Sample records for pwm speed controller

1. Electromagnetic phenomena analysis in brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method

Science.gov (United States)

Ciurys, Marek Pawel

2017-12-01

Field-circuit model of a brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method was developed. Waveforms of electrical and mechanical quantities of the designed motor with a high pressure vane pump built in a rotor of the motor were computed. Analysis of electromagnetic phenomena in the system: single phase AC network - converter - BLDC motor was carried out.

2. Feedforward Synchronised PWM for Adjustable Speed AC Drives with Different Control Modes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jensen, Flemming Buus

2002-01-01

This paper presents a novel method of direct synchronised pulswidth modulation (PWM) for three-phase voltage source inverters, feeding induction motors with different control regimes. It is based on the universal algorithm with either simplified algebraic or accurate trigonometric control functions......, with vector approached for determination of the pulse patterns, with vector approach for determination of the pulse patterns. Different control modes of the drive system with synchronised PWM, including standard scalar V/F control, and also V2/F = constant and V/F2 = constant control regimes, have been...... analysed in the paper. Simulations give the behaviour of the PWM techniques proposed. Both continuous and discontinuous schemes of synchronised PWM, applied for the corresponding control regime, have been analysed and compared....

3. Math Model and Calculation Analysis of Inter-harmonic of Double PWM Speed Control System in Distribution Network

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yang Wen-Huan

2014-11-01

Full Text Available Aiming at the problem that the distribution network voltage will fluctuate because of the inter-harmonic currents injected into the network by double PWM speed control system when regulating the speed of the asynchronous motor, we established the inter-harmonic current math model of double PWM speed control system according to switching function based on a real bridge crane. The distribution law of the inter-harmonic is got by calculating the grid-side currents and their spectrum while letting the motor run at different quadrants and frequencies. The result which is verified by simulation and experiment shows that the content of the inter harmonic currents is more than that of harmonic currents in double PWM speed control system, the frequency of the inter harmonics of the grid-side current mainly focus on the scope lower than the fundamental frequency, and when the motor runs at low frequencies, the THD of the grid-side current is high. The result has verified the reason why the voltage of a bridge crane distribution system of a deepwater port in Shanghai flickers.

4. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

Science.gov (United States)

King, Roger J.

1994-01-01

Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

5. Elimination of output voltage oscillations in DC-DC converter using PWM with PI controller

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sreenivasappa Veeranna Bhupasandra

2010-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper the SIMULINK model of a PWM controlled DC-DC converter is modeled using switching function concept to control the speed of the DC motor. The presence of the voltage oscillation cycles due to higher switching frequency in the DC-DC converter is identified. The effect of these oscillations on the output voltage of the converter, Armature current, Developed torque and Speed of the DC motor is analyzed. In order to minimize the oscillation cycles the PI controller is proposed in the PWM controller.

6. Temperature prediction in high speed bone grinding using motor PWM signal.

Science.gov (United States)

Tai, Bruce L; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Anthony C; Sullivan, Stephen; Wang, Guangjun; Shih, Albert J

2013-10-01

This research explores the feasibility of using motor electrical feedback to estimate temperature rise during a surgical bone grinding procedure. High-speed bone grinding is often used during skull base neurosurgery to remove cranial bone and approach skull base tumors through the nasal corridor. Grinding-induced heat could propagate and potentially injure surrounding nerves and arteries, and therefore, predicting the temperature in the grinding region would benefit neurosurgeons during the operation. High-speed electric motors are controlled by pulse-width-modulation (PWM) to alter the current input and thus maintain the rotational speed. Assuming full mechanical to thermal power conversion in the grinding process, PWM can be used as feedback for heat generation and temperature prediction. In this study, the conversion model was established from experiments under a variety of grinding conditions and an inverse heat transfer method to determine heat flux. Given a constant rotational speed, the heat conversion was represented by a linear function, and could predict temperature from the experimental data with less than 20% errors. Such results support the advance of this technology for practical application. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

7. PWM CONTROLLER'S MODELS FOR INVESTIGATION ACS IN SPICEFAMILY ECAD PROGRAMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

O. V. VASYLENKO

2018-05-01

Full Text Available Purpose. To improve simulation and design of Automatic Control Systems in the SPICE-compatible programs and to obtain separate economic and universal macromodels of PWM controller. Development of an PWM controller economical macromodel for the study of automatic control systems (ACS in computer-aided design (ECAD  programs, which does not generate algorithmic failures in comparison with the existing models of PWM. Findings. Analysis of SPICE-family applications’ mathematical basis allowed to classifying existing models of PWM-controllers, defining their suitability for ACS simulation. The criteria for the synthesis of new models have been defined. For the SPICE 3G algorithms, the Switch and Averaged models based on behavioral elements has been developed. Universal and economical PWM controller macromodel based on the simple algorithm for determining the output signal with minimum numbers of input parameters has been designed. For the Automated Measuring magnetic susceptibility System, the macromodel of quasi-PWM signal generator have been designed, which is used in the compensation subsystem. This model is different from the existing ones: it synthesizes the staircase output signal instead the pulse one, thus, there is direct control of the amplitude of the output signal, which is taken averaged. The adequacy of the models is confirmed as comparison of the simulation results during investigations of the model already existing in the SPICE program, as well as the results of experiments with real ACS. The modeling of the PWM controller was carried out on the basis of behavioral elements from the ECAD library, simulation (solution of algebra-differential equations systems with programming elements is based on SPICE algorithms. The object of the study was the simulation process of ACS with the pulse-width principle of adjusting the output value. The subject of the research are the models of PWM controllers. Originality. The new macromodel of PWM

8. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amirante, R.; Innone, A.; Catalano, L.A.

2008-01-01

This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots

9. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amirante, R.; Catalano, L.A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, Via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Innone, A. [Universita degli Studi di Foggia, via Napoli, 25 Foggia (Italy)

2008-08-15

This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots. (author)

10. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

CERN Document Server

Monmasson, Eric

2013-01-01

A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

11. Modeling and the analysis of control logic for a digital PWM controller based on a nano electronic single electron transistor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rathnakannan Kailasam

2008-01-01

Full Text Available This paper describes the modelling and the analysis of control logic for a Nano-Device- based PWM controller. A comprehensive simple SPICE schematic model for Single Electron transistor has been proposed. The operation of basic Single Electron Transistor logic gates and SET flip flops were successfully designed and their performances analyzed. The proposed design for realizing the logic gates and flip-flops is used in constructing the PWM controller utilized for switching the buck converter circuit. The output of the converter circuit is compared with reference voltage, and when the error voltage and the reference are matched the latch is reset so as to generate the PWM signal. Due to the simplicity and accuracy of the compact model, the simulation time and speed are much faster, which makes it potentially applicable in large-scale circuit simulation. This study confirms that the SET-based PWM controller is small in size, consumes ultra low power and operates at high speeds without compromising any performance. In addition these devices are capable of measuring charges of extremely high sensitivity.

12. PWM Inverter control and the application thereof within electric vehicles

Science.gov (United States)

Geppert, Steven

1982-01-01

An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer and memory element which receive various parametric inputs and calculate optimized machine control data signals therefrom. The control data is asynchronously loaded into the inverter through an intermediate buffer (38). In its preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack (32) and a three-phase induction motor (18).

13. Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters topologies, control, and design

CERN Document Server

Ruan, Xinbo

2014-01-01

Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters have been widely used in medium-to-high power dc-dc conversions for topological simplicity, easy control and high efficiency. Early works on soft-switching PWM full-bridge converter by many researchers included various topologies and modulation strategies.  However, these works were scattered, and the relationship among these topologies and modulation strategies had not been revealed. This book intends to describe systematically the soft-switching techniques for pulse-width modulation (PWM) full-bridge converters, including the topologies, control and

14. Control Strategy of PWM Rectifiers Connected to Unbalanced Grids

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Bejvl, Martin; Švec, J.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, V.

-, č. 11 (2013) ISSN 2172-038X. [International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ´13). Bilbao, 20.03.2013-22.03.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : electric power system * PWM rectifier * dc voltage ripple Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

15. An improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based EVs.

Science.gov (United States)

Tabbache, Bekheïra; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Kheloui, Abdelaziz; Bourgeot, Jean-Matthieu; Mamoune, Abdeslam

2013-11-01

This paper proposes an improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based electric vehicles. The proposed strategy deals with power switch (IGBTs) failures mitigation within a reconfigurable induction motor control. To increase the vehicle powertrain reliability regarding IGBT open-circuit failures, 4-wire and 4-leg PWM inverter topologies are investigated and their performances discussed in a vehicle context. The proposed fault-tolerant topologies require only minimum hardware modifications to the conventional off-the-shelf six-switch three-phase drive, mitigating the IGBTs failures by specific inverter control. Indeed, the two topologies exploit the induction motor neutral accessibility for fault-tolerant purposes. The 4-wire topology uses then classical hysteresis controllers to account for the IGBT failures. The 4-leg topology, meanwhile, uses a specific 3D space vector PWM to handle vehicle requirements in terms of size (DC bus capacitors) and cost (IGBTs number). Experiments on an induction motor drive and simulations on an electric vehicle are carried-out using a European urban driving cycle to show that the proposed fault-tolerant control approach is effective and provides a simple configuration with high performance in terms of speed and torque responses. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

16. Six-Phase Vehicular Drive with Renewable DC Sources and Hybrid PWM Control of Four Inverters

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oleschuk, Valentin; Ermuratskii, Vladimir; Blaabjerg, Frede

2015-01-01

The paper presents results of research of quad-inverter-based automotive system with combined scheme of PWM control of inverters, supplied by two renewable dc sources (by fuel cells and by battery). It has been shown, that hybrid switching techniques can be used successfully for control of vehicle...

17. Active and reactive power control of a current-source PWM-rectifier using space vectors

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salo, M.; Tuusa, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Department of Electrical Engineering, Power Electronics

1997-12-31

In this paper the current-source PWM-rectifier with active and reactive power control is presented. The control system is realized using space vector methods. Also, compensation of the reactive power drawn by the line filter is discussed. Some simulation results are shown. (orig.) 8 refs.

18. A Review on Direct Power Control for Applications to Grid Connected PWM Converters

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

T. A. Trivedi

2015-08-01

Full Text Available The Direct Power Control strategy has become popular as an alternative to the conventional vector oriented control strategy for grid connected PWM converters. In this paper, Direct Power Control as applied to various applications of grid connected converters is reviewed. The Direct Power Control for PWM rectifiers, Grid Connected DC/AC inverters applications such as renewable energy sources interface, Active Power Filters, Doubly Fed Induction Generators and AC-DC-AC converters are discussed. Control strategies such as Look-Up table based control, predictive control, Virtual Flux DPC, Model based DPC and DPC-Space Vector Modulation are critically reviewed. The effects of various key parameters such as selection of switching vector, sampling time, hysteresis band and grid interfacing on performance of direct power controlled converters are presented.

19. A Harmonic Resonance Suppression Strategy for a High-Speed Railway Traction Power Supply System with a SHE-PWM Four-Quadrant Converter Based on Active-Set Secondary Optimization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Runze Zhang

2017-10-01

Full Text Available Pulse width modulation (PWM technology is widely used in traction converters for high-speed railways. The harmonic distribution caused by PWM is quite extensive, and increases the possibility of grid–train coupling resonance in the traction power supply system (TPSS. This paper first analyzes the mechanism of resonance, when the characteristic harmonic frequency of a four-quadrant converter (4QC current that injects into the traction grid matches the resonant frequency of the traction grid, which may result in resonance in the system. To suppress resonance, this paper adopts specific harmonic elimination–pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM technology combined with a transient direct current control strategy to eliminate the harmonics in the resonant frequency, which may suppress the grid–train coupling resonance. Due to the fact that the SHE-PWM process with multiple switching angles contains complex transcendental equations, the initial value is difficult to provide, and is difficult to solve using ordinary iterative algorithms. In this paper, an active-set secondary optimization method is used to solve the equation. The algorithm has the benefits of low dependence on initial values, fast convergence and high solution accuracy. Finally, the feasibility of the resonant suppression algorithm is verified by means of Matlab simulation.

20. Microcontroller based PWM controlled four switch three phase inverter fed induction motor drive

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mohanty Kant Nalin

2010-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents PIC microcontroller based PWM inverter controlled four switch three phase inverter (FSTPI fed Induction Motor drive. The advantage of this inverter that uses of 4 switches instead of conventional 6 switches is lesser switching losses, lower electromagnetic interference (EMI, less complexity of control algorithms and reduced interface circuits. Simulation and experimental work are carried out and results presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Simulation is carried out using MATLAB SIMULINK and in the experimental work a prototype model is built to verify the simulation results. PIC microcontroller (PIC 16F877A is used to generate the PWM pulses for FSTPI to drive the 0.5 hp 3-phase Induction Motor.

1. Synchronized Scheme of Continuous Space-Vector PWM with the Real-Time Control Algorithms

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede

2004-01-01

This paper describes in details the basic peculiarities of a new method of feedforward synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) of three-phase voltage source inverters for adjustable speed ac drives. It is applied to a continuous scheme of voltage space vector modulation. The method is based...... their position inside clock-intervals. In order to provide smooth shock-less pulse-ratio changing and quarter-wave symmetry of the voltage waveforms, special synchronising signals are formed on the boundaries of the 60 clock-intervals. The process of gradual transition from continuous to discontinuous...

2. Modelling and Controller Design of Electro-Pneumatic Actuator Based on PWM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Behrouz Najjari

2012-07-01

Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear model associated to the fast switching on-off solenoid valve and pneumatic cylinder was dynamically presented. Furthermore, an investigation into the electrical, magnetic, mechanical and fluid subsystems are made. Two common control policies to track valve position, a Proportional Integrator (PI based on Pulse Width Modulation (PWM and hysteresis controllers, are investigated. To control cylinder position, a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC on a simulated unit and an experimental setup regulated with AVR microcontroller are carried out. Experimental results show effective validation to the simulation results from PLC.

Science.gov (United States)

Szelitzky, Tibor; Henrietta Dulf, Eva

2013-12-01

Permanent variations of the electric properties of the load in induction heating equipment make difficult to control the plant. To overcome these disadvantages, the authors propose a new approach based on adaptive control methods. For real plants it is enough to present desired performances or start-up variables for the controller, from which the algorithms tune the controllers by itself. To present the advantages of the proposed controllers, comparisons are made to a PI controller tuned through Ziegler-Nichols method.

4. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

Science.gov (United States)

Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

1982-01-01

This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

5. Design of a High Performance Green-Mode PWM Controller IC with Smart Sensing Protection Circuits

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shen-Li Chen

2014-08-01

Full Text Available A design of high performance green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC with smart sensing protection circuits for the application of lithium-ion battery charger (1.52 V ~ 7.5 V is investigated in this paper. The protection circuits architecture of this system mainly bases on the lithium battery function and does for the system design standard of control circuit. In this work, the PWM controller will be with an automatic load sensing and judges the system operated in the operating mode or in the standby mode. Therefore, it reduces system’s power dissipation effectively and achieves the saving power target. In the same time, many protection sensing circuits such as: (1 over current protection (OCP and under current protection (UCP, (2 over voltage protection (OVP and under voltage protection (UVP, (3 loading determintion and short circuit protection (SCP, (4 over temperature protection (OTP, (5 VDD surge-spiking protection are included. Then, it has the characteristics of an effective monitoring the output loading and the harm prevention as a battery charging. Eventually, this green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC will be that the operation voltage is 3.3 V, the operation frequency is 0.98 MHz, and the output current range is from 454 mA to 500 mA. Meanwhile, the output convert efficiency is range from 74.8 % to 91 %, the power dissipation efficiency in green-mode is 25 %, and the operation temperature range is between -20 0C ~ 114 0C.

6. Research on Single-Phase PWM Converter with Reverse Conducting IGBT Based on Loss Threshold Desaturation Control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xianjin Huang

2017-11-01

Full Text Available In the application of vehicle power supply and distributed power generation, there are strict requirements for the pulse width modulation (PWM converter regarding power density and reliability. When compared with the conventional insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT module, the Reverse Conducting-Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (RC-IGBT with the same package has a lower thermal resistance and higher current tolerance. By applying the gate desaturation control, the reverse recovery loss of the RC-IGBT diode may be reduced. In this paper, a loss threshold desaturation control method is studied to improve the output characteristics of the single-phase PWM converter with a low switching frequency. The gate desaturation control characteristics of the RC-IGBT’s diode are studied. A proper current limit is set to avoid the ineffective infliction of the desaturation pulse, while the bridge arm current crosses zero. The expectation of optimized loss decrease is obtained, and the better performance for the RC-IGBTs of the single-phase PWM converter is achieved through the optimized desaturation pulse distribution. Finally, the improved predictive current control algorithm that is applied to the PWM converter with RC-IGBTs is simulated, and is operated and tested on the scaled reduced power platform. The results prove that the gate desaturation control with the improved predictive current algorithm may effectively improve the RC-IGBT’s characteristics, and realize the stable output of the PWM converter.

7. Design Research on Three-Phase PWM Rectifier Based on Double Closed Loop Control Technology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guang Ya LIU

2014-02-01

Full Text Available Based on the high frequency of three-phase voltage source PWM rectifier, this paper established a mathematical model of three phase current inner ring and outer ring voltage, and put forward the setting method of three phase double closed loop control. Finally, it was verified through simulation. The experimental results show that Three-phase output of DC voltage is stable with the operation of regulating systems, the current flowing into the grid tends to be sinusoidal and power factor is close to 1, which greatly reduce the interference of harmonics on the grid, thus improve grid operation.

8. Advanced Control Strategy of Back-to-Back PWM Converters in PMSG Wind Power System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tan Luong Van

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes a control scheme of back-to-back PWM converters for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system. The DC-link voltage can be controlled at the machine-side converter (MSC, while the grid-side converter (GSC controls the grid active power for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT. At the grid fault condition, the DC-link voltage controller is designed using a feedback linearization (FL theory. For the MPPT, a proportional control loop is added to the torque control to reduce the influence of the inertia moment in the wind turbines, which can improve its dynamic performance. The validity of this control algorithm has been verified by the simulation of the 2-MW PMSG wind turbine system.

9. Internal-Model-Principle-Based Specific Harmonics Repetitive Controller for Grid-Connected PWM Inverters

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wenzhou Lu

2016-01-01

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the general properties of IMP-based controller and presents an internal-model-principle-based (IMP-based specific harmonics repetitive control (SHRC scheme. The proposed SHRC is effective for specific nk±m order harmonics, with n>m≥0 and k=0,1,2,…. Using the properties of exponential function, SHRC can also be rewritten into the format of multiple resonant controllers in parallel, where the control gain of SHRC is n/2 multiple of that of conventional RC (CRC. Therefore, including SHRC in a stable closed-loop feedback control system, asymptotic disturbance eliminating, or reference tracking for any periodic signal only including these specific harmonic components at n/2 times faster error convergence rate compared with CRC can be achieved. Application examples of SHRC controlled three-phase/single-phase grid-connected PWM inverters demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed SHRC scheme.

10. Interleaved Boost-Half-Bridge Dual–Input DC-DC Converter with a PWM plus Phase-Shift Control for Fuel Cell Applications

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

2013-01-01

This paper presents an isolated dual-input DC-DC converter with a PWM plus phase-shift control for fuel cell hybrid energy systems. The power switches are controlled by phase shifted PWM signals with a variable duty cycle, and thus the two input voltages as well as the output voltage can...

11. Position control of an electro-pneumatic system based on PWM technique and FLC.

Science.gov (United States)

2014-03-01

In this paper, modeling and PWM based control of an electro-pneumatic system, including the four 2-2 valves and a double acting cylinder are studied. Dynamic nonlinear behavior of the system, containing fast switching solenoid valves and a pneumatic cylinder, as well as electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and fluid subsystems are modeled. A DC-DC power converter is employed to improve solenoid valve performance and suppress system delay. Among different position control methods, a proportional integrator derivative (PID) controller and fuzzy logic controller (FLC) are evaluated. An experimental setup, using an AVR microcontroller is implemented. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

12. Neural network based PWM AC chopper fed induction motor drive

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Venkatesan Jamuna

2009-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, a new Simulink model for a neural network controlled PWM AC chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Closed loop speed control is achieved using a neural network controller. To maintain a constant fluid flow with a variation in pressure head, drives like fan and pump are operated with closed loop speed control. The need to improve the quality and reliability of the drive circuit has increased because of the growing demand for improving the performance of motor drives. With the increased availability of MOSFET's and IGBT's, PWM converters can be used efficiently in low and medium power applications. From the simulation studies, it is seen that the PWM AC chopper has a better harmonic spectrum and lesser copper loss than the Phase controlled AC chopper. It is observed that the drive system with the proposed model produces better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and fast transient response. .

13. PWM control of current source type six-phase inverter with improved waveforms by coupling reactor; Ketsugo reactor ni yori hakei kaizen sareta denryugata rokuso inverter no PWM seigyo

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inami, K.; Danjo, M.; Kondo, Y.; Yamada, M. [Niihama Technical College, Ehime (Japan); Toki, K. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Heike, J. [Shikoku Instrumentation Co. Ltd., Kagawa (Japan)

1998-10-01

A PWM method has been applied to a high capacity six phase current source inverter system in order to obtain sinusoidal output voltage and current. In this system, the three-phase coupling reactor is connected between the inverter output and an induction motor used as a load. Then the reactor eliminates harmonic components included in the inverter output current except 12k {+-} 1 (k=1,2,3)th order. As a result, the distortion factor of the inverter output current decreases. But the resonant circuit is composed of the capacitance of filter capacitor and the induction motor leakage inductance. Then the resonance current is superimposed on the induction motor phase currents. To solve this problem, the optimal PWM pattern is derived, so that the resonant current becomes very small. The order of the resonant frequency component of the induction motor phase current depend on the inverter frequency. Then total inverter frequency range is divided into several areas. The optimal PWM pattern is derived in each areas. As a result, the use of each optimal PWM pattern allows us to drive the induction motor, over a wide range of speed, under the condition of small distortion factor of phase currents. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

14. A ZVS PWM control strategy with balanced capacitor current for half-bridge three-level DC/DC converter

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

2017-01-01

The capacitor current would be imbalanced under the conventional control strategy in the half-bridge three-level (HBTL) DC/DC converter due to the effect of the output inductance of the power supply and the input line inductance, which would affect the converter's reliability. This paper proposes...... a pulse-wide modulation (PWM) strategy composed of two operation modes for the HBTL DC/DC converter, which can realize the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for the efficiency improvement. In addition, a capacitor current balancing control is proposed by alternating the two operation modes of the proposed ZVS...... PWM strategy, which can eliminate the current imbalance among the two input capacitors. Therefore, the proposed control strategy can improve the converter's performance and reliability in: 1) reducing the switching losses and noises of the power switches; 2) balancing the thermal stresses...

15. Dynamic Sliding Mode Evolution PWM Controller for a Novel High-Gain Interleaved DC-DC Converter in PV System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Taizhou Bei

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Considering the disadvantages of the traditional high-gain DC-DC converter such as big size, high voltage stress of switches, and large input current ripple, a novel high-gain interleaved boost converter with coupled-inductor and switched-capacitor was proposed correspondingly and the operation principle together with the steady-state analysis of this converter was also described. Besides, a new control approach-dynamic sliding mode evolution PWM controller (DSME PWM for the novel topological converter based on both dynamic evolution and sliding mode control was also presented. From the simulation results and experimental validation the proposed converter can fulfill high-gain boost, low ripple of both the input current and the output voltage. Furthermore, MPPT technique can be also achieved in a short time by simulation. The efficiency and stability of the converter proposed in this paper can be improved.

16. A PWM Controller of a Full Bridge Single-Phase Synchronous Inverter for Micro-Grid System

Science.gov (United States)

Rahman, Tawfikur; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ibrahimy, M. I.; Raghib, Aliza ‘Aini Binti Md Ralib@ Md

2017-12-01

Nowadays, microgrid system technology is becoming popular for small area power management systems. It is essential to be less harmonic-distortion and high efficiency of the inverter for microgrid applications. Pulse width modulation (PWM) controller is a conventional switching control technique which is suitable to use in the microgrid connected power inverter system. The control method and algorithm of this technique are challenging, and different approaches are required to avoid the complexity for a customized solution of the microgrid application. This paper proposes a comparative analysis of different controller and their operational methods. A PWM controller is used to reduce the ripple voltage noise while a continuous current mode provides a small output ripple which gives steady-state error as zero on fundamental and cutoff frequency. To reduce the ripple current, higher frequency harmonic distortion, switching loss and phase noise, LC low pass filter is used on either side of input and output terminals. The proposed inverter is designed by MATLAB 2016a simulation software. A balanced load resistance (RL = 20.5 Ω) of star configuration and a dual input DC voltage of ± 35V are considered. In this design, the circuit parameters, the fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, the PWM duty cycle of 95%, the cutoff frequency of the switching controller of 33 kHz are considered. The inverter in this paper exhibits THD of 0.44% and overall efficiency approximately of 98%. The proposed inverter is expected to be suitable for microgrid applications.

17. A High-Precision Control for a ZVT PWM Soft-Switching Inverter to Eliminate the Dead-Time Effect

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Baoquan Kou

2016-07-01

Full Text Available Attributing to the advantages of high efficiency, low electromagnetic interference (EMI noise and closest to the pulse-width-modulation (PWM converter counterpart, zero-voltage-transition (ZVT PWM soft-switching inverters are very suitable for high-performance applications. However, the conventional control algorithms intended for high efficiency generally results in voltage distortion. Thus, this paper, for the first time, proposes a high-precision control method to eliminate the dead-time effect through controlling the auxiliary current in the auxiliary resonant snubber inverter (ARSI, which is a typical ZVT PWM inverter. The dead-time effect of ARSI is analyzed, which is distinguished from hard-switching inverters. The proposed high-precision control is introduced based on the investigation of dead-time effect. A prototype was developed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control. The experimental results shows that the total harmonic distortion (THD of the output current of the ARSI can be reduced compared with that of the hard-switching inverter, because the blanking delay error is eliminated. The quality of the output current and voltage can be further improved by utilizing the proposed control method.

18. Performance optimization of a photovoltaic chain conversion by the PWM control

Science.gov (United States)

Rezoug, M. R.; Chenni, R.

2017-02-01

The interest of the research technique of maximum power point tracking, exposed by this article, lays in the fact of work instantly on the real characteristic of the photovoltaic module. This work is based on instantaneous measurements of its terminals' current & voltage as well as the exploitation of the characteristic "Power - Duty Cycle" to define rapidly the Duty cycle in which power reaches its maximum value. To ensure instantaneous tracking of the point of maximum power, we use "DC/DC Converter" based on "Pulse Wave Modulation's (PWM) Command" controlled by an algorithm implanted in a microcontroller's memory. This algorithm responds to the quick changes in climate (sunlight and temperature). To identify the control parameters "VPV & IPV" at any change in operating conditions, sensors are projected. this algorithm applied to the Duty cycle of the static converter enables the control of power supplied by the photovoltaic generator thanks to oscillatory movement around the MPP. Our article highlights the importance of this technique which lays in its simplicity and performance in changing climatic conditions. This efficiency is confirmed by experimental tests and this technique will improve its predecessors.

19. Energy optimal control strategies for electro motors; low-cost and sensorless PWM-VSI based induction motor control. Vol. 1: Main report, appendix and annex

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abrahamsen, F

1998-02-01

When variable speed induction motor drives are used in applications that run at low load for long periods, energy can be saved by reducing the motor flux at low load. In this report the efficiency of 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives are investigated experimentally with efficiency optimized and constant flux control, with sinusoidal and PWM voltage supply and with varying switching frequency. Steady-state motor models are developed and verified experimentally, and are used to analyze and develop efficiency optimizing control strategies. Four energy optimal control strategies are tested experimentally: cos({phi}) control, model-based control, off-line calculated airgap flux control and stator current/input power minimising search control. Their dynamical properties and their ability to reject load disturbances are analysed. Their ability to save energy is tested on a water pump system. For a typical predefined test-cycle the energy optimal control reduces the energy consumption with 10% compared with classical constant V/Hz control. (au)

20. High-speed elevators controlled by inverters

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sakai, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

1988-10-25

The super-high-speed elevator with superiority to 300m/min of speed, requires both the large capacity power and wide range speed controls. Therefore, in order to materialize the smooth and quiet operation characteristics, by applying the inverter control, the low torque ripple control in the low frequency range and high frequency large capacity inverting for lowering the motor in noise are necessary with their being assured of reliability. To satisfy the above necessary items, together with the development of a sine wave pulse width and frequency modulation (PWM/PFM) control system, to more precisely enable the sine wave electric current control, and 3kHz switching power converter, using a 800A power transistor module, a supervoltage control circuit under the extraordinary condition was designed. As a result of commercializing a 360m/min super-high speed inverter elevator, the power source unit, due to the effect of high power factor, could be reduced by 30% in capacity and also the higher harmonic wave including ratio could be considerably lowered to the inferiority to 5%. 2 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

1. A Dual-Bridge LLC Resonant Converter with Fixed-Frequency PWM Control for Wide Input Applications

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Xiaofeng, Sun; Li, Xiaohua; Shen, Yanfeng

2017-01-01

This paper proposes a dual-bridge (DB) LLC resonant converter for wide input applications. The topology is an integration of a half-bridge (HB) LLC circuit and a full-bridge (FB) LLC circuit. The fixed-frequency PWM control is employed and a range of twice the minimum input voltage can be covered....... Compared with the traditional pulse frequency modulation (PFM) controlled HB/FB LLC resonant converter, the voltage gain range is independent of the quality factor and the magnetizing inductor has little influence on the voltage gain, which can simplify the parameter selection process and benefit...

2. SYNTHESIS OF VOLTAGES OF UNIFORM PWM IN TIME REGULATION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. G. Stryzhniou

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The article describes a process of synthesis and qualitative assessment of the harmonic composition of voltages of multiple and single PWM pulses in time regulation, being, along with amplitude, frequency and phase method, one of control methods of an asynchronous motor. The main point of time regulation is that a pause after any two single PWM pulses with different polarity or after any two groups of multiple PWM pulses with different polarity changes during a process of regulation. Feature of time regulation is that a motor has fast response in the range of small-signal of control and good linearity of speed-torque characteristics in the whole control range. Analytical expressions of parameters of PWM pulses ai and ti are obtained which allow to simplify considerably a process of formation and implementation of time regulation using tabular or indexed-tabular methods. These expressions allow not only to define voltage amplitude of  harmonic but also to perform qualitative assessment of harmonic composition of output voltages at time regulation. It is specified that harmonic frequencies wi = w0/q change in inverse proportion to magnitude of parameter q during a process of regulation and there is a replacement of a fundamental frequency by frequencies of higher harmonics.The offered approach allows to synthesize voltage of uniform single and multiple PWM pulses and to perform their comparative and qualitative analysis and the obtained expressions can be used at modeling of AC motor work. Voltage of multiple PWM pulses which is formed using stepped reference voltage with even quantity of steps in a half period and a pause on a zero level has the best parameters by criterion of a minimum of harmonic components and a maximum of a factor of anharmonicity Kнс at time regulation.

3. Multi Channels PWM Controller for Thermoelectric Cooler Using a Programmable Logic Device and Lab-Windows CVI

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Eli FLAXER

2008-09-01

Full Text Available We present a complete design of a multi channels PID controller for Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC using a pulse width modulation (PWM technique implemented by a dedicated programmable logic device (PLD programmed by VHDL. The PID control loop is implemented by software written by National Instrument Lab-Windows CVI. Due to the fact that the implementation is by a VHDL and PLD the design is modular, as a result, the circuit is very compact in size and very low cost as compared to any commercial product. In addition, since the control loop is implemented by software running on a personal computer (PC using a C language, it is easy to adjust the controller to various environmental conditions and for a width range of sensors like: a thermo couple (TC, thermistor, resistance temperature detectors (RTD etc. We demonstrate the performance of this circuit as a controller for a small incubator using thermistor as the temperature sensor.

4. Design and implementation of predictive current control of three-phase PWM rectifier using space-vector modulation (SVM)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bouafia, Abdelouahab; Gaubert, Jean-Paul; Krim, Fateh

2010-01-01

This paper is concerned with the design and implementation of current control of three-phase PWM rectifier based on predictive control strategy. The proposed predictive current control technique operates with constant switching frequency, using space-vector modulation (SVM). The main goal of the designed current control scheme is to maintain the dc-bus voltage at the required level and to achieve the unity power factor (UPF) operation of the converter. For this purpose, two predictive current control algorithms, in the sense of deadbeat control, are developed for direct controlling input current vector of the converter in the stationary α-β and rotating d-q reference frame, respectively. For both predictive current control algorithms, at the beginning of each switching period, the required rectifier average voltage vector allowing the cancellation of both tracking errors of current vector components at the end of the switching period, is computed and applied during a predefined switching period by means of SVM. The main advantages of the proposed predictive current control are that no need to use hysteresis comparators or PI controllers in current control loops, and constant switching frequency. Finally, the developed predictive current control algorithms were tested both in simulations and experimentally, and illustrative results are presented here. Results have proven excellent performance in steady and transient states, and verify the validity of the proposed predictive current control which is compared to other control strategies.

5. A single-phase PWM controlled AC to DC converter based on control of unity displacement power factor

OpenAIRE

Funabiki, Shigeyuki

1990-01-01

A modified pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique that improves the displacement power factor and the input power factor of a single-phase AC to DC converter is discussed. The modified converter is shown to have a high input power factor and allows the of DC voltage from zero to more than the maximum value of the source voltage. The displacement power factor is unity, and the input power factor is almost unity in the wide range of current command

6. A Method of Maximum Power Control in Single-phase Utility Interactive Photovoltaic Generation System by using PWM Current Source Inverter

Science.gov (United States)

Neba, Yasuhiko

This paper deals with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the photovoltaic generation with the single-phase utility interactive inverter. The photovoltaic arrays are connected by employing the PWM current source inverter to the utility. The use of the pulsating dc current and voltage allows the maximum power point to be searched. The inverter can regulate the array voltage and keep the arrays to the maximum power. This paper gives the control method and the experimental results.

7. Design and implementation of high performance direct power control of three-phase PWM rectifier, via fuzzy and PI controller for output voltage regulation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bouafia, Abdelouahab; Krim, Fateh; Gaubert, Jean-Paul

2009-01-01

This paper proposes direct power control (DPC) for three-phase PWM rectifiers using a new switching table, without line voltage sensors. The instantaneous active and reactive powers, directly controlled by selecting the optimum state of the converter, are used as the PWM control variables instead of the phase line currents being used. The main goal of the control system is to maintain the dc-bus voltage at the required level, while input currents drawn from the power supply should be sinusoidal and in phase with respective phase voltages to satisfy the unity power factor (UPF) operation. Conventional PI and a designed fuzzy logic-based controller, in the dc-bus voltage control loop, have been used to provide active power command. A dSPACE based experimental system was developed to verify the validity of the proposed DPC. The steady-state, and dynamic results illustrating the operation and performance of the proposed control scheme are presented. As a result, it was confirmed that the novel DPC is much better than the classical one. Line currents very close to sinusoidal waveforms (THD < 2%) and good regulation of dc-bus voltage are achieved using PI or fuzzy controller. Moreover, fuzzy logic controller gives excellent performance in transient state, a good rejection of impact load disturbance, and a good robustness

8. Development of Digital Hysteresis Current Control with PLL Loop Gain Compensation Strategy for PWM Inverters with Constant Switching Frequency

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

N. Belhaouchet

2008-03-01

Full Text Available Hysteresis current control is one of the simplest techniques used to control the magnitude and phase angle of motor current for motor drives systems. However, this technique presents several disadvantages such as operation at variable switching frequency which can reveal problems of filtering, interference between the phases in the case of the three-phase systems with insulated neutral connection or delta connection, and irregularity of the modulation pulses which especially causes an acoustic noise on the level of the machine for the high power drive. In this paper, a new technique is proposed for a variable-hysteresis-band controller based on dead beat control applied to three phase voltage source PWM inverters feeding AC motors. Its main aim is firstly ensure a constant switching frequency and secondly the synchronization of modulation pulses using the phase-locked-loop with loop gain compensation in order to ensure a better stability. The behavior of the proposed technique is verified by simulation.

9. Electric vehicle speed control

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

1987-06-23

This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

10. Speed control variable rate irrigation

Science.gov (United States)

Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

11. a microprocessor-based control, scheme for a pwm voltage-fed

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Dr Obe

power circuit over-current and over-voltage protection against adverse changes in the inverter input supply and the ... integral controllers constitute the main control program while the application of thyristor gating ... current flow to the load.

12. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pornsiri Urapa

2014-09-01

Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

13. Optimal Speed Control for Cruising

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Blanke, M.

1994-01-01

With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability......With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability...

14. Assessment of an Average Controller for a DC/DC Converter via Either a PWM or a Sigma-Delta-Modulator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

R. Silva-Ortigoza

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Sliding mode control is a discontinuous control technique that is, by its nature, appropriate for controlling variable structure systems, such as the switch regulated systems employed in power electronics. However, when designing control laws based on the average models of these systems a modulator is necessary for their experimental implementation. Among the most widely used modulators in power electronics are the pulse width modulation (PWM and, more recently, the sigma-delta-modulator (Σ-Δ-modulator. Based on the importance of achieving an appropriate implementation of average control laws and the relevance of the trajectory tracking task in DC/DC power converters, for the first time, this research presents the assessment of the experimental results obtained when one of these controllers is implemented through either a PWM or a Σ-Δ-modulator to perform such a task. A comparative assessment based on the integral square error (ISE index shows that, at frequencies with similar efficiency, the Σ-Δ-modulator provides a better tracking performance for the DC/DC Buck converter. In this paper, an average control based on differential flatness was used to perform the experiments. It is worth mentioning that a different trajectory tracking controller could have been selected for this research.

15. The performance of the DC motor by the PID controlling PWM DC-DC boost converter

OpenAIRE

Can, Erol; Sayan, Hasan Hüseyin

2017-01-01

This paper presents the PID controlling direct current (DC) to the direct current boost converter feds DC motor which has a 3.68 kW and 240 V of DC voltage input on its characteristics. What is first formed is the boost converter mathematical model at the design stage. Secondly, a mathematical model of the DC motor is created so that the boost converter with the machine can be established and modeled at the Matlab Simulink. The PID controller is considered for arranging a pulse width modulati...

16. Control Techniques of Grid Connected PWM Rectifiers under Unbalanced Input Voltage Conditions

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Bejvl, Martin; Šimek, Petr; Škramlík, Jiří; Valouch, Viktor

2013-01-01

Roč. 2, č. 1 (2013), s. 10-21 ISSN 1805-3386 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/330 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : phase locked loop (PLL) * DSC * current control ler Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

17. Embedded system based on PWM control of hydrogen generator with SEPIC converter

Science.gov (United States)

Fall, Cheikh; Setiawan, Eko; Habibi, Muhammad Afnan; Hodaka, Ichijo

2017-09-01

The objective of this paper is to design and to produce a micro electrical plant system based on fuel cell for teaching material-embedded systems in technical vocational training center. Based on this, the student can experience generating hydrogen by fuel cells, controlling the rate of hydrogen generation by the duty ration of single-ended primary-inductor converter(SEPIC), drawing the curve rate of hydrogen to duty ratio, generating electrical power by using hydrogen, and calculating the fuel cell efficiency when it is used as electrical energy generator. This project is of great importance insofar as students will need to acquire several skills to be able to realize it such as continuous DC DC conversion and the scientific concept behind the converter, the regulation of systems with integral proportional controllers, the installation of photovoltaic cells, the use of high-tech sensors, microcontroller programming, object-oriented programming, mastery of the fuel cell syste

18. A dual voltage control strategy for single-phase PWM converters with power decoupling function

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

2015-01-01

converter topology based on a symmetrical half bridge circuit is proposed to decouple the ripple power so that balanced instantaneous power flow is assured between source and load, and the required dc-link capacitance can be dramatically reduced. For proper closed-loop regulation, the small signal modeling...... is therefore very sensitive to step load changes. Comprehensive simulation results and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed circuit and control algorithm....

19. FPGA implementation of high-frequency multiple PWM for variable voltage variable frequency controller

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boumaaraf, Abdelâali, E-mail: aboumaaraf@yahoo.fr [Université Abbès Laghrour, Laboratoire des capteurs, Instrumentations et procédés (LCIP), Khenchela (Algeria); University of Farhat Abbas Setif1, Sétif, 19000 (Algeria); Mohamadi, Tayeb [University of Farhat Abbas Setif1, Sétif, 19000 (Algeria); Gourmat, Laïd [Université Abbès Laghrour, Khenchela, 40000 (Algeria)

2016-07-25

In this paper, we present the FPGA implementation of the multiple pulse width modulation (MPWM) signal generation with repetition of data segments, applied to the variable frequency variable voltage systems and specially at to the photovoltaic water pumping system, in order to generate a signal command very easily between 10 Hz to 60 Hz with a small frequency and reduce the cost of the control system.

20. A dual voltage control strategy for single-phase PWM converters with power decoupling function

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

2014-01-01

on a symmetrical half bridge circuit is proposed to decouple the ripple power so that balanced instantaneous power flow is assured between source and load, and the required dc-link capacitance can be dramatically reduced. For proper closed-loop regulation, the small signal modeling of the proposed system...... of voltage control loop because the variation of dc-link voltage should be kept within an acceptable range during load transients. This is particularly important for systems with reduced dc-link capacitance because they are of lower energy capacity and very sensitive to step load changes. Simulation results...

1. A current-controlled PWM bipolar power supply for a magnet load

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kang, Y.G.; McGhee, D.G.

1994-01-01

The Advanced Photon Source, at Argonne National Laboratory will produce the world's brightest x-ray beams when it is complete. A number of correction magnets are used to maintain proper beam position. Basically, two different types of bipolar power supplies are used for all the correction magnets: one requires dc correction only, and the other requires dc and ac correction. Normally linear-mode power amplifiers would be used for the bipolar power supplies. However, linear-mode power amplifiers dissipate a substantial amount of power as heat, resulting in poor efficiency for their large size. In addition, most commercial bipolar power supplies are linear-mode and available for lower power levels. Therefore, for higher power levels it was necessary to design a bipolar power supply that uses switch-mode power conversion. This paper describes a control technique for a pulse-width-modulatcd bipolar power supply, which can deliver a controlled current, dc plus ac to a correction magnet. A design example of a 150A bipolar power supply is presented

2. Harmonic Issues Assessment on PWM VSC-Based Controlled Microgrids using Newton Methods

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agundis-Tinajero, Gibran; Segundo-Ramirez, Juan; Peña-Gallardo, Rafael

2018-01-01

This paper presents the application of Newton-based methods in the time-domain for the computation of the periodic steady state solutions of microgrids with multiple distributed generation units, harmonic stability and power quality analysis. Explicit representation of the commutation process...... of the power electronic converters and closed-loop power management strategies are fully considered. Case studies under different operating scenarios are presented: grid-connected mode, islanded mode, variations in the Thevenin equivalent of the grid and the loads. Besides, the close relation between...... the harmonic distortion, steady state performance of the control systems, asymptotic stability and power quality is analyzed in order to evaluate the importance and necessity of using full models in stressed and harmonic distorted scenarios....

3. A Decoupled Control of 5-Legs PWM Inverter Feeding a two Induction Motors-based Electric Vehicle Powertrain

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bekheïra Tabbache

2016-06-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes a traction drive system for electric vehicles (EVs with two separate induction motor drive-based wheels. In this context, two three-phase induction motors are associated to five legs power inverter which one leg is shared by two phases of the motors. The independent control of the two induction motors allows replacing the mechanical differential speeds by an equivalent electrical module called electric differential (ED. In the proposed EV powertrain based on 5-leg inverter, the challenge is to achieve a decoupled control of the induction motors to ensure the EV stability while cornering or under slippery road condition. For this, the proposed independent control uses Indirect Field Oriented Control to ensure speed and rotor flux control of each induction motor , a Pulse Width Modulation to provide the command sequences to the 5-leg inverter and electric differential to generate the an appropriate reference when the two induction motors should be controlled at different speeds. For this, a numerical implementation of the independent controls on an embedded board (TMS 320F2812 to ensure a separate control of induction motor fed by the 5-leg inverter. Moreover, the proposed control takes into account the EV context such as the EV dynamic and uses European and American normalized driving cycles. EV-specific experimental tests on a digital signal processor TMS320LF2812 are carried-out to show the effectiveness of the proposed independent control for ED in terms of robustness and stability.

4. Open loop control of an induction motor's velocity using PWM with space vectors; Control en lazo abierto de la velocidad de un motor de induccion utilizando PWM con vectores espaciales

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Garcia Lopez, Manuel

2001-10-15

This work describes the design and implementation of an open loop speed controller for an induction motor. This controller is based on a DSP TMS320F240 chip from Texas Instruments. Speed control is achieved by maintaining the magnetic flux constant through the regularization of stator voltage/frequency relationship. Voltage and frequency variation are achieved using the strategy of pulse width modulation with space vectors. Hardware design is presented (current source and the printed circuit for the intelligent power module) and the software (control algorithms and the modulation strategy using space vectors). The algorithms given were implement using the TMS320F240 language. [Spanish] Este trabajo describe el diseno y la implementacion de un control de la velocidad en lazo abierto de un motor de induccion, basado en el DSP TMS320F240 de Texas Instruments. El control de la velocidad se logra manteniendo el flujo en el entre hierro constante, lo cual es realizado al regular el valor de la relacion voltaje/frecuencia en el estator. La variacion del voltaje y la frecuencia se realiza utilizando la estrategia de modulacion del ancho de los pulsos con vectores espaciales. Se presenta el diseno de los circuitos (fuente de corriente continua y circuito impreso para el modulo inteligente de potencia) y de los programas (algoritmos de control y de la estrategia de modulacion con vectores espaciales) necesarios que se utilizaron durante la implementacion del accionamiento del motor. Los algoritmos dados fueron implementados en el lenguaje ensamblador del TMS320F240.

5. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

Science.gov (United States)

Basu, Kaushik

A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

6. Application of drive circuit based on L298N in direct current motor speed control system

Science.gov (United States)

Yin, Liuliu; Wang, Fang; Han, Sen; Li, Yuchen; Sun, Hao; Lu, Qingjie; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quanzhao

2016-10-01

In the experiment of researching the nanometer laser interferometer, our design of laser interferometer circuit system is up to the wireless communication technique of the 802.15.4 IEEE standard, and we use the RF TI provided by Basic to receive the data on speed control system software. The system's hardware is connected with control module and the DC motor. However, in the experiment, we found that single chip microcomputer control module is very difficult to drive the DC motor directly. The reason is that the DC motor's starting and braking current is larger than the causing current of the single chip microcomputer control module. In order to solve this problem, we add a driving module that control board can transmit PWM wave signal through I/O port to drive the DC motor, the driving circuit board can come true the function of the DC motor's positive and reversal rotation and speed adjustment. In many various driving module, the L298N module's integrated level is higher compared with other driver module. The L298N model is easy to control, it not only can control the DC motor, but also achieve motor speed control by modulating PWM wave that the control panel output. It also has the over-current protection function, when the motor lock, the L298N model can protect circuit and motor. So we use the driver module based on L298N to drive the DC motor. It is concluded that the L298N driver circuit module plays a very important role in the process of driving the DC motor in the DC motor speed control system.

7. Development of an On-Line Self-Tuning FPGA-PID-PWM Control Algorithm Design for DC-DC Buck Converter in Mobile Applications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ahmed Sabah Al-Araji

2017-08-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a new development of an on-line hybrid self-tuning control algorithm of the Field Programmable Gate Array - Proportional Integral Derivative - Pulse Width Modulation (FPGA-PID-PWM controller for DC-DC buck converter which is used in battery operation of mobile applications. The main goal in this work is to propose structure of the hybrid Bees-PSO tuning control algorithm which has a capability of quickly and precisely searching in the global regions in order to obtain optimal gain parameters for the proposed controller to generate the best voltage control action to achieve the desired performance of the Buck converter output. Matlab simulation results and Xilinx development tool Integrated Software Environment (ISE experimental work show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed on-line hybrid Bees-PSO tuning control algorithm in terms of obtaining smooth and unsaturated state voltage control action and minimizing the tracking voltage error of the Buck converter output. Moreover, the fitness evaluation number is reduced.

8. Development of microheaters for gas sensor with an AT-Mega 8535 temperature controller using a PWM (pulse width modulation) method

Science.gov (United States)

Megayanti, Meti; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

2016-03-01

Microheater is the main component in gas sensor characterized by their sensitivity, selectivity, and time response of gas sensor which is depend on the microheater temperature stability. A Cu microheater was developed and utilized AT-Mega 8535 controller using a PWM (pulse width modulation) method. This control system is interfaced to the PC to observe the real time temperature response of the microheater. Three initial resistance (R0) variations of microheater were developed in an open loop control system. The power characteristic of designed microheater depends on the specified microheater initial resistance. The smaller R0, the less power required to reach a temperature setting value. The developed microheater was designed to reach a temperature setting value of 250°C having resistance 0.531 Ω for 1.979 Watt and 0.265 Ω for 1.072 Watt respectively. The results of the investigation on the control performances shows microheater-control system achieved operating temperature up to 250°C. The response of the temperature control shows smallest R0 resulted in a high stability with short settling time, short delay time and small ripple for temperature setting values higher than 150°C. The obtained error of microheater temperature with R0 = 0.265 is 8.596 %. It is concluded that the developed microheater can be utilized as a component of a gas sensor.

9. Development of microheaters for gas sensor with an AT-Mega 8535 temperature controller using a PWM (pulse width modulation) method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Megayanti, Meti; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made, E-mail: imadejoni@phys.unpad.ac.id [Instrumentation System and Functional Material Processing Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran Jalan Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor 45363, West Java (Indonesia)

2016-03-11

Microheater is the main component in gas sensor characterized by their sensitivity, selectivity, and time response of gas sensor which is depend on the microheater temperature stability. A Cu microheater was developed and utilized AT-Mega 8535 controller using a PWM (pulse width modulation) method. This control system is interfaced to the PC to observe the real time temperature response of the microheater. Three initial resistance (R0) variations of microheater were developed in an open loop control system. The power characteristic of designed microheater depends on the specified microheater initial resistance. The smaller R0, the less power required to reach a temperature setting value. The developed microheater was designed to reach a temperature setting value of 250°C having resistance 0.531 Ω for 1.979 Watt and 0.265 Ω for 1.072 Watt respectively. The results of the investigation on the control performances shows microheater-control system achieved operating temperature up to 250°C. The response of the temperature control shows smallest R0 resulted in a high stability with short settling time, short delay time and small ripple for temperature setting values higher than 150°C. The obtained error of microheater temperature with R0 = 0.265 is 8.596 %. It is concluded that the developed microheater can be utilized as a component of a gas sensor.

10. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gao, G.; Chen, W.

2005-01-01

This paper presents the partial results of a research project that studied the impact of medium voltage PWM ASD (adjustable speed drives) on motor stator insulation system. The findings from this study/ investigation have aided designers to improve the robustness of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors, based on accelerated laboratory tests. (author)

11. Filtering and Control of High Speed Motor Current in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

Science.gov (United States)

Kenny, Barbara H.; Santiago, Walter

2004-01-01

The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technology to enable the use of high speed flywheel energy storage units in future spacecraft for the last several years. An integral part of the flywheel unit is the three phase motor/generator that is used to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. The motor/generator voltage is supplied from a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter operating from a fixed DC voltage supply. The motor current is regulated through a closed loop current control that commands the necessary voltage from the inverter to achieve the desired current. The current regulation loop is the innermost control loop of the overall flywheel system and, as a result, must be fast and accurate over the entire operating speed range (20,000 to 60,000 rpm) of the flywheel. The voltage applied to the motor is a high frequency PWM version of the DC bus voltage that results in the commanded fundamental value plus higher order harmonics. Most of the harmonic content is at the switching frequency and above. The higher order harmonics cause a rapid change in voltage to be applied to the motor that can result in large voltage stresses across the motor windings. In addition, the high frequency content in the motor causes sensor noise in the magnetic bearings that leads to disturbances for the bearing control. To alleviate these problems, a filter is used to present a more sinusoidal voltage to the motor/generator. However, the filter adds additional dynamics and phase lag to the motor system that can interfere with the performance of the current regulator. This paper will discuss the tuning methodology and results for the motor/generator current regulator and the impact of the filter on the control. Results at speeds up to 50,000 rpm are presented.

12. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft

Science.gov (United States)

Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

13. EMC Increasing of PWM Rectifier in Comparison with Classical Rectifier

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

R. Dolecek

2008-12-01

Full Text Available Pulse width modulated rectifier is a very popular topic nowadays. The modern industrial production demands continuous and lossless conversion of electrical energy parameters. This need leads to wide spread of power semiconductor converters. The rapid development in power electronics and microprocessor technology enables to apply sophisticated control methods that eliminate negative side effects of the power converters on the supply network. The phase controlled thyristor rectifiers overload the supply network with higher harmonics and reactive power consumption. That is why the PWM rectifier is being examined. In comparison with the phase controlled rectifier it can be controlled to consume nearly sinusoidal current with power factor equal to unity. Another advantage is its capability of energy recuperation. The PWM rectifier can assert itself for its good behavior in many applications, for example as an input rectifier in indirect frequency converter, or in traction. Traction vehicles equipped with PWM rectifier do not consume reactive power, do not load the supply network with higher harmonics, and the recuperation is possible. The paper deals with the PWM rectifier functional model realization and examination. Electromagnetic compatibility of PWM rectifier and classical phase controlled rectifier is compared on the basis of the input current harmonic analysis.

14. Speed control at low wind speeds for a variable speed fixed pitch wind turbine

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rosmin, N.; Watson, S.J.; Tompson, M. [Loughborough Univ., Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

2010-03-09

The maximum power regulation below rated wind speed is regulated by changing the rotor/generator speed at large frequency range in a fixed pitch, variable speed, stall-regulated wind turbine. In order to capture the power at a maximum value the power coefficient is kept at maximum peak point by maintaining the tip speed ratio at its optimum value. The wind industry is moving from stall regulated fixed speed wind turbines to newer improved innovative versions with better reliability. While a stall regulated fixed pitch wind turbine is among the most cost-effective wind turbine on the market, its problems include noise, severe vibrations, high thrust loads and low power efficiency. Therefore, in order to improve such drawbacks, the rotation of the generator speed is made flexible where the rotation can be controlled in variable speed. This paper discussed the development of a simulation model which represented the behaviour of a stall regulated variable speed wind turbine at low wind speed control region by using the closed loop scalar control with adjustable speed drive. The paper provided a description of each sub-model in the wind turbine system and described the scalar control of the induction machine. It was concluded that by using a constant voltage/frequency ratio of the generator's stator side control, the generator speed could be regulated and the generator torque could be controlled to ensure the power coefficient could be maintained close to its maximum value. 38 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

15. Power Quality Control and Design of Power Converter for Variable-Speed Wind Energy Conversion System with Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yüksel Oğuz

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%.

16. Power quality control and design of power converter for variable-speed wind energy conversion system with permanent-magnet synchronous generator.

Science.gov (United States)

Oğuz, Yüksel; Güney, İrfan; Çalık, Hüseyin

2013-01-01

The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS) operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%.

17. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

Science.gov (United States)

Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

1975-01-01

A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

18. Position and Speed Control of Brushless DC Motors Using Sensorless Techniques and Application Trends

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jaime Gómez-Gil

2010-07-01

Full Text Available This paper provides a technical review of position and speed sensorless methods for controlling Brushless Direct Current (BLDC motor drives, including the background analysis using sensors, limitations and advances. The performance and reliability of BLDC motor drivers have been improved because the conventional control and sensing techniques have been improved through sensorless technology. Then, in this paper sensorless advances are reviewed and recent developments in this area are introduced with their inherent advantages and drawbacks, including the analysis of practical implementation issues and applications. The study includes a deep overview of state-of-the-art back-EMF sensing methods, which includes Terminal Voltage Sensing, Third Harmonic Voltage Integration, Terminal Current Sensing, Back-EMF Integration and PWM strategies. Also, the most relevant techniques based on estimation and models are briefly analysed, such as Sliding-mode Observer, Extended Kalman Filter, Model Reference Adaptive System, Adaptive observers (Full-order and Pseudoreduced-order and Artificial Neural Networks.

19. Realise of PWM-generating based on FPGA

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Su Rongfeng; Xu Ruinian; Huang Maomao

2012-01-01

The power supply digital controllers of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF) make use of the PWM (pulse width modulation) wave as the feedback to the power-electrical devices, so as to obtain constant current of high accuracy and stability. The design of PWM wave generation structure in FPGA is good for a compact controller,and the reduction of the usage of Integrated Circuits (ICs) decreases the interference from the noise among the ICs, hence better performance of the controller. In addition, FPGA can be programmed circularly at any time,so as to optimize the structure design and make a maximum use of the advantage of FPGA. As a part of transplanting the complete function of the DSP (digital signal processor/processing), realizing the generation of PWM wave in FPGA is feasible. In this paper, we report progress in this regard at SSRF. (authors)

20. Speed Control Analysis of Brushless DC Motor Based on Maximum Amplitude DC Current Feedback

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hassan M.A.A.

2014-07-01

Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to develop accurate and simple current controlled modulation technique for brushless DC (BLDC motor drive. The approach is applied to control phase current based on generation of quasi-square wave current by using only one current controller for the three phases. Unlike the vector control method which is complicated to be implemented, this simple current modulation technique presents advantages such as phase currents are kept in balance and the current is controlled through only one dc signal which represent maximum amplitude value of trapezoidal current (Imax. This technique is performed with Proportional Integral (PI control algorithm and triangular carrier comparison method to generate Pulse Width Modulation (PWM signal. In addition, the PI speed controller is incorporated with the current controller to perform desirable speed operation of non-overshoot response. The performance and functionality of the BLDC motor driver are verified via simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results show the developed control system performs desirable speed operation of non-overshoot and good current waveforms.

1. Zero-Voltage Switching PWM Strategy Based Capacitor Current-Balancing Control for Half-Bridge Three-Level DC/DC Converter

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Zhang, Qi

2018-01-01

The current imbalance among the two input capacitors is one of the important issues of the half-bridge threelevel (HBTL) DC/DC converter, which would affect system performance and reliability. In this paper, a zero-voltage switching (ZVS) pulse-wide modulation (PWM) strategy including two operation...

2. Performance analysis of samarium cobalt P.M. synchronous motor fed from PWM inverters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rahman, M.A.; Choudhury, M.A.

1985-01-01

This paper presents an analysis and performance of samarium cobalt permanent magnet (P.M.) synchronous motors fed from two types of voltage source pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters. The analysis and test results on the steady state performance of a P.M. motor fed from PWM inverters are presented. PWM inverters are used in variable voltage variable frequency applications to avoid a double conversion process of ordinary inverters. In drives, they are used for voltage and speed regulation of motors. Use of modulation technique in inverters also allow to eliminate or minimize selected harmonics from the inverter output voltage

3. Current control methods for grid-side three-phase PWM voltage-source inverter in distributed generation systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lar, Ionut Andrei; Radulescu, Mircea; Ritchie, Ewen

2012-01-01

A comparison between two current control methods of grid side inverter, PI current control and Robust Forward control is made. PI control is implemented in d-q synchronous frame while Forward is implemented in abc stationary frames.The report contains both simulations and experimental test wich...

4. Advanced nonlinear engine speed control systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vesterholm, Thomas; Hendricks, Elbert

1994-01-01

Several subsidiary control problems have turned out to be important for improving driveability and fuel consumption in modern spark ignition (SI) engine cars. Among these are idle speed control and cruise control. In this paper the idle speed and cruise control problems will be treated as one......: accurately tracking of a desired engine speed in the presence of model uncertainties and severe load disturbances. This is accomplished by using advanced nonlinear control techniques such as input/output-linearization and sliding mode control. These techniques take advantage of a nonlinear model...... of the engine dynamics, a mean value engine model....

5. Analog Fixed Maximum Power Point Control for a PWM Step-downConverter for Water Pumping Installations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beltran, H.; Perez, E.; Chen, Zhe

2009-01-01

This paper describes a Fixed Maximum Power Point analog control used in a step-down Pulse Width Modulated power converter. The DC/DC converter drives a DC motor used in small water pumping installations, without any electric storage device. The power supply is provided by PV panels working around....... The proposed Optimal Power Point fix voltage control system is analyzed in comparison to other complex controls....... their maximum power point, with a fixed operating voltage value. The control circuit implementation is not only simple and cheap, but also robust and reliable. System protections and adjustments are also proposed. Simulations and hardware are reported in the paper for a 150W water pumping application system...

6. Passivity-Based Control by Series/Parallel Damping of Single-Phase PWM Voltage Source Converter

NARCIS (Netherlands)

del Puerto Flores, Dunstano; Scherpen, Jacqueline; Liserre, Marco; de Vries, Martijn M. J.; Kransse, Marco J.; Monopoli, Vito Giuseppe

This paper describes a detailed design procedure for passivity-based controllers developed using the Brayton-Moser (BM) framework. Several passivity-based feedback designs are presented for the voltage-source converter, specifically for the H-bridge converter, since nowadays it is one of the

7. Direct vector controlled six-phase asymmetrical induction motor with power balanced space vector PWM multilevel operation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Grandi, Gabriele; Ojo, Joseph Olorunfemi

2016-01-01

In this paper, a six-phase (asymmetrical) machine is investigated, 300 phase displacement is set between two three-phase stator windings keeping deliberately in open-end configuration. Power supply consists of four classical three-phase voltage inverters (VSIs), each one connected to the open......-winding terminals. An original synchronous field oriented control (FOC) algorithm with three variables as degree of freedom is proposed, allowing power sharing among the four VSIs in symmetric/asymmetric conditions. A standard three-level space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) by nearest three vector (NTV......) approach was adopted for each couple of VSIs to operate as multilevel output voltage generators. The proposed power sharing algorithm is verified for the ac drive system by observing the dynamic behaviours in different set conditions by complete simulation modelling in software (Matlab...

8. A Method for Remote Control of EV Charging by Modifying IEC61851 Compliant EVSE Based PWM Signal

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pedersen, Anders Bro; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

2016-01-01

The Electric Vehicle (EV) has properties that can not only load but can elevate its value as a resource to the power system. An EV represents a high-power, fast-responding flexible demand unit, with an attached energy storage (battery) and the potential for bi-directional capabilities (V2G......). These properties can be used in a number of power and energy services, which can support power system operation while lowering the cost of EV ownership. Such services depend on the support from the communications technologies and standards that connect controllers and logic in the EVs with those in the charging...... for smart charging - to gain this ability by simply adhering to the widely supported IEC61851 standard. This paper describes the solution, demonstrates the implementation and discusses the potential it has for unlocking EV power- and energy services....

9. Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller, Phase I

Data.gov (United States)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project intends to design and develop an Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller (IESC) for use on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The IESC will advance the...

10. High speed and high functional inverter power supplies for plasma generation and control, and their performance

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Razzak, Mohammad A.; Kondo, Kenji; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Takamura, Shuichi; Imai, Takahiro; Toyoda, Mitsuhiro

2003-01-01

The Rapid development of high power and high speed semiconductor switching devices has led to their various applications in related plasma fields. Especially, a high speed inverter power supply can be used as an RF power source instead of conventional linear amplifiers and a power supply to control the magnetic field in a fusion plasma device. In this paper, RF thermal plasma production and plasma heating experiments are described emphasis placed on using a static induction transistor inverter at a frequency range between 200 kHz and 2.5 MHz as an RF power supply. Efficient thermal plasma production is achieved experimentally by using a flexible and easily operated high power semiconductor inverter power supply. Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power supplies driven by a high speed digital signal processor are applied as tokamak joule coil and vertical coil power supplies to control plasma current waveform and plasma equilibrium. Output characteristics, such as the arbitrary bipolar waveform generation of a pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter using digital signal processor (DSP) can be successfully applied to tokamak power supplies for flexible plasma current operation and fast position control of a small tokamak. (author)

11. Diseño asistido por computadora del patrón de encendido en inversores de tensión, utilizando la técnica de control PWM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Elio Castro Alfonso

2011-03-01

Full Text Available El artículo se relaciona con el desarrollo de un programa de ayuda para el diseño de los patrones de control deinversores de potencia tipo puente que utilizan técnicas PWM (Pulse Width Modulation. Este método de controlbien establecido, permite incorporar todas las funciones del inversor, pero en lo fundamental garantizar la regulaciónde la tensión de salida manteniendo el factor de distorsión de armónicos lo suficientemente bajo (3-5 % comopara ser tolerado por los consumidores usuales. Obtener un adecuado diseño del patrón de tablas de búsquedapara su utilización en un inversor real empleando microcontrolador, es el problema fundamental a resolver. Losresultados del trabajo han sido comprobados con la ayuda de un procesador 8031.  This paper is related with a program which calculates the control pattern of single-phase power inverters usingPWM techniques.This kind of control if it's well established makes possible to incorporate not all the inverterfunctions,but mainly the voltage regulation by keeping the total harmonics distorsion as low as possible (3-5%;quite good for any consumer.The main problem to solve is to get a proper design of the tables search pattern tobe used in a real single-phase inverter control using any processor.The experimental work has been done usingthe 8031 microcontroller.

12. A digital input class-D audio amplifier with sixth-order PWM

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luo Shumeng; Li Dongmei

2013-01-01

A digital input class-D audio amplifier with a sixth-order pulse-width modulation (PWM) modulator is presented. This modulator moves the PWM generator into the closed sigma—delta modulator loop. The noise and distortions generated at the PWM generator module are suppressed by the high gain of the forward loop of the sigma—delta modulator. Therefore, at the output of the modulator, a very clean PWM signal is acquired for driving the power stage of the class-D amplifier. A sixth-order modulator is designed to balance the performance and the system clock speed. Fabricated in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this class-D amplifier achieves 110 dB dynamic range, 100 dB signal-to-noise rate, and 0.0056% total harmonic distortion plus noise. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

13. Color adjustable LED driver design based on PWM

Science.gov (United States)

Du, Yiying; Yu, Caideng; Que, Longcheng; Zhou, Yun; Lv, Jian

2012-10-01

Light-emitting diode (LED) is a liquid cold source light source that rapidly develops in recent years. The merits of high brightness efficiency, long duration, high credibility and no pollution make it satisfy our demands for consumption and natural life, and gradually replace the traditional lamp-house-incandescent light and fluorescent light. However, because of the high cost and unstable drive circuit, the application range is restricted. To popularize the applications of the LED, we focus on improving the LED driver circuit to change this phenomenon. Basing on the traditional LED drive circuit, we adopt pre-setup constant current model and introduce pulse width modulation (PWM) control method to realize adjustable 256 level-grays display. In this paper, basing on human visual characteristics and the traditional PWM control method, we propose a new PWM control timing clock to alter the duty cycle of PWM signal to realize the simple gamma correction. Consequently, the brightness can accord with our visual characteristics.

14. Tickover speed controller for car engines

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hawk, R L

1980-05-22

In general, the tickover speed of a car engine is made sufficiently high, in order to permit an assumed maximum load to be taken from the engine at tickover. This setting of the tickover speed is usually done by stops in the fuel supply. Matching the actual load would lead to lower fuel consumption, without any danger of the engine stalling. The purpose of the invention is to provide a tickover speed controller, so that the tickover speed is adjusted by electronic control equipment, independently of the machine load. The fuel consumption on tickover is reduced and the emission of noxious substances is decreased. The electro-magnetic control of the throttle valve tickover setting is explained by extensive section drawings of the system. This process dispenses with the special tickover cams for a cold start.

15. Design of an Internal Model Control strategy for single-phase grid-connected PWM inverters and its performance analysis with a non-linear local load and weak grid.

Science.gov (United States)

Chaves, Eric N; Coelho, Ernane A A; Carvalho, Henrique T M; Freitas, Luiz C G; Júnior, João B V; Freitas, Luiz C

2016-09-01

This paper presents the design of a controller based on Internal Model Control (IMC) applied to a grid-connected single-phase PWM inverter. The mathematical modeling of the inverter and the LCL output filter, used to project the 1-DOF IMC controller, is presented and the decoupling of grid voltage by a Feedforward strategy is analyzed. A Proportional - Resonant Controller (P+Res) was used for the control of the same plant in the running of experimental results, thus moving towards the discussion of differences regarding IMC and P+Res performances, which arrived at the evaluation of the proposed control strategy. The results are presented for typical conditions, for weak-grid and for non-linear local load, in order to verify the behavior of the controller against such situations. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

16. Controlling the speed of light

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sigmund, Ole; Stainko, Roman

Interesting phenomena of photonic crystals (PhCs), like bandgaps and waveguiding, have lead to a tremendous increase of research interest in this area. High-end functionalities in electro-optical circuts urge to optimize these structures. So far mostly trial and error methods have been applied to...... method to not only to create a bandgap around an a-priorily chosen guided mode, but also to control it's group-velocity under the light-line....

17. A new Zero-Voltage-Transition PWM switching cell

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grigore, V. [Electronics and Telecommunications Faculty `Politebuica` University Bucharest (Romania); Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

1997-12-31

In this paper a new Zero-Voltage-Transition (ZVT) PWM switching cell is presented. The proposed switching cell is composed of the normal hard-switched PWM cell (consisting of one active switch and one passive switch), plus an auxiliary circuit (consisting of one active switch and some reactive components). The auxiliary circuit is inactive during the ON and OFF intervals of the switches in the normal PWM switch. However, the transitions between the two states are controlled by the auxiliary circuit. Prior to turn-on, the voltage across the active switch in the PWM cell is forced to zero, thus the turn-on losses of the active switch are practically eliminated. At turn-off the auxiliary circuit behaves like a non-dissipative passive snubber reducing the turn-off losses to a great extent. Zero-Voltage-Transition switching technique almost eliminates switching losses. The active switch operates under ZVT conditions, the passive switch (diode) has a controlled reverse recovery, and the switch in the auxiliary circuit operates under Zero-Current-Switching (ZCS) conditions. (orig.) 6 refs.

18. A new Zero-Current-Transition PWM switching cell

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grigore, V. [Electronics and Telecommunications Faculty, `Politechnica` University Bucharest (Romania); Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

1997-12-31

In this paper a new Zero-Current-Transition (ZCT) PWM switching cell is presented. The proposed switching cell is composed of the normal hard-switched PWM cell (consisting of one active switch and one passive switch), plus as auxiliary circuit. The auxiliary circuit is inactive during the ON ad OFF intervals of the switches in the normal PWM switch. The transitions between the two states are controlled by the auxiliary circuit. Prior to turn-off, the current through the active switch in the PWM cell is forced to zero, thus the turn-off losses of the active switch are practically eliminated. At turn-on the auxiliary circuit slows down the growing rate of the current through the main switch. Thus, turn-on losses are also very much reduced. The active switch operates under ZCT conditions, the passive switch (diode) has a controlled reverse recovery, while the switch in the auxiliary circuit operates under Zero-Current-Switching (ZCS) conditions. (orig.) 3 refs.

19. Apparent permeability of electrical steel under PWM magnetisation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moses, A.J.; Leicht, J.; Anderson, P.

2006-01-01

In recent years much attention has been paid to material performance under pulse width modulation (PWM) excitation conditions, which is of increasing importance to motor applications particularly in energy efficient variable speed drive systems. It is well known that in general, losses increase significantly with reducing modulation index, the increase depending on parameters such as silicon contents, thickness and grain size. The effect of the PWM waveform on permeability has attracted little attention until now. So in this paper its influence on the permeability of electrical steel is analysed and characterised. A prediction approach based on the permeability under sine wave excitation and total harmonic distortion is introduced which results in errors below 10% for non-electrical steel at 1.5 T

20. Speed controller for an alternating - current motor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bolie, V.W.

1984-01-01

A controller for a multi-phase ac motor that is subject to a large inertial load, e.g. an induction motor driving a heavy spinning rotor of a neutron chopper that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal Esub(L) having a meandering line frequency, includes a sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor which is compared (by counting clock pulses between feedback pulses) with a reference clock signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal Esub(c). The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error signal, a phase error signal, and a drift error signal, the magnitudes of which are recalculated and updated with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is constant for large speed errors but highly sensitive to small speed errors. The stator windings of the motor are driven by variable-frequency power amplifiers which are controlled by the motor control signal Esub(c) via PROMs which store digital representations of sine and cosine waveforms in quadrature. (author)

1. Fast response Antiwindup PI speed controller of Brushless DC motor drive: Modeling, simulation and implementation on DSP

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mohd Tariq

2016-05-01

Full Text Available Most of the Brushless DC (BLDC motors drive adopts proportional, integral and derivative (PID controller and pulse width modulation (PWM scheme for speed control. Hence, BLDC motor drive has strong saturation characteristics. The saturation results in a typical windup phenomenon. The paper presents an Antiwindup drive for BLDC motor. An Antiwindup controller (AWC has been used in the paper. AWC has been modeled in MATLAB/Simulink and comparison has been done between conventional PI controller and AWC at different starting loads. Dynamic characteristics of the BLDC motor drive have been examined and results are presented and discussed in detail in this paper. Details of DSP based experimental validation of the simulated results are also presented here.

2. Self oscillating PWM modulators, a topological comparison

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

2004-01-01

or fs/ð range respectively, where fs is the switching frequency of the converter. For some applications this will require unacceptable high switching frequency to achieve enough control loop bandwidth for the desired dynamic performance. With self oscillating modulators, the open loop bandwidth is equal...... to fs which makes this type of modulators an excellent choice for a wide range of applications. Self oscillating PWM modulators can be made in a number of ways, either as voltage or current mode modulators, and the self oscillating behavior can be achieved either by using hysteresis control...... or by shaping the open loop function of the modulator so its gain and phase response causes a closed loop natural oscillation. The two main types of self oscillating modulators have many similarities, but differences in dynamic performance and linearity are present. The work presented is related to the author...

3. Pengaruh Penambahan PWM (Pulse Width Modulation Pada Generator HHO Tipe Dry Cell

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Fungky Dyan Pertiwi

2013-09-01

Full Text Available Generator HHO memanfaatkan proses elektrolisis air agar mendapatkan gas H2. Namun, pada praktiknya pemakaian arus dari aki yang besar dan temperatur tinggi membuat bejana generator menjadi cepat rusak, sehingga dibutuhkan tambahan rangkaian elektronika PWM pada pengujian generator HHO guna mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Penelitian menggunakan elektroda plat berjumlah 9 berdimensi 120mm 120mm, tebal 1mm dan dibatasi oleh o-ring dengan diameter 126mm, tebal 3mm. Pengujian dilakukan secara eksperimen dengan 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok control yang mana pengujian tanpa menggunakan PWM serta kelompok uji dimana pengujian menggunakan PWM dengan variasi duty cycle 30%, 50% dan 70%. Pengujian dilakukan hingga temperatur elektrolit 93oC. Hasil uji didapatkan bahwa arus, laju produksi dan efisiensi terbesar didapatkan pada pengujian tanpa PWM yang mencapai 60,6A, 6,033 10-6kg/s dan 25,69%. Namun, pada pengambilan data kedua efisiensi turun menjadi 19,74%. Penambahan PWM pada pengujian berpengaruh pada arus dan temperatur yang stabil meskipun laju produksi dan efisiensi lebih kecil daripada pengujian tanpa PWM. Pengujian dengan PWM pada duty cycle 70% menghasilkan laju produksi dan efisiensi terbesar yang mencapai 1,843 10-6 kg/s dan 15,19%.

4. DC motor speed control using fuzzy logic controller

Science.gov (United States)

Ismail, N. L.; Zakaria, K. A.; Nazar, N. S. Moh; Syaripuddin, M.; Mokhtar, A. S. N.; Thanakodi, S.

2018-02-01

The automatic control has played a vital role in the advance of engineering and science. Nowadays in industries, the control of direct current (DC) motor is a common practice thus the implementation of DC motor controller speed is important. The main purpose of motor speed control is to keep the rotation of the motor at the present speed and to drive a system at the demand speed. The main purpose of this project is to control speed of DC Series Wound Motor using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The expectation of this project is the Fuzzy Logic Controller will get the best performance compared to dc motor without controller in terms of settling time (Ts), rise time (Tr), peak time (Tp) and percent overshoot (%OS).

5. Adjustable speed drive study, part 1

Science.gov (United States)

Wallace, A.

1989-08-01

Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

6. Transistor Clamped Five-Level Inverter using Non-Inverting Double Reference Single Carrier PWM Technique for photovoltaic applications

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2017-01-01

in output waveform. Under-modulation (modulation Index = 0.85), unity (modulation Index =1) and over-modulation (modulation Index = 1.25) PWM signal is obtained to drive control switches. Simulation results will confirm the functionality, design and operation of the proposed MLI and NIDRSC PWM Technique....

7. Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.

1992-01-01

Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m 3 /min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years

8. Safety Impact of Average Speed Control in the UK

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Brassøe, Bo; Johansen, Jonas Wibert

2016-01-01

of automatic speed control was point-based, but in recent years a potentially more effective alternative automatic speed control method has been introduced. This method is based upon records of drivers’ average travel speed over selected sections of the road and is normally called average speed control...... in the UK. The study demonstrates that the introduction of average speed control results in statistically significant and substantial reductions both in speed and in number of accidents. The evaluation indicates that average speed control has a higher safety effect than point-based automatic speed control....

9. The 120V 20A PWM switch for applications in high power distribution

Science.gov (United States)

Borelli, V.; Nimal, W.

1989-08-01

A 20A/120VDC (voltage direct current) PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) Solid State Power Controller (SSPC) developed under ESA contract to be used in the power distribution system of Columbus is described. The general characteristics are discussed and the project specification defined. The benefits of a PWM solution over a more conventional approach, for the specific application considered are presented. An introduction to the SSPC characteristics and a functional description are presented.

10. Evaluation of train-speed control algorithms

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slavik, M.M. [BKS Advantech (Pty.) Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)

2000-07-01

A relatively simple and fast simulator has been developed and used for the preliminary testing of train cruise-control algorithms. The simulation is done in software on a PC. The simulator is used to gauge the consequences and feasibility of a cruise-control strategy prior to more elaborate testing and evaluation. The tool was used to design and pre-test a train-cruise control algorithm called NSS, which does not require knowledge of exact train mass, vertical alignment, or actual braking force. Only continuous measurements on the speed of the train and electrical current are required. With this modest input, the NSS algorithm effected speed changes smoothly and efficiently for a wide range of operating conditions. (orig.)

11. Application of digital PWM technology in current transducers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu Huifang; Hu Zhimin; Li Rui

2012-01-01

With the development of DSP technology and mature use of PID technology,, a new program for DC or AC signal measurement is proposed. Combined with the DSP chip timer module and PID algorithm, PWM signals are generated to control the feedback circuit for the compensation current. Finally the measured current value can be obtained according to the ampere-turns compensation current and the measured current. Studies have shown that this technology enables new current transducers have high stability. (authors)

12. Analisis Harmonisa Inverter PWM Satu Fasa

OpenAIRE

Rejeki Simanjorang

2008-01-01

Pada tesis ini dianalisis harmonisa inverter PWM satu fasa. Inverter PWM satu fasa yang akan ditinjau adalah inverter satu fasa jembatan penuh (konvensional) dan inverter komposit. Analisis difokuskan pada penentuan pola penyaklaran yang optimum agar pembangkitan harmonisa dan switching losses inverter rendah. Untuk menentukan pola penyaklaran optimum maka dilakukan analisis yang berbasis pada rangkaian ekivalen harmonisa inverter satu fasa. Dengan menggunakan pola penyaklaran optimum, kedua ...

13. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

T. A. O. Salau

2004-06-01

14. Using Variable Speed Control on Pump Application

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dr.Sc. Aida Spahiu

2012-06-01

Full Text Available Pumps are one of the most common variable speed drive (VSD system applications and special interest has focused on improving their energy efficiency by using variable speed control instead of throttling or other less efficient flow control methods. Pumps are the single largest user of electricity in industry in the European Union, consuming 160 TWh per annum of electricity and accounting for 79 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions [1]. Centrifugal pumps are the most likely pump style to provide a favorable return based on energy savings when applied with a variable speed drive. To help illustrate this, are conducted benchmark testing to document various head and flow scenarios and their corresponding effect on energy savings. Paper shows the relationship of static and friction head in the energy efficiency equation and the effect of motor, pump and VSD efficiencies. The received results are good reference points for engineers and managers of water sector in Albania to select the best prospects for maximizing efficiency and energy savings.

15. Critical Speed Control for a Fixed Blade Variable Speed Wind Turbine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Morgan Rossander

2017-10-01

Full Text Available A critical speed controller for avoiding a certain rotational speed is presented. The controller is useful for variable speed wind turbines with a natural frequency in the operating range. The controller has been simulated, implemented and tested on an open site 12 kW vertical axis wind turbine prototype. The controller is based on an adaptation of the optimum torque control. Two lookup tables and a simple state machine provide the control logic of the controller. The controller requires low computational resources, and no wind speed measurement is needed. The results suggest that the controller is a feasible method for critical speed control. The skipping behavior can be adjusted using only two parameters. While tested on a vertical axis wind turbine, it may be used on any variable speed turbine with the control of generator power.

16. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

Science.gov (United States)

Iceland, W. E.

1982-01-01

Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

17. Speed control of diesel generator sets

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jenzer, J.

1989-01-01

In some marine and stationary power plants, it is often of interest to be able to give some information about the dynamic behaviour of the engine when it is loaded according to a given programme: How well it reacts to the application of a step load and to a load rejection. What is the best speed governor type and its optimum parameter adjustment in order to satisfy the requested specification of maximum speed engine deviation and recovery time. How great is the influence of turbocharger options such as jet assist or waste gate on the dynamic behaviour of the plant. Such kinds of questions occur for all stand-by power stations and in marine installations where the engine is submitted to very large load variations in the form of steps, ramps or any other load programme. The computer program GENERAT fully fulfils the aims described above. The comparison of measurements and simulation is good enough to allow us to use simulation as a means of predicting the dynamic behaviour of stationary power plant with four-stroke engines submitted to a given load programme. This program allows us also to determine the optimum generator inertia and to find the optimum governor parameters. The next step of development will be to model the turbocharger and supercharging method for two-stroke engines and some new digital speed controls and to rewrite the program with the help of the simulation package ACSL. This last point presents some advantages, as for example in large reduction of program maintenance and higher flexibility

18. Speed control device for coolant recycling pump

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kageyama, Takao.

1992-01-01

The present invention intends to increase a margin relative of the oscillations of neutron fluxes when the temperature of feedwater is lowered in a compulsory recycling type BWR reactor. That is, when the operation point represented by a reactor thermal power and a reactor core inlet flow rate is in a state approximate to an oscillation limit of the reactor power, the device of the present invention controls the recycling pump speed in the increasing direction depending on the lowering range of the feedwater temperature from a stationary state. With such a constitution, even if the reactor power is in the operation region near the oscillation limit in the BWR type reactor and a feedwater heating loss is caused, the speed of the coolant recycling pump is increased by 10% at the maximum depending on the extent of the reduction of the feedwater temperature, so that the oscillation of the reactor power can be prevented from lasting for a long period of time even if a reactivity external disturbance should occur in the reactor. (I.S.)

19. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

OpenAIRE

He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

2016-01-01

Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are signifi...

20. Torque- and Speed Control of a Pitch Regulated Wind Turbine

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rasila, Mika

2003-07-01

Variable speed operated wind turbines has the potential to reduce fatigue loads, compared to fixed speed wind turbines. With pitch controllable rotor blades limitation of the power at high wind speeds is obtained. The thesis describes different controlling aspects concerning wind turbines and how these together can be used to optimize the system's performance. Torque control is used in order to achieve reduction on the mechanical loads on the drive-train for low wind speeds and limitation of power output for high wind speeds. In the high wind speed interval torque control is effective in order to limit the output power if a sufficiently fast pitch actuator is used. In the middle wind speed interval filter utilization can be used to give a reference signal to the controller in order to reduce speed and torque variations.

1. Experimental enhancement of fuzzy fractional order PI+I controller of grid connected variable speed wind energy conversion system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beddar, Antar; Bouzekri, Hacene; Babes, Badreddine; Afghoul, Hamza

2016-01-01

Highlights: • Fuzzy fractional order PI+I for wind energy conversion system is developed. • Investigation of the control methods performances under wind and load variations. • PSO algorithm with frequency method are used for parameters tuning. • Experimental results are presented. - Abstract: In this paper, fuzzy fractional order PI+I (FFOPI+I) controller for grid connected Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion System (VS-WECS) is proposed. The FFOPI+I controller is applied to control a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) connected to the grid and nonlinear load through a back-to-back AC-DC-AC PWM converter. The control strategy of the Machine Side Converter (MSC) aims, at first, to extract a maximum power under fluctuating wind speed. Then, the Grid Side Converter (GSC) is controlled to improve the power quality and ensure sinusoidal current in the grid side. The FFOPI+I controller implements a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) in parallel with Fractional Order PI (FOPI) and conventional PI controllers by having a commune proportional gain. The FLC changes the integral gains at runtime. The initial parameters of the FFOPI+I controller were calculated using a frequency method to create a search space then the PSO algorithm is used to select the optimal parameters. To evaluate the performance of the proposed controller in steady and transient states, an experimental test bench has been built in laboratory using dSPACE1104 card. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the FFOPI+I over FOPI and conventional PI controllers by realizing maximum power extraction and improving the grid-side power factor for a wide range of wind speed.

2. The harmonic composition of the output voltage of a rectifier unit with a PWM voltage booster converter.

OpenAIRE

ПАНЧЕНКО, В В

2015-01-01

The author investigates a rectifier unit constructed on the basis of cascade connection of the main non-controlled m-pulse rectifier and PWM voltage booster converter. The research presents the analysis of the harmonic composition of the output voltage of a rectifier unit with a PWM voltage booster converter on completely controlled keys. The dependence of the relative harmonic amplitude on the commutation corner is defined. The estimation of a rectifier unit electromagnetic compatibility wit...

3. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

NARCIS (Netherlands)

He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

2016-01-01

Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

4. Soft Switching Full-Bridge PWM DC/DC Converter Using Secondary Snubber

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jaroslav Dudrik

2009-05-01

Full Text Available A novel full-bridge PWM DC/DCconverter with controlled secondary side rectifier usingsecondary snubber is presented in this paper.Limitation of the circulating current as well as softswitching for all power switches of the inverter isachieved for full load range from no-load to shortcircuit by using controlled rectifier and snubber on thesecondary side. Phase shift PWM control strategy isused for the converter. The principle of operation isexplained and analyzed and the experimental resultson a 1kW, 50 kHz laboratory model of the converterare presented.

5. Variable speed control for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Galinos, Christos; Larsen, Torben J.

A robust variable speed control for vertical axis wind turbine applications is implemented. It is a PI rotor speed controller based on an induction generator model operated at variable frequency. The generator dynamics are approximated by a first order differential equation with a prescribed slip....... In order to allow variability in the rotor speed an inverter is assumed which changes the nominal generator speed. Below rated power the optimum tip speed ratio is tracked, while above the power is constrained to rated. The wind speed which is needed in the control it is considered as a known signal...... the Inflow project. The investigation of the VAWT performance under different control parameters such as the PI gains has been performed by Christos Galinos. Deterministic and turbulent wind speed steps of 2 m/s from 6 m/s to 24 m/s and back to 12 m/s are applied. The controller gives smooth transient...

6. High frequency three-phase PWM grid connected drive using silicon-carbide switches

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kouchaki, Alireza; Pedersen, Jacob Lykke; Nymand, Morten

2016-01-01

This paper presents controller design procedure for a fully silicon-carbide (SiC) based three-phase grid-connected PWM drive. The influence of the feedforward compensation for the presented setup is studied and the transfer function of the system with feedforward is derived and compared with the ......This paper presents controller design procedure for a fully silicon-carbide (SiC) based three-phase grid-connected PWM drive. The influence of the feedforward compensation for the presented setup is studied and the transfer function of the system with feedforward is derived and compared...

7. Pitch Angle Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cheng, M

2008-01-01

Pitch angle control is the most common means for adjusting the aerodynamic torque of the wind turbine when wind speed is above rated speed and various controlling variables may be chosen, such as wind speed, generator speed and generator power. As conventional pitch control usually use PI...... controller, the mathematical model of the system should be known well. A fuzzy logic pitch angle controller is developed in this paper, in which it does not need well known about the system and the mean wind speed is used to compensate the non-linear sensitivity. The fuzzy logic control strategy may have...... the potential when the system contains strong non-linearity, such as wind turbulence is strong, or the control objectives include fatigue loads. The design of the fuzzy logic controller and the comparisons with conversional pitch angle control strategies with various controlling variables are carried out...

8. Simulation of load traffic and steeped speed control of conveyor

Science.gov (United States)

Reutov, A. A.

2017-10-01

9. Velocity control in three-phase induction motors using PIC; Controle de velocidade de motor de inducao trifasico usando PIC

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Marcelino, M.A.; Silva, G.B.S.; Grandinetti, F.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil)], Emails: abud@feg.unesp.br, gabonini@yahoo.com.br, grandinetti@unitau.br

2009-07-01

This paper presents a technique for speed control three-phase induction motor using the pulse width modulation (PWM), in open loop while maintaining the tension for constant frequency. The technique is adapted from a thesis entitled 'Control of the three-phase induction motor, using discrete PWM generation, optimized and synchronized', where studies are presented aimed at their application in home appliances, to eliminate mechanical parts, replaced by low cost electronic control, thus having a significant reduction in power consumption. Initially the experiment was done with the Intel 80C31 micro controller. In this paper, the PWM modulation is implemented using a PIC micro controller, and the speed control kept a low profile, based on tables, synchronized with transitions and reduced generation of harmonics in the network. Confirmations were made using the same process of building tables, but takes advantage of the program of a RISC device.

10. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS UNIPOLAR MULTICARRIER PWM STRATEGIES FOR FIVE LEVEL FLYING CAPACITOR INVERTER

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

B. SHANTHI

2012-06-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of unipolar multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation (PWM techniques for the Flying Capacitor Multi Level Inverter (FCMLI. Due to switch combination redundancies, there are certain degrees of freedom to generate the five level AC output voltage. This paper presents the use of Control Freedom Degree (CFD combination. The effectiveness of the PWM strategies developed using CFD are demonstrated by simulation and experimentation. The results indicate that the multilevel inverter triggered by the developed USHPWM strategy exhibits reduced harmonics. PWM strategies developed are implemented in real time using dSPACE/Real Time Interface (RTI. The simulation and experimental output closely match with each other validating the strategies presented.

11. Grey Wolf based control for speed ripple reduction at low speed operation of PMSM drives.

Science.gov (United States)

Djerioui, Ali; Houari, Azeddine; Ait-Ahmed, Mourad; Benkhoris, Mohamed-Fouad; Chouder, Aissa; Machmoum, Mohamed

2018-03-01

Speed ripple at low speed-high torque operation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drives is considered as one of the major issues to be treated. The presented work proposes an efficient PMSM speed controller based on Grey Wolf (GW) algorithm to ensure a high-performance control for speed ripple reduction at low speed operation. The main idea of the proposed control algorithm is to propose a specific objective function in order to incorporate the advantage of fast optimization process of the GW optimizer. The role of GW optimizer is to find the optimal input controls that satisfy the speed tracking requirements. The synthesis methodology of the proposed control algorithm is detailed and the feasibility and performances of the proposed speed controller is confirmed by simulation and experimental results. The GW algorithm is a model-free controller and the parameters of its objective function are easy to be tuned. The GW controller is compared to PI one on real test bench. Then, the superiority of the first algorithm is highlighted. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

12. Led spectral and power characteristics under hybrid PWM/AM dimming strategy

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

2010-01-01

In order to dim LEDs the pulse width modulation (PWM) or amplitude modulation (AM) dimming scheme is typically used. Previous studies show that these dimming schemes can have opposite effects on diodes peak wavelength shift. An experimental study was conducted to test the behavior of InGaN diodes...... and phosphor-converted white diodes under hybrid PWM/AM modulation. Feed forward control schemes that provide stable peak wavelength position during dimming and the ability to compensate the thermally induced color shifts and the decrease of the luminous flux are investigated....

13. An Analysis of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Power-Control Methods with Fluctuating Wind Speed

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Seung-Il Moon

2013-07-01

Full Text Available Variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs typically use a maximum power-point tracking (MPPT method to optimize wind-energy acquisition. MPPT can be implemented by regulating the rotor speed or by adjusting the active power. The former, termed speed-control mode (SCM, employs a speed controller to regulate the rotor, while the latter, termed power-control mode (PCM, uses an active power controller to optimize the power. They are fundamentally equivalent; however, since they use a different controller at the outer control loop of the machine-side converter (MSC controller, the time dependence of the control system differs depending on whether SCM or PCM is used. We have compared and analyzed the power quality and the power coefficient when these two different control modes were used in fluctuating wind speeds through computer simulations. The contrast between the two methods was larger when the wind-speed fluctuations were greater. Furthermore, we found that SCM was preferable to PCM in terms of the power coefficient, but PCM was superior in terms of power quality and system stability.

14. Fuzzy adaptive speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor

Science.gov (United States)

Choi, Han Ho; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Rae-Young

2012-05-01

A fuzzy adaptive speed controller is proposed for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The proposed fuzzy adaptive speed regulator is insensitive to model parameter and load torque variations because it does not need any accurate knowledge about the motor parameter and load torque values. The stability of the proposed control system is also proven. The proposed adaptive speed regulator system is implemented by using a TMS320F28335 floating point DSP. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy adaptive speed controller under uncertainties such as motor parameter and load torque variations using a prototype PMSM drive system.

15. Engine control system having speed-based timing

Science.gov (United States)

Willi, Martin L [Dunlap, IL; Fiveland, Scott B [Metamora, IL; Montgomery, David T [Edelstein, IL; Gong, Weidong [Dunlap, IL

2012-02-14

A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the cylinder and an actuator associated with the engine valve. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator. The controller is configured to receive a signal indicative of engine speed and compare the engine speed signal with a desired engine speed. The controller is also configured to selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve to control an amount of air/fuel mixture delivered to the cylinder based on the comparison.

16. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hu, Weihao; Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe

2013-01-01

operation. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling the rotational speed is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the rotational speed of the PMSG. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power...... oscillation by using the flicker mitigation speed controller is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters and PMSG during continuous operation.......Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG...

17. Supplementary speed control for wind power smoothing

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Haan, de J.E.S.; Frunt, J.; Kechroud, A.; Kling, W.L.

2010-01-01

Wind fluctuations result in even larger wind power fluctuations because the power of wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. This report analyzes wind power fluctuations to investigate inertial power smoothing, in particular for the frequency range of 0.08 - 0.5 Hz. Due to the growing

18. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

Science.gov (United States)

Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

1982-03-12

A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

19. Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

Science.gov (United States)

Santiago, Walter

2004-01-01

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.

20. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

NARCIS (Netherlands)

He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

2017-01-01

Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

1. Pneumatic motor speed control by trajectory tracking fuzzy logic

In this study, trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller (TTFLC) is proposed for the speed control of a pneumatic motor (PM). A third order trajectory is deﬁned to determine the trajectory function that has to be tracked by the PM speed. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to ﬁnd the TTFLC boundary values of membership functions ...

2. Observer Backstepping Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbine

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Galeazzi, Roberto; Gryning, Mikkel Peter Sidoroff; Blanke, Mogens

2013-01-01

. The nonlinear controller aims at regulating the generator torque such that an optimal tip-speed ratio can be obtained. Simply relying on the measured rotor angular velocity the proposed observer backstepping controller guarantees global asymptotic tracking of the desired trajectory while maintaining a globally......This paper presents an observer backstepping controller as feasible solution to variable speed control of wind turbines to maximize wind power capture when operating between cut-in and rated wind speeds. The wind turbine is modeled as a two-mass drive-train system controlled by the generator torque...

3. Synchronised PWM Schemes for Three-level Inverters with Zero Common-mode Voltage

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede

2002-01-01

This paper presents results of analysis and comparison of novel synchronised schemes of pulsewidth modulation (PWM), applied to three-level voltage source inverters with control algorithms providing elimination of the common-mode voltage. The proposed approach is based on a new strategy of digital...

4. Three Phase Six-Switch PWM Buck Rectifier with Power Factor Improvement

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zafar Ullah Khan, M; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

2013-01-01

Conventional Phase Controlled Rectifier injects low order current harmonics into the AC mains. Large size filtering components are required to attenuate these harmonics. In this paper, Three Phase Six-Switch PWM Buck Rectifier[1] is presented which operates at nearly unity power factor and provides...

5. A Mathematical Model of Marine Diesel Engine Speed Control System

Science.gov (United States)

2018-02-01

Diesel engine is inherently an unstable machine and requires a reliable control system to regulate its speed for safe and efficient operation. Also, the diesel engine may operate at fixed or variable speeds depending upon user's needs and accordingly the speed control system should have essential features to fulfil these requirements. This paper proposes a mathematical model of a marine diesel engine speed control system with droop governing function. The mathematical model includes static and dynamic characteristics of the control loop components. Model of static characteristic of the rotating fly weights speed sensing element provides an insight into the speed droop features of the speed controller. Because of big size and large time delay, the turbo charged diesel engine is represented as a first order system or sometimes even simplified to a pure integrator with constant gain which is considered acceptable in control literature. The proposed model is mathematically less complex and quick to use for preliminary analysis of the diesel engine speed controller performance.

6. Adjustable speed drive study, June 1985 to September 1988. Part 2: Appendices

Science.gov (United States)

Wallace, Alan

1989-08-01

Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

7. Large-signal stability analysis of PWM converters

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Huynh, P.T. [Philips Labs., Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Cho, B.H. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-12-31

Investigation of the effects of existing nonlinearities on the stability of PWM converters is performed. The bilinear structure, the duty cycle saturation, and the opamp saturation are the principal nonlinearities in PWM converters. These nonlinearities are incorporated in the large-signal analytical models of PWM converters, and the basic input-output stability theory is applied to analyze their stability. Design and optimization of the small-signal loop gains to counteract the undesirable nonlinear effects are also discussed.

8. Automatic Tuning of Control Parameters for Single Speed Engines

OpenAIRE

Olsson, Johan

2004-01-01

In Scania’s single speed engines for industrial and marine use, the engine speed is controlled by a PI-controller. This controller is tuned independent of engine type and application. This brings certain disadvantages since the engines are used in a wide range of applications where the dynamics may differ. In this thesis, the possibility to tune the controller automatically for a specific engine installation has been investigated. The work shows that automatic tuning is possible. By performin...

9. Brushless DC motor speed control strategy of simulation research

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xiang Wen

2017-01-01

Full Text Available In view of the brushless DC motor speed regulation problem, an ideal control strategy is designed. Through the model and analysis of Brushless DC motor, the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor is obtained. By comparing three control strategies of PID control strategy, fuzzy control strategy and fuzzy PID control strategy, PID controller, fuzzy controller and fuzzy PID controller are designed respectively for simulation test. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID controller has good control effect.

10. Apparatus for decelerating the dropping speed of a control rod

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shirakawa, Toshihisa.

1975-01-01

Object: To reduce the dropping speed (i.e. withdrawal) of a control rod of the upward insertion type in a BWR type reactor without reducing the speed of insertion. Structure: A control rod is provided with a flaring lower end so as to constitute a speed limiter which is penerated by vertically extending and upwardly open flow ducts that each have a narrow opening and flare upwardly. Thus, at the time of insertion of the control rod, the resistance offered thereto by the surrounding fluid is reduced to provide increased insertion speed. On the other hand, at the time of withdrawal the resistance offered by the fluid is increased to reduce the dropping speed of the control rod. (Ikeda, J.)

11. Research on fuzzy PID control to electronic speed regulator

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, Xiao-gang; Chen, Xue-hui; Zheng, Sheng-guo

2007-12-01

As an important part of diesel engine, the speed regulator plays an important role in stabilizing speed and improving engine's performance. Because there are so many model parameters of diesel-engine considered in traditional PID control and these parameters present non-linear characteristic.The method to adjust engine speed using traditional PID is not considered as a best way. Especially for the diesel-engine generator set. In this paper, the Fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. Some problems about its utilization in electronic speed regulator are discussed. A mathematical model of electric control system for diesel-engine generator set is established and the way of the PID parameters in the model to affect the function of system is analyzed. And then it is proposed the differential coefficient must be applied in control design for reducing dynamic deviation of system and adjusting time. Based on the control theory, a study combined control with PID calculation together for turning fuzzy PID parameter is implemented. And also a simulation experiment about electronic speed regulator system was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and the Fuzzy-Toolbox. Compared with the traditional PID Algorithm, the simulated results presented obvious improvements in the instantaneous speed governing rate and steady state speed governing rate of diesel-engine generator set when the fuzzy logic control strategy used.

12. Method for rudder roll stabilization control by maintaining ship speed

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

LIU Zhiquan

2017-01-01

Full Text Available A ship navigating on the surface of the water may experience greater resistance, adversely affect-ing its speed and leading to energy loss. The added resistance of surface ships in both still water and waves are investigated, and the computation method of total speed loss is presented. An autopilot system is intro-duced to constrain the speed loss, and course keeping and rudder roll stabilization sliding mode control laws are proposed according to a compact control strategy. The two working conditions of "heading" and "heading plus anti-roll" are discussed, including roll stabilization, heading error, speed maintenance and rudder abrasion. The results show that the speed can be effectively maintained using this method, and from a commercial point of view, the fin-rudder roll stabilization control is not recommended for vessels equipped with both fins and rudders.

13. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nazim Mir-Nasiri

2008-11-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion..

14. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nazim Mir-Nasiri

2005-09-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion.

15. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo

2015-01-01

This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...

16. Speed

First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Speed. The rate of information transferred per second is the speed of the information. Measured in bits per second. Need for speed on the net: You-Tube phenomenon; IPTV; 3D Video telephony. Online gaming; HDTV.

17. Robust Control Analysis of Hydraulic Turbine Speed

Science.gov (United States)

Jekan, P.; Subramani, C.

2018-04-01

An effective control strategy for the hydro-turbine governor in time scenario is adjective for this paper. Considering the complex dynamic characteristic and the uncertainty of the hydro-turbine governor model and taking the static and dynamic performance of the governing system as the ultimate goal, the designed logic combined the classical PID control theory with artificial intelligence used to obtain the desired output. The used controller will be a variable control techniques, therefore, its parameters can be adaptively adjusted according to the information about the control error signal.

18. Indirect sensorless speed control of a PMSG for wind application

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Diaz, S.A.; Silva, C.; Juliet, J.

2009-01-01

the method usually referred in the literature as indirect speed control (ISC). The principle of this method is the regulation of the generator torque as function of rotor speed such that the steady state operation is at the MPPT. This strategy normally requires the knowledge of the shaft speed to determinate...... in the whole wind generator system a sensorless scheme is proposed, thereby avoiding problems of electromagnetic interferences and failures in the position sensor. Usually, in wind drive system, the generator is not operated a very low speeds, therefore problems related to low back-emf for flux estimation...... the reference torque and rotor position for the orientation of the vector torque control of the PMSG. To achieve both, speed and position estimation, the sensorless technique based in back-emf estimation is proposed. Also in this paper, a laboratory set-up is described. The experimental bench is composed...

19. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

Science.gov (United States)

Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

2003-01-01

This viewgraph presentation provides information on the design of analog speed controllers for DC motors on aerospace systems. The presentation includes an overview of controller evolution, evolvable controller configuration, an emphasis on proportion integral (PI) controllers, schematic diagrams, and experimental results.

20. Active surge control for variable speed axial compressors.

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, Shu; Yang, Chunjie; Wu, Ping; Song, Zhihuan

2014-09-01

This paper discusses active surge control in variable speed axial compressors. A compression system equipped with a variable area throttle is investigated. Based on a given compressor model, a fuzzy logic controller is designed for surge control and a proportional speed controller is used for speed control. The fuzzy controller uses measurements of the change of pressure rise as well as the change of mass flow to determine the throttle opening. The presented approach does not require the knowledge of system equilibrium or the surge line. Numerical simulations show promising results. The proposed fuzzy logic controller performs better than a backstepping controller and is capable to suppress surge at different operating points. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yanting Hu

2013-07-01

Full Text Available Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of this system is investigated. The 3p (three times per revolution power oscillation due to wind shear and tower shadow effects is the significant part in the flicker emission of variable speed wind turbines with PMSG during continuous operation. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling the rotational speed is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the rotational speed of the PMSG. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power oscillation by using the flicker mitigation speed controller is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters and PMSG during continuous operation.

2. Variable speed control in wells turbine-based oscillating water column devices: optimum rotational speed

Science.gov (United States)

Lekube, J.; Garrido, A. J.; Garrido, I.

2018-03-01

The effects of climate change and global warming reveal the need to find alternative sources of clean energy. In this sense, wave energy power plants, and in particular Oscillating Water Column (OWC) devices, offer a huge potential of energy harnessing. Nevertheless, the conversion systems have not reached a commercially mature stage yet so as to compete with conventional power plants. At this point, the use of new control methods over the existing technology arises as a doable way to improve the efficiency of the system. Due to the non-uniform response that the turbine shows to the rotational speed variation, the speed control of the turbo-generator may offer a feasible solution for efficiency improvement during the energy conversion. In this context, a novel speed control approach for OWC systems is presented in this paper, demonstrating its goodness and affording promising results when particularized to the Mutriku’s wave power plant.

3. Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jafar Mostafapour

2015-04-01

Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC Motors and , Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and beter result can be achieve.

4. High-speed precision motion control

CERN Document Server

Yamaguchi, Takashi; Pang, Chee Khiang

2011-01-01

Written for researchers and postgraduate students in Control Engineering, as well as professionals in the Hard Disk Drive industry, this book discusses high-precision and fast servo controls in Hard Disk Drives (HDDs). The editors present a number of control algorithms that enable fast seeking and high precision positioning, and propose problems from commercial products, making the book valuable to researchers in HDDs. Each chapter is self contained, and progresses from concept to technique, present application examples that can be used within automotive, aerospace, aeronautical, and manufactu

5. Tip Speed Ratio Based Maximum Power Tracking Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines; A Comprehensive Design

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Murat Karabacak

2017-08-01

Full Text Available The most primitive control method of wind turbines used to generate electric energy from wind is the fixed speed control method. With this method, it is not possible that turbine input power is transferred to grid at maximum rate. For this reason, Maximum Power Tracking (MPT schemes are proposed. In order to implement MPT, the propeller has to rotate at a different speed for every different wind speed. This situation has led MPT based systems to be called Variable Speed Wind Turbine (VSWT systems. In VSWT systems, turbine input power can be transferred to grid at rates close to maximum power. When MPT based control of VSWT systems is the case, two important processes come into prominence. These are instantaneously determination and tracking of MPT point. In this study, using a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method based on tip speed ratio, power available in wind is transferred into grid over a back to back converter at maximum rate via a VSWT system with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. Besides a physical wind turbine simulator is modelled and simulated. Results show that a time varying MPPT point is tracked with a high performance.

6. High speed serial communications for control systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mathieson, D.; Kalbfleisch, C.; Hunt, S.; Low, K.

1993-01-01

The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is a complex of accelerators being built in Ellis County, Texas. The SSCL control system consists of front-end processors and their associated control points remotely distributed from the Central and Regional control rooms. Control messages passing between these locations require timely (deterministic) distribution. A prototype network consisting of point-to-point links utilizing commercial T1 (1.544 Mb/s) communication boards has been implemented. These dedicated communication links will replace networking services traditionally provided for by shared medium networks like Ethernet(IEEE 802.3) and FDDI(IEEE 802.5). A seamless migration will be achieved by using packet encapsulation based on PPP(Point-to-Point Protocol, RFC 1171). All other networking functions including routing and reliable delivery are still being handled by the usual internet services. A distributed control system that currently uses Ethernet for communication is being re-implemented using these point-to-point links. The authors report on throughput measurements, timing constraints and ease of transition of a point-to-point network

7. MAINTAINING VEHICLE SPEED USING A MECHANICAL CRUISE CONTROL

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Peter GIROVSKÝ

2017-06-01

Full Text Available In this article we would like to present cruise control realization. This cruise control is presented as mechanical device for vehicle speed maintenance and has been proposed as a low cost solution. Principle of function in mechanical cruise control is based on a position control of throttle. For the right action of mechanical cruise control it was need to solve some particular tasks related with speed sensing, construct of device for control of throttle position and design of control system of whole mechanical cruise control. Information about car velocity we have gained using Hall sensor attached on a magnetic ring of car tachometer. For control of the throttle was used a small servo drive and as the control unit was used Arduino. The designed solution of mechanical cruise control have been realized for car Škoda Felicia.

8. Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Speed Controller for a Permanent ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

In this paper DC motor control models were mathematically extracted and implemented using fuzzy logic speed controller. All control systems suffer from problems related to undesirable overshoot, longer settling times and vibrations while going from one state to another. To overcome the maximum overshoot, fuzzy logic ...

9. A dual-path, current-sensing resistor-free boost LED driver with fast PWM dimming

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhou Minchao; Lü Danzhu; Cheng Lin; Hong Zhiliang; Liu, Bill Yang

2013-01-01

A boost LED driver featuring a high PWM dimming ratio and optimized efficiency is presented. This LED driver, which has a low dropout voltage and is able to drive 3–7 LEDs in series with constant output current and fast PWM dimming, provides an alternative technique for brightness adjustment. A dual-path control scheme with automatic switching and state maintenance is proposed. Meanwhile, a cascode current mirror structure is applied with the output transistor multiplexed as an LED PWM dimming transistor. Implemented in 0.5 μm 25 V BCD process, the measurement results show that a voltage conversion range of 5 V input to 6–24 V output with constant output current is obtained. With automatically switching dual-path control and an optimized current mirror, the response time during PWM dimming is reduced to as low as 240 ns and the efficiency keeps above 89% over a wide PWM dimming ratio - 250 mA output current. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

10. Soft switching PWM isolated boost converter for fuel cell application

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rezaei, M.; Adib, E. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-07-01

This presentation introduced a newly developed soft switching, isolated boost type converter for fuel cell applications. With a simple PWM control circuit, the converter achieves zero voltage switching the main switch. Since the auxiliary circuit is soft switched, the converter can operate at high powers which make it suitable for fuel cell applications. In particular, the converter is suitable for the interface of fuel cell and inverters because of its high voltage gain and isolation between input and output sources. In addition, the input current of the converter (current drained from the fuel cell) is almost constant since it is a boost type converter. The converter was analyzed and the simulation results validate the theoretical analysis.

11. Control structures for high speed processors

Science.gov (United States)

Maki, G. K.; Mankin, R.; Owsley, P. A.; Kim, G. M.

1982-01-01

A special processor was designed to function as a Reed Solomon decoder with throughput data rate in the Mhz range. This data rate is significantly greater than is possible with conventional digital architectures. To achieve this rate, the processor design includes sequential, pipelined, distributed, and parallel processing. The processor was designed using a high level language register transfer language. The RTL can be used to describe how the different processes are implemented by the hardware. One problem of special interest was the development of dependent processes which are analogous to software subroutines. For greater flexibility, the RTL control structure was implemented in ROM. The special purpose hardware required approximately 1000 SSI and MSI components. The data rate throughput is 2.5 megabits/second. This data rate is achieved through the use of pipelined and distributed processing. This data rate can be compared with 800 kilobits/second in a recently proposed very large scale integration design of a Reed Solomon encoder.

12. LOFT PSMG Speed Control System frequency response analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hansen, H.R.

1977-01-01

An analysis was done to gain insight into the shape of the open loop frequency response of the PSMG Speed Control System. The results of the analysis were used as a guide to groom the proportional band and reset time settings of the 2 mode controller in the speed control system. The analysis shows that when an actuator with a timing of 90 degrees per 60 seconds is installed in the system the proportional band and reset time should be 316% and 1 minute. Whereas when grooming the system a proportional band and reset time of 150% and 1.5 minutes were found to be appropriate. The closeness of the settings show that even though a linear model was used to describe the non-linear PSMG Speed Control System, it was accurate enough to be used as a guide to groom the proportional band and reset time settings

13. MODELLING OF DYNAMIC SPEED LIMITS USING THE MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

2017-09-01

Full Text Available The article considers the issues of traffic management using intelligent system “Car-Road” (IVHS, which consist of interacting intelligent vehicles (IV and intelligent roadside controllers. Vehicles are organized in convoy with small distances between them. All vehicles are assumed to be fully automated (throttle control, braking, steering. Proposed approaches for determining speed limits for traffic cars on the motorway using a model predictive control (MPC. The article proposes an approach to dynamic speed limit to minimize the downtime of vehicles in traffic.

14. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

BEBIC, M. Z.

2018-02-01

Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

15. Speed Loop Control of PMSM Driving Electric Vehicle

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

2011-01-01

Various simulation models are set up and closed speed loop control strategy of PMSM is proposed based on flux weakening control in this paper. First the model of maximum torque per ampere(MTPA) is modeled based on mathematical models and gave the corresponding simulation tests. Second the formula...

16. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

1996-12-31

An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

17. Efficient speed control of induction motor using RBF based model reference adaptive control method

OpenAIRE

Kilic, Erdal; Ozcalik, Hasan Riza; Yilmaz, Saban

2017-01-01

This paper proposes a model reference adaptive speed controller based on artificial neural network for induction motor drives. The performance of traditional feedback controllers has been insufficient in speed control of induction motors due to nonlinear structure of the system, changing environmental conditions, and disturbance input effects. A successful speed control of induction motor requires a nonlinear control system. On the other hand, in recent years, it has been demonstrated that ar...

18. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bidstrup, N.

, (LS) identification and generalized predictive control (GPC) has been implemented and tested on the CVC drive. Allthough GPC is a robust control method, it was not possible to maintain specified controller performance in the entire operating range. This was the main reason for investigating truly...... adaptive speed control of the CVC drive. A direct truly adaptive speed controller has been implemented. The adaptive controller is a moving Average Self-Tuning Regulator which is abbreviated MASTR throughout the thesis. Two practical implementations of this controller were proposed. They were denoted MASTR...... and measurement noise in general, were the major reasons for the drifting parameters. Two approaches was proposed to robustify MASTR2 against the output noise. The first approach consists of filtering the output. Output filtering had a significant effect in simulations, but the robustness against the output noise...

19. LOFT pump speed controller stability and accuracy analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good, R.R.

1978-01-01

Two system modifications to the primary coolant pumps motor generators control systems have recently been completed. The range of pump speed operation has been extended and the scoop tube positioner motor replaced. This has necessitated a re-analysis of PSMG stability throughout its range of operation. System accuracy requirements of less than 4 Hz differential pump speed when operating at less than 35 Hz and 8.5 Hz differential pump speed when operating at greater than 35 Hz can be guaranteed by specifying the gain of the system. The installation of the new scoop tube positioner motor will increase the PSMG system's bandwidth and stability. Low speed pump trips should be carefully evaluated if the pump's operational range is to extend to 10 Hz

20. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pekik Argo Dahono

2008-11-01

Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

1. An Adaptive Speed Control Approach for DC Shunt Motors

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ruben Tapia-Olvera

2016-11-01

Full Text Available A B-spline neural networks-based adaptive control technique for angular speed reference trajectory tracking tasks with highly efficient performance for direct current shunt motors is proposed. A methodology for adaptive control and its proper training procedure are introduced. This algorithm sets the control signal without using a detailed mathematical model nor exact values of the parameters of the nonlinear dynamic system. The proposed robust adaptive tracking control scheme only requires measurements of the velocity output signal. Thus, real-time measurements or estimations of acceleration, current and disturbance signals are avoided. Experimental results confirm the efficient and robust performance of the proposed control approach for highly demanding motor operation conditions exposed to variable-speed reference trajectories and completely unknown load torque. Hence, laboratory experimental tests on a direct current shunt motor prove the viability of the proposed adaptive output feedback trajectory tracking control approach.

2. Digital Speed Cascade Control, using Scilab / Xcos Environment

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Petru Chioncel

2016-10-01

Full Text Available This paper presents an application of digital cascade control implemented in Scilab / Xcos environment, using a P type regulator for the position adjustment circuit, a PI controller for the speed circuit adjustment; the current respectively moments control circuits are rendered by elements of PT1 type. On this basis the program is done in Scilab and the related signal block diagram implemented in Xcos; through simulation, the step response of the system is analyzed for different sampling times.

3. Adaptive Torque Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Johnson, K. E.

2004-08-01

The primary focus of this work is a new adaptive controller that is designed to resemble the standard non-adaptive controller used by the wind industry for variable speed wind turbines below rated power. This adaptive controller uses a simple, highly intuitive gain adaptation law designed to seek out the optimal gain for maximizing the turbine's energy capture. It is designed to work even in real, time-varying winds.

4. Implementation Of Automatic Wiper Speed Control And Headlight Modes Control Systems Using Fuzzy Logic

OpenAIRE

ThetKoKo; ZawMyoTun; Hla Myo Tun

2015-01-01

Abstract This research paper describes the design and simulation of the automatic wiper speed and headlight modes controllers using fuzzy logic. This proposed system consists of a fuzzy logic controller to control a cars wiper speed and headlight modes. The automatic wiper system detects the rain and its intensity. And according to the rain intensity the wiper speed is automatically controlled. Headlight modes automatically changes either from low beam mode to high beam mode or form high beam...

5. Pitch Angle Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mouna Ben Smida

2015-08-01

Full Text Available Abstract.Pitch control is a practical technique for power regulation above the rated wind speed it is considered as the most efficient and popular power control method. As conventional pitch control usually use PI controller, the mathematical model of the system should be known well.This paper deals with the operation and the control of the direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG.Different conventional strategies of pitch angle control are described and validated through simulation results under Matlab\\Simulink.

6. The Effect of Concurrent Visual Feedback on Controlling Swimming Speed

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Szczepan Stefan

2016-03-01

Full Text Available Introduction. Developing the ability to control the speed of swimming is an important part of swimming training. Maintaining a defined constant speed makes it possible for the athlete to swim economically at a low physiological cost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concurrent visual feedback transmitted by the Leader device on the control of swimming speed in a single exercise test. Material and methods. The study involved a group of expert swimmers (n = 20. Prior to the experiment, the race time for the 100 m distance was determined for each of the participants. In the experiment, the participants swam the distance of 100 m without feedback and with visual feedback. In both variants, the task of the participants was to swim the test distance in a time as close as possible to the time designated prior to the experiment. In the first version of the experiment (without feedback, the participants swam the test distance without receiving real-time feedback on their swimming speed. In the second version (with visual feedback, the participants followed a beam of light moving across the bottom of the swimming pool, generated by the Leader device. Results. During swimming with visual feedback, the 100 m race time was significantly closer to the time designated. The difference between the pre-determined time and the time obtained was significantly statistically lower during swimming with visual feedback (p = 0.00002. Conclusions. Concurrently transmitting visual feedback to athletes improves their control of swimming speed. The Leader device has proven useful in controlling swimming speed.

7. Effective and Robust Generalized Predictive Speed Control of Induction Motor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Patxi Alkorta

2013-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents and validates a new proposal for effective speed vector control of induction motors based on linear Generalized Predictive Control (GPC law. The presented GPC-PI cascade configuration simplifies the design with regard to GPC-GPC cascade configuration, maintaining the advantages of the predictive control algorithm. The robust stability of the closed loop system is demonstrated by the poles placement method for several typical cases of uncertainties in induction motors. The controller has been tested using several simulations and experiments and has been compared with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and Sliding Mode (SM control schemes, obtaining outstanding results in speed tracking even in the presence of parameter uncertainties, unknown load disturbance, and measurement noise in the loop signals, suggesting its use in industrial applications.

8. Optimal multivariable control of a wind turbine with variable speed

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Steinbuch, M.

1987-01-01

The control system design for a 310 kW horizontal axis wind energy conversion system with a synchronous generator and DC link is investigated. Because the wind turbine system has multiple inputs (pitch angle, field vollage alld delay angle), and multiple outputs, (speed and power), and because the

9. LQG Controller Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Imran, Raja Muhammed; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Chen, Zhe

2014-01-01

Variable speed wind turbine is a complex and nonlinear system, a sophisticated control is required to meet the challenges posed by these systems. This paper is presenting a pitch regulation strategy based on LQG (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) to regulate turbine at its rated power and to reject...

10. Direct Torque Control of a Small Wind Turbine with a Sliding-Mode Speed Controller

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lal Senanayaka, Jagath; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.

2016-09-01

In this paper. the method of direct torque control in the presence of a sliding-mode speed controller is proposed for a small wind turbine being used in water heating applications. This concept and control system design can be expanded to grid connected or off-grid applications. Direct torque control of electrical machines has shown several advantages including very fast dynamics torque control over field-oriented control. Moreover. the torque and flux controllers in the direct torque control algorithms are based on hvsteretic controllers which are nonlinear. In the presence of a sliding-mode speed control. a nonlinear control system can be constructed which is matched for AC/DC conversion of the converter that gives fast responses with low overshoots. The main control objectives of the proposed small wind turbine can be maximum power point tracking and soft-stall power control. This small wind turbine consists of permanent magnet synchronous generator and external wind speed. and rotor speed measurements are not required for the system. However. a sensor is needed to detect the rated wind speed overpass events to activate proper speed references for the wind turbine. Based on the low-cost design requirement of small wind turbines. an available wind speed sensor can be modified. or a new sensor can be designed to get the required measurement. The simulation results will be provided to illustrate the excellent performance of the closed-loop control system in entire wind speed range (4-25 m/s).

11. A unified triangle carrier based PWM strategy for three-phase N-level diode clamped inverters

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Li, Kai; Xie, Chuan; Wei, Min

2017-01-01

The triangle carrier based pulse width modulation (TCB-PWM) can be functionally equivalent to space vector base PWM (SVB-PWM). For multi-level inverter, it is very difficult to realize the SVB-PWM because its vector space is very complex. In this paper, a unified TCB-PWM strategy for three-phase ...

12. Multivariable Techniques for High-Speed Research Flight Control Systems

Science.gov (United States)

Newman, Brett A.

1999-01-01

This report describes the activities and findings conducted under contract with NASA Langley Research Center. Subject matter is the investigation of suitable multivariable flight control design methodologies and solutions for large, flexible high-speed vehicles. Specifically, methodologies are to address the inner control loops used for stabilization and augmentation of a highly coupled airframe system possibly involving rigid-body motion, structural vibrations, unsteady aerodynamics, and actuator dynamics. Design and analysis techniques considered in this body of work are both conventional-based and contemporary-based, and the vehicle of interest is the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Major findings include: (1) control architectures based on aft tail only are not well suited for highly flexible, high-speed vehicles, (2) theoretical underpinnings of the Wykes structural mode control logic is based on several assumptions concerning vehicle dynamic characteristics, and if not satisfied, the control logic can break down leading to mode destabilization, (3) two-loop control architectures that utilize small forward vanes with the aft tail provide highly attractive and feasible solutions to the longitudinal axis control challenges, and (4) closed-loop simulation sizing analyses indicate the baseline vane model utilized in this report is most likely oversized for normal loading conditions.

13. Implementation of FPGA based PID Controller for DC Motor Speed Control System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Savita SONOLI

2010-03-01

Full Text Available In this paper, the implementation of software module using ‘VHDL’ for Xilinx FPGA (XC3S400 based PID controller for DC motor speed control system is presented. The tools used for building and testing the software modules are Xilinx ISE 9.2i and ModelSim XE III 6.3c. Before verifying the design on FPGA the complete design is simulated using Modelsim Simulation tool. A test bench is written where the set speed can be changed for the motor. It is observed that the motor speed gradually changes to the set speed and locks to the set speed.

14. Shunt PWM advanced var compensators based on voltage source inverters for Facts applications

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Barbosa, Pedro G; Misaka, Isamu; Watanabe, Edson H [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

1994-12-31

Increased attention has been given to improving power system operation. This paper presents modeling, analysis and design of reactive shunt power compensators based on PWM-Voltage Source Inverters (Pulse Width Modulation -Voltage Source Inverters). (Pulse Width Modulation - Voltage Source Inverters). The control algorithm is based on new concepts of instantaneous active and reactive power theory. The objective is to show that with a small capacitor in the side of a 3-phase PWM-VSI it is possible to synthesize a variable reactive (capacitive or inductive) device. Design procedures and experimental results are presented. The feasibility of this method was verified by digital simulations and measurements on a small scale model. (author) 9 refs., 12 figs.

15. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current motor

Science.gov (United States)

Bolie, V.W.

A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is generated by a novel vernier-logic circuit which is drift-free and highly sensitive to small speed changes. The phase error is also computed by digital logic, with adjustable sensitivity around a 0 mid-scale value. The drift error signal, generated by long-term counting of the phase error, is used to compensate for any slow changes in the average friction drag on the motor. An auxillary drift-byte status sensor prevents any disruptive overflow or underflow of the drift-error counter. An adjustable clocked-delay unit is inserted between the controller and the source of the reference pulse train to permit phase alignment of the rotor to any desired offset angle. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of read-only memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

16. Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen G.

2015-01-01

a computational study on a number of realistic shipping routes in order to evaluate possible impacts on sailing paths and speeds, and hence fuel consumption and costs, from the ECA regulations. Moreover, the aim is to examine the implications for the society with regards to environmental effects. Comparisons...... of cases show that a likely effect of the regulations is that ship operators will often choose to sail longer distances to avoid sailing time within ECAs. Another effect is that they will sail at lower speeds within and higher speeds outside the ECAs in order to use less of the more expensive fuel. On some......Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about...

17. Development of a current-type PWM converter with high power factor. 1

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Miura, Yushi; Matsukawa, Makoto; Miyachi, Kengo; Kimura, Toyoaki

1998-01-01

A power supply system for superconducting poloidal field coils of a next generation tokamak-type fusion device can be operated on the relatively low voltage for the duration of discharge except the plasma initiation. In the case of the conventional phase-controlled thyristor converters are adopted in such a system, the input power factor would be low in average, and a reactive power fluctuation caused by the change of DC output voltage may produce serious effects on the commercial transmission line. From the above viewpoint, a current-type PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) converter, which can work with the power factor of unity for the input power, is regarded as one of the promising candidates of the converters for the power supplies of next generation fusion devices. Hence, a 100kW-class current-type PWM converter has been developed by using IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) as switching devices. In this development, the basic performance has been preliminary investigated whether this converter is applicable to the power supply for the next generation fusion device. In addition, two different PWM control methods were examined whether these methods can realize a unit power factor and suppress the transient oscillation of converter input current at the same time in case that the reference of DC output current is changed rapidly. (author)

18. Speed-controlled three-phase drives. Drehzahlgeregelte Drehstromantriebe

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steinmetz, E

1981-01-01

Present semiconductor circuit elements have made it possible to produce frequency converters for speed-controlled three-phase drives from the k'' range to the MW range at low cost. Line-powered frequency converter circuits are already in the standardisation stage while the development trends in the field of speed-controlled frequency converter circuits are not foreseeable as yet. Recent developments in the field of electronics have made the circuits simpler and able to implement an increasing number of functions. There is a trend towards programmable digital control systems with microcomputers. Of the 8 articles in the publication, the contribution by M. Wild and R. Wetzl (Synchronous motors with frequency converters drive boiler feed pumps at Bergkamen power plant) has been entered in the data base as a separate citation.

19. Experimental Comparison of Speed : Fuel-flow and Speed-area Controls on a Turbojet Engine for Small Step Disturbances

Science.gov (United States)

Wenzel, L M; Hart, C E; Craig, R T

1957-01-01

Optimum proportional-plus-integral control settings for speed - fuel-flow control, determined by minimization of integral criteria, correlated well with analytically predicted optimum settings. Engine response data are given for a range of control settings around the optimum. An inherent nonlinearity in the speed-area loop necessitated the use of nonlinear controls. Response data for two such nonlinear control schemes are presented.

20. REDUCTION IN CUTS SPEED AT THE BEGINNING OF A SORTING SIDINGS, EQUIPPED WITH QUASI-CONTINUOUS SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

O. A. Nazarov

2016-08-01

Full Text Available Purpose. Clear and uninterrupted operation of humps depends on the quality of technical equipment and control technology of cuts speed. Technology of interval and purposive regulation of cuts speed is used at most humps. The article discusses ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings equipped with quasi-continuous speed control system. Methodology. It proposed three fundamentally different ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding. The analysis of the ways to reduce cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings was conducted using simulation the process of cuts rolling from humps equipped with quasi-continuous speed control. Findings. As a result of analysis, the inappropriateness of opposite elevation using on the roll-out part of the hump after the last separation switch point. Spot regulators of cars speed can be used to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding, but this leads to a division conditions deterioration on the last separating switch points of long cuts with the following after them short cuts. Reducing the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite simple. All produce should be unhooked from it at a safe speed. If the accuracy of the implementation of the set speed output to unhook from the park brake position is low, it is possible to eliminate the error of point regulators cars speed. Originality. The question where to start location point of wagon retarders zone to reduce speed to cut level requires additional research. Reducing rolling cut the speed at the beginning of the sorting sidings can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Practical value. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xinping Yan

2013-01-01

2. Speed Control of General Purpose Engine with Electronic Governor

Science.gov (United States)

Sawut, Umerujan; Tohti, Gheyret; Takigawa, Buso; Tsuji, Teruo

This paper presents a general purpose engine speed control system with an electronic governor in order to improve the current system with a mechanical governor which shows unstable characteristics by change of mecanical friction or A/F ratio (Air/Fuel ratio). For the control system above, there are problems that the feedback signal is only a crank angle because of cost and the controlled object is a general purpose engine which is strongly nonlinear. In order to overcome these problems, the system model is shown for the dynamic estimation of the amount of air flow and the robust controller is designed. That is, the proposed system includes the robust sliding-mode controller by the feedback signal of only a crank angle where Genetic Algorithm is applied for the controller design. The simulation and the experiments by MATLAB/Simulink are performed to show the effectiveness of our proposal.

3. A wide range and high speed automatic gain control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tacconi, E.; Christiansen, C.

1993-05-01

Automatic gain control (AGC) techniques have been largely used since the beginning of electronics, but in most of the applications the dynamic response is slow compared with the carrier frequency. The problem of developing an automatic gain control with high dynamic response and wide control range simultaneously is analyzed in this work. An ideal gain control law, with the property that the total loop gain remains constant independent of the carrier amplitude, is obtained. The resulting AGC behavior is compared by computer simulations with a linear multiplier AGC. The ideal gain control law can be approximated using a transconductance amplifier. A practical circuit that has been used at CERN in the radio frequency loops of the Booster Synchrotron is presented. The circuit has high speed and 80-dB gain control range

4. Speed Control of Multiphase Cage Induction Motors Incorporating Supply Sequence

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Drozdowski Piotr

2014-12-01

Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the control possibility of the multiphase cage induction motors having number of phases greater than 3. These motors have additional properties for speed control that distinguish them from the standard 3 phase motors: operation at various sequences of supplying voltages due to the inverter control and possible operation with few open-circuited phases. For each supply sequence different no load speeds at the same frequency can be obtained. This feature extends the motor application for miscellaneous drive demands including vector or scalar control. This depends mainly on the type of the stator winding for a given number of phases, since the principle of motor operation is based on co-operation of higher harmonics of magnetic field. Examples of operation are presented for a 9-phase motor, though general approach has been discussed. This motor was fed by a voltage source inverter at field oriented control with forced currents. The mathematical model of the motor was reduced to the form incorporating all most important physical features and appropriate for the control law formulation. The operation was illustrated for various supply sequences for “healthy” motor and for the motor operating at one phase broken. The obtained results have shown that parasitic influence of harmonic fields interaction has negligible influence on motor operation with respect to the useful coupling for properly designed stator winding.

5. Speed Sensorless Field Oriented Control of an Induction Motor at zero speed with identification of inverter parameters

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

2002-01-01

Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer for speed sensorless control is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states and for the motor and inverter parameters including the rotor speed. Assuming motor parameters ...... known the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. Experiments demonstrate high dynamic performance even at zero rotor speed based only on the slip frequency caused by the load torque....

6. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

Science.gov (United States)

Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

2018-04-01

Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

7. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bidstrup, N.

This thesis concerns speed control of current vector controlled induction motor drives (CVC drives). The CVC drive is an existing prototype drive developed by Danfoss A/S, Transmission Division. Practical tests have revealed that the open loop dynamical properties of the CVC drive are highly......, (LS) identification and generalized predictive control (GPC) has been implemented and tested on the CVC drive. Allthough GPC is a robust control method, it was not possible to maintain specified controller performance in the entire operating range. This was the main reason for investigating truly...... and measurement noise in general, were the major reasons for the drifting parameters. Two approaches was proposed to robustify MASTR2 against the output noise. The first approach consists of filtering the output. Output filtering had a significant effect in simulations, but the robustness against the output noise...

8. Analysis of Peak-to-Peak Current Ripple Amplitude in Seven-Phase PWM Voltage Source Inverters

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gabriele Grandi

2013-08-01

Full Text Available Multiphase systems are nowadays considered for various industrial applications. Numerous pulse width modulation (PWM schemes for multiphase voltage source inverters with sinusoidal outputs have been developed, but no detailed analysis of the impact of these modulation schemes on the output peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude has been reported. Determination of current ripple in multiphase PWM voltage source inverters is important for both design and control purposes. This paper gives the complete analysis of the peak-to-peak current ripple distribution over a fundamental period for multiphase inverters, with particular reference to seven-phase VSIs. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically determined as a function of the modulation index, and a simplified expression to get its maximum value is carried out. Although reference is made to the centered symmetrical PWM, being the most simple and effective solution to maximize the DC bus utilization, leading to a nearly-optimal modulation to minimize the RMS of the current ripple, the analysis can be readily extended to either discontinuous or asymmetrical modulations, both carrier-based and space vector PWM. A similar approach can be usefully applied to any phase number. The analytical developments for all different sub-cases are verified by numerical simulations.

9. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eek, Jarle

2009-12-15

A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

10. Control Method for Variable Speed Wind Turbines to Support Temporary Primary Frequency Control

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wang, Haijiao; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Quanyuan

2014-01-01

This paper develops a control method for variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) to support temporary primary frequency control of power system. The control method contains two parts: (1) up-regulate support control when a frequency drop event occurs; (2) down-regulate support control when a frequen...

11. Speed Control Design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor using TakagiSugeno Fuzzy Logic Control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-12-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes a speed control design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM using Field Oriented Control (FOC. The focus is to design a speed control using Takagi — Sugeno Fuzzy Logic Control (T-S FLS. These systems will replace the conventional method which is proportional-integral (PI. The objective of this paper is to study the T—S Fuzzy Inference System (FIS speed regulator and acceleration observer for PMSM. The scope of study basically is to design and analyse the Takagi Sugeno FLC and the PMSM. This paper also will describe the methodology and process of modelling the PMSM including data analysis. The simulation work is implemented in Matlab-Simulink to verify the control method. The effectiveness of this proposed control method was confirmed through various range of speed and torque variation.

12. High speed turning of compacted graphite iron using controlled modulation

Science.gov (United States)

Stalbaum, Tyler Paul

Compacted graphite iron (CGI) is a material which emerged as a candidate material to replace cast iron (CI) in the automotive industry for engine block castings. Its thermal and mechanical properties allow the CGI-based engines to operate at higher cylinder pressures and temperatures than CI-based engines, allowing for lower fuel emissions and increased fuel economy. However, these same properties together with the thermomechanical wear mode in the CGI-CBN system result in poor machinability and inhibit CGI from seeing wide spread use in the automotive industry. In industry, machining of CGI is done only at low speeds, less than V = 200 m/min, to avoid encountering rapid wear of the cutting tools during cutting. Studies have suggested intermittent cutting operations such as milling suffer less severe tool wear than continuous cutting. Furthermore, evidence that a hard sulfide layer which forms over the cutting edge in machining CI at high speeds is absent during machining CGI is a major factor in the difference in machinability of these material systems. The present study addresses both of these issues by modification to the conventional machining process to allow intermittent continuous cutting. The application of controlled modulation superimposed onto the cutting process -- modulation-assisted machining (MAM) -- is shown to be quite effective in reducing the wear of cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools when machining CGI at high machining speeds (> 500 m/min). The tool life is at least 20 times greater than found in conventional machining of CGI. This significant reduction in wear is a consequence of reduction in the severity of the tool-work contact conditions with MAM. The propensity for thermochemical wear of CBN is thus reduced. It is found that higher cutting speed (> 700 m/min) leads to lower tool wear with MAM. The MAM configuration employing feed-direction modulation appears feasible for implementation at high speeds and offers a solution to this challenging

13. Speed control of switched reluctance motor using sliding mode control strategy

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

John, G. [Kenetech Windpower, Livermore, CA (United States); Eastham, A.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-12-31

A robust speed drive system for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) using sliding mode control strategy (SLMC) is presented. After reviewing the operation of an SRM drive, a SLMC based scheme is formulated to control the drive speed. The scheme is implemented using a micro-controller and a high resolution position sensor. The parameter insensitive characteristics are demonstrated through computer simulations and experimental verification.

14. PID Neural Network Based Speed Control of Asynchronous Motor Using Programmable Logic Controller

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

MARABA, V. A.

2011-11-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with the structure and characteristics of PID Neural Network controller for single input and single output systems. PID Neural Network is a new kind of controller that includes the advantages of artificial neural networks and classic PID controller. Functioning of this controller is based on the update of controller parameters according to the value extracted from system output pursuant to the rules of back propagation algorithm used in artificial neural networks. Parameters obtained from the application of PID Neural Network training algorithm on the speed model of the asynchronous motor exhibiting second order linear behavior were used in the real time speed control of the motor. Programmable logic controller (PLC was used as real time controller. The real time control results show that reference speed successfully maintained under various load conditions.

15. Speed limiter integrated fatigue analyzer (SLIFA) for speed and fatigue control on diesel engine truck and bus

Science.gov (United States)

Wahyudi, Haris; Pranoto, Hadi; Leman, A. M.; Sebayang, Darwin; Baba, I.

2017-09-01

Every second, the number of road traffic deaths is increased globally with millions more sustaining severe injuries and living with long-term adverse health consequences. Jakarta alone in year 2015 had recorded 556 people died due to road accidents, approximately reached 6.231 road accident cases. The identified major contributory factors of such unfortunate events are both driver fatigue and over speeding habit especially related to the driving of truck and bus. This paper presents the idea on how to control the electronic system from input fuel system of injection pump and the combustion chamber engine will control the valve solenoid in injection pump which can lock and fuel will stop for moment, and speed limit can be success, by using sensor heart rate we can input reduce speed limit when fatigue detection driver. Integration process this tool can be relevant when Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) trial in the diesel engine for truck and bus, the result of this research Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) able to control speed of diesel engine for truck and bus almost 30km/h, 60km/h, and until 70 km/h. The installation of the sensor heart rate as the input speed limit SLIFA would work when the driver is detected to be in the fatigue condition. We make Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) for control and monitoring system for diesel engine in truck and bus. Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) system can save the historical of the speed record, fatigue, rpm, and body temperature of the driver.

16. To the Problem of Electromechanical Interaction in Elevators with Controlled Electric Drive and Fuzzy Speed Controller

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. S. Koval

2010-01-01

Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning electromechanical interaction in elevators with an adjustable asynchronous electric drive equipped with the vector control systems under direct torque control and direct torque control with pulse-width modulator. A mathematical description of electromechanical elevator system with due account of nonlinearity of the worm gear is given in the paper. The paper presents a simplified circuit design of a control system with a fuzzy speed controller. It has been established that the factor of electromechanical interaction in electromechanical system with the adjustable asynchronous electric drive and an fuzzy speed controller is within the range which corresponds to existence of the essential electromechanical interaction.

17. Transient analysis of variable-speed wind turbines at wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melicio, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.; Catalao, J.P.S.

2011-01-01

As wind power generation undergoes rapid growth, new technical challenges emerge: dynamic stability and power quality. The influence of wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction on the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid is studied for variable-speed wind turbines with different power-electronic converter topologies. Additionally, a new control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators. The performance of disturbance attenuation and system robustness is ascertained. Simulation results are presented and conclusions are duly drawn.

18. Transient analysis of variable-speed wind turbines at wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Melicio, R. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal); Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

2011-04-15

As wind power generation undergoes rapid growth, new technical challenges emerge: dynamic stability and power quality. The influence of wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction on the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid is studied for variable-speed wind turbines with different power-electronic converter topologies. Additionally, a new control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators. The performance of disturbance attenuation and system robustness is ascertained. Simulation results are presented and conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

19. Electromagnetic application device for flow rate/flow speed control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yoshioka, Senji.

1994-01-01

Electric current and magnetic field are at first generated in a direction perpendicular to a flow channel of a fluid, and forces generated by electromagnetic interaction of the current and the magnetic field are combined and exerted on the fluid, to control the flow rate and the flow speed thereby decreasing flowing pressure loss. In addition, an electric current generation means and a magnetic field generation means integrated together are disposed to a structural component constituting the flow channel, and they are combined to attain the aimed effect. The current generating means forms a potential difference by supplying electric power to a pair of electrodes as a cathode and an anode by using structures disposed along the channel, to generate an electric field or electric current in a direction perpendicular to the flow channel. The magnetic field generating means forms a counter current (reciprocal current) by using structures disposed along the flow channel, to generate synthesized or emphasized magnetic field. The fluid can be applied with a force in the direction of the flowing direction by the electromagnetic interaction of the electric current and the magnetic field, thereby capable of propelling the fluid. Accordingly, the flowrate/flowing speed can be controlled inside of the flow channel and flowing pressure loss can be decreased. (N.H.)

20. Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rasmussen, Henrik

This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...

1. Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rasmussen, Henrik

2005-01-01

This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...

2. Sensorless speed Control including Zero Speed on Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rasmussen, Henrik

2006-01-01

This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...

3. Analysis, control and design of speed control of electric vehicles delayed model

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2017-01-01

The purpose of this study is to suggest an optimal multi-objective fuzzy fractional-order PIλDμPIλDμ controller (MOFFOPID) for the speed control of EV systems with time-delay. It is presumed that while the EV is in movement, the armature winding resistance of the direct current (DC) motor varies...... controller. Finally, the experimental results based on a TMS320F28335 DSP are implemented on a DC motor to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MOFFOPID controller in controlling the speed of the DC motor which has non-linear features. The results of the simulation confirm the desirable performance...

4. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

Science.gov (United States)

2011-01-03

... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-26851] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter... occupants. IIHS stated that on-board electronic engine control modules (ECM) will maintain the desired speed... be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) that is capable of limiting the maximum speed of...

5. 75 FR 37453 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls

Science.gov (United States)

2010-06-29

... Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... country of origin of certain dimmer and fan speed switch controls which may be offered to the United... determination CBP concluded that Mexico is the country of origin of the dimmer and fan speed switch controls for...

6. Implementation of Close Loop Speed Control with VVVF Control and Slip Regulation on LIM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-04-01

Full Text Available Open loop VVVF control has the disadvantage of low output torque when working at low frequency and poor speed precision at different load conditions.Various performance-improving schemes have been proposed for the basic VVVF control by compensating slips occurring in the low frequency range and slips caused by changing loads. Numerous papers have been published on the close loop speed control of rotary induction motor. In this paper a close loop speed control with VVVF control and slip regulation has been implemented for LIM based conveyor belt test Rig which compensates the disadvantages of traditional Volts/Hz control. SIMULINK results are presented to validate the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

7. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saraji, Ali Motalebi [Young Researchers and Elite Club, AliAbad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, AliAbad Katoul (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, Mahmood [Department of Electrical Engineering, AliAbad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, AliAbad Katoul (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-12-10

Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

8. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

2014-01-01

Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear

9. Logo2PWM: a tool to convert sequence logo to position weight matrix.

Science.gov (United States)

Gao, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Ruan, Jianhua

2017-10-03

position weight matrix (PWM) and sequence logo are the most widely used representations of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) in biological sequences. Sequence logo - a graphical representation of PWM, has been widely used in scientific publications and reports, due to its easiness of human perception, rich information, and simple format. Different from sequence logo, PWM works great as a precise and compact digitalized form, which can be easily used by a variety of motif analysis software. There are a few available tools to generate sequence logos from PWM; however, no tool does the reverse. Such tool to convert sequence logo back to PWM is needed to scan a TFBS represented in logo format in a publication where the PWM is not provided or hard to be acquired. A major difficulty in developing such tool to convert sequence logo to PWM is to deal with the diversity of sequence logo images. We propose logo2PWM for reconstructing PWM from a large variety of sequence logo images. Evaluation results on over one thousand logos from three sources of different logo format show that the correlation between the reconstructed PWMs and the original PWMs are constantly high, where median correlation is greater than 0.97. Because of the high recognition accuracy, the easiness of usage, and, the availability of both web-based service and stand-alone application, we believe that logo2PWM can readily benefit the study of transcription by filling the gap between sequence logo and PWM.

10. Automated high speed volume computed tomography for inline quality control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hanke, R.; Kugel, A.; Troup, P.

2004-01-01

Increasing complexity of innovative products as well as growing requirements on quality and reliability call for more detailed knowledge about internal structures of manufactured components rather by 100 % inspection than just by sampling test. A first-step solution, like radioscopic inline inspection machines, equipped with automated data evaluation software, have become state of the art in the production floor during the last years. However, these machines provide just ordinary two-dimensional information and deliver no volume data e.g. to evaluate exact position or shape of detected defects. One way to solve this problem is the application of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Compared to the performance of the first generation medical scanners (scanning times of many hours), today, modern Volume CT machines for industrial applications need about 5 minutes for a full object scan depending on the object size. Of course, this is still too long to introduce this powerful method into the inline production quality control. In order to gain acceptance, the scanning time including subsequent data evaluation must be decreased significantly and adapted to the manufacturing cycle times. This presentation demonstrates the new technical set up, reconstruction results and the methods for high-speed volume data evaluation of a new fully automated high-speed CT scanner with cycle times below one minute for an object size of less than 15 cm. This will directly create new opportunities in design and construction of more complex objects. (author)

11. Improving dynamic performances of PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems via a novel pneumatic circuit.

Science.gov (United States)

Taghizadeh, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Ali; Najafi, Farid

2009-10-01

In this paper, the effect of pneumatic circuit design on the input-output behavior of PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems is investigated and their control performances are improved using linear controllers instead of complex and costly nonlinear ones. Generally, servo-pneumatic systems are well known for their nonlinear behavior. However, PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems have the advantage of flexibility in the design of pneumatic circuits which affects the input-output linearity of the whole system. A simple pneumatic circuit with only one fast switching valve is designed which leads to a quasi-linear input-output relation. The quasi-linear behavior of the proposed circuit is verified both experimentally and by simulations. Closed loop position control experiments are then carried out using linear P- and PD-controllers. Since the output position is noisy and cannot be directly differentiated, a Kalman filter is designed to estimate the velocity of the cylinder. Highly improved tracking performances are obtained using these linear controllers, compared to previous works with nonlinear controllers.

12. Low-Speed Stability-and-Control and Ground-Effects Measurements on the Industry Reference High Speed Civil Transport

Science.gov (United States)

Kemmerly, Guy T.; Campbell, Bryan A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Yaros, Steven F.

1999-01-01

As a part of a national effort to develop an economically feasible High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a single configuration has been accepted as the testing baseline by the organizations working in the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The configuration is based on a design developed by the Boeing Company and is referred to as the Reference H (Ref H). The data contained in this report are low-speed stability-and-control and ground-effect measurements obtained on a 0.06 scale model of the Ref H in a subsonic tunnel.

13. Intelligent speed control and effects on driving behaviour

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Horst, A.R.A. van der; Hogema, J.H.

1999-01-01

Supporting the driver in conducting his nowadays demanding task is a promising means to get the maximum out of the road system with respect to both efficiency and safety. With respect to safety, speed management is a main issue. Police enforcement of speeding is one approach, preventing high speeds

14. An Algebraic Method of Synchronous Pulsewidth Modulation for Converters for Adjustable Speed Drives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede

2002-01-01

This paper describes the basic peculiarities of a new method of feedforward synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) of the output voltage of converters, based on one-stage closed-form strategy of PWM with pure algebraic control dependencies. It is applied to voltage source inverters with a contin......This paper describes the basic peculiarities of a new method of feedforward synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) of the output voltage of converters, based on one-stage closed-form strategy of PWM with pure algebraic control dependencies. It is applied to voltage source inverters...... with a continuous scheme of conventional voltage space vector modulation and with two basic variants of symmetrical discontinuous PWM. Simulations give the behaviour of the proposed method and show the advantage of algebraic synchronous PWM compared with the typical asynchronous, for low indices of the frequency...

15. Design of a ZVS PWM inverter for a brushless DC motor in an EMA application

Science.gov (United States)

Bell, J. Brett; Nelms, R. M.; Shepherd, Michael T.

1993-01-01

The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently investigating the use of electromechanical actuators for use in space transportation applications such as Thrust Vector Control (TVC). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 Vdc. This paper will discuss the design and implementation of a zero-voltage-switched PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) inverter which operates from a 270 Vdc source at currents up to 100 A.

16. Design of a ZVS PWM inverter for a brushless DC motor in an EMA application

Science.gov (United States)

Bell, J. Brett; Nelms, R. M.; Shepherd, Michael T.

The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently investigating the use of electromechanical actuators for use in space transportation applications such as Thrust Vector Control (TVC). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 Vdc. This paper will discuss the design and implementation of a zero-voltage-switched PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) inverter which operates from a 270 Vdc source at currents up to 100 A.

17. Numerical optimization of circulation control airfoil at high subsonic speed

Science.gov (United States)

Tai, T. C.; Kidwell, G. H., Jr.

1984-01-01

A numerical procedure for optimizing the design of the circulation control airfoil for use at high subsonic speeds is presented. The procedure consists of an optimization scheme coupled with a viscous potential flow analysis for the blowing jet. The desired airfoil is defined by a combination of three baseline shapes (cambered ellipse and cambered ellipse with drooped and spiraled trailing edges). The coefficients of these shapes are used as design variables in the optimization process. Under the constraints of lift augmentation and lift-to-drag ratios, the airfoil, optimized at free-stream Mach 0.54 and alpha = -2 degrees can be characterized as a cambered ellipse with a drooped trailing edge. Experimental tests support the performance improvement predicted by numerical optimization.

18. Digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high-speed scanning probe microscopy

Science.gov (United States)

Dukic, Maja; Todorov, Vencislav; Andany, Santiago; Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Yang, Chen; Hosseini, Nahid; Fantner, Georg E.

2017-12-01

Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. These converters introduce additional feedback delays which limit the achievable imaging speed and resolution. In this paper, we present a digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The controller implementation allows tunability of the PID gains over a large amplification and frequency range, while also providing precise control of the system and reproducibility of the gain parameters. By using the analog PID controller, we were able to perform successful atomic force microscopy imaging of a standard silicon calibration grating at line rates up to several kHz.

19. High speed, locally controlled data acquisition system for TFTR

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1983-01-01

A high speed, locally controlled, data acquisition and transmission system has been developed by the CICADA (Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition) Group for extracting certain timecritical data during a TFTR pulse and passing it to the control room, 1000 feet distant, to satisfy realtime requirements of frequently sampled variables. The system is designed to utilize any or all of the standard CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) modules now employed on the CAMAC links for retrieval of the main body of data, but to operate them in a much faster manner than in a standard CAMAC system. To do this, a pre-programmable ROM sequencer is employed as a controller to transmit commands to the modules at intervals down to one microsecond, replacing the usual CAMAC dedicated computer, and increasing the command rate by an order of magnitude over what could be sent down a Branch Highway. Data coming from any number of channels originating within a single CAMAC ''crate'' is then time-multiplexed and transmitted over a single conductor pair in bi-phase at a 2.5 MHz bit rate using Manchester coding techniques. Benefits gained from this approach include: Reduction in the number of conductors required, elimination of line-to-line skew found in parallel transmission systems, and the capability of being transformer coupled or transmitted over a fiber optic cable to avoid safety hazards and ground loops. The main application for this system so far has been as the feedback path in this closed loop control of currents through the Tokamak's field coils. The paper will treat the system's various applications

20. FASTBUS Readout Controller card for high speed data acquisition

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zimmermann, S.

1991-10-01

This article describes a FASTBUS Readout Controller (FRC) for high speed data acquisition in FASTBUS based systems. The controller has two main interfaces: to FASTBUS and to a Readout Port. The FASTBUS interface performs FASTBUS master and slave operations at a maximum transfer rate exceeding 40 MBytes/s. The Readout Port can be adapted for a variety of protocols. Currently, it will be interfaced to a VME bus based processor with a VSB port. The on-board LR33000 embedded processor controls the readout, executing a list of operations download into its memory. It scans the FASTBUS modules and stores the data in a triple port DRAM (TPDRAM), through one of the Serial Access Memory (SAM) ports of the (TPDRAM). Later, it transfers this data to the readout port using the other SAM. The FRC also supports serial communication via RS232 and Ethernet interfaces. This device is intended for use in the data acquisition system at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. 5 refs., 3 figs

1. Implementation Of Automatic Wiper Speed Control And Headlight Modes Control Systems Using Fuzzy Logic

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

ThetKoKo

2015-07-01

Full Text Available Abstract This research paper describes the design and simulation of the automatic wiper speed and headlight modes controllers using fuzzy logic. This proposed system consists of a fuzzy logic controller to control a cars wiper speed and headlight modes. The automatic wiper system detects the rain and its intensity. And according to the rain intensity the wiper speed is automatically controlled. Headlight modes automatically changes either from low beam mode to high beam mode or form high beam mode to low beam mode depending on the light intensity from the other vehicle coming from the opposite direction. The system comprises of PIC impedance sensor piezoelectric vibration sensor LDR headlamps and a DC motor to accurate the windshield wiper. Piezoelectric sensor is used to detect the rain intensity which is based on the piezoelectric effect. MATLAB software is used to achieve the designed goal.

2. Speed Sensorless mixed sensitivity linear parameter variant H_inf control of the induction motor

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Toth, R.; Fodor, D.

2004-01-01

The paper shows the design of a robust control structure for the speed sensorless vector control of the IM, based on the mixed sensitivity (MS) linear parameter variant (LPV) H8 control theory. The controller makes possible the direct control of the flux and speed of the motor with torque adaptation

3. Pitch Motion Stabilization by Propeller Speed Control Using Statistical Controller Design

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nakatani, Toshihiko; Blanke, Mogens; Galeazzi, Roberto

2006-01-01

This paper describes dynamics analysis of a small training boat and a possibility of ship pitch stabilization by control of propeller speed. After upgrading the navigational system of an actual small training boat, in order to identify the model of the ship, the real data collected by sea trials...... were used for statistical analysis and system identification. This analysis shows that the pitching motion is indeed influenced by engine speed and it is suggested that there exists a possibility of reducing the pitching motion by properly controlling the engine throttle. Based on this observation...

4. Simplified Fuzzy Control for Flux-Weakening Speed Control of IPMSM Drive

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. J. Hossain

2011-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a simplified fuzzy logic-based speed control scheme of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM above the base speed using a flux-weakening method. In this work, nonlinear expressions of d-axis and q-axis currents of the IPMSM have been derived and subsequently incorporated in the control algorithm for the practical purpose in order to implement fuzzy-based flux-weakening strategy to operate the motor above the base speed. The fundamentals of fuzzy logic algorithms as related to motor control applications are also illustrated. A simplified fuzzy speed controller (FLC for the IPMSM drive has been designed and incorporated in the drive system to maintain high performance standards. The efficacy of the proposed simplified FLC-based IPMSM drive is verified by simulation at various dynamic operating conditions. The simplified FLC is found to be robust and efficient. Laboratory test results of proportional integral (PI controller-based IPMSM drive have been compared with the simulated results of fuzzy controller-based flux-weakening IPMSM drive system.

5. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian; Parsapoor, Amir; Moallem, Mehdi; Lucas, Caro

2011-01-01

In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

6. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapoor@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: lucas@ut.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-01-15

In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

7. Nonlinear Output Feedback Control of Underwater Vehicle Propellers using Advance Speed Feedback

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

1999-01-01

More accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory. In this paper, an output feedback controller reconstructing the advance speed (speed of water going into the propeller) from vehicle speed measurements is derived. For this purpose a three-state model...... minimizes thruster losses due to variations in propeller axial inlet flow which is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems. The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. From the simulations it can be concluded...... of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle and axial inlet flow of the propeller is applied. A nonlinear observer in combination with an output feedback integral controller are derived by applying Lyapunov stability theory and exponential stability is proven. The output feedback controller...

8. Ensuring Control Processes Quality in Relay System Without Speed Sensor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

R. P. Simonyants

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The paper considers topical issues of constructing relay systems to control spacecraft attitude and stabilization with no speed sensors (SS owing to use of internal feedback (IF. To research this system by point methods, e.g. a point mapping method, is difficult because of the need to solve the transcendent equations containing parameters both of control object and of IF. We propose the “diagram of superimpositions" (DS method based on topological transformations of the phase space and introduction of a relative time, which enables us to solve engineering problems in analysis and synthesis effectively.The concept of the method is based on the assertion that there is an unambiguous dependence between quality of dynamical regimes in the control system and characteristics of IF transition function. To justify the method a simplified mathematical model of spacecraft motion is applied. The following conditions are accepted: perturbations can be neglected; when the control function is activated, the signal of IF is equal to zero. To the phase surfaces are applied topological symmetry transformations, alignment and projection onto the plane with one of its coordinates being the relative time.The paper gives specific examples of systems with aperiodic feedback (AF for two versions of parameters to satisfy the requirements: I – in quality of self-oscillation mode (by pulse width in the limit cycle; II – in quality of transition process (lack of sliding modes. It is shown that the requirements II and I are contradictory for the system with AF while the sliding modes are unacceptable.It is shown that DS can be used to synthesize the IF to meet requirements of both steady and transient processes consistently. Using the IF it is possible to implement the shutdown laws of the control action on the DS without SS, the same as in case of using the SS. It is shown that in sliding modes transient processes poor in quality can be completely eliminated by

9. Control of a high-speed switched reluctance machine using only the DC-link measurements

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Marinkov, Sava; De Jager, Bram

2015-01-01

In this paper we present a novel speed control strategy for a high-speed Switched Reluctance Machine that uses only the DC-link voltage and current measurements. This eliminates a number of hardware components such as position, speed, phase current and phase voltage sensors. It further lowers the

10. Proposed torque optimized behavior for digital speed control of induction motors

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metwally, H.M.B.; El-Shewy, H.M.; El-Kholy, M.M. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Zagazig (Egypt); Abdel-Kader, F.E. [Menoufyia Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Menoufyia (Egypt)

2002-09-01

In this paper, a control strategy for speed control of induction motors with field orientation is proposed. The proposed method adjusts the output voltage and frequency of the converter to operate the motor at the desired speed with maximum torque per ampere at all load torques keeping the torque angle equal to 90 deg. A comparison between the performance characteristics of a 2 hp induction motor using three methods of speed control is presented. These methods are the proposed method, the direct torque control method and the constant V/f method. The comparison showed that better performance characteristics are obtained using the proposed speed control strategy. A computer program, based on this method, is developed. Starting from the motor parameters, the program calculates a data set for the stator voltage and frequency required to obtain maximum torque per ampere at any motor speed and load torque. This data set can be used by the digital speed control system of induction motors. (Author)

11. A new method for speed control of a DC motor using magnetorheological clutch

Science.gov (United States)

Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

2014-03-01

In this research, a new method to control speed of DC motor using magnetorheological (MR) clutch is proposed and realized. Firstly, the strategy of a DC motor speed control using MR clutch is proposed. The MR clutch configuration is then proposed and analyzed based on Bingham-plastic rheological model of MR fluid. An optimal designed of the MR clutch is then studied to find out the optimal geometric dimensions of the clutch that can transform a required torque with minimum mass. A prototype of the optimized MR clutch is then manufactured and its performance characteristics are experimentally investigated. A DC motor speed control system featuring the optimized MR clutch is designed and manufactured. A PID controller is then designed to control the output speed of the system. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed DC motor speed control system, experimental results of the system such as speed tracking performance are obtained and presented with discussions.

12. Real Time Implementation of a DC Motor Speed Control by Fuzzy Logic Controller and PI Controller Using FPGA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

G. Sakthivel

2010-10-01

Full Text Available Fuzzy logic control has met with growing interest in many motor control applications due to its non-linearity, handling features and independence of plant modelling. The hardware implementation of fuzzy logic controller (FLC on FPGA is very important because of the increasing number of fuzzy applications requiring highly parallel and high speed fuzzy processing. Implementation of a fuzzy logic controller and conventional PI controller on an FPGA using VHDL for DC motor speed control is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme is to improve tracking performance of D.C. motor as compared to the conventional (PI control strategy .This paper describes the hardware implementation of two inputs (error and change in error, one output fuzzy logic controller based on PI controller and conventional PI controller using VHDL. Real time implementation FLC and conventional PI controller is made on Spartan-3A DSP FPGA (XC3SD1800A FPGA for the speed control of DC motor. It is observed that fuzzy logic based controllers give better responses than the conventional PI controller for the speed control of dc motor.

13. PWM pulse pattern optimization method using carrier frequency modulation. Carrier shuhasu hencho ni yoru PWM pulse pattern saitekikaho

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iwaji, Y.; Fukuda, S. (Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan))

1991-07-15

Sinusoidal inverters are getting more widely used keeping pace with the development of semiconductor switching elements. This paper discusses optimizing a PWM pulse pattern at an inverter output to drive an induction motor, proposes methods for improving distortion and torque ripples using a carrier frequency modulation (CFM), and describes a method for realizing the improvement through use of a single-chip microcomputer. The method defines evaluation parameters corresponding to the distortion and torque ripples, and optimizes the CFM depth to the parameters. The PWM pulse pattern has its voltage vector and time width so selected that the time integrated space vector of a three-phase voltage approaches a circular locus. Furthermore, the carrier frequency, that is the sampling frequency of the inverter, is also adjusted so that the above evaluation parameters are minimized. The addition of a new variable called the frequency modulation provides freedom in selecting an output characteristic as called for by the purpose. 12 refs., 18 figs.

14. Prediction of power losses in silicon iron sheets under PWM voltage supply

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amar, M.; Kaczmarek, R.; Protat, F.

1994-01-01

The behavior of iron losses in silicon iron steels submitted to a PWM voltage is studied. The influence of modulation parameters (the depth of modulation and the number of eliminated harmonics) is clarified. In particular, the idea of an equivalent alternating pulse voltage that gives the same iron losses as the PWM voltage is established. An estimation formula for iron losses under the PWM voltage is developed based on the loss separation model and the voltage form factor. ((orig.))

15. Stability control for high speed tracked unmanned vehicles

Science.gov (United States)

Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice

2005-05-01

The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).

16. Artificial intelligence-based speed control of DTC induction motor drives - A comparative study

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gadoue, S.M.; Giaouris, D.; Finch, J.W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15

The design of the speed controller greatly affects the performance of an electric drive. A common strategy to control an induction machine is to use direct torque control combined with a PI speed controller. These schemes require proper and continuous tuning and therefore adaptive controllers are proposed to replace conventional PI controllers to improve the drive's performance. This paper presents a comparison between four different speed controller design strategies based on artificial intelligence techniques; two are based on tuning of conventional PI controllers, the third makes use of a fuzzy logic controller and the last is based on hybrid fuzzy sliding mode control theory. To provide a numerical comparison between different controllers, a performance index based on speed error is assigned. All methods are applied to the direct torque control scheme and each control strategy has been tested for its robustness and disturbance rejection ability. (author)

17. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

OpenAIRE

Weihao Hu; Yunqian Zhang; Zhe Chen; Yanting Hu

2013-01-01

Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of this system is investigated. The 3p (three times per revolution) power oscillation due to wind shear and tower shadow effects is the sign...

18. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor speed loop controller based on sliding mode control algorithm

Science.gov (United States)

Qiang, Jiang; Meng-wei, Liao; Ming-jie, Luo

2018-03-01

Abstract.The control performance of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor will be affected by the fluctuation or changes of mechanical parameters when PMSM is applied as driving motor in actual electric vehicle,and external disturbance would influence control robustness.To improve control dynamic quality and robustness of PMSM speed control system, a new second order integral sliding mode control algorithm is introduced into PMSM vector control.The simulation results show that, compared with the traditional PID control,the modified control scheme optimized has better control precision and dynamic response ability and perform better with a stronger robustness facing external disturbance,it can effectively solve the traditional sliding mode variable structure control chattering problems as well.

19. Research on Control System of Three - phase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Zhiwei; Jin, Hai; Guo, Jie; Su, Jie; Wang, Miao

2017-12-01

In order to study the three-phase brushless motor control system of electric vehicle, Freescale9S12XS128 chip is used as the control core, and the power MOSFET is used as the inverter device. The software is compiled by Codewarrior software. The speed control link adopts open-loop control, and the control chip collects the external sensor signal voltage Change control PWM signal output control three-phase brushless DC motor speed. The whole system consists of Hall position detection module, current detection module, power drive module and voltage detection module. The basic functions of three-phase brushless DC motor drive control are realized.

20. Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn

2007-01-01

The standard industrial solution for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is the use of induction motors (IM) fed by voltage-source inverters (VSI). The inverter generates a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage, with dv/dt values of about 6 kV/Â¿s or even more. In three-leg inverters for three-phase appli...

1. Camera System Deployment for Speeding Control in Australia

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zuhair Ebrahim

2014-12-01

Full Text Available In Australia, the Auditor-General plays the role of checking on system fiscal efficiency, performance and effective communications between safety professionals and the public road users. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of public approval of the information that is to be released, e.g. camera strategic initiatives assessed by through mail-out questionnaires. Two visual-and- policy related attributes were investigated in these questionnaires. Each attribute had 5 initiatives. A multi-logistic regression is performed on the approval level of the drivers for the strategic initiative of running a speed-awareness course. This initiative is determined to be statistically significant using independent variables age, years of experience, status, gender, and the driver environment. Our analysis shows that the driver environment/background is found to be a significant independent variable for approving speed awareness courses. The road users from non-industrial areas are more likely to approve the idea of speed awareness courses than road users from industrial areas. They also welcome tougher demerit rules and the police enforcement. Our study suggests the speed awareness course, an educational initiative, should incorporate the tougher demerit rules to change the repetitive offender's driving behaviour. It is foreseeable that once these drivers are enrolled into the course, safer driving practices would be achieved for mitigating dangers, risk and trauma as the result of speeding. Our study may benefit professionals involved with improving traffic safety such as those in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and the Arab gulf countries particularly the kingdom of Saudi Arabia where a high number of fatalities and serious injuries involved speeding. Our study confirms that positive, transparent and satisfying initiative should be executed with care to maintain sustainable and safer roads for enhancing national partnership between road users

2. Control design for a pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbine

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, M.H.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Larsen, Torben J.

2005-01-01

The three different controller designs presented herein are similar and all based on PI-regulation of rotor speed and power through the collective blade pitch angle and generator moment. The aeroelastic and electrical modelling used for the time-domainanalysis of these controllers are however...... different, which makes a directly quantitative comparison difficult. But there are some observations of similar behaviours should be mentioned: • Very similar step responses in rotor speed, pitch angle, and powerare seen for simulations with steps in wind speed. • All controllers show a peak in power...... for wind speed step-up over rated wind speed, which can be almost removed by changing the parameters of the frequency converter. • Responses of rotor speed, pitchangle, and power for different simulations with turbulent inflow are similar for all three controllers. Again, there seems to be an advantage...

3. Energy-optimal speed control of fans and compressor in a refrigeration system

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

1998-01-01

Use of variable speed compressors and variable speed fans for both the evaporator and the condenser makes the refrigeration system more flexible, adds to the degree of freedom of the control system and therefore makes it possible to (on-line) optimise the various speeds involved. Say, for example...... and therefore the achievement of the potential for energy saving. This control/optimisation problem is investigated using a steady-state simulation model....

4. Power system stabilization by SMES using current-fed pwm power conditioner

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ishikawa, T.; Akita, S.; Taniguchi, H.; Kosho, S.; Tanaka, T.

1988-01-01

A superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit, consisted of superconducting coil and AC/DC power conditioner, can be used to suppress various kinds of instability that may cause service interruption in electric power system as it has high controllability of input/output electric power. Power system stabilizing ability of SMES has been examined experimentally by using model power system and small SMES unit. Current-fed PWM power conditioner was used to obtain maximum stabilizing effect by controlling active and reactive power simultaneously and independently. Power conditioner configuration, operating characteristics and control scheme for power system stabilization are also described. Results from experiments show the effectiveness of SMES on power system stabilization

5. Fuzzy Adaptive Model Following Speed Control for Vector Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2008-12-01

Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid controller combining a linear model following controller (LMFC and fuzzy logic control (FLC for speed vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is described on this study. The FLC is introduced at the adaptive mechanism level. First, an LMFC system is designed to allow the plant states to be controlled to follow the states produced by a reference model. In the nominal conditions, the model following is perfect and the adaptive mechanism based on the fuzzy logic is idle. Secondly, when parameter variations or external disturbances occur, an augmented signal will be generated by FLC mechanism to preserve the desired model following control performance. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulation results.

6. Non Linear, Time Variant Speed Control of a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin Woo

2009-01-01

A high torque ripple in a given motor always presents a challenge for the speed control, since this ripple may lead to excessive actuation and ultimately may even lead to instability. The conventional solution is to low pass filter the measured speed, but this lowers dynamic control performance...

7. Simulation model of an active-stall fixed-speed wind turbine controller

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jauch, C.; Hansen, A.D.; Sorensen, P.; Blaabjerg, F.

2004-07-01

This paper describes an active-stall wind turbine controller. The objective is to develop a general model of an active stall controller in order to simulate the operation of grid connected active stall wind turbines. The active stall turbine concept and its control strategies are presented and evaluated by simulations. The presented controller is described for continuous operation under all wind speeds from start-up wind speed to shut down wind speed. Due to its parametric implementation it is general i. e. it can represent different active stall wind turbine controllers and can be implemented in different simulation tools. (author)

8. Speed Synchronization of Multi Induction Motors with Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

HACHEMI Glaoui

2013-05-01

Full Text Available A continuous web winding system is a large-scale, complex interconnected dynamic system with numerous tension zones to transport the web while processing it. There are two control schemes for large-scale system control: the centralized scheme and the decentralized scheme. Centralized control is the traditional control method, which considers all the information about the system to be a single dynamic model and design a control system for this model. Aspeed synchronization control strategy for multiple induction motors, based on adjacent cross-coupling control structure, is developed by employing total sliding mode control method. The proposed controlstrategy is to stabilize speed tracking of each induction motor while synchronizing its speed with the speed of the other motors so as to make speed synchronization error amongst induction motors converge to zero. The global stability and the convergence of the designedcontroller are proved by using Lyapunov method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

9. Effect of 60Co γ-rays on PWM and LPS induced lymphocytes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Su Liaoyuan; Liu Keliang; Liu Fenju

1987-01-01

The relationship between lymphocytes induced by PWM (pokeweed mitogen) and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) was investigated by means of 3 H-TdR incorporation. The study showed that, in vitro, PWM-induced cells were able to promote the stimulating effect of LPS to B lymphocytes. The stimulating effect of PWM-induced cells was obviously weakened after PWM cells being irradiated with γ-rays. When PWM-induced cells and LPS-induced cells were incubated together, with one kind of cells exposed to 60 Co γ-ray, incorporation value of 3 H-TdR became much smaller and the synergetic function disappeared, especially, when PWM-induced cells were irradiated. For patients suffering from carcinoma of nasopharynx, while treated with 60 Co γ-rays, the incorporation value in LPS-induced cells approached normal level, meanwhile, the incorporation value in PEM-induced cells reduced significantly and the stimulating effect of PWM-induced cells on LPS-induced cells became much weaker. The facts described above demonstrated that PWM-induced cells have the function of T-helper cells and play more important role in the synergy than LPS-induced cells

10. High flexibility and low cost digital implementation for modern PWM strategies

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

2011-01-01

like AZSPWM, NSPWM, or ACRPWM. By using a conventional PWM unit from a microcontroller, these modern modulation techniques are often difficult, or even impossible, to implement. The proposed method can be used to implement PWM strategies even for those microcontrollers which are not equipped...

11. Direct Torque Control System for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine with Fuzzy Speed Pi Regulator

Science.gov (United States)

Nabti, K.; Abed, K.; Benalla, H.

2008-06-01

The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) speed regulation with a conventional PI regulator reduces the speed control precision, increase the torque fluctuation, and consequentially low performances of the whole system. With utilisation of fuzzy logic method, this paper presents the self adaptation of conventional PI regulator parameters Kp and Ki (proportional and integral coefficients respectively), using to regulate the speed in Direct Torque Control strategy (DTC). The ripples of both torque and flux are reduced remarkable, small overshooting and good dynamic of the speed and torque. Simulation results verify the proposed method validity.

12. One-Stage and Two-Stage Schemes of High Performance Synchronous PWM with Smooth Pulses-Ratio Changing

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede

2002-01-01

This paper presents detailed description of one-stage and two-stage schemes of a novel method of synchronous, pulsewidth modulation (PWM) for voltage source inverters for ac drive application. The proposed control functions provide accurate realization of different versions of voltage space vector...... modulation with synchronization of the voltage waveform of the inverter and with smooth pulse-ratio changing. Voltage spectra do not contain even harmonic and sub-harmonics (combined harmonics) during the whole control range including the zone of overmodulation. Examples of determination of the basic control...

13. Decoupled Speed and Torque Control of IPMSM Drives Using a Novel Load Torque Estimator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

ZAKY, M.

2017-08-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes decoupled speed and torque control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM drives using a novel load torque estimator (LTE. The proposed LTE is applied for computing a load torque and yielding a feed-forward value in the speed controller to separate the torque control from the speed control. Indirect flux weakening using direct current component is obtained for high speed operation of the IPMSM drive, and its value for maximum torque per ampere (MTPA control in constant torque region is also used. LTE uses values of direct and quadrature currents to improve the behavior of the speed controller under the reference tracking and torque disturbances. The complete IPMSM drive by Matlab/Simulink is built. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme using an experimental setup of the complete drive system implemented on a DSP-DS1102 control board is confirmed. Extensive results over a wide speed range are verified. The efficacy of the proposed method is confirmed in comparison to a conventional PI controller under both the reference speed tracking and load torque disturbance.

14. A comparative design view for accurate control of servos using a field programmable gate array

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S; Wu, F; Buckle, J R

2009-01-01

An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions. Altera DSP Builder presents designers and users with an alternate approach when creating their systems by employing a blockset similar to that already used in Simulink. The application considered in this paper is the design of a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) system for use in stereo vision. PWM can replace a digital-to-analogue converter to control audio speakers, LED intensity, motor speed, and servo position. Rather than the conventional HDL coding approach this Simulink approach provides an easy understanding platform to the PWM design. This paper includes a comparison between two approaches regarding resource usage and flexibility etc. Included is how DSP Builder manipulates an onboard clock signal, in order to create the control pulses to the 'raw' coding of a PWM generator in VHDL. Both methods were shown to a selection of people and their views on which version they would subsequently use in their relative fields is discussed.

15. Efficiency of particle swarm optimization applied on fuzzy logic DC motor speed control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Allaoua Boumediene

2008-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Fuzzy Logic for DC motor speed control using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. Firstly, the controller designed according to Fuzzy Logic rules is such that the systems are fundamentally robust. Secondly, the Fuzzy Logic controller (FLC used earlier was optimized with PSO so as to obtain optimal adjustment of the membership functions only. Finally, the FLC is completely optimized by Swarm Intelligence Algorithms. Digital simulation results demonstrate that in comparison with the FLC the designed FLC-PSO speed controller obtains better dynamic behavior and superior performance of the DC motor, as well as perfect speed tracking with no overshoot.

16. Fuzzy Control of Idle Speed in a Ford Engine

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jantzen, Jan; Mamdani, E.H.

1996-01-01

Introduction, initial configuration, final configuration, tuning, controller assessment results, conclusions, references, appendix 1: tuning procedure, Appendix 2: assessment results by Cambridge Control....

17. Effects of walking speed on the step-by-step control of step width.

Science.gov (United States)

Stimpson, Katy H; Heitkamp, Lauren N; Horne, Joscelyn S; Dean, Jesse C

2018-02-08

Young, healthy adults walking at typical preferred speeds use step-by-step adjustments of step width to appropriately redirect their center of mass motion and ensure mediolateral stability. However, it is presently unclear whether this control strategy is retained when walking at the slower speeds preferred by many clinical populations. We investigated whether the typical stabilization strategy is influenced by walking speed. Twelve young, neurologically intact participants walked on a treadmill at a range of prescribed speeds (0.2-1.2 m/s). The mediolateral stabilization strategy was quantified as the proportion of step width variance predicted by the mechanical state of the pelvis throughout a step (calculated as R 2 magnitude from a multiple linear regression). Our ability to accurately predict the upcoming step width increased over the course of a step. The strength of the relationship between step width and pelvis mechanics at the start of a step was reduced at slower speeds. However, these speed-dependent differences largely disappeared by the end of a step, other than at the slowest walking speed (0.2 m/s). These results suggest that mechanics-dependent adjustments in step width are a consistent component of healthy gait across speeds and contexts. However, slower walking speeds may ease this control by allowing mediolateral repositioning of the swing leg to occur later in a step, thus encouraging slower walking among clinical populations with limited sensorimotor control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

18. Application of a fuzzy control algorithm with improved learning speed to nuclear steam generator level control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Park, Gee Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

1994-01-01

In order to reduce the load of tuning works by trial-and-error for obtaining the best control performance of conventional fuzzy control algorithm, a fuzzy control algorithm with learning function is investigated in this work. This fuzzy control algorithm can make its rule base and tune the membership functions automatically by use of learning function which needs the data from the control actions of the plant operator or other controllers. Learning process in fuzzy control algorithm is to find the optimal values of parameters, which consist of the membership functions and the rule base, by gradient descent method. Learning speed of gradient descent is significantly improved in this work with the addition of modified momentum. This control algorithm is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the good performance of this control algorithm for level control and show that the fuzzy learning algorithm has the generalization capability for the relation of inputs and outputs and it also has the excellent capability of disturbance rejection

19. Explicit Generalized Predictive Control of Speed and Position of PMSM Drives

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Belda, Květoslav; Vošmik, D.

2016-01-01

Roč. 63, č. 6 (2016), s. 3889-3896 ISSN 0278-0046 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : current limitation * field weakening * motion control * permanent magnet synchronous motors * position control * predictive control * speed control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 7.168, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/belda-0457259.pdf

20. Voltage Sags Ride-Through of Motion Sensorless Controlled PMSG for Wind Turbines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fatu, Marius; Lascu, Cristian; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

2007-01-01

This paper describes a variable-speed motion-sensorless permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) control system for wind energy generation. The proposed system contains a PMSG connected to the grid by a back-to-back PWM inverter with bidirectional power flow, a line filter, and a transformer....... The control system employs PI current controllers with crosscoupling decoupling for both inverters, an active power controller, and a DC link voltage controller. The PMSG rotor speed without using emf integration, and the line voltage frequency are estimated by two PLL based observers. A Dmodule filter...

1. A new PWM algorithm for battery-source three-phase inverters

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chan, C.C. (Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Univ. of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (HK)); Chau, K.T. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hung Hom (HK))

1991-01-01

A new PWM algorithm for battery-source three-phase inverters is described in this paper. The concept of the algorithm is to determine the pulsewidths by equating the areas of the segments of the sinusodial reference with the related output pulse areas. The algorithm is particularly suitable to handle a non-constant voltage source with good harmonic suppression. Since the pulsewidths are computable in real time with minimal storage requirement as well as compact hardware and software, it is especially suitable for single-chip microcomputer implementation. Experimental results show that the single-chip microcomputer Intel 8095-based battery-source inverter can control a 3 kW synchronous motor drive satisfactorily over a frequency range of 2 to 100Hz.

2. Multi-objective PID Optimization for Speed Control of an Isolated Steam Turbine using Gentic Algorithm

OpenAIRE

Sanjay Kr. Singh; D. Boolchandani; S.G. Modani; Nitish Katal

2014-01-01

This study focuses on multi-objective optimization of the PID controllers for optimal speed control for an isolated steam turbine. In complex operations, optimal tuning plays an imperative role in maintaining the product quality and process safety. This study focuses on the comparison of the optimal PID tuning using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) against normal genetic algorithm and Ziegler Nichols methods for the speed control of an isolated steam turbine. Isolated steam turbine...

3. Overall control strategy of variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, A.D.; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

2004-01-01

The variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine is today the most widely used concept. The paper presents an overall control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind tu......-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Simulation results are performed and analyzed in different normal operating conditions....

4. Pulsewidth Modulated Speed Control of Brushless DC Motors.

Science.gov (United States)

1984-09-01

sped acca - racy of the motoc is defined as tne difference Letweer the maximum and mir.imum motor speed divided by the commai. =e/ s~eed. TABLE I Motor...TO = .OOC C L N I5 THE SYvSTEM ELECTRICAL TIME CONSTANT lN = INCIC/RES F6 (1.c/FREcj D C/100. lIME =Ph 71ME2 l .CiFJREQ PMs C C EO IS THE BACK EtMF C...iu-8.2 J WR ITE (b , -0 I rI M 50 FGRM AT 11 ) t’I1N: 0,Fl 0 3,v ItM : a F10..3) WRITE (6t CC) IAV,IRMS 100 f -.FM tT 1 Xj IAV = ’ ,F 8.4,, v I11RMS F6

5. Implementation of PID Controller in MATLAB for Real Time DC Motor Speed Control System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Manjunatha Reddy H. K.

2011-03-01

Full Text Available In this paper the implementation of PIDC (proportional + integral + derivative controller in MATLAB environment for real time DC motor speed control is presented. The MATLAB environment is chosen because of availability of tool boxes which allows the effective way of implementation and analysis of the control system. The performance of PID controller for different inputs is studied. To establish a communication between PC and process parameter, an indigenous Analog to digital and digital to analog (AD-DA board is designed. This board consists of 12-bit A/D converter and 12-bit D/A converter to facilitate the data acquisition and control. In the present study Advantech make PCI-1751 DIOT card is used to interface AD-DA board to PC externally. The data between the AD-DA board and the PC is communicated through the script file written in MATLAB environment. By applying different standard test commands such as step, square, staircase and triangular, the performance of PID controller is studied. The PID controller provides better system response in terms of transient as well as steady-state performances. The controller parameters are manually tuned (kp=0.232, ki=0.078 and kd=0.035 and the results of the best tuned PID controller are presented.

6. The speed control of DC motor under the load condition using PI and PID controllers

Science.gov (United States)

Corapsiz, Muhammed Reşit; Kahveci, Hakan

2017-04-01

In this study, it was aimed to compare PI (Proportional-Integral) and PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers for speed control of Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) motor under both load and without load. For this purpose, firstly, the mathematical model was obtained from the dynamic equations of the PMDC motor and the obtained mathematical model was transferred to the simulation environment and modeled using Matlab/SIMULINK. Following the modeling process, PI and PID controller structures were formed, respectively. Secondly, after these structures were formed, the PMDC motor was run without any controller. Then, the control of the PMDC motor with no load was provided by using PI and PID controllers. Finally, the PMDC motor were loaded under the constant load (TL = 3 N.m.) for each condition and selected time period (t = 3 s). The obtained result for each control operations was comparatively given by observing effects of loading process on systems. When the obtained results were evaluated for each condition, it was observed that PID controller have the best performance with respect to PI controller.

7. Intelligent control for large-scale variable speed variable pitch wind turbines

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Xinfang ZHANG; Daping XU; Yibing LIU

2004-01-01

Large-scale wind turbine generator systems have strong nonlinear multivariable characteristics with many uncertain factors and disturbances.Automatic control is crucial for the efficiency and reliability of wind turbines.On the basis of simplified and proper model of variable speed variable pitch wind turbines,the effective wind speed is estimated using extended Kalman filter.Intelligent control schemes proposed in the paper include two loops which operate in synchronism with each other.At below-rated wind speed,the inner loop adopts adaptive fuzzy control based on variable universe for generator torque regulation to realize maximum wind energy capture.At above-rated wind speed, a controller based on least square support vector machine is proposed to adjust pitch angle and keep rated output power.The simulation shows the effectiveness of the intelligent control.

8. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guo Lie

2014-01-01

Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

9. Integrated High-Speed Torque Control System for a Robotic Joint

Science.gov (United States)

Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

2013-01-01

A control system for achieving high-speed torque for a joint of a robot includes a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) having a collocated joint processor and high-speed communication bus. The PCBA may also include a power inverter module (PIM) and local sensor conditioning electronics (SCE) for processing sensor data from one or more motor position sensors. Torque control of a motor of the joint is provided via the PCBA as a high-speed torque loop. Each joint processor may be embedded within or collocated with the robotic joint being controlled. Collocation of the joint processor, PIM, and high-speed bus may increase noise immunity of the control system, and the localized processing of sensor data from the joint motor at the joint level may minimize bus cabling to and from each control node. The joint processor may include a field programmable gate array (FPGA).

10. Sensorless Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors by Neural Network Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ming-Shyan Wang

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The sliding mode control has the merits with respect to the variation of the disturbance and robustness. In this paper, the sensorless sliding-mode observer with least mean squared error approach for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to detect the rotor position by counter electromotive force and then compute motor speed is designed and implemented. In addition, the neural network control is also used to compensate the PI gain tuning to increase the speed accuracy without regarding the errors of the current measurement and motor noise. In this paper, a digital signal processor TMS320F2812 utilizes its high-speed ADC module to get current feedback information and thus to estimate the rotor position and takes advantage of the built-in modules to achieve SVPWM current control so that the senseless speed control will be accomplished. The correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control system will be verified from the experimental results.

11. Overall control strategy of variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy Dept.; Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology

2004-07-01

The variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine is today the most widely used concept. The paper presents an overall control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind turbine. The present control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The strongest feature of the implemented control method is that it allows the turbine to operate with the optimum power efficiency over a wider range of wind speeds. The variable speed/variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Simulation results are performed and analyzed in different normal operating conditions.

12. Wind Turbine Generator Modeling and Simulation Where Rotational Speed is the Controlled Variable

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion

2004-01-01

the interaction between a wind turbine and the power system. The model is intended to simulate the behaviour of the wind turbine using induction generators both during normal operation. Sample simulation results for two induction generators (2/0.5 MW) validate the fundamental issues.......To optimise the power produced in a wind turbine, the speed of the turbine should vary with the wind speed. A simple control method is proposed that will allow an induction machine to run a turbine at its maximum power coefficient. Various types of power control strategies have been suggested...... for application in variable speed wind turbines. The usual strategy is to control the power or the torque acting on the wind turbine shafts. This paper presents an alternative control strategy, where the rotational speed is the controlled variable. The paper describes a model, which is being developed to simulate...

13. Comprehensive analysis of the carbon impacts of vehicle intelligent speed control

Science.gov (United States)

Carslaw, David C.; Goodman, Paul S.; Lai, Frank C. H.; Carsten, Oliver M. J.

2010-07-01

In recent years sophisticated technologies have been developed to control vehicle speed based on the type of road the vehicle is driven on using Global Positioning Systems and in-car technology that can alter the speed of the vehicle. While reducing the speed of road vehicles is primarily of interest from a safety perspective, vehicle speed is also an important determinant of vehicle emissions and thus these technologies can be expected to have impacts on a range of exhaust emissions. This work analyses the results from a very large, comprehensive field trial that used 20 instrumented vehicles with and without speed control driven almost 500,000 km measuring vehicle speed at 10 Hz. We develop individual vehicle modal emissions models for CO 2 for 30 Euro III and Euro IV cars at a 1-Hz time resolution. Generalized Additive Models were used to describe how emissions from individual vehicles vary depending on their driving conditions, taking account of variable interactions and time-lag effects. We quantify the impact that vehicle speed control has on-vehicle emissions of CO 2 by road type, fuel type and driver behaviour. Savings in CO 2 of ≈6% were found on average for motorway-type roads when mandatory speed control was used compared with base case conditions. For most other types of road, speed control has very little effect on emissions of CO 2 and in some cases can result in increased emissions for low-speed limit urban roads. We also find that there is on average a 20% difference in CO 2 emission between the lowest and highest emitting driver, which highlights the importance of driver behaviour in general as a means of reducing emissions of CO 2.

14. An improvement of speed control performances of a two-mass system using a universal approximator

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lee, Kyo Beum; Blåbjerg, Frede

2007-01-01

A new control scheme using a universal approximator based on a radial basis ti.tnction network (RBFN) is proposed and investigated for improving the control characteristics of the high-performance motion control system. This control method presents better performance in the corresponding speed vi...

15. Functional integration of vertical flight path and speed control using energy principles

Science.gov (United States)

Lambregts, A. A.

1984-01-01

A generalized automatic flight control system was developed which integrates all longitudinal flight path and speed control functions previously provided by a pitch autopilot and autothrottle. In this design, a net thrust command is computed based on total energy demand arising from both flight path and speed targets. The elevator command is computed based on the energy distribution error between flight path and speed. The engine control is configured to produce the commanded net thrust. The design incorporates control strategies and hierarchy to deal systematically and effectively with all aircraft operational requirements, control nonlinearities, and performance limits. Consistent decoupled maneuver control is achieved for all modes and flight conditions without outer loop gain schedules, control law submodes, or control function duplication.

16. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

John Mourjopoulos

2007-01-01

Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed “jither” and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., ×4 resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

17. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mourjopoulos John

2007-01-01

Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed "jither" and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

18. Applications of variable speed control for contending with recurrent highway congestion.

Science.gov (United States)

2014-07-01

This research project developed vital operational guidelines for design of a variable speed limit (VSL) system and its integrated operations with ramp metering control in contending with recurrent highway congestion. The developed guidelines can serv...

19. Neuro-Fuzzy DC Motor Speed Control Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Boumediene ALLAOUA

2009-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents an application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS control for DC motor speed optimized with swarm collective intelligence. First, the controller is designed according to Fuzzy rules such that the systems are fundamentally robust. Secondly, an adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy controller of the DC motor speed is then designed and simulated; the ANFIS has the advantage of expert knowledge of the Fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. Finally, the ANFIS is optimized by Swarm Intelligence. Digital simulation results demonstrate that the deigned ANFIS-Swarm speed controller realize a good dynamic behavior of the DC motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot, give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the ANFIS alone.

20. PSO-based PID Speed Control of Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor under Temperature Disturbance

Science.gov (United States)

Arifin Mat Piah, Kamal; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; Azmi, Nur Iffah Mohamed; Romlay, Fadhlur Rahman Mohd

2018-03-01

Traveling wave ultrasonic motors (TWUSMs) have a time varying dynamics characteristics. Temperature rise in TWUSMs remains a problem particularly in sustaining optimum speed performance. In this study, a PID controller is used to control the speed of TWUSM under temperature disturbance. Prior to developing the controller, a linear approximation model which relates the speed to the temperature is developed based on the experimental data. Two tuning methods are used to determine PID parameters: conventional Ziegler-Nichols(ZN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The comparison of speed control performance between PSO-PID and ZN-PID is presented. Modelling, simulation and experimental work is carried out utilizing Fukoku-Shinsei USR60 as the chosen TWUSM. The results of the analyses and experimental work reveal that PID tuning using PSO-based optimization has the advantage over the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method.

1. Energy Efficient Control of High Speed IPMSM Drives - A Generalized PSO Approach

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

GECIC, M.

2016-02-01

Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized particle swarm optimization (GPSO algorithm was applied to the problems of optimal control of high speed low cost interior permanent magnet motor (IPMSM drives. In order to minimize the total controllable electrical losses and to increase the efficiency, the optimum current vector references are calculated offline based on GPSO for the wide speed range and for different load conditions. The voltage and current limits of the drive system and the variation of stator inductances are all included in the optimization method. The stored optimal current vector references are used during the real time control and the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional high speed control algorithm, which is mostly voltage limit based. The computer simulations and experimental results on 1 kW low cost high speed IPMSM drive are discussed in details.

2. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

Science.gov (United States)

Ballard, B. K.

1975-01-01

Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

3. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

OpenAIRE

Yun-Su Kim; Il-Yop Chung; Seung-Il Moon

2015-01-01

This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI con...

4. The effect of speed-accuracy strategy on response interference control in Parkinson's disease.

Science.gov (United States)

Wylie, S A; van den Wildenberg, W P M; Ridderinkhof, K R; Bashore, T R; Powell, V D; Manning, C A; Wooten, G F

2009-07-01

Studies that used conflict paradigms such as the Eriksen Flanker task show that many individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have pronounced difficulty resolving the conflict that arises from the simultaneous activation of mutually exclusive responses. This finding fits well with contemporary views that postulate a key role for the basal ganglia in action selection. The present experiment aims to specify the cognitive processes that underlie action selection deficits among PD patients in the context of variations in speed-accuracy strategy. PD patients (n=28) and healthy controls (n=17) performed an arrow version of the flanker task under task instructions that either emphasized speed or accuracy of responses. Reaction time (RT) and accuracy rates decreased with speed compared to accuracy instructions, although to a lesser extent for the PD group. Differences in flanker interference effects among PD and healthy controls depended on speed-accuracy strategy. Compared to the healthy controls, PD patients showed larger flanker interference effects under speed stress. RT distribution analyses suggested that PD patients have greater difficulty suppressing incorrect response activation when pressing for speed. These initial findings point to an important interaction between strategic and computational aspects of interference control in accounting for cognitive impairments of PD. The results are also compatible with recent brain imaging studies that demonstrate basal ganglia activity to co-vary with speed-accuracy adjustments.

5. Observer Based Traction/Braking Control Design for High Speed Trains Considering Adhesion Nonlinearity

OpenAIRE

Cai, Wenchuan; Liao, Wenhao; Li, Danyong; Song, Yongduan

2014-01-01

Train traction/braking control, one of the key enabling technologies for automatic train operation, literally takes its action through adhesion force. However, adhesion coefficient of high speed train (HST) is uncertain in general because it varies with wheel-rail surface condition and running speed; thus, it is extremely difficult to be measured, which makes traction/braking control design and implementation of HSTs greatly challenging. In this work, force observers are applied to estimate t...

6. Speed Sensorless Control of PMSM using Model Reference Adaptive System and RBFN

OpenAIRE

Wei Gao; Zhirong Guo

2013-01-01

In the speed sensorless vector control system, the amended method of estimating the rotor speed about model reference adaptive system (MRAS) based on radial basis function neural network (RBFN) for PMSM sensorless vector control system was presented. Based on the PI regulator, the radial basis function neural network which is more prominent learning efficiency and performance is combined with MRAS. The reference model and the adjust model are the PMSM itself and the PMSM current, respectively...

7. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Saygin Ali

2017-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

8. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

Science.gov (United States)

Saygin, Ali; Kerem, Alper

2017-12-01

This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

9. Control of variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg (Denmark)

2004-07-01

draIn this paper, a Control method suitable for a variable speed grid connected pitch-controlled wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is developed. The targets of the Control system are: 1) to Control the power drawn from the wind turbine in order to track the wind turbine optimum operation point 2) to limit the power in case of high wind speeds and 3) to Control the reactive power interchanged between the wind turbine generator and the grid. The considered configuration of DFIG is an induction generator with a wound rotor connected to the grid through a back-to-back power converter and a stator directly connected to the grid. The paper presents the overall Control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the Control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical Control level of the wind turbine. There are two Control levels: a DFIG Control level and wind turbine Control level. The DFIG Control level contains a fast Control of the power converter and of the doubly-fed induction generator and it has as goal to Control the active and reactive power of the wind turbine independently. The wind turbine Control level supervises with Control signals both the DFIG Control level and the hydraulic pitch Control system of the wind turbine. The present Control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The variable speed/variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, which makes possible to investigate the dynamic performance of gid-connected wind turbines as a part of realistic electrical grid models. Several significant simulation results are performed With the overall Control-implemented algorithm applied on a variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine model. (au)

10. Speed control issues for tunnel-in-the-sky displays with predictor

Science.gov (United States)

Sachs, Gottfried; Sperl, Roman

2001-08-01

Speed control issues are considered for tunnel-in-the-sky displays with a predictor presenting guidance information in a 3-dimensional format for flight path control. Factors driving the predictor design are described. With reference to the resulting predictor control law, it is shown that the pilot-predictor-aircraft system is stable for operation on the frontside of the power-required curve and unstable for operation on the reverse. This instability can be removed by thrust control. It is shown that this control loop is supported by the predictor control law because of favorable coupling effects between the two loops involved. Furthermore, an appropriate speed indication in the tunnel-in-the-sky display is considered an aid in manual speed control. The theoretical findings are supported by experimental results from pilot-in-the-loop simulations.

11. State control of translational movement in high-speed Maglev transportation systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Schnieder, E

1981-01-01

The combination of state control with cascade control satisfies all demands made on train movements in a high-speed Maglev transportation system. The inner control loop compensates nonlinearities and disturbances and limits the acceleration. The dynamics of the control loop are determined by the riding characteristics. The superposed speed state control provides for running without overshoot within permissible limits. In order to reach a target point in the shortest possible time, the control signal for initiating the retardation is issued as late as possible and the speed is output as a function of position. The subsequent structure changeover to a position state control causes the train to come to a smooth halt at its destination in an almost optimal time.

12. Very-low-speed variable-structure control of sensorless induction machine drives without signal injection

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lascu, Christian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

2005-01-01

A sensorless induction machine drive is presented, in which the principles of variable-structure control and direct torque control (DTC) are combined to ensure high-performance operation in the steady state and under transient conditions. The drive employs a new torque and flux controller......, the "linear and variable-structure control", which realizes accurate and robust control in a wide speed range. Conventional DTC transient merits are preserved, while the steady-state behavior is significantly improved. The full-order state observer is a sliding-mode one, which does not require the rotor speed...

13. Speed control for a two-mass drive system using integrated fuzzy estimator and hybrid fuzzy PD/PI controller

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pai, N-S; Kuo, Y-P

2008-01-01

This paper presents a novel speed control scheme for a 2- mass motor drive system. The speed controller is based on the estimated state feedback compensation. The integrated fuzzy observer can give a fast and accuracy estimation of the unmeasured states. Two kinds of hybrid fuzzy proportional-derivative and proportional-integral (HF PD/PI) are proposed to cope with this speed control problem. The first is the static HF PD/PI controller and the second is the dynamic one. Simulation results show that the developed integrated fuzzy observer provide the better estimation performance than that of the Kalman filter and the proposed control schemes can effectively track the desired speed in the presence of load disturbance

14. Pulsed Nonlinear Automatic Control System for Guidance of a Caterpillar Tractor Unit in Vineyards

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sit M.L.

2018-04-01

Full Text Available The automatic guidance systems of tractors for soil cultivation in vineyards have attracted the attention of researchers since the second half of the twentieth century. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the driving quality of an automatic guidance system (AGS for a caterpillar tractor unit (CTU consisting of a crawler tractor and a vineyard plow and having the orientation system by grapes stamps. Compared with the known works (in which GPS, LIDAR, and video cameras are used for orientation, the proposed system is the least expensive. For this, the existence of stability of the AGS as a whole in the range of operating speeds of the unit was proved. The dynamic model of the vineyard plow was verified on a three-point hitching system of the tractor, field tests of the AGS were carried out, which confirmed the results of theoretical studies, and suggested directions for further research. The shape and parameters of the modulation characteristic (MC of the pulse-width modulator (PWM of the AGS control system, the rational values of the hydraulic drive speeds of the sequential control mechanism of the clutch of the turn and the crawler tractor belt brake, were established, depending on the slope angle and the speed of the unit, ensuring agrotechnical requirements for driving. New solutions, in comparison with the known ones, are the ways of forming the MC of PWM using a new design probe and the associated driver MC of PWM.

15. Electric Drive Control with Rotor Resistance and Rotor Speed Observers Based on Fuzzy Logic

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

C. Ben Regaya

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Many scientific researchers have proposed the control of the induction motor without speed sensor. These methods have the disadvantage that the variation of the rotor resistance causes an error of estimating the motor speed. Thus, simultaneous estimation of the rotor resistance and the motor speed is required. In this paper, a scheme for estimating simultaneously the rotor resistance and the rotor speed of an induction motor using fuzzy logic has been developed. We present a method which is based on two adaptive observers using fuzzy logic without affecting each other and a simple algorithm in order to facilitate the determination of the optimal values of the controller gains. The control algorithm is proved by the simulation tests. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the two observers of the proposed method even in the case of variation of the rotor resistance.

16. Modelling and control of variable speed wind turbines for power system studies

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

2010-01-01

and implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Important issues like the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of these wind turbine concepts are addressed. The paper reveals that advanced control of variable speed wind turbines can improve power system stability. Finally......, it will be shown in the paper that wind parks consisting of variable speed wind turbines can help nearby connected fixed speed wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......Modern wind turbines are predominantly variable speed wind turbines with power electronic interface. Emphasis in this paper is therefore on the modelling and control issues of these wind turbine concepts and especially on their impact on the power system. The models and control are developed...

17. Longer-term effects of ADAS use on speed and headway control in drivers diagnosed with Parkinson's disease

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R.; De Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H.

2015-01-01

Objective: An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about speed limits, speed, speeding, and following distance. Information was presented to the participants by means of a head-up display. Methods: Effects of the information on speed and headway control were studied in a

18. Hi-speed versatile serial crate controller for CAMAC

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Horelick, D.

1984-10-01

A serial crate controller, primarily for use in the SLC CAMAC control system, has been designed, and has been in use for about 2 years. The design supports a party line approach, with up to 16 crates on a single twisted pair for data transfers, plus another pair for prompt L response. The bit rate is 5 megabits/s, and complete transaction times of about 10 μs are achieved for 16-bit data transfers over cables up to 1000 feet long. One of the primary objects of the design was simplicity - there are approximately 60 chips in the two-board unit

19. Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Science.gov (United States)

Morimoto, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoji

This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control method, where the information of wind velocity is not required. Moreover, the maximum available generated power is obtained by the optimum current vector control. The current vector of PMSG is optimally controlled according to the generator speed and the required torque in order to minimize the losses of PMSG considering the voltage and current constraints. The proposed wind power generation system can be achieved without mechanical sensors such as a wind velocity detector and a position sensor. Several experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

20. Nonlinear Speed Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives Taking into Account Mutual Inductance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Rayan

2008-03-01

Full Text Available A speed control algorithm is proposed for variable speed switched reluctance motor (SRM drives taking into account the effects of mutual inductances. The control scheme adopts two-phase excitation; exciting two adjacent phases can overcome the problems associated with single-phase excitation such as large torque ripple, increased acoustic noise, and rotor shaft fatigues. The effects of mutual coupling between two adjacent phases and their contribution to the generated electromagnetic torque are considered in the design of the proposed control scheme for the motor. The proposed controller guarantees the convergence of the currents and the rotor speed of the motor to their desired values. Simulation results are given to illustrate the developed theory; the simulation studies show that the proposed controller works well. Moreover, the simulation results indicate that the proposed controller is robust to changes in the parameters of the motor and to changes in the load torque.

1. A Comparison Study between Two MPPT Control Methods for a Large Variable-Speed Wind Turbine under Different Wind Speed Characteristics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dongran Song

2017-05-01

Full Text Available Variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs usually adopt a maximum power point tracking (MPPT method to optimize energy capture performance. Nevertheless, obtained performance offered by different MPPT methods may be affected by the impact of wind turbine (WT’s inertia and wind speed characteristics and it needs to be clarified. In this paper, the tip speed ratio (TSR and optimal torque (OT methods are investigated in terms of their performance under different wind speed characteristics on a 1.5 MW wind turbine model. To this end, the TSR control method based on an effective wind speed estimator and the OT control method are firstly presented. Then, their performance is investigated and compared through simulation test results under different wind speeds using Bladed software. Comparison results show that the TSR control method can capture slightly more wind energy at the cost of high component loads than the other one under all wind conditions. Furthermore, it is found that both control methods present similar trends of power reduction that is relevant to mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. From the obtained results, we demonstrate that, to further improve MPPT capability of large VSWTs, other advanced control methods using wind speed prediction information need to be addressed.

2. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

Science.gov (United States)

Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C.; de Pedro, Teresa

2010-01-01

These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

3. An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals.

Science.gov (United States)

Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa

2010-01-01

These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

4. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Joshué Pérez

2010-06-01

Full Text Available These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC, which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

5. Fuzzy sliding mode controller for doubly fed induction motor speed ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The use of the nonlinear fuzzy sliding mode method provides very good performance for motor operation and robustness of the control law despite the external/internal perturbations. The chattering effects is eliminated by a particular function "sat" that presents a serious problem to applications of variable structure systems.

6. 14 CFR 25.149 - Minimum control speed.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... used to simulate critical engine failure must represent the most critical mode of powerplant failure with respect to controllability expected in service. (b) VMC is the calibrated airspeed at which, when... be necessary to reduce power or thrust of the operative engines. During recovery, the airplane may...

7. 14 CFR 23.149 - Minimum control speed.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... not more than 5 degrees. The method used to simulate critical engine failure must represent the most critical mode of powerplant failure expected in service with respect to controllability. (b) VMC for... the critical engine is made inoperative to the point at which recovery to a direction parallel to the...

8. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars.

Science.gov (United States)

Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

2015-06-05

We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds' flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints.

9. Regardless-of-Speed Superconducting LSM Controlled-Repulsive MAGLEV Vehicle

Science.gov (United States)

Yoshida, Kinjiro; Egashira, Tatsuya; Hirai, Ryuichi

1996-01-01

This paper proposes a new repulsive Maglev vehicle which a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) can levitate and propel simultaneously, independently of the vehicle speeds. The combined levitation and propulsion control is carried out by controlling mechanical-load angle and armature-current. Dynamic simulations show successful operations with good ride-quality by using a compact control method proposed here.

10. Model predictive control of a high speed switched reluctance generator system

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Marinkov, Sava; De Jager, Bram; Steinbuch, Maarten

2013-01-01

This paper presents a novel voltage control strategy for the high-speed operation of a Switched Reluctance Generator. It uses a linear Model Predictive Control law based on the average system model. The controller computes the DC-link current needed to achieve the tracking of a desired voltage

11. Solid state circuit controls direction, speed, and braking of dc motor

Science.gov (United States)

Hanna, M. F.

1966-01-01

Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit controls the direction, speed, and braking of a dc motor. Gating in the circuit of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers /SCRS/ controls output polarity and braking is provided by an SCR that is gated to short circuit the reverse voltage generated by reversal of motor rotation.

12. A disturbance decoupling nonlinear control law for variable speed wind turbines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

2007-01-01

This paper describes a nonlinear control law for controlling variable speed wind turbines using feedback linearization. The novel aspect of the control law is its ability to decouple the effect of wind fluctuations. Furthermore, the transformation to feedback linearizable coordinates is chosen...

13. Desain dan Realisasi Sistem Komunikasi Cahaya Tampak untuk Streaming Teks berbasis PWM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-12-01

Full Text Available The design and implementation of visible light communication systems for transmitting digital data (texts have been discussed in this paper. Then, two evaluations were performed also, i.e. the demonstration of streaming text through the visible light as a proof-of-concept system design. The next evaluation is a BER measurement intended to know the VLC system performance quantitatively. The value of BER against the several parameters: by the variation of distance and its reception angle. The proposed VLC system works well until the photodiode reception angle to the LEDs up to 50°. According to evaluation, our system can operate optimally within 30 – 80 cm or 50 – 130 cm of optical channel range depending on the Gain setting option. To support the reliability of noise from ambient light and interference lamps such as fluorescent lamps, the filters circuit are employed: high pass filter and DC-offset remover. Based on the BER analysis, the filters can compensate the problem of ambient light noise (DC-offset signal and interference lamp (100-150 Hz of carrier frequency. The speed of data-rate obtained with 1-PWM modulation and the low-cost analog component is 3.3 kbps.

14. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

Science.gov (United States)

Johnson, Kathryn E [Boulder, CO; Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

2012-05-08

An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

15. Robust Control for High-Speed Visual Servoing Applications

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Favrholdt, Peter; Paulin, Mads

2007-01-01

This paper presents a new control scheme for visual servoing applications. The approach employs quadratic optimization, and explicitly handles both joint position, velocity and acceleration limits. Contrary to existing techniques, our method does not rely on large safety margins and slow task...... execution to avoid joint limits, and is hence able to exploit the full potential of the robot. Furthermore, our control scheme guarantees a well-defined behavior of the robot even when it is in a singular configuration, and thus handles both internal and external singularities robustly. We demonstrate...... the correctness and efficiency of our approach in a number of visual servoing applications, and compare it to a range of previously proposed techniques....

16. Wall temperature control of low-speed body drag

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, J. C.; Ash, R. L.

1986-01-01

The use of thermal means to control drag under turbulent boundary layer conditions is examined. Numerical calculations are presented for both skin friction and (unseparated) pressure drag for turbulent boundary-layer flows over a fuselage-like body with wall heat transfer. In addition, thermal control of separation on a bluff body is investigated. It is shown that a total drag reduction of up to 20 percent can be achieved for wall heating with a wall-to-total-freestream temperature ratio of 2. For streamlined slender bodies, partial wall heating of the forebody can produce almost the same order of total drag reduction as the full body heating case. For bluff bodies, the separation delay from partial wall cooling of the afterbody is approximately the same as for the fully cooled body.

17. SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR ON LOAD USING FUZZY LOGIC ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic controller for the driver DC motor in the lube oil system of the H25 Hitachi gas turbine generator. The turbine generator is required to run at an operating pressure of 1.5bar with the low and the high pressure trip points being 0.78 bar and 1.9 bar respectively. However, the ...

18. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

Science.gov (United States)

Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman

2016-02-01

Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor.

19. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zainal, Nurul Afiqah; Tat, Chan Sooi; Ajisman

2016-01-01

Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's output is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor. (paper)

20. Comparative studies on control systems for a two-blade variable-speed wind turbine with a speed exclusion zone

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yang, Jian; Song, Dongran; Dong, Mi; Chen, Sifan; Zou, Libing; Guerrero, Josep M.

2016-01-01

To avoid the coincidence between the tower nature frequency and rotational excitation frequency, a SEZ (speed exclusion zone) must be built for a two-blade wind turbine with a full rated converter. According to the literature, two methods of SEZ-crossing could be adopted. However, none of them have been studied in industrial applications, and their performance remains unclear. Moreover, strategies on power regulation operation are not covered. To fully investigate them, this paper develops two control systems for a two-blade WT (wind turbines) with a SEZ. Because control systems play vital roles in determining the performance of the WT, this paper focuses on comparative studies on their operation strategies and performance. In these strategies, optimal designs are introduced to improve existing SEZ algorithms. Moreover, to perform power regulation outside the SEZ, two operation modes are divided in the proposed down power regulation solutions. The developed control systems’ performance is confirmed by simulations and field tests. Two control systems present similar capabilities of power production and SEZ-bridging. Nevertheless, at the cost of significantly increased tower loads, one captures 1% more energy than the other. Overall consideration must be made for the control system selection for a WT with a SEZ. - Highlights: • Two control systems are developed for a two-blade WT with a SEZ. • Three strategies, that is, power optimization, power limitation and power regulation, are discussed. • Optimal designs are adopted to enhance the WT's SEZ-bridging capability. • Simple but effective power regulation solutions are presented. • Simulation and field test results show that Control System 2 produces 1% more energy at the cost of increased tower loads.

1. Gain-scheduled Linear Quadratic Control of Wind Turbines Operating at High Wind Speed

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Stoustrup, Jakob; Brath, Per

2007-01-01

This paper addresses state estimation and linear quadratic (LQ) control of variable speed variable pitch wind turbines. On the basis of a nonlinear model of a wind turbine, a set of operating conditions is identified and a LQ controller is designed for each operating point. The controller gains...... are then interpolated linearly to get a control law for the entire operating envelope. A nonlinear state estimator is designed as a combination of two unscented Kalman filters and a linear disturbance estimator. The gain-scheduling variable (wind speed) is then calculated from the output of these state estimators...

2. Modeling, Simulation and Control of Matrix Convert for Variable Speed Wind Turbine System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-09-01

Full Text Available This paper presents modeling, simulation and control of matrix converter (MC for variable speed wind turbine (VSWT system including permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. At a given wind velocity, the power available from a wind turbine is a function of its shaft speed. In order to track maximum power, the MC adjusts the PMSG shaft speed.The proposed control system allowing independent control maximum power point tracking (MPPT of generator side and regulate reactive power of grid side for the operation of the VSWT system. The MPPT is implemented by a new control system. This control system is based on control of zero d-axis current (ZDC. The ZDC control can be realized by transfer the three-phase stator current in the stationary reference frame into d-and q-axis components in the synchronous reference frame. Also this paper is presented, a novel control strategy to regulate the reactive power supplied by a variable speed wind energy conversion system. This control strategy is based on voltage oriented control (VOC. The simulation results based on Simulink/Matlab software show that the controllers can extract maximum power and regulate reactive power under varying wind velocities.

3. The research of automatic speed control algorithm based on Green CBTC

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, Ying; Xiong, Hui; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wu, Youyou; Zhang, Chuanqi

2017-06-01

Automatic speed control algorithm is one of the core technologies of train operation control system. It’s a typical multi-objective optimization control algorithm, which achieve the train speed control for timing, comfort, energy-saving and precise parking. At present, the train speed automatic control technology is widely used in metro and inter-city railways. It has been found that the automatic speed control technology can effectively reduce the driver’s intensity, and improve the operation quality. However, the current used algorithm is poor at energy-saving, even not as good as manual driving. In order to solve the problem of energy-saving, this paper proposes an automatic speed control algorithm based on Green CBTC system. Based on the Green CBTC system, the algorithm can adjust the operation status of the train to improve the efficient using rate of regenerative braking feedback energy while ensuring the timing, comfort and precise parking targets. Due to the reason, the energy-using of Green CBTC system is lower than traditional CBTC system. The simulation results show that the algorithm based on Green CBTC system can effectively reduce the energy-using due to the improvement of the using rate of regenerative braking feedback energy.

4. Speed adaptation in a powered transtibial prosthesis controlled with a neuromuscular model.

Science.gov (United States)

Markowitz, Jared; Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Eilenberg, Michael F; Endo, Ken; Barnhart, Chris; Herr, Hugh

2011-05-27

Control schemes for powered ankle-foot prostheses would benefit greatly from a means to make them inherently adaptive to different walking speeds. Towards this goal, one may attempt to emulate the intact human ankle, as it is capable of seamless adaptation. Human locomotion is governed by the interplay among legged dynamics, morphology and neural control including spinal reflexes. It has been suggested that reflexes contribute to the changes in ankle joint dynamics that correspond to walking at different speeds. Here, we use a data-driven muscle-tendon model that produces estimates of the activation, force, length and velocity of the major muscles spanning the ankle to derive local feedback loops that may be critical in the control of those muscles during walking. This purely reflexive approach ignores sources of non-reflexive neural drive and does not necessarily reflect the biological control scheme, yet can still closely reproduce the muscle dynamics estimated from biological data. The resulting neuromuscular model was applied to control a powered ankle-foot prosthesis and tested by an amputee walking at three speeds. The controller produced speed-adaptive behaviour; net ankle work increased with walking speed, highlighting the benefits of applying neuromuscular principles in the control of adaptive prosthetic limbs.

5. Switching EKF technique for rotor and stator resistance estimation in speed sensorless control of IMs

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barut, Murat; Bogosyan, Seta; Gokasan, Metin

2007-01-01

High performance speed sensorless control of induction motors (IMs) calls for estimation and control schemes that offer solutions to parameter uncertainties as well as to difficulties involved with accurate flux/velocity estimation at very low and zero speed. In this study, a new EKF based estimation algorithm is proposed for the solution of both problems and is applied in combination with speed sensorless direct vector control (DVC). The technique is based on the consecutive execution of two EKF algorithms, by switching from one algorithm to another at every n sampling periods. The number of sampling periods, n, is determined based on the desired system performance. The switching EKF approach, thus applied, provides an accurate estimation of an increased number of parameters than would be possible with a single EKF algorithm. The simultaneous and accurate estimation of rotor, R r ' and stator, R s resistances, both in the transient and steady state, is an important challenge in speed sensorless IM control and reported studies achieving satisfactory results are few, if any. With the proposed technique in this study, the sensorless estimation of R r ' and R s is achieved in transient and steady state and in both high and low speed operation while also estimating the unknown load torque, velocity, flux and current components. The performance demonstrated by the simulation results at zero speed, as well as at low and high speed operation is very promising when compared with individual EKF algorithms performing either R r ' or R s estimation or with the few other approaches taken in past studies, which require either signal injection and/or a change of algorithms based on the speed range. The results also motivate utilization of the technique for multiple parameter estimation in a variety of control methods

6. The SAHR Setup-Controlling Hopping Speed and Height Using a Single Actuator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

N. Cherouvim

2008-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper we present and experimentally validate a control method for regulating both the forward speed and the apex height of a one-legged hopping robot, using only a single actuator. The control method is based on a dynamic model of the hopping robot and makes use of the dynamic coupling of the vertical and forward motions of the robot. The control is applied first to a simulated model of the robot and shown to track a desired forward robot speed and a desired apex height. Then the SAHR (single actuator hopping robot hardware is introduced and is used as an experimental platform with which to evaluate the performance of the control method. The control method is applied to the physical setup and is shown to lead to a stable hopping gait with a desired forward speed and apex height, despite the unmodelled disturbances met on the laboratory floor.

7. A model predictive speed tracking control approach for autonomous ground vehicles

Science.gov (United States)

Zhu, Min; Chen, Huiyan; Xiong, Guangming

2017-03-01

This paper presents a novel speed tracking control approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) framework for autonomous ground vehicles. A switching algorithm without calibration is proposed to determine the drive or brake control. Combined with a simple inverse longitudinal vehicle model and adaptive regulation of MPC, this algorithm can make use of the engine brake torque for various driving conditions and avoid high frequency oscillations automatically. A simplified quadratic program (QP) solving algorithm is used to reduce the computational time, and the approach has been applied in a 16-bit microcontroller. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations and vehicle tests, which were carried out in a range of speed-profile tracking tasks. With a well-designed system structure, high-precision speed control is achieved. The system can robustly model uncertainty and external disturbances, and yields a faster response with less overshoot than a PI controller.

8. Control of variable speed variable pitch wind turbine based on a disturbance observer

Science.gov (United States)

Ren, Haijun; Lei, Xin

2017-11-01

In this paper, a novel sliding mode controller based on disturbance observer (DOB) to optimize the efficiency of variable speed variable pitch (VSVP) wind turbine is developed and analyzed. Due to the highly nonlinearity of the VSVP system, the model is linearly processed to obtain the state space model of the system. Then, a conventional sliding mode controller is designed and a DOB is added to estimate wind speed. The proposed control strategy can successfully deal with the random nature of wind speed, the nonlinearity of VSVP system, the uncertainty of parameters and external disturbance. Via adding the observer to the sliding mode controller, it can greatly reduce the chattering produced by the sliding mode switching gain. The simulation results show that the proposed control system has the effectiveness and robustness.

9. The Speed Control of Constant Tension Motor of Marine Crane

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chen Xinyang

2016-01-01

Full Text Available This article describes the working principle of the marine beacon crane hanging disc mechanical anti-sway device, and establish mathematical model on the rope controlling hanging disc of mechanical anti-sway device; Through matlab simulation analysis, this article obtains the relation curve between the velocity of traction rope of hanging disc and output frequency of the crane motor, combining rotary crane scaled model, this article carries out anti-sway experiment for the rotary crane to examine the crane’s anti-sway effects.

10. Research on single-chip microcomputer controlled rotating magnetic field mineralization model

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Yang; Qi, Yulin; Yang, Junxiao; Li, Na

2017-08-01

As one of the method of selecting ore, the magnetic separation method has the advantages of stable operation, simple process flow, high beneficiation efficiency and no chemical environment pollution. But the existing magnetic separator are more mechanical, the operation is not flexible, and can not change the magnetic field parameters according to the precision of the ore needed. Based on the existing magnetic separator is mechanical, the rotating magnetic field can be used for single chip microcomputer control as the research object, design and trial a rotating magnetic field processing prototype, and through the single-chip PWM pulse output to control the rotation of the magnetic field strength and rotating magnetic field speed. This method of using pure software to generate PWM pulse to control rotary magnetic field beneficiation, with higher flexibility, accuracy and lower cost, can give full play to the performance of single-chip.

11. Controlling Flexible Robot Arms Using High Speed Dynamics Process

Science.gov (United States)

Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

1996-01-01

A robot manipulator controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges and flexible in plural deformation modes corresponding to respective modal spatial influence vectors relating deformations of plural spaced nodes of respective bodies to the plural deformation modes, operates by computing articulated body quantities for each of the bodies from respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables, and computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each one of the bodies beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body and from the vector of deformation and hinge configuration variables, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, the residual body force and the articulated hinge inertia, and revising the residual body force modal body acceleration.

12. Controlling flexible robot arms using a high speed dynamics process

Science.gov (United States)

Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor); Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor)

1992-01-01

Described here is a robot controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges, and flexible in plural deformation modes. It is operated by computing articulated body qualities for each of the bodies from the respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables. Computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each of the bodies, beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, and then, for each one of the bodies beginning with the innermost body, computing a modal body acceleration from a modal body acceleration of a previous body, computing a modal deformation acceleration and hinge acceleration from the resulting hinge acceleration and from the modal body acceleration.

13. Speed invariance of independent control of finger movements in pianists.

Science.gov (United States)

Furuya, Shinichi; Soechting, John F

2012-10-01

Independent control of finger movements characterizes skilled motor behaviors such as tool use and musical performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of movement frequency (tempo) on individuated finger movements in piano playing. Joint motion at the digits was recorded while 5 expert pianists were playing 30 excerpts from musical pieces with different fingering and key locations either at a predetermined normal tempo or as fast as possible. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm determined three distinct patterns of finger movement coordination for a keypress with each of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers at each of the two tempi. The finger kinematics of each coordination pattern was overall similar across the tempi. Tone sequences assigned into each cluster were also similar for both tempi. A linear regression analysis determined no apparent difference in the amount of movement covariation between the striking and nonstriking fingers at both metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal joints across the two tempi, which indicated no effect of tempo on independent finger movements in piano playing. In addition, the standard deviation of interkeystroke interval across strokes did not differ between the two tempi, indicating maintenance of rhythmic accuracy of keystrokes. Strong temporal constraints on finger movements during piano playing may underlie the maintained independent control of fingers over a wider range of tempi, a feature being likely to be specific to skilled pianists.

14. MPPT Algorithm for Small Wind Systems based on Speed Control Strategy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2008-07-01

Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of an autonomous low-power wind energy conversion system (WECS, based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG connected directly to the wind turbine. The purpose of this paper is to present an improving method for MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based shaft rotational speed optimal control. The proposed method concern the variable delay compensation between measured wind speed from anemometer and wind shaft rotational speed proportional signal. Experimental results aiming to prove the efficiency of the proposed method are presented.

15. Robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li Shu-Kai; Yang Li-Xing; Li Ke-Ping

2015-01-01

In this paper, the robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters is investigated. The dynamic of a high-speed train is modeled by a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, which is subject to rolling mechanical resistance, aerodynamic drag and wind gust. Based on Lyapunov’s stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the robust output feedback cruise control law is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), under which the high-speed train tracks the desired speed, the relative spring displacement between the two neighboring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and meanwhile a small prescribed H ∞ disturbance attenuation level is guaranteed. One numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. (paper)

16. Flicker Mitigation by Individual Pitch Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines With DFIG

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Hu, Weihao

2014-01-01

generatorto investigate the flicker emission and mitigation issues. An individual pitch control (IPC) strategy is proposed to reduce the flicker emission at different wind speed conditions. The IPC scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed according to the generator active power...... and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 1.5-MW upwind reference wind turbine model. Simulation results show that damping the generator active power by IPC is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind......Due to the wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects, grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a model of an MW-level variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction...

17. UDE-based control of variable-speed wind turbine systems

Science.gov (United States)

Ren, Beibei; Wang, Yeqin; Zhong, Qing-Chang

2017-01-01

In this paper, the control of a PMSG (permanent magnet synchronous generator)-based variable-speed wind turbine system with a back-to-back converter is considered. The uncertainty and disturbance estimator (UDE)-based control approach is applied to the regulation of the DC-link voltage and the control of the RSC (rotor-side converter) and the GSC (grid-side converter). For the rotor-side controller, the UDE-based vector control is developed for the RSC with PMSG control to facilitate the application of the MPPT (maximum power point tracking) algorithm for the maximum wind energy capture. For the grid-side controller, the UDE-based vector control is developed to control the GSC with the power reference generated by a UDE-based DC-link voltage controller. Compared with the conventional vector control, the UDE-based vector control can achieve reliable current decoupling control with fast response. Moreover, the UDE-based DC-link voltage regulation can achieve stable DC-link voltage under model uncertainties and external disturbances, e.g. wind speed variations. The effectiveness of the proposed UDE-based control approach is demonstrated through extensive simulation studies in the presence of coupled dynamics, model uncertainties and external disturbances under varying wind speeds. The UDE-based control is able to generate more energy, e.g. by 5% for the wind profile tested.

18. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Muyeen, S.M.; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Tamura, J.

2011-01-01

highlights: → Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. → Low voltage ride through of wind farm. → Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

19. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Muyeen, S.M., E-mail: muyeen0809@yahoo.co [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Al-Durra, Ahmed [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Tamura, J. [Dept. of EEE, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)

2011-07-15

highlights: {yields} Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. {yields} Low voltage ride through of wind farm. {yields} Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

20. L1 Adaptive Manoeuvring Control of Unmanned High-speed Water Craft

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Svendsen, Casper H.; Holck, Niels Ole; Galeazzi, Roberto

2012-01-01

This work addresses the issue of designing an adaptive robust control system to govern the steering of a high speed unmanned personal watercraft (PWC) maintaining equal performance across the craft’s envelope of operation. The maneuvering dynamics of a high speed PWC is presented and a strong var......-of-freedom surge-sway-yaw-roll model. An L1 adaptive autopilot is then designed, which allows to achieve fast adaption to system parameters’ changes and robustness of the closed loop system....

1. A PWM strategy for acoustic noise reduction for grid-connected single-phase inverters

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shao, R.; Guo, Z.; Chang, L. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

2006-07-01

This paper presented a newly proposed and improved pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy for grid-connected single-phase inverters. Small distributed generators using energy from renewable resources such as PV and wind systems typically use grid-connected single-phase inverters as voltage source inverters for good acoustic performance. PWM is generally applied in these inverters in order to achieve good waveforms of output current as required by interconnection standards. In routine simultaneous switching PWM methods, the current ripples through the inverter output filter inductor are at the carrier switching frequency, which is one of the major causes for inverter acoustic noise. The new PWM strategy effectively alleviates acoustic noise and improves output power quality. It is based on the principle of evenly splitting the switching of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) in each switching cycle among all IGBTs of the full bridge, thereby using a non-simultaneous mode of PWM which doubles the output current ripple frequency. This increases the inductor current ripple frequency to twice the carrier frequency. It is therefore possible to increase the current ripple frequency, or noise frequency into the range of ultrasonic which is inaudible to the human ear, without increasing the inverter's switching frequency to which the inverter's switching loss is proportional. In addition, this new PWM scheme can reduce the output current harmonics distortion and dc link current ripples. As such, lower capacitance in dc link capacitors and lower inductance of output inductor are needed. The improved PWM scheme was verified in a 3 kW grid-connected single-phase inverter. It was shown that the PWM strategy can be readily implemented with a digital signal processing microcontroller. 8 refs., 11 figs.

2. Design of dual DC motor control system based on DSP

Science.gov (United States)

Shi, Peicheng; Wang, Suo; Xu, Zengwei; Xiao, Ping

2017-08-01

Multi-motor control systems are widely used in actual production and life, such as lifting stages, robots, printing systems. This paper through serial communication between PC and DSP, dual DC motor control system consisting of PC as the host computer, DSP as the lower computer with synchronous PWM speed regulation, commutation and selection functions is designed. It sends digital control instructions with host computer serial debugger to lower computer, to instruct the motor to complete corresponding actions. The hardware and software design of the control system are given, and feasibility and validity of the control system are verified by experiments. The expected design goal is achieved.

3. Control of variable speed wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

2005-07-01

The paper presents an overall control method for variable speed pitch controlled wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG). Emphasis is on control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind turbine. The objectives of the control system are: 1) to control the power drawn from the wind turbine in order to track the wind turbine maximum power operation point, 2) to limit the power in case of large wind speeds, and 3) to control the reactive power interchanged between the wind turbine generator and the grid. The present control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The strongest feature of the implemented control method is that it allows the turbine to operate with the optimum power efficiency over a wide range of wind speeds. The model of the variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DlgSILENT PowerFactory which allows investigation of the dynamic performance of grid-connected wind turbines within realistic electrical grid models. Simulation results are presented and analysed in different normal operating conditions. (author)

4. Speed Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors in Mine Electric Locomotive Drive

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yudong LI

2014-04-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a novel sensorless control method of permanent magnet synchronous motors a low speed based on a high-frequency voltage signal injection. The approach superimposes a persistent HF voltage signal into the estimated d-axis to get the rotor position error angle-related signal by detecting the corresponding voltage response and current response. Then the rotor position and motor speed are obtained. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the approach can achieve sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors at zero and low speed, ensure good dynamic and static performances, and achieve effective control when applied to servo system. Finally, a test prototype system which used a digital signal processor and space vector pulse width modulation technology has been developed. Experimental results show that the system has better static, the effectiveness and dynamic performance of the adaptive test signals in a sensorless controlled surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines.

5. Potential electricity savings by variable speed control of compressor for air conditioning systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nasution, Henry [Bung Hatta University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Wan Hassan, Mat Nawi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skudai, Johor Bahru-Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

2006-05-15

The potential of a variable-speed compressor running on a controller to provide enhanced load-matching capability, energy saving and thermal comfort for application in air-conditioning system is demonstrated. An air-conditioning system, originally operated on a constant speed mode, is retrofitted with an inverter and a PID controller. The system was installed to a thermal environmental room together with a data acquisition system to monitor energy consumption and temperature of the room. Measurements were taken 2 h daily at a time interval of 5 min for an on/off and an inverter variable-speed conditions. The results indicate that thermal comfort of the room together with energy saving can be obtained through a proper selection of K for the controller. At a temperature setting of 22 C, the energy saving for the system is estimated to reach 25.3% for PID controllers. (orig.)

6. Adaptive sensorless field oriented control of PM motors including zero speed

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

2004-01-01

This paper presents a simple control method for controlling permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in a wide speed range without a shaft sensor. An adaptive observer is used for estimation of the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The observer compensates...... for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaption structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The control method is made robust at zero and low speed by changing the direct vector current component to a value different...... from zero. In order to verify the applicability of the method the controller has been implemented and tested on a 800 W motor....

7. A New Turbo-shaft Engine Control Law during Variable Rotor Speed Transient Process

Science.gov (United States)

Hua, Wei; Miao, Lizhen; Zhang, Haibo; Huang, Jinquan

2015-12-01

A closed-loop control law employing compressor guided vanes is firstly investigated to solve unacceptable fuel flow dynamic change in single fuel control for turbo-shaft engine here, especially for rotorcraft in variable rotor speed process. Based on an Augmented Linear Quadratic Regulator (ALQR) algorithm, a dual-input, single-output robust control scheme is proposed for a turbo-shaft engine, involving not only the closed loop adjustment of fuel flow but also that of compressor guided vanes. Furthermore, compared to single fuel control, some digital simulation cases using this new scheme about variable rotor speed have been implemented on the basis of an integrated system of helicopter and engine model. The results depict that the command tracking performance to the free turbine rotor speed can be asymptotically realized. Moreover, the fuel flow transient process has been significantly improved, and the fuel consumption has been dramatically cut down by more than 2% while keeping the helicopter level fight unchanged.

8. DAC with LQR Control Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2014-01-01

Disturbance Accommodation Control (DAC) is used to model and simulate a system with known disturbance waveform. This paper presents a control scheme to mitigate the effect of disturbances by using collective pitch control for the aboverated wind speed (Region III) for a variable speed wind turbine....... We have used Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) to obtain full state feedback gain, disturbance feedback gain is calculated independently and then estimator gain is achieved by poleplacement technique in the DAC augmented plant model. The reduced order model (two-mass model) of wind turbine is used...... and 5MW National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine is used in this research. We have shown comparison of results relating to pitch angle, drive train torsion and generator speed obtained by a PID controller and DAC. Simulations are performed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results are compared...

9. Power Control of Permanent Magnet Generator Based Variable Speed Wind Turbines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

2009-01-01

When the wind power accounts for a large portion of the grid, it will be required to regulate the active power and reactive power. This paper investigates a MWlevel variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The power control capabilities of two kinds...... of control schemes conducted respectively on this wind turbine under two conditions, including rapid wind speed change and grids faults, are compared. The simulation study of the wind turbine system is conducted using PSCAD/EMTDC, and the results show the different power control capabilities of the two...

10. A New parallel Resonant DC-Link Inverter for Soft Switched PWM

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cho, J G; Kim, H S; Cho, G H [Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Daeduk-Danji (Korea, Republic of). Korea Nuclear Safety Center

1993-03-01

A novel soft switching PWM converter for high frequency AC/DC power conversion is presented by using a new parallel resonant dc-link(PRDCL) and by adopting single phase soft switching(SPSS) technique. The new PRDCL provides variable link pulse position as well as variable link pulse width, which is quite different feature from the other resonant dc-links and thus the PWM capability can be remarkably increased. The SPSS technique is also adopted for further enhancement of PWM capability. Moderate combination of two soft switching operations enables the conventional space vector PWM technique to be used. Due to distinctive advantages including true PWM capability, minimum device voltage stresses(all Vs) and reasonable additional device count(3 devices), the proposed converter can be operated in a wide power range(20-200 KW). Operational principles, analyses and the realization of a space vector PWM of the proposed converter are presented. Simulation results are also shown to verify the operational principle. (author). 15 refs., 14 figs.

11. A space vector control stradegy for improvement of control speed and reduction of sensitivity of phase jump

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

1999-01-01

The paper describes a full space vector control stradegy. The synchronisation used to improveboth the control speed of reactive power and reduce the sensitivity to large phase jumps in the grid caused by switching arge loads. The control stradegy is tested with a 5-level 10kvar laboratory model....

12. Dynamic Shift Coordinated Control Based on Motor Active Speed Synchronization with the New Hybrid System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ting Yan

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.

13. Fuzzy Constrained Predictive Optimal Control of High Speed Train with Actuator Dynamics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xi Wang

2016-01-01

Full Text Available We investigate the problem of fuzzy constrained predictive optimal control of high speed train considering the effect of actuator dynamics. The dynamics feature of the high speed train is modeled as a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, and the formulation is mathematically transformed into a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy model. The goal of this study is to design a state feedback control law at each decision step to enhance safety, comfort, and energy efficiency of high speed train subject to safety constraints on the control input. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the problem of optimizing an upper bound on the cruise control cost function subject to input constraints is reduced to a convex optimization problem involving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Furthermore, we analyze the influences of second-order actuator dynamics on the fuzzy constrained predictive controller, which shows risk of potentially deteriorating the overall system. Employing backstepping method, an actuator compensator is proposed to accommodate for the influence of the actuator dynamics. The experimental results show that with the proposed approach high speed train can track the desired speed, the relative coupler displacement between the neighbouring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and the influence of actuator dynamics is reduced, which demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

14. Experimental Study of Low Speed Sensorless Control of PMSM Drive Using High Frequency Signal Injection

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jyoti Agrawal

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Conventional techniques for sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drive (PMSM, which requires information on rotor position, are reviewed, and recent developments in this area are introduced in this paper along with their inherent advantages and drawbacks. The paper presents an improved method for sensorless speed control of PMSM drive with emphasis placed on signal injection method. This signal injection method examines the control performance of sensorless PMSM drive by injecting signal externally and thereby sensing the rotor position. The main objective of this drive system is to have speed control at standstill and low speed regions. Several tests are carried out to demonstrate the ability of proposed models at different operating conditions with the help of simulation results in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulation results confirm that the proposed sensorless control approach of PMSM can achieve high performance at standstill and low speeds but not at very high speeds. An experimental setup is implemented using a 1HP surface mounted (SM PMSM and DsPICDEM^TM MCHV-2 development board, to check the validity of simulation results.

15. Low speed hybrid generalized predictive control of a gasoline-propelled car.

Science.gov (United States)

Romero, M; de Madrid, A P; Mañoso, C; Milanés, V

2015-07-01

16. Event-driven control of a speed varying digital displacement machine

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

2017-01-01

. The controller synthesis is carried out as a discrete optimal deterministic problem with full state feedback. Based on a linear analysis of the feedback control system, stability is proven in a pre-specified operation region. Simulation of a non-linear evaluation model with the controller implemented shows great...... be treated as a Discrete Linear Time Invariant control problem with synchronous sampling rate. To make synchronous linear control theory applicable for a variable speed digital displacement machine, a method based on event-driven control is presented. Using this method, the time domain differential equations...... are converted into the spatial (position) domain to obtain a constant sampling rate and thus allowing for use of classical control theory. The method is applied to a down scaled digital fluid power motor, where the motor speed is controlled at varying references under varying pressure and load torque conditions...

17. Unmanned Water Craft Identification and Adaptive Control in Low-Speed and Reversing Regions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens

2013-01-01

This paper treats L1 adaptive hovering control of an unmanned surface vehicle in a station-keeping mode where a region of zero control authority and under-actuation are main challenges. Low-speed and reversing dynamics are identied from full scale sea trials, and parameter uncertainty is estimate...

18. Very-low speed control of PMSM based on EKF estimation with closed loop optimized parameters.

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shaoguang; Liu, Jingmeng

2013-11-01

When calculating the speed from the position of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the accuracy and real-time are limited by the precision of the sensor. This problem causes crawling and jitter at very-low speed. Using the angle from the position sensor, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) designed in dq-coordinate is presented to solve this problem. The usage of position sensor simplifies the model and improves the accuracy of speed estimation. Specially, a closed loop optimal (CLO) method is devised to overcome the difficulty to adjust the parameters of the EKF. The EKF is the feedback link of speed control, CLO method is derived from the perspective of the speed step response to optimize the measurement covariance matrix and the system covariance matrix of EKF. Simulation and experimental results, comparing the low-speed performance of the EKF and sensor feedback methods, prove the effectiveness of the method to adjust the parameters of EKF and the advantages in eliminating the low speed jitter. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

19. Rainfall Simulations of Typhoon Morakot with Controlled Translation Speed Based on EnKF Data Assimilation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tzu-Hsiung Yen

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot produced record-breaking accumulated rainfall over southern Taiwan in August 2009. The combination of several factors resulted in this extreme weather event: the steep terrain in Taiwan, the prevailing south-westerly flow in the monsoon trough, Typhoon Goni over the northern South China Sea, and the slow translation speed of Morakot itself over Taiwan. In this study, the influence of the translation speed is particularly emphasized. Based on the EnKF data assimilation, an innovative method is applied to perform ensemble simulations with several designated translation speeds of Morakot using the WRF model. Thus the influence of the translation speed on the amount of accumulated rainfall over Taiwan can be quantitatively evaluated. In the control simulation with observed translation speed, the maximum amount and geographic pattern of accumulated rainfall during the landfall period of Morakot are generally consistent with the observations, though the detailed overall distributions of accumulated rainfall is mostly underestimated, resulting in the low bias of the frequency distribution of the accumulated rainfall. In a simulation with nearly-doubled translation speed of Morakot, the maximum accumulated rainfall is decreased by 33% than that in the control simulation, while the rainfall distribution over Taiwan remains similar. In addition, the 28 ensemble members can further provide additional information in terms of their spread and other statistics. The results from ensemble members reveal the usefulness of ensemble simulations for the quantitative precipitation forecast.

20. Online Dynamic Balance Technology for High Speed Spindle Based on Gain Parameter Adaption and Scheduling Control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shihai Zhang

2018-06-01

Full Text Available Unbalance vibration is one of the main vibration forms of a high speed machine tool spindle. The overlarge unbalance vibration will have some adverse effects on the working life of the spindle system and the surface quality of the work-piece. In order to reduce the unbalance of a high speed spindle system, a pneumatic online dynamic balance device and its control system are presented in the paper. To improve the balance accuracy and adaptation of the balance system, the gain parameter adaption and scheduling control method are proposed first, and then the different balance effects of the influence coefficient method and the gain scheduling control method are compared through many dynamic balance experiments of the high speed spindle. The experimental results indicate that the gain parameters can be changed timely according to the transformation of the speed and kinetic parameters of the spindle system. The balance accuracy can be improved for a high speed spindle with time-varying characteristics, based on the adaptive gain scheduling control method.

1. Model reference adaptive vector control for induction motor without speed sensor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bo Fan

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The wide applications of vector control improve the high-accuracy performance of alternating current (AC adjustable speed system. In order to obverse the full-order flux and calculate the real-time speed, this article introduces the motor T equivalent circuit to build a full-order flux observer model, where the current and flux variables of stator and rotor are adopted. Model reference adaptive control is introduced to build the AC motor flux observer. The current output is used as feedback to build the feedback matrix. The calculation method of motor speed, which is part of the inputs of flux observation, is applied to realize the adaptive control. The concept of characteristic function is introduced to calculate the flux, of which the foundation is the variables of composite form of voltage and current models. The characteristic function is deduced as a relative-state variable function. The feedback matrix is improved and designed to ensure the motor flux observer is a smooth switch between current and voltage model in low and high speeds, respectively. Experimental results show that the feedback and characteristic model are feasible, and the vector control with speed sensorless based on the full-order flux observer has better performance and anti-disturbance.

2. Rotor Speed Estimation Method Used in Dynamic Control of the Induction Motor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

CRĂCIUNAŞ Gabriela

2013-10-01

Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed an algorithm for rotor speed estimation calculated directly from the rotor flux. The flux required for speed computation is estimated using Gopinath reduced order robust adaptive observer. In order to determine the structure of the observer we started from the state equations of the induction motor using spatial vectors written in fixed coordinates towards stator and considering the rotor speed constant. Quality of speed and rotor fluxestimation was evaluated from the results obtained during different operation regimes. The proposed algorithm was then tested for its usability in the case of indirect field oriented control based on the rotor flux of the induction motor by the simulation inMATLAB/Simulink.

3. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-06-01

Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

4. Embedded systems design for high-speed data acquisition and control

CERN Document Server

Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

2015-01-01

This book serves as a practical guide for practicing engineers who need to design embedded systems for high-speed data acquisition and control systems. A minimum amount of theory is presented, along with a review of analog and digital electronics, followed by detailed explanations of essential topics in hardware design and software development. The discussion of hardware focuses on microcontroller design (ARM microcontrollers and FPGAs), techniques of embedded design, high speed data acquisition (DAQ) and control systems. Coverage of software development includes main programming techniques, culminating in the study of real-time operating systems. All concepts are introduced in a manner to be highly-accessible to practicing engineers and lead to the practical implementation of an embedded board that can be used in various industrial fields as a control system and high speed data acquisition system.   • Describes fundamentals of embedded systems design in an accessible manner; • Takes a problem-solving ...

5. Neuron-Adaptive PID Based Speed Control of SCSG Wind Turbine System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shan Zuo

2014-01-01

Full Text Available In searching for methods to increase the power capacity of wind power generation system, superconducting synchronous generator (SCSG has appeared to be an attractive candidate to develop large-scale wind turbine due to its high energy density and unprecedented advantages in weight and size. In this paper, a high-temperature superconducting technology based large-scale wind turbine is considered and its physical structure and characteristics are analyzed. A simple yet effective single neuron-adaptive PID control scheme with Delta learning mechanism is proposed for the speed control of SCSG based wind power system, in which the RBF neural network (NN is employed to estimate the uncertain but continuous functions. Compared with the conventional PID control method, the simulation results of the proposed approach show a better performance in tracking the wind speed and maintaining a stable tip-speed ratio, therefore, achieving the maximum wind energy utilization.

Science.gov (United States)

Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio Francesco; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel; Simões, Anabela

2014-06-01

7. A Comparison Study of Sinusoidal PWM and Space Vector PWM Techniques for Voltage Source Inverter

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ömer Türksoy

2017-06-01

Full Text Available In this paper, the methods used to control voltage source inverters which have been intensively investigated in recent years are compared. Although the most efficient result is obtained with the least number of switching elements in the inverter topologies, the method used in the switching is at least as effective as the topology. Besides, the selected switching method to control the inverter will play an effective role in suppressing harmonic components while producing the ideal output voltage. There are many derivatives of pulse width modulation techniques that are commonly used to control voltage source inverters. Some of widespread methods are sinusoidal pulse width modulation and space vector pulse width modulation techniques. These modulation techniques used for generating variable frequency and amplitude output voltage in voltage source inverters, have been simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. And, the total harmonic distortions of the output voltages are compared. As a result of simulation studies, sinusoidal pulse width modulation has been found to have more total harmonic distortion in output voltages of voltage source inverters in the simulation. Space vector pulse width modulation has been shown to produce a more efficient output voltage with less total harmonic distortion.

8. Modeling and control of a variable-speed wind turbine equipped with permanent magnet synchronous generator

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aliprantis, D.C.; Papathanassiou, S.A.; Papadopoulos, M.P.; Kladas, A.G. [Purdue University, Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

2000-08-01

In this paper the operation of a variable-speed, stall regulated wind turbine equipped with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is examined. The emphasis is placed on the analysis of the electric part of the system, i.e. the electrical generator, the power electronics converters and the control. The operational characteristics of the machine are investigated through a series of computer simulations and the speed control system is designed to maximize the power output and achieve a smooth torque and power profile. (orig.)

9. A study on high speed wavefront control algorithm for an adaptive optics system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Cheol Jung; Seo, Young Seok

2000-01-01

We developed a high speed control algorithm and system for measuring and correcting the wavefront distortions based on Windows operating system. To get quickly the information of wavefront distortion from the Hartman spot image, we preprocessed the image to remove background noises and extracted the centroid position by finding the center of weights. We moved finely the centroid position with sub-pixel resolution repeatedly to get the wavefront information with more enhanced resolution. We designed a differential data communication driver and an isolated analog driver to have robust system control. As the experimental results, the measurement resolution of the wavefront was 0.05 pixels and correction speed was 5Hz

10. The development of an open architecture control system for CBN high speed grinding

OpenAIRE

Silva, E. Jannone da; Biffi, M.; Oliveira, J. F. G. de

2004-01-01

The aim of this project is the development of an open architecture controlling (OAC) system to be applied in the high speed grinding process using CBN tools. Besides other features, the system will allow a new monitoring and controlling strategy, by the adoption of open architecture CNC combined with multi-sensors, a PC and third-party software. The OAC system will be implemented in a high speed CBN grinding machine, which is being developed in a partnership between the University of São Paul...

11. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Abdelfatah Nasri

2008-01-01

Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

12. Speed control of switched reluctance motors taking into account mutual inductances and magnetic saturation effects

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alrifai, M., E-mail: alrifm@eng.kuniv.edu.k [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Zribi, M.; Rayan, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Krishnan, R. [Center for Rapid Transit Systems, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Tech University, 461 Durham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-011 (United States)

2010-06-15

This paper deals with the speed control of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives taking into account the effects of the mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the effects of the magnetic saturation of the core. To overcome the problems commonly associated with single-phase excitation, a nonlinear SRM model, which is suitable for two-phase excitation and which takes into account the effects of mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the magnetic saturation effects, is considered in the design of the proposed controllers. A feedback linearization control scheme and a sliding mode control scheme are designed for this motor drive. The proposed controllers guarantee the convergence of the phase currents and the rotor speed of the motor to their desired values. Simulation results indicate that the proposed controllers work well and that they are robust to changes in the parameters of the system and to changes in the load torque.

13. Speed control of switched reluctance motors taking into account mutual inductances and magnetic saturation effects

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alrifai, M.; Zribi, M.; Rayan, M.; Krishnan, R.

2010-01-01

This paper deals with the speed control of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives taking into account the effects of the mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the effects of the magnetic saturation of the core. To overcome the problems commonly associated with single-phase excitation, a nonlinear SRM model, which is suitable for two-phase excitation and which takes into account the effects of mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the magnetic saturation effects, is considered in the design of the proposed controllers. A feedback linearization control scheme and a sliding mode control scheme are designed for this motor drive. The proposed controllers guarantee the convergence of the phase currents and the rotor speed of the motor to their desired values. Simulation results indicate that the proposed controllers work well and that they are robust to changes in the parameters of the system and to changes in the load torque.

14. Differential effects of absent visual feedback control on gait variability during different locomotion speeds.

Science.gov (United States)

Wuehr, M; Schniepp, R; Pradhan, C; Ilmberger, J; Strupp, M; Brandt, T; Jahn, K

2013-01-01

Healthy persons exhibit relatively small temporal and spatial gait variability when walking unimpeded. In contrast, patients with a sensory deficit (e.g., polyneuropathy) show an increased gait variability that depends on speed and is associated with an increased fall risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of vision in gait stabilization by determining the effects of withdrawing visual information (eyes closed) on gait variability at different locomotion speeds. Ten healthy subjects (32.2 ± 7.9 years, 5 women) walked on a treadmill for 5-min periods at their preferred walking speed and at 20, 40, 70, and 80 % of maximal walking speed during the conditions of walking with eyes open (EO) and with eyes closed (EC). The coefficient of variation (CV) and fractal dimension (α) of the fluctuations in stride time, stride length, and base width were computed and analyzed. Withdrawing visual information increased the base width CV for all walking velocities (p < 0.001). The effects of absent visual information on CV and α of stride time and stride length were most pronounced during slow locomotion (p < 0.001) and declined during fast walking speeds. The results indicate that visual feedback control is used to stabilize the medio-lateral (i.e., base width) gait parameters at all speed sections. In contrast, sensory feedback control in the fore-aft direction (i.e., stride time and stride length) depends on speed. Sensory feedback contributes most to fore-aft gait stabilization during slow locomotion, whereas passive biomechanical mechanisms and an automated central pattern generation appear to control fast locomotion.

15. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

Science.gov (United States)

Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

2016-07-01

16. Sensorless Speed/Torque Control of DC Machine Using Artificial Neural Network Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rakan Kh. Antar

2017-12-01

Full Text Available In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique is implemented to improve speed and torque control of a separately excited DC machine drive. The speed and torque sensorless scheme based on ANN is estimated adaptively. The proposed controller is designed to estimate rotor speed and mechanical load torque as a Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS method for DC machine. The DC drive system consists of four quadrant DC/DC chopper with MOSFET transistors, ANN, logic gates and routing circuits. The DC drive circuit is designed, evaluated and modeled by Matlab/Simulink in the forward and reverse operation modes as a motor and generator, respectively. The DC drive system is simulated at different speed values (±1200 rpm and mechanical torque (±7 N.m in steady state and dynamic conditions. The simulation results illustratethe effectiveness of the proposed controller without speed or torque sensors.

17. An adaptive nonlinear internal-model control for the speed control of homopolar salient-pole BLDC motor

Science.gov (United States)

2018-05-01

In this paper, a novel speed control method for Homopolar Brushless DC (HBLDC) motor based on the adaptive nonlinear internal-model control (ANIMC) is presented. Rotor position information is obtained online by the Hall-Effect sensors placed on the motor's shaft, and is used to calculate the accurate model and accurate inverse model of the HBLDC motor. The online inverse model of the motor is used in the controller structure. To suppress the reference ? error, the negative feedback of difference between the motor speed and its model output ? is applied in the proposed controller. An appropriate signal is the output of the controller, which drives the power switches to converge the motor speed to the constant desired speed. Simulations and experiments are carried out on a ? three-phase HBLDC motor. The proposed drive system operates well in the speed response and has good robustness with respect to the disturbances. To validate the theoretical analysis, several experimental results are discussed in this paper.

18. IMPLEMENTATION OF PID ON PIC24F SERIES MICROCONTROLLER FOR SPEED CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR USING MPLAB AND PROTEUS

OpenAIRE

Sohaib Aslam; Sundas Hannan; Umar Sajjad; Waheed Zafar

2016-01-01

Speed control of DC motor is very critical in most of the industrial systems where accuracy and protection are of essence. This paper presents the simulations of Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (PID) on a 16-bit PIC 24F series microcontroller for speed control of a DC motor in the presence of load torque. The PID gains have been tuned by Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) technique and then it is implemented on microcontroller using MPLAB and finally simulated for speed control of D...

19. Harmonic Analyzing of the Double PWM Converter in DFIG Based on Mathematical Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jing Liu

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Harmonic pollution of double fed induction generators (DFIGs has become a vital concern for its undesirable effects on power quality issues of wind generation systems and grid-connected system, and the double pulse width modulation (PWMconverter is one of the main harmonic sources in DFIGs. Thus the harmonic analysis of the converter in DFIGs is a necessary step to evaluate their harmonic pollution of DFIGs. This paper proposes a detailed harmonic modeling method to discuss the main harmonic components in a converter. In general the harmonic modeling could be divided into the low-order harmonic part (up to 30th order and the high-order harmonic part (greater than order 30 parts in general. The low-order harmonics are produced by the circuit topology and control algorithm, and the harmonic component will be different if the control strategy changes. The high-order harmonics are produced by the modulation of the switching function to the dc variable. In this paper, the low-order harmonic modeling is established according to the directions of power flow under the vector control (VC, and the high-order harmonic modeling is established by the switching function of space vector PWM and dc currents. Meanwhile, the simulations of harmonic a components in a converter are accomplished in a real time digital simulation system. The results indicate that the proposed modeling could effectively show the harmonics distribution of the converter in DFIGs.

20. Feedback/feedforward control of hysteresis-compensated piezoelectric actuators for high-speed scanning applications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu, Yanfang; Shan, Jinjun; Gabbert, Ulrich

2015-01-01

This paper presents the control system design for a piezoelectric actuator (PEA) for a high-speed trajectory scanning application. First nonlinear hysteresis is compensated for by using the Maxwell resistive capacitor model. Then the linear dynamics of the hysteresis-compensated piezoelectric actuator are identified. A proportional plus integral (PI) controller is designed based on the linear system, enhanced by feedforward hysteresis compensation. It is found that the feedback controller does not always improve tracking accuracy. When the input frequency exceeds a certain value, feedforward control only may result in better control performance. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach. (paper)

1. Modeling and Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives Using Neural Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. Jamuna

2010-08-01

Full Text Available Speed control of induction motor drives using neural networks is presented. The mathematical model of single phase induction motor is developed. A new simulink model for a neural network-controlled bidirectional chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Under normal operation, the true drive parameters are real-time identified and they are converted into the controller parameters through multilayer forward computation by neural networks. Comparative study has been made between the conventional and neural network controllers. It is observed that the neural network controlled drive system has better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and faster transient response than the conventional controlled system.

2. Embedded system based on a real time fuzzy motor speed controller

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-06-01

Full Text Available This paper describes an implementation of a fuzzy logic control (FLC system and a/the conventional proportional-integral (PI controller for speed control of DC motor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA circuit. The proposed scheme is aimed to improve the tracking performance and to eliminate the load disturbance in the speed control of DC motors. The proposed fuzzy system has been applied to a permanent magnet DC motor, via a configuration of H-bridge. The fuzzy control algorithm is designed and verified with a nonlinear model, using the MATLAB® tools. Both FLC and conventional PI controller hardware are synthesized, functionally verified and implemented using Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE Version 11.1i. The real time implementation of these controllers is made on Spartan-3E FPGA starter kit (XC3S500E. The practical results showed that the proposed FLC scheme has better tracking performance than the conventional PI controller for the speed control of DC motors.

3. Speed and Displacement Control System of Bearingless Brushless DC Motor Based on Improved Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Diao Xiaoyan

2016-01-01

Full Text Available To solve the deficiencies of long optimization time and poor precision existing in conventional bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA in the process of parameter optimization, an improved bacterial foraging algorithm (IBFA is proposed and applied to speed and displacement control system of bearingless brushless DC (Bearingless BLDC motors. To begin with the fundamental principle of BFA, the proposed method is introduced and the individual intelligence is efficiently used in the process of parameter optimization, and then the working principle of bearingless BLDC motors is expounded. Finally, modeling and simulation of the speed and displacement control system of bearingless BLDC motors based on the IBFA are carried out by taking the software of MATLAB/Simulink as a platform. Simulation results show that, speed overshoot, torque ripple and rotor position oscillation are dramatically reduced, thus the proposed method has good application prospects in the field of bearingless motors.

4. Sensorless Stator Field-Oriented Controlled IM Drive at Low Speed with Rr Estimator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wen-Cheng Pu

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper pertains to a technique of a sensorless indirect stator field-oriented induction motor control, which prevents the accumulative errors incurred by the integrator and the problem relating to the stability of the control system caused by the stator resistance susceptible to temperature variations while conducting the flux estimation directly and computing the synchronous rotary speed. The research adds an adaptive flux observer to estimate the speed of the rotor and uses the fixed trace algorithm (FTA to execute an online estimation of the slip difference, thereby improving the system of stability under the low rotary speed at regenerating mode and the influence of the rotor resistance on the slip angle. Finally, the paper conducts simulations by Simulink of MATLAB and practices to verify the correctness of the result the paper presents.

5. A multiple-fan active control wind tunnel for outdoor wind speed and direction simulation

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Jia-Ying; Meng, Qing-Hao; Luo, Bing; Zeng, Ming

2018-03-01

This article presents a new type of active controlled multiple-fan wind tunnel. The wind tunnel consists of swivel plates and arrays of direct current fans, and the rotation speed of each fan and the shaft angle of each swivel plate can be controlled independently for simulating different kinds of outdoor wind fields. To measure the similarity between the simulated wind field and the outdoor wind field, wind speed and direction time series of two kinds of wind fields are recorded by nine two-dimensional ultrasonic anemometers, and then statistical properties of the wind signals in different time scales are analyzed based on the empirical mode decomposition. In addition, the complexity of wind speed and direction time series is also investigated using multiscale entropy and multivariate multiscale entropy. Results suggest that the simulated wind field in the multiple-fan wind tunnel has a high degree of similarity with the outdoor wind field.

6. Control design for a pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbine

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hansen, M.H.; Hansen, A.; Larsen, T.J.; Oeye, S.; Soerensen, P.; Fuglsang, P.

2005-01-01

The three different controller designs presented herein are similar and all based on PI-regulation of rotor speed and power through the collective blade pitch angle and generator moment. The aeroelastic and electrical modelling used for the time-domain analysis of these controllers are however different, which makes a directly quantitative comparison difficult. But there are some observations of similar behaviours should be mentioned: 1) Very similar step responses in rotor speed, pitch angle, and power are seen for simulations with steps in wind speed. 2) All controllers show a peak in power for wind speed step-up over rated wind speed, which can be almost removed by changing the parameters of the frequency converter. 3) Responses of rotor speed, pitch angle, and power for different simulations with turbulent inflow are similar for all three controllers. Again, there seems to be an advantage of tuning the parameters of the frequency converter to obtain a more constant power output. The dynamic modelling of the power controller is an important result for the inclusion of generator dynamics in the aeroelastic modelling of wind turbines. A reduced dynamic model of the relation between generator torque and generator speed variations is presented; where the integral term of the inner PI-regulator of rotor current is removed be-cause the time constant is very small compared to the important aeroelastic frequencies. It is shown how the parameters of the transfer function for the remaining control system with the outer PI-regulator of power can be derived from the generator data sheet. The main results of the numerical optimisation of the control parameters in the pitch PI-regulator performed in Chapter 6 are the following: 1) Numerical optimization can be used to tune controller parameters, especially when the optimization is used as refinement of a qualified initial guess. 2) The design model used to calculate the initial value parameters, as described in Chapter 3

7. A nonlinear adaptive backstepping approach applied to a three phase PWM AC-DC converter feeding induction heating

Science.gov (United States)

Hadri-Hamida, A.; Allag, A.; Hammoudi, M. Y.; Mimoune, S. M.; Zerouali, S.; Ayad, M. Y.; Becherif, M.; Miliani, E.; Miraoui, A.

2009-04-01

This paper presents a new control strategy for a three phase PWM converter, which consists of applying an adaptive nonlinear control. The input-output feedback linearization approach is based on the exact cancellation of the nonlinearity, for this reason, this technique is not efficient, because system parameters can vary. First a nonlinear system modelling is derived with state variables of the input current and the output voltage by using power balance of the input and output, the nonlinear adaptive backstepping control can compensate the nonlinearities in the nominal system and the uncertainties. Simulation results are obtained using Matlab/Simulink. These results show how the adaptive backstepping law updates the system parameters and provide an efficient control design both for tracking and regulation in order to improve the power factor.

8. Improved Fuzzy Logic based DTC of Induction machine for wide range of speed control using AI based controllers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

H. Sudheer

2016-06-01

Full Text Available This paper presents improvements in Direct Torque control of induction motor using Fuzzy logic switching controller (FDTC. The conventional DTC (CDTC and FDTC drive performance is compared using Conventional PI, Fuzzy controller and Neural Network controllers. The major disadvantages of CDTC are high torque and flux ripples in steady state operation of the drive, inferior performance at low speed operation and variable switching frequency. The presence of hysteresis bands is the major reason for high torque and flux ripples in CDTC. In FDTC the hysteresis band and switching table are replaced by Fuzzy logic switching controller. Using fuzzy logic torque, stator flux space are divided into smaller subsections which results in precise and optimal selection of switching state to meet load torque. In high performance drives accurate tuning of PI speed controller is required. The conventional PI controller cannot adapt to the variation in model parameters. Artificial intelligence based fuzzy controller and neural network controller are compared with PI controller for both CDTC and FDTC of Induction machine. The proposed schemes are developed in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulation results shows reduction in torque and flux ripples in FDTC and dynamic performance of the drive at low speeds and sudden change in load torque can be improved using Fuzzy logic controller compared to PI and neural network controller.

9. Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine.

Science.gov (United States)

2012-03-01

In this paper, an H(∞) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

10. Induction motor IFOC based speed-controlled drive with asymptotic disturbance compensation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Stojić Đorđe M.

2012-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the design of digitally controlled speed electrical drive, with the asymptotic compensation of external disturbances, implemented by using the IFOC (Indirect Field Oriented Control torque controlled induction motor. The asymptotic disturbance compensation is achieved by using the DOB (Disturbance Observer with the IMP (Internal Model Principle. When compared to the existing IMP-based DOB solutions, in this paper the robust stability and disturbance compensation are improved by implementing the minimal order DOB filter. Also, the IMP-based DOB design is improved by employing the asymptotic compensation of all elemental or more complex external disturbances. The dynamic model of the IFOC torque electrical drive is, also, included in the speed-controller and DOB section design. The simulation and experimental measurements presented in the paper illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme.

11. Fault Tolerant and Optimal Control of Wind Turbines with Distributed High-Speed Generators

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Urs Giger

2017-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, the control scheme of a distributed high-speed generator system with a total amount of 12 generators and nominal generator speed of 7000 min − 1 is studied. Specifically, a fault tolerant control (FTC scheme is proposed to keep the turbine in operation in the presence of up to four simultaneous generator faults. The proposed controller structure consists of two layers: The upper layer is the baseline controller, which is separated into a partial load region with the generator torque as an actuating signal and the full-load operation region with the collective pitch angle as the other actuating signal. In addition, the lower layer is responsible for the fault diagnosis and FTC characteristics of the distributed generator drive train. The fault reconstruction and fault tolerant control strategy are tested in simulations with several actuator faults of different types.

12. Observer Based Traction/Braking Control Design for High Speed Trains Considering Adhesion Nonlinearity

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wenchuan Cai

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Train traction/braking control, one of the key enabling technologies for automatic train operation, literally takes its action through adhesion force. However, adhesion coefficient of high speed train (HST is uncertain in general because it varies with wheel-rail surface condition and running speed; thus, it is extremely difficult to be measured, which makes traction/braking control design and implementation of HSTs greatly challenging. In this work, force observers are applied to estimate the adhesion force or/and the resistance, based on which simple traction/braking control schemes are established under the consideration of actual wheel-rail adhesion condition. It is shown that the proposed controllers have simple structure and can be easily implemented from real applications. Numerical simulation also validates the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

13. Speed and surge control for a lower order centrifugal compressor model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jan T. Gravdahl

1998-01-01

Full Text Available A model of a variable speed centrifugal compression system is presented. The model is based on the work of Greitzer (1976, but the compressor characteristic is developed by modelling the losses in the compressor. For surge control, a close coupled valve is employed. This valve is placed immediately downstream of the compressor, and the pressure drop over the valve is used as the control variable. This makes it possible to manipulate the shape of the equivalent compressor, consisting of compressor and valve. The speed of the compressor is controlled with a PI-controller. Semi-global exponential stability of the model with the proposed controllers is proven by the use of Lyapunovs theorem.

14. Model-free adaptive speed control on travelling wave ultrasonic motor

Science.gov (United States)

Di, Sisi; Li, Huafeng

2018-01-01

This paper introduced a new data-driven control (DDC) method for the speed control of ultrasonic motor (USM). The model-free adaptive control (MFAC) strategy was presented in terms of its principles, algorithms, and parameter selection. To verify the efficiency of the proposed method, a speed-frequency-time model, which contained all the measurable nonlinearity and uncertainties based on experimental data was established for simulation to mimic the USM operation system. Furthermore, the model was identified using particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Then, the control of the simulated system using MFAC was evaluated under different expectations in terms of overshoot, rise time and steady-state error. Finally, the MFAC results were compared with that of proportion iteration differentiation (PID) to demonstrate its advantages in controlling general random system.

15. A novel technology for control of variable speed pumped storage power plant

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2016-01-01

Variable speed pumped storage machines are used extensively in wind power plant and pumped storage power plant. This paper presents direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of a variable speed pumped storage power plant (VSPSP). By this method both torque and flux have been applied to control the VSPSP. The comparison between VSPSP’s control strategies is studied. At the first, a wind turbine with the capacity 2.2 kW and DTFC control strategies simulated then a 250 MW VSPSP is simulated with all of its parts (including electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and its control system) by MATLAB software. In all of simulations, both converters including two-level voltage source converter (2LVSC) and three-level voltage source converter (3LVSC) are applied. The results of applying 2LVSC and 3LVSC are the rapid dynamic responses with better efficiency, reducing the total harmonic distortion (THD) and ripple of rotor torque and flux.

16. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes a variable-speed wind generation system where fuzzy logic principles are used to optimize efficiency and enhance performance control. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided pulse width modulated converter system which either pump...

17. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.

2014-01-01

In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near

18. On-Chip Enucleation of Bovine Oocytes using Microrobot-Assisted Flow-Speed Control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Akihiko Ichikawa

2013-06-01

Full Text Available In this study, we developed a microfluidic chip with a magnetically driven microrobot for oocyte enucleation. A microfluidic system was specially designed for enucleation, and the microrobot actively controls the local flow-speed distribution in the microfluidic chip. The microrobot can adjust fluid resistances in a channel and can open or close the channel to control the flow distribution. Analytical modeling was conducted to control the fluid speed distribution using the microrobot, and the model was experimentally validated. The novelties of the developed microfluidic system are as follows: (1 the cutting speed improved significantly owing to the local fluid flow control; (2 the cutting volume of the oocyte can be adjusted so that the oocyte undergoes less damage; and (3 the nucleus can be removed properly using the combination of a microrobot and hydrodynamic forces. Using this device, we achieved a minimally invasive enucleation process. The average enucleation time was 2.5 s and the average removal volume ratio was 20%. The proposed new system has the advantages of better operation speed, greater cutting precision, and potential for repeatable enucleation.

19. Hardware detection and parameter tuning method for speed control system of PMSM

Science.gov (United States)

Song, Zhengqiang; Yang, Huiling

2018-03-01

In this paper, the development of permanent magnet synchronous motor AC speed control system is taken as an example, aiming to expound the principle and parameter setting method of the system hardware, and puts forward the method of using software or hardware to eliminate the problem.

20. Control over Coating Structure during Electromagnetic Welding and Application of HighSpeed Steel Powder

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

L. M. Kozhuro

2004-01-01

Full Text Available The paper considers peculiar features concerning coating formation in the process of electromagnetic welding of high-speed steel powder. The paper reveals how to control coating structure that ensures the required operational properties of working surfaces of machine parts.

1. Determination of acceleration for belt conveyor speed control in transient operation

NARCIS (Netherlands)

He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

2016-01-01

Speed control has been found a feasible mean to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. However, the current research has not taken the determination of the acceleration in transient operation into account sufficiently. With respect to the belt tension rating, demanded safety factor and the

2. Speed control of induction motor using fuzzy recursive least squares technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Santiago Sánchez

2008-12-01

Full Text Available A simple adaptive controller design is presented in this paper, the control system uses the adaptive fuzzy logic, sliding modes and is trained with the recursive least squares technique. The problem of parameter variation is solved with the adaptive controller; the use of an internal PI regulator produces that the speed control of the induction motor be achieved by the stator currents instead the input voltage. The rotor-flux oriented coordinated system model is used to develop and test the control system.

3. IMITATION MODEL OF A HIGH-SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR WITH FREQUENCY CONTROL

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. E. Pliugin

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Purpose. To develop the imitation model of the frequency converter controlled high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor in order to determine reasons causes electric motor vibrations and noises in starting modes. Methodology. We have applied the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic field in transient mode and imported obtained field model as an independent object in frequency converter circuit. We have correlated the simulated result with the experimental data obtained by means of the PID regulator factors. Results. We have made the simulation model of the high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor speed control in AnsysRMxprt, Ansys Maxwell and Ansys Simplorer, approximated to their physical prototype. We have made models modifications allows to provide high-performance computing (HPC in dedicated server and computer cluster to reduce the simulation time. We have obtained motor characteristics in starting and rated modes. This allows to make recommendations on determination of high-speed electric motor optimal deign, having minimum indexes of vibrations and noises. Originality. For the first time, we have carried out the integrated research of induction motor using simultaneously simulation models both in Ansys Maxwell (2D field model and in Ansys Simplorer (transient circuit model with the control low realization for the motor soft start. For the first time the correlation between stator and rotor slots, allows to obtain minimal vibrations and noises, was defined. Practical value. We have tested manufactured high-speed motor based on the performed calculation. The experimental studies have confirmed the adequacy of the model, which allows designing such motors for new high-speed construction, and upgrade the existing ones.

4. Permanent magnet DC motor control by using arduino and motor drive module BTS7960

Science.gov (United States)

2018-05-01

This study proposes a control system for permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motor. PMDC drive control system has two critical parameters: control and monitoring. Control system includes rotation speed control and direction of rotation of motor using motor drive module BTS7960. The PWM signal has a fixed frequency of waves with varying duty cycles (between 0% and 100%), so the motor rotation can be regulated gradually using a potentiometer already programmed on the Arduino Uno board. The motor rotation direction setting uses the H-bridge circuit method using a 3-way switch to set the direction of forward-reverse rotation of the motor. The monitoring system includes measurements of rotational speed, current, and voltage. Motor rotation speed can be adjusted from the armature voltage settings through the duty cycle PWM setting so that the motor speed can be increased or decreased by the desired duty cycle. From the unload PMDC motor test results it has also been shown that the torque of the motor is relatively constant when there is a change in speed from low rpm to high rpm or vice versa.

5. Fuzzy logic based variable speed wind generation system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simoes, M.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. PMC - Mecatronica; Bose, B.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Spiegel, Ronal J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

1996-12-31

This work demonstrates the successful application of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance and control of a variable speed wind generation system. A maximum power point tracker control is performed with three fuzzy controllers, without wind velocity measurement, and robust to wind vortex and turbine torque ripple. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided PWM converter system which pumps the power to a utility grid or supplies to an autonomous system. The fuzzy logic controller FLC-1 searches on-line the generator speed so that the aerodynamic efficiency of the wind turbine is optimized. A second fuzzy controller FLC-2 programs the machine flux by on-line search so as to optimize the machine-converter system wind vortex. Detailed analysis and simulation studies were performed for development of the control strategy and fuzzy algorithms, and a DSP TMS320C30 based hardware with C control software was built for the performance evaluation of a laboratory experimental set-up. The theoretical development was fully validated and the system is ready to be reproduced in a higher power installation. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

6. Behavioural system identification of visual flight speed control in Drosophila melanogaster.

Science.gov (United States)

Rohrseitz, Nicola; Fry, Steven N

2011-02-06

Behavioural control in many animals involves complex mechanisms with intricate sensory-motor feedback loops. Modelling allows functional aspects to be captured without relying on a description of the underlying complex, and often unknown, mechanisms. A wide range of engineering techniques are available for modelling, but their ability to describe time-continuous processes is rarely exploited to describe sensory-motor control mechanisms in biological systems. We performed a system identification of visual flight speed control in the fruitfly Drosophila, based on an extensive dataset of open-loop responses previously measured under free flight conditions. We identified a second-order under-damped control model with just six free parameters that well describes both the transient and steady-state characteristics of the open-loop data. We then used the identified control model to predict flight speed responses after a visual perturbation under closed-loop conditions and validated the model with behavioural measurements performed in free-flying flies under the same closed-loop conditions. Our system identification of the fruitfly's flight speed response uncovers the high-level control strategy of a fundamental flight control reflex without depending on assumptions about the underlying physiological mechanisms. The results are relevant for future investigations of the underlying neuromotor processing mechanisms, as well as for the design of biomimetic robots, such as micro-air vehicles.

7. PWM Regulation of Grid-Tied PV System on the Base of Photovoltaic-Fed Diode-Clamped Inverters

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Oleschuk V.I.

2015-12-01

Full Text Available Investigation of grid-tied photovoltaic system on the base of two diode-clamped inverters, controlled by specific algorithms of pulse-width modulation (PWM, has been done. This system includes two strings of photovoltaic panels feeding two diode-clamped inverters. The outputs of inverters are connected with the corresponding windings on the primary side of three-phase transformer, connected with a grid. In order to reduce phase voltage distortion and to increase efficiency of operation of the system, special scheme of control and modulation of inverters has been used, providing minimization of common-mode voltages and voltage waveforms symmetries under different operating conditions. Detailed simulation of processes in this photovoltaic-fed power conversion system has been executed. The results of simulations verify good performance of photovoltaic system regulated in accordance with specific strategy of control and modulation.

8. Performance analysis of PM synchronous motor using fuzzy logic and self tuning fuzzy PI speed controls

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Karakaya, A.; Karakas, E.

2008-01-01

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors have nonlinear characteristics whose dynamics changes with time. In spite of this structure the permanent magnet synchronous motor has answered engineering problems in industry such as motion control which need high torque values. This paper obtains a nonlinear mathematical model for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and realizes stimulation of the obtained model in the Matlab/Simulink program. Motor parameters are determined by an experimental set-up and they are used in the motor model. Speed control of motor model is made with Fuzzy Logic and Self Tuning logic PI controllers. Using the speed graphs obtained, rise time, overshoot, steady-state error and settling time are analyzed and controller performances are compared. (author)

9. High speed reaction wheels for satellite attitude control and energy storage

Science.gov (United States)

Studer, P.; Rodriguez, E.

1985-01-01

The combination of spacecraft attitude control and energy storage (ACES) functions in common hardware, to synergistically maintain three-axis attitude control while supplying electrical power during earth orbital eclipses, allows the generation of control torques by high rotating speed wheels that react against the spacecraft structure via a high efficiency bidirectional energy conversion motor/generator. An ACES system encompasses a minimum of four wheels, controlling power and the three torque vectors. Attention is given to the realization of such a system with composite flywheel rotors that yield high energy density, magnetic suspension technology yielding low losses at high rotational speeds, and an ironless armature permanent magnet motor/generator yielding high energy conversion efficiency.

10. Speed and Torque Control Strategies for Loss Reduction of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Science.gov (United States)

Argent, Michael; McDonald, Alasdair; Leithead, Bill; Giles, Alexander

2016-09-01

This paper builds on the work into modelling the generator losses for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines from their intrinsic torque cycling to investigate the effects of aerodynamic inefficiencies caused by the varying rotational speed resulting from different torque control strategies to the cyclic torque. This is achieved by modelling the wake that builds up from the rotation of the VAWT rotor to investigate how the wake responds to a changing rotor speed and how this in turn affects the torque produced by the blades as well as the corresponding change in generator losses and any changes to the energy extracted by the wind turbine rotor.

11. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

2015-01-01

This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy...... fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sulfur fuel such as marine gas oil (MGO) inside the ECA. As the prices of these two fuels are generally very different, so may be the speeds that the ship will sail at outside and inside the ECA. The first optimization problem examined by the paper...

12. Invited review article: high-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control issues.

Science.gov (United States)

Yong, Y K; Moheimani, S O R; Kenton, B J; Leang, K K

2012-12-01

Recent interest in high-speed scanning probe microscopy for high-throughput applications including video-rate atomic force microscopy and probe-based nanofabrication has sparked attention on the development of high-bandwidth flexure-guided nanopositioning systems (nanopositioners). Such nanopositioners are designed to move samples with sub-nanometer resolution with positioning bandwidth in the kilohertz range. State-of-the-art designs incorporate uniquely designed flexure mechanisms driven by compact and stiff piezoelectric actuators. This paper surveys key advances in mechanical design and control of dynamic effects and nonlinearities, in the context of high-speed nanopositioning. Future challenges and research topics are also discussed.

13. Chattering-free sliding mode observer for speed sensorless control of PMSM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mahmoud M. Gaballah

2017-07-01

Full Text Available This article presents a new speed observer based on fuzzy logic for speed sensorless control applications of permanent magnet synchronous motor “PMSM”. The switch function in traditional Sliding Mode Observer “SMO” is replaced by a rule based fuzzy logic system. The proposed observer not only improves the system dynamic performance during disturbances or parameter variations, but also has a high accuracy tracking performance with sufficient chattering reduction. The validity of the new observer corroborated through experimental results using TMS320F28069M Digital Signal Processor “DSP”.

14. Control of cooling of an oil-immersed power transformer by varying speed of fans

OpenAIRE

Đorđević, Nikola Z.; Žakula, Dane M.; Jevtić, Milica M.; Tomašević, Radojica Ž.; Radaković, Zoran R.

2016-01-01

The paper presents a prototype system for speed control of cooling fans for a small oil-immersed 6.6 kVA transformer, implemented on a standard PLC. Generally, the potential for optimization of the cooling process depends on the accessible cooling modes and construction of the transformer; basically the aim of the cooling system control is reduction in power consumption of the fans / pumps and keeping the top-oil temperature at constant value (to reduce transformer 'breathing' and infiltratio...

15. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

Science.gov (United States)

Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

2016-01-01

Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

16. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez

2016-03-01

Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

17. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

Science.gov (United States)

Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

2016-03-11

Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

18. On The Export Control Of High Speed Imaging For Nuclear Weapons Applications

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Watson, Scott Avery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Altherr, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2017-09-15

Since the Manhattan Project, the use of high-speed photography, and its cousins flash radiography1 and schieleren photography have been a technological proliferation concern. Indeed, like the supercomputer, the development of high-speed photography as we now know it essentially grew out of the nuclear weapons program at Los Alamos2,3,4. Naturally, during the course of the last 75 years the technology associated with computers and cameras has been export controlled by the United States and others to prevent both proliferation among non-P5-nations and technological parity among potential adversaries among P5 nations. Here we revisit these issues as they relate to high-speed photographic technologies and make recommendations about how future restrictions, if any, should be guided.

19. Wind Speed Preview Measurement and Estimation for Feedforward Control of Wind Turbines

Science.gov (United States)

Simley, Eric J.

Wind turbines typically rely on feedback controllers to maximize power capture in below-rated conditions and regulate rotor speed during above-rated operation. However, measurements of the approaching wind provided by Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) can be used as part of a preview-based, or feedforward, control system in order to improve rotor speed regulation and reduce structural loads. But the effectiveness of preview-based control depends on how accurately lidar can measure the wind that will interact with the turbine. In this thesis, lidar measurement error is determined using a statistical frequency-domain wind field model including wind evolution, or the change in turbulent wind speeds between the time they are measured and when they reach the turbine. Parameters of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 5-MW reference turbine model are used to determine measurement error for a hub-mounted circularly-scanning lidar scenario, based on commercially-available technology, designed to estimate rotor effective uniform and shear wind speed components. By combining the wind field model, lidar model, and turbine parameters, the optimal lidar scan radius and preview distance that yield the minimum mean square measurement error, as well as the resulting minimum achievable error, are found for a variety of wind conditions. With optimized scan scenarios, it is found that relatively low measurement error can be achieved, but the attainable measurement error largely depends on the wind conditions. In addition, the impact of the induction zone, the region upstream of the turbine where the approaching wind speeds are reduced, as well as turbine yaw error on measurement quality is analyzed. In order to minimize the mean square measurement error, an optimal measurement prefilter is employed, which depends on statistics of the correlation between the preview measurements and the wind that interacts with the turbine. However, because the wind speeds encountered by

20. Low-Speed Cooperative Car-Following Fuzzy Controller for Cybernetic Transport Systems

OpenAIRE

Milanés , Vicente; Marouf , Mohamed; Pérez Rastelli , Joshué; Gonzalez Bautista , David; Nashashibi , Fawzi

2014-01-01

International audience; — This paper describes the development of a Coop-erative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) for the future urban transportation system at low-speed. The control algorithm was evaluated using two Cybecars as prototype vehicles. A longitu-dinal response model for the vehicles was developed to design the CACC system. The control algorithm was implemented on a fuzzy logic-based controller that has been tuned to minimize a cost function in order to get a trade-off between a pro...

1. Speed control of induction motor using fuzzy recursive least squares technique

OpenAIRE

Santiago Sánchez; Eduardo Giraldo

2008-01-01

A simple adaptive controller design is presented in this paper, the control system uses the adaptive fuzzy logic, sliding modes and is trained with the recursive least squares technique. The problem of parameter variation is solved with the adaptive controller; the use of an internal PI regulator produces that the speed control of the induction motor be achieved by the stator currents instead the input voltage. The rotor-flux oriented coordinated system model is used to develop and test the c...

2. Performance comparison of control schemes for variable-speed wind turbines

Science.gov (United States)

Bottasso, C. L.; Croce, A.; Savini, B.

2007-07-01

We analyze the performance of different control schemes when applied to the regulation problem of a variable-speed representative wind turbine. In particular, we formulate and compare a wind-scheduled PID, a LQR controller and a novel adaptive non-linear model predictive controller, equipped with observers of the tower states and wind. The simulations include gusts and turbulent winds of varying intensity in nominal as well as off-design operating conditions. The experiments highlight the possible advantages of model-based non-linear control strategies.

3. Performance comparison of control schemes for variable-speed wind turbines

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bottasso, C L; Croce, A; Savini, B

2007-01-01

We analyze the performance of different control schemes when applied to the regulation problem of a variable-speed representative wind turbine. In particular, we formulate and compare a wind-scheduled PID, a LQR controller and a novel adaptive non-linear model predictive controller, equipped with observers of the tower states and wind. The simulations include gusts and turbulent winds of varying intensity in nominal as well as off-design operating conditions. The experiments highlight the possible advantages of model-based non-linear control strategies

4. Design of a model predictive load-following controller by discrete optimization of control rod speed for PWRs

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Jae Hwan; Park, Soon Ho; Na, Man Gyun

2014-01-01

Highlights: • A model predictive controller for load-following operation was developed. • Genetic algorithm optimizes the five nonlinear discrete control rod speeds. • The boron concentration is adjusted with automatic adjustment logic. • The proposed controller reflects the realistic control rod drive mechanism movement. • The performance was confirmed to be satisfactory by simulation from BOC to EOC. - Abstract: Currently, most existing nuclear power plants alter the reactor power by adjusting the boron concentration in the coolant because it has a smaller effect on the reactor power distribution. Frequent control rod movements for load-following operation induce xenon-oscillation. Therefore, a controller that can subdue this phenomenon effectively is needed. At an APR1400 nuclear power plant which is a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the reactor power is controlled automatically using a Reactor Regulating System (RRS) but the power distribution is controlled manually by operators. Therefore, for APR+ nuclear power plants which is an improved version of APR1400 nuclear reactor, a new concept of a reactor controller is needed to control both the reactor power and power distribution automatically. The model predictive control (MPC) method is applicable to multiple-input multiple-output control, and can be applied for complex and nonlinear systems, such as the nuclear power plants. In this study, an MPC controller was developed by applying a genetic algorithm to optimize the discrete control rod speeds and by reflecting the realistic movement of the control rod drive mechanism that moves at only five discrete speeds. The performance of the proposed controller was confirmed to be satisfactory by simulating the load-following operation of an APR+ nuclear power plant through interface with KISPAC-1D code

5. Phase shift PWM with double two-switch bridge for high power capacitor charging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Karandikar, U.S.; Singh, Yashpal; Thakurta, A.C.

2013-01-01

Pulse power supply systems working at higher voltage and high repetition rate demands for higher power from capacitor chargers. Capacitor charging requirement become more challenging in such cases. In pulse power circuits, energy storage capacitor should be charged to its desired voltage before the next switching occurs. It is discharged within a small time, delivering large pulse power. A capacitor charger has to work with wide load variation repeatedly. Many schemes are used for this purpose. The proposed scheme aims at reducing stresses on switches by reducing peak current and their evils. A high voltage power supply is designed for capacitor charging. The proposed scheme is based on a Phase-Shifted PWM without using any extra component to achieve soft switching. Indirect constant average current capacitor charging is achieved with a simple control scheme. A double two-switch bridge is proposed to enhance reliability. Power supply has been developed to charge a capacitor of 50 μF to 2.5 kV at 25 Hz. (author)

6. Study on variation in ship's forward speed under regular waves depending on rudder controller

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sung-Soo Kim

2015-03-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare and analyze the advanced speed of ships with different rudder controller in wavy condition by using a simulation. The commercial simulation tool named AQWA is used to develop the simulation of ship which has 3 degree of freedom. The nonlinear hydrodynamic force acting on hull, the propeller thrust and the rudder force are calculated by the additional subroutine which interlock with the commercial simulation tool, and the regular wave is used as the source of the external force for the simulation. Rudder rotational velocity and autopilot coefficients vary to make the different rudder controller. An advanced speed of ships depending on the rudder controller is analyzed after the autopilot simulations.

7. Modelling and control algorithms of the cross conveyors line with multiengine variable speed drives

Science.gov (United States)

Cheremushkina, M. S.; Baburin, S. V.

2017-02-01

The paper deals with the actual problem of developing the control algorithm that meets the technical requirements of the mine belt conveyors, and enables energy and resource savings taking into account a random sort of traffic. The most effective method of solution of these tasks is the construction of control systems with the use of variable speed drives for asynchronous motors. The authors designed the mathematical model of the system ‘variable speed multiengine drive - conveyor - control system of conveyors’ that takes into account the dynamic processes occurring in the elements of the transport system, provides an assessment of the energy efficiency of application the developed algorithms, which allows one to reduce the dynamic overload in the belt to 15-20%.

8. Variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach.

Science.gov (United States)

Torchani, Borhen; Sellami, Anis; Garcia, Germain

2016-05-01

The aim of this paper is to propose a new design variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach. This methodology is designed for linear saturated system. The saturation constraint is reported on inputs vector. To this end, the back stepping design procedure is followed to construct a suitable sliding manifold that guarantees the attainment of a stabilization control objective. It is well known that the mechanisms are investigated in term of the most proposed assumptions to deal with the damping, shaft stiffness and inertia effect of the gear. The objectives are to synthesize robust controllers that maximize the energy extracted from wind, while reducing mechanical loads and rotor speed tracking combined with an electromagnetic torque. Simulation results of the proposed scheme are presented. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

9. Distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Feitian; Lagor, Francis D; Yeo, Derrick; Washington, Patrick; Paley, Derek A

2015-10-23

Flexibility plays an important role in fish behavior by enabling high maneuverability for predator avoidance and swimming in turbulent flow. This paper presents a novel flexible fish robot equipped with distributed pressure sensors for flow sensing. The body of the robot is molded from soft, hyperelastic material, which provides flexibility. Its Joukowski-foil shape is conducive to modeling the fluid analytically. A quasi-steady potential-flow model is adopted for real-time flow estimation, whereas a discrete-time vortex-shedding flow model is used for higher-fidelity simulation. The dynamics for the flexible fish robot yield a reduced model for one-dimensional swimming. A recursive Bayesian filter assimilates pressure measurements to estimate flow speed, angle of attack, and foil camber. The closed-loop speed-control strategy combines an inverse-mapping feedforward controller based on an average model derived for periodic actuation of angle-of-attack and a proportional-integral feedback controller utilizing the estimated flow information. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the estimation and control strategy. The paper provides a systematic approach to distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot by regulating the flapping amplitude.

10. Isolated PDM and PWM DC-AC SICAMs[Pulse Density Modulated; Pulse Width Modulated

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ljusev, P.

2004-03-15

In this report a class of isolated PDM and PWM DC-AC SICAMs is described, which introduce the audio reference only in the output stage. AC-DC power supply is implemented in its simplest form: diode rectifier followed by a medium-size charge-storage capacitor. Isolation from the AC mains is achieved using a high frequency (HF) transformer, receiving the HF voltage pulses from the input 'inverter' stage and transferring them to the output 'rectifier+inverter' stage, which can use either PDM or PWM. The latter stage is then interfaced to the load using an output low-pass filter. Each of the dedicated stages is discussed in detail. Measurements on the master/slave PWM DC-AC SICAM prototype are presented to help benchmarking the performance of this class of SICAMs and identify the advantages and drawbacks. (au)

11. Modeling and control of PMSG-based variable-speed wind turbine

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kim, Hong-Woo; Ko, Hee-Sang [Wind Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu Jang-Dong 71-2,305-343 Daejeon (Korea); Kim, Sung-Soo [Chungbuk National University (Korea)

2010-01-15

This paper presents a control scheme of a variable-speed wind turbine with a permanent-magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG) and full-scale back-to-back voltage source converter. A comprehensive dynamical model of the PMSG wind turbine and its control scheme is presented. The control scheme comprises both the wind-turbine control itself and the power-converter control. In addition, since the PMSG wind turbine is able to support actively the grid due to its capability to control independently active and reactive power production to the imposed set-values with taking into account its operating state and limits, this paper presents the supervisory reactive power control scheme in order to regulate/contribute the voltage at a remote location. The ability of the control scheme is assessed and discussed by means of simulations, based on a candidate site of the offshore wind farm in Jeju, Korea. (author)

12. Neural control and modulation of swimming speed in the larval zebrafish.

Science.gov (United States)

Severi, Kristen E; Portugues, Ruben; Marques, João C; O'Malley, Donald M; Orger, Michael B; Engert, Florian

2014-08-06

Vertebrate locomotion at different speeds is driven by descending excitatory connections to central pattern generators in the spinal cord. To investigate how these inputs determine locomotor kinematics, we used whole-field visual motion to drive zebrafish to swim at different speeds. Larvae match the stimulus speed by utilizing more locomotor events, or modifying kinematic parameters such as the duration and speed of swimming bouts, the tail-beat frequency, and the choice of gait. We used laser ablations, electrical stimulation, and activity recordings in descending neurons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF) to dissect their contribution to controlling forward movement. We found that the activity of single identified neurons within the nMLF is correlated with locomotor kinematics, and modulates both the duration and oscillation frequency of tail movements. By identifying the contribution of individual supraspinal circuit elements to locomotion kinematics, we build a better understanding of how the brain controls movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

13. Cutting-in control of the variable speed constant frequency wind power generator based on internal model controller

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guo Jindong; Xu Honghua; Zhao Dongli [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, CAS, BJ (China)

2008-07-01

The no-impact-current cutting-in-network control is the key of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power control system. Based on the stator flux linkage oriented control theory of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), the field-oriented vector control technique and the internal model controller (IMC) are transplanted into the voltage control of DFIG and a novel cutting-in control strategy is obtained. The strategy does not need the exact inductor generator model, and has perfect performance without overshoot. The structure of the controller is simple, and the only parameter to be adjusted is directly related to system performance, so the strategy is easy to realize. Finally the strategy is studied by simulation using Matlab, the results of the simulation show that the control strategy can effectively control the stator voltage. (orig.)

14. High-frequency, three-phase current controller implementation in an FPGA

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hartmann, M.; Round, S. D.; Kolar, J. W.

2008-07-01

Three phase rectifiers with switching frequencies of 500 kHz or more require high speed current controllers. At such high switching frequencies analog controllers as well as high speed digital signal processing (DSP) systems have limited performance. In this paper, two high speed current controller implementations using two different field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) - one for switching frequencies up to 1 MHz and one for switching frequencies beyond 1 MHz - are presented to overcome this performance limitation. Starting with the digital system design all the blocks of the signal chain, containing analog-to-digital (A/D) interface, digital controller implementation using HW-multipliers and implementation of a novel high speed, high resolution pulse width modulation (PWM) are discussed and compared. Final measurements verify the performance of the controllers. (author)

15. Constant speed control of four-stroke micro internal combustion swing engine

Science.gov (United States)

Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zhu, Honghai; Ni, Jun

2015-09-01

The increasing demands on safety, emission and fuel consumption require more accurate control models of micro internal combustion swing engine (MICSE). The objective of this paper is to investigate the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE. The operation principle of the four-stroke MICSE is presented based on the description of MICSE prototype. A two-level Petri net based hybrid model is proposed to model the four-stroke MICSE engine cycle. The Petri net subsystem at the upper level controls and synchronizes the four Petri net subsystems at the lower level. The continuous sub-models, including breathing dynamics of intake manifold, thermodynamics of the chamber and dynamics of the torque generation, are investigated and integrated with the discrete model in MATLAB Simulink. Through the comparison of experimental data and simulated DC voltage output, it is demonstrated that the hybrid model is valid for the four-stroke MICSE system. A nonlinear model is obtained from the cycle average data via the regression method, and it is linearized around a given nominal equilibrium point for the controller design. The feedback controller of the spark timing and valve duration timing is designed with a sequential loop closing design approach. The simulation of the sequential loop closure control design applied to the hybrid model is implemented in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the system is able to reach its desired operating point within 0.2 s, and the designed controller shows good MICSE engine performance with a constant speed. This paper presents the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE and carries out the simulation tests, the models and the simulation results can be used for further study on the precision control of four-stroke MICSE.

16. Integrated Variable Speed Limits Control and Ramp Metering for Bottleneck Regions on Freeway

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ming-hui Ma

2015-01-01

Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of the existing freeway system and therefore to mitigate traffic congestion and related problems on the freeway mainline lane-drop bottleneck region, the advanced strategy for bottleneck control is essential. This paper proposes a method that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering for freeway bottleneck region control to relieve the chaos in bottleneck region. To this end, based on the analyses of spatial-temporal patterns of traffic flow, a macroscopic traffic flow model is extended to describe the traffic flow operating characteristic by considering the impacts of variable speed limits in mainstream bottleneck region. In addition, to achieve the goal of balancing the priority of the vehicles on mainline and on-ramp, increasing capacity, and reducing travel delay on bottleneck region, an improved control model, as well as an advanced control strategy that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering, is developed. The proposed method is tested in simulation for a real freeway infrastructure feed and calibrates real traffic variables. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can substantially improve the traffic flow efficiency of mainline and on-ramp and enhance the quality of traffic flow at the investigated freeway mainline bottleneck.

17. Implementation of MRAC controller of a DFIG based variable speed grid connected wind turbine

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abdeddaim, Sabrina; Betka, Achour; Drid, Said; Becherif, Mohamed

2014-01-01

Highlights: • Set-up of an experimental test emulating a wind turbine, driving a grid-connected conventional DFIG. • An optimal operation below rated speed is achieved by means of an appropriate maximum power-point tracking algorithm. • Design and implementation of an adaptive model reference controller (MRAC) of the active and reactive power regulation. - Abstract: This paper presents the design and the implementation of a model reference adaptive control of the active and reactive power regulation of a grid connected wind turbine based on a doubly fed induction generator. This regulation is achieved below the synchronous speed, by means of a maximum power-point tracking algorithm. The experiment was conducted on a 1 kW didactic wound rotor induction machine in association with a wind turbine emulator. This implementation is realized using a dSPACE 1104 single-board control and acquisition interface. The obtained results show a permanent track of the available maximum wind power, under a chosen wind speed profile. Furthermore the proposed controller exhibits a smooth regulation of the stator active and reactive power amounts exchanged between the machine and the grid

18. The development of a control system for a small high speed steam microturbine generator system

Science.gov (United States)

Alford, A.; Nichol, P.; Saunders, M.; Frisby, B.

2015-08-01

Steam is a widely used energy source. In many situations steam is generated at high pressures and then reduced in pressure through control valves before reaching point of use. An opportunity was identified to convert some of the energy at the point of pressure reduction into electricity. To take advantage of a market identified for small scale systems, a microturbine generator was designed based on a small high speed turbo machine. This machine was packaged with the necessary control valves and systems to allow connection of the machine to the grid. Traditional machines vary the speed of the generator to match the grid frequency. This was not possible due to the high speed of this machine. The characteristics of the rotating unit had to be understood to allow a control that allowed export of energy at the right frequency to the grid under the widest possible range of steam conditions. A further goal of the control system was to maximise the efficiency of generation under all conditions. A further complication was to provide adequate protection for the rotating unit in the event of the loss of connection to the grid. The system to meet these challenges is outlined with the solutions employed and tested for this application.

19. IMPLEMENTATION OF PID ON PIC24F SERIES MICROCONTROLLER FOR SPEED CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR USING MPLAB AND PROTEUS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sohaib Aslam

2016-09-01

Full Text Available Speed control of DC motor is very critical in most of the industrial systems where accuracy and protection are of essence. This paper presents the simulations of Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (PID on a 16-bit PIC 24F series microcontroller for speed control of a DC motor in the presence of load torque. The PID gains have been tuned by Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR technique and then it is implemented on microcontroller using MPLAB and finally simulated for speed control of DC motor in Proteus Virtual System Modeling (VSM software.Proteus has built in feature to add load torque to DC motor so simulation results have been presented in three cases speed of DC motor is controlled without load torque, with 25% load torque and with 50% load torque. In all three cases PID effectively controls the speed of DC motor with minimum steady state error.

20. Parallel implementation of DNA sequences matching algorithms using PWM on GPU architecture.

Science.gov (United States)

Sharma, Rahul; Gupta, Nitin; Narang, Vipin; Mittal, Ankush

2011-01-01

Positional Weight Matrices (PWMs) are widely used in representation and detection of Transcription Factor Of Binding Sites (TFBSs) on DNA. We implement online PWM search algorithm over parallel architecture. A large PWM data can be processed on Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) systems in parallel which can help in matching sequences at a faster rate. Our method employs extensive usage of highly multithreaded architecture and shared memory of multi-cored GPU. An efficient use of shared memory is required to optimise parallel reduction in CUDA. Our optimised method has a speedup of 230-280x over linear implementation on GPU named GeForce GTX 280.

1. FPGA implementation of adaptive ANN controller for speed regulation of permanent magnet stepper motor drives

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hasanien, Hany M., E-mail: Hanyhasanien@ieee.or [Dept. of Elec. Power and Machines, Faculty of Eng., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)

2011-02-15

This paper presents a novel adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) controller, which applies on permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM) for regulating its speed. The dynamic response of the PMSM with the proposed controller is studied during the starting process under the full load torque and under load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive ANN controller is then compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of PMSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study. The main contribution of this work is the implementation of the proposed controller on field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware to drive the stepper motor. The driver is built on FPGA Spartan-3E Starter from Xilinx. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

2. FPGA implementation of adaptive ANN controller for speed regulation of permanent magnet stepper motor drives

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hasanien, Hany M.

2011-01-01

This paper presents a novel adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) controller, which applies on permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM) for regulating its speed. The dynamic response of the PMSM with the proposed controller is studied during the starting process under the full load torque and under load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive ANN controller is then compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of PMSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study. The main contribution of this work is the implementation of the proposed controller on field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware to drive the stepper motor. The driver is built on FPGA Spartan-3E Starter from Xilinx. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

3. Nonlinear Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Salient Poles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

K. Kyslan

2015-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor with salient poles based on two-step linearization method. In the first step, the direct compensation of the nonlinearities in the equations of current is used. In the second step, the input-output linearization in the state space is used for the decoupling of flux and torque axis. Simulated results are compared to the field oriented vector control structure with PI controllers in order to show differences in the performance of both approaches.

4. Technical specifications of variable speed motors for negative pressure control in hot cell area

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Cho, W. K

2002-01-01

Hot cells are the facilities for handling the high radioactive materials and various R and D activities are performed using hot cells. Therefore the control of air flow in hot cell area is very important technology and it is started with the variable speed motor(VSM) controlling the air handling system in that area. This report describes various technical aspects of VS motors and will be useful for understanding the practical technologies of VS motors and also for optimization of the negative pressure controls in hot cell area.

5. High-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators using an ellipse-based hysteresis model.

Science.gov (United States)

Gu, Guoying; Zhu, Limin

2010-08-01

In this paper, an ellipse-based mathematic model is developed to characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. Based on the proposed model, an expanded input space is constructed to describe the multivalued hysteresis function H[u](t) by a multiple input single output (MISO) mapping Gamma:R(2)-->R. Subsequently, the inverse MISO mapping Gamma(-1)(H[u](t),H[u](t);u(t)) is proposed for real-time hysteresis compensation. In controller design, a hybrid control strategy combining a model-based feedforward controller and a proportional integral differential (PID) feedback loop is used for high-accuracy and high-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators. The real-time feedforward controller is developed to cancel the rate-dependent hysteresis based on the inverse hysteresis model, while the PID controller is used to compensate for the creep, modeling errors, and parameter uncertainties. Finally, experiments with and without hysteresis compensation are conducted and the experimental results are compared. The experimental results show that the hysteresis compensation in the feedforward path can reduce the hysteresis-caused error by up to 88% and the tracking performance of the hybrid controller is greatly improved in high-speed tracking control applications, e.g., the root-mean-square tracking error is reduced to only 0.34% of the displacement range under the input frequency of 100 Hz.

6. Development of autonomous controller system of high speed UAV from simulation to ready to fly condition

Science.gov (United States)

Yudhi Irwanto, Herma

2018-02-01

The development of autonomous controller system that is specially used in our high speed UAV, it’s call RKX-200EDF/TJ controlled vehicle needs to be continued as a step to mastery and to developt control system of LAPAN’s satellite launching rocket. The weakness of the existing control system in this high speed UAV needs to be repaired and replaced using the autonomous controller system. Conversion steps for ready-to-fly system involved controlling X tail fin, adjusting auto take off procedure by adding X axis sensor, procedure of way points reading and process of measuring distance and heading to the nearest way point, developing user-friendly ground station, and adding tools for safety landing. The development of this autonomous controller system also covered a real flying test in Pandanwangi, Lumajang in November 2016. Unfortunately, the flying test was not successful because the booster rocket was blown right after burning. However, the system could record the event and demonstrated that the controller system had worked according to plan.

7. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

2018-01-01

The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

8. Control of cooling of an oil-immersed power transformer by varying speed of fans

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Đorđević Nikola Z.

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents a prototype system for speed control of cooling fans for a small oil-immersed 6.6 kVA transformer, implemented on a standard PLC. Generally, the potential for optimization of the cooling process depends on the accessible cooling modes and construction of the transformer; basically the aim of the cooling system control is reduction in power consumption of the fans / pumps and keeping the top-oil temperature at constant value (to reduce transformer 'breathing' and infiltration of moisture. The following constraints should be taken into account: hot-spot temperature, its current value and the one which would appear for planned overloads must not exceed the allowed limit. Based on the results in steady state, the paper offers the quantitative determination of transformer thermal characteristics depending on the fan speed.

9. Modeling And Simulation Of Highly Advanced Multilevel Inverter For Speed Control Of Induction Motor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ravi Raj

2017-02-01

Full Text Available In this Paper the problem of removing Power dissipation from single phase Induction Motor with DC sources is considered by the speed control of Induction Motor with highly advanced 9-Level multi-level Inverter which having approximate zero Harmonics. As the demand of power is increasing day by day. So that we must introduced very advanced Electrical Instruments which having high efficiency and less dissipation of power. The requirement of very advanced Inverter is necessary. Here we are designing a Multi-level Inverter up to the 9-level using IGBT Insulated-gate bipolar transistor by Mat lab which having negligible total harmonic distortion THD thats why it will control the speed of single phase Induction motor which is presently widely used in our daily needs. Also several informative Simulation results verify the authority and truthiness of the proposed Model.

10. Design and FPGA-implementation of an improved adaptive fuzzy logic controller for DC motor speed control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-09-01

Full Text Available This paper presents an improved adaptive fuzzy logic speed controller for a DC motor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA hardware implementation. The developed controller includes an adaptive fuzzy logic control (AFLC algorithm, which is designed and verified with a nonlinear model of DC motor. Then, it has been synthesised, functionally verified and implemented using Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE and Spartan-3E FPGA. The performance of this controller has been successfully validated with good tracking results under different operating conditions.

11. Informal methods of social control: managing speed behaviour on SA roads

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

Venter, Karien

2009-09-01

Full Text Available . These normally stems from a soar in prices related to transport services. The fluctuating fuel price influenced South Africans one way or another. The theory put forward in the first part of the paper considered the possibility of whether or not the escalation... crisis) and in 1979 (Iranian fuel crisis), driver behaviour were adapted accordingly. Along with the lowering of speed limits (Fieldwick and Fernie: 1980) the South African government at the time also introduced another type of social control...

12. Dynamic Protective Control Strategy for Distributed Generation System with Fixed-speed Wind Turbines

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2012-01-01

The characteristics of induction generator based fixed-speed wind turbines （FSWT） are investigated. The impacts of different execution time in protective operations are studied under different fauit duration and various wind velocity situations, e.g. , FSWT stabilities of load shedding in distribution systems. Based on this research, a dynamic protective control strategy for a distributed generation system （DGS） with FSWT is proposed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

13. Analysis of Wind Speed Forecasting Error Effects on Automatic Generation Control Performance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-09-01

Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to study statistical indices and evaluate AGC indices in power system which has large penetration of the WTGs. Increasing penetration of wind turbine generations, needs to study more about impacts of it on power system frequency control. Frequency control is changed with unbalancing real-time system generation and load . Also wind turbine generations have more fluctuations and make system more unbalance. Then AGC loop helps to adjust system frequency and the scheduled tie-line powers. The quality of AGC loop is measured by some indices. A good index is a proper measure shows the AGC performance just as the power system operates. One of well-known measures in literature which was introduced by NERC is Control Performance Standards(CPS. Previously it is claimed that a key factor in CPS index is related to standard deviation of generation error, installed power and frequency response. This paper focuses on impact of a several hours-ahead wind speed forecast error on this factor. Furthermore evaluation of conventional control performances in the power systems with large-scale wind turbine penetration is studied. Effects of wind speed standard deviation and also degree of wind farm penetration are analyzed and importance of mentioned factor are criticized. In addition, influence of mean wind speed forecast error on this factor is investigated. The study system is a two area system which there is significant wind farm in one of those. The results show that mean wind speed forecast error has considerable effect on AGC performance while the mentioned key factor is insensitive to this mean error.

14. Torque control of synchronous and induction generators for variable speed operation of wind turbines

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carlson, Ola; Ulen, E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

1996-12-01

The aim of this paper is to investigate variable speed electrical systems. Synchronous generators with diode rectifiers and line-commutated thyristor converters are compared with induction generators with force commutated transistor converters and scalar control. The system characteristics are examined regarding possible speed of response (bandwidth) of the torque control, including the sensitivity to disturbances for the drive train and also the possibility to get damping of the drive train resonance. Analyses, simulations and laboratory tests with a 40 kW machine set-up have been performed. The investigation shows that the system with synchronous generator is well suited for wind power applications. A rapid standard DC-current regulator is included in the torque control and can be used for damping of the resonance. The torque control has a bandwidth up to about 3 Hz and the DC-voltage controller up to about 1 Hz. The system with induction generator with scalar control (no transformations) is more difficult to control. A linear approach is only possible up to about 1.5 Hz. In this region it turns out that the behaviour can be visualized as an added inertia on the generator side that can be rather big. 4 refs, 9 figs

15. Transient and dynamic control of a variable speed wind turbine with synchronous generator

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jauch, Clemens [Riso National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, PO Box 49, DK 4000 Roskilde, (Denmark)

2007-02-14

In this article, a controller for dynamic and transient control of a variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale converter-connected high-speed synchronous generator is presented. First, the phenomenon of drive train oscillations in wind turbines with full-scale converter-connected generators is discussed. Based on this discussion, a controller is presented that dampens these oscillations without impacting on the power that the wind turbine injects into the grid. Since wind turbines are increasingly demanded to take over power system stabilizing and control tasks, the presented wind turbine design is further enhanced to support the grid in transient grid events. A controller is designed that allows the wind turbine to ride through transient grid faults. Since such faults often cause power system oscillations, another controller is added that enables the turbine to participate in the damping of such oscillations. It is concluded that the controllers presented keep the wind turbine stable under any operating conditions, and that they are capable of adding substantial damping to the power system. (Author).

16. Speed response of brushless DC motor using fuzzy PID controller under varying load condition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Akash Varshney

2017-09-01

17. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brincks, John; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

2018-01-01

flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. METHODS:Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. RESULTS:In general, no differences were found between speed......-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant...... correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. CONCLUSION:In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest...

18. Electronic control of a 4-speed automatic transmission with lock-up clutch

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Schwab, M.

1984-01-01

The paper describes the electronic control of an automatic 4-speed transmission with lock-up clutch. As compared to purely hydraulically controlled transmissions, this control offers a clearly improved quality of shifting and the possibility of achieving improvements in fuel consumption thanks to a special economy program. The electronic control unit is a Bosch MOTRONIC which has been expanded to include the functions of transmission control. A special feature is the engine torque control which is implemented by way of retarding the ignition when shifting. This opens up an additional degree of freedom for optimizing a transmission in terms of shift comfort, life of the friction elements and the power which can be transmitted.

19. Combined Flux Observer With Signal Injection Enhancement for Wide Speed Range Sensorless Direct Torque Control of IPMSM Drives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Blaabjerg, Frede; Andreescu, G.-D.; Pitic, C.I.

2008-01-01

voltage-current model with PI compensator for low-speed operations. As speed increases, the observer switches gradually to a PI compensated closed-loop voltage model, which is solely used at high speeds. High-frequency rotating-voltage injection with a single D-module bandpass vector filter and a phase......This paper proposes a motion-sensorless control system using direct torque control with space vector modulation for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives, for wide speed range operation, including standstill. A novel stator flux observer with variable structure uses a combined...

20. Speed tracking control of pneumatic motor servo systems using observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Syuan-Yi; Gong, Sheng-Sian

2017-09-01

This study aims to develop an adaptive high-precision control system for controlling the speed of a vane-type air motor (VAM) pneumatic servo system. In practice, the rotor speed of a VAM depends on the input mass air flow, which can be controlled by the effective orifice area (EOA) of an electronic throttle valve (ETV). As the control variable of a second-order pneumatic system is the integral of the EOA, an observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control (ADSMC) system is proposed to derive the differential of the control variable, namely, the EOA control signal. In the ADSMC system, a proportional-integral-derivative fuzzy neural network (PIDFNN) observer is used to achieve an ideal dynamic sliding-mode control (DSMC), and a supervisor compensator is designed to eliminate the approximation error. As a result, the ADSMC incorporates the robustness of a DSMC and the online learning ability of a PIDFNN. To ensure the convergence of the tracking error, a Lyapunov-based analytical method is employed to obtain the adaptive algorithms required to tune the control parameters of the online ADSMC system. Finally, our experimental results demonstrate the precision and robustness of the ADSMC system for highly nonlinear and time-varying VAM pneumatic servo systems.

1. Control of a Stand-Alone Variable Speed Wind Energy Supply System †

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2013-04-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a simple control strategy for the operation of a variable speed stand-alone wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The PMSG is connected to a three phase resistive load through a switch mode rectifier and a voltage source inverter. Control of the generator side converter is used to achieve maximum power extraction from the available wind power. Control of the DC-DC bidirectional buck-boost converter, which is connected between batteries bank and DC-link voltage, is used to maintain the DC-link voltage at a constant value. It is also used to make the batteries bank stores the surplus of wind energy and supplies this energy to the load during a wind power shortage. The load side voltage source inverter uses a relatively complex vector control scheme to control the output load voltage in terms of amplitude and frequency. The control strategy works under wind speed variation as well as with variable load. Extensive simulation results have been performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

2. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

2010-07-01

In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

3. Wavelet-Fuzzy Speed Indirect Field Oriented Controller for Three-Phase AC Motor Drive

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Daya, Febin; Blaabjerg, Frede

2016-01-01

Three-phase voltage source inverter driven induction motor are used in many medium- and high-power applications. Precision in speed of the motor play vital role, i.e. popular methods of direct/indirect field-oriented control (FOC) are applied. FOC is employed with proportional-integral (P...... wavelet transform and the fuzzy logic controller, to generate the scaled gains for the indirect FOC induction motor. Complete model of the proposed ac motor drive is developed with numerical simulation Matlab/Simulink software and tested under different working conditions. For experimental verification...

4. Improving the speed of AFM by mechatronic design and modern control methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schitter, Georg

2009-01-01

In Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) high-performance and high-precision control of the AFM scanner and of the imaging forces is crucial. Particularly at high imaging speeds the dynamic behaviour of the scanner may cause imaging artifacts and limit the maximum imaging rate. This contribution discusses and presents recent improvements in AFM instrumentation for faster imaging by means of mechatronic design and utilizing modern control engineering methods. Combining these improvements enables AFM imaging at more than two orders of magnitudes faster than conventional AFMs. (orig.)

5. Gas Bearing Control for Safe Operation in Critical Speed Regions - Experimental Verification

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Galeazzi, Roberto

2015-01-01

supported by gas bearings to extend their operating range. Using H∞-design methods, active lubrication techniques are proposed to enhance the damping, which in turn reduces the vibrations to a desired safe level. The control design is validated experimentally on a laboratory test rig, and shown to allow...... and deceleration patterns and avoidance of operation near the critical speeds, which is a limiting factor during operation, specially during run-downs. An approach for reducing the vibrations is by feedback controlled lubrication. This paper addresses the challenge of reducing vibrations in rotating machines...

6. Minimum-Voltage Vector Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM for Low-Speed Operations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

2016-01-01

In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting...... may also be further developed to inject two opposite voltage vectors to reduce the effects of inverter voltage error on the position estimation accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other sensorless control method. Theoretical analysis and experimental...

7. Intrinsic Hardware Evolution for the Design and Reconfiguration of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

Science.gov (United States)

Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

2003-01-01

Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a second generation Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA2). The performance of an evolved controller is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. It is shown that hardware evolution is able to create a compact design that provides good performance, while using considerably less functional electronic components than the conventional design. Additionally, the use of hardware evolution to provide fault tolerance by reconfiguring the design is explored. Experimental results are presented showing that significant recovery of capability can be made in the face of damaging induced faults.

8. A Control Simulation Method of High-Speed Trains on Railway Network with Irregular Influence

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yang Lixing; Li Xiang; Li Keping

2011-01-01

Based on the discrete time method, an effective movement control model is designed for a group of highspeed trains on a rail network. The purpose of the model is to investigate the specific traffic characteristics of high-speed trains under the interruption of stochastic irregular events. In the model, the high-speed rail traffic system is supposed to be equipped with the moving-block signalling system to guarantee maximum traversing capacity of the railway. To keep the safety of trains' movements, some operational strategies are proposed to control the movements of trains in the model, including traction operation, braking operation, and entering-station operation. The numerical simulations show that the designed model can well describe the movements of high-speed trains on the rail network. The research results can provide the useful information not only for investigating the propagation features of relevant delays under the irregular disturbance but also for rerouting and rescheduling trains on the rail network. (general)

9. Second-order Sliding Mode Control of DFIG Based Variable Speed Wind Turbine for Maximum Power Point Tracking

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Xiangjie Liu; Chengcheng Wang; Yaozhen Han

2017-01-01

This paper proposes a super-twisting second order sliding mode control scheme to maximize the wind energy capture of a doubly fed induction generator based variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) system, and minimize the reactive power simultaneously. Two second order sliding mode controllers are designed to achieve the control objectives, reduce mechanical stress and improve control accuracy. By regulating the generator rotor voltage, one controller makes the wind turbine rotor speed track the optimal speed, which can maximize power generation. The other maintains the rotor current at rated value to minimize the reactive power. A quadratic form Lyapunov function is adopted to determine the range of controller parameters and guarantee the finite time stability. Simulation results on a 1.5 MW doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based variable speed wind turbine demonstrate the validity of the proposed control strategy.

10. An analytical investigation on the valve and centrifugal pump speed control with a constant differential pressure across the valve

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jung, B. R.; Joo, K. I.; Lee, B. J.; Baek, S. J.; Noh, T. S.

2003-01-01

A valve opening and centrifugal pump speed control was investigated analytically in a simple pumping system where the differential pressure across the control valve is maintained constant over the required flow range. The valve control program was derived analytically only as a function of the required flow rate to maintain the constant differential pressure across the valve. The centrifugal pump speed control program was also derived analytically for the required flow rate for the constant differential pressure across the control valve. These derivations theoretically show that the independent control is possible between the valve and pump speed in a system with a constant valve pressure drop. In addition, it was shown that a linear pump speed control is impossible in maintaining the constant valve pressure drop

11. Comparison of Sliding Mode Control and Fuzzy Logic control applied to Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Souhila Rached Zine

2015-08-01

Full Text Available wind energy features prominently as a supplementary energy booster. It does not pollute and is inexhaustible. However, its high cost is a major constraint, especially on the less windy sites. The purpose of wind energy systems is to maximize energy efficiency, and extract maximum power from the wind speed. In This case, the MPPT control becomes important. To realize this control, strategy conventional Proportional and Integral (PI controller is usually used. However, this strategy cannot achieve better performance. This paper proposes other control methods of a turbine which optimizes its production such as fuzzy logic, sliding mode control. These methods improve the quality and energy efficiency. The proposed Sliding Mode Control (SMC strategy and the fuzzy controllers have presented attractive features such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the turbine, simplicity of its design and good performances. The simulation result under Matlab\\Simulink has validated the performance of the proposed MPPT strategies.

12. Speed-constrained three-axes attitude control using kinematic steering

Science.gov (United States)

Schaub, Hanspeter; Piggott, Scott

2018-06-01

Spacecraft attitude control solutions typically are torque-level algorithms that simultaneously control both the attitude and angular velocity tracking errors. In contrast, robotic control solutions are kinematic steering commands where rates are treated as the control variable, and a servo-tracking control subsystem is present to achieve the desired control rates. In this paper kinematic attitude steering controls are developed where an outer control loop establishes a desired angular response history to a tracking error, and an inner control loop tracks the commanded body angular rates. The overall stability relies on the separation principle of the inner and outer control loops which must have sufficiently different response time scales. The benefit is that the outer steering law response can be readily shaped to a desired behavior, such as limiting the approach angular velocity when a large tracking error is corrected. A Modified Rodrigues Parameters implementation is presented that smoothly saturates the speed response. A robust nonlinear body rate servo loop is developed which includes integral feedback. This approach provides a convenient modular framework that makes it simple to interchange outer and inner control loops to readily setup new control implementations. Numerical simulations illustrate the expected performance for an aggressive reorientation maneuver subject to an unknown external torque.

13. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yun-Su Kim

2015-02-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI controller parameters. The parameters to be tuned are chosen by investigating participation factors of state variables, which simplifies the problem by reducing the number of parameters to be tuned. The process of adjusting these PI controller parameters is carried out using particle swarm optimization (PSO. To characterize the improvements in the control method due to the PSO method of tuning the PI controller parameters, the PMSG WT is modeled using the MATLAB/SimPowerSystems libraries with the obtained PI controller parameters.

14. Control and Health Monitoring of Variable Speed Wind Power Generation Systems; Period of Performance: 10 July 1997 - 10 July 2000

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Song, Y. D.; Bikdash, M.; Schulz, M. J.

2001-09-01

This document reports accomplishments on variable speed control, furling analysis, and health monitoring of wind turbines. There are three parts, prepared by Song, Bikdash, and Schulz, respectively. The first part discusses variable-speed control of wind turbines, exploring a memory-based method for wind speed prediction and wind turbine control. The second part addresses the yaw dynamics of wind turbines, including modeling, analysis, and control. The third part of the report discusses new analytical techniques that were developed and tested to detect initial damage to prevent failures of wind turbine rotor blades.

15. High-speed monodisperse droplet generation by ultrasonically controlled micro-jet breakup

Science.gov (United States)

Frommhold, Philipp Erhard; Lippert, Alexander; Holsteyns, Frank Ludwig; Mettin, Robert

2014-04-01

A liquid jet that is ejected from a nozzle into air will disintegrate into drops via the well-known Plateau-Rayleigh instability within a certain range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. With the focus on the micrometer scale, we investigate the control of this process by superimposing a suitable ultrasonic signal, which causes the jet to break up into a very precise train of monodisperse droplets. The jet leaves a pressurized container of liquid via a small orifice of about 20 μm diameter. The break-up process and the emerging droplets are recorded via high-speed imaging. An extended parameter study of exit speed and ultrasonic frequency is carried out for deionized water to evaluate the jet's state and the subsequent generation of monodisperse droplets. Maximum exit velocities obtained reach almost 120 m s-1, and frequencies have been applied up to 1.8 MHz. Functionality of the method is confirmed for five additional liquids for moderate jet velocities 38 m s-1. For the uncontrolled jet disintegration, the drop size spectra revealed broad distributions and downstream drop growth by collision, while the acoustic control generated monodisperse droplets with a standard deviation less than 0.5 %. By adjustment of the acoustic excitation frequency, drop diameters could be tuned continuously from about 30 to 50 μm for all exit speeds. Good agreement to former experiments and theoretical approaches is found for the relation of overpressure and jet exit speed, and for the observed stability regions of monodisperse droplet generation in the parameter plane of jet speed and acoustic excitation frequency. Fitting of two free parameters of the general theory to the liquids and nozzles used is found to yield an even higher precision. Furthermore, the high-velocity instability limit of regular jet breakup described by von Ohnesorge has been superseded by more than a factor of two without entering the wind-induced instability regime, and monodisperse droplet generation was

16. A novel walking speed estimation scheme and its application to treadmill control for gait rehabilitation.

Science.gov (United States)

Yoon, Jungwon; Park, Hyung-Soon; Damiano, Diane Louise

2012-08-28

17. A novel walking speed estimation scheme and its application to treadmill control for gait rehabilitation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yoon Jungwon

2012-08-01

18. New PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters for fuel cells and photovoltaics

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

2005-01-01

This paper presents a new PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters, which leads to safe commutation of the load current in the output bidirectional bridge. The proposed implementation is independent of the particular HF-link converter topology and bidirectional switch selection ...

19. The comparison of radiosensitivity of human lymphocytes stimulated with PHA Con A and PWM

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geng Yongzhi; Su Liaoyuan

1989-11-01

The transformation, DNA strand breaks and its repair ability in human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with PHA, Con A and PWM were respectively assessed following exposure to 60 Co gamma rays by 3 H-thymidine uptake and hydroxylapatite chromatography. It was showed the transformation of lymphocytes stimulated with PHA, Con A and PWM were suppressed by gamma rays and the dose-effect curves were biphase within the range of 0∼8 Gy. The lymphocytes stimulated with PWM was the most resistant to gamma rays. The extent of DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes induced by gamma rays was linearly related to the dose within the range of 0∼30 Gy and was identical in three kinds of lymphocytes. After post-irradiation incubation of 37 deg C, the DNA strand breaks could be repaired incompletely and after maxium repair the strand breaks were observed again. The repair ratio of strand breaks in the lymphocytes stimulated with PWM was the highest in the cells with three mitogens. The results showed that the difference of radiation effect on the transformation is probably related to the repair ability of DNA strand breaks

20. Step-down switched-capacitor quasi-resonant PWM converter with continuous conversion ratio

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Turhan, M.; Hendrix, M.A.M.; Duarte, J.L.

2015-01-01

Inherent disadvantages of conventional switched-capacitor converters (SCC) are their discrete conversion ratio and inefficient energy transfer. In order to soften these downsides, a step-down switched-capacitor quasi-resonant PWM converter is proposed. The operation modes and steady-state