevention and containment of HAIs, in patient safety, and the overall experience of health care facilities. New technologies, such as pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV light systems are an innovative development for enhanced cleaning and decontamination of hospital environments. A portable PX-UV disinfection device delivers pulsed UV light to destroy microbial pathogens and spores, and can be used in conjunction with manual environmental cleaning. In addition, this technology facilitates thorough disinfection of hospital rooms in 10–15 minutes. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether the introduction of the PX-UV device had a positive impact on patient satisfaction. Satisfaction was measured using the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS survey. In 2011, prior to the introduction of the PX-UV system, patient HCAHPS scores for cleanliness averaged 75.75%. In the first full quarter after enhanced cleaning of the facility was introduced, this improved to 83%. Overall scores for the hospital rose from 76% (first quarter, 2011 to 87.6% (fourth quarter, 2012. As a result of this improvement, the hospital received 1% of at-risk reimbursement from the inpatient prospective payment system as well as additional funding. Cleanliness of the hospital environment is one of the questions included in the HCAHPS survey and one measure of patient satisfaction. After the introduction of the PX-UV system, the score for cleanliness and the overall rating of the

  11. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) concentration is elevated in rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Glenn A; Ives, Stephen J; Narkowicz, Christian; Jones, Graeme

    2012-11-01

    Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) offers a complimentary measurement approach to traditional GSH-Px activity methods. The aim was to investigate whether GSH-Px measured by ELISA in rheumatoid arthritis patients was elevated compared to controls. This was a case-control study with rheumatoid arthritis patients recruited from private practice and gender and age-matched controls randomly selected from the electoral role. GSH-Px concentration was measured by ELISA. Plasma malondialdehyde was used as a measure of oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity was measured based on reduction of Cu(++) to Cu(+) by antioxidants in the sample. Disease severity was measured using the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and C-reactive protein was measured using an immunoturbidometric method. A total of 74 patients were recruited, consisting of 35 rheumatoid arthritis cases and 39 healthy controls. There were no differences between rheumatoid arthritis cases and controls for oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity; however, GSH-Px concentration was markedly elevated in the rheumatoid arthritis sufferers (85.9 ± 147.7 versus 17.3 ± 13.0 mg/L, respectively; mean ± SD; p arthritis demonstrated increased GSH-Px consistent with an adaptive upregulation of GSH-Px to protect against oxidative stress.

  12. Selenium status and GSH-Px activity in semen and blood of boars at different ages used for artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, B; Błaszczyk, B; Seremak, B; Udała, J

    2004-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between selenium (Se) content and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood and semen, and semen quality of boars at different age used in an artificial insemination (AI) station. Routine macroscopic and microscopic analyses of semen quality were accompanied by measurement of Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen. The Se concentration in blood plasma, seminal fluid and spermatozoa was measured by fluorometric method, the GSH-Px activity by a method based on NADPH-coupled reaction. A total of 155 ejaculates and 58 blood samples were investigated. The results of this study showed that there was no direct relationship between the Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood plasma and semen, and semen quality of sexual matured boars. The mechanisms controlling Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen seem to be independent. The age of boars as a differentiating factor for Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen is possible. It is concluded that a determination of Se status and/or GSH-Px activity in organism before Se supplementation is indicated.

  13. Effect of selenium supplementation on the level of glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the nursing rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, S.P.; Hittner, H.M.; Strength, D.R.; Kretzer, F.; Lane, H.W.

    1986-03-01

    Prevention of retinopathy of prematurity using vitamin E as an antioxidant has been demonstrated. The purpose of this experiment was to study the antioxidant system, GSH-Px, (a selenoenzyme), in the retina. The effect of i.p. administration and dietary Se as selenite or selenomethionine (selmet) on tissue GSH-Px activity was determined in nursing pups. Dams were randomized into 3 dietary treatments (Basal, 0.15 ppm selenite, and 0.15 ppm selmet) and mated. Pups were sacrificed at 0, 7, and 14 days after delivery and GSH-Px was measured in pup eyes, hearts, livers, and kidneys, and dam livers. The pups of the dams consuming the Basal diet were divided into 4 i.p. groups: none, saline, selenite, and selmet (3 ..mu..g Se/kg body wt). The i.p. Se had no effect on GSH-Px activity in eye or heart, but significantly increased GSH-Px activity in liver and kidney with no difference between selenite and selmet. The pups of the dams consuming selenite and selmet diets showed significantly higher GSH-Px activity in all tissues studied than those consuming the Basal diet. For all tissues GSH-Px activity was higher for pups and dams fed selmet than those fed selenite. This research demonstrates that there was a difference in selenium availability between diet and i.p. administration.

  14. J-Resolution Fields of Generalized Literals of L14 P(X)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To deal with automated reasoning of linguistic truth-valued lattice-valued logic system, a lattice implication algebra with 14elements, L14, was defined, and the J-resolution fields of constants, propositional variables and some generalized literals of L14 P(X) , which is a lattice-valued propositional logic system with truth-values in L14, were discussed. There are 4 filters in L14.For any constant a not belonging to J, a and g (generalized literal of L14P(X)) form a J-resolution pair. For a propositional variable x, ifx belongs to J and g does not belong to J, then x and g form a J-resolution pair.

  15. Diamagnetic vortex barrier stripes in underdoped BaFe2(As1-xPx) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, A.; Lamhot, Y.; Almoalem, A.; Kasahara, S.; Watashige, T.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Auslaender, O. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements on underdoped BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 (x =0.26 ) that show enhanced superconductivity along stripes parallel to twin boundaries. These stripes of enhanced diamagnetic response repel superconducting vortices and act as barriers for them to cross. The width of the stripes is hundreds of nanometers, on the scale of the penetration depth, well within the inherent spatial resolution of MFM and implying that the width is set by the interaction of the superconductor with the MFM's magnetic tip. Unlike similar stripes observed previously by scanning SQUID in the electron doped Ba (Fe1 -xCox)2As2 , the stripes in the isovalently doped BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 disappear gradually when we warm the sample towards the superconducting transition temperature. Moreover, we find that the stripes move well below the reported structural transition temperature in BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 and that they can be much denser than in the Ba (Fe1 -xCox)2As2 study. When we cool in finite magnetic field we find that some vortices appear in the middle of stripes, suggesting that the stripes may have an inner structure, which we cannot resolve. Finally, we use both vortex decoration at higher magnetic field and deliberate vortex dragging by the MFM magnetic tip to obtain bounds on the strength of the interaction between the stripes and vortices. We find that this interaction is strong enough to play a significant role in determining the critical current in underdoped BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 .

  16. Exotic baryon searches in 800 GeV/c pp {yields} pX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, M.A.; Felix, J.; Lopez, E.; Moreno, G.; Perez, I.O.; Sosa, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Christian, D.C.; Gottschalk, E.E.; Gutierrez, G.; Wang, M.H.L.S.; Wehmann, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Hartouni, E.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Knapp, B.C. [Columbia University, Irvington, NY (United States). Nevis Lab.; Kreisler, M.N. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    We report the results of the search for the pentaquark candidates {theta}(1540) and {xi}(1862) using data from Fermilab experiment E690 in the reaction pp {yields} pX at 800 GeV/c. We find no evidence for narrow baryon resonances near 1862 MeV decaying to {xi}{pi}. Also, we find no evidence of a narrow resonance near 1540 MeV decaying to pK{sub s}{sup 0}. (author)

  17. 勇于挑战丽台WinFast PX7600GT TDH超频版

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    丽台科技(Leadtek)推出了一款采用GeForce7600GT图形芯片的WinFast PX7600GT TDH超频版显卡.这敕显卡是丽台为中端用户精心设计的产品.采用1.2ns的DDR3内存颗粒.总容量256MB.位宽128bit。工作频率方面.WinFast PX7600GT TDH超频版的核心,显存工作频率分别为590/1600MHz.超过了nVIDIA官方的默认工作频率.而且GDDR3显存还具有很出色的超频能力。针对超频玩家.丽台对WinFast PX7600GT TDH超频版显卡的散热部分进行全新设计.较大的散热片能够迅速吸收核心瞬间产生的巨大热量.使冷却性能较公板提升30%-35%。

  18. Pyroelectric properties and electrocaloric effect in TGS1-xPx single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2016-10-01

    Triglycine sulfate (TGS) single crystals modified with phosphoric acid (TGS1-xPx) have been grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Lattice parameters were identified by using single crystal x-ray diffractometer. The dielectric, pyroelectric, ferroelectric properties and electrocaloric effect have been investigated. Curie temperature of grown crystals was determined from dielectric constant measurements at various temperatures at a frequency of 1 kHz. The Curie temperature is found decreased for the TGS single crystals with the addition of phosphoric acid. Room temperature P-E hysteresis loops of TGS1-xPx single crystals are presented. The values of coercive field Ec, spontaneous polarization Ps and internal bias field Eb were obtained from the hysteresis loops. Discussion on pyroelectric properties as a function of temperature and applied electric field is presented. Figure of merits (FOMs) were determined to study the pyroelectric performance of the grown crystals. Among all compositions of x, x = 0.2 (i.e., TGS0.8P0.2) single crystals exhibited the largest pyroelectric coefficient and pyroelectric figure of merit at room temperature. From the above investigations the electrocaloric temperature change, ΔT of TGS1-xPx single crystals at selected applied fields and temperatures are obtained by indirect method and discussed.

  19. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy; Idiopathic myocardial fibrosis ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is of normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does ...

  20. The structures, stability, and photoelectron spectroscopy of GaPX - (X = C, Si, Ge; O, S; P and Ga) clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congjie; Jia, Wenhong

    2006-08-01

    The equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of GaPX - and GaPX (X = C, Si, Ge; O, S; P and Ga) have been studied by hybrid B3LYP functional at cc-PVTZ and aug-cc-PVTZ levels. The results predict that the most stable structure of GaPC - is linear while the others are trigonal. As for GaPX (X = C, Si, Ge; O, S; P and Ga), the ground structures of GaPC and GaPO are linear while the others are trigonal. The adiabatic electron affinities (AEAs) and vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of GaPX - are calculated at B3LYP/aug-cc-PVTZ level. And the order of the AEAs and VDEs of GaPX - are C < O < Ge ≈ Si < P < S < Ga and C < Ge ≈ Si < P < O < S < Ga, respectively. GaPC exhibits the lowest adiabatic electron affinities of all the clusters studied, indicating a particularly stable neutral species.

  1. Development of energy scanning software to facilitate MAD experiment at PX-BL21, Indus-2 synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Abhilash; Kumar, Ashwani; Ghosh, Biplab; Poswal, H. K.; Makde, Ravindra; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2017-05-01

    The protein crystallography beamline (PX-BL 21) at Indus-2 synchrotron (RRCAT, Indore) is dedicated for structure determination of macromolecules. For solving the phase problem in structure determination of macromolecules, MAD (Multi-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction) scan is one of the well established methods. This scan requires a precise measurement of absorption data at or near the absorption edge of doped heavy atom for different wavelengths of X-rays. Software for absorption edge scanning using fluorescence detector and double crystal monochromator has been developed and deployed at PX-BL21. MAD experiment of a protein sample has been recorded and analyzed. With this important development, PX-BL21 is now fully equipped to perform anomalous diffraction experiments with single crystal protein samples.

  2. Effect of high levels of organic selenium on glutation-peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment lasting 45 days was performed on 125 Hybro broilers divided into five groups. All compounds for broiler feed mixes used in the experiment contained 0.15 mg Se/kg, in the form of sodium selenite. The control group (K-group of broilers was fed mixes without added organic selenium, and the experimental groups with mixes to which selenium, in the form of selenized-yeast, was added in quantities of 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg. Selenized yeast (ICN - Gaienika was obtained from beer yeast and contained 1.51, or 1.45 mg/g total, or organically bound selenium. At the beginning of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the K-group ranged around 16.55 μkat/L, while GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of experimental groups was statistically significantly higher, but without any major differences among the individual groups (on the average 25.53fjkat/L. In the blood plasma of K-group, GSH-Px activity dropped already in the second week of life and was maintained at a relatively constant level (about 10 μkat/L until the end of the experiment. The same phenomenon was observed in the experimental groups, but the trend of declining GSH-Px activity in blood plasma was more expressed, and, contrary to the control group, was expressed also in the later phases of the experiment. In the 3rd week of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the control and experimental groups was relatively equal, and then the plasma activity of GSH-Px in broilers of the experimental groups decreased, but there were no major differences among the individual groups.

  3. 由广东茂名PX事件引发的思考%On the PX Event of Guangdong Maoming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红英; 颜雪明

    2016-01-01

    PX事件发生的直接诱因是民众担心 PX 及 PX项目会对环境带来系列有毒污染。PX 事件也折射出民众与社会对化学缺乏正确的认识,化学的不利一面被无限放大,而化学的有利一面被全然忽视。重塑化工行业良好社会形象,一方面要求政府加大安全生产与环境保护的监管力度,逐步建立起牢固的官民互信体系;另一方面要依靠化学本身的技术革命,大力发展环境友好的绿色化学与化工,以利从源头消除化学污染。%The direct cause of the PX event was that the public worried that PX and PX proj ects would contaminate the environment.PX event reflects the public unfamiliarity with chemistry, the exaggeration of negativity chemistry and the ignorance of its positivity.To re-creat a good so-cial image of chemical industry,it is vital for the government to increase the supervision of pro-duction safety and environmental protection,and gradually establish a firm trust system between the government officials and the public.It is also imperative to rely on chemical technological rev-olution,and vigorously develop the environmental friendly green chemistry and chemical engi-neering,in order to eliminating chemical pollution from the very beginning.

  4. Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus PX03, an Acetoin-Producing Strain with a Small-Sized Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Wang, Qian; Su, Yulong; Li, Shugui; Liu, Haobao

    2017-09-14

    Staphylococcus aureus PX03 can produce acetoin efficiently. Here, we present a 2.38-Mb assembly of its genome sequence, which might provide further insights into the molecular mechanism of its acetoin biosynthesis to further improve its biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2017 Zhang et al.

  5. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC STRESS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF SOD, GSH-Px AND MDA LEVEL IN FEMALE RATS' BRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 杨东伟; 谢雯; 庞炜; 蒋马莉; 韩太真

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of chronic emotional stress on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malonialdehyde (MDA) level in female rats' brain. Methods The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (group N), emotional stress group (group E), emotional stress + pregnancy group (group E+P) and regularly drinking group (group R). Emotional stress in rats was induced by training rats with empty drinking bottles. Having been finished the stress procedure, the brain was taken out and homogenized. Then the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and MDA level were measured. Results Compared to group N, both the activities of SOD in brain tissues of group E and group E+P were significantly decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) while the MDA level increased (P<0.05). However, the extent of changes in group E+P was more obvious than that in E. GSH-Px activities in E+P and E were significantly changed. However, the GSH-Px activity in E+P was decreased (P<0.05) while the activity in E increased (P<0.05).Conclusion The chronic emotional stress can reduce the antioxidative system by decreasing the antioxidative enzyme activity and potentiating the lipid peroxidation in the brain. It is also suggested that the combination of emotional stress and pregnancy can augment the oxidative damage in rats' brain.

  6. Restricted Airspace

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Technical Test Center has restricted airspace up to 30,000 feet ASL. Airspace encompasses R-2104 (Redstone). Airspace is used extensively for airborne/UAV...

  7. Dietary Iodine Affected the GSH-Px to Regulate the Thyroid Hormones in Thyroid Gland of Rex Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Pan, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jie; Li, Sheng; Shao, Le; Zhang, Xia; Liu, Beiyi; Li, Jian

    2017-06-03

    Iodine (I) is an essential trace element that can influence animal health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary iodine on the antioxidant indices of organ (liver and thyroid gland) and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in Rex rabbits. A total of 120 4-month-old Rex rabbits (2235.4 ± 13.04 g BW) were divided into four equal groups, and their diets were supplemented with iodine (0, 0.2, 2, or 4 mg/kg dry matter (DM)). The iodine concentration in basal diet (control group) was 0.36 mg/kg DM. In most of measured parameters, supplemental iodine exerted no significant effect. Growth and slaughter performance and organ weight were not influenced significantly by iodine supplementation. Serum T3 was significantly lower in 2-mg I group than in 0.2 and 4-mg I groups (P  0.05). Conversely, serum catalase (CAT) was significantly reduced (P thyroid, GSH-Px was higher in the 2-mg I group than in the 0.2- and 4-mg I groups (P  0.05). In the thyroid gland, the mRNA expression level of GSH-Px was higher in the 2-mg I group than in the 4-mg I group (P thyroid gland. Thus, on the basis of serum T3 and GSH-Px levels in the thyroid gland, we hypothesized that GSH-Px secretion was increased by adding dietary iodine in the thyroid, which may inhibit the H2O2 generation and further influence the thyroid hormone synthesis.

  8. Measurement of the half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se with PX-AMS

    CERN Document Server

    He Ming; Jiang Shan; Diao Li Jun; Wu Shao Yon; Li Chun Shen

    2002-01-01

    The half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se has been re-measured with projectile X-rays detection (PXD) in accelerator mass spectrometry after a new PXD system had been set up in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The PXD technique has been used for separation of sup 7 sup 9 Se from its isobar, sup 7 sup 9 Br. The detection efficiency of sup 7 sup 9 Se K subalpha X-rays is obtained from that of sup 8 sup 0 Se after energy correction. The atom number of sup 7 sup 9 Se in each sample is deduced from the measured ratios of sup 7 sup 9 Se/Se. From the measured decay rates of each sample, the half-life is deduced to be (2.80+-0.36)x10 sup 5 a. In order to check the reliability of the result of sup 7 sup 9 Se half-life, the sup 7 sup 5 Se half-life is also measured with PX-AMS method. The measured half-life of sup 7 sup 5 Se is in good agreement with well-known literature value.

  9. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Pass Reverse Osmosis (RO Desalination Unit with and without an Energy Recovery Turbine (ERT and Pressure Exchanger (PX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri M. Eshoul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exergy analysis of an actual two-pass (RO desalination system with the seawater solution treated as a real mixture and not an ideal mixture. The actual 127 ton/h two pass RO desalination plant was modeled using IPSEpro software and validated against operating data. The results show that using the (ERT and (PX reduced the total power consumption of the SWRO desalination by about 30% and 50% respectively, whereas, the specific power consumption for the SWRO per m3 water decreased from 7.2 kW/m3 to 5.0 kW/m3 with (ERT and 3.6 kW/m3 with (PX. In addition, the exergy efficiency of the RO desalination improved by 49% with ERT and 77% with PX and exergy destruction was reduced by 40% for (ERT and 53% for (PX. The results also showed that, when the (ERT and (PX were not in use, accounted for 42% of the total exergy destruction. Whereas, when (ERT and (PX are in use, the rejected seawater account maximum is 0.64%. Moreover, the (PX involved the smallest area and highest minimum separation work.

  10. Generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated lactoferrin-targeted mice by pronuclear injection of plasmid pX330

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxu GE,Fei LIU,Fei CHANG,Zhaolin SUN,Jing FEI,Ying GUO,Yunping DAI,Zhengquan YU,Yaofeng ZHAO,Ning LI,Qingyong MENG

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin is a member of the transferrin family of multifunctional iron binding glycoproteins. While numerous physiological functions have been described for lactoferrin, the mechanisms underlying these functions are not clear. To further study the functions and mechanisms of lactoferrin, we modified the lactoferrin promoter of mice using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to reduce or eliminate lactoferrin expression. Seven mice with lactoferrin promoter mutations were obtained with an efficiency of 24% (7/29 by injecting the plasmid pX330, expressing a small guide RNA and human codon-optimized SpCas9, into fertilized eggs of mice. Plasmid integration and off-targeting of pX330 were not detected. These results confirmed that pronuclear injection of a circular plasmid is a feasible and efficient method for targeted mutagenesis in mice.

  11. High-Performance Hydrogen Evolution from MoS2(1-x) P(x) Solid Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ruquan; del Angel-Vicente, Paz; Liu, Yuanyue; Arellano-Jimenez, M Josefina; Peng, Zhiwei; Wang, Tuo; Li, Yilun; Yakobson, Boris I; Wei, Su-Huai; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Tour, James M

    2016-02-17

    A MoS2(1-x) P(x) solid solution (x = 0 to 1) is formed by thermally annealing mixtures of MoS2 and red phosphorus. The effective and stable electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic solution holds promise for replacing scarce and expensive platinum that is used in present catalyst systems. The high performance originates from the increased surface area and roughness of the solid solution.

  12. Application of infrequent-restriction-site amplification for genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Tae Yeal; Kang, Jung Oak

    2002-01-01

    Infrequent restriction site amplification (IRS-PCR) is a method of amplifying DNA sequences, which flank an infrequent restriction site, and produces a strain-specific electrophoretic pattern. We studied the use of IRS-PCR to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobactria (NTM). One-hundred and sixteen M. tuberculosis and nine NTM isolated at Hanyang University Hospital in Seoul, Korea were used in this study. IRS-PCR using AH1 and PX-G primers produced unique pattern...

  13. Transient liquid phase bonding of a third generation gamma-titanium aluminum alloy: Gamma Met PX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Daniel A.

    The research work presented here discusses transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of a current (i.e. third) generation gamma-TiAl alloy known as Gamma Met PX (GMPX). Effective implementation of GMPX in service is likely to require fabrication of complicated geometries for which a high performance metallurgical joining technique must be developed. Although a number of joining processes have been investigated, all have significant disadvantages that limit their ability to achieve sound joints. TLP bonding has proved to be a successful method of producing joints with microstructures and compositions similar to that of the bulk substrates. Hence, bonds with parent-like mechanical and oxidation properties are possible. The interlayer and bonding conditions employed for joining of GMPX were based on successful wide-gap TLP joining trials of an earlier generation cast gamma-TiAl alloy with a composition of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb in atomic percent (abbreviated here to 48-2-2). A composite interlayer consisting of a 6:1 weight ratio (7 vol.% copper) of gas atomized 48-2-2 powders (-270 mesh) and pure copper powders (-325 mesh) was employed. When applied to GMPX, these interlayer ratio and bonding conditions produced undesirable microstructures and poor mechanical performance in as-bonded joints. Thus, modifications to the joining technique were required. Initially these modifications were based purely on empirical and phenomenological studies, however, detailed mechanistic studies of the underlying joining mechanisms were conducted to aid in selecting these modifications. Mechanisms such as diffusion, solubility and wettability of copper in/on GMPX and 48-2-2 bulk substrates were investigated and compared. A difference in solubility of copper in GMPX and 48-2-2 bulk substrates was attributed to (at least in part) to the observed differences in GMPX and 48-2-2 bonds. The copper solubility, at the bonding temperature, in the 48-2-2 and GMPX alloys was determined to be ˜2 at.% and ˜1

  14. Glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px en las patologías asociadas a deficiencias de selenio en rumiantes Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in ruminants associated to selenium deficiency pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M LOPEZ ALONSO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El selenio constituye uno de los micronutrientes esenciales para los animales, siendo necesario un adecuado aporte de este elemento en la dieta para el mantenimiento de la salud y de la reproducción. La mayor parte del selenio se encuentra contenido en el interior de las células rojas como componente de la glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px, E.C. 1.11.1.9, enzima que juega un papel central en los procesos celulares de óxido-reducción, al suponer un importante mecanismo de defensa celular contra las formas de oxígeno altamente reactivas (radicales libres que se producen en el organismo durante el metabolismo aerobio habitual. En este trabajo se examinaron detalladamente los mecanismos patogénicos de las alteraciones orgánicas que obedecen a deficiencias de selenio en rumiantes. La incapacidad del animal de responder al ataque peroxidativo de los radicales libres en todos estos procesos hace que se piense en la GSH-Px dependiente de selenio como el mecanismo principal de actuación de este elemento, y por ello esta enzima se convierte en una medida indirecta de gran importancia en el diagnóstico clínico de procesos carenciales de selenioSelenium is an essential microelement for animals; an adequate level of this element is necessary in the diet, to maintain health and reproduction. Most of the selenium is in the erythrocytes as a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. E.C. 1.11.1.9. This enzyme plays a major role in the cellular antioxidant defense system against oxygen radicals (free radicals, potentially harmful pro-oxidants that are produced during aerobic metabolism. In this work the pathogenic mechanisms of selenium deficiencies in ruminants were examined. The inability of the animal to react against peroxidative damage of free radicals in all of these nutritional deficiencies indicates that GSH-Px represents the main functions of selenium in the organism, and it makes this enzyme a very important tool for clinical

  15. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... in the article is that the many mobility systems enable specialization of places that are targeted at a special section of the population. This means that various forms of motilities not only create new opportunities for urban life but it is also one of the most critical components of production of new exclusion...

  16. Anti-HIV-1 protease activities of crude extracts of some Garcinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... developing countries (UN-AIDS Report, 2005 and 2007). The causative organism in AIDS ... target in HIV drug development (Kohl et al., 1988). HIV-1. PR function as a ..... Chen SX, Wan M, Loh BN (1996). Active constituents ...

  17. Abacavir, an anti-HIV-1 drug, targets TDP1-deficient adult T cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Takiuchi, Yoko; Iwai, Fumie; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nagata, Kayoko; Shinohara, Masanobu; Io, Katsuhiro; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Shindo, Keisuke; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Hirota, Kouji; Yamamoto, Junpei; Iwai, Shigenori; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shunichi; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2015-04-01

    Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T cell malignancy caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and has a poor prognosis. We analyzed the cytotoxic effects of various nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for HIV-1 on ATL cells and found that abacavir potently and selectively kills ATL cells. Although NRTIs have minimal genotoxicities on host cells, the therapeutic concentration of abacavir induced numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the chromosomal DNA of ATL cells. DSBs persisted over time in ATL cells but not in other cell lines, suggesting impaired DNA repair. We found that the reduced expression of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), a repair enzyme, is attributable to the cytotoxic effect of abacavir on ATL cells. We also showed that TDP1 removes abacavir from DNA ends in vitro. These results suggest a model in which ATL cells with reduced TDP1 expression are unable to excise abacavir incorporated into genomic DNA, leading to irreparable DSBs. On the basis of the above mechanism, we propose abacavir as a promising chemotherapeutic agent for ATL.

  18. Sequential Immunization Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies in Ig Knockin Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano, Amelia; Steichen, Jon M; Dosenovic, Pia; Kulp, Daniel W; Golijanin, Jovana; Sok, Devin; Freund, Natalia T; Gitlin, Alexander D; Oliveira, Thiago; Araki, Tatsuya; Lowe, Sarina; Chen, Spencer T; Heinemann, Jennifer; Yao, Kai-Hui; Georgeson, Erik; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Gazumyan, Anna; Adachi, Yumiko; Kubitz, Michael; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-09-08

    A vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is likely to be protective, but this has not been achieved. To explore immunization regimens that might elicit bNAbs, we produced and immunized mice expressing the predicted germline PGT121, a bNAb specific for the V3-loop and surrounding glycans on the HIV-1 spike. Priming with an epitope-modified immunogen designed to activate germline antibody-expressing B cells, followed by ELISA-guided boosting with a sequence of directional immunogens, native-like trimers with decreasing epitope modification, elicited heterologous tier-2-neutralizing responses. In contrast, repeated immunization with the priming immunogen did not. Antibody cloning confirmed elicitation of high levels of somatic mutation and tier-2-neutralizing antibodies resembling the authentic human bNAb. Our data establish that sequential immunization with specifically designed immunogens can induce high levels of somatic mutation and shepherd antibody maturation to produce bNAbs from their inferred germline precursors.

  19. Anti-HIV-1 activity of anionic polymers: a comparative study of candidate microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yun-Yao

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP in soluble form blocks coreceptor binding sites on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 and elicits gp41 six-helix bundle formation, processes involved in virus inactivation. CAP is not soluble at pH Methods Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used to (1 study HIV-1 IIIB and BaL binding to micronized CAP; (2 detect virus disintegration; and (3 measure gp41 six-helix bundle formation. Cells containing integrated HIV-1 LTR linked to the β-gal gene and expressing CD4 and coreceptors CXCR4 or CCR5 were used to measure virus infectivity. Results 1 HIV-1 IIIB and BaL, respectively, effectively bound to micronized CAP. 2 The interaction between HIV-1 and micronized CAP led to: (a gp41 six-helix bundle formation; (b virus disintegration and shedding of envelope glycoproteins; and (c rapid loss of infectivity. Polymers other than CAP, except Carbomer 974P, elicited gp41 six-helix bundle formation in HIV-1 IIIB but only poly(napthalene sulfonate, in addition to CAP, had this effect on HIV-1 BaL. These polymers differed with respect to their virucidal activities, the differences being more pronounced for HIV-1 BaL. Conclusions Micronized CAP is the only candidate topical microbicide with the capacity to remove rapidly by adsorption from physiological fluids HIV-1 of both the X4 and R5 biotypes and is likely to prevent virus contact with target cells. The interaction between micronized CAP and HIV-1 leads to rapid virus inactivation. Among other anionic polymers, cellulose sulfate, BufferGel and aryl sulfonates appear most effective in this respect.

  20. Anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Kummee

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of selected medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients were investigated for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN using the multiplate integration assay (MIA. Of these, the water extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.8 μg/ml, followed by the methanol extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant, IC50 = 21.1 μg/ ml, the water extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 26.4 μg/ml, the chloroform extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 33.0 μg/ml, the methanol extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 38.2 μg/ml and the chloroform extract of Piper betle (leaf, IC50 = 39.3 μg/ml, respectively.

  1. Anti-HIV-1 activities of the extracts from the medicinal plant Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources e.g. Ixora undulata, Paulownia tomentosa, Fortunella margarita, Aegle marmelos and Erythrina abyssinica, the different organic and aqueous extracts of Linum grandiflorum leaves and seeds were evaluated in vitro by the microculture ...

  2. Anti-HIV-1 ADCC antibodies following latency reversal and treatment interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Wen Shi; Kristensen, Anne B; Rasmussen, Thomas A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in utilizing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to eliminate infected cells following reactivation from HIV-1 latency. A potential barrier is that HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies decline in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may...... not be sufficient to eliminate reactivated latently infected cells. It is not known whether reactivation from latency with latency-reversing agents (LRA) could provide sufficient antigenic stimulus to boost HIV-1-specific ADCC. We find that treatment with the LRA panobinostat or a short analytical treatment......) trial robustly boosted HIV-1 gp120-specific Fc receptor-binding antibodies and ADCC against HIV-1-infected cells in vitro These results show there is a lag between viral recrudescence and the boosting of ADCC antibodies, which has implications for strategies towards eliminating latently infected cells...

  3. Photo-translocation of anti-HIV-1 drugs into TZM-bl cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, T

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [1] R. Mallipedi and L.C. Rohan, “Progress in antiretroviral drug delivery using nanotechnology”, International Journal of Nanomedicine 5, 333 – 547 (2010). [2] D. Stevenson et al., “Femtosecond optical transfection of cells: Viability and Efficacy...

  4. Isolation of anti-HIV-1 lignans from Larrea tridentata by counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnabre, J N; Ito, Y; Ma, Y; Huang, R C

    1996-01-08

    Several lignans, mostly new, were isolated from Larrea tridentata by assay-guided counter-current chromatography (CCC). Using the secreted alkaline phosphatase bioassay of HIV Tat transactivation and the two-phase hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water solvent system, two major components (Gr and Lo) were identified as anti-HIV active principles. The chemical structures of the constituents of Gr (G1-G4) and Lo (L1-L4) were determined by GC-MS and NMR. After optimization of isolation conditions, a large-scale isolation with the chloroform-methanol-water system yielded five constituents (FB1-FB5). The most predominant anti-HIV compound FB2 (denoted Malachi 4:5-6 or mal.4), which occurs in 0.23% yield, was separated from its FB1 isomer (0.13% yield). Compound FB4 and two tricyclic lignans (FB3 and FB5) were also isolated in a substantial amount for further testing of their anti-HIV activities. These compounds may represent a new class of anti-HIV agents with important clinical relevance.

  5. Intravenous and subcutaneous toxicity and absorption kinetics in mice and dogs of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Louis

    2013-04-22

    The intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) toxicity and absorption kinetics of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518 and its active constituents maesabalide-III and -IV were studied in mice and dogs. A high-dose wash-out study of PX-6518 at 20 mg/kg SC for 5 days and a single low-dose wash-out study at 1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg SC and IV with follow-up until day 35 after treatment were performed in mice. Beagle dogs received three escalating doses of maesabalide-III and -IV at weekly intervals (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg IV and maesabalide-III was also dosed SC at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg). Endpoint measurements included clinical, hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Pathology and toxicokinetic studies were performed on the dogs. Whereas the neutrophils and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were increased in the high-dose wash-out mouse study, these parameters did not change in the low-dose wash-out study. The dogs were far more susceptible than mice to liver toxicity (hepatocellular necrosis and elevated liver enzymes) and developed a painful inflammatory reaction at the SC injection site. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a non dose-linear systemic availability with plasma concentrations above the antileishmanial IC₅₀ after only a single dose at 0.01 mg/kg IV or 0.1 mg/kg SC. Related to the long half-life (T(1/2) 71-91 h after SC dosing), repeated dosing at weekly intervals may result in drug accumulation and enhanced toxicity. It was decided not to pursue further drug development for PX-6518 because of the hepatotoxic risk.

  6. Intravenous and Subcutaneous Toxicity and Absorption Kinetics in Mice and Dogs of the Antileishmanial Triterpene Saponin PX-6518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Maes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous (IV and subcutaneous (SC toxicity and absorption kinetics of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518 and its active constituents maesabalide-III and -IV were studied in mice and dogs. A high-dose wash-out study of PX-6518 at 20 mg/kg SC for 5 days and a single low-dose wash-out study at 1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg SC and IV with follow-up until day 35 after treatment were performed in mice. Beagle dogs received three escalating doses of maesabalide-III and -IV at weekly intervals (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg IV and maesabalide-III was also dosed SC at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg. Endpoint measurements included clinical, hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Pathology and toxicokinetic studies were performed on the dogs. Whereas the neutrophils and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were increased in the high-dose wash-out mouse study, these parameters did not change in the low-dose wash-out study. The dogs were far more susceptible than mice to liver toxicity (hepatocellular necrosis and elevated liver enzymes and developed a painful inflammatory reaction at the SC injection site. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a non dose-linear systemic availability with plasma concentrations above the antileishmanial IC50 after only a single dose at 0.01 mg/kg IV or 0.1 mg/kg SC. Related to the long half-life (T1/2 71–91 h after SC dosing, repeated dosing at weekly intervals may result in drug accumulation and enhanced toxicity. It was decided not to pursue further drug development for PX-6518 because of the hepatotoxic risk.

  7. A first-principles high-pressure study of Hf2PX (X=B, C, N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Luo, Zhili; Liu, Zhe; Sun, Guodong; Wang, Zhenjun

    2017-06-01

    New members of MAX family Hf2PX (X=B, C, N) were studied by first-principles calculations under pressure range of 0-100 GPa. Their structural, elastic and electronic properties were reported. The results show that they are energetically stable at zero pressure and mechanically stable under pressure range from 0 to 100 GPa. It reveals that Hf2PB>Hf2PC>Hf2PN for the structural parameters of a and V, and Hf2PBpressure environments.

  8. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium utilizes the ClpPX and Lon proteases for optimal fitness in the ceca of chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a leading cause of salmonellosis. Poultry and poultry products are implicated in transmission of Salmonella to humans. In 2013, an outbreak of S. Typhimurium occurred that comprised 39 states within the United States and was associated with backyard flocks of chickens. Colonization of the avian host by S. Typhimurium requires numerous genetic factors encoded within the bacterium. Of particular interest are genetic factors induced by alternative sigma factors within S. Typhimurium since these genetic elements are important for adaptation to different environmental stresses. The heat shock response is a dedicated change in gene regulation within bacteria in response to several stresses, specifically growth at 42°C. Because chickens have a higher body temperature than other animals (42°C) the hypothesis was tested that components of the heat shock response are important for optimal fitness within the chicken. To this end, deletion of the heat shock proteases clpPX (BTNC0022) or lon (BTNC0021) was accomplished and the bacterial fitness in vivo was compared to the “wild-type” strain (NC1040) using a competition assay. One-day-old chicks were orally gavaged with an equal mixture of NC1040 and either BTNC0022 or BTNC0021. Quantification of viable bacteria over time by using plate counts indicated that deletion of either heat shock protease resulted in significantly reduced colonization of the chicken ceca compared to the wild-type strain. To satisfy the molecular Koch's postulates, clpPX and lon mutants were complemented in trans using a low-copy number plasmid for additional in vivo experiments. Complementation studies confirmed the importance of either heat shock protease to colonization of the chicken ceca. This report demonstrated that both ClpPX and Lon were important for optimal fitness within chickens. Moreover, these results suggested that components of the heat shock may be critical factors used

  9. 丽台WinFast PX7950 GX2 TDH显卡:由速度做主

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨

    2006-01-01

    NVIDIA在CES 2006上曾经推出了具备Quad SLI技术的GeForce 7900 GX2显卡,不过,当时的产品体积过于庞大。NVIDIA也迅速对此进行了改进,于近日发布了新的旗舰产品GeForce 7950 GX2显卡。作为NVIDIA全球重要的合作伙伴,丽台也在第一时间推出了WinFast PX7950 GX2TDH显卡。

  10. Implementation of Constructing High Reliability Multi-rotor Rontroller Based on PX4%基于PX4构建高可靠多旋翼控制器的实现方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子杰; 刘永辉; 赵厚宝; 苏仰锋; 陆小敏

    2014-01-01

    Multi-Rotor UAV has attracted serious concern recently. Despite its powerful functions, there remains some problems of reliability. A highly reliable low-cost Multi-Rotorfl ight control system based on PX4 project on Arduino platform is tried in this paper to improve the reliability of existing Multi-Rotor UAV. This paper mainly discussed the Redundancy Swithing System and the Falling Warning System. Both of them have passed tests to improve their validity.%多旋翼无人机是当前备受关注的热点,虽然功能强大,但在日常飞行中仍存在可靠性不高的问题。本文以PX4开源飞行控制器为基础,使用Arduino单片机平台构建低成本的高可靠性多旋翼无人机控制器,用于提升现有的多旋翼无人机的可靠性。主要介绍了冗余切换装置以及坠落预警装置的原理和结构,并进行了相应的实际测试以验证系统运行的效果。

  11. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion MRI Show Rapid and Dramatic Changes in Tumor Microenvironment in Response to Inhibition of HIF-1α Using PX-478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte F. Jordan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available PX-478 is a new agent known to inhibit the hypoxiaresponsive transcription factor, HIF-1α, in experimental tumors. The current study was undertaken in preparation for clinical trials to determine which noninvasive imaging endpoint(s is sensitive to this drug's actions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE and diffusion-weighted (DW magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used to monitor acute effects on tumor hemodynamics and cellularity, respectively. Mice bearing human xenografts were treated either with PX-478 or vehicle, and imaged over time. DW imaging was performed at three b values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCw maps. For DCE-MRI, a macromolecular contrast reagent, BSA-Gd-DTPA, was used to determine vascular permeability and vascular volume fractions. PX-478 induced a dramatic reduction in tumor blood vessel permeability within 2 hours after treatment, which returned to baseline by 48 hours. The anti-VEGF antibody, Avastin, reduced both the permeability and vascular volume. PX-478 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of a drug-resistant tumor system, A-549. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADCw, was significantly decreased 24 and 36 hours after treatment. This is the earliest significant response of ADC to therapy yet reported. Based on these preclinical findings, both of these imaging endpoints will be included in the clinical trial of PX-478.

  12. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  13. Plasma MDA Levels, GSH-Px Activities and Nitrite/Nitrate Levels in Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tüzün

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Endotel fonksiyonlarını olumsuz yönde etkilediği bilinen genetik hastalıklardan birisi de Ailesel akdeniz ateşi (FMF%u2019dir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, FMF hastalarında oksidatif stres ve nitrik oksit (NO ile ilişkili parametrelerin araştırılmasıdır. Yöntem: Türk toplumundan 41 adet FMF%u2019li hasta (38 erkek, 3 kadın ve 32 adet kontrol birey (29 erkek, 3 kadın seçildi. Tüm bireylerde glutatyon peroksidaz (GSH-Px, malondialdehit (MDA ve nitrit/nitrat (NO2-/NO3- düzeyleri ölçüldü. Sonuçlar: MDA ve NO2-/NO3- düzeyleri hastalığın akut fazında kontrolden anlamlı olarak yüksekti (p<0.001. Akut fazda ve kontrol bireylerindeki GSH-Px aktivitesinde anlamlı bir fark bulunmadı. MDA ve NO2-/NO3- düzeyleri ataksız dönemde de kontrolden anlamlı olarak yüksekti (p<0.001. GSH-Px aktivitesine göre ataksız dönem ve kontrol bireyleri arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunmadı. Tartışma: Bulgularımız, FMF hastalarında oksidatif durum ve NO metabolizmasının etkilendiğini göstermektedir. Ataksız dönemdeki yüksek MDA ve NO2-/NO3- düzeyleri, lipit peroksidasyonun giderilmesi ve NO yolağı aktivasyonunun normale dönmesi için belirli bir zamana ihtiyaç duyulması nedeniyle olabilir.

  14. Tetherin does not significantly restrict dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission and its expression is upregulated by newly synthesized HIV-1 Nef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are among the first cells to encounter HIV-1 and play important roles in viral transmission and pathogenesis. Immature DCs allow productive HIV-1 replication and long-term viral dissemination. The pro-inflammatory factor lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces DC maturation and enhances the efficiency of DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Type I interferon (IFN partially inhibits HIV-1 replication and cell-cell transmission in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Tetherin is a type I IFN-inducible restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 release and modulates CD4+ T cell-mediated cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. However, the role of type I IFN and tetherin in HIV-1 infection of DCs and DC-mediated viral transmission remains unknown. Results We demonstrated that IFN-alpha (IFNα-induced mature DCs restricted HIV-1 replication and trans-infection of CD4+ T cells. Tetherin expression in monocyte-derived immature DCs was undetectable or very low. High levels of tetherin were transiently expressed in LPS- and IFNα-induced mature DCs, while HIV-1 localized into distinct patches in these DCs. Knockdown of induced tetherin in LPS- or IFNα-matured DCs modestly enhanced HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells, but had no significant effect on wild-type HIV-1 replication in mature DCs. Intriguingly, we found that HIV-1 replication in immature DCs induced significant tetherin expression in a Nef-dependent manner. Conclusions The restriction of HIV-1 replication and transmission in IFNα-induced mature DCs indicates a potent anti-HIV-1 response; however, high levels of tetherin induced in mature DCs cannot significantly restrict wild-type HIV-1 release and DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Nef-dependent tetherin induction in HIV-1-infected immature DCs suggests an innate immune response of DCs to HIV-1 infection.

  15. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal conductance model for meteorology and air quality modeling with WRF/CMAQ PX LSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorol...

  16. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal conductance model for meteorology and air quality modeling with WRF/CMAQ PX LSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorol...

  17. A peptidoglycan recognition protein (PxPGRP-SA) regulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)%一个调控抗菌肽表达的小菜蛾肽聚糖识别蛋白(PxPGRP-SA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志华; 许小霞; 余静; 高延富; 张玉清; 欧阳莉娜; 金丰良

    2016-01-01

    [目的]肽聚糖识别蛋白(peptidoglycan recognition proteins,PGRPs)是昆虫免疫系统中一类重要的模式识别蛋白.本研究旨在阐明经苏云金芽孢杆菌Bacillus thuringiensis侵染后,小菜蛾Plutella xylostella PGRP-SA基因(命名为PxPGRP-SA)在体内的表达模式和对抗菌肽基因的表达调控.[方法]本研究利用实时荧光定量PCR (qRT-PCR)技术分析B.thuringiensis侵染小菜蛾幼虫后PxPGRP-SA的转录模式,通过RNAi技术结合抗血清封闭实验检测PxPGRP-SA对小菜蛾抗茵肽基因的表达调控作用.[结果]qRT-PCR检测表明,小菜蛾4龄幼虫在注射具有活性的B.thuringiensis 6 h后,PxPGRP-SA在脂肪体和血细胞中表达量迅速上升,其中脂肪体中的表达量在注射24 h后达到高峰,而在血细胞中的表达量在18 h后达到高峰.RNAi沉默小菜蛾4龄幼虫PxPGRP-SA的转录后,可显著降低小菜蛾脂肪体中cecropin,moricin-2,lysozyme和defensin4个抗茵肽基因及Dorsal和Sp(a)tzle基因的mRNA转录水平;注射anti-PxPGRP-SA封闭小菜蛾体内PxPGRP-SA的活性后,也可降低小菜蛾脂肪体中4个抗菌肽基因的mRNA转录水平;PxPGRP-SA转录沉默后,同时导致添食B.thuringiensis的小菜蛾幼虫的存活率明显降低.[结论]PxPGRP-SA参与了小菜蛾体内抗茵肽cecropin,moricin-2,lysozyme和defensin基因的表达调控,并在免疫防御B.thuringiensis的侵染过程中起了重要的作用.%[Aim] Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are one kind of important pattern recognition proteins in insect immune system.In this study,we aim to investigate the expression patterns of PGRP-SA from Plutella xylostella (designated as PxPGRP-SA) and its involvement in the regulation of the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in P.xylostella after infection by Bacillus thuringiensis.[Methods] The transcription pattern of PxPGRP-SA in P.xylostella larvae infected by B.thuringiensis was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription

  18. Structural basis of enzymatic activity for the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Gu

    Full Text Available Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an "open-closed" mechanism involving a pocket of 8 × 8 × 15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer.

  19. Investigation on Photoluminescence of Ordered Structure in the (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P(x= 0.29) Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi-Jun; GAO Yu-Lin; ZHENG Jian-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    The temperature-dependent and excitation-intensity-dependent photoluminescence(PL) spectra are applied to investigate the quaternary (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P(x = 0.29) alloys lattice-matched to GaAs. The PL peak is excitation intensity independent, but shows anomalous temperature behavior, where PL peak energy changes with temperature, exhibiting Z-shape dependence. The PL peak energy decreases with increasing temperaturefrom 19K, a blue-shift of PL peak energy occurs between 55K and 84K, afterwards, the PL peak energy de creases monotonously again. This confirms the existence of ordered structure caused by superlattice effect in the(Alx Ga1_x)0.51In0.49P(x = 0.29) alloys.

  20. Crystal structure of the Xpo1p nuclear export complex bound to the SxFG/PxFG repeats of the nucleoporin Nup42p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masako; Hirano, Hidemi; Shirai, Natsuki; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-08-08

    Xpo1p (yeast CRM1) is the major nuclear export receptor that carries a plethora of proteins and ribonucleoproteins from the nucleus to cytoplasm. The passage of the Xpo1p nuclear export complex through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is facilitated by interactions with nucleoporins (Nups) containing extensive repeats of phenylalanine-glycine (so-called FG repeats), although the precise role of each Nup in the nuclear export reaction remains incompletely understood. Here we report structural and biochemical characterization of the interactions between the Xpo1p nuclear export complex and the FG repeats of Nup42p, a nucleoporin localized at the cytoplasmic face of yeast NPCs and has characteristic SxFG/PxFG sequence repeat motif. The crystal structure of Xpo1p-PKI-Nup42p-Gsp1p-GTP complex identified three binding sites for the SxFG/PxFG repeats on HEAT repeats 14-20 of Xpo1p. Mutational analyses of Nup42p showed that the conserved serines and prolines in the SxFG/PxFG repeats contribute to Xpo1p-Nup42p binding. Our structural and biochemical data suggest that SxFG/PxFG-Nups such as Nup42p and Nup159p at the cytoplasmic face of NPCs provide high-affinity docking sites for the Xpo1p nuclear export complex in the terminal stage of NPC passage and that subsequent disassembly of the nuclear export complex facilitates recycling of free Xpo1p back to the nucleus. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Maize peroxidase Px5 has a highly conserved sequence in inbreds resistant to mycotoxin producing fungi which enhances fungal and insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin presence in maize causes health and economic issues for humans and animals. Although many studies have investigated expression differences of genes putatively governing resistance to producing fungi, few have confirmed a resistance role, or examined putative resistance gene structure in more than a couple of inbreds. The pericarp expression of maize Px5 has previously been associated with resistance to Aspergillus flavus growth and insects in a set of inbreds. Genes from 14 different inbreds that included ones with resistance and susceptibility to A. flavus, Fusarium proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum and/or mycotoxin production were cloned using high fidelity enzymes, and sequenced. The sequence of Px5 from all resistant inbreds was identical, except for a single base change in two inbreds, only one of which affected the amino acid sequence. Conversely, the Px5 sequence from several susceptible inbreds had several base variations, some of which affected amino acid sequence that would potentially alter secondary structure, and thus enzyme function. The sequence of the maize peroxidase Px5 common to inbreds resistant to mycotoxigenic fungi was overexpressed in maize callus. Callus transformants overexpressing the gene caused significant reductions in growth for fall armyworms, corn earworms, and F. graminearum compared to transformant callus with a β-glucuronidase gene. This study demonstrates rarer transcripts of potential resistance genes overlooked by expression screens can be identified by sequence comparisons. A role in pest resistance can be verified by callus expression of the candidate genes, which can thereby justify larger scale transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants expressing the resistance gene for further evaluation.

  2. Two-photon excitation of the 2Π(4p)-X2Π(3p) transition of AlAr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaritolo, Kyle J.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Heaven, Michael C.

    2014-03-01

    The 2Π(4p)-X2Π(3p) band system of AlAr has been observed using two-photon excitation. The spectrum consists of a short progression of doublet bands, with spin-orbit intervals that are close to that of Al(4p). Potential energy curve fitting yielded a bond dissociation energy for 2Π(4p) of De = 495(5) cm-1 and an approximate bond length of Re = 3.33(4) Å.

  3. Enhancement of the catalytic activity of ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 through random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jiyoung; Jung, Chaewon; Han, Dongfei; Seo, Jiyoung; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 catalyzes the decarboxylation reaction of lignin monomers and phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives, that is, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively. Among various ferulic acid decarboxylase enzymes, we chose the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4, whose crystal structure is known, and produced mutants to enhance its catalytic activity by random and site-directed mutagenesis. After three rounds of sequential mutations, FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) showed approximately 34-fold higher catalytic activity than wild-type for the production of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Docking analyses suggested that the increased activity of FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) could be due to formation of compact active site compared with that of the wild-type FADase. Considering the amount of phenolic compounds such as lignin monomers in the biomass components, successfully bioengineered FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 could provide an ecofriendly biocatalytic tool for producing diverse styrene derivatives from biomass.

  4. cDNA cloning and characterization of the carboxylesterase pxCCE016b from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-di; FENG Xia; LIN Qing-sheng; CHEN Huan-yu; LI Zhen-yu; YIN Fei; LIANG Pei; GAO Xi-wu

    2016-01-01

    Carboxylesterase is a multifunctional superfamily and can be found in almost all living organisms. As the metabolic enzymes, carboxylesterases are involved in insecticides resistance in insects for long time. In our previous studies, the enhanced carboxylesterase activities were found in the chlorantraniliprole resistance strain of diamondback moth (DBM). However, the related enzyme gene of chlorantraniliprole resistance has not been clear in this strain. Here, a ful-length cDNA of carboxylesterasepxCCE016b was cloned and exogenously expressed inEscherichia coliat the ifrst time, which contained a 1693 bp open reading frame (ORF) and encoded a protein of 542 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that this cDNA has a predicted mass of 61.56 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point value of 5.78. The sequence of deduced amino acid possessed the classical structural features: a type-B carboxylesterase signature 2 (EDCLYLNVYTK), a type-B carboxylesterase serine active site (FGGDPENITIFGESAG) and the catalytic triad (Ser186, Glu316, and His444). The real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the expression level of thepxCCE016b was signiifcantly higher in the chlorantraniliprole resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. Furthermore,pxCCE016b was highly expressed in the midgut and epidermis of the DBM larvae. When the 3rd-instar larvae of resistant DBM were exposed to abamectin, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb insecticides, the up-regulated expression of pxCCE016b was observed only in the group treated by chlorantraniliprole. In addition, recombinant vector pET-pxCCE016b was constructed with the most coding region (1293 bp) and large number of soluble recombinant proteins (less than 48 kDa) were expressed successfuly with prokaryotic cel. Western blot analysis showed that it was coded by pxCCE016b. Al the above ifndings provide important information for further functional study, although we are uncertainty

  5. Optical probes of symmetry breaking in magnetic and superconducting BaFe2(As1-xPx)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Joseph

    The discovery of iron pnictide superconductors has opened promising new directions in the effort to fully understand the phenomenon of high-Tc, with a focus on the connections between superconductivity, magnetism, and electronic nematicity. The BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 (P:Ba122) system in particular has received attention because isovalent substitution of As for P generates less disorder than doping on the Fe site. The phase diagram of P:Ba122 is characterized by a line of simultaneous antiferromagnetic (AF) and tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transitions, Ts (x) , that penetrates the superconducting dome at x =0.28, just below optimal doping (xopt = 0.30). In this work, we use spatially-resolved optical polarimetry and photomodulated reflectance to detect linear birefringence and therefore breaking of 4-fold rotational (C4) symmetry. In underdoped (xTsand grows continuously with decreasing T . The birefringence is unidirectional in a large (300 μm x300 μm) field of view, suggesting that C4 breaking in this range of T is caused by residual strain that couples to a diverging nematic susceptibility. Birefringence maps just below Ts (x) show the appearance of domains, indicating the onset of spontaneous symmetry breaking to an AF ground state. Surprisingly, in samples with x>0.28, in which the low T phase is superconducting/ tetragonal rather than AF/orthorhombic, C4 breaking is observed as well, with an abrupt onset and domain formation at 55 K. We tentatively associate these features with a transition to an AF phase induced by residual strain, as previously proposed [H.-H. Kuo et al. Phys. Rev. B86, 134507 (2012)] to account for structure in resistivity vs. T. Time-resolved photomodulation allow us to follow the amplitude of the AF order with time following pulsed photoexcitation. Below Tc the AF order at first weakens , but then strengthens in response to the photoinduced weakening of superconductivity. This complex time evolution is accounted for quantitatively by a model

  6. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...

  7. Virtual Instrument for Determining Rate Constant of Second-Order Reaction by pX Based on LabVIEW 8.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hu; Li, Jiang-Yuan; Tang, Yong-Huai

    2009-01-01

    The virtual instrument system based on LabVIEW 8.0 for ion analyzer which can measure and analyze ion concentrations in solution is developed and comprises homemade conditioning circuit, data acquiring board, and computer. It can calibrate slope, temperature, and positioning automatically. When applied to determine the reaction rate constant by pX, it achieved live acquiring, real-time displaying, automatical processing of testing data, generating the report of results; and other functions. This method simplifies the experimental operation greatly, avoids complicated procedures of manual processing data and personal error, and improves veracity and repeatability of the experiment results.

  8. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of New MKC-442 Analogues with an Alkynyl-Substituted 6-Benzyl Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Youssef L.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.; La Colla, Paolo;

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and antiviral activities are reported of a series of 6-(3-alkynyl benzyl)-substituted analogues of MKC-442 (6-benzyl-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-isopropyluracil), a highly potent agent against HIV. The 3-alkynyl group is assumed to give a better stacking of the substituted benzyl group to revers...

  9. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of New Fluoro-HEPT Analogues: An Investigation on Fluoro versus Hydroxy Substituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loksha, Yasser M; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard; Loddo, Roberta;

    2011-01-01

    Coupling of 6-benzyl-5-hydroxymethyluracil (1) with formaldehyde acetals followed by fluorination using (diethylamino)sulfur trifluoride (DAST) afforded 1-alkenyloxymethyl and 1-propargyloxymethyl 5-fluoromethyl-6-benzyluracils 3a-c. 6-(3,5-Dimethylbenzyl)-5-ethyl-1-[(2-fluoroethoxy)methyl]pyrimi...

  10. The Presence and Anti-HIV-1 Function of Tenascin C in Breast Milk and Genital Fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin G Mansour

    Full Text Available Tenascin-C (TNC is a newly identified innate HIV-1-neutralizing protein present in breast milk, yet its presence and potential HIV-inhibitory function in other mucosal fluids is unknown. In this study, we identified TNC as a component of semen and cervical fluid of HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals, although it is present at a significantly lower concentration and frequency compared to that of colostrum and mature breast milk, potentially due to genital fluid protease degradation. However, TNC was able to neutralize HIV-1 after exposure to low pH, suggesting that TNC could be active at low pH in the vaginal compartment. As mucosal fluids are complex and contain a number of proteins known to interact with the HIV-1 envelope, we further studied the relationship between the concentration of TNC and neutralizing activity in breast milk. The amount of TNC correlated only weakly with the overall innate HIV-1-neutralizing activity of breast milk of uninfected women and negatively correlated with neutralizing activity in milk of HIV-1 infected women, indicating that the amount of TNC in mucosal fluids is not adequate to impede HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, the presence of polyclonal IgG from milk of HIV-1 infected women, but not other HIV-1 envelope-binding milk proteins or monoclonal antibodies, blocked the neutralizing activity of TNC. Finally, as exogenous administration of TNC would be necessary for it to mediate measurable HIV-1 neutralizing activity in mucosal compartments, we established that recombinantly produced TNC has neutralizing activity against transmitted/founder HIV-1 strains that mimic that of purified TNC. Thus, we conclude that endogenous TNC concentration in mucosal fluids is likely inadequate to block HIV-1 transmission to uninfected individuals.

  11. The influence of charge clustering on the anti-HIV-1 activity and in vivo distribution of negatively charged albumins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beljaars, Leonie; Floris, René; Berkhout, Ben; Smit, Catharina; Meijer, Dirk K F; Molema, Grietje

    2002-01-01

    The substitution of human serum albumin with negatively charged molecules, such as succinic acid (Suc-HSA) or aconitic acid (Aco-HSA), resulted in proteins with potent anti-HIV activities, by binding to viral gp120 (V3 loop). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the distribution o

  12. The Presence and Anti-HIV-1 Function of Tenascin C in Breast Milk and Genital Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Robin G; Stamper, Lisa; Jaeger, Frederick; McGuire, Erin; Fouda, Genevieve; Amos, Joshua; Barbas, Kimberly; Ohashi, Tomoo; Alam, S Munir; Erickson, Harold; Permar, Sallie R

    2016-01-01

    Tenascin-C (TNC) is a newly identified innate HIV-1-neutralizing protein present in breast milk, yet its presence and potential HIV-inhibitory function in other mucosal fluids is unknown. In this study, we identified TNC as a component of semen and cervical fluid of HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals, although it is present at a significantly lower concentration and frequency compared to that of colostrum and mature breast milk, potentially due to genital fluid protease degradation. However, TNC was able to neutralize HIV-1 after exposure to low pH, suggesting that TNC could be active at low pH in the vaginal compartment. As mucosal fluids are complex and contain a number of proteins known to interact with the HIV-1 envelope, we further studied the relationship between the concentration of TNC and neutralizing activity in breast milk. The amount of TNC correlated only weakly with the overall innate HIV-1-neutralizing activity of breast milk of uninfected women and negatively correlated with neutralizing activity in milk of HIV-1 infected women, indicating that the amount of TNC in mucosal fluids is not adequate to impede HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, the presence of polyclonal IgG from milk of HIV-1 infected women, but not other HIV-1 envelope-binding milk proteins or monoclonal antibodies, blocked the neutralizing activity of TNC. Finally, as exogenous administration of TNC would be necessary for it to mediate measurable HIV-1 neutralizing activity in mucosal compartments, we established that recombinantly produced TNC has neutralizing activity against transmitted/founder HIV-1 strains that mimic that of purified TNC. Thus, we conclude that endogenous TNC concentration in mucosal fluids is likely inadequate to block HIV-1 transmission to uninfected individuals.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of sifuvirtide, a novel anti-HIV-1 peptide, in monkeys and its inhibitory concentration in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-jia DAI; Qing LIANG; Gui-fang DOU; Xiao-hong QIAN; Hai-feng SONG; Zhong-ming TANG; De-sheng LIU; Xiu-wen LIU; Liu-meng YANG; Yong-tang ZHENG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the pharmacokinetics of sifuvirtide, a novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) peptide, in monkeys and to compare the inhibitory concentrations of sifuvirtide and enfuvirtide on HIV-1-infected-cell fusion. Methods: Monkeys received 1.2 mg/kg iv or sc of sifuvirtide. An on-line solid-phase extraction procedure combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPELC/MS/MS) was established and applied to determine the concentration of sifuvirtide in monkey plasma. A four-127I iodinated peptide was used as an internal standard. Fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) of sifuvirtide on cell fusion was determined by co-cultivation assay. Results: The assay was validated with good precision and accuracy. The calibration curve for sifuvirtide in plasma was linear over a range of 4.88-5000 μg/L, with correlation coefficients above 0.9923.After iv or sc administration, the observed peak concentrations of sifuvirtide were 10 626±2 886 μg/L and 528± 191 μg/L, and the terminal elimination half-lives (T1/2)were 6.3±0.9 h and 5.5±1.0 h, respectively. After sc, Tmax was 0.25-2 h, and the absolute bioavailability was 49%± 13%. Sifuvirtide inhibited the syncytium formation between HIV- 1 chronically infected cells and uninfected cells with an IC50 of 0.33 μg/L. Conclusion: An on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS approach was established for peptide pharmacokinetic studies. Sifuvirtide was rapidly absorbed subcutaneously into the blood circulation. The T1/2 of sifuvirtide was remarkably longer than that of its analog, enfuvirtide, reported in healthy monkeys and it conferred a long-term plasma concentration level which was higher than its IC50 in vitro.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative intravaginal targeting: Key to anti-HIV-1 microbicide delivery from test tube to in vivo success

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available employed. We hereby propose a thorough scientific qualitative and quantitative investigation of important aspects involved in HIV-1 transmission as a prerequisite for microbicide delivery. Intravaginal targeting of HIV-1 increases the chances of microbicide...

  15. Conformational analysis on anti-HIV-1 peptide T22([Tyr5,12Lys7]-polyphemusinⅡ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The conformational scan of anti-HIV peptide T22 ([Tyr5,12, Lys7]-polyphemusin Ⅱ) backbone on a deformed potential energy surface (PES) was performed using the potential smoothing searching (PSS) protocol. All located minima were then transferred to the original PES using undeformed optimized potentials for liquid simulations (OPLS) potential function, and minimized by multi-conformer minimization (MCM). For solution-phase calculations, the GB/SA continuum model for water was used. This application of PSS integrated with MCM is proved a feasible method for solving the multiple-minimum problem in the conformational analysis of flexible molecules with cyclic structure.

  16. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Evaluation of Some Novel MC-1220 Analogs as Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loksha, Yasser M; Pedersen, Erik B; Loddo, Roberta;

    2016-01-01

    Some novel MC-1220 analogs were synthesized by condensation of 4,6-dichloro-N-methylpyrimidin-2-amine derivatives (1a,b and 15) and/or 4-chloro-6-methoxy-N,N,5-trimethylpyrimidin-2-amine (2a) with the sodium salt of 2,6-difluorophenylacetonitrile followed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide...

  17. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Weekly or Biweekly Treatment with Subcutaneous PRO 140, a CCR5 Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Thompson, Melanie A.; Lalezari, Jacob P.; Saag, Michael S.; Zingman, Barry S.; D’Ambrosio, Paul; Stambler, Nancy; Rotshteyn, Yakov; Marozsan, Andre J.; Maddon, Paul J.; Morris, Stephen A.; Olson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Background PRO 140 is a humanized CCR5 monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated potent antiviral activity when administered intravenously to adults infected with CCR5-tropic (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This study is the first to evaluate subcutaneous (SC) administration. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 44 subjects with HIV-1 RNA > 5,000 copies/mL, CD4+ cells > 300/μL, no antiretroviral therapy for ≥12 weeks, and only R5 HIV-1 detectable. Subjects received placebo, 162mg PRO 140, or 324mg PRO 140 weekly for three weeks or 324mg PRO 140 every other week for two doses by SC infusion. Subjects were monitored for 58 days for safety, antiviral effects and PRO 140 serum concentrations. Results SC PRO 140 demonstrated potent and prolonged antiretroviral activity. Mean log10 reductions in HIV-1 RNA were 0.23, 0.99 (p=0.0093), 1.37 (p=0.0001), and 1.65 (pPRO 140 offers the potential for significant dose-dependent HIV-1 RNA suppression and infrequent patient self-administration. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov register NCT00642707 PMID:20377413

  18. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Evaluation of New Sonogashira-Modified Emivirine (MKC-442) Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danel, Krzystof; Jørgensen, Per Trolle; La Colla, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    with higher activity against HIV-1-resistant mutants. The syntheses involved Pd-catalyzed C,C-coupling reactions, addition of disulfides, and click chemistry on the terminal C C bond as well as addition of bromine to the so formed internal C C bonds. Sonogashira coupling were performed with silyl......The MKC-442 analogue 6-(3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-5-ethyluracil substituted with a (propargyloxo)methyl group at N(1) has previously been found highly active against HIV-1. The C C bond in the substituent at N(1) is here utilized in a series of chemical reactions in order to develop new agents......-derivatized iodobenzyl alcohols which, after deprotection, were oxidized to aldehydes by means of IBX. The isomeric alcohol 37 was obtained in the Sonogashira reaction of propargyl alcohol with the N(1)-substituted (4-iodobenzyloxy)methyl derivative of the above mentioned uracil. Compound 37 turned out to be the most...

  19. Honey reduces blood alcohol concentration but not affects the level of serum MDA and GSH-Px activity in intoxicated male mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peiying; Chen, Bing; Chen, Conghai; Xu, Jingyang; Shen, Zhenhuang; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong

    2015-07-14

    For a long time, honey was purportedly helpful to prevent drunkenness and relieve hangover symptoms. However, few of the assertions have experienced scientific assessment. The present study examined the effects of honey on intoxicated male mice. Low or high doses of lychee flower honey (2.19 or 4.39 g/kg body weight, respectively) were single orally administrated 30 min before the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by recording the locomotor activity by autonomic activity instrument and observing the climbing ability after alcohol. On the other hand, 2.19 g/kg honey was single orally administrated 5 min after the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by determining the ethanol concentration in mice blood. In addition, subacute alcoholism mice models were developed and after the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey s.i.d for successive three days, the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were detected in the models. Both of the two doses of honey increased the autonomic activity of alcoholized mice. Furthermore, the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey could decrease significantly the blood ethanol concentration in intoxicated mice. The anti-intoxication activity of honey could be due to the effect of the fructose contained in the honey. Meanwhile, honey could not affect the serum MDA level and GSH-Px activity in alcoholism mice models. Honey indeed possesses anti-intoxication activity.

  20. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... metabolite and hormone concentrations in restricted ewes suggest that maternal tissues were being mobilised. Despite the ewes' adaptations their lambs weighed significantly less at birth. Furthermore, colostrum and milk yields were markedly reduced up until the latest measurement at 3 weeks post partum...

  1. Scaling between magnetic field and temperature in the high-temperature superconductor BaFe2(As1-xPx)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ian M.; McDonald, Ross D.; Breznay, Nicholas P.; Helm, Toni; Moll, Philip J. W.; Wartenbe, Mark; Shekhter, Arkady; Analytis, James G.

    2016-10-01

    Many exotic metallic systems have a resistivity that varies linearly with temperature, and the physics behind this is thought to be connected to high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and iron pnictides. Although this phenomenon has attracted considerable attention, it is unclear how the relevant physics manifests in other transport properties, for example their response to an applied magnetic field. We report measurements of the high-field magnetoresistance of the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 and find that it obeys an unusual scaling relationship between applied magnetic field and temperature, with a conversion factor given simply by the ratio of the Bohr magneton and the Boltzmann constant. This suggests that magnetic fields probe the same physics that gives rise to the T-linear resistivity, providing a new experimental clue to this long-standing puzzle.

  2. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  3. Calorie restriction and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzanero Silvia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR or intermittent fasting (IF, extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78; antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1, uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke.

  4. Bilinear Fourier restriction theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Demeter, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general scheme for proving $L^p$ estimates for certain bilinear Fourier restrictions outside the locally $L^2$ setting. As an application, we show how such estimates follow for the lacunary polygon. In contrast with prior approaches, our argument avoids any use of the Rubio de Francia Littlewood--Paley inequality.

  5. Restricted and quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Bing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the definition of restrictable Lie-Rinehart algebras, the concept of restrictability is by far more tractable than that of a restricted Lie-Rinehart algebra. Moreover, we obtain some properties of p-mappings and restrictable Lie-Rinehart algebras. Finally, we give some sufficient conditions for the commutativity of quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebras and study how a quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebra with zero center and of minimal dimension should be.

  6. Restriction of Helmholtz Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Polunin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental studies of physical mechanisms of energy dissipation in the oscillating system in which air cavity held by the forces of magnetic levitation is used as the elastic element, and magnetic fluid prepared on the basis of dispersing media with different viscosity level is used as the inertial element are considered in the article. Based on the obtained results the conclusion on the restriction of the applicability of Helmholtz equation, caused by boundary effects is made.

  7. License restrictions at Barnwell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autry, V.R. [S.C. Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC (United States). Bureau of Radiological Health

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  8. A deletion in the proximal untranslated pX region of human T-cell leukemia virus type II decreases viral replication but not infectivity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerell, G L; Rovnak, J; Green, P L; Chen, I S

    1996-02-01

    The function of untranslated (UT) nucleotide sequences in the proximal portion of the pX region of the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) family of retroviruses remains enigmatic. Previous studies have shown that these sequences are not necessary for the expression of viral proteins or for the induction, transmission, or maintenance of the transformed cell type in vitro. To determine the effect of the UT region in vivo, separate groups of rabbits were inoculated with lethally irradiated, stable clones of the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, 729, transfected with either a full-length wild-type HTLV-II clone (pH6neo) or a mutant clone containing a 324-bp deletion in the proximal UT portion of pX (pH6neo delta UT[6661-6984]), or nontransfected 729 cells. All rabbits inoculated with either wild-type or pX-deleted HTLV-II developed a similar profile and titer of serum antibodies against HTLV-II antigens, as determined by Western immunoblots, by 4 weeks postinoculation (PI). Antibody titers, as determined by enzyme immunoassay, were similar between the two groups of rabbits and increased over the 18-week period of study. All rabbits were killed at 18 weeks PI, and spleen, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBMC), bone marrow, and mesenteric lymph node were assayed for HTLV-II tax/rex sequences by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Virus was detected in all tissues tested from all rabbits inoculated with 729pH6neo cells containing wild-type HTLV-II, which contained between 1.4 and 0.3 mean copies of provirus per cell. In contrast, the distribution and number of provirus copies were more limited in rabbits inoculated with 729pH6neo delta UT(6661-6984) cells containing UT-deleted HTLV-II; in most tissues, there was a fivefold to sevenfold reduction in mean provirus copies per cell as compared with rabbits inoculated with wild-type HTLV-II. All rabbits inoculated with control 729 cells remained negative for HTLV-II infection, as determined by the same techniques. It was

  9. Luminescence properties of novel red-emitting phosphor InNb1-xPxO4:Eu3+ for white light emitting-diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available InNb1-xPxO4:Eu3+ red phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction and their luminescence properties were also studied through photoluminescence spectra. The excitation and emission spectra make it clear that the as-prepared phosphors can be effectively excited by near-ultraviolet (UV 394 nm light and blue 466 nm light to emit strong red light located at 612 nm, due to the Eu3+ transition of 5D0 → 7F2. The luminescence intensity is dependent on phosphorus content, and it achieves the maximum at x = 0.4. Excessive phosphorus in the phosphors can result in reduction of luminescence intensity owing to concentration quenching.With the increasing content of phosphorus, the phosphors are prone to emit pure red light. This shows that the InNb1.6P0.4O4:0.04Eu3+ phosphor may be a potential candidate as a red component for white light emitting-diodes.

  10. Structure and photoluminescent properties of green-emitting terbium-doped GdV1-x Px O4 phosphor prepared by solution combustion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motloung, S J; Shaat, S K K; Tshabalala, K G; Ntwaeaborwa, O M

    2016-08-01

    Terbium-doped gadolinium orthovanadate (GdVO4 :Tb(3+) ), orthophosphate monohydrate (GdPO4 ·H2 O:Tb(3+) ) and orthovanadate-phosphate (GdV,PO4 :Tb(3+) ) powder phosphors were synthesized using a solution combustion method. X-Ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of crystalline GdVO4 , GdPO4 ·H2 O and GdV,PO4 . Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the powder was composed of an agglomeration of particles of different shapes, ranging from spherical to oval to wire-like structures. The chemical elements present were confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the stretching mode frequencies were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. UV-visible spectroscopy spectra showed a strong absorption band with a maximum at 200 nm assigned to the absorption of VO4 (3-) and minor excitation bands assigned to f → f transitions of Tb(3+) . Four characteristic emission peaks were observed at 491, 546, 588 and 623 nm, and are attributed to (5) D4  → (7) Fj (j = 6, 5, 4 and 3). The photoluminescent prominent green emission peak ((5) D4  → (7) F5 ) was centred at 546 nm. The structure and possible mechanism of light emission from GdV1-x Px O4 :% Tb(3+) are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. (p,px) reaction on /sup 6/Li and /sup 7/Li nuclei at incident proton energy of 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorpinich, O.K.; Kadkin, E.P.; Kondrat' ev, S.N.; Lobach, Yu.M.; Pasechnik, M.V.; Saltykov, L.S.; Tokarevskij, V.V. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of two-dimensional coincidence spectra of charged particles from the /sup 6/Li(p, 2p)/sup 5/He, /sup 6/Li(p, p..cap alpha..)/sup 2/H, /sup 7/Li(p, pt)/sup 4/He, /sup 7/Li(p, p..cap alpha..)/sup 3/H reactions has been carried out using the equipment for simultaneous investigation of correlation of charged particles of different types. The /sup 6/Li(p, pd) reaction probability reaches the maximum value when the residual nucleus momentum is close to zero. This fact may confirm an existance of strong /sup 6/Li ..cap alpha..d-clusterization. The /sup 7/Li(p, pt) reaction occurs with the minimum probability in a quasi-free region that confirms /sup 7/Li ..cap alpha..t-structure. A direct comparison of particle two-dimensional spectra projections of (p, px) type reactions reveals that a probability of quasi-free scattering of proton on deuteron (triton) /sup 6/Li(/sup 7/Li) cluster is higher than quasi-free scattering on intranuclear protons. This fact is also confirmed by an assumption on ..cap alpha..d(..cap alpha..t)-cluster /sup 6/Li(/sup 7/Li) nucleus structure.

  12. Half-Lives of ground states in Pm and Eu nuclei following the 154,152Sm (p,x) reactions at 25 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watwood, N. J.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.; Simon, A.; Gell, K.

    2014-09-01

    The primary experiment was designed to study low/medium spin states in Sm nuclei following the 154,152Sm (p,x) reactions where x = d or t. During the experiment the Sm target was irradiated by a 25 MeV proton beam, provided by the K150 Cyclotron at Texas A&M University, with an average beam current of ~1 nA for about one week. Following the experiment, residual radioactivity in the target was measured in the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory at the University of Richmond using a 25% efficiency coaxial Ge detector enclosed in a 6-inch thick Pb shield. The gamma ray spectra were internally calibrated using a 152Eu source and the energies of known gamma-rays from the target decays and from long lived environmental radioactivity. The decays of three long lived (~1 month or more) mass A ~ 150 nuclei were identified (148Sm, 148Eu, and 147Eu), and half lives for their beta-decay were (re)measured. Work is still in progress and preliminary results will be presented at the APS conference.

  13. Deletion of a novel protein kinase with PX and FYVE-related domains increases the rate of differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassella, E; Krämer, R; Turner, C M; Wankell, M; Modes, C; van den Bogaard, M; Boshart, M

    2001-07-01

    Growth control of African trypanosomes in the mammalian host is coupled to differentiation of a non-dividing life cycle stage, the stumpy bloodstream form. We show that a protein kinase with novel domain architecture is important for growth regulation. Zinc finger kinase (ZFK) has a kinase domain related to RAC and S6 kinases flanked by a FYVE-related zinc finger and a phox (PX) homology domain. To investigate the function of the kinase during cyclical development, a stable transformation procedure for bloodstream forms of differentiation-competent (pleomorphic) Trypanosoma brucei strains was established. Deletion of both allelic copies of ZFK by homologous recombination resulted in reduced growth of bloodstream-form parasites in culture, which was correlated with an increased rate of differentiation to the non-dividing stumpy form. Growth and differentiation rates were returned to wild-type level by ectopic ZFK expression. The phenotype is stage-specific, as growth of procyclic (insect form) trypanosomes was unaffected, and Deltazfk/Deltazfk clones were able to undergo full cyclical development in the tsetse fly vector. Deletion of ZFK in a differentiation-defective (monomorphic) strain of T. brucei did not change its growth rate in the bloodstream stage. This suggests a function of ZFK associated with the trypanosomes' decision between either cell cycle progression, as slender bloodstream form, or differentiation to the non-dividing stumpy form.

  14. Phosphorus K β X-Ray Emission Spectra and Valence-Band Structures of Transition-Metal Phosphides and GaAs 1-xPx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Chikara

    1996-07-01

    The P Kβ emission spectra in fluorescence from ZrP, NbP, MoP,HfP, TaP, WP, AgP2, CdP2, Mn3P2, Cd3P2 and GaAs1-xPxfor 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 1 are measured with a high-resolutiontwo-crystal vacuum spectrometer equipped with Ge(111) crystals. Theinfluence of metal atoms appears distinctly in the P Kβemission spectra of transition-metal phosphides. The effect ofarsenic atoms appears slightly in the P Kβ emission spectraof GaAs1-xPx. The P Kβ emission spectra of AgP2,CdP2, Cd3P2 and GaAs0.6 P0.4 are compared withavailable P L2,3 emission and XPS valence-band spectra ona common energy scale. It is shown that the P 3p electronsinteract fairly with the metal d electrons in the upper partof the valence band for MP ( M = Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W) and Mn3P2;considerable p-d, s mixing occurs in the middle part for AgP2and in the lower part for CdP2 and Cd3P2; and the Ga 3dstates mix fairly with the P 3s states in GaAs0.6P0.4.

  15. Comparative Genomics of Four Isosphaeraceae Planctomycetes: A Common Pool of Plasmids and Glycoside Hydrolase Genes Shared by Paludisphaera borealis PX4T, Isosphaera pallida IS1BT, Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658T, and Strain SH-PL62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anastasia A.; Naumoff, Daniil G.; Miroshnikov, Kirill K.; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N.

    2017-01-01

    The family Isosphaeraceae accommodates stalk-free planctomycetes with spherical cells, which can be assembled in short chains, long filaments, or aggregates. These bacteria inhabit a wide variety of terrestrial environments, among those the recently described Paludisphaera borealis PX4T that was isolated from acidic boreal wetlands. Here, we analyzed its finished genome in comparison to those of three other members of the Isosphaeraceae: Isosphaera pallida IS1BT, Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658T, and the uncharacterized planctomycete strain SH-PL62. The complete genome of P. borealis PX4T consists of a 7.5 Mb chromosome and two plasmids, 112 and 43 kb in size. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed 5802 potential protein-coding genes of which 2775 could be functionally assigned. The genes encoding metabolic pathways common for chemo-organotrophic bacteria, such as glycolysis, citrate cycle, pentose-phosphate pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation were identified. Several genes involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan as well as N-methylated ornithine lipids were present in the genome of P. borealis PX4T. A total of 26 giant genes with a size >5 kb were detected. The genome encodes a wide repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) including 44 glycoside hydrolases (GH) and 83 glycosyltransferases (GT) affiliated with 21 and 13 CAZy families, respectively. The most-represented families are GH5, GH13, GH57, GT2, GT4, and GT83. The experimentally determined carbohydrate utilization pattern agrees well with the genome-predicted capabilities. The CAZyme repertoire in P. borealis PX4T is highly similar to that in the uncharacterized planctomycete SH-PL62 and S. acidiphila DSM 18658T, but different to that in the thermophile I. pallida IS1BT. The latter strain has a strongly reduced CAZyme content. In P. borealis PX4T, many of its CAZyme genes are organized in clusters. Contrary to most other members of the order Planctomycetales, all four analyzed

  16. Comparative Genomics of Four Isosphaeraceae Planctomycetes: A Common Pool of Plasmids and Glycoside Hydrolase Genes Shared by Paludisphaera borealis PX4(T), Isosphaera pallida IS1B(T), Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658(T), and Strain SH-PL62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anastasia A; Naumoff, Daniil G; Miroshnikov, Kirill K; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2017-01-01

    The family Isosphaeraceae accommodates stalk-free planctomycetes with spherical cells, which can be assembled in short chains, long filaments, or aggregates. These bacteria inhabit a wide variety of terrestrial environments, among those the recently described Paludisphaera borealis PX4(T) that was isolated from acidic boreal wetlands. Here, we analyzed its finished genome in comparison to those of three other members of the Isosphaeraceae: Isosphaera pallida IS1B(T), Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658(T), and the uncharacterized planctomycete strain SH-PL62. The complete genome of P. borealis PX4(T) consists of a 7.5 Mb chromosome and two plasmids, 112 and 43 kb in size. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed 5802 potential protein-coding genes of which 2775 could be functionally assigned. The genes encoding metabolic pathways common for chemo-organotrophic bacteria, such as glycolysis, citrate cycle, pentose-phosphate pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation were identified. Several genes involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan as well as N-methylated ornithine lipids were present in the genome of P. borealis PX4(T). A total of 26 giant genes with a size >5 kb were detected. The genome encodes a wide repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) including 44 glycoside hydrolases (GH) and 83 glycosyltransferases (GT) affiliated with 21 and 13 CAZy families, respectively. The most-represented families are GH5, GH13, GH57, GT2, GT4, and GT83. The experimentally determined carbohydrate utilization pattern agrees well with the genome-predicted capabilities. The CAZyme repertoire in P. borealis PX4(T) is highly similar to that in the uncharacterized planctomycete SH-PL62 and S. acidiphila DSM 18658(T), but different to that in the thermophile I. pallida IS1B(T). The latter strain has a strongly reduced CAZyme content. In P. borealis PX4(T), many of its CAZyme genes are organized in clusters. Contrary to most other members of the order Planctomycetales, all

  17. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...... relies on sampling based approximations of the log-likelihood gradient. I will present an empirical and theoretical analysis of the bias of these approximations and show that the approximation error can lead to a distortion of the learning process. The bias decreases with increasing mixing rate...... of the applied sampling procedure and I will introduce a transition operator that leads to faster mixing. Finally, a different parametrisation of RBMs will be discussed that leads to better learning results and more robustness against changes in the data representation....

  18. Very strict selectional restrictions

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, Eric; Dias, Maria Carmelita P

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the characteristics and behaviour of two parallel classes of verbs in two Romance languages, French and Portuguese. Examples of these verbs are Port. abater [gado] and Fr. abattre [b\\'etail], both meaning "slaughter [cattle]". In both languages, the definition of the class of verbs includes several features: - They have only one essential complement, which is a direct object. - The nominal distribution of the complement is very limited, i.e., few nouns can be selected as head nouns of the complement. However, this selection is not restricted to a single noun, as would be the case for verbal idioms such as Fr. monter la garde "mount guard". - We excluded from the class constructions which are reductions of more complex constructions, e.g. Port. afinar [instrumento] com "tune [instrument] with".

  19. Gene Knockout Shows That PML (TRIM19) Does Not Restrict the Early Stages of HIV-1 Infection in Human Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masroori, Nasser; Cherry, Pearl; Merindol, Natacha; Li, Jia-Xin; Dufour, Caroline; Poulain, Lina; Plourde, Mélodie B; Berthoux, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    unambiguous, knockout-based evidence that PML does not restrict the early postentry stages of HIV-1 infection in a variety of human cell types and does not participate in the inhibition of HIV-1 by IFN-I. Although this study does not exclude the possibility of other mechanisms by which PML may interfere with HIV-1, we nonetheless demonstrate that PML does not generally act as an HIV-1 restriction factor in human cells and that its presence is not required for IFN-I to stimulate the expression of anti-HIV-1 genes. These results contribute to uncovering the landscape of HIV-1 inhibition by ISGs in human cells.

  20. Association Rules Mining Based on SVM and Its Application in Simulated Moving Bed PX Adsorption Process%基于支持向量基的关联规则挖掘及其在模拟移动床PX吸附分离过程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 苏宏业; 褚健

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a novel data mining method is introduced to solve the multi-objective optimization problems of process industry. A hyperrectangle association rule mining (HARM) algorithm based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed. Hyperrectangles rules are constructed on the base of prototypes and support vectors (SVs) under some heuristic limitations. The proposed algorithm is applied to a simulated moving bed (SMB) paraxylene (PX) adsorption process. The relationships between the key process variables and some objective variables such as purity, recovery rate of PX are obtained. Using existing domain knowledge about PX adsorption process, most of the obtained association rules can be explained.

  1. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...... more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally...

  2. Anisotropy and Vortex Pinning of Heavy Ion irradiated SmFeAsO0.8F0.15 and BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Fang, Lei; Chaparro, Carlos; Jia, Ying; Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei; Xu, Shaofei; Crabtree, George; Karpinski, Janusz

    2012-02-01

    We report specific heat and magnetization measurements on SmFeAsO0.8F0.15 and BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 single crystals irradiated with high energy heavy ions of 1.4GeV Pb to dose matching fields up to 4 Tesla. We find a nearly one half reduction in the superconducting anisotropy and doubling of the irreversibility field in SmFeAsO0.8F0.15 after irradiation and virtually no change in the zero-field superconducting transition temperature. In both SmFeAsO0.8F0.15 and BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 crystals, we find a substantial increase in the critical current determined from SQUID and micro-Hall probe magnetization measurements. Pinning force analysis on proton and heavy ion irradiated pristine overdoped BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 crystals indicates presence of induced δTc-type pinning defects in these samples.

  3. Influence of percutaneous stimulation of hepatic region with mid-frequency pulse current on the activity of serum GSH-PX, SOD, T-AOC and the content of malondialdehyde in exercise-induced fatigued soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-yi DAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the influence of percutaneous stimulation of the hepatic region with mid-frequency pulsed current on the serum activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, superoxide dismutase (SOD and total antioxidant capacity and content of malondialdehyde (MDA in exercise-induced fatigued soldiers. Methods  Sixty healthy male recruits without training history were randomly divided into control group and stimulation group (n=30. Subjects in both groups received intensive training for 5 weeks (trained from Monday to Saturday, and rest on Sunday to establish an exercise-induced fatigue model. The recruits in stimulation group received rehabilitation therapy of percutaneous stimulation of the hepatic region with mid-frequency pulse current (frequency was 1024Hz, dynamic cycle 1s, stimulation time 20min, output intensity ≤80mA after the training immediately. In every Sunday morning of the 1st, 3rd and 5th week, venous blood samples were obtained from recruits of both groups for determination of the serum activity of GSH-PX, SOD and T-AOC and content of MDA. Results  In both groups, the serum activity of GSH-PX and T-AOC on 5th weekend was lower than that of 1st and 3rd weekends, and the serum activity of GSH-PX and T-AOC on 3rd weekend was lower than that of 1st weekend (P0.05; the serum MDA content on 5th weekend was higher than that of 3rd and 1st weekends, and the content on 3rd weekend was higher than that of 1st weekend (P<0.01. The activity of GSH-PX, SOD and T-AOC increased and the MDA content decreased on 1st, 3rd and 5th weekends in stimulation group when compared with control group (P<0.05, P<0.01. Conclusions  The percutaneous stimulation of the hepatic region by mid-frequency pulsed current in exercise-induced fatigued soldiers may improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver, enhance the function of antioxidant system, promote free radical scavenging, delay the occurrence of and promote the recovery from

  4. 基于PX4构建高可靠农用微小型无人机数据链的实现方法%Implementation of Constructing High Reliability Data Link for Agricultural Mini-UAV Based on PX4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊超; 胡小安; 伟利国; 张小超

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural Mini-UAV is playing a greater role in precision agriculture and is becoming the new focus of the agricultural machinery industry.The reliability of the agricultural Mini-UAV data link is the key factor that affects its stability.The redundancy switching system of radio modem and the quality testing system of radio communication are de-signed in this paper to improve and test the reliability of the agricultural Mini-UAV data link.The two systems are based on PX4 project on data link platform constructed by 3DR and Q Ground Control.This paper mainly introduced the struc-ture and principle of the two systems.The redundancy switching system of radio modem has passed tests to improve the reliability of the agricultural Mini-UAV data link.%农用微小型无人机在精准农业中的作用日益重要,正在成为农机行业新的亮点和热点。农用微小型无人机数据链的可靠性是影响其稳定运行的关键因素,本文针对农用微小型无人机数据链,选用PX4开源飞控,以3 DR电台和QGroundControl 地面站搭建的数据链设备为平台,设计了数传电台冗余切换系统及相应的电台联机质量测试系统,分别来提高和检测数据链的可靠性。同时,主要介绍了冗余切换系统的结构和原理及电台联机质量测试系统的结构和原理,并进行了相应的测试。测试结果表明:该方法能有效地提高农用微小型无人机数据链的可靠性。

  5. Analytic derivation of the next-to-leading order proton structure function F2p(x ,Q2) based on the Laplace transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanpour, Hamzeh; Mirjalili, Abolfazl; Tehrani, S. Atashbar

    2017-03-01

    An analytical solution based on the Laplace transformation technique for the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equations is presented at next-to-leading order accuracy in perturbative QCD. This technique is also applied to extract the analytical solution for the proton structure function, F2p(x ,Q2) , in the Laplace s space. We present the results for the separate parton distributions of all parton species, including valence quark densities, the antiquark and strange sea parton distribution functions (PDFs), and the gluon distribution. We successfully compare the obtained parton distribution functions and the proton structure function with the results from GJR08 [Gluck, Jimenez-Delgado, and Reya, Eur. Phys. J. C 53, 355 (2008)], 10.1140/epjc/s10052-007-0462-9 and KKT12 [Khanpour, Khorramian, and Tehrani, J. Phys. G 40, 045002 (2013)], 10.1088/0954-3899/40/4/045002 parametrization models as well as the x -space results using QCDnum code. Our calculations show a very good agreement with the available theoretical models as well as the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) experimental data throughout the small and large values of x . The use of our analytical solution to extract the parton densities and the proton structure function is discussed in detail to justify the analysis method, considering the accuracy and speed of calculations. Overall, the accuracy we obtain from the analytical solution using the inverse Laplace transform technique is found to be better than 1 part in 104 to 105. We also present a detailed QCD analysis of nonsinglet structure functions using all available DIS data to perform global QCD fits. In this regard we employ the Jacobi polynomial approach to convert the results from Laplace s space to Bjorken x space. The extracted valence quark densities are also presented and compared to the JR14, MMHT14, NNPDF, and CJ15 PDFs sets. We evaluate the numerical effects of target mass corrections (TMCs) and higher twist (HT) terms

  6. Effect of Pumpkin polysaccharide on SOD,CAT,GSH-PX and MDA in aging mice model induced by D-galactose%南瓜多糖对 D-半乳糖致脑老化模型小鼠SOD 、CAT 、GSH-PX 、MDA 的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 颜国华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨南瓜多糖对D-半乳糖致脑老化模型小鼠SOD、CAT、GSH-PX、MDA的影响。方法将小鼠随机分为6组,分别为空白组、模型组、维生素E组,南瓜多糖大、中、小剂量组。空白组每鼠每天颈背部皮下注射生理盐水0.5 mL ,其余各组每鼠每天颈背部皮下注射5% D-半乳糖生理盐水液0.5 mL造脑老化模型,连续给D-半乳糖45 d。从第10天开始,分别灌服大、中、小剂量南瓜多糖水溶液、维生素E混悬液和同体积生理盐水,1次/d ,连续35 d ,于最后1次给D-半乳糖和灌药后2 h ,小鼠眼球取血,测定SOD、CAT、GSH-PX、MDA。结果与模型组相比,南瓜多糖大剂量组可显著提高小鼠SOD活力( P<0.01),南瓜多糖中、小剂量组可明显提高小鼠SOD活力( P<0.05);南瓜多糖大剂量组可明显提高小鼠CAT活力( P<0.05);南瓜多糖大、中、小剂量组均可显著提高小鼠GSH-PX活力( P<0.01);与模型组相比,南瓜多糖大、中、小剂量组均可显著降低小鼠血浆、肝匀浆中MDA水平( P<0.01);南瓜多糖中、小剂量组均可显著降低小鼠脑匀浆中MDA水平( P<0.01),南瓜多糖大剂量组可明显降低小鼠MDA水平( P<0.05)。结论南瓜多糖能够提高SOD、CAT、GSH-PX活力,降低MDA水平,具有一定的抗氧化作用。%Objective To observe the effect of Pumpkin polysaccharide on SOD ,CAT ,GSH-PX and MDA in aging mice model induced by D-galactose .Method Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups ,respectively for the blank group ,model group ,vitamin E ,pumpkin polysaccharide large ,medium and small dose group .Blank group each rat cervical back subcuta-neous injection of saline every day 0 .5ml ,groups each rat carotid every day back subcutaneous injection of 5% D-galactose saline solution 0 .5 mL brain aging model .Straight to the D-galactose 45 days .Starting from the 10 th day

  7. Remarks on restricted Nevanlinna transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Jankowski, Lech

    2010-01-01

    The Nevanlinna transform K(z), of a measure and a real constant, plays an important role in the complex analysis and more recently in the free probability theory (boolean convolution). It is shown that its restriction k(it) (the restricted Nevanlinna transform) to the imaginary axis can be expressed as the Laplace transform of the Fourier transform (characteristic function) of the corresponding measure. Finally, a relation between the Voiculescu and the boolean convolution is indicated.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: familial restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions familial restrictive cardiomyopathy familial restrictive cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial restrictive cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. For ...

  9. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth Gautam; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time scales involved in the motion and the geometry of motion can be studied using QENS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation not only provides insight into the details of the different types of motion possible but also does not suffer limitations of the experimental set-up. Here we report the effect of confinement on molecular dynamics in various restricted geometries as studied by QENS and MD simulations: An example where the QENS technique provided direct evidence of phase transition associated with change in the dynamical behaviour of the molecules is also discussed.

  10. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  11. Legal restrictions and Investment Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Scholtens, B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of legal restrictions on investment growth at the firm level. With the help of a unique firm-level survey database, we analyze whether firm investments are related to the efficiency and quality of the judiciary. Furthermore, we analyze whether the investment behavior of large a

  12. Legal restrictions and investment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Scholtens, B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of legal restrictions on investment growth at the firm level. With the help of a unique firm-level survey database, we analyze whether firm investments are related to the efficiency and quality of the judiciary, Furthermore, we analyze whether the investment behavior of large a

  13. Restricted Morgan’s problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树中; 曹立

    1996-01-01

    A new list of regular feedback invariant integers called right independent orders is introduced.That the restricted Morgan’s problem is equivalent to a kind of nonlinear algebraic equations is proved and the condition that the nonlinear algebraic equations degenerate into linear algebraic equations is given.

  14. Synthesis and anti-HIV-1 activity of 1-substiuted 6-(3-cyanobenzoyl) and [(3-cyanophenyl)fluoromethyl]-5-ethyl-uracils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loksha, Yasser M; Pedersen, Erik B; Loddo, Roberta;

    2009-01-01

    1-Substiuted 6-(3-cyanobenzoyl) and [(3-cyanophenyl)fluoromethyl]-5-ethyl-uracils were synthesized and evaluated in cell-based assays against HIV-1 wild-type and its clinically relevant non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant mutants. Some of the synthesized compounds sho...

  15. 基于RNA干扰的抗HIV-1研究%Study on Anti-HIV-1 Based on RNA Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 孙奉玉; 周云; 王芳宇

    2012-01-01

    艾滋病是由艾滋病毒感染而引起的传染病,目前在全世界广为流行,但目前还没有彻底的根治方法。该文简要综述了RNA干扰技术在抑制艾滋病毒感染中的研究进展、存在的问题和发展前景。%AIDS is an infectious disease caused by HIV. It is widely prevalent in the world and is still not thoroughly cured at present. The progress, problems and development prospects in inhibiting HIV infection through RNA interference are intro- duced in this paper.

  16. Aqueous extracts from peppermint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Ingo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aqueous extracts from leaves of well known species of the Lamiaceae family were examined for their potency to inhibit infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Results Extracts from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., and sage (Salvia officinalis L. exhibited a high and concentration-dependent activity against the infection of HIV-1 in T-cell lines, primary macrophages, and in ex vivo tonsil histocultures with 50% inhibitory concentrations as low as 0.004%. The aqueous Lamiaceae extracts did not or only at very high concentrations interfere with cell viability. Mechanistically, extract exposure of free virions potently and rapidly inhibited infection, while exposure of surface-bound virions or target cells alone had virtually no antiviral effect. In line with this observation, a virion-fusion assay demonstrated that HIV-1 entry was drastically impaired following treatment of particles with Lamiaceae extracts, and the magnitude of this effect at the early stage of infection correlated with the inhibitory potency on HIV-1 replication. Extracts were active against virions carrying diverse envelopes (X4 and R5 HIV-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, ecotropic murine leukemia virus, but not against a non-enveloped adenovirus. Following exposure to Lamiaceae extracts, the stability of virions as well as virion-associated levels of envelope glycoprotein and processed Gag protein were unaffected, while, surprisingly, sucrose-density equilibrium gradient analyses disclosed a marked increase of virion density. Conclusion Aqueous extracts from Lamiaceae can drastically and rapidly reduce the infectivity of HIV-1 virions at non-cytotoxic concentrations. An extract-induced enhancement of the virion's density prior to its surface engagement appears to be the most likely mode of action. By harbouring also a strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 2, these extracts may provide a basis for the development of novel virucidal topical microbicides.

  17. Elucidating a Key Anti-HIV-1 and Cancer-Associated Axis: The Structure of CCL5 (Rantes) in Complex with CCR5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamis, Phanourios; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2014-06-01

    CCL5 (RANTES) is an inflammatory chemokine which binds to chemokine receptor CCR5 and induces signaling. The CCL5:CCR5 associated chemotactic signaling is of critical biological importance and is a potential HIV-1 therapeutic axis. Several studies provided growing evidence for the expression of CCL5 and CCR5 in non-hematological malignancies. Therefore, the delineation of the CCL5:CCR5 complex structure can pave the way for novel CCR5-targeted drugs. We employed a computational protocol which is primarily based on free energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, and report, what is to our knowledge, the first computationally derived CCL5:CCR5 complex structure which is in excellent agreement with experimental findings and clarifies the functional role of CCL5 and CCR5 residues which are associated with binding and signaling. A wealth of polar and non-polar interactions contributes to the tight CCL5:CCR5 binding. The structure of an HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop in complex with CCR5 has recently been derived through a similar computational protocol. A comparison between the CCL5 : CCR5 and the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop : CCR5 complex structures depicts that both the chemokine and the virus primarily interact with the same CCR5 residues. The present work provides insights into the blocking mechanism of HIV-1 by CCL5.

  18. Lignosulfonic acid exhibits broadly anti-HIV-1 activity--potential as a microbicide candidate for the prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qiu

    Full Text Available Some secondary metabolites from plants show to have potent inhibitory activities against microbial pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, etc. Here we report that lignosulfonic acid (LSA, a polymeric lignin derivative, exhibits potent and broad activity against HIV-1 isolates of diverse subtypes including two North America strains and a number of Chinese clinical isolates values ranging from 21.4 to 633 nM. Distinct from other polyanions, LSA functions as an entry inhibitor with multiple targets on viral gp120 as well as on host receptor CD4 and co-receptors CCR5/CXCR4. LSA blocks viral entry as determined by time-of-drug addiction and cell-cell fusion assays. Moreover, LSA inhibits CD4-gp120 interaction by blocking the binding of antibodies specific for CD4-binding sites (CD4bs and for the V3 loop of gp120. Similarly, LSA interacts with CCR5 and CXCR4 via its inhibition of specific anti-CCR5 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies, respectively. Interestingly, the combination of LSA with AZT and Nevirapine exhibits synergism in viral inhibition. For the purpose of microbicide development, LSA displays low in vitro cytotoxicity to human genital tract epithelial cells, does not stimulate NF-κB activation and has no significant up-regulation of IL-1α/β and IL-8 as compared with N-9. Lastly, LSA shows no adverse effect on the epithelial integrity and the junctional protein expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that LSA can be a potential candidate for tropical microbicide.

  19. Anti-HIV-1 activity of salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from HIV patients with different CD4 counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roux Paul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from saliva of HIV negative individuals inhibit HIV-1 activity by 100% in an in vitro assay. The purpose of this subsequent study was to investigate whether MUC5B and MUC7 from saliva of HIV patients or with full blown AIDS had a similar inhibitory activity against the virus. Methods Salivary MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients with different CD4 counts ( 400 were incubated with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells. Cells were then cultured and viral replication was measured by a qualitative p24 antigen assay. The size, charge and immunoreactivity of mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals was also analysed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA respectively. Results It was shown that irrespective of their CD4 counts both MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients, unlike the MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV negative individuals, did not inhibit HIV-1 activity. Size, charge and immunoreactivity differences between the mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals and among the mucins from HIV patients of different CD4 count was observed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. Conclusions Purified salivary mucins from HIV positive patients do not inhibit the AIDS virus in an in vitro assay. Although the reason for the inability of mucins from infected individuals to inhibit the virus is not known, it is likely that there is an alteration of the glycosylation pattern, and therefore of charge of mucin, in HIV positive patients. The ability to inhibit the virus by aggregation by sugar chains is thus diminished.

  20. Identification of effective subdominant anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T cells within entire post-infection and post-vaccination immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Hancock

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Defining the components of an HIV immunogen that could induce effective CD8+ T cell responses is critical to vaccine development. We addressed this question by investigating the viral targets of CD8+ T cells that potently inhibit HIV replication in vitro, as this is highly predictive of virus control in vivo. We observed broad and potent ex vivo CD8+ T cell-mediated viral inhibitory activity against a panel of HIV isolates among viremic controllers (VC, viral loads <5000 copies/ml, in contrast to unselected HIV-infected HIV Vaccine trials Network (HVTN participants. Viral inhibition of clade-matched HIV isolates was strongly correlated with the frequency of CD8+ T cells targeting vulnerable regions within Gag, Pol, Nef and Vif that had been identified in an independent study of nearly 1000 chronically infected individuals. These vulnerable and so-called "beneficial" regions were of low entropy overall, yet several were not predicted by stringent conservation algorithms. Consistent with this, stronger inhibition of clade-matched than mismatched viruses was observed in the majority of subjects, indicating better targeting of clade-specific than conserved epitopes. The magnitude of CD8+ T cell responses to beneficial regions, together with viral entropy and HLA class I genotype, explained up to 59% of the variation in viral inhibitory activity, with magnitude of the T cell response making the strongest unique contribution. However, beneficial regions were infrequently targeted by CD8+ T cells elicited by vaccines encoding full-length HIV proteins, when the latter were administered to healthy volunteers and HIV-positive ART-treated subjects, suggesting that immunodominance hierarchies undermine effective anti-HIV CD8+ T cell responses. Taken together, our data support HIV immunogen design that is based on systematic selection of empirically defined vulnerable regions within the viral proteome, with exclusion of immunodominant decoy epitopes that are irrelevant for HIV control.

  1. Anti-HIV-1 activity of cellulose acetate phthalate: Synergy with soluble CD4 and induction of "dead-end" gp41 six-helix bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yun-Yao

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP, a promising candidate microbicide for prevention of sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted disease (STD pathogens, was shown to inactivate HIV-1 and to block the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120. It did not interfere with virus binding to CD4. Since CD4 is the primary cellular receptor for HIV-1, it was of interest to study CAP binding to HIV-1 complexes with soluble CD4 (sCD4 and its consequences, including changes in the conformation of the envelope glycoprotein gp41 within virus particles. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used to study CAP binding to HIV-1-sCD4 complexes and to detect gp41 six-helix bundles accessible on virus particles using antibodies specific for the α-helical core domain of gp41. Results 1 Pretreatment of HIV-1 with sCD4 augments subsequent binding of CAP; 2 there is synergism between CAP and sCD4 for inhibition of HIV-1 infection; 3 treatment of HIV-1 with CAP induced the formation of gp41 six-helix bundles. Conclusions CAP and sCD4 bind to distinct sites on HIV-1 IIIB and BaL virions and their simultaneous binding has profound effects on virus structure and infectivity. The formation of gp41 six-helical bundles, induced by CAP, is known to render the virus incompetent for fusion with target cells thus preventing infection.

  2. MABGEL 1: first phase 1 trial of the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies 2F5, 4E10 and 2G12 as a vaginal microbicide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina C Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs which potently neutralize a broad range of HIV isolates are potential microbicide candidates. To date, topical application of mAbs in humans and their stability in vaginal secretions has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To assess the pharmacokinetics and safety of the mAbs 2F5, 4E10 and 2G12 when applied vaginally in women. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy, sexually abstinent women administered 2.5 g of gel daily for 12 days containing either 10 or 20 mg/g of each mAb (MABGEL or placebo. Main clinical evaluations and sampling occurred at baseline, 1, 8, and 24 hours post-1st dose and 12 and 36 hours post-12th dose. RESULTS: After adjustment for dilution factors, median levels of 2F5, 4E10 and 2G12 in vaginal secretions at 1 hour post high-dose MABGEL were 7.74, 5.28 and 7.48 mg/ml respectively. Levels of 2F5 and 4E10 declined exponentially thereafter with similar estimated half-lives (4.6 and 4.3 hours. In contrast, 2G12 levels declined more rapidly in the first 8 hours, with an estimated half-life of 1.4 hours during this period. There was no evidence of systemic absorption. There were no significant differences in local or systemic adverse event rates or vaginal flora changes (by qPCR between active and placebo gel arms. Whilst at least 1 adverse event was recorded in 96% of participants, 95% were mild and none were serious. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal application of 50 mg of each mAb daily was safe over a 12 day period. Median mAb concentrations detected at 8 hours post dose were potentially sufficient to block HIV transmission.2G12 exhibited more rapid elimination from the human vagina than 4E10 and 2F5, likely due to poor stability of 2G12 in acidic human vaginal secretions. Further research is needed to develop mAb-based vaginal microbicides and delivery systems. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 64808733 UK CRN Portfolio 6470.

  3. 30 CFR 56.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 56.11008 Section 56.11008 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance...

  4. 30 CFR 57.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 57.11008 Section 57.11008... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11008 Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance shall be conspicuously marked....

  5. The effects of extract f rom black fungus on liver and small intestine ’s MDA,GSH-Px in the septic shock rats%黑木耳提取物对感染性休克大鼠肝、肠组织MDA 及 GSH-Px 的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉; 马琪; 姚雪萍; 艾克拜尔·亚森; 热衣兰木·包尔汉; 买合木江·肉孜; 麦麦提阿卜杜拉·麦麦提敏; 马双钰; 孙湛

    2014-01-01

    肠和肝脏内有害物质MDA上升的水平,减缓GSH‐Px下降的水平,且其对肝脏内GSH‐Px的影响优于思密达。%Objective To study the effects of extract from black fungus on liver and small intestine′s malon‐dialdehyde (MDA) ,glutathione peroxidase (GSH‐Px) in the septic shock rat ,as well as the protection of the liver and small intestine′s function during the failture caused by septic shock .Methods Fifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups:the blank control (the sham‐operation) group ,the tes‐ting (the septic) group ,the smectite(the montmorillonite power) group ,the black fungus crude extract group and the black fungus polysaccharids group .Respectively undertook saline ,saline ,smectite ,black fungus crude extract ,black fungus polysaccharids to each group on three consecutive days .And the perfu‐sion was 1 .5 mL/100 g ,three times a day .Then it was filled again 180 min before establishing the mod‐els .Established the models by performing ligation and perforation on cecum under the ether .After 6h , draw off blood of the abdominal aortic to analyze blood‐gas ,and observed the form on liver ,small intestine and lung ,as well as measured the content of MDA ,GXH‐Px in liver and small intestine .Results The concentration of MDA in liver ,small intestine of the testing group and the concentration in liver of the black fungus crude extract group were higher than it of control group ,the differences were statistical sig‐nificant (P <0 .05);MDA in liver ,small intestine of the smectite group ,the black fungus polysaccharids group and in small intestine of black fungus crude extract group were lower than it of testing group ,the differences were statistical significant (P <0 .05) .The concentration of GSH‐Px in the testing group ,the black fungus crude extract group were lower than it of control group ,the differences were statistical sig‐nificant (P <0 .05);The concentration of the smectite group

  6. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-13

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  7. Postoperative activity restrictions: any evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Larissa F; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Wilken, Jason; Brandt, Debra; Janz, Kathleen F

    2006-02-01

    Because of a widespread but untested belief that increased intra-abdominal pressure contributes to pelvic floor disorders, physicians commonly restrict various activities postoperatively. Our aim was to describe intra-abdominal pressures during common physical activities. Thirty women of wide age and weight ranges who were not undergoing treatment for pelvic floor disorders performed 3 repetitions of various activities while intra-abdominal pressures (baseline and maximal) were approximated via microtip rectal catheters. We calculated median peak and net pressures (centimeters of H(2)O). We assessed correlations between abdominal pressures and body mass index, abdominal circumference, and grip strength (a proxy for overall strength). P climbing stairs, walking briskly, or doing abdominal crunches. Body mass index and abdominal circumference each correlated positively with peak, but not net, pressures. Age and grip strength were not associated with abdominal pressure. Some activities commonly restricted postoperatively have no greater effect on intra-abdominal pressures than unavoidable activities like rising from a chair. How lifting is done impacts intra-abdominal pressure. Many current postoperative guidelines are needlessly restrictive. Further research is needed to determine whether increased intra-abdominal pressure truly promotes pelvic floor disorders. III.

  8. Effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on antioxidant status of plasma and immune tissues in postnatal goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Wu, D Q; Kang, J H; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-12-01

    Maternal malnutrition can have temporary or long-lasting effects on development and physiological function of offspring. Our objective was to investigate whether maternal protein or energy restriction in late gestation affects the antioxidant status of plasma, immune organs (thymus and spleen), and natural barrier organs (jejunum) in neonatal goats and whether the effects could be reversed after nutritional recovery. Forty-five pregnant goats (Liuyang Blacks) of similar age (2.0 ± 0.3 yr) and BW (22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments during late gestation: control (ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), and 40% energy restricted (ER) until parturition, after which offspring received the normal diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma and tissues of kids were sampled to determine antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and catalase (CAT)] and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn-SOD [SOD1], CAT, and peroxiredoxin 2 [PRDX2]). Maternal protein or energy restriction decreased (P nutritional recovery of 6 wk, SOD activities in thymus (both in PR and ER) and spleen (only in PR) were greater (P nutritional recovery of 22 wk, SOD1 and PRDX2 expression in thymus (both in PR and ER) and SOD1 expression in liver (only in ER) were greater (P nutritional recovery.

  9. Electromagnetic Fields Restrictions and Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Katsenelenbaum, Boris Z

    2003-01-01

    The fields scattered by metallic bodies or radiated by some types of antennas are created by the surfaces currents and therefore they are subject to some restrictions. The book is the first one where the properties of these fields are investigated in details. The properties have the important significance for the antenna synthesis, body shape reconstruction and other diffraction problems. The material of the book lies in the meetingpoint of the antenna theory, highfrequency electrodynamics and inverse scattering problems. The author is an internationally renowned investigator in the field of e

  10. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  11. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  12. Querying Schemas With Access Restrictions

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Ley, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    We study verification of systems whose transitions consist of accesses to a Web-based data-source. An access is a lookup on a relation within a relational database, fixing values for a set of positions in the relation. For example, a transition can represent access to a Web form, where the user is restricted to filling in values for a particular set of fields. We look at verifying properties of a schema describing the possible accesses of such a system. We present a language where one can describe the properties of an access path, and also specify additional restrictions on accesses that are enforced by the schema. Our main property language, AccLTL, is based on a first-order extension of linear-time temporal logic, interpreting access paths as sequences of relational structures. We also present a lower-level automaton model, Aautomata, which AccLTL specifications can compile into. We show that AccLTL and A-automata can express static analysis problems related to "querying with limited access patterns" that h...

  13. 7 CFR 982.14 - Restricted hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted hazelnuts. 982.14 Section 982.14... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.14 Restricted hazelnuts. Restricted hazelnuts...

  14. 29 CFR 18.56 - Restricted access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restricted access. 18.56 Section 18.56 Labor Office of the... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.56 Restricted access. On his or her own motion, or on the motion of any party, the administrative law judge may direct that there be a restricted access portion of the...

  15. 28 CFR 68.51 - Restricted access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted access. 68.51 Section 68.51... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.51 Restricted access. On... be a restricted access portion of the record to contain any material in the record to which...

  16. Problem-Solving Test: Restriction Endonuclease Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    The term "restriction endonuclease mapping" covers a number of related techniques used to identify specific restriction enzyme recognition sites on small DNA molecules. A method for restriction endonuclease mapping of a 1,000-basepair (bp)-long DNA molecule is described in the fictitious experiment of this test. The most important fact needed to…

  17. Restrictive Imputation of Incomplete Survey Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, G.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on finding plausible imputations when there is some restriction posed on the imputation model. In these restrictive situations, current imputation methodology does not lead to satisfactory imputations. The restrictions, and the resulting missing data problems are real-life

  18. 47 CFR 1.1208 - Restricted proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted proceedings. 1.1208 Section 1.1208... Restricted Proceedings § 1.1208 Restricted proceedings. Unless otherwise provided by the Commission or its... in all proceedings not listed as exempt in § 1.1204(b) or permit-but-disclose in § 1.1206(a) of...

  19. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Srivatsan; M V N Murthy; R K Bhaduri

    2006-03-01

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured partitions $p_{k}^{s} (n)$, which is the number of partitions of an integer into the summand of th powers of integers such that each power of a given integer may occur utmost times. While the method is not rigorous, it reproduces the well-known asymptotic results for = 1 apart from yielding more general results for arbitrary values of .

  20. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  1. An Infinite Restricted Boltzmann Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Marc-Alexandre; Larochelle, Hugo

    2016-07-01

    We present a mathematical construction for the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that does not require specifying the number of hidden units. In fact, the hidden layer size is adaptive and can grow during training. This is obtained by first extending the RBM to be sensitive to the ordering of its hidden units. Then, with a carefully chosen definition of the energy function, we show that the limit of infinitely many hidden units is well defined. As with RBM, approximate maximum likelihood training can be performed, resulting in an algorithm that naturally and adaptively adds trained hidden units during learning. We empirically study the behavior of this infinite RBM, showing that its performance is competitive to that of the RBM, while not requiring the tuning of a hidden layer size.

  2. INTERPOLATION WITH RESTRICTED ARC LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov

    2003-01-01

    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  3. Neurodevelopment after fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschat, Ahmet A

    2014-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) can emerge as a complication of placental dysfunction and increases the risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Marked elevations of umbilical artery (UA) Doppler resistance that set the stage for cardiovascular and biophysical deterioration with subsequent preterm birth characterize early-onset FGR. Minimal, or absent UA Doppler abnormalities and isolated cerebral Doppler changes with subtle deterioration and a high risk for unanticipated term stillbirth are characteristic for late-onset FGR. Nutritional deficiency manifested in lagging head growth is the most powerful predictor of developmental delay in all forms of FGR. Extremes of blood flow resistance and cardiovascular deterioration, prematurity and intracranial hemorrhage increase the risks for psychomotor delay and cerebral palsy. In late-onset FGR, regional cerebral vascular redistribution correlates with abnormal behavioral domains. Irrespective of the phenotype of FGR, prenatal tests that provide precise and independent stratification of risks for adverse neurodevelopment have yet to be determined.

  4. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  5. 10 CFR 1045.16 - Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1045.16 Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information. (a) The... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information. 1045.16 Section 1045.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS)...

  6. Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short. Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.

  7. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  8. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring Regulatory Restrictions in Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Claire HOLLWEG; Marn-Heong WONG

    2009-01-01

    This study measures the extent of restrictions on trade in logistics services in the ASEAN+6 economies by constructing a logistics regulatory restrictiveness index for each economy that quantifies the extent of government regulations faced by logistics service providers. This is the first study of its kind to construct a regulatory index of the entire logistics sector, which includes the main modes of international transport and customs restrictions. The indices show that large differences ex...

  10. A Study on the Activity of GSH-PX in Saliva of the Patients with Periodontal Diseases%牙周炎患者唾液GSH-PX活性的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟冰波; 金文潮; 姚益民; 唐钧

    2000-01-01

    目的探讨牙周炎与唾液谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)的关系.方法选取83例牙周炎患者及33例正常对照者,对其口腔唾液做GSH-PX测定.结果实验结果显示牙周炎组GSH-PX含量为(32.34+6.58)u/L ;正常对照组GSH-PX含量为(55.26+13.26)u/L,牙周炎组GSH-PX含量低于正常对照组,差别有高度显著性.结论牙周炎是由细菌引起的非特异性炎症,由于大量细菌的积聚,局部自由基生成增多,从而使GSH-PX消耗增大,提示GSH-PX与牙周炎密切相关.

  11. 33 CFR 203.46 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.46 Restrictions. (a) Restrictions to flood control works. Flood control works are designed and...) Non-flood related rehabilitation. Rehabilitation of flood control structures damaged by...

  12. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  13. 7 CFR 400.407 - Restricted access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted access. 400.407 Section 400.407 Agriculture... Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.407 Restricted access. The Manager, other officer, or employee of FCIC or an authorized person may have access to the SSNs and...

  14. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality restrictions. 2.13 Section 2.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions...

  15. Smoking restrictions in private workplaces in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Y H; Voo, Y O; Yong, L S

    1994-06-01

    This survey aims to determine the number and profile of private workplaces in Singapore which have a smoking restriction policy. The response rate was 43%. Of the companies which responded, 59% had some form of smoking restriction. Private companies are more likely to have a smoking restriction policy: (a) where smoking poses inherent fire risks, such as those dealing with inflammable chemicals or gases; (b) where smoking poses inherent detrimental effects to the quality of the products, such as those dealing with precision electronic microcomponents, where a smoke-free and dust-free environment is essential; (c) are larger companies; and (d) have strong management support in initiating and enforcing smoking restriction. Future programmes should give more emphasis to the service industries such as construction, insurance, banking and finance, and smaller companies (with fewer than 100 employees). They should involve the management who play an important role in implementing smoking restriction at their workplace.

  16. Caloric restriction, caloric restriction mimetics, and healthy aging in Okinawa: controversies and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Bradley J; Willcox, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    To examine the role of two nutritional factors implicated in the healthy aging of the Okinawans: caloric restriction; and traditional foods with potential caloric restriction-mimetic properties. Caloric restriction is a research priority for the US National Institute on Aging. However, little is known regarding health effects in humans. Some caloric restriction-related outcomes, such as cause-specific mortality and lifespan, are not practical for human clinical trials. Therefore, epidemiological data on older Okinawans, who experienced a caloric restriction-like diet for close to half their lives, are of special interest. The nutritional data support mild caloric restriction (10-15%) and high consumption of foods that may mimic the biological effects of caloric restriction, including sweet potatoes, marine-based carotenoid-rich foods, and turmeric. Phenotypic evidence is consistent with caloric restriction (including short stature, low body weight, and lean BMI), less age-related chronic disease (including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and dementia), and longer lifespan (mean and maximum). Both caloric restriction and traditional Okinawan functional foods with caloric restriction-mimetic properties likely had roles in the extended healthspan and lifespan of the Okinawans. More research is needed on health consequences of caloric restriction and foods with caloric restriction-mimetic properties to identify possible nutritional interventions for healthy aging.

  17. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  18. Restriction enzyme mining for SNPs in genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Yeh; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Chang, Phei-Lang; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Many different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyping methods have been developed recently. However, most of them are expensive. Using restriction enzymes for SNP genotyping is a cost-effective method. However, restriction enzyme mining for SNPs in a genome sequence is still challenging for researchers who do not have a background in genomics and bioinformatics. In this review, the basic bioinformatics tools used for restriction enzyme mining for SNP genotyping are summarized and described. The objectives of this paper include: i) the introduction of SNPs, genotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP); ii) a review of components for genotyping software, including tools for primer design only or restriction enzyme mining only; iii) a review of software providing the flanking sequence for primer design; iv) recent advances in PCR-RFLP tools and natural and mutagenic PCR-RFLP; v) highlighting the strategy for restriction enzyme mining for SNP genotyping; vi) a discussion of potential problems for multiple PCR-RFLP. The different implications for restriction enzymes on sense and antisense strands are also discussed. Our PCR-RFLP freeware, SNP-RFLPing, is included in this review to illustrate many characteristics of PCR-RFLP software design. Future developments will include further sophistication of PCR-RFLP software in order to provide better visualization and a more interactive environment for SNP genotyping and to integrate the software with other tools used in association studies.

  19. Restriction beyond the restriction point: mitogen requirement for G2 passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Riele Hein

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell proliferation is dependent on mitogenic signalling. When absent, normal cells cannot pass the G1 restriction point, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Passage through the G1 restriction point involves inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein family. Consequently, loss of the retinoblastoma protein family leads to loss of the G1 restriction point. Recent work in our lab has revealed that cells possess yet another mechanism that restricts proliferation in the absence of mitogens: arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Here, we discuss the similarities and differences between these restriction points and the roles of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs herein.

  20. Synthesis and luminescence properties of a novel phosphor Ca2-x/2Si1-xPxO4:Eu2+for near UV-excited white-light-emitting diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    訾文文; 崔天杰; 于泓; 李琳琳; 甘树才; 徐学纯

    2013-01-01

    A novel green-emitting phosphor, Eu2+-doped Ca2-x/2Si1-xPxO4 (0.25≤x≤0.30), was prepared through a conventional solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and decay studies were employed to characterize the sample, which was assigned to P63mc space group in the hexagonal system. The effect of P-doping on theα-Ca2SiO4 was studied and P2O5 broken down by the raw material of (NH4)2HPO4 played an important role in stabilizingα-Ca2SiO4 which can only be stable at high tem-perature. The XRD patterns of the Ca2-x/2Si1-xPxO4 host were found pure and optimized when the mole fraction of P2O5 was 14.5%. The diffuse reflectance spectra of the Ca1.855Si0.71P0.29O4 and Ca1.845Si0.71P0.29O4:0.01Eu2+covered the spectral region of 230-400 nm, implying that the phosphor was suitable for UV or near-UV LED excitation. The phosphor could be effectively excited in the near UV region with the maximum at 372 nm. The emission spectrum of the Ca1.845Si0.71P0.29O4:0.01Eu2+phosphor showed an asymmet-rical single intensive band centered at 513 nm, which corresponded to the 4f65d1→4f7 transition of Eu2+. Eu2+ions might occupy two types of Ca2+sites in the Ca1.855Si0.71P0.29O4 lattice and form two corresponding emission centers, which led to the asymmetrical emis-sion of Eu2+in Ca1.855Si0.71P0.29O4. The effects of Eu2+-doped concentration in Ca1.855-xSi0.71P0.29O4:xEu2+on the PL were also dis-cussed, the optimum doping concentration of Eu2+was 1 mol.%and the critical distance of the energy transfer was also calculated by the concentration-quenching method. The non-radiative energy transfer between Eu2+seemed to be caused by the multipole-multipole interaction. The fluorescence lifetime of Eu2+was found to be 0.55711μs. The results suggested that these phosphors might be prom-ising candidates used for near UV light excited white LEDs.

  1. 在用对二甲苯(PX)输送埋地管道的外腐蚀检测%External Corrosion Testing of In-Service Buried Pipeline for PX Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明阳; 孔令昌; 丛成龙

    2012-01-01

    将外腐蚀直接评价方法应用于对二甲苯(PX)输送埋地管道的外腐蚀检测。分别对其进行敷设环境调查、土壤腐蚀性检测、阴极保护检测和防腐层检测,并对检测结果进行评级。防腐层检测中,应用C扫描检测防腐层绝缘电阻率,综合运用Pearson法和密间隔电位法(CIPS)确定防腐层破损点位置。通过开挖,验证了该组合检测方法的有效性,为埋地管道防腐层检漏提供高效、准确的新方法。%External corrosion direct assessment method was applied to PX transportation pipeline External Corrosion Testing. The buried pipeline testing consisted of environmental investigation, soil corrosion detection, cathodic protection testing and detection of anticorrosive coating. The testing results were rated. In the detection of anticorrosive coating, C-scan was applied to test coating insulation resistance, and Pearson method and the closeinterval potential survey(CIPS) were used to determine coating damage point. The excavation confirmed that the combination of detection methods was effective. Efficient and accurate new method was provided for underground leak detection of pipeline coatings.

  2. The Frattini Subalgebra of Restricted Lie Superalgebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yun CHEN; Dao Ji MENG; Yong Zheng ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, we study the Frattini subalgebra of a restricted Lie superalgebra (L, [p]). We show first that if L = A1 (⊙) A2 (⊙) … (⊙) An, then φp (L) = φp (A1) + φp (A2) +… +φp (An),where each Ai is a p-ideal of L. We then obtain two results: F(L) = φ(L) = J(L) = L(1) if and only if L is nilpotent; Fp(L) and F(L) are nilpotent ideals of L if L is solvable. In addition, necessary and sufficient conditions are found for φp-free restricted Lie superalgebras. Finally, we discuss the relationships of E-p-restricted Lie superalgebras and E-restricted Lie superalgebras.

  3. Restricted Coherent Risk Measures and Actuarial Solvency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Kountzakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a general dual representation form for restricted coherent risk measures, and we apply it to a minimization problem of the required solvency capital for an insurance company.

  4. Restriction/modification polypeptides, polynucleotides, and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westpheling, Janet; Chung, DaeHwan; Huddleston, Jennifer; Farkas, Joel A

    2015-02-24

    The present invention relates to the discovery of a novel restriction/modification system in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii. The discovered restriction enzyme is a HaeIII-like restriction enzyme that possesses a thermophilic activity profile. The restriction/modification system also includes a methyltransferase, M.CbeI, that methylates at least one cytosine residue in the CbeI recognition sequence to m.sup.4C. Thus, the invention provides, in various aspects, isolated CbeI or M.CbeI polypeptides, or biologically active fragments thereof; isolated polynucleotides that encode the CbeI or M.CbeI polypeptides or biologically active fragments thereof, including expression vectors that include such polynucleotide sequences; methods of digesting DNA using a CbeI polypeptide; methods of treating a DNA molecule using a M.CbeI polypeptide; and methods of transforming a Caldicellulosiruptor cell.

  5. 7 CFR 982.50 - Restricted obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Control of Distribution § 982.50 Restricted obligation. (a) No handler... procedures as are necessary to facilitate the administration of this option among handlers. (d) Whenever...

  6. Dietary restriction causing iodine-deficient goitre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Tim; Plumb, Emma; Callaghan, James; Jackson, Michael; Michaelis, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Iodine-deficient goitre was common in some parts of the UK prior to the introduction of salt iodisation. Many contemporary salt preparations do not contain much iodine, and there are renewed concerns about the iodine status of the population. We present a boy with severe allergy who developed goitre and significant thyroid dysfunction in association with an iodine-deficient 'food-restricted' diet. The case highlights the importance of a comprehensive nutritional assessment in all children on multiple food restrictions.

  7. Date restricted queries in web search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    Search engines usually offer a date restricted search on their advanced search pages. But determining the actual update of a web page is not without problems. We conduct a study testing date restricted queries on the search engines Google, Teoma and Yahoo!. We find that these searches fail to work properly in the examined engines. We discuss implications of this for further research and search engine development.

  8. Policy restrictions, democratic deficit and redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Restrictions to the range of policies available to governments are often recommended as a solution to coordination failures or time inconsistency problems. However, policy restrictions can have important drawbacks that have been generally ignored so far. When the hands of governments are tied, citizens have lower incentives to be informed on political matters and to participate in collective decision-making processes, since private returns from political information are lower. This mechanism ...

  9. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  10. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  11. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-01-01

    De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition) in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR) to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  12. Miles In Trail (MIT) Restrictions: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Green, Steven; Roherty, Tom; Aston, John

    2003-01-01

    Miles-in-trail restrictions are issued to meet the airport and/or airspace capacity. The purpose of this paper is to review the currently practiced miles-in-trail operations for traffic flow management at a typical en route Air Traffic Control Center. The paper describes roles and considerations of both traffic management coordinators and the controllers in planning, coordination, execution, and monitoring of miles-in-trail restrictions. The paper addresses the type of decisions that traffic management coordinators must make and the different information required to plan and monitor miles-in-trail restrictions. The implications of miles-in-trail restrictions on controller workload are also addressed. Using the Cleveland center as an example, the paper also identified some challenging traffic situations that required miles-in-trail restrictions on a regular basis. The paper is expected to benefit the research and development community as it provides the current challenges in traffic flow management and strengths and weakness of miles-in-trail operations.

  13. Ruminant models of prenatal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R V; Scheaffer, A N; Wright, C D; Regnault, T R H

    2003-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a significant health issue that not only affects infant mortality and morbidity, but may also predispose individuals to coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and stroke as adults. The majority of IUGR pregnancies in humans are characterized by asymmetric fetal growth, resulting from inadequate nutrient transfer to the fetus. Furthermore, most of these pregnancies involve functional placental insufficiency, and may also show altered umbilical velocimetry. As the severity of IUGR increases, the fetus becomes increasingly hypoxic, hypoglycaemic and acidotic. In addition, placental transfer or utilization of some amino acids is known to be altered in IUGR pregnancies. Although a great deal has been learned from clinical studies of human IUGR, appropriate animal models are required to define completely the mechanisms involved in the development of IUGR. The pregnant sheep is a long-standing model for placental-fetal interactions, and fetal growth restriction can be induced in pregnant sheep by maternal nutrient restriction, maternal nutrient excess, administration of glucocorticoid, utero-placental embolization, carunclectomy and maternal hyperthermia. Although all of these sheep models are capable of inducing fetal growth restriction, the degree of restriction is variable. This review compares these sheep models of IUGR with the characteristics of human IUGR.

  14. Sight Restrictions in Maghrib Muslim Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.

  15. 'Liberal' vs. 'restrictive' perioperative fluid therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Secher, N H; Kehlet, H

    2009-01-01

    for fluid therapy and outcome endpoints were inconsistently defined and only two studies reported perioperative care principles and discharge criteria. Three studies found an improved outcome (morbidity/hospital stay) with a restrictive fluid regimen whereas two studies found no difference and two studies...... found differences in the selected outcome parameters. CONCLUSION: Liberal vs. restrictive fixed-volume regimens are not well defined in the literature regarding the definition, methodology and results, and lack the use of or information on evidence-based standardized perioperative care-principles (fast...

  16. Real Moments of the Restrictive Factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrew Ledoan; Alexandru Zaharescu

    2009-09-01

    Let be a real number such that 0 < < 1. We establish asymptotic formulas for the weighted real moments $\\sum_{n≤ x}R^(n)(1-n/x)$, where $R(n)=\\prod^k_{v=1}p^{ v-1}_v$ is the Atanassov strong restrictive factor function and $n=\\prod^k_{v=1}p^{ v}_v$ is the prime factorization of .

  17. Restricted Liberty, Parental Choice and Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors carefully study the problem of liberty as it applies to school choice, and whether there ought to be restricted liberty in the case of homeschooling. They examine three prominent concerns that might be brought against homeschooling, viz., that it aggravates social inequality, worsens societal conflict and works against…

  18. Restricted liberty, parental choice and homeschooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.; Karsten, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors carefully study the problem of liberty as it applies to school choice, and whether there ought to be restricted liberty in the case of homeschooling. They examine three prominent concerns that might be brought against homeschooling, viz., that it aggravates social inequalit

  19. Periodic Solutions for Circular Restricted -Body Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For circular restricted -body problems, we study the motion of a sufficiently small mass point (called the zero mass point in the plane of equal masses located at the vertices of a regular polygon. By using variational minimizing methods, for some , we prove the existence of the noncollision periodic solution for the zero mass point with some fixed wingding number.

  20. Restrictive cardiomyopathy. Report of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Sánchez Luis Alfonso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Restrictive cardiomyopathy is a disease characterized by ventricular diastolic failure with elevation of end-dyastolic pressure and preserved systolic function. Materials and methods: retrospective study of patients with a diagnosis of restrictive cardiomyopathy. We carry out an analysis of demographic data, clinical presentation, and studies of patients diagnosed in the last 15 years at Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. Results: all included patients had clinical data of heart failure manifested mainly by medium-sized efforts dyspnea on schoolchildren and dyspnea by feeding in infants, as well as polypnea and diaphoresis. The most important signs were hepatomegaly, ascites, and gallop rhythm. Cardiomegaly by right atrial dilatation was the most frequent radiological data. The most frequent electrocardiographic data were dilatation of both atria, ST-segment depression and negative T waves. Echocardiogram showed in all cases binaural dilation and restrictive pattern. Conclusions: our patients were similar to those described in the specialized literature. Echocardiogram is still the best study for the diagnosis and the use of functional measurements as Doppler imaging can help to reveal early diastolic failure. In our country the heart transplant is just feasible; mortality remains 100%. Keywords: Restrictive cardiomyopathy, Heart failure, Cardiomyopathy.

  1. Mechanisms of Salmonella Typhi Host Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever, a life-threatening bacterial infection that is very common in the developing world. Recent spread of antimicrobial resistant isolates of S. Typhi makes typhoid fever, a global public health risk. Despite being a common disease, still very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying typhoid fever and S. Typhi pathogenesis. In contrast to other Salmonellae, S. Typhi can only infect humans. The molecular bases of this human restriction are mostly unknown. Recent studies identified a novel pathway that contributes to S. Typhi human restriction and is required for killing S. Typhi in macrophages of nonsusceptible species. The small Rab GTPase Rab32 and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor BLOC-3 are the critical components of this pathway. These proteins were already well known as important regulators of intracellular membrane transport. In particular, they are central for the transport of enzymes that synthetize melanin in pigment cells. The recent findings that Rab32 and BLOC-3 are required for S. Typhi host restriction point out to a novel mechanism restricting the growth of bacterial pathogen, dependent on the transport of still unknown molecule(s) to the S. Typhi vacuole. The identification of this novel antimicrobial pathway constitutes a critical starting point to study molecular mechanisms killing bacterial pathogens and possibly identify novel antimicrobial molecules.

  2. Preventive maintenance at opportunities of restricted duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); E. Smeitink

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article deals with the problem of setting priorities for the execution of maintenance packages at randomly occurring opportunities. These opportunities are of restricted duration, implying that only a limited number of packages can be executed. The main idea proposed is to set up a

  3. Joint Venture Structuring in Restricted Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    When investing in China’s restricted in- dustries, it is essential to have a joint venture (JV) partner. Often the maximum percent- age of equity allowed in foreign ownership can only be 50 percent. So what options are available to the foreign investor to mitigate the risk of not owning, on paper, a majority

  4. 38 CFR 1.462 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Drug Abuse, Alcoholism Or Alcohol Abuse, Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (hiv), Or....460 through 1.499 of this part apply may be disclosed or used only as permitted by these regulations...) Unconditional compliance required. The restrictions on disclosure and use in §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this...

  5. Restricted total stability and total attractivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zappala'

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the new concepts of restricted total stability and total attractivity is formulated. For this purpose the classical theory of Malkin with suitable changes and the theory of limiting equations, introduced by Sell developed by Artstein and Andreev, are used. Significant examples are presented.

  6. Optimal Policy under Restricted Government Spending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Welfare ranking of policy instruments is addressed in a two-sector Ramsey model with monopoly pricing in one sector as the only distortion. When government spending is restricted, i.e. when a government is unable or unwilling to finance the required costs for implementing the optimum policy...

  7. 48 CFR 225.7007-1 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions. 225.7007-1 Section 225.7007-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... subsequent DoD appropriations acts, do not acquire welded shipboard anchor and mooring chain, four inches...

  8. Restrictive dermopathy - Report of 12 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smitt, JHS; van Asperen, CJ; Niessen, CM; Beemer, FA; van Essen, AJ; Hulsmans, RFHJ; Oranje, AP; Steijlen, PM; Wesby-van Swaay, E; Tamminga, P; Breslau-Siderius, EJ

    1998-01-01

    Background: This study describes 12 cases of restrictive dermopathy seen during a period of 8 years by the Dutch Task Force on Genodermatology. We present these unique consecutive cases to provide more insight into the clinical picture and pathogenesis of the disease. Observations: Clinical features

  9. Material and Cultural Restriction of Political Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国祥

    2015-01-01

    Material and culture have a certain influence on the political life. In general, the higher level of economic development of the country, people's political life is more democratic. Culture has some negative effect on the political life. China's traditional cul-ture has restricted the people's political life in some ways.

  10. 50 CFR 16.3 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Introduction § 16.3 General restrictions. Any importation or transportation of live... and welfare of human beings, to the interest of forestry, agriculture, and horticulture, and to the... into or the transportation of live wildlife or eggs thereof between the continental United States,...

  11. 12 CFR 1805.808 - Lobbying restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lobbying restrictions. 1805.808 Section 1805.808 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1805.808...

  12. Induced Modules of Restricted Lie Superalgebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文德

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we first prove the PBW theorem for reduced universal enveloping algebras of restricted Lie superalgebras. Then the notion of an induced module is introduced and the dimension formula of induced modules is established.Finally, using the results above, we obtain a property of induced modules pertaining to automorphisms of Lie superalgebras and isomorphisms of modules.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  14. 45 CFR 9.5 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF HHS RESEARCH FACILITIES BY ACADEMIC SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.5 Restrictions. (a) Each individual authorized to use Department... that the non-Government user will comply with all safety regulations and procedures while using...

  15. 36 CFR 331.18 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public health, public safety, security, maintenance, or other reasons in the public interest. Entering or... 331.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.18 Restrictions. The District Engineer may establish and post a schedule...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1230 - Port Orchard; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Orchard; naval restricted... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1230 Port Orchard; naval restricted area. (a) Port Orchard; naval restricted area—(1) The area. Shoreward of a line beginning at a...

  17. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements; restricted articles. 322.28... EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.28 General requirements; restricted articles. (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus;...

  18. 肺心营养合剂抑制吸烟引起的缺氧性肺血管收缩反应增强%A Mixture of Nutrients (PX) Inhibited th e Enhancement of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction Caused by Cigarette Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔炜; 刘声远; 侍效春; 李运峰; 陆博; 蒋海飚

    2000-01-01

    20名健康男大学生,随机分为两组,分别服肺心营养合剂(PX)和安慰剂1个月,用肺阻抗血流图测定由吸烟引起的肺血管反应性的变化 .结果表明: 吸烟可增强缺氧性肺血管收缩反应(HPV),营养合剂则可抑制吸烟引起的HP V增加.

  19. A unified minimax result for restricted parameter spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Marchand, Éric; 10.3150/10-BEJ336

    2012-01-01

    We provide a development that unifies, simplifies and extends considerably a number of minimax results in the restricted parameter space literature. Various applications follow, such as that of estimating location or scale parameters under a lower (or upper) bound restriction, location parameter vectors restricted to a polyhedral cone, scale parameters subject to restricted ratios or products, linear combinations of restricted location parameters, location parameters bounded to an interval with unknown scale, quantiles for location-scale families with parametric restrictions and restricted covariance matrices.

  20. Impacts of Left Lane Truck Restriction on Urban Freeways

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Choon-Heon; Regan, A C

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of truck lane restriction on urban freeways using traffic simulation models. The study includes three main parts: Part (1) provides insights into conditions under which truck lane restrictions would work well; Part (2) identifies the best number of lanes to restrict and shows that this is an important factor in the success of lane restriction; Part (3) investigates potential impacts of truck lane restriction through a case study using a region with some of the ...

  1. Programmable DNA-Guided Artificial Restriction Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enghiad, Behnam; Zhao, Huimin

    2017-02-06

    Restriction enzymes are essential tools for recombinant DNA technology that have revolutionized modern biological research. However, they have limited sequence specificity and availability. Here we report a Pyrococcus furiosus Argonaute (PfAgo) based platform for generating artificial restriction enzymes (AREs) capable of recognizing and cleaving DNA sequences at virtually any arbitrary site and generating defined sticky ends of varying length. Short DNA guides are used to direct PfAgo to target sites for cleavage at high temperatures (>87 °C) followed by reannealing of the cleaved single stranded DNAs. We used this platform to generate over 18 AREs for DNA fingerprinting and molecular cloning of PCR-amplified or genomic DNAs. These AREs work as efficiently as their naturally occurring counterparts, and some of them even do not have any naturally occurring counterparts, demonstrating easy programmability, generality, versatility, and high efficiency for this new technology.

  2. Asymptotic properties of restricted naming games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Datta, Amitava; Manna, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Asymptotic properties of the symmetric and asymmetric naming games have been studied under some restrictions in a community of agents. In one version, the vocabulary sizes of the agents are restricted to finite capacities. In this case, compared to the original naming games, the dynamics takes much longer time for achieving the consensus. In the second version, the symmetric game starts with a limited number of distinct names distributed among the agents. Three different quantities are measured for a quantitative comparison, namely, the maximum value of the total number of names in the community, the time at which the community attains the maximal number of names, and the global convergence time. Using an extensive numerical study, the entire set of three power law exponents characterizing these quantities are estimated for both the versions which are observed to be distinctly different from their counter parts of the original naming games.

  3. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    : 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting......) were measured before and after WL. Results: Changes in body weight (≈12.5% WL) and composition were similar in both groups. Fasting RQ and ExEff at 10 W increased in both groups. Losing weight, either by IER or CER dieting, did not induce significant changes in subjective appetite ratings. RMR......Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy...

  4. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR. The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health.

  5. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilswijk, Marianne; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during......SUMMARY: Hypoglycemia during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both mother and fetus. Although not generally recommended in pregnancy, synthetic somatostatin analogues are used for the management of blood glucose levels in expectant hyperinsulinemic mothers. Recent reports suggest...... that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial...

  6. Restricted Conformal Property of Compressive Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Energy and direction are tow basic properties of a vector. A discrete signal is a vector in nature. RIP of compressive sensing can not show the direction information of a signal but show the energy information of a signal. Hence, RIP is not complete. Orthogonal matrices can preserve angles and lengths. Preservation of length can show energies of signals like RIP do; and preservation of angle can show directions of signals. Therefore, Restricted Conformal Property (RCP) is proposed according t...

  7. Beyond Intergovernmentalism: The Europeanization of Restrictive Measures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giumelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the European Union (EU has been explored extensively in recent years. The dominant prism through which to look at the EU is still one of locus: i.e. whether decisions are made in the capitals of its member states or in Brussels. This debate is contained in the dualism between intergovernmentalism and supranationalism, but drawing the boundaries between the two concepts is still undone. This article attempts to contribute to solving this problem by investigating the restrictive measures policy of the EU in order to identify three conditions under which intergovernmentalism should be used. First, when EU institutions are dependent on EU member states for information and expertise; second, when decision-making powers rest mainly in EU capitals; and three, when there are no exclusive fora for decision-making in Brussels. The study of the restrictive measures of the European Union does not meet any of these three conditions; therefore the article argues that the concept of supranational intergovernmentalism offers useful insights to understand the EU security governance of CFSP sanctions. The article is divided into four parts. The first introduces the debate on security governance and justifies the selection of this specific approach to the study of sanctions. The second part presents the restrictive measures policy of the European Union and justifies its pertinence to the field of security. The third part of the article investigates the emerging patterns in security governance by testing the three conditions on the decision-making process for EU restrictive measures. Finally, the conclusion summarises the main argument and indicates ways forward in the study of EU sanctions from a governance perspective.

  8. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction.

  9. Restriction endonucleases digesting DNA in PCR buffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-dong; ZHENG Dong; ZHOU Yan-na; MAO Wei-wei; MA Jian-zhang

    2005-01-01

    Six commonly used restriction endonucleases (Res) (Acc I, Ban II, EcoR I, Hind III, Sac I, Sca I) were tested for their ability to directly digest DNA completely in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) buffers. The results showed that: with the requirement for additional magnesium supplemented as activator, Res, except EcoR I appeared star activity, completely digested unmethylated lambda DNA after overnight incubation in PCR buffer and functioned as equally well as in recommended Restriction Enzyme Buffer provided with each enzyme; all Res tested completely digested PCR products in PCR buffer, it implied digestion of PCR products may often be performed directly in the PCR tube without the requirement for any precipitation or purification steps; and the concentration of MgCl2 from 2.5 mmol·L-1 to 10 mmol·L-1 did not significantly affect activity of Res in PCR buffer. This simplified method for RE digestion of PCR products could have applications in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of large PCR products. However, usage of this procedure for cloning applications needs further data.

  10. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  11. Team Formation and Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogino, Adrian K.; Turner, Kagan

    2003-01-01

    A collective of agents often needs to maximize a "world utility" function which rates the performance of an entire system, while subject to communication restrictions among the agents. Such communication restrictions make it difficult for agents which try to pursue their own "private" utilities to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. Team formation presents a solution to this problem, where by joining other agents, an agent can significantly increase its knowledge about the environment and improve its chances of both optimizing its own utility and that its doing so will contribute to the world utility. In this article we show how utilities that have been previously shown to be effective in collectives can be modified to be more effective in domains with moderate communication restrictions resulting in performance improvements of up to 75%. Additionally we show that even severe communication constraints can be overcome by forming teams where each agent of a team shares the same utility, increasing performance an additional 25%. We show that utilities and team sizes can be manipulated to form the best compromise between how "aligned" an agent s utility is with the world utility and how easily an agent can learn that utility.

  12. Type I restriction enzymes and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenen, Wil A M; Dryden, David T F; Raleigh, Elisabeth A; Wilson, Geoffrey G

    2014-01-01

    Type I restriction enzymes (REases) are large pentameric proteins with separate restriction (R), methylation (M) and DNA sequence-recognition (S) subunits. They were the first REases to be discovered and purified, but unlike the enormously useful Type II REases, they have yet to find a place in the enzymatic toolbox of molecular biologists. Type I enzymes have been difficult to characterize, but this is changing as genome analysis reveals their genes, and methylome analysis reveals their recognition sequences. Several Type I REases have been studied in detail and what has been learned about them invites greater attention. In this article, we discuss aspects of the biochemistry, biology and regulation of Type I REases, and of the mechanisms that bacteriophages and plasmids have evolved to evade them. Type I REases have a remarkable ability to change sequence specificity by domain shuffling and rearrangements. We summarize the classic experiments and observations that led to this discovery, and we discuss how this ability depends on the modular organizations of the enzymes and of their S subunits. Finally, we describe examples of Type II restriction-modification systems that have features in common with Type I enzymes, with emphasis on the varied Type IIG enzymes.

  13. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  14. Restriction enzyme-mediated DNA family shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendorff, James B Y H; Johnston, Wayne A; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2014-01-01

    DNA shuffling is an established recombinatorial method that was originally developed to increase the speed of directed evolution experiments beyond what could be accomplished using error-prone PCR alone. To achieve this, mutated copies of a protein-coding sequence are fragmented with DNase I and the fragments are then reassembled in a PCR without primers. The fragments anneal where there is sufficient sequence identity, resulting in full-length variants of the original gene that have inherited mutations from multiple templates. Subsequent studies demonstrated that directed evolution could be further accelerated by shuffling similar native protein-coding sequences from the same gene family, rather than mutated variants of a single gene. Generally at least 65-75 % global identity between parental sequences is required in DNA family shuffling, with recombination mostly occurring at sites with at least five consecutive nucleotides of local identity. Since DNA shuffling was originally developed, many variations on the method have been published. In particular, the use of restriction enzymes in the fragmentation step allows for greater customization of fragment lengths than DNase I digestion and avoids the risk that parental sequences may be over-digested into unusable very small fragments. Restriction enzyme-mediated fragmentation also reduces the occurrence of undigested parental sequences that would otherwise reduce the number of unique variants in the resulting library. In the current chapter, we provide a brief overview of the alternative methods currently available for DNA shuffling as well as a protocol presented here that improves on several previous implementations of restriction enzyme-mediated DNA family shuffling, in particular with regard to purification of DNA fragments for reassembly.

  15. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  16. A new restriction endonuclease from Spirulina platensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, M; Sakakibara, M; Watanabe, T; Kita, K.; Hiraoka, N; Obayashi, A; Takagi, M; Yano, K

    1986-01-01

    Three restriction endonucleases, Sp1I, Sp1II and Sp1III have been purified partially from Spirulina platensis subspecies siamese and named. Sp1I cleaves bacteriophage lambda DNA at one site, phi X 174 RF DNA at two sites, but does not cleave pBR322 DNA. This enzyme recognizes the sequence 5'CGTACG3' 3'GCATCG5' and cuts the site indicated by the arrows. Sp1II is an isoschizomer of Tth111I and Sp1III is an isoschizomer of HaeIII.

  17. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...

  18. The Monetary Policy – Restrictive or Expansive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy plays an important role in macroeconomic policy of government. There is a question concerning type of this policy expansive or restrictive (easy or tidy monetary policy. Unfortunately, we have a lot of criteria. Each of them gives us other answer. So due to equitation of Irving Fisher we have dominantly expansive monetary policy. This same situation exists when we use nominal value of rediscount interest rate of central bank. Opposite result appears when we use real value of this interest rate or level of obligatory reserve. Taking under consideration liquidity on money market we know, that level of interest rate is too high.

  19. A User-Friendly Method for Teaching Restriction Enzyme Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a teaching progression that enhances learning through low-cost, manipulative transparencies. Discussed is instruction about restriction enzymes, plasmids, cutting plasmids, plasmid maps, recording data, and mapping restriction sites. Mapping wheels for student use is included. (CW)

  20. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Restricted Data Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Restricted Data Files Available at the Data Centers Researchers and users with approved research projects can access restricted data files that have not been...

  1. Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    threshold in premature infants before transfusing, i.e. adopting a restrictive BTF ... BTF figures for a similar time period before the restrictive policy, during 2008, were obtained ... combined outcomes of death or serious morbidity at first hospital.

  2. Repletion of TNFα or leptin in calorically restricted mice suppresses post-restriction hyperphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, Catherine; Duncan, Jacqueline S.; Archer, Zoë A.; Moar, Kim M.; Mercer, Julian G.; Speakman, John R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The causes of post-restriction hyperphagia (PRH) represent a target for drug-based therapies to prevent obesity. However, the factors causing PRH are poorly understood. We show that, in mice, the extent of PRH was independent of the time under restriction, but depended on its severity, suggesting that PRH was driven by signals from altered body composition. Signals related to fat mass were important drivers. Circulating levels of leptin and TNFα were significantly depleted following caloric restriction (CR). We experimentally repleted their levels to match those of controls, and found that in both treatment groups the level of PRH was significantly blunted. These data establish a role for TNFα and leptin in the non-pathological regulation of energy homeostasis. Signals from adipose tissue, including but not limited to leptin and TNFα, regulate PRH and might be targets for therapies that support people engaged in CR to reduce obesity. PMID:21954068

  3. Communication restriction in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda; Van Dulm, Ondene; Robb, Michael P; Ormond, Tika

    2015-07-01

    This study explored communication restriction in adults with stuttering (AWS) by means of typical language measures obtained using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts - New Zealand (SALT-NZ) software, as well as systemic functional linguistics (SFL) analyses. The areas of language productivity and complexity, modality (i.e. linguistic politeness) and the language of appraisal were compared between AWS and typically fluent speakers (adults with no stuttering (AWNS)). Ten-minute conversational samples were obtained from 20 AWS and 20 age- and sex-matched AWNS. Transcripts were analysed for quantity and complexity of verbal output, and frequency of use of modality and appraisal resource subtypes. Means comparison and correlation analyses were conducted using grouped data. AWS produced less language and less complex language than AWNS, measured by SALT-NZ and SFL indices. AWS also differed from AWNS in their use of modality resources to express politeness - they produced fewer modal operators and more comment adjuncts than AWNS. A smaller proportion of their language expressed the explicit appreciation of things. The linguistic patterns identified in the conversational language of AWS suggested a reduced openness to interpersonal engagement within communication exchanges, which may restrict opportunities for and the experience of such exchanges. The value of SFL to this area of research is discussed.

  4. Activity restriction and risk of preterm delivery().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Heather I; Sciscione, Anthony; Ananth, Cande V; Drassinower, Daphnie; Obican, Sarah G; Wapner, Ronald J

    2017-07-06

    We sought to determine whether activity restriction (AR) in a cohort of women at high risk for preterm delivery is associated with the risk of preterm delivery. This is a secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units MFMU's Preterm Prediction Study; a multicenter prospective cohort study designed to identify risk factors of preterm birth (PTB). The study group consisted of women with a singleton gestation that at their first study visit (23-24 weeks) had at least one of the following criteria: patient reported contractions, severe back pain, a cervical length preterm delivery (preterm. In this cohort, 9.7% (n = 105) of women were recommended AR, with 37.1% (n = 39) having a PTB. In the group not recommended AR (n = 981), 14.3% (n = 140) delivered preterm. In this cohort of women at high risk for PTB, activity restriction was associated with an increased risk of PTB. The use of AR in this population should be discouraged.

  5. 49 CFR 236.532 - Strap iron inductor; use restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strap iron inductor; use restricted. 236.532... inductor; use restricted. No railroad shall use strap iron inductor or other roadway element with characteristics differing from its standard type on track where speed higher than restricted speed is permitted...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1174 - Whale water restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whale water restrictions. 13... Vessel Operating Restrictions § 13.1174 Whale water restrictions. (a) May 15 through September 30, the following waters are designated as whale waters. (1) Waters north of a line drawn from Point Carolus...

  7. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  8. Restrictions on autogressive error processes in systems of demand equations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    Alternative theoretically based restrictions on autoregressive error processes in systems of demand equations are examined. Scaling, translation, and a utility-based approach suggested by Theil are used to generate restrictions. A study of juice demands suggests that the restrictions examined may be useful for empirical analysis.

  9. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  10. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted gear areas. 697.23 Section 697... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed...) Restricted Gear Area I—(1) Duration—(i) Mobile Gear. From October 1 through June 15 of each fishing year,...

  11. 7 CFR 1724.8 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1724.8 Section 1724.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Restrictions on lobbying. Borrowers shall comply with the restrictions and requirements in connection...

  12. 14 CFR 1310.9 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1310.9 Section... CONDITION OF GUARANTEED LOAN § 1310.9 Restrictions on lobbying. (a) While the Board is not part of the... Restrictions on Lobbying”) of title 31 (“Money and Finance: Treasury”) of the Code of Federal Regulations...

  13. 7 CFR 1710.125 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1710.125 Section 1710.125... and Basic Policies § 1710.125 Restrictions on lobbying. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to restrictions on lobbying activities. See 7 CFR part 3018....

  14. 14 CFR 1274.929 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1274.929 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.929 Restrictions on lobbying. Restrictions on Lobbying July 2002 This award is subject to the provisions of 14 CFR part 1271...

  15. 48 CFR 552.203-71 - Restriction on Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Advertising... Restriction on Advertising. As prescribed in 503.570-2, insert the following clause: Restriction on Advertising (SEP 1999) The Contractor shall not refer to this contract in commercial advertising or...

  16. Oncogenic pathways impinging on the G2-restriction point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foijer, F; Simonis, M; van Vliet, M; Wessels, L; Kerkhoven, R; Sorger, P K; Te Riele, H

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of mitogenic stimuli, cells normally arrest in G(1/0), because they fail to pass the G1-restriction point. However, abrogation of the G1-restriction point (by loss of the retinoblastoma gene family) reveals a second-restriction point that arrests cells in G2. Serum-starvation-induced

  17. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall...

  18. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  19. Intermittent′ restrictive ventricular septal defect in Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir S Shetkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defect (VSD in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is usually large and non-restrictive with equalization of right and left ventricular pressures. Restrictive VSD in TOF is rare. We present an unusual case of TOF with restriction to VSD caused by accessory tricuspid valve tissue that varied with respiration.

  20. Modelling of cytotoxicity data (CC50) of anti-HIV 1-[5-chlorophenyl) sulfonyl]-1H-pyrrole derivatives using calculated molecular descriptors and Levenberg-Marquardt artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Chamjangali, M

    2009-04-01

    A nonlinear quantitative structure anti-HIV activity relationship study was presented for modelling and predicting pyrryl aryl sulfones cytotoxicity data. Levenberg-Marquardt artificial neural network was used to link molecular structures and cytotoxicity data. A data set consisting of 27 derivatives of 1-[5-chlorophenyl) sulfonyl]-1H-pyrrole was used in this study. Among a large number of calculated descriptors, only eight significant molecular descriptors were obtained by stepwise regression, as the most feasible descriptors, and then they were used as inputs for neural network. The data set was randomly divided into 20 training and 7 validation sets and the neural network architecture and its parameters were optimized. The prediction ability of the model was evaluated using the validation data set, leave-one-out cross-validation and response randomization method. The mean square errors and mean absolute errors for the validation data set were 0.0067 and 0.066, respectively, and for the leave-one-out method, they were 0.013 and 0.087, respectively. The results obtained showed the excellent prediction ability and stability of the proposed model in the prediction of cytotoxicity data of the corresponding anti-HIV analogues.

  1. HIV-1广谱中和抗体的研究进展和启示%Recent progress in the development of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪桦; 刘懿锋; 张林琦

    2011-01-01

    1983年,Barré-Sinoussi和Montagnier等[1]首次分离到引起获得性免疫缺陷综合征(acquired immune deficiency syndrome,AIDS)的病毒,随后国际病毒分类委员会将其命名为人类免疫缺陷病毒[2](human immunodeficiency virus,HIV).据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization,WHO)及联合国艾滋病规划署(The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS,UNAIDS)的最新统计[3],全球范围内HIV的感染人数约为3 330万,仅2009年新增的HIV感染人数就达260万,死亡人数为180万.

  2. Advance in identification and analysis of epitope specificities of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 sera%抗HIV广谱中和血清表位特异性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新韬; 洪坤学; 邵一鸣

    2011-01-01

    HIT疫苗研究的巨大障碍在于目前设计的包含Env蛋白或表住的疲苗在临床前及临床试验中难于诱导产生广谱中和抗体.近来的研究表明一些HIV-1感染者血清中存在的抗体能够中和多种病毒株,而新的表位作图技术对这些广谱中和血清表位特异性的深入分析将对广谱中和抗体靶向的病毒表位提供新的线索.通过广谱中和血清表位特异性研究获得的信息将促进新的广谱中和单克隆抗体的分离和潜在新表住的鉴定,为合理设计新的疫苗免疫原提供关键信息.%One obstacle to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine has been the difficulty in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies with protective functions. However, recent studies show that antibodies in the sera of some HIV-1 infected individuals can neutralize diverse HIV-1 isolates. Detailed analyses of these sera with recently developed sophistical mapping methods can provide new insights into the viral epitopes targeted by broadly reactive NAbs. The new information emerging from these mapping efforts may be conducive to sharpening efforts to isolate new bnmAbs and moreover, may provide crucial information for the rational design of novel vaccine candidates.

  3. An anti-HIV-1 V3 loop antibody fully protects cross-clade and elicits T-cell immunity in macaques mucosally challenged with an R5 clade C SHIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Watkins

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibodies have been shown to protect macaques against SHIV challenge. However, genetically diverse HIV-1 clades have evolved, and a key question left unanswered is whether neutralizing antibodies can confer cross-clade protection in vivo. The novel human monoclonal antibody HGN194 was isolated from an individual infected with an HIV-1 clade AG recombinant circulating recombinant form (CRF. HGN194 targets an epitope in the third hypervariable loop (V3 of HIV-1 gp120 and neutralizes a range of relatively neutralization-sensitive and resistant viruses. We evaluated the potential of HGN194 to protect infant rhesus monkeys against a SHIV encoding a primary CCR5-tropic HIV-1 clade C envelope. After high-dose mucosal challenge, all untreated controls became highly viremic while all HGN194-treated animals (50 mg/kg were completely protected. When HGN194 was given at 1 mg/kg, one out of two monkeys remained aviremic, whereas the other had delayed, lower peak viremia. Interestingly, all protected monkeys given high-dose HGN194 developed Gag-specific proliferative responses of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. To test whether generation of the latter involved cryptic infection, we ablated CD8+ cells after HGN194 clearance. No viremia was detected in any protected monkeys, thus ruling out virus reservoirs. Thus, induction of CD8 T-cell immunity may have resulted from transient "Hit and Run" infection or cross priming via Ag-Ab-mediated cross-presentation. Together, our data identified the HGN194 epitope as protective and provide proof-of-concept that this anti-V3 loop mAb can prevent infection with sterilizing immunity after challenge with virus of a different clade, implying that V3 is a potential vaccine target.

  4. 基于Vif-APOBEC3G相互作用的抗HIV-1药物研究%Anti-HIV-1 agents based on Vif-APOBEC3G interaction: research advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴杰; 王睿睿; 郑永唐

    2010-01-01

    载脂蛋白B mRNA编辑酶催化多肽样蛋白3G(apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalyticpolypeptidelike 3G,APOBEC3G或A3G)是人体天然抗病毒分子,可以使病毒逆转录形成的cDNA的胞嘧啶(C)脱氨为尿嘧啶(U),产生鸟嘌呤(G)→腺嘌呤(A)超突变,导致病毒转录产物突变,从而达到抑制病毒复制的作用.HIV-1的辅助蛋白Vif,可与APOBEC3G相互作用并导致其被降解,使得这一天然抗病毒机制失效,进而增强了HIV的感染力.Vif与APOBEC3G这种相互作用为抗HIV药物提供了新靶点.针对Vif-APOBEC3G相互作用的抗HIV抑制剂已经成为研究热点.本文综述了Vif和APOBEC3G的结构、二者的相互作用,以及基于这一相互作用的抗HIV-1抑制剂研究进展.

  5. 以 gp41为靶点的 HIV-1肽类融合抑制剂研究进展%Advancement on the study of peptides fusion inhibitors anti HIV-1 targeting gp41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许燕珍; 吴文言

    2016-01-01

    gp41是 HIV-1表面的一种包膜糖蛋白,介导病毒粒子与宿主细胞的细胞膜发生膜融合从而使病毒进入靶细胞,在 HIV-1感染和传播的过程中起关键作用。以 gp41为靶点的融合抑制剂不失为一种新型的抗 HIV-1药物之选,其中2003年多肽类融合抑制剂 T-20的上市,使得多肽融合抑制剂成为备受关注的研究热点。本文就 gp41的结构、融合机制以及肽类融合抑制剂的研究进展进行了综述。%The transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 of HIV-1 plays a key role in HIV-1 infection and transmission,mediating the fusion of virus and target cell membranes. Developing various peptides and peptidomimetics used as fusion inhibitors have be-came an attractive research area since the first peptide fusion inhibitor(T-20)targeting HIV-1 gp41 approved by FDA in 2003. This review summarizes the structure and fusion mechanism of gp41 and the recent progresses in the design and development of novel peptides and peptidominetics used as HIV-1 fusion inhibitors.

  6. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  7. Restrictive Dermopathy: Report of Two Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Sheng Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Restrictive dermopathy (RD is a rare and lethal autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by very tight, thin, and easily eroded skin and contracture of joints. We present two siblings in a family. Case 1, a female neonate, showed mild characteristic presentations of RD and survived for 16 days, and Case 2, a male neonate, was stillborn with typical severe features of RD. His skin biopsy showed typical histological findings, and genetic study revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation on the exon 6 of zinc metalloproteinase STE24 (ZMPSTE24. The exact pathogenic mechanism of RD remains poorly understood. The most recent studies on mutations in lamin A and/or ZMPSTE24 have shed some light on the pathophysiology of RD and may help direct the development of future therapeutic approaches.

  8. Mining for Restriction Endonucleases in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyén S. Espinoza-Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Molecular Biology Center at the University of Central America in Nicaragua (CBM-UCA was founded in 1999 to strengthen biotechnology research capacity and education in Nicaragua and the Central American region. One of the first projects launched by the CBM-UCA was bio-prospecting for key industrial enzymes. This ongoing study seeks to discover and characterize restriction enzymes (RE in bacteria, and to create a database of microorganisms isolated and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing methodology. In this paper we highlight the importance of studying the extreme environmental conditions for building knowledge of Nicaraguan biodiversity through modern molecular biology techniques such as metagenomics. The isolation of prototype enzymes such as EcoRV and ClaI is presented as an update and extension of previously undertaken work.

  9. Constrictive Pericarditis Versus Restrictive Cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mario J

    2016-05-01

    About one-half of the patients with congestive heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although the etiology of HFpEF is most commonly related to long-standing hypertension and atherosclerosis, a significant number of suspected HFpEF patients have a restrictive cardiomyopathy or chronic pericardial disease. Recognizing these syndromes is important because early diagnosis may lead to instituting specific therapy that may prolong survival, improve quality of life, and/or recognize and treat an underlying systemic disorder. Advances in diagnostic imaging, biomarkers, and genetic testing today allow identification of the specific etiology in most cases. Novel pharmacological, immunologic, and surgical therapies are leading to improved quality of life and survival.

  10. Formation reconfiguration in restricted three body problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengping Gong; Junfeng Li; Hexi Baoyin; Yunfeng Gao

    2007-01-01

    Reconfiguration of formation flying around a halo orbit of the Sun-Earth restricted three body system is investigated with impulse maneuvers. For a short time reconfiguration, the two-impulse maneuver is investigated with both analytical and numerical methods and the BeginningEnding (BE) method is proven to be an energy-optimal one of all two-impulse (TI) reconfigurations, and the energy consumption of BE is independent of the position of the chief spacecraft, and decreases with the reconfiguration time.Then, genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the energy consumption. The results show that the optimal energy increases with radius difference between the initial and final orbits, and decreases with the reconfiguration time.

  11. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S. P.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  12. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines on Word Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dahl, George E; Larochelle, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    The restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is a flexible tool for modeling complex data, however there have been significant computational difficulties in using RBMs to model high-dimensional multinomial observations. In natural language processing applications, words are naturally modeled by K-ary discrete distributions, where K is determined by the vocabulary size and can easily be in the hundred thousands. The conventional approach to training RBMs on word observations is limited because it requires sampling the states of K-way softmax visible units during block Gibbs updates, an operation that takes time linear in K. In this work, we address this issue by employing a more general class of Markov chain Monte Carlo operators on the visible units, yielding updates with computational complexity independent of K. We demonstrate the success of our approach by training RBMs on hundreds of millions of word n-grams using larger vocabularies than previously feasible with RBMs and using the learned features to improve p...

  13. Restriction Enzymes in Microbiology, Biotechnology and Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey G. Wilson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the nineteen-seventies, a collection of simple enzymes termed Type II restriction endonucleases, made by microbes to ward off viral infections, have transformed molecular biology, spawned the multi-billion dollar Biotechnology industry, and yielded fundamental insights into the biochemistry of life, health and disease. In this article we describe how these enzymes were discovered, and we review their properties, organizations and genetics. We summarize current ideas about the mechanism underlying their remarkable ability to recognize and bind to specific base pair sequences in DNA, and we discuss why these ideas might not be correct. We conclude by proposing an alternative explanation for sequence-recognition that resolves certain inconsistencies and provides, in our view, a more satisfactory account of the mechanism.

  14. Classification of Sets using Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Louradour, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of classification when inputs correspond to sets of vectors. This setting occurs in many problems such as the classification of pieces of mail containing several pages, of web sites with several sections or of images that have been pre-segmented into smaller regions. We propose generalizations of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that are appropriate in this context and explore how to incorporate different assumptions about the relationship between the input sets and the target class within the RBM. In experiments on standard multiple-instance learning datasets, we demonstrate the competitiveness of approaches based on RBMs and apply the proposed variants to the problem of incoming mail classification.

  15. Lentivirus Restriction by Diverse Primate APOBEC3A Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kimberly; Guo, Kejun; Katuwal, Miki; Wilson, Darayu; Prochnow, Courtney; Bransteitter, Ronda; Chen, Xiaojiang S.; Santiago, Mario L.; Stephens, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaque APOBEC3A (rhA3A) is capable of restricting both simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVΔvif) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1Δvif) greater extent than hA3A. We constructed chimeric A3A proteins to define the domains required for differential lentivirus restriction. Substitution of amino acids 25–33 from rhA3A into hA3A was sufficient to restrict HIVΔvif to levels similar to rhA3A restriction of SHIVΔvif. We tested if differential lentivirus restriction is conserved between A3A from Old World monkey and hominid lineages. A3A from African green monkey restricted SHIVΔvif but not HIV-1Δvif and colobus monkey A3A restricted both wild type and SHIVΔvif and HIV-1Δvif. In contrast the gibbon ape A3A restricted neither SHIVΔvif nor HIV-1Δvif. Restriction of SHIVΔvif and HIV-1Δvif by New World monkey A3A proteins was not conserved as the A3A from the squirrel monkey but not the northern owl monkey restricted SHIVΔvif. Finally, the colobus A3A protein appears to restrict by a novel post-entry mechanism. PMID:23648232

  16. Botulinum toxin for treatment of restrictive strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Pilar S; Vera, Rebeca E; Mariñas, Laura G; Gómez de Liaño, Pilar S; Escribano, Jose V

    To study the types of acquired restrictive strabismus treated in a tertiary hospital and the outcome of treatment with botulinum toxin. We performed a 10-year retrospective study of patients with restrictive strabismus aged ≥18 years who were treated with botulinum toxin. Treatment was considered successful if the final vertical deviation was ≤5 PD, horizontal deviation ≤10 PD, with no head turn or diplopia. We included 27 cases (mean age, 61.9 years). Horizontal strabismus was diagnosed in 11.1%, vertical in 51.9%, and mixed in 37%. Strabismus was secondary to cataract surgery in 6 cases, high myopia in 6, orbital fractures in 5, retinal surgery in 5, Graves ophthalmopathy in 4, and repair of conjunctival injury in 1 case. Diplopia was diagnosed in all patients, head turn in 33.3%. The initial deviation was 14 PD (range, 2-40), the mean number of injections per patient was 1.6 (range, 1-3), and the mean dose was 9.5 IU (range, 2.5-22.5). At the end of follow-up, diplopia was recorded in 59.3%, head turn in 18.5%, surgical treatment in 51.9%, and need for prism glasses in 14.8%. Outcome was successful in 37% of patients (4 high myopia, 3 orbital fractures, 2 post-surgical retinal detachment, and 1 post-cataract surgery). Mean follow-up was 3±1.8 years. Vertical deviation was observed in half of the sample. The most frequent deviation was secondary to cataract surgery and high myopia. Treatment with botulinum toxin was successful in one-third of the patients at the end of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Trophoblast differentiation, fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold

    2011-01-01

    The number of hypotheses trying to decipher the etiologies of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR) is still increasing. However, for preeclampsia the actual knowledge we have is that the placenta is a prerequisite for the development of the syndrome. The recent years have seen a shift in understanding of the causes of preeclampsia from mostly focusing on the extravillous trophoblast towards the dysregulation of villous trophoblast development and maintenance. It seems as if a failure of the villous syncytiotrophoblast differentiation results in abnormal release of non-apoptotic fragments into maternal blood. In preeclampsia such necrotic or aponecrotic fragments can be found in maternal blood systemically and seem to be causative in the development of the inflammatory response of the mother. In cases with fetal growth restriction (FGR) extravillous trophoblast fails to adequately transform uterine spiral arteries. However, in FGR cases abnormal development of villous cytotrophoblast may have an impact on fetal nutrition without the induction of an inflammatory response of the mother. It is still unclear why the villous trophoblast fails to achieve an adequate turnover both in preeclampsia and in FGR. However, the detection of new biomarkers for preeclampsia such as placental protein 13 (PP13) has helped in clarifying the issue of when the syndrome starts to develop. PP13 levels in maternal serum are significantly altered already at six to seven weeks of gestation in women subsequently developing preeclampsia. Thus, there needs to be a very early alteration of villous development in such placentas. Herein the changes in villous trophoblast in preeclampsia and FGR are compared and differences between both scenarios are presented.

  18. AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Henry C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome assembly is difficult due to repeated sequences within the genome, which create ambiguities and cause the final assembly to be broken up into many separate sequences (contigs. Long range linking information, such as mate-pairs or mapping data, is necessary to help assembly software resolve repeats, thereby leading to a more complete reconstruction of genomes. Prior work has used optical maps for validating assemblies and scaffolding contigs, after an initial assembly has been produced. However, optical maps have not previously been used within the genome assembly process. Here, we use optical map information within the popular de Bruijn graph assembly paradigm to eliminate paths in the de Bruijn graph which are not consistent with the optical map and help determine the correct reconstruction of the genome. Results We developed a new algorithm called AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment. AGORA is the first algorithm to use optical map information directly within the de Bruijn graph framework to help produce an accurate assembly of a genome that is consistent with the optical map information provided. Our simulations on bacterial genomes show that AGORA is effective at producing assemblies closely matching the reference sequences. Additionally, we show that noise in the optical map can have a strong impact on the final assembly quality for some complex genomes, and we also measure how various characteristics of the starting de Bruijn graph may impact the quality of the final assembly. Lastly, we show that a proper choice of restriction enzyme for the optical map may substantially improve the quality of the final assembly. Conclusions Our work shows that optical maps can be used effectively to assemble genomes within the de Bruijn graph assembly framework. Our experiments also provide insights into the characteristics of the mapping data that most affect the performance of our algorithm, indicating the

  19. Restricted Repetitive Sampling in Designing of Control Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Mughal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a criteria have been defined to classify the existing repetitive sampling into soft, moderate and strict conditions. Behind this division a ratio has been suggested i.e. c2 (constant used in repetitive limits to c1(constant used in control limit in slabs. A restricted criterion has been devised on the existing repetitive sampling. By embedding the proposed schematic in the control chart it becomes highly efficient in detecting the shifts quite earlier as well as it detects even smaller shifts at smaller ARLs. To facilitate the user for best choice the restricted criterion has further categorized to softly restricted, moderately restricted and strictly restricted. The restricted conditions are dependent on value of restriction parameter ’m’ varies 2 to 6. The application of proposed scheme on selected cases is given in tables which are self explanatory.

  20. Nutrient intake and food restriction in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjin; Song, Kyunghee; Kim, Ran; Sim, Jiyeon; Park, Eunah; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD.

  1. Restriction of bacteriophage plaque formation in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, K L; Baltz, R H

    1984-08-01

    Several Streptomyces species that produce restriction endonucleases were characterized for their ability to propagate 10 different broad host range bacteriophages. Each species displayed a different pattern of plaque formation. A restrictionless mutant of S. albus G allowed plaque formation by all 10 phages, whereas the wild-type strain showed plaques with only 2 phages. DNA isolated from three of the phages was analyzed for the presence of restriction sites for Streptomyces species-encoded enzymes, and a very strong correlation was established between the failure to form plaques on Streptomyces species that produced particular restriction enzymes and the presence of the corresponding restriction sites in the phage DNA. Also, the phages that lacked restriction sites in their DNA generally formed plaques on the corresponding restriction endonuclease-producing hosts at high efficiency. The DNAs from the three phages analyzed also generally contained either many or no restriction sites for the Streptomyces species-produced enzymes, suggesting a strong evolutionary trend to either eliminate all or tolerate many restriction sites. The data indicate that restriction plays a major role in host range determination for Streptomyces phages. Analysis of bacteriophage host ranges of many other uncharacterized Streptomyces hosts has identified four relatively nonrestricting hosts, at least two of which may be suitable hosts for gene cloning. The data also suggest that several restriction systems remain to be identified in the genus Streptomyces.

  2. Detection of possible restriction sites for type II restriction enzymes in DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagniuc, P; Cimponeriu, D; Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, C; Mihai, Andrada; Stavarachi, Monica; Mihai, T; Gavrilă, L

    2011-01-01

    In order to make a step forward in the knowledge of the mechanism operating in complex polygenic disorders such as diabetes and obesity, this paper proposes a new algorithm (PRSD -possible restriction site detection) and its implementation in Applied Genetics software. This software can be used for in silico detection of potential (hidden) recognition sites for endonucleases and for nucleotide repeats identification. The recognition sites for endonucleases may result from hidden sequences through deletion or insertion of a specific number of nucleotides. Tests were conducted on DNA sequences downloaded from NCBI servers using specific recognition sites for common type II restriction enzymes introduced in the software database (n = 126). Each possible recognition site indicated by the PRSD algorithm implemented in Applied Genetics was checked and confirmed by NEBcutter V2.0 and Webcutter 2.0 software. In the sequence NG_008724.1 (which includes 63632 nucleotides) we found a high number of potential restriction sites for ECO R1 that may be produced by deletion (n = 43 sites) or insertion (n = 591 sites) of one nucleotide. The second module of Applied Genetics has been designed to find simple repeats sizes with a real future in understanding the role of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) in the pathogenesis of the complex metabolic disorders. We have tested the presence of simple repetitive sequences in five DNA sequence. The software indicated exact position of each repeats detected in the tested sequences. Future development of Applied Genetics can provide an alternative for powerful tools used to search for restriction sites or repetitive sequences or to improve genotyping methods.

  3. Calorie Restriction, Stem Cells, and Rejuvenation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging may be defined as the time-dependent deterioration in function of an organism associated with or responsible for the increase in susceptibility to disease and probability of death with advancing age (Harman, 1981; Cefalu, 2011. Generally, the aging organisms are characterized by both biochemical and functional declines. Declining of basal metabolism rates, protein turnover, glucose tolerance, reproductive capacity, telomere shortening, and oxidative phosphorylation are related to the biochemical. Whilst, lung expansion volume, renal glomerular and tubular capacities, cardiovascular performance, musculoskeletal system, nerve conduction velocity, endocrine and exocrine systems, immunological defenses, and sensory systems are associated with the physiological declining (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. Some evidences indicated that, although members of a species develop into adults in the same way, even genetically similar or identical individuals, raised in identical conditions and eating identical food, but they may age differently (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. These aging differences are attributable to the life style particularly calorie and dietary restriction intakes, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and thus its implication on severity of damage, repair capacity, and error accumulation in cellular genetic material (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015; Mihaylova et al., 2014; Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Therefore, in molecular terms, aging can be defined as a decline of the homeostatic mechanisms that ensure the function of cells, tissues, and organs systems (Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Accordingly, if the homeostatic mechanism can be repaired, the result is rejuvenation.

  4. An ontology for major histocompatibility restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Randi; Overton, James A; Seymour, Emily; Sidney, John; Kaufman, Jim; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Ellis, Shirley; Hammond, John; Butcher, Geoff W; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    MHC molecules are a highly diverse family of proteins that play a key role in cellular immune recognition. Over time, different techniques and terminologies have been developed to identify the specific type(s) of MHC molecule involved in a specific immune recognition context. No consistent nomenclature exists across different vertebrate species. To correctly represent MHC related data in The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), we built upon a previously established MHC ontology and created an ontology to represent MHC molecules as they relate to immunological experiments. This ontology models MHC protein chains from 16 species, deals with different approaches used to identify MHC, such as direct sequencing verses serotyping, relates engineered MHC molecules to naturally occurring ones, connects genetic loci, alleles, protein chains and multi-chain proteins, and establishes evidence codes for MHC restriction. Where available, this work is based on existing ontologies from the OBO foundry. Overall, representing MHC molecules provides a challenging and practically important test case for ontology building, and could serve as an example of how to integrate other ontology building efforts into web resources.

  5. Blood flow restricted exercise and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Okita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR) leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  6. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  7. Migration policy: from restriction to regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z

    1996-12-01

    This article describes the extent of rural-urban migration, the flows by province in 1992, and social policies relating to migration in China. Population movements followed several patterns: increased flows from rural-urban areas during 1945-66, reversed flows back to rural areas during the Cultural Revolution of 1966-77, and relaxed controls during 1978-87 and increased rural-urban migration. Migration policy began on a strict household registration system. Restrictions were eased to allow for regulation and allocation of surplus rural workers. Rapid industrial development helped China recover from the war. Peak movements were in 1958 during the "Great Leap Forward." An estimated 19 million rural workers were recruited during 1958-60. Supply of labor exceeded needs, and urban governments reversed this strategy in 1961. During the 1960s, the household registration system was strictly enforced. Urban population declined during 1965-76. Youth were required to reeducate themselves in farming areas. During 1978-87, China's central leadership established the household land-contract responsibility system and grain production increased. Limits on arable land resulted in surplus labor. In the mid-1980s, policy focused on nonagricultural wage labor in local factories. After 1988, the government encouraged development of cities and towns and village enterprises under the socialist market economy. It is likely that now the labor market rather than the household registration system will control the size, direction, and selectivity of migration.

  8. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  9. Mechanistic insights into type III restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Nidhanapati K; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara; Rao, Desirazu N

    2012-01-01

    Type III restriction-modification (R-M) enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in indirectly repeated, head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location next to only one of the two sites. However, cleavage of sites that are not in head-to-head orientation have been observed to occur under certain reaction conditions in vitro. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites prior to cleavage. Type III R-M enzymes comprise two subunits, Res and Mod that form a homodimeric Mod2 and a heterotetrameric Res2Mod2 complex. The Mod subunit in M2 or R2M2 complex recognizes and methylates DNA while the Res subunit in R2M2 complex is responsible for ATP hydrolysis, DNA translocation and cleavage. A vast majority of biochemical studies on Type III R-M enzymes have been undertaken using two closely related enzymes, EcoP1I and EcoP15I. Divergent opinions about how the long-distance interaction between the recognition sites exist and at least three mechanistic models based on 1D- diffusion and/or 3D- DNA looping have been proposed.

  10. Second law of thermodynamics under control restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilming, H; Gallego, R; Eisert, J

    2016-04-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, formulated as an ultimate bound on the maximum extractable work, has been rigorously derived in multiple scenarios. However, the unavoidable limitations that emerge due to the lack of control on small systems are often disregarded when deriving such bounds, which is specifically important in the context of quantum thermodynamics. Here we study the maximum extractable work with limited control over the working system and its interaction with the heat bath. We derive a general second law when the set of accessible Hamiltonians of the working system is arbitrarily restricted. We then apply our bound to particular scenarios that are important in realistic implementations: limitations on the maximum energy gap and local control over many-body systems. We hence demonstrate in what precise way the lack of control affects the second law. In particular, contrary to the unrestricted case, we show that the optimal work extraction is not achieved by simple thermal contacts. Our results not only generalize the second law to scenarios of practical relevance, but also take first steps in the direction of local thermodynamics.

  11. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  12. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-03-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency.

  13. Restrictions in Availability of Drugs Used for Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Availability of drugs with high lethality has been hypothesized to increase the risk of self-poisoning suicides. A literature search concerning deliberate self-poisoning and the effect of restricting access to drugs was conducted, and the effect of restrictions in availability of barbiturates......, tricyclic antidepressants, dextropropoxyphene, and weak analgesics was reviewed. The correlations between method-specific and overall suicide rates and sales figures for barbiturates, dextropropoxyphene, weak analgesics, and tricyclic antidepressants were reviewed. It is concluded that restriction...

  14. Maternal Nutrient Restriction Predisposes Ventricular Remodeling in Adult Sheep Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Wei; Hu, Nan; George, Lindsey A; Ford, Stephen P.; Peter W Nathanielsz; Wang, Xiaoming; Ren, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy is associated with the development of a “thrifty phenotype” in offspring, conferring increased prevalence of metabolic diseases in adulthood. To explore the possible mechanisms behind heart diseases in adulthood following maternal nutrient restriction, dams were fed a nutrient restricted (NR: 50%) or control (100%) diet from 28 to 78 d of gestation. Both groups were then fed 100% of requirements to lambing. At 6 yrs of age, female offspring of NR...

  15. Earth system multi-body restriction dynamics model research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Qingxian; BI; Siwen; GONG; Huili

    2006-01-01

    Research provides a theoretical basis for an Earth system multi-body mechanics model and its dynamics, including the Earth system multi-body restriction function and its power, Earth system multi-body restriction under decreasing generalized velocity and decreasing partial palstance, the Earth system multi-body decreasing generalized force, a moving mechanics function, and the Earth system multi-body restriction's wattful and wattless forces.

  16. Consequences in Infants That Were Intrauterine Growth Restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Cosmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition fetus does not reach its growth potential and associated with perinatal mobility and mortality. Intrauterine growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, which determines cardiovascular abnormalities in the fetus. This condition, moreover, should prompt intensive antenatal surveillance of the fetus as well as follow-up of infants that had intrauterine growth restriction as short and long-term sequele should be considered.

  17. Perceived Benefits of Fisheries Management Restrictions in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim R. McClanahan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions of the benefits of fisheries management restrictions were evaluated in coastal Madagascar to identify restrictions that are likely to be self- and community enforced. The survey focused on 24 Malagasy fishing villages adjacent to coral reefs. Resource users' perceptions of the benefits of restrictions were generally high and widespread, but some less positive perceptions were found in three villages located near marine protected areas. Perceptions of the benefits of gear restrictions had widespread support; closed areas, seasons, and minimum sizes of fish were less common; and restrictions on species were supported infrequently. We therefore advocate a management implementation approach that uses these scales of perceived benefits and prioritizes support for the most widely accepted restrictions most broadly, with the less accepted restrictions matched to specific supportive locations. At the village level, socioeconomic and wealth variables were not clearly associated with perceived benefits, which we suggest results from a stronger influence of village history than socioeconomic conditions. At the individual fisher level, however, there was evidence that experienced people involved in decision-making, having livelihood alternatives, and having permanent housing had more opinions and frequently were more supportive of management restrictions. Incorporating this information into forums and management plans is expected to increase the rate of adoption and compliance with needed fisheries restrictions.

  18. Feed restriction followed by realimentation in prepubescent Zebu females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Mariz, Tobyas Maia de Albuquerque; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Cândido, Ebson Pereira; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevedo

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of restricting the feed intake for 77 days and subsequent compensatory growth for 50 days of Sindi females were evaluated. Eighteen animals with an initial age of 21 months and a mean weight of 211.7 kg were placed into three groups according to the following alimentary regimens: feed ad libitum, feed restricted to 20 % dry matter, and feed restricted to 40 % dry matter. In the feed-restriction phase, the nutrient intake decreased (Pglucose, calcium, and phosphorus were inversely proportional (Pfeed-restriction phase, their weights (Pfeed-restriction phase, the control group had a similar mean daily weight gain (P>0.05) to animals in the 20 % restricted group and (Prates (Pfeed-restriction phase, ingested nitrogen, nitrogen excreted in urine and feces, nitrogen balance and retained nitrogen decreased (Prates and greater weight gains in the realimentation phase. Based on the animals' compensatory weight gain, a feed-restriction rate of 20 and 40 % can be adopted as a nutritional management practice for prepubescent Sindi females.

  19. Type I restriction endonucleases are true catalytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Piero R; Xu, Cuiling; Chi, Min

    2009-06-01

    Type I restriction endonucleases are intriguing, multifunctional complexes that restrict DNA randomly, at sites distant from the target sequence. Restriction at distant sites is facilitated by ATP hydrolysis-dependent, translocation of double-stranded DNA towards the stationary enzyme bound at the recognition sequence. Following restriction, the enzymes are thought to remain associated with the DNA at the target site, hydrolyzing copious amounts of ATP. As a result, for the past 35 years type I restriction endonucleases could only be loosely classified as enzymes since they functioned stoichiometrically relative to DNA. To further understand enzyme mechanism, a detailed analysis of DNA cleavage by the EcoR124I holoenzyme was done. We demonstrate for the first time that type I restriction endonucleases are not stoichiometric but are instead catalytic with respect to DNA. Further, the mechanism involves formation of a dimer of holoenzymes, with each monomer bound to a target sequence and, following cleavage, each dissociates in an intact form to bind and restrict subsequent DNA molecules. Therefore, type I restriction endonucleases, like their type II counterparts, are true enzymes. The conclusion that type I restriction enzymes are catalytic relative to DNA has important implications for the in vivo function of these previously enigmatic enzymes.

  20. Thermodynamic restrictions on the constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, B. D.; Dill, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Thermodynamics second law restrictions on constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory for nonlinear materials with long-range gradually fading memory, considering dissipation principle consequences

  1. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  2. Parental factors associated with intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hăşmăşanu Monica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Linear growth failure is caused by multiple factors including parental factors. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR on a population of Romanian newborn infants in a tertiary level maternity facility for a period of 2.5 years. Methods. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted in the Emergency County Hospital of Cluj-Napoca, a university hospital in North-Western Romania. The sample was selected from 4,790 infants admitted to the Neonatal Ward at 1st Gynecology Clinic between January 2012 and June 2014. Results. The age of mothers was significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to controls (p=0.041. A significantly higher percentage of mothers had hypertension in the IUGR group compared to those in the control group (p0.13. The age of fathers of infants with IUGR proved significantly lower compared to controls (p=0.0278. The analysis of infants’ comorbidities revealed no significant difference between groups for respiratory distress, hyperbilirubinemia, hypocalcaemia, and heart failure (p>0.27. Intracranial hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and hypoglycemia were significantly higher in the IUGR group compared to controls. The logistic regression identified hypertension as a significant risk factor for IUGR (OR=2.4, 95% CI [1.3-4.5]. Conclusion. Although the age of the mothers and fathers proved significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to controls, only hypertension in the mothers proved significant risk factors for IUGR.

  3. Crowding during restricted and free viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julian M; Chiu, Michael K; Nandy, Anirvan S; Tjan, Bosco S

    2013-05-24

    Crowding impairs the perception of form in peripheral vision. It is likely to be a key limiting factor of form vision in patients without central vision. Crowding has been extensively studied in normally sighted individuals, typically with a stimulus duration of a few hundred milliseconds to avoid eye movements. These restricted testing conditions do not reflect the natural behavior of a patient with central field loss. Could unlimited stimulus duration and unrestricted eye movements change the properties of crowding in any fundamental way? We studied letter identification in the peripheral vision of normally sighted observers in three conditions: (i) a fixation condition with a brief stimulus presentation of 250 ms, (ii) another fixation condition but with an unlimited viewing time, and (iii) an unrestricted eye movement condition with an artificial central scotoma and an unlimited viewing time. In all conditions, contrast thresholds were measured as a function of target-to-flanker spacing, from which we estimated the spatial extent of crowding in terms of critical spacing. We found that presentation duration beyond 250 ms had little effect on critical spacing with stable gaze. With unrestricted eye movements and a simulated central scotoma, we found a large variability in critical spacing across observers, but more importantly, the variability in critical spacing was well correlated with the variability in target eccentricity. Our results assure that the large body of findings on crowding made with briefly presented stimuli remains relevant to conditions where viewing time is unconstrained. Our results further suggest that impaired oculomotor control associated with central vision loss can confound peripheral form vision beyond the limits imposed by crowding.

  4. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Bloomer; Gunnels, Trint A; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitu...

  5. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and ...

  6. 7 CFR 982.452 - Disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.452 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... hazelnuts. (a) Shelling. (1) Any person desiring to shell restricted hazelnuts during a fiscal year may...

  7. 7 CFR 982.52 - Disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.52 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... restricted hazelnuts. Hazelnuts withheld from handling as inshell hazelnuts pursuant to §§ 982.50 and...

  8. 49 CFR 236.813a - State, most restrictive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State, most restrictive. 236.813a Section 236.813a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... State, most restrictive. The mode of an electric or electronic device that is equivalent to a...

  9. Reverse triple I method of restriction for fuzzy reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A theory of reverse triple I method of restriction for implication operator R0 is proposed.And the general computation formulas of infimum for fuzzy modus ponens and supremum for fuzzy modus tollens of a-reverse triple I method of restriction are obtained respectively.

  10. Supporting several levels of restriction in the UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide; Thomsen, Michael;

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Bas...

  11. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun;...

  12. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3)...

  13. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun;...

  14. On some Frobenius Restriction Theorems for Semistable Sheaves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Mehta; V Trivedi

    2009-02-01

    We prove a version of an effective Frobenius restriction theorem for semistable bundles in characteristic . The main novelty is in restricting the bundle to the -fold thickening of a hypersurface section. The base variety is /, an abelian variety or a smooth projective toric variety.

  15. 75 FR 61612 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... ellen.crum@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On November 30, 1999 (64 FR 66768), the FAA... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions AGENCY... amending its airports and locations special operating restrictions regulation to clarify a...

  16. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advertised unless the advertisement contains a statement of its restricted use classification. (b) The... advertisement. The requirement may be satisfied with respect to broadcast or telephone advertising by inclusion... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use...

  17. 48 CFR 1403.570 - Restrictions on contractor advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on contractor advertising. 1403.570 Section 1403.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... 1403.570 Restrictions on contractor advertising....

  18. Study on interest rate restrictions (IRR): Belgian national report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannerom, J.; Terryn, E.

    2010-01-01

    DG Internal Market and Services of the European Commission have commissioned us to conduct a study on interest rate restrictions in consumer credit covering unsecured and secured credit (i.e. including mortgage credit). This project aims to identify the different types of interest rate restrictions

  19. Proteasomal degradation of TRIM5alpha during retrovirus restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Rold

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The host protein TRIM5alpha inhibits retroviral infection at an early post-penetration stage by targeting the incoming viral capsid. While the detailed mechanism of restriction remains unclear, recent studies have implicated the activity of cellular proteasomes in the restriction of retroviral reverse transcription imposed by TRIM5alpha. Here, we show that TRIM5alpha is rapidly degraded upon encounter of a restriction-susceptible retroviral core. Inoculation of TRIM5alpha-expressing human 293T cells with a saturating level of HIV-1 particles resulted in accelerated degradation of the HIV-1-restrictive rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha protein but not the nonrestrictive human TRIM5alpha protein. Exposure of cells to HIV-1 also destabilized the owl monkey restriction factor TRIMCyp; this was prevented by addition of the inhibitor cyclosporin A and was not observed with an HIV-1 virus containing a mutation in the capsid protein that relieves restriction by TRIMCyp IVHIV. Likewise, human TRIM5alpha was rapidly degraded upon encounter of the restriction-sensitive N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV but not the unrestricted B-MLV. Pretreatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors prevented the HIV-1-induced loss of both rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha and TRIMCyp proteins. We also detected degradation of endogenous TRIM5alpha in rhesus macaque cells following HIV-1 infection. We conclude that engagement of a restriction-sensitive retrovirus core results in TRIM5alpha degradation by a proteasome-dependent mechanism.

  20. Proteasomal degradation of TRIM5alpha during retrovirus restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Rold

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The host protein TRIM5alpha inhibits retroviral infection at an early post-penetration stage by targeting the incoming viral capsid. While the detailed mechanism of restriction remains unclear, recent studies have implicated the activity of cellular proteasomes in the restriction of retroviral reverse transcription imposed by TRIM5alpha. Here, we show that TRIM5alpha is rapidly degraded upon encounter of a restriction-susceptible retroviral core. Inoculation of TRIM5alpha-expressing human 293T cells with a saturating level of HIV-1 particles resulted in accelerated degradation of the HIV-1-restrictive rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha protein but not the nonrestrictive human TRIM5alpha protein. Exposure of cells to HIV-1 also destabilized the owl monkey restriction factor TRIMCyp; this was prevented by addition of the inhibitor cyclosporin A and was not observed with an HIV-1 virus containing a mutation in the capsid protein that relieves restriction by TRIMCyp IVHIV. Likewise, human TRIM5alpha was rapidly degraded upon encounter of the restriction-sensitive N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV but not the unrestricted B-MLV. Pretreatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors prevented the HIV-1-induced loss of both rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha and TRIMCyp proteins. We also detected degradation of endogenous TRIM5alpha in rhesus macaque cells following HIV-1 infection. We conclude that engagement of a restriction-sensitive retrovirus core results in TRIM5alpha degradation by a proteasome-dependent mechanism.

  1. The contact geometry of the restricted 3-body problem

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, Peter; van Koert, Otto; Paternain, Gabriel P

    2010-01-01

    We show that the planar circular restricted three body problem is of restricted contact type for all energies below the first critical value (action of the first Lagrange point) and for energies slightly above it. This opens up the possibility of using the technology of Contact Topology to understand this particular dynamical system.

  2. 24 CFR 200.72 - Zoning, deed and building restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zoning, deed and building restrictions. 200.72 Section 200.72 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Zoning, deed and building restrictions. The project when completed shall not violate any material...

  3. 24 CFR 242.78 - Zoning, deed, and building restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zoning, deed, and building... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.78 Zoning, deed, and building restrictions. The project when completed shall not violate any material zoning or deed restrictions...

  4. 32 CFR 228.15 - Restriction regarding animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction regarding animals. 228.15 Section 228.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.15 Restriction regarding animals. No animals...

  5. 32 CFR 234.12 - Restriction on animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 234.12 Section 234.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.12 Restriction on animals. Animals, except guide...

  6. 5 CFR 295.207 - Restrictions that apply to testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions that apply to testimony. 295.207 Section 295.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... PROCEEDINGS Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents § 295.207 Restrictions that apply to...

  7. Acute sleep restriction reduces insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction.......Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction....

  8. 7 CFR 2200.10 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 2200.10 Section 2200.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD... Restrictions on lobbying. (a) No funds received through a Loan guaranteed under this Program in this...

  9. 7 CFR 1726.17 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1726.17 Section 1726.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.17 Restrictions on...

  10. 7 CFR 761.5 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 761.5 Section 761.5... lobbying. A person who applies for or receives a loan made or guaranteed by the Agency must comply with the restrictions on lobbying in 7 CFR part 3018....

  11. 13 CFR 400.108 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 400.108 Section 400.108 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 400.108 Restrictions on lobbying. (a) No funds received through...

  12. 7 CFR 1944.657 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Restrictions on lobbying. 1944.657 Section 1944.657...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.657 Restrictions on lobbying... funds for lobbying the Federal Government in connection with a specific grant....

  13. 13 CFR 500.108 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 500.108 Section 500.108 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 500.108 Restrictions on lobbying. (a) No...

  14. Medical restrictions to driving: the awareness of patients and doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R; Warke, T; Steele, I

    1999-09-01

    The study was set up to investigate the awareness of elderly patients and medical doctors of medical restrictions to driving. Separate questionnaires were completed by patients and doctors. All were interviewed face-to-face, without prior warning and their immediate answers were recorded. In total, 150 elderly patients from the acute elderly care wards, rehabilitation wards and day hospital, and 50 doctors (including all grades from consultant to junior house officer) were interviewed. The main outcome measures were numbers of patients currently driving and previously driving; patients' awareness of how their medical condition affected their ability to drive; doctors' spontaneous knowledge of medical conditions which restrict driving, current licensing policy, and restrictions for five specific medical conditions (epilepsy, myocardial infarction, stroke, 5-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm, and diabetes). Only 21 patients were current drivers, and six of these should not have been driving. While 103 perceived themselves eligible to drive, 46 had medical restrictions to driving. Seventeen of the 47 patients who perceived themselves not eligible to drive possibly did not have restrictions to driving. Doctors' knowledge of the current licensing policy and action to be taken if a patient was not eligible to drive was very poor. Knowledge of medical restrictions to driving was scanty, with few doctors giving the correct driving restrictions for the five specific conditions. We recommend that education of doctors regarding medical restrictions to driving should begin at an undergraduate level and be continued throughout their postgraduate career.

  15. Consequences of intrauterine growth restriction for the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Schreuder; A. van Wijk (Ans); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction

  16. Restriction digestion method for haplotyping the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    A restriction digestion method has been developed for haplotyping the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc., an economically important pest of solanaceous crops. This method differentiates the four known potato psyllid haplotypes by utilizing restriction enzyme digestion of a portion of the ...

  17. 50 CFR 640.22 - Gear and diving restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear and diving restrictions. 640.22 Section 640.22 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.22 Gear and diving restrictions. (a) Prohibited gear and methods. (1)...

  18. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing the...

  19. Reduced Automatic Motivational Orientation Towards Food in Restricting Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    A striking and characteristic feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that they are extremely successful in regulating their food intake in a destructive manner. A possible explanation for the persistent character of their restricted food intake could be a loss of the motivati

  20. Obstacle crossing with lower visual field restriction: Shifts in strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.E.M.; Toet, A.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated how restriction of the vertical viewing angle influences obstacle-crossing behavior. Twelve participants stepped over obstacles of different dimensions while wearing visual-field-restricting goggles. Using full-body motion capture, several kinematic measures w

  1. 76 FR 50535 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State... respect to Lebanon and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the...

  2. Synthesis of conformationally restricted beta-turn mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselstijn, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing methods for introducing conformational restriction in Beta-turns, the turn elements present in Beta-sheets. A conformationally restricted peptide might either be formed via incorporation of a bridging diamino acids in a growing peptide chain, or via covalent bond formi

  3. The challenge of cost restrictions in smile design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, N

    1991-09-01

    This article demonstrates a method for smile enhancement involving the familiar "gummy" smile as well as irregular incisor gingival emergence levels. In this case study, financial considerations limited a comprehensive restorative treatment plan, restricting changes to several anterior teeth. Despite the restrictions, a solution was found.

  4. Semiparametric regression for restricted mean residual life under right censoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    is not observed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose the proportional restricted mean residual life model for fitting survival data under right censoring. For inference on the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the asymptotic properties...

  5. Does Evidence Drive Fluid Volume Restriction in Chronic Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin K; Thornton, Nathaniel

    2017-06-01

    Chronic heart failure is a chronic condition that is associated with increased health care expenditures and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Mainstay in heart failure management has been the prescription of a fluid restriction. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence for fluid restriction in chronic heart failure patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 33 CFR 334.1310 - Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... signs will not be lighted. (2) Dry Cargo dock mooring area. (i) The waters within 60 feet off the face... dropping and dragging of anchors, weights, or other ground tackle within the Dry Cargo dock mooring area is...; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) Army POL dock restricted area. (i) The waters of Lutak Inlet bounded as...

  7. Constructing Restricted Patterson Measures for Geometrically Infinite Kleinian Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kurt FALK; Bernd O. STRATMANN

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study exhaustions, referred to as ρ-restrictions, of arbitrary nonelementary Kleinian groups with at most finitely many bounded parabolic elements. Special emphasis is put on the geometrically infinite case, where we obtain that the limit set of each of these Kleinian groups contains an infinite family of closed subsets, referred to as ρ-restricted limit sets, such that there in this family. Generalizing concepts which are well known in the geometrically finite case, we then introduce the notion of ρ-restricted Patterson measure, and show that these measures are non-atomic,δρ-harmonic, δρ-subconformal on special sets and δρ-conformal on very special sets. Furthermore, we obtain the results that each ρ-restriction of our Kleinian group is of δρ-divergence type and that the Hausdorff dimension of the ρ-restricted limit set is equal to δρ.

  8. Quadratic Loss of Isotonic Normal Means Under Simultaneous Order Restrictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳萍; 史宁中

    2002-01-01

    For two normal populations with unknown means μ and unknown variances σ2,assume that there are simple order restrictions among the means and variances:μ1≤μ2 and σ12≥σ22>0,This case is said to be simultaneous order restriction by Shi (Maximum likelihood estimation of means and variances from normal populations under simultaneous order restrictions.J.Multivariate,Anal.50(1994),282-293.)and an iterative algorithm of computing the order restricted maximum likelihood estimates of μi and σi2 was given in that paper,This paper shows that the restricted maximum likelihood estimate of μi has smaller mean square loss than the usual estimate xi under some conditions.

  9. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    obstetricians and midwives prescribe activity restriction in most high-risk pregnancies. The degree of activity restriction and the presumed effect vary between clinicians. This may reflect different attitudes and lack of guidelines based on clinical studies of a possible benefit of activity restriction....... to the obstetricians, the midwives also reported that they expected the recommendation to be more effective. Most midwives and obstetricians reported that they thought strict activity restriction was associated with severe or moderate adverse effect, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis. Conclusions: Danish......Abstract Aims: To describe specific recommendations of activity restriction, place of care, expected beneficial and adverse effects, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis in nine clinical scenarios. Methods: A national survey. All members of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology...

  10. Restriction enzyme cutting site distribution regularity for DNA looping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, Pengyu; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Tian, Wenying; Xu, Wentao

    2014-01-25

    The restriction enzyme cutting site distribution regularity and looping conditions were studied systematically. We obtained the restriction enzyme cutting site distributions of 13 commonly used restriction enzymes in 5 model organism genomes through two novel self-compiled software programs. All of the average distances between two adjacent restriction sites fell sharply with increasing statistic intervals, and most fragments were 0-499 bp. A shorter DNA fragment resulted in a lower looping rate, which was also directly proportional to the DNA concentration. When the length was more than 500 bp, the concentration did not affect the looping rate. Therefore, the best known fragment length was longer than 500 bp, and did not contain the restriction enzyme cutting sites which would be used for digestion. In order to make the looping efficiencies reach nearly 100%, 4-5 single cohesive end systems were recommended to digest the genome separately.

  11. What is the best?: simple versus visitor restricted rest period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvius-Byron, Stephanie A; Florimonte, Christine; Panganiban, Elizabeth G; Ulmer, Janice Fitzgerald

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a highly structured planned rest protocol that includes visitor and healthcare personnel restrictions with a simple planned rest period that encourages patients to rest during a designated time without restriction of visitors and healthcare personnel. Many hospitals acute care have begun to restrict visitors and nonessential health team interventions during specific times despite the lack of experimentally designed studies. Using a convenience sample of 52 intermediate care unit patients, a randomized experimental design study compared a highly structured planned rest protocol with restriction of visitors/healthcare personnel to a simple planned rest period without restrictions. The primary outcome variable was the patient's perceived quality of rest after a 2-hour rest period. Intermediate care patients' perception of rest and sleep during a designated rest period was similar whether elaborate rest strategies were used, including visitor and healthcare personnel restrictions, or if it was only suggested they rest and the door to their room closed. The restriction of visitors and healthcare personnel during a 2-hour rest period did not improve the patient's perception of rest or how long it took them to go to sleep.

  12. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product. CONCLUSIONS: International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of

  13. Chances and restrictions for farms situated on areas with environmental restrictions - data from Polish FADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Niewęgłowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the higher environmental biodiversity of Poland in comparison to Europe and due of fact that 32.5% share of all areas are protected by Polish nature protection law – it is very important to make an analyis about managing on these areas. There are a lot of restrictions in the Polish nature protection law. Farm owners are obliged to manage their farms due to Polish nature protection law. Farmers operating on that areas ought to play double role on agrarian market. They are producers of Polish food with high quality first and they are managers of Polish landscape and biodiversity – second. Because of that there is a very important thing to find out how they manage the environmental in protected areas. Data source for this issue was Polish FADN. There are very interesting results from this issue but they are only the first data because they are from one year.

  14. Predicting support for restricting food marketing to youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Amir; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-01-01

    To address the obesity crisis, public health experts recommend major reductions in the marketing of unhealthy food to youth. However, policies to restrict food marketing are not currently viewed as politically feasible. This paper examines attitudes and knowledge about food marketing and support for restricting unhealthy food marketing [corrected] among one group of constituents: parents. A survey of 807 parents found that those most likely to support food marketing restrictions were also more likely to have negative views of current food practices. [corrected] These findings suggest that increased public education about the harm caused by food marketing may increase public support for policy interventions.

  15. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Chang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. Methods: In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15–49, presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. Results: HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23% in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Conclusion: Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions

  16. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-06-03

    Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15-49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions - a finding that is relevant to migrant populations and travel

  17. Company Law as a Restriction to Free Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on recent judgments from the Court of Justice of the European Union, this article investigates how the notion of ‘restriction’ – which is the first step in examining whether there is an infringement of the free movement rights – is used in cases involving company law measures....... There is evidence that non-discriminatory obstacles to free movement found in company law can be restrictions. However, recent cases show that the Court may be willing to apply a more restrictive approach where only non-discriminatory measures that have a qualified deterrent effect may constitute restrictions....

  18. Company Law as a Restriction to Free Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on recent judgments from the Court of Justice of the European Union, this article investigates how the notion of ‘restriction’ – which is the first step in examining whether there is an infringement of the free movement rights – is used in cases involving company law measures....... There is evidence that non-discriminatory obstacles to free movement found in company law can be restrictions. However, recent cases show that the Court may be willing to apply a more restrictive approach where only non-discriminatory measures that have a qualified deterrent effect may constitute restrictions....

  19. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  20. Adaptive Soft-sensor Modeling Algorithm Based on FCMISVM and Its Application in PX Adsorption Separation Process%基于FCMISVM的自适应软测量建模算法及其在PX吸附分离过程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅永峰; 苏宏业; 张英; 褚健

    2008-01-01

    To overcome the problem that soft sensor models cannot be updated with the process changes.a soft sensor modeling algorithm based on hybrid fuzzy C-means(FCM、algorithm and incremental support vector ma-chines(ISVM)iS proposed.This hybrid algorithm FCMISVM includes three parts:samples clustering based on FCM algorithm.leaming algorithm based on ISVM.and heuristic sample displacement method.In the training process,the training samples are first clustered bv the FCM algorithm.and then by training each clustering with the sVM algorithm.a sub-model is built to each clustering.In the predicting process.when an incremental sample that represents new operation information is introduced in the model,the fuzzy membership function of the sample to each clustering is first computed bv the FCM algorithm.Then.a corresponding SVM sub.model of the clustering with the largest fuzzy membership function iS used to predict and perform incremental learning SO the model can be updated on-line.An old sample chosen by heuristic sample displacement method iS then discarded from the sub-model to control the size of the working set.The proposed method is applied to predict the P-xylene(PX)purity in the adsorption separation process.Simulation results indicate that the proposed method actually increases the model'S adaptive abilities to various operation conditions and improves its generalization capability.

  1. 针刺百会、大椎穴对拟血管性痴呆大鼠脑内GSH-PX及CAT的影响%The effect of baihui、dazhui acupunture on the activity of GSA-PX and CAT in brains of imitative vascular dementia rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱崇霞; 张霁; 程为平; 原田俊英

    2004-01-01

    目的研究针刺百会、大椎穴对拟血管性痴呆(VD)大鼠的学习记忆行为及谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)的影响.方法选用纯系Wistar老年大鼠36只,随机分为假手术组、模型组、针刺组和西药组,每组分别为9只,采用2-血管阻断法制成VD大鼠模型,共治疗30天,治疗后以大鼠穿梭箱实验成绩检测学习记忆行为情况,并检测脑内谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶及过氧化氢酶的活力.结果针刺VD大鼠的百会大椎穴,可明显减少VD大鼠在穿梭箱实验中的电击次数和电击时间,脑内GSH-PX及CAT活力增强.结论针刺百会、大椎穴能提高VD大鼠的学习记忆能力,并能改善自由基的代谢.

  2. 补元聪脑汤对老年性痴呆大鼠行为学及GSH-PX活性的影响%Influence of Buyuan Congnao Decoction to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Rat Models's Behavior and GSH-PX's Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳芳; 陈民

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨补元聪脑汤对鹅膏蕈氨酸(IBO)与β-淀粉样蛋白1-42(Aβ1-42)所致的老年性痴呆大鼠模型的保护机制.方法:采用IBO与Aβ1-42的混合溶液注射入大鼠海马区建立AD模型;并应用Morris水迷宫法检测大鼠学习记忆能力;用比色法测定大鼠海马区谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活性.结果:补元聪脑汤能明显改善AD大鼠的学习记忆能力,升高GSH-PX的活性.结论:补元聪脑汤对AD大鼠具有一定的保护作用,其作用机制可能与升高GSH-Px活性有关,从而发挥其抗氧化作用.

  3. Phenylketonuria : tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, FJ; van Rijn, M; Bekhof, J; Koch, R; Smit, PGA

    Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) consists of restriction of natural protein and provision of a protein substitute that lacks phenylalanine but is enriched in tyrosine. Large and unexplained differences exist, however, in the tyrosine enrichment of the protein substitutes. Furthermore, some

  4. HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) - Restricted Access File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) contain the universe of emergency department visits in participating States. Restricted access data files are...

  5. Restricted Quantum Affine Symmetry of Perturbed Minimal Models

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G

    1992-01-01

    We study the structure of superselection sectors of an arbitrary perturbation of a conformal field theory. We describe how a restriction of the q-deformed $\\hat{sl(2)}$ affine Lie algebra symmetry of the sine-Gordon theory can be used to derive the S-matrices of the $\\Phi^{(1,3)}$ perturbations of the minimal unitary series. This analysis provides an identification of fields which create the massive kink spectrum. We investigate the ultraviolet limit of the restricted sine-Gordon model, and explain the relation between the restriction and the Fock space cohomology of minimal models. We also comment on the structure of degenerate vacuum states. Deformed Serre relations are proven for arbitrary affine Toda theories, and it is shown in certain cases how relations of the Serre type become fractional spin supersymmetry relations upon restriction.

  6. Total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy C; Banks, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Sleep loss may result from total sleep deprivation (such as a shift worker might experience), chronic sleep restriction (due to work, medical conditions or lifestyle) or sleep disruption (which is common in sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome). Total sleep deprivation has been widely researched, and its effects have been well described. Chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption (also known as sleep fragmentation) have received less experimental attention. Recently, there has been increasing interest in sleep restriction and disruption as it has been recognized that they have a similar impact on cognitive functioning as a period of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss causes impairments in cognitive performance and simulated driving and induces sleepiness, fatigue and mood changes. This review examines recent research on the effects of sleep deprivation, restriction and disruption on cognition and neurophysiologic functioning in healthy adults, and contrasts the similarities and differences between these three modalities of sleep loss.

  7. Restricted Access Federal Lands in Western North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts federal lands having restrictions on access or activities -- that is, lands mangaed by the National Park Service, Defense Department, or Energy...

  8. 7 CFR 930.63 - Deferment of restricted obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN... regulations issued thereunder, secure bonds on restricted percentage cherries to temporarily defer the...

  9. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ... animal whose growth has been slowed by nutritional deprivation may exhibit ...

  10. 3-restricted connectivity of graphs with given girth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li-tao; MENG Ji-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Let G = (V, E) be a connected graph. X C V(G) is a vertex set. X is a 3-restricted cut of G, if G-X is not connected and every component of G-X has at least three vertices. The 3-restricted connectivity k3(G) (in short k3) of G is the cardinality of a minimum 3-restricted cut of G. Χ is called κ3-cut, if Χ = κ3. A graph G is κa-connected, if a 3-restricted cut exists.Let G be a graph girth g ≥ 4, ξ3(G) is min{d(χ) + d(у) + d(z) - 4 : χуz is a 2-path of G}. It will be shown that κ3(G) = ξ3(G) under the condition of girth.

  11. A randomized trial of dietary sodium restriction in CKD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMahon, Emma J; Bauer, Judith D; Hawley, Carmel M; Isbel, Nicole M; Stowasser, Michael; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Katrina L

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of quality evidence regarding the effects of sodium restriction in patients with CKD, particularly in patients with pre-end stage CKD, where controlling modifiable risk factors may...

  12. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... office as a precinct or ward leader or representative, or service on any committee of a political party... for nomination or election to a National, State, or local office. (b) Hatch Act restrictions apply...

  13. Risk Factors for Restricting Back Pain in Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Una E.; Fraenkel, Liana; Han, Ling; Leo-Summers, Linda; Gill, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify risk factors for back pain leading to restricted activity (restricting back pain) in older persons. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Greater New Haven, Connecticut. Participants 731 men and women aged 70 years or older, who were community-living and non-disabled in essential activities of daily living at baseline. Measurements Candidate risk factors were ascertained every 18 months for 108 months during comprehensive home-based assessments. Restricting back pain was assessed during monthly telephone interviews for up to 126 months. Incident episodes of: (1) short-term (one episode lasting one month) restricting back pain; and (2) persistent (one episode lasting two or more months) or recurrent (two or more episodes of any duration) restricting back pain were determined during each 18-month interval. The associations between the candidate risk factors and short-term and persistent/recurrent restricting back pain, respectively, were evaluated using a multivariable Cox model. Results The cumulative incidence was 21.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.6%, 23.1%) for short-term restricting back pain and 20.6% (CI 18.6%, 22.9%) for persistent/recurrent restricting back pain over a median follow-up of 109 months. In a recurrent event multivariable analysis, female sex (HR 1.30; 1.07, 1.58), weak grip strength (HR 1.24; 1.01,1.52), and hip weakness (HR 1.19; 1.07,1.32) were independently associated with an increased likelihood of having short-term restricting back pain, while female sex (HR 1.48; CI 1.13,1.94), depressive symptoms (HR 1.57; 1.23, 2.00), 2 or more chronic conditions (HR 1.38; 1.08, 1.77), and arthritis (HR1.66; 1.31, 2.09) were independently associated with persistent/recurrent restricting back pain. Conclusion In this prospective study, several factors were independently associated with restricting back pain, including some that may be modifiable and therefore potential targets for interventions to reduce this common and

  14. International transfer pricing restrictions: impact on corporate financial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Limberg,Stephen T.; Robinson,John R.; Christians,Raimundo L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Transfer pricing is a pervasive issue that presents significant tax savings potential concerning international enterprises. The authors discuss company incentives to manage transfer prices in an article appearing in the preceding issue of this journal. In response to these incentives, governments have increasingly enacted and enforced domestic restrictions on transfer prices. In this article, contemporary norms restricting transfer pricing are analyzed. The OEGO and US pricing standards are a...

  15. Appetite for reproduction: dietary restriction, aging and the mammalian gonad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Roopa L; Pletcher, Scott D; Matzuk, Martin M

    2008-01-01

    The major physiologic theory of aging, the disposable soma theory, links dietary restriction (DR), also known as calorie or food restriction, to prolonged lifespan and makes specific predictions about the effects of aging and DR on reproduction. A recent study in BMC Biology profiling the effects of aging and DR on gonadal gene expression provides novel molecular evidence that has a significant impact on this theory of aging. PMID:18828876

  16. Napping Reverses Increased Pain Sensitivity Due to Sleep Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Brice Faraut; Damien Léger; Terkia Medkour; Alexandre Dubois; Virginie Bayon; Mounir Chennaoui; Serge Perrot

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping. Design A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed. Setting Laboratory-based study. Participants 11 healthy male volunteers. Interventions Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: “sleep restriction” alone and “sleep restriction and nap”. Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivati...

  17. IS-linked movement of a restriction-modification system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Takahashi

    Full Text Available Potential mobility of restriction-modification systems has been suggested by evolutionary/bioinformatic analysis of prokaryotic genomes. Here we demonstrate in vivo movement of a restriction-modification system within a genome under a laboratory condition. After blocking replication of a temperature-sensitive plasmid carrying a PaeR7I restriction-modification system in Escherichia coli cells, the plasmid was found integrated into the chromosome of the surviving cells. Sequence analysis revealed that, in the majority of products, the restriction-modification system was linked to chromosomal insertion sequences (ISs. Three types of products were: (I apparent co-integration of the plasmid and the chromosome at a chromosomal IS1 or IS5 copy (24/28 analyzed; (II de novo insertion of IS1 with the entire plasmid except for a 1-3 bp terminal deletion (2/28; and (III reciprocal crossing-over between the plasmid and the chromosome involving 1-3 bp of sequence identity (2/28. An R-negative mutation apparently decreased the efficiency of successful integration by two orders of magnitude. Reconstruction experiments demonstrated that the restriction-dependence was mainly due to selection against cells without proper integration: their growth was inhibited by the restriction enzyme action. These results demonstrate collaboration of a mobile element and a restriction-modification system for successful joint migration. This collaboration may have promoted the spread and, therefore, the long-term persistence of these complexes and restriction-modification systems in a wide range of prokaryotes.

  18. Saari's conjecture for the restricted three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G. E.; Melanson, L.

    2007-03-01

    Saari’s conjecture adapted to the restricted three-body problem is proven analytically using BKK theory. Specifically, we show that it is not possible for a solution of the planar, circular, restricted three-body problem to travel along a level curve of the amended potential function unless it is fixed at a critical point (one of the five libration points.) Due to the low dimension of the problem, our proof does not rely on the use of a computer.

  19. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri L. Motoyama; Gustavo B. Joel; Paulo E. A. Pereira; Gilmar J. Esteves; Azevedo, Paulo H.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK) or a control group (CONT) and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75%...

  20. Defense Acquistion: Rationale for Imposing Domestic Source Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    retained the restriction for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber, periscope tube forgings, bull gear ring forgings, and ship propulsion shaft...forgings 1984 Protect sensitive data Ship propulsion shaft forgings 1984 Unsettled conditions among suppliers In its reviews of industrial base... Ship Propulsion Shafts 14 14 15 16 17 Appendix III Rationale for 10 U.S.C. 2534-Imposed Restrictions Buses Chemical Weapons Antidote

  1. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-05-15

    Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO approximately 10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  2. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  3. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  4. The other face of restriction: modification-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenen, Wil A M; Raleigh, Elisabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The 1952 observation of host-induced non-hereditary variation in bacteriophages by Salvador Luria and Mary Human led to the discovery in the 1960s of modifying enzymes that glucosylate hydroxymethylcytosine in T-even phages and of genes encoding corresponding host activities that restrict non-glucosylated phage DNA: rglA and rglB (restricts glucoseless phage). In the 1980's, appreciation of the biological scope of these activities was dramatically expanded with the demonstration that plant and animal DNA was also sensitive to restriction in cloning experiments. The rgl genes were renamed mcrA and mcrBC (modified cytosine restriction). The new class of modification-dependent restriction enzymes was named Type IV, as distinct from the familiar modification-blocked Types I-III. A third Escherichia coli enzyme, mrr (modified DNA rejection and restriction) recognizes both methylcytosine and methyladenine. In recent years, the universe of modification-dependent enzymes has expanded greatly. Technical advances allow use of Type IV enzymes to study epigenetic mechanisms in mammals and plants. Type IV enzymes recognize modified DNA with low sequence selectivity and have emerged many times independently during evolution. Here, we review biochemical and structural data on these proteins, the resurgent interest in Type IV enzymes as tools for epigenetic research and the evolutionary pressures on these systems.

  5. Assisted reproductive technologies: professional and legal restrictions in Australian clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kerry; Baker, H W G; Pitts, Marian; Thorpe, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    The professional and legal regulation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in Australia is a vast maze of intersecting laws and guidelines which place restrictions on the provision of services such as infertility treatment, surrogacy, sex selection for social reasons, donor insemination, pre-implantation diagnosis and human embryo research. This study investigated the application of these restrictions on clinical practice in New South Wales, a relatively unregulated State, and Victoria, a relatively highly regulated State. The results of the survey indicate that the range of ART services in Victorian clinics was far more limited than in New South Wales clinics. The Victorian clinics uniformly restricted access of single and lesbian women and did not offer social sex selection procedures. The New South Wales clinics adopted different polices regarding these services. It was found that restrictive laws governing "social" issues have a significant impact on the availability of ART services and some respondents seemed unclear about the nature of restrictions and laws relevant to their work. It was also found that "reproductive tourism" is prevalent and restrictions were circumnavigated by patients with assistance from clinics. It was concluded that more evidence is required to evaluate regulation in this field of medicine.

  6. Napping reverses increased pain sensitivity due to sleep restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Faraut

    Full Text Available To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping.A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed.Laboratory-based study.11 healthy male volunteers.Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon.Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area.Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.

  7. Restricted participation in stroke caregivers: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorovich, Alisa; Forde, Samantha; Levinson, Dahlia; Bastawrous, Marina; Cheung, Angela M; Cameron, Jill I

    2015-07-01

    To identify caregiver-, stroke survivor-, and caregiving situation-related factors that are associated with caregivers' restriction from participation in their normative activities (ie, participation restriction) over the first 2 years poststroke. Longitudinal cohort study. Acute care facilities and community. A secondary data analysis of caregiver/survivor dyads (N=399). Not applicable. Data were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months poststroke. The primary outcome was caregivers' participation restriction and was assessed using the Caregiver Impact Scale. Caregivers also provided demographic information and completed standardized measures to capture assistance provided, mastery, and depression. From stroke survivors we collected demographic characteristics, stroke severity, and cognitive and physical functioning. Data were analyzed using individual growth curve modeling. Participation restriction level improved over time. Caregiver factors associated with restricted participation included younger age, being employed, higher depression, and lower mastery level. Stroke survivor factors associated with caregivers' restricted participation included hemorrhagic stroke, more severe stroke, more physical and memory impairments, and lower participation. Significant factors related to the caregiving situation included providing high levels of assistance and caring for a spouse. Depressed younger caregivers, with low levels of mastery, who provide high-intensity support to spouses with cognitive difficulties may be at risk. Screening for these factors may help identify stroke families at risk for poor outcomes and may be used to more efficiently allocate health resources. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reinforcer devaluation by extinction depends on the food restriction protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tyson W; Weisman, Ronald G; Beninger, Richard J

    2012-05-01

    A common feature of reinforcer devaluation studies is that new learning induces the devaluation. The present study used extinction to induce new learning about the conditioned reinforcer in a heterogeneous chain schedule. Rats pressed a lever in a heterogeneous chain schedule to produce a conditioned reinforcer (light) associated with the opportunity to obtain an unconditioned reinforcer (food) by pulling a chain. The density of food reinforcement correlated with the conditioned reinforcer was varied in a comparison of continuous and variable-ratio reinforcement schedules of chain pulling; this had no noticeable effect on conditioned reinforcer devaluation produced by extinction of chain pulling. In contrast, how rats were deprived appeared to matter very much. Restricting meal duration to 1h daily produced more lever pressing during baseline training and a greater reductive effect of devaluation on lever pressing than restricting body weight to 80% of a control rat's weight, which eliminated the devaluation effect. Further analysis suggested that meal-duration restriction may have produced devaluation effects because it was more effective than weight restriction in reducing rats' body weights. Our results exposed an important limitation on the devaluation of conditioned reinforcers: slight differences in food restriction, using two commonly employed food-restriction procedures, can produce completely different interpretations of reinforcer devaluation while leaving reinforcer-based learning intact.

  9. Intrauterine growth restriction: screening, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausman, Andrea; Kingdom, John; Gagnon, Robert; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Crane, Joan; Davies, Gregory; Delisle, Marie-France; Hudon, Lynda; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Ouellet, Annie; Pressey, Tracy; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Contexte : Le retard de croissance intra-utérin (RCIU) est une complication obstétricale qui, par définition, serait constatée par dépistage chez 10 % des fœtus au sein de la population générale. Le défi consiste à identifier le sous-ensemble des grossesses qui sont affectées par un retard de croissance pathologique, de façon à permettre la mise en œuvre d’une intervention qui atténuerait les taux de morbidité et de mortalité. Objectif : La présente directive clinique a pour objectif de fournir des déclarations sommaires et des recommandations, ainsi que d’établir un cadre pour le dépistage, le diagnostic et la prise en charge des grossesses affectées par un RCIU. Méthodes : Des grossesses affectées sont comparées à des grossesses dans le cadre desquelles le fœtus présente un poids convenant à son âge gestationnel. Les antécédents, l’examen physique et les analyses de laboratoire (y compris les marqueurs biochimiques et les caractéristiques échographiques du RCIU) sont analysées, et une stratégie de prise en charge est suggérée. Résultats : La littérature publiée en anglais a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en janvier 2013, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé faisant appel à des termes MeSH (« fetal growth restriction » et « small for gestational age ») et à des mots clés (« fetal growth », « restriction », « growth retardation », « IUGR », « low birth weight », « small for gestational age ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d

  10. The Restriction Fragment Map of Rat-Liver Mitochondrial DNA : A Reconsideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepe, G.; Bakker, H.; Holtrop, M.; Bollen, J.E.; Bruggen, E.F.J. van; Cantatore, P.; Terpstra, P.; Saccone, C.

    1977-01-01

    1. Rat-liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains at least 8 cleavage sites for the restriction endonuclease Eco RI, 6 for the restriction endonuclease Hind III, 2 for the restriction endonuclease Bam HI and 11 for the restriction endonuclease Hap II. 2. The physical map of the restriction fragments o

  11. Perceived need for restrictions on activity for children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brna, Paula M; Gordon, Kevin E; Woolridge, Elaine; Dooley, Joseph M; Wood, Ellen

    2017-08-01

    Children and youth with epilepsy have long been subjected to excessive restrictions on extracurricular activities due to concerns over risk of injury. Over time physicians and medical regulatory associations have liberalized the advice given for people with epilepsy to promote independence, self-esteem and general health benefits of physical activity. Current evidence suggests that few restrictions are needed for children with epilepsy beyond water-related precautions and avoidance of very high-risk activities. However, more stringent restrictions on daily activities may be imposed by caregivers. This study was aimed at exploring current perceptions of parents regarding restrictions on activity for children with epilepsy and the child's perspective on restrictions related to the diagnosis. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to a sample of parent-child dyads of children/youth with epilepsy attending summer camp for children with epilepsy age 8-18years. A 10-item validated HARCES Parent Scale of Childhood Epilepsy was completed by the parent/guardian and a modified-HARCES completed by the child. The primary objective was to assess the degree of restrictions placed on children with epilepsy from the perspective of child and parent assessed independently. Agreement of perceived restrictions between parent-child dyads was also determined. 21 parent/guardian-child pairs were recruited with mean age of children/youth 12.7years (range 9-16years). Total HARCES scores for parents and guardians ranged from 11-26 (x=16.5; SD 4.9) while total scores for children with epilepsy similarly ranged from 10-25 (x=15.2; SD 4.9). There were no differences in total parent scores when analyzed by child's age (13years), gender, age of seizure onset, seizure frequency or seizure type. Total HARCES scores showed no agreement between parent and child pairs with correlation of 0.2798 (95% CI -0.173-0.635). Children and youth with epilepsy often face activity restrictions based on

  12. Offspring metabolomic response to maternal protein restriction in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Moyon, Thomas; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Coupé, Bérengère; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), along with postnatal growth trajectory, is closely linked with metabolic diseases and obesity at adulthood. The present study reports the time-dependent metabolomic response of male offspring of rat dams exposed to maternal adequate protein diet during pregnancy and lactation (CC) or protein deprivation during pregnancy only (IUGR with rapid catch-up growth, RC) or through pregnancy and lactation (IUGR with slow postnatal growth, RR). Plasma LC-HRMS metabolomic fingerprints for 8 male rats per group, combined with multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA and HCA), were used to study the impact of IUGR and postnatal growth velocity on the offspring metabolism in early life (until weaning) and once they reached adulthood (8 months). Compared with CC rats, RR pups had clear-cut alterations in plasma metabolome during suckling, but none at adulthood; in contrast, in RC pups, alterations in metabolome were minimal in early life but more pronounced in the long run. In particular, our results pinpoint transient alterations in proline, arginine, and histidine in RR rats, compared to CC rats, and persistent differences in tyrosine and carnitine, compared to RC rats at adulthood. These findings suggest that the long-term deregulation in feeding behavior and fatty acid metabolism in IUGR rats depends on postnatal growth velocity.

  13. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HIV restriction by APOBEC3 in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Krisko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune restriction factors represent important specialized barriers to zoonotic transmission of viruses. Significant consideration has been given to their possible use for therapeutic benefit. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases are potent immune defense molecules capable of efficiently restricting endogenous retroelements as well as a broad range of viruses including Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B virus (HBV, Human Papilloma virus (HPV, and Human T Cell Leukemia virus (HTLV. The best characterized members of this family are APOBEC3G (A3G and APOBEC3F (A3F and their restriction of HIV. HIV has evolved to counteract these powerful restriction factors by encoding an accessory gene designated viral infectivity factor (vif. Here we demonstrate that APOBEC3 efficiently restricts CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif. However, our results also show that CXCR4-tropic HIV can escape from APOBEC3 restriction and replicate in vivo independent of Vif. Molecular analysis identified thymocytes as cells with reduced A3G and A3F expression. Direct injection of vif-defective HIV into the thymus resulted in viral replication and dissemination detected by plasma viral load analysis; however, vif-defective viruses remained sensitive to APOBEC3 restriction as extensive G to A mutation was observed in proviral DNA recovered from other organs. Remarkably, HIV replication persisted despite the inability of HIV to develop resistance to APOBEC3 in the absence of Vif. Our results provide novel insight into a highly specific subset of cells that potentially circumvent the action of APOBEC3; however our results also demonstrate the massive inactivation of CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif.

  15. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Leandro P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M, which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g: animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP, animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP, animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD, and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD. Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals.

  16. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  17. Parental perceptions of teen driving: Restrictions, worry and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Bhat, Geeta

    2016-12-01

    Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of "worry" about their teen driver's safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen's driving. We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental "worry," and influence of rules regarding their teen's driving, reported by teen's driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver's license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all") or perceived influence of parental rules ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all"). Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying "a lot" was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver's safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively support parents in supervising and monitoring their teen driver. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Bernal Villegas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears tobe caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta,and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction.Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.Materials and methods. Five placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 19 controls.We performed gross and histological examination of the placenta. Analysis was made of both mRNA expression by real-time PCRand protein by ELISA of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Results. Results based on histological evaluation wereconsistent with an increased prothrombotic state in placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction, andthrombosis of chorionic vessels was the most important finding. The study showed an increased expression of tissue factor protein(p=0.0411 and an increase in the ratio of tissue factor/thrombomodulin mRNA (p=0.0411 and protein (p=0.0215 in placentas frompregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. There were no statistically significant differences neither between cases andcontrols in the mRNA levels of tissue factor or thrombomodulin nor at the protein level of thrombomodulin. Conclusion. Evidence ofalteration of local haemostatic mechanisms at the level of the placenta, including abnormal expression of tissue factor and tissue factor/thrombomodulin ratio, in pregnancies that occur with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction is presented.

  19. H2 and H Infinity Optimization with a Restricted Region of Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    of the above equations must be found by manipulating the block diagram in Figure 10. From Figure 10 - Ax+ BPU (89) y,,- C,x + Du - C Px (90) Sy- d+ yP...input I The equations for this figure are 45 I i- Apx+ BPu (106) 3 y-=CPx (107) e -yP+ d - C.x + d (108) - y-r+e-r+Cpx+d (109) Putting these...equations into matrix form yieldsi 3 x-APx+(O 0) (d)+ BPU (10 I I 3 Putting the numbers for Example 1 into the above equations yields 46 I -1 000 0 1 3A(0 3873

  20. Restricting unhealthy food sponsorship: attitudes of the sporting community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2012-03-01

    Sponsorship is recognised as a significant marketing tool and restricting unhealthy food sponsorship of children's sport has been recommended by leading health agencies as a contribution towards preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the junior sporting community's support for policy interventions to restrict unhealthy food sponsorship. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with parents (n=200) and officials (n=20), and with governing sporting associations (n=20). Questionnaires measured respondents' attitudes towards sponsorship and support for sponsorship regulations. Many officials and parents perceived children to be 'very' influenced by elite sport sponsorship (65% of association officials, 53% of parents and 45% of club officials). Children were thought to be less influenced by sponsorship of their own sporting clubs (10%, 11% and 10%, respectively). However, 50% of officials and 70% of parents supported restrictions to children's sport sponsorship. Respondents were most supportive of restricting the use of unhealthy food logos on children's uniforms. Restricting unhealthy food sponsorship is supported by the sporting community and policy change is needed to reduce the perceived impact of this marketing. Alternative funding mechanisms have the potential to maintain sport funding whilst reducing promotional opportunities for unhealthy food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Restrictions on Software for Personal and Professional Use

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of computer security incidents detected at CERN are due to additional software installed for personal and professional use. As a consequence, the smooth operation of CERN is put at risk and often many hours are lost solving the problems. To reduce this security risk, installation and/or use of software on CERN's computing and network infrastructure needs to be restricted. Therefore: Do NOT install software for personal use Do NOT install 'free' or other software unless you have the expertise to configure and maintain it securely. Please comply to these rules to keep our computer systems safe. Further explanation of these restrictions is at http://cern.ch/security/software-restrictions Restricted software, known to cause security and/or network problems (e.g. KaZaA and other P2P/Peer-to-Peer file sharing applications, Skype P2P telephony software, ICQ, VNC, ...), is listed at: http://cern.ch/security/software-restrictions/list

  2. Isocitrate ameliorates anemia by suppressing the erythroid iron restriction response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chanté L; Delehanty, Lorrie L; Bullock, Grant C; Rival, Claudia M; Tung, Kenneth S; Kimpel, Donald L; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Goldfarb, Adam N

    2013-08-01

    The unique sensitivity of early red cell progenitors to iron deprivation, known as the erythroid iron restriction response, serves as a basis for human anemias globally. This response impairs erythropoietin-driven erythropoiesis and underlies erythropoietic repression in iron deficiency anemia. Mechanistically, the erythroid iron restriction response results from inactivation of aconitase enzymes and can be suppressed by providing the aconitase product isocitrate. Recent studies have implicated the erythroid iron restriction response in anemia of chronic disease and inflammation (ACDI), offering new therapeutic avenues for a major clinical problem; however, inflammatory signals may also directly repress erythropoiesis in ACDI. Here, we show that suppression of the erythroid iron restriction response by isocitrate administration corrected anemia and erythropoietic defects in rats with ACDI. In vitro studies demonstrated that erythroid repression by inflammatory signaling is potently modulated by the erythroid iron restriction response in a kinase-dependent pathway involving induction of the erythroid-inhibitory transcription factor PU.1. These results reveal the integration of iron and inflammatory inputs in a therapeutically tractable erythropoietic regulatory circuit.

  3. The Effects of Calorie Restriction in Depression and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Changhong; Zhao, Yinghao; Zhang, Xingyi; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Depression, also called major depressive disorder, is a neuropsychiatric disorder jeopardizing an increasing number of the population worldwide. To date, a large number of studies have devoted great attention to this problematic condition and raised several hypotheses of depression. Based on these theories, many antidepressant drugs were developed for the treatment of depression. Yet, the depressed patients are often refractory to the antidepressant therapies. Recently, increasing experimental evidences demonstrated the effects of calorie restriction in neuroendocrine system and in depression. Both basic and clinical investigations indicated that short-term calorie restriction might induce an antidepressant efficacy in depression, providing a novel avenue for treatment. Molecular basis underlying the antidepressant actions of calorie restriction might involve multiple physiological processes, primarily including orexin signaling activation, increased CREB phosphorylation and neurotrophic effects, release of endorphin and ketone production. However, the effects of chronic calorie restriction were quite controversial, in the cases that it often resulted in the long-term detrimental effects via inhibiting the function of 5-HT system and decreasing leptin levels. Here we review such dual effects of calorie restriction in depression and potential molecular basis behind these effects, especially focusing on antidepressant effects. PMID:26412073

  4. “Interactivity-triggered” Evolution Characteristics and Policy Issue Construction Effect of Internet Public Opinion:a Case Study Based on PX Events%网络舆情交互触发演变特征及政策议题建构效果*--基于系列“PX事件”的案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田进; 朱利平; 曾润喜

    2016-01-01

    [目的/意义]网络舆情交互触发现象对政府决策带来影响,从系列PX事件这一新场域研究其演变特征及建构效果能够有效分析社会问题如何进入政策议题。[方法/过程]梳理4个典型PX事件,从“时机、范围、强度及政府回应”方面归纳了“交互触发式”网络舆情的意涵,借助阶段划分法考察了其演变特征及其对议题建构的突出作用。[结果/结论]网络舆情的交互触发受到时机、范围及强度的约束,存在“舆情共识-被动高回应”“舆情抗争-被动消极回应”两种交互状态;经历了“集结、共识、抗争及式微”四个演化阶段,抗争是其关键特征,式微是其必然结果。%Abstrac [ Purpose/Significance] The“interactivity-triggered” characteristics of Internet public opinion has brought far-reaching impact on government policy decision-making. Studying the“interactivity-triggered” evolution characteristics and policy issue construction effect of internet public opinion based on a series of PX events which provides a new field for the research is helpful for transforming a social problem into a policy issue. [ Method/Process] This paper conducted a comparative analysis of four typical PX events. Firstly, it conclu-ded the connotation of“interactivity-triggered” internet public opinion around four aspects of timing, scope, intensity and response from governments. Secondly, it analyzed the “interactivity-triggered” evolution characteristics and policy issue construction effect of internet public opinion by phasing law. [ Result/Conclusion] The results show that, timing, scope and intensity will constraint internet public o-pinion and there are two interactivity states:“consensus-passive high response” and“struggle-passive negative response”;“interactivi-ty-triggered” internet public opinion evolution involves four stages of build, consensus, struggle and decline, with struggle as the

  5. Weighing and Choice of Value Orientation in Public Policy Choice --- A Case Study of PX Program in Xiamen%公共政策选择中价值取向的权衡与取舍——以厦门市PX项目为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡其图

    2012-01-01

    In the transformation period, the change of social structure in China aggravates the separation of interests and the awakening of subjective consciousness and people's idea about value becomes pluralized. With the promotion of speech right, each social subject expresses its own interest and value in the making of policies, trying to exert influence on government poliey making, confronted with the conflicting value orientations and requirements, we should discuss how our government should weigh and choose in order to guarantee the public interests. This article makes an analysis about it by making a ease study about the PX program of Xiamen city.%转型时期的中国,社会结构的演变加剧了利益的分化和主体意识的觉醒,价值观念呈现多元化的特征。伴随着话语权的提升,社会各主体争相把自己的利益诉求和价值偏好投入政策制定系统中,力求影响政府决策。面对相互冲突的价值取向和需求,政府如何进行权衡与取舍,以保证公共利益的实现,就成了我们需要探讨的问题。本文将结合厦门市PX项目的实例,来进行浅显分析与说明。

  6. The organization of public participation in Environmental assessment —— Take the example of the project of PX in xiamen%环境影响评价中的公众参与组织化——以厦门PX项目中“散步事件”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静亚

    2011-01-01

    2007年,厦门PX项目引起了社会各界的广泛关注,厦门人通过颇具创意的集体“散步”等方式,影响了政府决策,最终改变了自身的命运。这种集体“散步的”公众参与模式,初具了环评公众参与组织化模式的雏形。这种临时性的组织化模式在个人力量薄弱而环境保护组织又欠发达的情形下产生的,其影响力因其具有组织化模型而不可小视,又因其临时性而受到限制。为进一步提高公众参与的有效性,应完善环评中公众参与组织化模式,建立专业的环保组织。%In 2007, the project of PX in Xiamen has been widespread concerned by people in Xiamen. People living in Xiamen affected government decision - making through" walking together" which was a creative action. In the end, they changed their own destiny . " Walking together" is a prototype model of the organization of public participation in Environmental assessment. This is a kind of temporary panern of organization . It comes in the case of that personal power is gossamer and environmental groups are not developed. The organization makes it important of public participation in EIA. But its effect is limited because of its Temporary. To improve the effectiveness of public participation, we should make the organization of public participation better and set up more professional environmental organizations.

  7. Interplay Between Bacteriophages and Restriction-Modification Systems in Enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristas Peter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The complete genomes of Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophages were analyzed for tetranucleotide words avoidance. Very similar tetranucleotide composition was found in all tested genomes with strong underrepresentation of palindromic GATC and GGCC words. This avoidance could be explained as a protection mechanism against host restriction-modification systems as a clear correlation was found between avoidance of palindromic words and the specificity of E. faecalis restriction and modification systems. No similar avoidance of tetranucleotide words was observed for non-palindromic words. A weak correlation was observed between avoidance of tetranucleotide palindromes in bacteriophage genomes and the possession of phage encoded DNA methyltransferases confirming the interrelation between bacteriophage genomes composition and restriction and modification systems in enterococci

  8. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-02-06

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation.

  9. The Optimal Selection for Restricted Linear Models with Average Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential task of risk investment is to select an optimal tracking portfolio among various portfolios. Statistically, this process can be achieved by choosing an optimal restricted linear model. This paper develops a statistical procedure to do this, based on selecting appropriate weights for averaging approximately restricted models. The method of weighted average least squares is adopted to estimate the approximately restricted models under dependent error setting. The optimal weights are selected by minimizing a k-class generalized information criterion (k-GIC, which is an estimate of the average squared error from the model average fit. This model selection procedure is shown to be asymptotically optimal in the sense of obtaining the lowest possible average squared error. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate that the suggested method has comparable efficiency to some alternative model selection techniques.

  10. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L; Kilkus, Jennifer M; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R; Tasali, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-h profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin, and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24 h during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared with normal sleep (P food intake and the development of obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  11. Paternally Inherited IGF2 Mutation and Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begemann, Matthias; Zirn, Birgit; Santen, Gijs; Wirthgen, Elisa; Soellner, Lukas; Büttel, Hans-Martin; Schweizer, Roland; van Workum, Wilbert; Binder, Gerhard; Eggermann, Thomas

    2015-07-23

    In humans, mutations in IGF1 or IGF1R cause intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction; however, data on mutations in IGF2, encoding insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II, are lacking. We report an IGF2 variant (c.191C→A, p.Ser64Ter) with evidence of pathogenicity in a multigenerational family with four members who have growth restriction. The phenotype affects only family members who have inherited the variant through paternal transmission, a finding that is consistent with the maternal imprinting status of IGF2. The severe growth restriction in affected family members suggests that IGF-II affects postnatal growth in addition to prenatal growth. Furthermore, the dysmorphic features of affected family members are consistent with a role of deficient IGF-II levels in the cause of the Silver-Russell syndrome. (Funded by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and the European Union.).

  12. Sequence specific inhibition of DNA restriction enzyme cleavage by PNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Plasmids containing double-stranded 10-mer PNA (peptide nucleic acid chimera) targets proximally flanked by two restriction enzyme sites were challenged with the complementary PNA or PNAs having one or two mismatches, and the effect on the restriction enzyme cleavage of the flanking sites...... was assayed. The following PNAs were used: T10-LysNH2, T5CT4-LysNH2 and T2CT2CT4-LysNH2 and the corresponding targets cloned into pUC 19 were flanked by BamH1, Sal1 or Pstl sites, respectively. In all cases it was found that complete inhibition of restriction enzyme cleavage was obtained...

  13. Study on modulation techniques free of orthogonality restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Nyquist rate is a limit of transmission for traditional modulation methods from orthogonality restriction. Nonorthogonal modulation techniques (NMT) is proposed, which removes the orthogonality restriction, and as a result, higher bandwidth efficiency than the traditional methods can be achieved. First, the symbol error rate of NMT is introduced by using estimation theory. Then the relation between bandwidth efficiency and signal to noise ratio is discussed. Finally, a design instance of NMT is present and numerical experiment is made. This study explores for new modulation methods and points out a widened direction for modulation theory and applications.

  14. Restricting factors of the development of SEA in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianghua; Zhu Xiaodong; LiYangfan; Chen Shanshan

    2006-01-01

    "Environmental Impact Assessment Law of P. R. China" was promulgated on Oct. 28th, 2002 and has been put into effect on Sep 1st, 2003. This paper puts forward some important factors which restrict the development of Strategic Environmental Assessment according to the preliminary practices of SEA in China. These restricting factors are: (1) potential resistance from some departments; (2) poor cooperation between different departments; (3) limited availability of information resources; (4) lack of well-developed SEA methods; (5) difficulties in public participation. The primary thought to solve these problems were proposed at policy and technique level.

  15. Dietary tyramine restriction for hospitalized patients on linezolid: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumore, Martha M; Roth, Marc; Orfanos, Areti

    2010-06-01

    Linezolid is a weak, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor. The current practice at most hospitals is to place patients receiving linezolid on a tyramine-restricted diet. This process typically involves both the hospital's pharmacy department and the food and nutrition department. A literature search assessing the interaction between linezolid and tyramine was conducted, and the amount of tyramine in a typical unrestricted diet for a hospitalized patient was reviewed. Although patients receiving linezolid should avoid consuming large amounts of foods containing high concentrations of tyramine, such foods in large amounts are not components of meals for inpatients. Therefore, dietary tyramine restriction in hospitalized patients is not generally required.

  16. Profiling of micrometer-sized laser beams in restricted volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Thorsen, Aske

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for determining the three-dimensional intensity distribution of directed laser radiation with micrometer resolution in restricted volumes. Our method is based on the incoupling and guiding properties of optical fibers, with the current version requiring only a few hundred...... micrometers across the measuring volume. We characterize the performance of the method and experimentally demonstrate profiling of micrometer-sized laser beams. We discuss the limiting factors and routes toward a further increase of the resolution and beam profiling in even more restricted volumes. Finally...

  17. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels...... of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaughtering organic pigs together with conventional pigs, implying a risk of cross-contamination....

  18. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the calculations carried out in order to estimate the wind climate at the site where the Fehmarn Belt bridge is planned. Further, an estimate of how often and for how long traffic restrictions will be enforced according to statedcriteria (sec. 3.2) is given. This estimate...... is given both as a total percentage of time and as a mean distribution of restrictions over the year. We perform the same analysis for the Øresund and the Great Belt bridge and compare the result with the actualfractions. Only during the last year of operation of the Øresund bridge the criteria...

  19. Gaussians Rarely Extremize Adjoint Fourier Restriction Inequalities For Paraboloids

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It was proved independently by Foschi and Hundertmark, Zharnitsky that Gaussians extremize the adjoint Fourier restriction inequality for L^2 functions on the paraboloid in the two lowest-dimesional cases. Here we prove that Gaussians are critical points for the L^p to L^q adjoint Fourier restriction inequalities if and only if p=2. Also, Gaussians are critial points for the L^2 to L^r_t L^q_x Strichartz inequalities for all admissible pairs (r,q) in (1,infinity)^2.

  20. Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurjar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically...... closed field k and let X be a smooth, projective variety over k together with a very ample line bundle O(1). The main result of the paper is that if E is a semistable (resp. stable) principal G-bundle on X w.r.t O(1), then the restriction of E to a general, high multi-degree, complete-intersection curve...

  1. 关于椭圆曲线y2=x(x+σp)(x+σq)在类数为1虚二次域上的Selmer群及Mordell-Weil群结构%On the Selmer Groups and Mordell-Weil Groups of Elliptic Curves y2 =x(x ± p)(x ± q) Over Imaginary Quadratic Number Fields of Class Number One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李修美

    2013-01-01

    设p,q为奇素数且q-p=2.本文将在类数为1的虚二次域上考虑椭圆曲线y2=x(x±p)(x±q)及其对偶曲线,并在某些具体条件下给出它们的赛莫群和沙法列维奇-泰特群的(ψ)-(2-)部分的信息.%Let p and q be odd prime numbers with q-p =2.The (ψ)-Selmer groups,Shafarevich-Tate groups((ψ)-and 2-paxt) and their dual ones as well the Mordell-Weil groups of elliptic curves y2 =x(x ± p)(x ± q) over imaginary quadratic number fields of class number one are determined explicitly in many cases.

  2. Growth restriction and gender influence cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Emily; Baerts, Willem; Alderliesten, Thomas; Derks, Jan; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of fetal growth restriction and gender on cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates during the first 3 days of life. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, The Netherlands. PATIENTS: 68 (41 males)

  3. Restriction genes for retroviruses influence the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Hansen, Bettina; Nissen, Kari K

    2013-01-01

    We recently described that the autoimmune, central nervous system disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), is genetically associated with the human endogenous retroviral locus, HERV-Fc1, in Scandinavians. A number of dominant human genes encoding factors that restrict retrovirus replication have been...

  4. Still Playing It Safe: Restricted Realism in Teen Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Jane

    1976-01-01

    The restrictions on teen fiction result in books that succeed only in mirroring a slick surface realism that too often acts as a cover-up. It disguises the fact that, at their core, most realistic novels are unrealistic and, far worse, dishonest. (Author)

  5. A Few Endpoint Geodesic Restriction Estimates for Eigenfunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuehua; Sogge, Christopher D.

    2014-07-01

    We prove a couple of new endpoint geodesic restriction estimates for eigenfunctions. In the case of general 3-dimensional compact manifolds, after a TT* argument, simply by using the L 2-boundedness of the Hilbert transform on , we are able to improve the corresponding L 2-restriction bounds of Burq, Gérard and Tzvetkov (Duke Math J 138:445-486, 2007) and Hu (Forum Math 6:1021-1052, 2009). Also, in the case of 2-dimensional compact manifolds with nonpositive curvature, we obtain improved L 4-estimates for restrictions to geodesics, which, by Hölder's inequality and interpolation, implies improved L p -bounds for all exponents p ≥ 2. We do this by using oscillatory integral theorems of Hörmander (Ark Mat 11:1-11, 1973), Greenleaf and Seeger (J Reine Angew Math 455:35-56, 1994) and Phong and Stein (Int Math Res Notices 4:49-60, 1991), along with a simple geometric lemma (Lemma 3.2) about properties of the mixed-Hessian of the Riemannian distance function restricted to pairs of geodesics in Riemannian surfaces. We are also able to get further improvements beyond our new results in three dimensions under the assumption of constant nonpositive curvature by exploiting the fact that, in this case, there are many totally geodesic submanifolds.

  6. The restricted isometry property meets nonlinear approximation with redundant frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    It is now well known that sparse or compressible vectors can be stably recovered from their low-dimensional projection, provided the projection matrix satisfies a Restricted Isometry Property (RIP). We establish new implications of the RIP with respect to nonlinear approximation in a Hilbert space...

  7. Moment Restriction-based Econometric Methods: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kunitomo (Naoto); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y. Nishiyama (Yoshihiko)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMoment restriction-based econometric modelling is a broad class which includes the parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric approaches. Moments and conditional moments themselves are nonparametric quantities. If a model is specified in part up to some finite dimensional parameters, t

  8. Stability analysis of nonlinear systems with slope restricted nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Du, Jiajia; Gao, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The problem of absolute stability of Lur'e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results.

  9. 75 FR 12123 - Restrictions on Private Carriage of Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Parts 310 and 320 Restrictions on Private Carriage of Letters AGENCY: Postal Service TM ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Postal Service regulations on the enforcement and suspension of the Private...

  10. Kamm on Inviolability and Agent-Relative Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Agent-relative restrictions prohibit minimizing violations: that is, they require us not to minimize the total number of their violations by violating them ourselves. Frances Kamm has explained this prohibition in terms of the moral worth of persons, which, in turn, she explains in terms...

  11. Sensitivity to BST-2 restriction correlates with Orthobunyavirus host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Mariana; Piras, Ilaria M; Mullan, Catrina; Shi, Xiaohong; Tilston-Lunel, Natasha L; Pinto, Rute Maria; Taggart, Aislynn; Welch, Stephen R; Neil, Stuart J D; Kreher, Felix; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Orthobunyaviruses include several recently emerging viruses of significant medical and veterinary importance. There is currently very limited understanding on what determines the host species range of these pathogens. In this study we discovered that BST-2/tetherin restricts orthobunyavirus replication in a host-specific manner. We show that viruses with human tropism (Oropouche virus and La Crosse virus) are restricted by sheep BST-2 but not by the human orthologue, while viruses with ruminant tropism (Schmallenberg virus and others) are restricted by human BST-2 but not by the sheep orthologue. We also show that BST-2 blocks orthobunyaviruses replication by reducing the amount of envelope glycoprotein into viral particles egressing from infected cells. This is the first study identifying a restriction factor that correlates with species susceptibility to orthobunyavirus infection. This work provides insight to help us dissect the adaptive changes that bunyaviruses require to cross the species barrier and emerge into new species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 36 CFR 9.18 - Surface use and patent restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface use and patent... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.18 Surface use and patent restrictions. (a) The... to any claimant who wishes to take his claim to patent in Olympic National Park, Glacier Bay...

  13. Designing Intervention Studies: Selected Populations, Range Restrictions, and Statistical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, W. Pat; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    An appropriate estimate of statistical power is critical for the design of intervention studies. Although the inclusion of a pretest covariate in the test of the primary outcome can increase statistical power, samples selected on the basis of pretest performance may demonstrate range restriction on the selection measure and other correlated…

  14. Causatives as complex predicates without the restriction operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homola, Petr; Coler, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    lsina’s (1996) concept of complex predicates has been, within LFG, applied to a number of phenomena and languages including, for example, Turkish causatives (Çetinoglu et al., 2008). These approaches are comparable insofar as they use the so-called restriction operator introduced by Kaplan and

  15. 40 CFR 52.24 - Statutory restriction on new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... longer in effect in that area, then the requirements of § 51.165 of this chapter shall apply to the... restriction on new sources. (a) Any area designated nonattainment pursuant to section 107(d) of the Act to... containing such an area: (1) Failed to submit an implementation plan meeting the requirements of...

  16. Guiding IEP Teams on Meeting the Least Restrictive Environment Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Teri A.; Hart, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Leslie; Love, Jessica; Baxter, Christine M.; Gartin, Barbara; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Two diametrically opposed beliefs are held concerning the meaning of the least restrictive environment (LRE) when determining the class placements of students with disabilities. One group adheres to the placement philosophy that the LRE is always the general education setting. The other group believes that the LRE is where the students' needs may…

  17. A whole genome screen for HIV restriction factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon cellular entry retroviruses must avoid innate restriction factors produced by the host cell. For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV human restriction factors, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein-B-mRNA-editing-enzyme, p21 and tetherin are well characterised. Results To identify intrinsic resistance factors to HIV-1 replication we screened 19,121 human genes and identified 114 factors with significant inhibition of infection. Those with a known function are involved in a broad spectrum of cellular processes including receptor signalling, vesicle trafficking, transcription, apoptosis, cross-nuclear membrane transport, meiosis, DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and RNA processing. We focused on the PAF1 complex which has been previously implicated in gene transcription, cell cycle control and mRNA surveillance. Knockdown of all members of the PAF1 family of proteins enhanced HIV-1 reverse transcription and integration of provirus. Over-expression of PAF1 in host cells renders them refractory to HIV-1. Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses and HIV-2 are also restricted in PAF1 expressing cells. PAF1 is expressed in primary monocytes, macrophages and T-lymphocytes and we demonstrate strong activity in MonoMac1, a monocyte cell line. Conclusions We propose that the PAF1c establishes an anti-viral state to prevent infection by incoming retroviruses. This previously unrecognised mechanism of restriction could have implications for invasion of cells by any pathogen.

  18. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  19. [Restrictions to therapeutic freedom or strengthening of medical treatment responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Guido

    2006-01-01

    Freedom of therapy is an important feature of our healthcare system, but at the same time limited by (1) ethical obligations, (2) the interaction between physician and patient, (3) the quality of the professional training, and (4) the availability of resources. Freedom of therapy is less restricted if well trained physicians adhere to high quality guidelines, and hospitals or surgeries are managed efficiently.

  20. 50 CFR 300.223 - Purse seine fishing restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... seine fishing restrictions. All dates used in this section are in Universal Coordinated Time, also known... within the Convention Area takes place entirely within areas under U.S. jurisdiction or entirely within areas under jurisdiction of a single nation other than the United States. (ii) No fishing takes...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  2. Restricted Parallelism in Object-Oriented Lexical Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaus, P; Neuhaus, Peter; Hahn, Udo

    1996-01-01

    We present an approach to parallel natural language parsing which is based on a concurrent, object-oriented model of computation. A depth-first, yet incomplete parsing algorithm for a dependency grammar is specified and several restrictions on the degree of its parallelization are discussed.

  3. Calorie restriction in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Koopmanschap, A Bertha; Ikink, Gerjon J; Debets, Alfons J M; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a regimen of reduced food intake that, although the underlying mechanism is unknown, in many organisms leads to life span extension. Podospora anserina is one of the few known ageing filamentous fungi and the ageing process and concomitant degeneration of mitochondria

  4. Calorie restriction in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Slakhorst-Wandel, S.M.; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B.; Ikink, G.J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a regimen of reduced food intake that, although the underlying mechanism is unknown, in many organisms leads to life span extension. Podospora anserina is one of the few known ageing filamentous fungi and the ageing process and concomitant degeneration of mitochondria

  5. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems with Slope Restricted Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of absolute stability of Lur’e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results.

  6. DOPING AND OTHER RESTRICTED METHODS IN SPORTS SUMMARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Bjelica

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since sport has become an industry, it has lost all its elements of tolerance and chivalry and become an arena which is made for making profi t. Under those conditions everyone wanted to succeed by no means. The stocks such as: power, speed and endurance were of immeasurable value on the market. The level of the biomothoric dimensions could be raised as a matter of course or, unfortunately, by using restricted substances where the science was abused. Many private laboratories have started with the production of the restricted substances whose aim was to raise the level of power, strength and endurance, but only temporary, because the harmful effects lasted much longer and even caused lethal consequences. The natives from the South Africa used to use a kind of alcohol drink which was called “dop”. That word came to Europe by the Dutchmen, where it has become a “doping” in English. These restricted substances can be classifi ed into the groups with a specifi c effect. These substances are called restricted substances and methods in sports. These are the substances such as: stimulants, narcotics, canabiodies, anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, beta-2 agonists, anti-estrogen agenses, covered agenses and glycocorticoids.

  7. 33 CFR 105.260 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surveillance equipment and systems and their controls, and lighting system controls; and (4) Areas containing critical facility infrastructure, including: (i) Water supplies; (ii) Telecommunications; (iii) Electrical... systems; and (7) Protect cargo and vessel stores from tampering. (b) Designation of Restricted Areas. The...

  8. Calvin's Restrictions on Interest : Guidelines for the Credit Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Calvin’s view on the legitimacy of interest has had a great impact on the economic development of Western society. Although Calvin took a fundamentally positive attitude to interest, he also proposed several restrictions on the charging of interest. In this article, we investigate the relevance of t

  9. 50 CFR 635.40 - Restrictions to enhance conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by the declaration(s) required by 19 CFR 10.79. The “Declaration of Master and Two Members of Crew on Entry of Products of American Fisheries” required by 19 CFR 10.79 must contain a further statement as... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions to enhance conservation....

  10. Guiding IEP Teams on Meeting the Least Restrictive Environment Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Teri A.; Hart, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Leslie; Love, Jessica; Baxter, Christine M.; Gartin, Barbara; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Two diametrically opposed beliefs are held concerning the meaning of the least restrictive environment (LRE) when determining the class placements of students with disabilities. One group adheres to the placement philosophy that the LRE is always the general education setting. The other group believes that the LRE is where the students' needs may…

  11. The restricted isometry property meets nonlinear approximation with redundant frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    It is now well known that sparse or compressible vectors can be stably recovered from their low-dimensional projection, provided the projection matrix satisfies a Restricted Isometry Property (RIP). We establish new implications of the RIP with respect to nonlinear approximation in a Hilbert spac...

  12. Fetal Growth Restriction at the Limits of Viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of early small-for-gestational age and/or intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses is reviewed. In these fetuses the outcome appears to be considerably poorer than that of appropriately grown fetuses and this seems mainly to be caused by intrauterine malnutrition rather than by hypoxemia.

  13. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, C. C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, F.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, C. M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Valcamonico, A.; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  14. Data Input and Content Exploration in Scenarios with Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrosa, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    As technology evolves, new devices and interaction techniques are developed. These transformations create several challenges in terms of usability and user experience. Our research faces some challenges for data input or content exploration in scenarios with restrictions. It is not our intention to

  15. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  16. 28 CFR 549.13 - Programming, duty, and housing restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programming, duty, and housing... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.13 Programming, duty, and housing restrictions. (a) The CD will assess any inmate with an infectious disease for appropriateness for...

  17. Concept to comfort-condition subjects wearing restrictive clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E. M.

    1968-01-01

    Heat exchanger maintains a desirable thermal balance in a subject wearing restrictive clothing. A grid of high thermal conductance fibers, in contact with the skin, transfers heat to or from the skin surface by means of a system of ducts, carrying the transfer fluid which is maintained at a controlled temperature.

  18. Phenylketonuria : tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, FJ; van Rijn, M; Bekhof, J; Koch, R; Smit, PGA

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) consists of restriction of natural protein and provision of a protein substitute that lacks phenylalanine but is enriched in tyrosine. Large and unexplained differences exist, however, in the tyrosine enrichment of the protein substitutes. Furthermore, some investi

  19. 50 CFR 648.140 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.140 Section 648.140 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... exploitation rate of 23 percent (based on Fmax) in 2003 and subsequent years: Commercial, recreational,...

  20. 50 CFR 648.120 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.120 Section 648.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Committee of the MAFMC and the Commission to ensure that the exploitation rate specified in paragraph (a)...