WorldWideScience

Sample records for pv-powered electrochromic window

  1. A wide-gap a-SiC:H PV-powered electrochromic window coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, W.; Lee, S.H.; Xu, Y.; Benson, D.K.; Deb, S.K.; Branz, H.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors report on the first monolithic, amorphous-silicon-based, photovoltaic-powered electrochromic window coating. The coating employs a wide bandgap a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H n-i-p photovoltaic (PV) cell as a semitransparent power supply, and a Li{sub y}WO{sub 3}/LiAlF{sub 4}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrochromic (EC) device as an optical-transmittance modulator. The EC device is deposited directly on top of a PV cell that coats a glass substrate. The a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H PV cell has a Tauc gap of 2.2 eV and a transmittance of 60--80% over a large portion of the visible light spectrum. The authors reduced the thickness of the device to about 600 {angstrom} while maintaining a 1-sun open-circuit voltage of 0.9 V and short-circuit current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. The prototype 16 cm{sup 2} PV/EC device modulates the transmittance by more than 60% over a large portion of the visible spectrum. The coloring and bleaching times of the EC device are approximately 1 minute under normal operating conditions ({+-} 1 volt). A brief description of photoelectrochromic windows study is also given.

  2. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  3. Electrochromic windows - Applications for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Caroline S.; Greenberg, Charles B.

    1989-04-01

    A transparent, solid-state, electrochromic device is described. It demonstrates deep switching in the near infrared and visible spectral regions and good room temperature cycling stability. The response appears reasonably uniform over a 14 cm x 28 cm area, which gives hope for achieving large parts for cockpit and cabin windows. The reversible darkening of the transparency, controlled by an applied voltage or current, has potential application in aircraft to reduce glare and solar heat load to pilots and passengers. The active material in the device is a thin tungsten oxide film which is incorporated into a complex, multilayered structure, essentially that of a transparent battery. The performance of the window is discussed in terms of its configuration, its similarities with commercial batteries and issues critical to aircraft.

  4. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. (Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States)); Yu, P.C. (PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  5. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  6. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  7. A review of electrochromic window performance factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubin, M.; Lee, E.S.; Sullivan, R.; Finlayson, E.; Hopkins, D.

    1994-04-01

    The performance factors which will influence the market acceptance of electrochromic windows are reviewed. A set of data representing the optical properties of existing and foreseeable electrochromic window devices was generated. The issue of reflective versus absorbing electrochromics was explored. This data was used in the DOE 2.1 building energy model to calculate the expected energy savings compared to conventional glazings. The effects of several different control strategies were tested. Significant energy and peak electric demand benefits were obtained for some electrochromic types. Use of predictive control algorithms to optimize cooling control may result in greater energy savings. Initial economic results considering annual savings, cooling equipment cost savings, and electrochromic window costs are presented. Calculations of thermal and visual comfort show additional benefits from electrochromics but more work is needed to quantify their importance. The design freedom and aesthetic possibilities of these dynamic glazings should provide additional market benefits, but their impact is difficult to assess at this time. Ultimately, a full assessment of the market viability of electrochromics must consider the impacts of all of these issues.

  8. Predicting Electrochromic Smart Window Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerman Engfeldt, Johnny

    2012-07-01

    The building sector is one of the largest consumers of energy, where the cooling of buildings accounts for a large portion of the total energy consumption. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows have a great potential for increasing indoor comfort and saving large amounts of energy for buildings. An EC device can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested in optical absorption, i.e. the optical absorption increases with increased state-of-charge (SOC) and decreases with decreased state-of-charge. It is the EC technology's unique ability to control the absorption (transmittance) of solar energy and visible light in windows with small energy effort that can reduce buildings' cooling needs. Today, the EC technology is used to produce small windows and car rearview mirrors, and to reach the construction market it is crucial to be able to produce large area EC devices with satisfactory performance. A challenge with up-scaling is to design the EC device system with a rapid and uniform coloration (charging) and bleaching (discharging). In addition, up-scaling the EC technology is a large economic risk due to its expensive production equipment, thus making the choice of EC material and system extremely critical. Although this is a well-known issue, little work has been done to address and solve these problems. This thesis introduces a cost-efficient methodology, validated with experimental data, capable of predicting and optimizing EC device systems' performance in large area applications, such as EC smart windows. This methodology consists of an experimental set-up, experimental procedures and a two dimensional current distribution model. The experimental set-up, based on camera vision, is used in performing experimental procedures to develop and validate the model and methodology. The two-dimensional current distribution model takes secondary current distribution with charge transfer resistance, ohmic and time

  9. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)); Lampert, C.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Flexible electrochromic windows: a comparison using liquid and solid electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girotto Emerson Marcelo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, two electrochromic devices (or electrochromic windows based on intrinsically conducting polymers were assembled and characterized. For both devices, the materials used on the assembling were the same except for the electrolyte layer. In the first, we used as electrolyte a propylene carbonate solution and in the second the elastomer poly(epichlorohydrin-co-ethylene oxide, both containing LiClO4. The conductivity of the liquid electrolyte (10-3 S cm-1 is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than for the solid electrolyte and we obtained very good electrochromic properties in both cases. The calculated electrochromic efficiency at 640 nm was 700 C cm-2 for the liquid electrolyte device and 360 C cm-2 for the solid state device. Solid state electrochromic windows have been investigated and some of its advantages over windows with liquid electrolytes are discussed.

  11. Reducing residential cooling requirements through the use of electrochromic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in a prototypical residential building under a variety of state switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling energy and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. A single-story ranch-style home located in the cooling-dominated locations of Miami, FL and Phoenix, AZ was simulated. Electrochromic control strategies analyzed were based on incident total solar radiation, space cooling load, and outside air temperature. Our results show that an electrochromic material with a high reflectance in the colored state provides the best performance for all control strategies. On the other hand, electrochromic switching using space cooling load provides the best performance for all the electrochromic materials. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategy varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); i.e., required cooling decreases as the setpoint range decreases; also, performance differences among electrochromics increases. The setpoint range of outside air temperature control of electrochromics must relate to the ambient weather conditions prevalent in a particular location. If the setpoint range is too large, electrochromic cooling performance is very poor. Electrochromics compare favorably to conventional low-E clear glazings that have high solar heat gain coefficients that are used with overhangs. However, low-E tinted glazings with low solar heat gain coefficients can outperform certain electrochromics. Overhangs should be considered as a design option for electrochromics whose state properties do not change significantly between bleached and colored states.

  12. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Clear, Robert D.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph H.; Fernandes, Luis L.; Ward, GregJ.; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2006-05-01

    Switchable variable-tint electrochromic (EC) windows preserve view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains. Consumers will require objective information on the risks and benefits of this emerging technology as it enters the market in 2006. This guide provides such information and data derived from a wide variety of simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area EC windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. This design guide is provided to architects, engineers, building owners, and others interested in electrochromic windows. The design guide provides basic information about what is an electrochromic window, what it looks like, how fast does it switch, and what current product offerings are. The guide also provides information on performance benefits if more mature product offerings were available.

  13. Thin film electrochromic materials for energy efficient windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    Numerous inorganic and organic electrochromic materials are discussed in the context of developing a thin film energy efficient window. By use of electrochromic thin films, it is possible electronically to control transmission or reflection properties of a window, thus allowing it to be optically and thermally managed, thereby reducing space heating and cooling load. The properties of transition metal oxides, such as WO/sub 3/, MoO/sub 3/, Ir/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ are detailed. Organic systems such as Heptyl Viologen, Polytungsten anion are reviewed. Also, intercalated structures are discussed. The designs of working devices are outlined. From this quantification, materials, devices, and appropriate deposition technology are selected for window applications.

  14. Electrochromic materials and devices for energy efficient windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1984-10-01

    Numerous inorganic and organic electrochromic materials are discussed in the context of developing a film-based optical shutter for a window application. It is possible electronically to alter a window's transmission and reflection properties by use of electrochromic thin films. This allows regulation of conductive and radiative heat transfer rates, with variable optical attenuation. As a result, an aperture can be optically and thermally managed, reducing space heating and cooling loads. The properties of transition metal oxides are detailed. Organic systems such as heptyl viologen and polytungsten anion are reviewed. Also, intercalated structures are discussed. Various designs of working devices are outlined with emphasis on solid-state configurations. From this quantification, materials and devices with appropriate deposition techniques for window applications are detailed.

  15. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  16. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Eleanor S. Lee; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windo...

  17. Thin film electrochromic materials for energy efficient windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, C. M.

    1980-10-01

    By use of electrochromic thin films, it is possible electronically to control transmission or reflection properties of a window, thus allowing it to be optically and thermally managed, thereby reducing space heating and cooling load. The properties of transition metal oxides, such as WO3, MoO3, Ir2O3, and V2O5 are detailed. Organic systems such as Heptyl Viologen, Polytungsten anion are reviewed. Also, intercalated structures are discussed. The designs of working devices are outlined. From this quantification, materials, devices, and appropriate deposition technology are selected for window applications.

  18. Characterization of an all solid-state electrochromic window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonazzi, Juan C. L.; Valla, Bruno; Macedo, Marcelo A.; Baudry, Paul; Aegerter, Michel A.; Martins Rodrigues, Ana C.; Bulhoes, Luis O.

    1990-11-01

    Sol-gel cerium - titanium oxide layers present potential application as transparent counter-electrode (ion storage layer) in electrochromic windows and mirrors using lithium conducting electrolyte and W03 electrochromic coating. The precursor sol, prepared by mixing Ti(OPri)4 and Ce(N03)6 (NH4)2 in ethanol, is initially dark red and becomes transparent after a few days aging indicating the presence of Ce3 complexes. The layers have been obtained by dip coating technique and heat treated at 4509C during 15 minutes.They have been characterized by XRD, SIMS, optical absorption and electrochemical techniques; it is shown that the electrochemical reaction corresponds to a reversible insertion-extraction oflithium ions within a Ti02 amorphous film containing small Ce02 crystallites. At low sweep frequencies the process is controlled by a diffusion mechanism (DLi ~= 6.4 lOl2cm2/s at 259C). Characterizations of an all solid state electrochromic window/glass/JTO/ W03/ POE-Li N (502 CF3)2 1 Ti02 - Ce02 I ITO I glass I are also presented.

  19. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a

  20. Laminated electrochromic windows based on nickel oxide, tungsten oxide, and gel electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passerini, S.; Scrosati, B.; Hermann, V. (Univ. di Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica); Holmblad, C.; Bartlett, T. (Medtronic Promeon, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The characteristic and the performance of solid-state, laminated electrochromic windows using tungsten oxide as the principal electrochromic electrode and nonstoichiometric nickel oxide as the counterelectrode separated by selected gel electrolytes, are presented and discussed. These advanced-design, electro-optical devices show a very promising behavior in terms of light modulation and cyclability.

  1. Office worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinzi, Michele [ENEA UDA Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Rome (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Electrochromic (EC) windows for building applications are a major issue within the built environment scientist community. A building envelope equipped with electro-optical glasses makes it possible to improve both its energy performance and the visual environment of the occupants. EC windows act as active components which can modulate the solar light flux input in order to attain energy saving. They also provide a better visual environment and a sensible cut of glare phenomena. A full-scale user response experiment was set up in order to test how EC windows work in practice. A scale 1:1 room was equipped with commercial EC devices and 30 people were brought there to work for a definite time period. The participants followed a short training course in order to get accustomed to the manual control systems through which EC glazing coloration depth, electric lighting, and insertion of a semi-transparent blind can be regulated. During the experiment, they were to fill a questionnaire previously developed ad hoc. Relevant indoor and outdoor parameters were continuously monitored and the measured data were used to cross check with the questionnaire answers. The analysis of the collected data provided significant outcomes in relation to the user's behaviour and preferences, thus allowing a preliminary evaluation of building integrated EC glazing system performance. (author)

  2. Preliminary Assessment of the Energy-Saving Potential of Electrochromic Windows in Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    Electrochromic windows provide variable tinting that can help control glare and solar heat gain. We used BEopt software to evaluate their performance in prototypical energy models of a single-family home.

  3. BIPV-powered smart windows utilizing photovoltaic and electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC) stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/Ta(2)O(5)/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V). The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750-1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  4. BIPV-Powered Smart Windows Utilizing Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO3/Ta2O5/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V. The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750–1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  5. Electrochromic Asymmetric Supercapacitor Windows Enable Direct Determination of Energy Status by the Naked Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Chai, Zhisheng; Liang, Zhimin; Sun, Peng; Xie, Weiguang; Zhao, Chuanxi; Mai, Wenjie

    2017-09-19

    Because of the popularity of smart electronics, multifunctional energy storage devices, especially electrochromic supercapacitors (SCs), have attracted tremendous research interest. Herein, a solid-state electrochromic asymmetric SC (ASC) window is designed and fabricated by introducing WO3 and polyaniline as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. The two complementary materials contribute to the outstanding electrochemical and electrochromic performances of the fabricated device. With an operating voltage window of 1.4 V and an areal capacitance of 28.3 mF cm(-2), the electrochromic devices show a high energy density of 7.7 × 10(-3) mW h cm(-2). Meanwhile, they exhibit an obvious and reversible color transition between light green (uncharged state) and dark blue (charged state), with an optical transmittance change between 55 and 12% at a wavelength of 633 nm. Hence, the energy storage level of the ASC is directly related to its color and can be determined by the naked eye, which means it can be incorporated with other energy cells to visual display their energy status. Particularly, a self-powered and color-indicated system is achieved by combining the smart windows with commercial solar cell panels. We believe that the novel electrochromic ASC windows will have great potential application for both smart electronics and smart buildings.

  6. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  7. Nanostructured electrochromic smart windows: traditional materials and NIR-selective plasmonic nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan L; Llordés, Anna; Lounis, Sebastien D; Milliron, Delia J

    2014-09-21

    Electrochromic devices, which dynamically change colour under applied potential, are widely studied for use in energy-efficient smart windows. To improve the viability of smart windows, many researchers are utilizing nanomaterials, which can provide electrochromic devices with improved colouration efficiencies, faster switching times, longer cycle lives, and potentially reduced costs. In an effort to demonstrate a new type of electrochromic device that goes beyond the capabilities of commonly used electrochromic materials, researchers have turned to plasmonic transparent conductive oxide (TCO) nanocrystals. Electrochemical injection of electrons into plasmonic TCO nanocrystal films induces a shift in the plasmon frequency and gives rise to the new functionality of selective optical modulation in the near-infrared region of the solar spectrum. These nanocrystals can be used as building blocks to enable creation of advanced electrochromic devices containing mesoporous electrodes or nanocrystal-in-glass composites. Such devices have been important in advancing the field towards achieving the ideal smart window with independent control over visible and NIR transmittance.

  8. Nanostructured electrochromic smart windows: traditional materials and NIR-selective plasmonic nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runnerstrom, EL; Llordes, A; Lounis, SD; Milliron, DJ

    2014-06-04

    Electrochromic devices, which dynamically change colour under applied potential, are widely studied for use in energy-efficient smart windows. To improve the viability of smart windows, many researchers are utilizing nanomaterials, which can provide electrochromic devices with improved colouration efficiencies, faster switching times, longer cycle lives, and potentially reduced costs. In an effort to demonstrate a new type of electrochromic device that goes beyond the capabilities of commonly used electrochromic materials, researchers have turned to plasmonic transparent conductive oxide (TCO) nanocrystals. Electrochemical injection of electrons into plasmonic TCO nanocrystal films induces a shift in the plasmon frequency and gives rise to the new functionality of selective optical modulation in the near-infrared region of the solar spectrum. These nanocrystals can be used as building blocks to enable creation of advanced electrochromic devices containing mesoporous electrodes or nanocrystal-in-glass composites. Such devices have been important in advancing the field towards achieving the ideal smart window with independent control over visible and NIR transmittance.

  9. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  10. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  11. The energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual heating, cooling and lighting energy use and performance as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Madison, Wisconsin. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. The results show that overall energy performance is best if the electrochromic is left in its clear or bleached state during the heating season, but controlled during the cooling season using daylight illuminance as a control strategy. Even in such heating dominated locations as madison, there is still a well-defined cooling season when electrochromic switching will be beneficial. However, having the electrochromic remain in its bleached state during the winter season may result in glare and visual comfort problems for occupants much in the same way as conventional glazings.

  12. Electrochromic materials and devices for energy-efficient windows. [161 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1984-02-01

    Numerous inorganic and organic electrochromic materials are discussed in the context of developing a film-based optical shutter for a window application. It is possible electronically to alter a window's transmission and reflection properties by use of electrochromic thin films. This allows regulation of conductive and radiative heat transfer rates, with variable optical attenuation. As a result, an aperture can be optically and thermally managed, reducing space heating and cooling loads. The properties of transition metal oxides, such as WO/sub 3/, MoO/sub 3/, Ir/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, are detailed. Organic systems, such as heptyl viologen and polytungsten anion, are reviewed. Also, intercalated structures are discussed. Various designs of working devices are outlined with emphasis on solid-state configurations. From this quantification, materials and devices with appropriate deposition techniques for window applications are detailed. 161 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Effect of switching control strategies on the energy performance of electrochromic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Papamichael, K.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Building Technologies Program

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electricity use and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated location of Blythe, California. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. Their results show that when a daylighting strategy is used to reduce electrical lighting requirements, control algorithms based on daylight illuminance results in the best overall annual energy performance. If daylighting is not a design option, controls based on space cooling load yield the best performance through solar heat gain reduction. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategies varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); for small to moderate window sizes which result in small to moderate solar gains, a large setpoint-range was best since it provides increased illuminance for daylighting without much cooling penalty; for larger window sizes, which provide adequate daylight, a small setpoint-range was best to reduce unwanted solar heat gains and the consequential increased cooling requirement. Of particular importance is the fact that reduction in peak electric demand was found to be independent of the type of control strategy used for electrochromic switching. This is because the electrochromics are generally in their most colored state under peak conditions, and the mechanism used for achieving such a state is not important.

  14. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops.

  15. Performance of an electrochromic window based on polyaniline, prussian blue and tungsten oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelle, Bjoern Petter; Hagen, Georg [Department of Electrochemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, N-7034 Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-15

    In our laboratory various electrochromic windows (ECWs) have been investigated using mainly tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), polyaniline (PANI) and prussian blue (PB) as electrochromic materials in combination with poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propane-sulphonic acid) (PAMPS) as a solid proton-conducting electrolyte. The ECWs have been characterized by AC-impedance, linear sweep voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies in the 290-3300 nm spectral region. The ECWs have the following general multilayered structure: Glass/ITO/EC1/IC/EC2/ITO/Glass, where ITO=indium oxide doped with tin, IC=ionic conductor, EC1 is either PANI or PANI including PB, and EC2 is WO{sub 3}. The best of these ECWs has been able to regulate up to 56% (typical 50%) of the transmission of the total solar energy in the 290-3300 nm spectral range. The combination of the two electrochromic materials PANI and PB has been shown to be mutually beneficial in such a way that the coloration of the window is enhanced by the addition of a layer of PB onto PANI, while the adhesion of PB is improved by the presence of PANI. The energy consumption of the ECW is about 0.01 Wh/m{sup 2} for one complete cycle (-1.8 V/1.2 V). The switching time for 90% colouring/bleaching is typically 10-30 s. A PANI/PB//WO{sub 3} window has been operated for about 50 days (=3700 complete cycles) without substantial loss of transmission regulation, though with an increase in switching time (10 min.). Spectra from individual layers in the ECWs have been recorded by making holes in one or two of the electrochromic layers. In this way (the hole method), it has been possible to study the transmission regulation properties for each electrochromic material separately in complete solid state windows. In addition, spectra for complete windows have been simulated by adding contributions from individual electrochromic layers

  16. A bi-functional device for self-powered electrochromic window and self-rechargeable transparent battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Le; Jiao, Zhihui; Xie, Huaqing; Lou, Xiong Wen (David); Wei Sun, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Electrochromic smart windows are regarded as a good choice for green buildings. However, conventional devices need external biases to operate, which causes additional energy consumption. Here we report a self-powered electrochromic window, which can be used as a self-rechargeable battery. We use aluminium to reduce Prussian blue (PB, blue in colour) to Prussian white (PW, colourless) in potassium chloride electrolyte, realizing a device capable of self-bleaching. Interestingly, the device can be self-recovered (gaining blue appearance again) by simply disconnecting the aluminium and PB electrodes, which is due to the spontaneous oxidation of PW to PB by the dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution. The self-operated bleaching and colouration suggest another important function of the device: a self-rechargeable transparent battery. Thus the PB/aluminium device we report here is bifunctional, that is, it is a self-powered electrochromic window as well as a self-rechargeable transparent battery.

  17. A bi-functional device for self-powered electrochromic window and self-rechargeable transparent battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Le; Jiao, Zhihui; Xie, Huaqing; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-09-23

    Electrochromic smart windows are regarded as a good choice for green buildings. However, conventional devices need external biases to operate, which causes additional energy consumption. Here we report a self-powered electrochromic window, which can be used as a self-rechargeable battery. We use aluminium to reduce Prussian blue (PB, blue in colour) to Prussian white (PW, colourless) in potassium chloride electrolyte, realizing a device capable of self-bleaching. Interestingly, the device can be self-recovered (gaining blue appearance again) by simply disconnecting the aluminium and PB electrodes, which is due to the spontaneous oxidation of PW to PB by the dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution. The self-operated bleaching and colouration suggest another important function of the device: a self-rechargeable transparent battery. Thus the PB/aluminium device we report here is bifunctional, that is, it is a self-powered electrochromic window as well as a self-rechargeable transparent battery.

  18. Electrochromic Window Demonstration at the Donna Land Port of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thanachareonkit, Anothai [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) Public Buildings Service (PBS) has jurisdiction, custody or control over 105 land ports of entry throughout the United States, 35 of which are located along the southern border. At these facilities, one of the critical functions of windows is to provide border control personnel with direct visual contact with the surrounding environment. This also can be done through surveillance cameras, but the high value that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CPB) officers place on direct visual contact can be encapsulated in the following statement by a senior officer regarding this project: “nothing replaces line of sight.” In sunny conditions, however, outdoor visibility can be severely compromised by glare, especially when the orb of the sun is in the field of view. This often leads to the deployment of operable shading devices, such as Venetian blinds. While these devices address the glare, they obstruct the view of the surroundings, negating the visual security benefits of the windows.

  19. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  20. Mixed Nanostructured Ti-W Oxides Films for Efficient Electrochromic Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nang Dinh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to enhance the electrochromic (EC efficiency and electrochemical stability of electrochromic devices (ECD, mixed nanostructured TiO2/WO3 films were prepared by an electrochemical deposition method with the purpose of adding WO3 nanoparticles to porous nanocrystalline doctor-blade TiO2 (nc-TiO2 films. The results of the characterization of electrochromic properties in 1 M LiClO4 + propylene carbonate (LiClO4 + PC of both the nc-TiO2/F-doped tin oxide (FTO and WO3/TiO2/FTO configurations showed the reversible coloration and bleaching of the ECDs. The response time of the ECD coloration of WO3/TiO2/FTO was found to be as small as 2 sec, and its coloration efficiency (CE as high as 35.7 cm2 × C−1. By inserting WO3 nanoparticles into the porous TiO2 structures, WO3/TiO2 heterojunctions were formed in the films, consequently enabling both the CE and electrochemical stability of the working electrodes to be considerably enhanced. Since a large-area WO3/TiO2 can be prepared by the doctor-blade technique followed by the electrochemical deposition process, mixed nanostructured Ti-W oxides electrodes constitute a good candidate for smart window applications, taking advantage of the excellent coloration and stability properties as well as the simple and economical fabrication process involved.

  1. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  2. Motion-driven electrochromic reactions for self-powered smart window system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Min-Hsin; Lin, Long; Yang, Po-Kang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-05-26

    The self-powered system is a promising concept for wireless networks due to its independent and sustainable operations without an external power source. To realize this idea, the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) was recently invented, which can effectively convert ambient mechanical energy into electricity to power up portable electronics. In this work, a self-powered smart window system was realized through integrating an electrochromic device (ECD) with a transparent TENG driven by blowing wind and raindrops. Driven by the sustainable output of the TENG, the optical properties, especially the transmittance of the ECD, display reversible variations due to electrochemical redox reactions. The maximum transmittance change at 695 nm can be reached up to 32.4%, which is comparable to that operated by a conventional electrochemical potentiostat (32.6%). This research is a substantial advancement toward the practical application of nanogenerators and self-powered systems.

  3. Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Svetlana V; Beaujuge, Pierre M; Wang, Shujun; Babiarz, Joseph E; Ballarotto, Vincent W; Reynolds, John R

    2011-04-01

    Black-to-transmissive switching polymer electrochromic devices (ECDs) were designed using a set of spray-processable cathodically coloring polymers, a non-color-changing electroactive polymer poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate) (PTMA) as the charge-compensating counter electrode, and a highly conducting gel electrolyte (6.5 mS cm(-1)). The color "black" was obtained by utilizing (1) individual copolymers absorbing across the visible spectrum, and (2) blends and bilayers of several polymer electrochromes with complementary spectral absorption. Neutral-state black and ink-like dark purple-blue (or "ink-black") donor-acceptor (DA) copolymers composed of the electron-donor 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) and the electron-acceptor 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD) building units, which possess relatively homogeneous absorption profiles across the visible spectrum, were chosen for their propensity to switch to transmissive states upon electrochemical oxidation. A blend of magenta and cyan polymers (PProDOT-(CH(2)OEtHx)(2) and P(ProDOT-BTD-ProDOT), respectively) was produced with the goal of generating the same dark purple-blue color as that obtained with the "ink-black" DA copolymer. While the multi-polymer ECDs demonstrate high contrasts (up to 50%T), and switch from a saturated purple-blue color (L*=32, a*=13, b*=-46) to a light green-blue transmissive state (L*=83, a*=-3, b*=-6), devices made with the DA electrochromic copolymers switch more than two times faster (0.7 s to attain 95% of the full optical change) than those involving the polymer blends (1.6 s), and exhibit more neutral achromatic colors (L*=38, a*=5, b*=-25 for the colored state and L*=87, a*=-3, b*=-2 for the bleached state, correspondingly). The results obtained suggest that these materials should prove to be applicable in both transmissive- (window-type) and reflective-type ECDs. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. A Pilot Demonstration of Electrochromic and Thermochromic Windows in the Denver Federal Center, Building 41, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goudey, Chad Howdy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jonsson, Carl Jacob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Curcija, D. Charlie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pang, Xiufeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiBartolomeo, Dennis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Chromogenic glazing materials are emerging technologies that tint reversibly from a clear to dark tinted state either passively in response to environmental conditions or actively in response to a command from a switch or building automation system. Switchable coatings on glass manage solar radiation and visible light while enabling unobstructed views to the outdoors. Building energy simulations estimate that actively controlled, near-term chromogenic glazings can reduce perimeter zone heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) and lighting energy use by 10-20% and reduce peak electricity demand by 20-30%, achieving energy use levels that are lower than an opaque, insulated wall. This project demonstrates the use of two types of chromogenic windows: thermochromic and electrochromic windows. By 2013, these windows will begin production in the U.S. by multiple vendors at high-volume manufacturing plants, enabling lower cost and larger area window products to be specified. Both technologies are in the late R&D stage of development, where cost reductions and performance improvements are underway. Electrochromic windows have been installed in numerous buildings over the past four years, but monitored energy-efficiency performance has been independently evaluated in very limited applications. Thermochromic windows have been installed in one other building with an independent evaluation, but results have not yet been made public.

  5. Toward Plastic Smart Windows: Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for the Synthesis of Electrochromic Devices on Polycarbonate Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Garino, Nadia; Virga, Alessandro; Pirri, Candido F; Mandracci, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Plastic smart windows are becoming one of the key elements in view of the fabrication of inexpensive, lightweight electrochromic (EC) devices to be integrated in the new generation of high-energy-efficiency buildings and automotive applications. However, fabricating electrochromic devices on polymer substrates requires a reduction of process temperature, so in this work we focus on the development of a completely room-temperature deposition process aimed at the preparation of ITO-coated polycarbonate (PC) structures acting as transparent and conductive plastic supports. Without providing any substrate heating or surface activation pretreatments of the polymer, different deposition conditions are used for growing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films by the radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. According to the characterization results, the set of optimal deposition parameters is selected to deposit ITO electrodes having high optical transmittance in the visible range (∼90%) together with low sheet resistance (∼8 ohm/sq). The as-prepared ITO/PC structures are then successfully tested as conductive supports for the fabrication of plastic smart windows. To this purpose, tungsten trioxide thin films are deposited by the reactive sputtering technique on the ITO/PC structures, and the resulting single electrode EC devices are characterized by chronoamperometric experiments and cyclic voltammetry. The fast switching response between colored and bleached states, together with the stability and reversibility of their electrochromic behavior after several cycling tests, are considered to be representative of the high quality of the EC film but especially of the ITO electrode. Indeed, even if no adhesion promoters, additional surface activation pretreatments, or substrate heating were used to promote the mechanical adhesion among the electrode and the PC surface, the observed EC response confirmed that the developed materials can be successfully employed for the

  6. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  7. Color purity in polymer electrochromic window devices on indium-tin oxide and single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Svetlana V; Unur, Ece; Walczak, Ryan M; Donoghue, Evan P; Rinzler, Andrew G; Reynolds, John R

    2009-10-01

    Dual polymer absorptive/transmissive electrochromic (EC) window devices have been assembled using the solution-processable and high-EC-contrast polymer PProDOT-(CH(2)OEtHx)(2) as the EC material, along with a non-color-changing electroactive polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate) (PTMA), as the counter electrode material. Indium-tin oxide (ITO) and highly transmissive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) film coated glass electrodes are used as electrode substrates. The use of the EC/non-color-changing polymer combination allowed us to construct window devices that rapidly switch between magenta and highly transmissive (>95% T for ITO and approximately 79% T for SWNT) states with large optical modulation (>71% DeltaT for ITO and 66% DeltaT for SWNT). The devices showed effective coloration and bleaching: the lightness parameter (L*) changing from 67 to 95 for ITO (approximately 50-92 for SWNT), essentially reaching a diffuse white upon oxidation. The color modulates from highly pure magenta with a* = 28 (red hue) and b* = -28 (blue chroma) for ITO (a* = 40 and b* = -36 for SWNT) to nearly colorless with a* = 1 and b* = -1 for ITO (a* = -2 and b* = -3 for SWNT) devices. Increasing the switching voltage from 2.55 V up to 3.5 V resulted in faster SWNT-based window device performance.

  8. Pairing of near-ultraviolet solar cells with electrochromic windows for smart management of the solar spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Nicholas C.; Sezen-Edmonds, Melda; Gao, Jia; Lin, Xin; Liu, Amy; Yao, Nan; Kahn, Antoine; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Current smart window technologies offer dynamic control of the optical transmission of the visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum to reduce lighting, heating and cooling needs in buildings and to improve occupant comfort. Solar cells harvesting near-ultraviolet photons could satisfy the unmet need of powering such smart windows over the same spatial footprint without competing for visible or infrared photons, and without the same aesthetic and design constraints. Here, we report organic single-junction solar cells that selectively harvest near-ultraviolet photons, produce open-circuit voltages eclipsing 1.6 V and exhibit scalability in power generation, with active layers (10 cm2) substantially larger than those typical of demonstration organic solar cells (0.04-0.2 cm2). Integration of these solar cells with a low-cost, polymer-based electrochromic window enables intelligent management of the solar spectrum, with near-ultraviolet photons powering the regulation of visible and near-infrared photons for natural lighting and heating purposes.

  9. Stimulus-Responsive Micro-Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Energy Density and Reversible Electrochromic Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panpan; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Faxing; Wang, Jinhui; Dong, Renhao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Schmidt, Oliver G; Feng, Xinliang

    2017-02-01

    Stimulus-responsive micro-supercapacitors (SR-MSCs) with ultrahigh volumetric energy density and reversible electrochromic effect are successfully fabricated by employing a vanadium pentoxide and electrochemical exfoliated graphene-based hybrid nanopaper and viologen as electrode and stimulus-responsive material, respectively. The fabricated high-performance SR-MSCs offer new opportunities for intuitively observing the working state of energy devices without the aid of extra equipment and techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Roll-to-Roll Production of Transparent Silver-Nanofiber-Network Electrodes for Flexible Electrochromic Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Bai, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haiyang; Wang, Haolun; Song, Jianan; Huang, Kai; Wang, Chang; Wang, Ning; Li, Bo; Lei, Ming; Wu, Hui

    2017-09-11

    Electrochromic smart windows (ECSWs) are considered as the most promising alternative to traditional dimming devices. However, the electrode technology in ECSWs remains stagnant, wherein inflexible indium tin oxide and fluorine-doped tin oxide are the main materials being used. Although various complicated production methods, such as high-temperature calcination and sputtering, have been reported, the mass production of flexible and transparent electrodes remains challenging. Here, a nonheated roll-to-roll process is developed for the continuous production of flexible, extralarge, and transparent silver nanofiber (AgNF) network electrodes. The optical and mechanical properties, as well as the electrical conductivity of these products (i.e., 12 Ω sq(-1) at 95% transmittance) are comparable with those AgNF networks produced via high-temperature sintering. Moreover, the as-prepared AgNF network is successfully assembled into an A4-sized ECSW with short switching time, good coloration efficiency, and flexibility. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Development of electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka, A

    2009-01-01

    Electrochromic devices (ECD) are systems of considerable commercial interest due to their controllable transmission, absorption and/or reflectance. For instance, these devices are mainly applied to glare attenuation in automobile rearview mirrors and also in some smart windows that can regulate the solar gains of buildings. Other possible applications of ECDs include solar cells, small- and large-area flat panel displays, and frozen food monitoring and document authentication also are of great interest. Over the past 20 years almost 1000 patents and 1500 papers in journals and proceedings have been published with the key words "electrochromic windows". Most of these documents report on materials for electrochromic devices and only some of them about complete electrochromic devices. This paper describes the first patents and some of the recent ones on ECDs, whose development is possible due to the advances in nanotechnology.

  12. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  13. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  14. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  15. Coloured electrochromic windows based on nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films modified by adsorbed redox chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinnsealach, Rachel; Boschloo, Gerrit; Nagaraja Rao, S.; Fitzmaurice, Donald [Department of Chemistry, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    1999-02-12

    A series of viologens has been synthesised, characterised and tested for their suitability as redox chromophores in electrochromic devices. These viologens contain a phosphonic acid moiety and are irreversibly adsorbed at a transparent nanoporous-nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} electrode. An electrochromic device consisting of a sandwich of a viologen-modified TiO{sub 2} electrode/electrolyte ({gamma}-butyrolactone, 0.05M LiClO{sub 4}, 0.05M ferrocene)/conducting glass shows excellent electrochromic properties: fast switching times (1-2 s), large changes in absorbance, high colouration efficiencies (up to =200 cm{sup 2}/C) and good long-term stability (>10 000 cycles). Further, the colour changes from transparent or a faint yellow to either a deep blue or a deep green, depending on the nature of the viologen

  16. Managing PV Power on Mars - MER Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Chin, Keith; Wood, Eric; Herman, Jennifer; Ewell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The MER Rovers have recently completed over 5 years of operation! This is a remarkable demonstration of the capabilities of PV power on the Martian surface. The extended mission required the development of an efficient process to predict the power available to the rovers on a day-to-day basis. The performance of the MER solar arrays is quite unlike that of any other Space array and perhaps more akin to Terrestrial PV operation, although even severe by that comparison. The impact of unpredictable factors, such as atmospheric conditions and dust accumulation (and removal) on the panels limits the accurate prediction of array power to short time spans. Based on the above, it is clear that long term power predictions are not sufficiently accurate to allow for detailed long term planning. Instead, the power assessment is essentially a daily activity, effectively resetting the boundary points for the overall predictive power model. A typical analysis begins with the importing of the telemetry from each rover's previous day's power subsystem activities. This includes the array power generated, battery state-of-charge, rover power loads, and rover orientation, all as functions of time. The predicted performance for that day is compared to the actual performance to identify the extent of any differences. The model is then corrected for these changes. Details of JPL's MER power analysis procedure are presented, including the description of steps needed to provide the final prediction for the mission planners. A dust cleaning event of the solar array is also highlighted to illustrate the impact of Martian weather on solar array performance

  17. Electrochromic glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of large-area electrochromic glazing is reviewed with respect to device configuration and materials employed. Device configurations including electrochromic solutions and solid state electrochromic layers are discussed as well as novel user-controlled photochromic and gasochromic devices.

  18. Properties of the Transmitted Beam and Diffuse Solar Radiation for the Electrochromic Window%电致变色玻璃窗太阳辐射透过特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峥嵘; 徐伟鹏

    2014-01-01

    This paper adopts the EnergyPlus software to analyze the properties of the transmitted beam and diffuse solar radiation for the electrochromic window in five climate zones, as well as the clear glass window and the Low-e window. The control strategy of the electrochromic window is glare control. The Low-e’s transmitted solar radiation decrease about 50% compared with the clear glass window. The ratio of total transmitted solar radiation of the clear window and electrochromic window is from 9.5 to 18. Compared with the diffuse solar radiation, the eletrochromic window has a greater effect on the transmitted beam under glare control strategy. The glare phenomenon can be completely eliminated in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Kunming, while not in Harbin and Beijing.%以白玻璃窗、Low-e玻璃窗、电致变色玻璃窗为研究对象,通过EnergyPlus软件模拟,分析了采用眩光控制的电致变色玻璃窗在不同气候区对太阳直射辐射透过量以及散射辐射透过量的影响。Low-e玻璃窗太阳辐射透过量约为白玻璃窗的1/2。白玻璃窗总辐射透过量与电致变色玻璃窗的透过量的比值范围为9.5~18,相对于散射辐射透过量,电致变色玻璃对直射辐射透过量的影响较大。在上海、广州、昆明可完全消除眩光,而哈尔滨和北京仍然存在眩光现象。

  19. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  20. Light and Thermal Control Performance of Electrochromic Windows in a Meeting Room%电致变色玻璃对办公建筑室内光热环境的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峥嵘; 句俊玲

    2016-01-01

    Electrochromic(EC) windows are initiated at a window systems test bed in Minhang, Shanghai. The new facility consists of two same meeting rooms with entire-area windows that face south. In one room, EC windows with a visible transmittance Tv range of 0.01~0.59 were installed. In the other room, Low-e glass windows were installed. There were inside shades installed in both rooms. The study analyses the performance of electrochromic windows in daylighting and thermal environment control. It also compares the effects with Low-e glass windows and inside shade. The results show that electrochromic windows can provide more uniform, stable and comfortable indoor thermal environment when it is not in air conditioning condition. What’s more, electrochromic windows can control indoor illumination within a certain range, which is especially suitable for the office building.%将电致变色玻璃实物安装于上海闵行一实验台进行测试。这个实验台包括2个几乎相同的办公建筑会议室,南侧是玻璃窗。其中一个会议室安装电致变色玻璃,可见光透过率为0.01~0.59,另一个会议室安装 Low-e 玻璃。2个房间均安装了内遮阳帘。研究中分析了电致变色玻璃对室内光环境和热环境的控制效果,同时,与安装 Low-e 玻璃和内遮阳的会议室的光、热效果进行对比。结果表明,非空调工况时,电致变色玻璃能够提供更均匀、稳定和舒适的室内热环境;同时,电致变色玻璃能够控制室内照度在一定范围内,特别适用于办公建筑室内光环境的舒适性。

  1. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for PV Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso;

    2012-01-01

    and Distribution System Operators (DSOs) had to keep the safety and reliability of the network under strict rules and regulations. The aim of the paper is to realize a survey of recent Grid Codes (GC) and regulations for grid connected PV systems. The focus is on grid interface requirements, power quality concerns...... and Anti-Islanding (AI) issues regarding PV systems connected to low voltage (LV) and medium voltage (MV) levels of the network.......The challenge to bring down the cost of produced photovoltaic (PV) power had a major impact on the PV market and in consequence the grid operators experienced higher and higher PV power penetration. The growing share of this decentralized generation plants started to affect the grid stability...

  2. Next-Generation Multifunctional Electrochromic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-08-16

    The rational design and exploration of electrochromic devices will find a wide range of applications in smart windows for energy-efficient buildings, low-power displays, self-dimming rear mirrors for automobiles, electrochromic e-skins, and so on. Electrochromic devices generally consist of multilayer structures with transparent conductors, electrochromic films, ion conductors, and ion storage films. Synthetic strategies and new materials for electrochromic films and transparent conductors, comprehensive electrochemical kinetic analysis, and novel device design are areas of active study worldwide. These are believed to be the key factors that will help to significantly improve the electrochromic performance and extend their application areas. In this Account, we present our strategies to design and fabricate electrochromic devices with high performance and multifunctionality. We first describe the synthetic strategies, in which a porous tungsten oxide (WO3) film with nearly ideal optical modulation and fast switching was prepared by a pulsed electrochemical deposition method. Multiple strategies, such as sol-gel/inkjet printing methods, hydrothermal/inkjet printing methods, and a novel hybrid transparent conductor/electrochromic layer have been developed to prepare high-performance electrochromic films. We then summarize the recent advances in transparent conductors and ion conductor layers, which play critial roles in electrochromic devices. Benefiting from the developments of soft transparent conductive substrates, highly deformable electrochromic devices that are flexible, foldable, stretchable, and wearable have been achieved. These emerging devices have great potential in applications such as soft displays, electrochromic e-skins, deformable electrochromic films, and so on. We finally present a concept of multifunctional smart glass, which can change its color to dynamically adjust the daylight and solar heat input of the building or protect the users' privacy

  3. Red to blue high electrochromic contrast and rapid switching poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole)-Au/Ag nanocomposite devices for smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Aneeta; Deepa, Melepurath; Joshi, Amish G; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2011-04-18

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) (PEDOP)-Ag and PEDOP-Au nanocomposite films have been synthesized for the first time by electropolymerization of the conducting-polymer precursor in a waterproof ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, followed by Ag/Au nanoparticle incorporation. That the Ag/Au nanoparticles are not adventitious entities in the film is confirmed by a) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which provides evidence of Ag/Au-PEDOP interactions through chemical shifts of the Ag/Au core levels and new signals due to Ag-N(H) and Au-N(H) components, and b) electron microscopy, which reveals Au nanoparticles with a face-centered-cubic crystalline structure associated with the amorphous polymer. Spectroelectrochemistry of electrochromic devices based on PEDOP-Au show a large coloring efficiency (η(max) =270 cm(2) C(-1), λ=458 nm) in the visible region, for an orange/red to blue reversible transition, followed by a second, remarkably high η(max) of 490 cm(2) C(-1) (λ=1000 nm) in the near-infrared region as compared to the much lower values achieved for the neat PEDOP analogue. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies reveal that the metal nanoparticles lower charge-transfer resistance and facilitate ion intercalation-deintercalation, which manifests in enhanced performance characteristics. In addition, significantly faster color-bleach kinetics (five times of that of neat PEDOP!) and a larger electrochemical ion insertion capacity unambiguously demonstrate the potential such conducting-polymer nanocomposites have for smart window applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesser, P. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aarau (Switzerland); Hostettler, T. [Ingenieurbuero Hostettler, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  5. Recent Process and Application of Electrochromism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Youxiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research and development of electrochromism, its commercial applications have been realized in the areas of building windows, car rear-view mirrors and aircraft windows. In this paper, constructions, material category, working principles and characteristic requirements of electrochromic device were to described in details. Preparing methods of electrochromic films and technologies requirements for practicality were listed. The status of electrochromic technologies on commercialization and latest research were also summarized and analyzed. Electrochromism has great commercial potential and important social value for green and energy saving, which is the milestone in its developing process. At present, the trend of electrochromic technology is focused on seeking the technical route and process of saving time and cost, exploiting its application areas by combining other technologies and developing practical products. Wet chemical methods with industrial prospect have advantages of lowering cost and increasing efficiency, and can be a research hotspot for popularizing electrochromic technology. Moreover, the development and preparation of electrolyte layer will be the core technology in the future.

  6. Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minyard, Glen E.; Lambarski, Timothy J.

    1997-02-01

    The Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems contract is a Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) cost-shared contract under Phase 4A1 for Product Driven Systems and Component Technologies. Phase 4A1 has the goals to improve the cost-effectiveness and manufacturing efficiency of PV end-products, optimize manufacturing and packaging methods, and generally improve balance-of-system performance, integration and manufacturing. This contract has the specific goal to reduce the installed PV system life cycle costs to the customer with the ultimate goal of increasing PV system marketability and customer acceptance. The specific objectives of the project are to develop certified, standardized, modular, pre-engineered products lines of our main stand-alone systems, the Modular Autonomous PV Power Supply (MAPPS) and PV-Generator Hybrid System (Photogenset). To date, we have designed a 200 W MAPPS and a 1 kW Photogenset and are in the process of having the MAPPS certified by Underwriters Laboratories (UL Listed) and approved for hazardous locations by Factory Mutual (FM). We have also developed a manufacturing plan for product line expansion for the MAPPS. The Photogenset will be fabricated in February 1997 and will also be UL Listed. Functionality testing will be performed at NREL and Sandia with the intentions of providing verification of performance and reliability and of developing test-based performance specifications. In addition to an expansion on the goals, objectives and status of the project, specific accomplishments and benefits are also presented in this paper.

  7. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, N.; Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    Electrochromic devices have increasing application in display devices, switchable mirrors and smart windows. A variety of vacuum deposition technologies have been used to make electrochromic devices. The sol- gel process offers an alternative approach to the synthesis of optical quality and low cost electrochromic device layers. This study summarizes the developments in sol-gel deposited electrochromic films. The sol-gel process involves the formation of oxide networks upon hydrolysis-condensation of alkoxide precursors. In this study we cover the sol-gel deposited oxides of WO[sub 3], V[sub 2]O[sub 5], TiO[sub 2], Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5], and NiO[sub x].

  8. RBS analysis of electrochromic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.C.; Bell, J.M. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten oxide thin films produced by dip-coating from tungsten alkoxide solutions are of interest for their application in large area switchable windows. The application consists of a layer of electrochromic tungsten oxide (W0{sub 3}) on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass in contact with a complementary structure. Electrochromic devices are switchable between states of high and low transparency by the application of a small voltage. The mechanism relies on the dual injection of ions and electrons into the W0{sub 3} layer from adjacent layers in the device. Electrochromic tungsten oxide can be deposited using standard techniques (eg. sputtering and evaporation) but also using sol-gel deposition. Sol-gel processing has an advantage over conventional preparation techniques because of the simplicity of the equipment. The scaling up to large area coatings is also feasible. RBS and forward recoil has been used to obtain profiles for individual elements in the structure of electrochromic films. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Best practices for mitigating soiling risk on PV power plants

    KAUST Repository

    AlDowsari, A.

    2015-09-24

    Solar power generates proven, predictable and economical energy and new innovations have made solar PV power plants easy to deploy, integrate and maintain. Areas with large solar energy potential are among the dustiest in the world. At first glance, solar would be a natural fit in many of these environments but humidity, airborne dust, and wind of these regions often bring high soiling rates that can accumulate to reduce performance by up to 10% per month on average, where soiling can be a major loss factor that affects the energy yield for PV plants especially in humid and dusty climates. Therefore, to achieve the desired performance ratio and obtain stable generation, mitigation solutions are proposed to overcome dust issues that affect the performance of PV plants. This makes PV module cleaning a key component for long-term plant performance and sustainable profitability. In this paper, a review of the mechanisms and mitigation solutions to overcome soiling on solar installations using real-world testing and verification is investigated with emphasis on dry type cleaning methods. © 2014 IEEE.

  10. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  11. Assessment of Air-Pollution Control Policy’s Impact on China’s PV Power: A System Dynamics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodan Guo; Dongxiao Niu; Bowen Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, China has brought out several air-pollution control policies, which indicate the prominent position that PV power hold in improving atmosphere environment. Under this policy environment, the development of China’s PV power will be greatly affected. Firstly, after analyzing the influencing path of air-pollution control policies on PV power, this paper built a system dynamics model, which can be used as a platform for predicting China’s PV power development in every policy scenario du...

  12. Interline Photovoltaic (I-PV) power system - A novel concept of power flow control and management

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new system configuration for a large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) power system with multi-line transmission/distribution networks. A PV power plant is reconfigured in a way that two adjacent power system networks/ feeders can be interconnected. The inverter modules in a PV power plant are configured such that the system is represented as a back to back inverter connected multi-line system, called as Interline-PV (I-PV) system. The proposed I-PV system then can be controlled a...

  13. Electrochromic behavior in CVD grown tungsten oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogova, D.; Iossifova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Dimitrova, Zl; Gesheva, K.

    1999-03-01

    Solid state electrochemical devices (ECDs) for smart windows, large area displays and automobile rearview mirrors are of considerable technological and commercial interest. In this paper, we studied the electrochromic properties of amorphous and polycrystalline CVD carbonyl tungsten oxide films and the possibility for sol-gel thin TiO 2 film to play the role of passive electrode in an electrochromic window with solid polymer electrolyte.

  14. Electrochromic behavior in CVD grown tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogova, D.; Iossifova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Gesheva, K.; Dimitrova, Z. [Central Laboratory for Solar Energy and New Energy Sources at Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko shossee Blvd., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1999-03-15

    Solid state electrochemical devices (ECDs) for smart windows, large area displays and automobile rearview mirrors are of considerable technological and commercial interest. In this paper, we studied the electrochromic properties of amorphous and polycrystalline CVD carbonyl tungsten oxide films and the possibility for sol-gel thinTiO{sub 2} film to play the role of passive electrode in an electrochromic window with solid polymer electrolyte

  15. Grid Integration of PV Power based on PHIL testing using different Interface Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso;

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power among all renewable energies had the most accelerated growth rate in terms of installed capacity in recent years. Transmission System Operators (TSOs) changed their perspective about PV power and started to include it into their planning and operation, imposing PV systems...... and supply of ancillary services, first the grid has to be simulated using PHIL, but in order to achieve it, different interface algorithms (IA) had to be evaluated in terms of system stability and signal accuracy....

  16. Quantitative self-powered electrochromic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitero, Miguel Aller; Guimerà, Anton; Kitsara, Maria; Villa, Rosa; Rubio, Camille; Lakard, Boris; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves; Javier Del Campo, F

    2017-03-01

    Self-powered sensors are analytical devices able to generate their own energy, either from the sample itself or from their surroundings. The conventional approaches rely heavily on silicon-based electronics, which results in increased complexity and cost, and prevents the broader use of these smart systems. Here we show that electrochromic materials can overcome the existing limitations by simplifying device construction and avoiding the need for silicon-based electronics entirely. Electrochromic displays can be built into compact self-powered electrochemical sensors that give quantitative information readable by the naked eye, simply controlling the current path inside them through a combination of specially arranged materials. The concept is validated by a glucose biosensor coupled horizontally to a Prussian blue display designed as a distance-meter proportional to (glucose) concentration. This approach represents a breakthrough for self-powered sensors, and extends the application of electrochromic materials beyond smart windows and displays, into sensing and quantification.

  17. Sol-gel electrochromic device

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    All solid state electrochromic devices have potential applications in architectural and automotive fields to regulate the transmission and reflection of radiant energy. We present the optical and electrochemical characteristics of two solid state windows having the configuration glass/ITO/TiO2-CeO2/TiO2/TiO2-CeO2/ITO/glass and glass/ITO/WOa/TiO2/TiO2-CeO2/ITO/glass where the three internal layers have been prepared by sol gel methods. The preparation of the individual sols and some physical p...

  18. High efficiency, hybrid electrochromic device on polycarbonate substrates with neon sputtered WO3-x thin films

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Electrochromic materials change color reversibly by applying an external DC voltage. One among the many emerging application of electro-chromics is the smart windows. The coloration efficiency, the optical colour modulation and the cyclability are the factors that bench mark the device. Tungsten oxide (WO3-x) is versatile material and reactive DC magnetron sputtering (with argon as sputter gas) technique is common for electro-chromics. In the present communication we have prepared tungsten ox...

  19. Recent progress in thermochromics and electrochromics: A brief survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, Claes G., E-mail: claes-goran.granqvist@angstrom.uu.se

    2016-09-01

    Contemporary architecture is characterized by large glazings, which are able to accomplish good indoors–outdoors contact and daylighting. However, glazings, encompassing windows and glass facades, are challenging with regard to energy efficiency and often lead to excessive solar energy ingress and to large thermal losses, which must be balanced by energy-demanding cooling or heating. Cooling, especially, has grown strongly in importance during recent years. Emerging technologies utilizing thermochromics and electrochromics allow control of the inflow of visible light and solar energy and thereby produce better energy efficiency than traditional glazings employing static solutions. Thermochromic thin films, based on vanadium dioxide, let through less solar energy at high temperature than at low temperature, whereas electrochromic devices include thin films—usually based on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide—that can change their transmittance of solar energy and visible light upon the application of a voltage. It is important that electrochromics, and to some degree thermochromics, can enhance indoor comfort and lead to better living and working conditions. The present brief review covers a number of recent advances in thermochromics and electrochromics with a view to applications in energy-efficient buildings. - Highlights: • Thermochromics and electrochromics are introduced • These technologies are based on thin oxide films • Smart windows use thermochromics and electrochromics • The technologies can lead to energy efficiency in windows.

  20. Fault Transient Analysis and Protection Performance Evaluation within a Large-scale PV Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a short-circuit test within a large-scale PV power plant with a total capacity of 850MWp is discussed. The fault currents supplied by the PV generation units are presented and analysed. According to the fault behaviour, the existing protection coordination principles with the plant are considered and their performances are evaluated. Moreover, these protections are examined in simulation platform under different operating situations. A simple measure with communication system is proposed to deal with the foreseeable problem about the current protection scheme in the PV power plant.

  1. Physics and applications of electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Avellaneda, Cesar O.

    2003-07-01

    Solid state electrochromic devices (ECD) are of considerable technological and commercial interest because of their controllable transmission, absorption and/or reflectance. For instance, a major application of these devices is in smart windows that can regulate the solar gains of buildings and also in glare attenuation in automobile rear view mirrors. Other applications include solar cells, small and large area flat panel displays, satellite temperature control, food monitoring, and document authentication. A typical electrochromic device has a five-layer structure: GS/TC/EC/IC/IS/TC/GS, where GS is a glass substrate, TC is a transparent conductor, generally ITO (indium tin oxide) or FTO (fluorine tin oxide), EC is an electrochromic coating, IC is an ion conductor (solid or liquid electrolyte) and IS is an ion storage coating. Generally, the EC and IS layers are deposited separately on the TC coatings and then jointed with the IC and sealed. The EC and IS are thin films that can be deposited by sputtering, CVD, sol-gel precursors, etc. There are different kinds of organic, inorganic and organic-inorganic films that can be used to make electrochromic devices. Thin electrochromic films can be: WO3, Nb2O5, Nb2O5:Li+ or Nb2O5-TiO2 coatings, ions storage films: CeO2-TiO2, CeO2-ZrO2 or CeO2-TiO2-ZrO2 and electrolytes like Organically Modified Electrolytes (Ormolytes) or polymeric films also based on natural polymers like starch or cellulose. These last are very interesting due to their high ionic conductivity, high transparency and good mechanical properties. This paper describes construction and properties of different thin oxide and polymeric films and also shows the optical response of an all sol-gel electrochromic device with WO3/Ormolyte/CeO2-TiO2 configuration.

  2. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neill, Barbara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of

  3. Ultrathin W18O49 nanowire assemblies for electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, By Jian-Wei; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Jin-Long; Xu, Jie; Li, Hui-Hui; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-08-14

    Ordered W18O49 nanowire thin films were fabricated by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coating. The well-organized monolayer of W18O49 nanowires with periodic structures can be readily used as electrochromic sensors, showing reversibly switched electrochromic properties between the negative and positive voltage. Moreover, the electrochromism properties of the W18O49 nanowire films exhibit significant relationship with their thickness. The coloration/bleaching time was around 2 s for the W18O49 nanowire monolayer, which is much faster than the traditional tungsten oxide nanostructures. Moreover, the nanowire devices display excellent stability when color switching continues, which may provide a versatile and promising platform for electrochromism device, smart windows, and other applications.

  4. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Emre O; Balcı, Osman; Kocabas, Coskun

    2014-10-01

    Graphene emerges as a viable material for optoelectronics because of its broad optical response and gate-tunable properties. For practical applications, however, single layer graphene has performance limits due to its small optical absorption defined by fundamental constants. Here, we demonstrated a new class of flexible electrochromic devices using multilayer graphene (MLG) which simultaneously offers all key requirements for practical applications; high-contrast optical modulation over a broad spectrum, good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Our method relies on electro-modulation of interband transition of MLG via intercalation of ions into the graphene layers. The electrical and optical characterizations reveal the key features of the intercalation process which yields broadband optical modulation up to 55 per cent in the visible and near-infrared. We illustrate the promises of the method by fabricating reflective/transmissive electrochromic devices and multi-pixel display devices. Simplicity of the device architecture and its compatibility with the roll-to-roll fabrication processes, would find wide range of applications including smart windows and display devices. We anticipate that this work provides a significant step in realization of graphene based optoelectronics.

  5. Electrochromic Characterization of Electrodeposited WO3 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Jayachandran, M.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2002-12-01

    The electrochromic properties of certain transition metal oxides have been studied for several years resulting in commercial films are deposited as thin layers (0.1 to 0.4 microns) onto a transparent conductive automotive mirror and sun-glass products. The largest potential application of electrochromics is in window to regulate heat and light flow. Fabrication cost is one of the greatest barriers for large area development of the smart windows. Tungsten trioxide (WO3) can be colored deeply in with an optical irradiation of appropriate energy (photochromism) or with an applied electric field (electrochromism). These processes have received considerable attention because of their potential application in electrochromic windows, display devices, sensors, and so on. For these purposes, tungsten trioxide films prepared by various physical methods such as molecular beam epitaxy, CVD, etc have been reported. These methods are generally expensive and it is difficult to form large area films. However electrodeposition method is probably most economical method for making the films in addition to its relative ease in forming in large area films. In this paper, tungsten trioxide (WO3) films are prepared through the electrodeposition route and these films are used to study the electrochromic behavior in the various electrolytes by changing the concentrations. When coloration, the film attains deep blue color and in reduced state it becomes colorless. After the ion intercalation, the optical properties are also studied in the UV-Vis-NIR region.

  6. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  7. Dynamic solar radiation control in buildings by applying electrochromic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelle, B.P.; Gustavsen, A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Smart windows like electrochromic windows (ECWs) are windows which are able to regulate the solar radiation throughput by application of an external voltage. The ECWs may decrease heating, cooling and electricity loads in buildings by admitting the optimum level of solar energy and daylight into the buildings at any given time, e.g. cold winter climate versus warm summer climate demands. In order to achieve as dynamic and flexible solar radiation control as possible, the ECWs may be characterized by a number of solar radiation glazing factors, i.e. ultraviolet solar transmittance, visible solar transmittance, solar transmittance, solar material protection factor, solar skin protection factor, external visible solar reflectance, internal visible solar reflectance, solar reflectance, solar absorbance, emissivity, solar factor and colour rendering factor. Comparison of these solar quantities for various electrochromic material and window combinations and configurations enables one to select the most appropriate electrochromic materials and ECWs for specific buildings. Measurements and calculations were carried out on two different electrochromic window devices. (Author)

  8. Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji

    Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.

  9. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  10. Hybrid materials and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Ding, Guoqiang; Ma, Jan; Lee, Pooi See; Lu, Xuehong

    2012-08-08

    Electrochromic (EC) materials and polymer electrolytes are the most imperative and active components in an electrochromic device (ECD). EC materials are able to reversibly change their light absorption properties in a certain wavelength range via redox reactions stimulated by low direct current (dc) potentials of the order of a fraction of volts to a few volts. The redox switching may result in a change in color of the EC materials owing to the generation of new or changes in absorption band in visible region, infrared or even microwave region. In ECDs the electrochromic layers need to be incorporated with supportive components such as electrical contacts and ion conducting electrolytes. The electrolytes play an indispensable role as the prime ionic conduction medium between the electrodes of the EC materials. The expected applications of the electrochromism in numerous fields such as reflective-type display and smart windows/mirrors make these materials of prime importance. In this article we have reviewed several examples from our research work as well as from other researchers' work, describing the recent advancements on the materials that exhibit visible electrochromism and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic devices. The first part of the review is centered on nanostructured inorganic and conjugated polymer-based organic-inorganic hybrid EC materials. The emphasis has been to correlate the structures, morphologies and interfacial interactions of the EC materials to their electronic and ionic properties that influence the EC properties with unique advantages. The second part illustrates the perspectives of polymer electrolytes in electrochromic applications with emphasis on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) based polymer electrolytes. The requirements and approaches to optimize the formulation of electrolytes for feasible electrochromic devices have been delineated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY

  11. Assessment of Air-Pollution Control Policy’s Impact on China’s PV Power: A System Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, China has brought out several air-pollution control policies, which indicate the prominent position that PV power hold in improving atmosphere environment. Under this policy environment, the development of China’s PV power will be greatly affected. Firstly, after analyzing the influencing path of air-pollution control policies on PV power, this paper built a system dynamics model, which can be used as a platform for predicting China’s PV power development in every policy scenario during 2015–2025. Secondly, different model parameters are put into the SD model to simulate three scenarios of air-pollution control policies. Comparisons between the simulated results of different policy scenarios measure the air-pollution control policy’s impact on China’s PV power in the aspect of generation, installed capacity, power curtailment and so on. This paper points out the long-term development pattern of China’s PV power under latest incentive policies, and provides reference for the policymakers to increase the effect and efficiency of air-pollution control policies.

  12. Fast Switching ITO Free Electrochromic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Hösel, Markus; Kim, Inyoung;

    2014-01-01

    Indium-doped tin oxide free electrochromic devices are prepared by coating electrochromic polymers onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates encompassing two different silver grids as electrodes. One design comprises a fl exoprinted highly conductive silver grid electrode, yielding electrochromic...

  13. Fast Switching ITO Free Electrochromic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Hösel, Markus; Kim, Inyoung

    2014-01-01

    Indium-doped tin oxide free electrochromic devices are prepared by coating electrochromic polymers onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates encompassing two different silver grids as electrodes. One design comprises a fl exoprinted highly conductive silver grid electrode, yielding electrochromic...

  14. A MPC Based ESS Control Method for PV Power Smoothing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Mingyu; Yang, Zilong; Wang, Yibo

    2017-01-01

    Random fluctuation in photovoltaic (PV) power plants is becoming a serious problem affecting the power quality and stability of the grid along with the increasing penetration of PVs. In order to solve this problem, by the adding of energy storage systems (ESS), a grid-connected microgrid system can....... At the same time, MPC can make a great contribution to the accuracy and timeliness of the control. Finally, experimental results from a grid-connected lab-scale microgrid system are presented to prove effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach....

  15. Flexible electrochromic films based on CVD-graphene electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo Choi, Dong; Ho Han, Seung; Kim, Hyeongkeun; Hee Kang, So; Kim, Yena; Yang, Cheol-Min; Kim, Tae Young; Ho Yoon, Dae; Seok Yang, Woo

    2014-10-03

    Graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition is a notable candidate for flexible large-area transparent electrodes due to its great physical properties and its 2D activated surface area. Electrochromic devices in optical displays, smart windows, etc are suitable applications for graphene when used as a transparent conductive electrode. In this study, various-layer graphene was synthesized via chemical vapor deposition, and inorganic WO(x) was deposited on the layers, which have advantageous columnar structures and W(6+) and W(4+) oxidation states. The characteristics of graphene and WO(x) were verified using optical transmittance, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optimum transparent conductive electrode condition for controlling graphene layers was investigated based on the optical density and cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices were fabricated using a three-layer graphene electrode, which had the best optical density. The graphene in the flexible electrochromic device demonstrated a potential for replacing ITO in flexible electronics.

  16. Design, fabrication, and certification of advanced modular PV power systems. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambarski, T.; Minyard, G. [Solar Electric Specialties Co., Willits, CA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Solar Electric Specialties Company (SES) has completed a two and a half year effort under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) PVMaT (Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology) project. Under Phase 4A1 of the project for Product Driven System and Component Technology, the SES contract ``Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems`` had the goal to reduce installed system life cycle costs through development of certified (Underwriters Laboratories or other listing) and standardized prototype products for two of the product lines, MAPPS{trademark} (Modular Autonomous PV Power Supply) and Photogensets{trademark}. MAPPS are small DC systems consisting of Photovoltaic modules, batteries and a charge controller and producing up to about a thousand watt-hours per day. Photogensets are stand-alone AC systems incorporating a generator as backup for the PV in addition to a DC-AC inverter and battery charger. The program tasks for the two-year contract consisted of designing and fabricating prototypes of both a MAPPS and a Photogenset to meet agency listing requirements using modular concepts that would support development of families of products, submitting the prototypes for listing, and performing functionality testing at Sandia and NREL. Both prototypes were candidates for UL (Underwriters Laboratories) listing. The MAPPS was also a candidate for FM (Factory Mutual) approval for hazardous (incendiary gases) locations.

  17. A control system for improved battery utilization in a PV-powered peak-shaving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino, E [Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Stevens, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiles, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

    1996-08-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power systems offer the prospect of allowing a utility company to meet part of the daily peak system load using a renewable resource. Unfortunately, some utilities have peak system- load periods that do not match the peak production hours of a PV system. Adding a battery energy storage system to a grid-connected PV power system will allow dispatching the stored solar energy to the grid at the desired times. Batteries, however, pose system limitations in terms of energy efficiency, maintenance, and cycle life. A new control system has been developed, based on available PV equipment and a data acquisition system, that seeks to minimize the limitations imposed by the battery system while maximizing the use of PV energy. Maintenance requirements for the flooded batteries are reduced, cycle life is maximized, and the battery is operated over an efficient range of states of charge. This paper presents design details and initial performance results on one of the first installed control systems of this type.

  18. Electrochromic Devices Based on Porous Tungsten Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Djaoued

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the synthesis of transition metal oxides in the form of porous thin films have opened up opportunities in the construction of electrochromic devices with enhanced properties. In this paper, synthesis, characterization and electrochromic applications of porous WO3 thin films with different nanocrystalline phases, such as hexagonal, monoclinic, and orthorhombic, are presented. Asymmetric electrochromic devices have been constructed based on these porous WO3 thin films. XRD measurements of the intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ into/from the WO3 layer of the device as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages show systematic changes in the lattice parameters associated with structural phase transitions in LixWO3. Micro-Raman studies show systematic crystalline phase changes in the spectra of WO3 layers during Li+ ion intercalation and deintercalation, which agree with the XRD data. These devices exhibit interesting optical modulation (up to ~70% due to intercalation/deintercalation of Li ions into/from the WO3 layer of the devices as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages. The obtained optical modulation of the electrochromic devices indicates that, they are suitable for applications in electrochromic smart windows.

  19. Integrated device architectures for electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Jonathan Mack; Berland, Brian Spencer

    2015-04-21

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for creating monolithically integrated electrochromic devices which may be a flexible electrochromic device. Monolithic integration of thin film electrochromic devices may involve the electrical interconnection of multiple individual electrochromic devices through the creation of specific structures such as conductive pathway or insulating isolation trenches.

  20. Grid Support in Large Scale PV Power Plants using Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are in the 3rd place in the renewable energy market, after hydro and wind power. The increased penetration of PV within the electrical power system has led to stability issues of the entire grid in terms of its reliability, availability and security of the supply....... As a consequence, Large scale PV Power Plants (LPVPPs) operating in Maximum Power Point (MPP) are not supporting the electrical network, since several grid triggering events or the increased number of downward regulation procedures have forced European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity...... (ENTSO-E) to continuously upgrade their Network Codes (NCs), moving their focus to grid stabilization features. Considering the technical challenges present in the nowadays power systems, the work presented in this thesis focuses on frequency and power ramp control strategies provided by LPVPPs...

  1. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2010-06-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique was developed for battery charging control which can increase the charging capacity by 78%. For high-efficiency lighting, the LED is directly driven by battery using a PWM discharge control to eliminate a DC/DC converter. Two solar-powered LED lighting systems (50W and 100W LED) were built. The long-term outdoor tests have shown that the loss of load probability for full-night lighting requirement is zero for 50W LED and 3.6% for 100W LED. © 2010 IEEE.

  2. Black-to-Transmissive Electrochromism with Visible-to-Near-Infrared Switching of a Co(II)-Based Metallo-Supramolecular Polymer for Smart Window and Digital Signage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Sato, Takashi; Moriyama, Satoshi; Higuchi, Masayoshi

    2015-08-26

    Black-to-transmissive electrochromism has been obtained with a Co(II)-based metallo-supramolecular polymer (polyCo). Thin films of polyCo, based on bisterpyridine ligand assembled with Co(II) metal ion, were constructed by spray casting the polymer onto ITO glass. With such simple fabricating means to form good-quality films, polyCo films show stable switching at the central metal ion of the Co(II)/Co(I) redox reaction when immersed in aqueous solution. With an increase in the pH of the aqueous electrolyte solution from neutral, the film exhibits a color response due to the interaction between the d-orbital electron and hydroxide ions affecting the d-d* transition. As a result, a nearly transparent-to-black electrochromic performance can be achieved with a transmittance difference at 550 nm of 74.3% (81.9-7.6%) in pH 13 solution. The light absorption of the film can be tuned over light regions from visible to near-infrared with a large attenuation.

  3. Electrochromic NiO thin films prepared by spin coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özütok, F.; Demiri, S.; Özbek, E.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, smart windows are very important because they are often being used in smart buildings and car glasses (windows). At this point, producing effective electrochromic materials is so necessary. In this study, we produced NiO thin films by using spin coating technique on In-doped SnO2 (ITO) substrate. Nickel proportions of these nickel oxide (NiO) films are 3, 5 and 7 %. Nickel acetate tetrahydrate is the initial solution and solvents are ethylene gl ycol and n-hexzane. Structural properties and surface images are investigated by using x-ray diffactometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) device, respectively. In addition, electrochemical behavior is investigated by cyclic voltammetry. A correlation between surface morphology and electrochromic performance was observed as well.

  4. Stretchable and wearable electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Kang, Wenbin; Wang, Jiangxin; Cui, Mengqi; Wang, Xu; Foo, Ce Yao; Chee, Kenji Jianzhi; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-01-28

    Stretchable and wearable WO3 electrochromic devices on silver nanowire (AgNW) elastic conductors are reported. The stretchable devices are mechanically robust and can be stretched, twisted, folded, and crumpled without performance failure. Fast coloration (1 s) and bleaching (4 s) time and good cyclic stability (81% retention after 100 cycles) were achieved at relaxed state. Proper functioning at stretched state (50% strain) was also demonstrated. The electrochromic devices were successfully implanted onto textile substrates for potential wearable applications. As most existing electrochromic devices are based on rigid technologies, the innovative devices in their soft form hold the promise for next-generation electronics such as stretchable, wearable, and implantable display applications.

  5. A Novel Hybrid Model for Short-Term Forecasting in PV Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Kang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of solar power as a source of electricity has led to increased interest in forecasting its power output over short-time horizons. Short-term forecasts are needed for operational planning, switching sources, programming backup, reserve usage, and peak load matching. However, the output of a photovoltaic (PV system is influenced by irradiation, cloud cover, and other weather conditions. These factors make it difficult to conduct short-term PV output forecasting. In this paper, an experimental database of solar power output, solar irradiance, air, and module temperature data has been utilized. It includes data from the Green Energy Office Building in Malaysia, the Taichung Thermal Plant of Taipower, and National Penghu University. Based on the historical PV power and weather data provided in the experiment, all factors that influence photovoltaic-generated energy are discussed. Moreover, five types of forecasting modules were developed and utilized to predict the one-hour-ahead PV output. They include the ARIMA, SVM, ANN, ANFIS, and the combination models using GA algorithm. Forecasting results show the high precision and efficiency of this combination model. Therefore, the proposed model is suitable for ensuring the stable operation of a photovoltaic generation system.

  6. Design, Fabrication, and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambarski, T.; Minyard, G. (Solar Electric Specialties Co., Willits, California)

    1998-10-06

    This report describes the overall accomplishments and benefits of Solar Electric Specialties Co. (SES) under this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. SES addressed design issues related to their modular autonomous PV power supply (MAPPS) and a mobile photogenset. MAPPS investigations included gel-cell batteries mounted horizontally; redesign of the SES power supply; modified battery enclosure for increased safety and reduced cost; programmable, interactive battery charge controllers; and UL and FM listings. The photogenset systems incorporate generators, battery storage, and PV panels for a mobile power supply. The unit includes automatic oil-change systems for the propane generators, collapsible array mounts for the PV enclosure, and internal stowage of the arrays. Standardizing the products resulted in product lines of MAPPS and Photogensets that can be produced more economically and with shorter lead times, while increasing product quality and reliability. Product assembly and quality control have also been improved and streamlined with the development of standardized assembly processes and QC testing procedures. SES offers the UL-listed MAPPS at about the same price as its previous non-standardized, unlisted products.

  7. PV-Powered CoMP-Based Green Cellular Networks with a Standby Grid Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Jahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel framework for PV-powered cellular networks with a standby grid supply and an essential energy management technique for achieving envisaged green networks. The proposal considers an emerging cellular network architecture employing two types of coordinated multipoint (CoMP transmission techniques for serving the subscribers. Under the proposed framework, each base station (BS is powered by an individual PV solar energy module having an independent storage device. BSs are also connected to the conventional grid supply for meeting additional energy demand. We also propose a dynamic inter-BS solar energy sharing policy through a transmission line for further greening the proposed network by minimizing the consumption from the grid supply. An extensive simulation-based study in the downlink of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE cellular system is carried out for evaluating the energy efficiency performance of the proposed framework. System performance is also investigated for identifying the impact of various system parameters including storage factor, storage capacity, solar generation capacity, transmission line loss, and different CoMP techniques.

  8. Multi-Input Converter with MPPT Feature for Wind-PV Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-input converter (MIC to process wind-PV power is proposed, designed, analyzed, simulated, and implemented. The MIC cannot only process solar energy but deal with wind power, of which structure is derived from forward-type DC/DC converter to step-down/up voltage for charger systems, DC distribution applications, or grid connection. The MIC comprises an upper modified double-ended forward, a lower modified double-ended forward, a common output inductor, and a DSP-based system controller. The two modified double-ended forwards can operate individually or simultaneously so as to accommodate the variation of the hybrid renewable energy under different atmospheric conditions. While the MIC operates at interleaving mode, better performance can be achieved and volume also is reduced. The proposed MIC is capable of recycling the energy stored in the leakage inductance and obtaining high step-up output voltage. In order to draw maximum power from wind turbine and PV panel, perturb-and-observe method is adopted to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT feature. The MIC is constructed, analyzed, simulated, and tested. Simulations and hardware measurements have demonstrated the feasibility and functionality of the proposed multi-input converter.

  9. Electrochromic Variable-Emissivity Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David; Cogan, Stuart F.

    1988-01-01

    Temperature controlled by altering infrared radiative properties. Infrared emissivity of electrochromically active layer changed by applying voltage to insert or remove Li atoms electrochemically. Change reversible and continuously variable between specified limits of layered structure.

  10. Flexible electrochromic foils: science, technology, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azens, Andris; Avendano, Esteban; Backholm, Jonas; Berggren, Lars; Gustavsson, Greger; Karmhag, Richard; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Roos, Arne; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2005-08-01

    We discuss a number of aspects of a novel flexible electrochromic foil capable of varying its optical transmittance. The foil includes thin films of tungsten oxide and nickel oxide laminated together by a polymer electrolyte. Starting with scientific issues, we discuss the dominating defects in amorphous tungsten oxide and how they may yield a consistent picture of the optical properties of tungsten oxide films versus nonstoichiometry and ion intercalation. We also present a detailed model for the colorationhleaching due to proton extractiodinsertion in thin surface sheaths of nanocrystallites of nickel oxide. Next we consider aspects of technology and treat options to enhance the bleached-state transmittance by mixing the nickel oxide with another oxide having a wide band gap. We also cover pre-assembly charge insertion/ extraction by facile gas treatments of the films as well as practical device manufacturing. The final part of the paper deals with a number of applications, with emphasis on architectural "smart windows" which can improve indoor comfort at the same time as they accomplish significant energy savings due to lowered requirements for air cooling. Applications concerning electrochromics-based eyewear are introduced; these may be approaching market introduction.

  11. A Simple MPPT Algorithm for Novel PV Power Generation System by High Output Voltage DC-DC Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Grandi, Gabriele; Wheeler, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the novel topology of Photo Voltaic (PV) power generation system with simple Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm in voltage operating mode. Power circuit consists of high output voltage DC-DC boost converter which maximizes the output of PV panel. Usually traditional...... of DC-DC converters for PV integration. Hence, to overcome these difficulties this paper investigates a DC-DC boost converter together with the additional parasitic component within the circuit to provide high output voltages for maximizing the PV power generation. The proposed power system circuit...... substantially improves the high output-voltage by a simple MPPT closed loop proportional-integral (P-I) controller, and requires only two sensor for feedback needs. The complete numerical model of the converter circuit along with PV MPPT algorithm is developed in numerical simulation (Matlab/Simulink) software...

  12. New method for piston displacement and PV power measurements of linear compressor%测量线性压缩机活塞位移和PV功的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦宁; 陈厚磊; 蔡京辉

    2012-01-01

    The method of laser triangulation was proposed for measuring piston displacement of compressor in pulse tube refrigerator ( PTR ). The PV power of piston face was calculated from the piston displacement and the pressure measuring with pressure transducer. The PV power delivered to the cold end was determined by ignoring the flow loss through the gap between piston and cylinder. A compressor shell with a quartz glass window on the end was designed for the shining through of laser. The calculated ratio between flow loss and flow produced by piston displacement was relatively small and the results were verified by experiment. Piston displacement and PV power of the compressor under different conditions were measured and calculated respectively with an experiment system, the results were similar to those from using a hot wire anemometer. The changes of piston displacement, pressure, PV power and phase shift were observed with the laser method and corresponding analysis were given.%提出利用激光三角法测量压缩机的活塞位移,结合压力传感器测得的气体压力,计算得到压缩机的活塞PV功;忽略活塞间隙的漏气损失,可计算得压缩机的输送PV功.设计了适用于激光测量活塞位移的带可视化窗口的压缩机外壳.针对一台特定压缩机,理论计算活塞与气缸之间的漏气量并通过实验验证了漏气量为小量.不同工况下对压缩机活塞位移进行测量,计算得到相应的活塞PV功和输送PV功,并与热线测量的输送PV功进行相互验证.利用激光测活塞位移的方法,观察脉冲管制冷机降温过程中压缩机活塞位移、压力、PV功及相位角的变化,给出相关分析.

  13. Nanocrystal-polymer nanocomposite electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Runnerstrom, Evan; Helms, Brett; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2015-12-08

    Described is an electrochromic nanocomposite film comprising a solid matrix of an oxide based material, the solid matrix comprising a plurality of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures dispersed in the solid matrix and a lithium salt dispersed in the solid matrix. Also described is a near infrared nanostructured electrochromic device having a functional layer comprising the electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  14. Nanostructured transparent conducting oxide electrochromic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliron, Delia; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2016-05-17

    The embodiments described herein provide an electrochromic device. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic device includes (1) a substrate and (2) a film supported by the substrate, where the film includes transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes (a) an electrolyte, where the nanostructures are embedded in the electrolyte, resulting in an electrolyte, nanostructure mixture positioned above the substrate and (b) a counter electrode positioned above the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a conductive coating deposited on the substrate between the substrate and the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a second substrate positioned above the mixture.

  15. Photoresponsive Smart Coloration Electrochromic Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Gwang; Kim, Donghyuk; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Minkyu; Hyun, Seungmin; Han, Seung Min

    2017-08-01

    Electrochromic devices have been widely adopted in energy saving applications by taking advantage of the electrode coloration, but it is critical to develop a new electrochromic device that can undergo smart coloration and can have a wide spectrum in transmittance in response to input light intensity while also functioning as a rechargeable energy storage system. In this study, a photoresponsive electrochromic supercapacitor based on cellulose-nanofiber/Ag-nanowire/reduced-graphene-oxide/WO3 -composite electrode that is capable of undergoing "smart" reversible coloration while simultaneously functioning as a reliable energy-storage device is developed. The fabricated device exhibits a high coloration efficiency of 64.8 cm(2) C(-1) and electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 406.0 F g(-1) , energy/power densities of 40.6-47.8 Wh kg(-1) and 6.8-16.9 kW kg(-1) . The electrochromic supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycle reliability, where 75.0% and 94.1% of its coloration efficiency and electrochemical performance is retained, respectively, beyond 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. Cyclic fatigue tests show that the developed device is mechanically durable and suitable for wearable electronics applications. The smart electrochromic supercapacitor system is then integrated with a solar sensor to enable photoresponsive coloration where the transmittance changes in response to varying light intensity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ultrafast switching of an electrochromic device based on layered double hydroxide/Prussian blue multilayered films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Awu; Dou, Yibo; Pan, Ting; Shao, Mingfei; Han, Jingbin; Wei, Min

    2015-10-01

    Electrochromic materials are the most important and essential components in an electrochromic device. Herein, we fabricated high-performance electrochromic films based on exfoliated layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets and Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles via the layer-by-layer assembly technique. X-ray diffraction and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a periodic layered structure with uniform and regular growth of (LDH/PB)n ultrathin films (UTFs). The resulting (LDH/PB)n UTF electrodes exhibit electrochromic behavior arising from the reversible K+ ion migration into/out of the PB lattice, which induces a change in the optical properties of the UTFs. Furthermore, an electrochromic device (ECD) based on the (LDH/PB)n-ITO/0.1 M KCl electrolyte/ITO sandwich structure displays superior response properties (0.91/1.21 s for coloration/bleaching), a comparable coloration efficiency (68 cm2 C-1) and satisfactory optical contrast (45% at 700 nm), in comparison with other inorganic material-based ECDs reported previously. Therefore, this work presents a facile and cost-effective strategy to immobilize electrochemically active nanoparticles in a 2D inorganic matrix for potential application in displays, smart windows and optoelectronic devices.Electrochromic materials are the most important and essential components in an electrochromic device. Herein, we fabricated high-performance electrochromic films based on exfoliated layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets and Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles via the layer-by-layer assembly technique. X-ray diffraction and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a periodic layered structure with uniform and regular growth of (LDH/PB)n ultrathin films (UTFs). The resulting (LDH/PB)n UTF electrodes exhibit electrochromic behavior arising from the reversible K+ ion migration into/out of the PB lattice, which induces a change in the optical properties of the UTFs. Furthermore, an electrochromic device (ECD) based on the (LDH

  17. Emissivity modulating electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Sheets, Judd

    2009-05-01

    The IR-ECDTM (Infra-Red ElectroChromic Device) variable emitance device (VED) is an all-solid-state monolithic vacuum deposited thin film system with a unique metamaterial IR transparent-electrode system which functions as an electrically controlled dimmable mirror in the IR region. The maximum reflectance corresponding to the bleached condition of the system is around 90% (low-e condition, e=0.1). The minimum reflectance reaches nearly zero in the colored condition of the system (high emittance, e=1). The average emissivity modulation of the IRECDTM is 0.7 in the 8-12 micron region, and at 9.7 micron (room temperature) it reaches a value of 0.9. Half and full emissivity modulations occur within 2 and10 minutes respectively. Because of its light weight (5g/m2), low voltage requirement (+/- 1 Volts), extremely good emissivity control properties (from 0 to 0.9 at 300K) and highly repeatable deposition process, the IR-ECDTM technology is very attractive for satellite thermal control applications. The IR-ECDTM has been under evaluation in a real space environment since March 8, 2007. This paper presents recent achievements of the IR-ECDTM including space test results.

  18. Thermal Control Using Electrochromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1999-01-01

    The applicability of a charge balanced electrochromic device to modulate the frequencies in the thermal infrared region is examined in this study. The device consisted of a transparent conductor, WO3, anode, PMMA/LiClO4 electrolyte, V2O5 cathode and transparent conductor. The supporting structure in the device is SnO2 coated glass and the edges are sealed with epoxy to reduce moisture absorption. The performance evaluation comprised of cyclic voltammetric measurements and determination of transmittance at various wavelengths. The device was subjected to anodic and cathodic polarization by sweeping the potential at a rate of 10 mV/sec from -0.8V to 1.8V. The current versus voltage profile indicated no reaction between -0.5 and +0.5 V. The device is colored green at 1.8 V with a transmittance of 5% at a wavelength, lambda = 900 nm and colorless at -0.8 V with a transmittance of 74% at lambda = 500 nm. The optical modulation is limited to 400-1500 nm and there is no activity in the thermal infrared. The switching time is a function of temperature and time for coloring reaction was slower than the bleaching reaction. The device yielded reproducible values for transmittance when cycled between colored and bleached states by application of 1.8V and -0.8V, respectively.

  19. Simulation and Comparative Practical Performance Analysis Of A Stand-Alone PV Power System in Gökçeada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Çubukçu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study simulates and analyzes the practical performance of a 2 kW stand-alone PV power system located in Gökçeada/Turkey. System performance was calculated both by simulation and real life measurements. Although the total system efficiency and the performance ratio is simulated 5 % and 41 %, these values are calculated averagely during the real-life monitoring period as 4 % and % 32.4 respectively. The results were reported using the international evaluation parameters. The main reasons of the difference between the simulated and practical calculated values are the partial shadow effects and the limited energy generation due to the low load demand.

  20. An Electrochromic Bipolar Membrane Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Abdellah; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Conducting polymers with bipolar membranes (a complementary stack of selective membranes) may be used to rectify current. Integrating a bipolar membrane into a polymer electrochromic display obviates the need for an addressing backplane while increasing the device's bistability. Such devices can be made from solution-processable materials.

  1. Performance improvement of electrochromic display devices employing micro-size precipitates of tungsten oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chin-Pao; Kuo, Yi; Chou, Chuan-Pu; Cheng, Chun-Hu [National Taiwan Normal University, Department of Mechatronic Technology, Taipei (China); Teng, Tun Ping [National Taiwan Normal University, Department of Industrial Education, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we studied the effect of micro-size WO{sub 3} precipitates on the electrochromic characteristics based on aging test. The electrochromic mechanism can be effectively investigated by a solid-state TaN/WO{sub 3}/ITO capacitor. The experimental results reveal that WO{sub 3} electrochromic devices with optimized aging time of 4 days exhibit a higher optical contrast and longer retention time, which is mainly attributed to the formation of micro-size WO{sub 3} precipitates during aging process. The performance improvement using micro-size WO{sub 3} precipitates has the potential in future large-area window or energy efficient display applications. (orig.)

  2. PV Power-Generation System with a Phase-Shift PWM Technique for High Step-Up Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A PV power-generation system with a phase-shift pulse-width modulation (PWM technique for high step-up voltage applications is proposed. The proposed power-generation system consists of two stages. In the input stage, all power switches of the full-bridge converter with phase-shift technique can be operated with zero-current switching (ZCS at turn-on or turn-off transition. Hence, the switching losses of the power switches can be reduced. Then, in the DC output stage, a voltage-doubler circuit is used to boost a high dc-link bus voltage. To supply a utility power, a dc/ac inverter is connected to induce a sinusoidal source. In order to draw a maximum power from PV arrays source, a microcontroller is incorporated with the perturbation and observation method to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In this study, a full load power of 300 W prototype has been built. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power-generation system.

  3. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  4. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  5. Electrochromic Device with Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, Andrey A.; Zakharov, Alexander N.; Rabotkin, Sergey V.; Kovsharov, Nikolay F.

    2016-08-01

    In this study a solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) comprised of a WO3 and Prussian blue (Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3) thin film couple with a Li+-conducting solid polymer electrolyte is discussed. WO3 was deposited on K-Glass substrate by magnetron sputtering method, while Prussian blue layer was formed on the same substrate by electrodeposition method. The parameters of the electrochromic device K-Glass/WO3/Li+-electrolyte/PB/K-Glass, such as change of transmittance, response time and stability were successfully tested using coupled optoelectrochemical methods. The device was colored or bleached by the application of +2 V or -2 V, respectively. Light modulation with transmittance variation of up to 59% and coloration efficiency of 43 cm2/C at a wavelength of 550 nm were obtained. Numerous switching of the ECD over 1200 cycles without the observation of significant degradation has been demonstrated.

  6. Lithium-based electrochromic mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.

    2003-05-19

    Antimony, antimony-copper, and antimony-silver thin films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. Their reflectance and transmittance in the visible range were measured before and after electrochemical lithiation. The mixed metal films exhibited larger changes in reflectance and small shifts in the optical absorption edge compared with pure antimony films. Electrochromic cycling speed and stability of the Sb-Li system were improved by the addition of copper and silver.

  7. Electrochromic device based on D-A type viologen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Shen; Xu, Chunye

    2012-04-01

    Electrochromism is the phenomenon displayed by some color changing materials when a burst of charge is applied. Viologens (Vio) are cathodic electrochromic materials, and triphenylamines (TPA) are anodic electrochromic materials. Here, we reported a new electrochromic compound composed of Vio, TPA and phosphonic acid groups, thus the molecules can be anchored on electrode, which will lead to faster switching speed and high stability. An electrochromic device was assembled using the new Vio as primary electrochromes and Prussian blue as secondary electrochromes. The device exhibits high transparency. In addition, it shows fast switching speed and good stability.

  8. Regional PV power estimation and forecast to mitigate the impact of high photovoltaic penetration on electric grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Marco; De Felice, Matteo; Maggioni, Enrico; Moser, David; Perotto, Alessandro; Spada, Francesco; Cornaro, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The growing photovoltaic generation results in a stochastic variability of the electric demand that could compromise the stability of the grid and increase the amount of energy reserve and the energy imbalance cost. On regional scale, solar power estimation and forecast is becoming essential for Distribution System Operators, Transmission System Operator, energy traders, and aggregators of generation. Indeed the estimation of regional PV power can be used for PV power supervision and real time control of residual load. Mid-term PV power forecast can be employed for transmission scheduling to reduce energy imbalance and related cost of penalties, residual load tracking, trading optimization, secondary energy reserve assessment. In this context, a new upscaling method was developed and used for estimation and mid-term forecast of the photovoltaic distributed generation in a small area in the north of Italy under the control of a local DSO. The method was based on spatial clustering of the PV fleet and neural networks models that input satellite or numerical weather prediction data (centered on cluster centroids) to estimate or predict the regional solar generation. It requires a low computational effort and very few input information should be provided by users. The power estimation model achieved a RMSE of 3% of installed capacity. Intra-day forecast (from 1 to 4 hours) obtained a RMSE of 5% - 7% while the one and two days forecast achieve to a RMSE of 7% and 7.5%. A model to estimate the forecast error and the prediction intervals was also developed. The photovoltaic production in the considered region provided the 6.9% of the electric consumption in 2015. Since the PV penetration is very similar to the one observed at national level (7.9%), this is a good case study to analyse the impact of PV generation on the electric grid and the effects of PV power forecast on transmission scheduling and on secondary reserve estimation. It appears that, already with 7% of PV

  9. Smart windows on the drawing board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.

    Progress is continuing int he development of windows that can control transmission and reflection of solar radiation. The electrochromic windows change from transparent to reflective when a small amount of electricity is applied to them. These smart windows will be able to reduce both cooling requirements and electricity use for lighting in buildings. Optical density, or color of electrochromic material depends upon the number of ions and electrons within, which can be regulated by applying current. The amount of electricity required for switching depends on the material used, but is on the order of a few milliamperes per square centimeter at 1-2 volts. Power is only drawn during switching. The window switches from transparent to opaque in 5-50 seconds, and the previous state will be remembered for up to 24 hours if the power supply is cut off. Current research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), focuses on visual lights switching materials for smaller applications, such as car windows and mirrors where solar glare and bright headlights are major problems. LBL's first prototypes had transmissivity ranges of 20% to 65% of visible light. Their goal is to expand the range to 15% to 70%. Study is also underway at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), in Goldern, Colorado, which has patented a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process developed there. The main issue regarding electrochromic window performance is durability. However, there are many challenges still to be overcome regarding the performance of electrochromic windows. Environmental stability tests are underway at LBL. Water vapor reactivity and cycle lifetime of the materials are also currently being researched.

  10. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  11. Energy and visual comfort performance of electrochromic windowswith overhangs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.S.; Tavil, A.

    2005-11-03

    DOE-2 building energy simulations were conducted to determine if there were practical architectural and control strategy solutions that would enable electrochromic (EC) windows to significantly improve visual comfort without eroding energy-efficiency benefits. EC windows were combined with overhangs since opaque overhangs provide protection from direct sun which EC windows are unable to do alone. The window wall was divided into an upper and lower aperture so that various combinations of overhang position and control strategies could be considered. The overhang was positioned either at the top of the upper window aperture or between the upper and lower apertures. Overhang depth was varied. EC control strategies were fully bleached at all times, modulated based on incident vertical solar radiation limits, or modulated to meet the design work plane illuminance with daylight. The EC performance was compared to a state-of-the-art spectrally selective low-e window with the same divided window wall, window size, and overhang as the EC configuration. The reference window was also combined with an interior shade which was manually deployed to control glare and direct sun. Both systems had the same daylighting control system to dim the electric lighting. Results were given for south-facing private offices in a typical commercial building. In hot and cold climates such as Houston and Chicago, EC windows with overhangs can significantly reduce the average annual daylight glare index (DGI) and deliver significant annual energy use savings if the window area is large. Total primary annual energy use was increased by 2-5% for moderate-area windows in either climate but decreased by 10% in Chicago and 5% in Houston for large-area windows. Peak electric demand can be reduced by 7-8% for moderate-area windows and by 14-16% for large-area windows in either climate. Energy and peak demand reductions can be significantly greater if the reference case does not have exterior shading or

  12. Photopolymerized Electrolytes For Electrochromic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart; Rauh, R. David

    1994-01-01

    Thin ion-conducting electrolyte films for use in electrochromic devices now fabricated relatively easily and quickly with any of class of improved formulations containing ultraviolet-polymerizable components. Formulations are liquids in their monomeric forms and self-supporting, transparent solids in their polymeric forms. Thin solid electrolytes form quickly and easily between electrode-bearing substrates. Film thus polymerized acts not only as solid electrolyte but also as glue holding laminate together: feature simplifies fabrication by reducing need for sealants and additional mechanical supports.

  13. Linear topology in amorphous metal oxide electrochromic networks obtained via low-temperature solution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llordés, Anna; Wang, Yang; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Xiao, Penghao; Lee, Tom; Poulain, Agnieszka; Zandi, Omid; Saez Cabezas, Camila A.; Henkelman, Graeme; Milliron, Delia J.

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous transition metal oxides are recognized as leading candidates for electrochromic window coatings that can dynamically modulate solar irradiation and improve building energy efficiency. However, their thin films are normally prepared by energy-intensive sputtering techniques or high-temperature solution methods, which increase manufacturing cost and complexity. Here, we report on a room-temperature solution process to fabricate electrochromic films of niobium oxide glass (NbOx) and `nanocrystal-in-glass’ composites (that is, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanocrystals embedded in NbOx glass) via acid-catalysed condensation of polyniobate clusters. A combination of X-ray scattering and spectroscopic characterization with complementary simulations reveals that this strategy leads to a unique one-dimensional chain-like NbOx structure, which significantly enhances the electrochromic performance, compared to a typical three-dimensional NbOx network obtained from conventional high-temperature thermal processing. In addition, we show how self-assembled ITO-in-NbOx composite films can be successfully integrated into high-performance flexible electrochromic devices.

  14. Effect of deposition charges on the wettability performance of electrochromic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağlar, Aysel; Cengiz, Uğur; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Kaya, İsmet

    2015-03-01

    Electrochromic polymers have been designed as future candidates for electrochromic displays (ECDs) and smart windows. This class of conducting polymers has been studied with their several optical properties as well as spectroelectrochemical stabilities. In practical use their contamination and abrasion could be expected to be main problem as exposed to moisture and other possible pollutants. In this study, we present a perspective to well-known electrochromic polymers in the words of their durable use. For this aim, a series of electrochromic polymers are deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plates by bulk electrolysis. Polymeric films are deposited by varied deposition charges (Qs) ranging from 62 to 620 mC cm-2 for comparison. Equilibrium water contact angle (θwaterequ) measurements of the prepared surfaces are measured by Attention Theta Optical Tensiometer. Surface roughness parameters (RMS) are determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique and used for interpretation of hydrophobic-hydrophilic characteristics. The results clearly indicate that; poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has a hydrophilic surface whose hydrophilicity is increased by applied deposition charge and becomes a superhydrophile at high deposition charges. Among the tested polymers polycarbazole (PCarb) is the most promising long lifetime candidate due to its relatively hydrophobic character. Also, the hydrophobicity of PCarb is linearly increased by increasing deposition charge and reaches an optimum point at a particular condition.

  15. Performance studies of electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The idea of having flexible, very thin, light, low power and even low cost display devices implemented using new materials and technologies is very exciting. Nowadays we can talk about more than just concepts, such devices exist, and they are part of an emerging concept: FOLAE (Flexible Organic and Large Area Electronics). Among the advantages of electrochromic devices are the low power consumption (they are non-emissive, i.e. passive) and the aspect like ink on paper with good viewing angle. Some studies are still necessary for further development, before proper performances are met and the functional behavior can be predicted. This paper presents the results of the research activity conducted to develop electric characterization platform for the organic electronics display devices, especially electrochromic displays, to permit a thorough study. The hardware part of platform permits the measuring of different electric and optical parameters. Charging/discharging a display element presents high interest for optimal driving circuitry. In this sense, the corresponding waveforms are presented. The contrast of the display is also measured for different operation conditions as driving voltage levels and duration. The effect of temperature on electrical and optical parameters (contrast) of the display will be also presented.

  16. Electrochromic Mirrors With Variable Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucke, Friedrich G. K.

    1986-09-01

    Unstructured electrochromic mirrors with variable reflectance have been developed on the basis of hydrogen tungsten bronzes. The characteristic compounds of these devices are (1) solid ion-conducting layers ("electrolytes") resulting in only few micrometer thick all-solid-state systems, which can be enclosed between the substrate and a second glass plate and are thus protected from the environment, (2) integrated reflecting metal layers, and (3) hydrogen-storing electrochromic layers. Two basically different constructions are feasible. In "diffusion-driven" devices the bronze is formed (decomposed) by the chemical reaction x/2 H2+ W03⇔HxW03, in "field-driven" systems an electrochemical bronze formation (decomposition), x H + W03+ x e HxW03, takes place. The modes of construction are presented and compared, the electrochemistry of the thin layer cells involved is discussed, the prop-erties of devices according to the state of development are reported, and possible applications, e.g. as glare-free, inside and outside, automotive rear view mirrors with adjustable reflectance, are briefly described.

  17. Predictability of PV power grid performance on insular sites without weather stations: use of artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Voyant, Cyril; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure; Poggi, Philippe; Haurant, P; 10.4229/24thEUPVSEC2009-5BV.2.35

    2010-01-01

    The official meteorological network is poor on the island of Corsica: only three sites being about 50 km apart are equipped with pyranometers which enable measurements by hourly and daily step. These sites are Ajaccio (41\\degree 55'N and 8\\degree 48'E, seaside), Bastia (42\\degree 33'N, 9\\degree 29'E, seaside) and Corte (42\\degree 30'N, 9\\degree 15'E average altitude of 486 meters). This lack of weather station makes difficult the predictability of PV power grid performance. This work intends to study a methodology which can predict global solar irradiation using data available from another location for daily and hourly horizon. In order to achieve this prediction, we have used Artificial Neural Network which is a popular artificial intelligence technique in the forecasting domain. A simulator has been obtained using data available for the station of Ajaccio that is the only station for which we have a lot of data: 16 years from 1972 to 1987. Then we have tested the efficiency of this simulator in two places w...

  18. Design and Development of a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT charge controller for Photo-Voltaic (PV power generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riazul Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how to implement MPPT using the most popular switching power supply topology. There are many published works on this topic, but only a tiny portion of them show how to actually implement the algorithms in hardware, as well as state common problems and pitfalls. In our work to keep the design simple we have used Arduino Nano. It has features like: LCD display, Led Indication and it is equipped with various protections to protect the circuitry from abnormal condition. This design is suitable for a 50W solar panel to charge a commonly used 12V lead acid battery. As the maximum power point (MPP of photovoltaic (PV power generation systems changes with changing atmospheric conditions (e.g. solar radiation and temperature, an important consideration in the design of efficient PV systems is to track the MPP correctly. We have implemented the most common MPPT algorithm named Perturb and Observe (PO to control the output of a synchronous buck-converter

  19. Photochromic, electrochromic, photoelectrochromic and photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Robert; McLarnon, Frank R.

    2000-01-01

    A light activated photoelectrochromic device is formed of a two-component system formed of a photoactive charge carrier generating material and electrochromic material (plus an elecrolyte). Light interacts with a semiconductive material to generate hole-electron charge carriers which cause a redox reaction in the electrochromic material. One device is formed of hydrated nickel oxide as the electrochromic layer and polycrystalline titanium dioxide as the charge generating material. The materials may be formed as discrete layers or mixed together. Because of the direct charge transfer between the layers, a circuit to apply a voltage to drive the electrochromic reaction is not required, although one can be used to enhance the reaction. The hydrated nickel oxide-titanium dioxide materials can also be used to form a photovoltaic device for generating electricity.

  20. Photochemical stability of electrochromic polymers and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    The stability of fully printed flexible organic electrochromics based on 11 different conjugated polymers is explored from the fundamental chemical degradation level to the operational device level. The photochemical stability of the electrochromic polymers (ECPs) is studied enabling an analysis...... operations for many years under indoor conditions and for a few years under outside conditions. Finally, functioning electrochromic devices (ECDs) were made and the effect of illumination on the response time and optical contrast was established. This report shows that encapsulated electrochromic devices...... based on flexible barrier substrates exhibit increased stability and are indeed viable in devices such as shading elements, light management systems, displays with low switching speed requirements and signage. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  1. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO3·H2O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm(2) C(-1)). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm(2)) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  2. A fast electrochromic polymer based on TEMPO substituted polytriphenylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lvlv; Dai, Yuyu; Yan, Shuanma; Lv, Xiaojing; Su, Chang; Xu, Lihuan; Lv, Yaokang; Ouyang, Mi; Chen, Zuofeng; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-07-22

    A novel strategy to obtain rapid electrochromic switching response by introducing 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) moiety into polytriphenylamine backbone has been developed. The electrochromic properties of the integrated polymer film are investigated and a possible mechanism is proposed with TEMPO as a counterion-reservoir group to rapidly balance the charges during electrochromic switching, which leads to significantly improved electrochromism performance.

  3. Power Prediction and Technoeconomic Analysis of a Solar PV Power Plant by MLP-ABC and COMFAR III, considering Cloudy Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of power generated by photovoltaic (PV panels in different climates is of great importance. The aim of this paper is to predict the output power of a 3.2 kW PV power plant using the MLP-ABC (multilayer perceptron-artificial bee colony algorithm. Experimental data (ambient temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity was gathered at five-minute intervals from Tehran University’s PV Power Plant from September 22nd, 2012, to January 14th, 2013. Following data validation, 10665 data sets, equivalent to 35 days, were used in the analysis. The output power was predicted using the MLP-ABC algorithm with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, the mean bias error (MBE, and correlation coefficient (R2, of 3.7, 3.1, and 94.7%, respectively. The optimized configuration of the network consisted of two hidden layers. The first layer had four neurons and the second had two neurons. A detailed economic analysis is also presented for sunny and cloudy weather conditions using COMFAR III software. A detailed cost analysis indicated that the total investment’s payback period would be 3.83 years in sunny periods and 4.08 years in cloudy periods. The results showed that the solar PV power plant is feasible from an economic point of view in both cloudy and sunny weather conditions.

  4. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Installations of photovoltaic (PV) power generation; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Taiyoko hatsuden jireishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The present survey places particular emphasis on the field of PV power generation systems, and intends to collect data on solar cell application products and PV power generation system installation cases, to classify them according to their usage and to compile a collection of case records including photographs. For the data collection, two formats have been adopted. A format for the solar cell-based products includes a picture of the product, and information on solar cell output and commercialization status. Another format for the installation of PV power systems includes a picture of the installation, and information on location, output level, system type, PV module type, owner, and date of installation. The application of solar cells was classified into 14 fields, i.e., consumer appliances, road and traffic, railroad, general industries, housing related, automobiles, agriculture, ocean development, disaster prevention and safety, amenity, developing countries, buildings, public facilities, and environment. A total of 241 valid cases have been collected. Overseas products and installation cases are often characterized by new applications and innovative design, and contain a lot of useful suggestions for promoting the spread of PV technology in Japan

  5. One-Year Monitoring PV Power Plant Installed on Rooftop of Mineirão Fifa World Cup/Olympics Football Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís G. Monteiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of one-year monitoring of AC side electrical parameters and the characterization of local solar radiation at the biggest rooftop PV Power Plant, with an installed capacity of 1.42 MWp, mounted at Mineirão Football Stadium in Brazil. This stadium is one of the sport facilities that hosted 2014 FIFA World Cup and Rio 2016 Summer Olympics Games in the country. Results showed how it is important to study and characterize the solar resource in the region of interest, based on historic data, to provide the understanding of solar radiation and thus project PV power plants with better performance. Furthermore, AC electrical data show the behavior of active, reactive and apparent powers and the influence of the PV system on the power factor at the local grid utility connection point. Finally, PV power plant performance data (as annual final yield, performance ratio and capacity factor are also presented and compared with data from PVsyst software simulations. The results over the monitoring period were good considering the specificities of the stadium

  6. Light-induced processes on electrochromic WO{sub 3} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichtweiss, Thomas; Meyer, Bruno K.; Polity, Angelika [Justus- Liebig- Universitaet Giessen, I. Physikalisches Institut, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Loewenstein, Thomas; Schlettwein, Derck [Justus- Liebig- Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Matthews, Jeremy; Joedicke, Dirk [EControl-Glas GmbH and Co. KG, 93437 Furth im Wald (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Electrochromic materials such as tungsten oxide in contact with a suitable electrolyte change their transmission upon the application of a potential. Technical applications include switchable mirrors and smart windows. The latter are made up of thin-film layers containing at least one electrochromic active material and make it possible to control the light- and energy-input of a building. This work concerns the influence of UV-A and UV-B light on tungsten oxide layers. WO{sub 3} films have been irradiated in an electrochemical cell containing different electrolytes and in atmosphere. Transmission spectra and the open circuit potential have been recorded. All layers show a photochromic behavior, they colour blue upon UV-irradiation due to partial reduction of tungsten atoms without application of an external potential. The films have been bleached electrochemically in order to determine the photogenerated charge and the colouration efficiency of the photochromic process. The reactions taking place place in irradiated films and their influence on the electrochromical switching behaviour of smart windows will be discussed.

  7. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  8. Hydrothermally processed TiO2 nanowire electrodes with antireflective and electrochromic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Zhi; Ko, Wen-Yin; Yen, Yin-Cheng; Chen, Po-Hung; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2012-08-28

    Dual functionalities of antireflective and electrochromic properties-based anatase TiO(2) nanowire devices with a high-porosity cross-linked geometry directly grown onto transparent conductive glass was achieved for the first time through a simple one-step hydrothermal process under mild alkali conditions. Devices fashioned from these TiO(2) nanowires were found to display enhanced optical transparency in the visible range, better color contrast, and faster color-switching time in comparison to devices made from nanoparticles. These improvements can be attributed to the low refractive index and high porosity of the TiO(2) nanowires and their larger accessible surface area for Li(+) intercalation and deintercalation, leading to enhanced capabilities for transparent electrochromic smart windows.

  9. Fast switching water processable electrochromic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengjie; Amb, Chad M; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of two new blue to transmissive donor-acceptor electrochromic polymers: a polymer synthesized using an alternating copolymerization route (ECP-Blue-A) and a polymer synthesized using a random copolymerization (ECP-Blue-R) by Stille polymerization. These polymers utilize side chains with four ester groups per donor moiety, allowing organic solubility in the ester form, and water solubility upon saponification to their carboxylate salt form. We demonstrate that the saponified polymer salts of ECP-Blue-A and ECP-Blue-R (WS-ECP-Blue-A and WS-ECP-Blue-R) can be processed from aqueous solutions into thin films by spray-casting. Upon the subsequent neutralization of the thin films, the resulting polymer acid films are solvent resistant and can be electrochemically switched between their colored state and a transmissive state in a KNO(3)/water electrolyte solution. The polymer acids, WS-ECP-Blue-A-acid and WS-ECP-Blue-R-acid, show electrochromic contrast Δ%T of 38% at 655 nm and 39% at 555 nm for a 0.5 s switch, demonstrating the advantage of an aqueous compatible electrochrome switchable in high ionic conductivity aqueous electrolytes. The results of the electrochromic properties study indicate that these polymers are promising candidates for aqueous processable and aqueous switching electrochromic materials and devices as desired for applications where environmental impact is of importance.

  10. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional

  11. Eco-efficiency evaluation of a smart window prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrrakou, E; Papaefthimiou, S; Yianoulis, P

    2006-04-15

    An eco-efficiency analysis was conducted using indicators suitably defined to evaluate the performance of an electrochromic window acting as an energy saving component in buildings. Combining the indicators for various parameters (control scenario, expected lifetime, climatic type, purchase cost) significant conclusions are drawn for the development and the potential applications of the device compared to other commercial fenestration products. The reduction of the purchase cost (to 200 euros/m2) and the increase of the lifetime (above 15 years) are the two main targets for achieving both cost and environmental efficiency. An electrochromic device, implemented in cooling dominated areas and operated with an optimum control strategy for the maximum expected lifetime (25 years), can reduce the building energy requirements by 52%. Furthermore, the total energy savings provided will be 33 times more than the energy required for its production while the emission of 615 kg CO2 equivalent per electrochromic glazing unit can be avoided.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Layer by Layer Assembled Single and Dual-Electrochrome Electrochromic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Montazami, Reza

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents applications of the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique in fabrication of thin films with a primary focus on design and development of electrochromic devices. The optical properties of electrochromic materials change as they alter between redox states. The morphology and properties of LbL-assembled thin films can be modified by varying several processing factors such as dipping duration, ion type, ion concentration, pH, molecular weight, and ionic strength. In the pre...

  13. Intra-Minute Cloud Passing Forecasting Based on a Low Cost IoT Sensor-A Solution for Smoothing the Output Power of PV Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukič, Primož; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2017-05-13

    Clouds moving at a high speed in front of the Sun can cause step changes in the output power of photovoltaic (PV) power plants, which can lead to voltage fluctuations and stability problems in the connected electricity networks. These effects can be reduced effectively by proper short-term cloud passing forecasting and suitable PV power plant output power control. This paper proposes a low-cost Internet of Things (IoT)-based solution for intra-minute cloud passing forecasting. The hardware consists of a Raspberry PI Model B 3 with a WiFi connection and an OmniVision OV5647 sensor with a mounted wide-angle lens, a circular polarizing (CPL) filter and a natural density (ND) filter. The completely new algorithm for cloud passing forecasting uses the green and blue colors in the photo to determine the position of the Sun, to recognize the clouds, and to predict their movement. The image processing is performed in several stages, considering selectively only a small part of the photo relevant to the movement of the clouds in the vicinity of the Sun in the next minute. The proposed algorithm is compact, fast and suitable for implementation on low cost processors with low computation power. The speed of the cloud parts closest to the Sun is used to predict when the clouds will cover the Sun. WiFi communication is used to transmit this data to the PV power plant control system in order to decrease the output power slowly and smoothly.

  14. Intra-Minute Cloud Passing Forecasting Based on a Low Cost IoT Sensor—A Solution for Smoothing the Output Power of PV Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukič, Primož; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2017-01-01

    Clouds moving at a high speed in front of the Sun can cause step changes in the output power of photovoltaic (PV) power plants, which can lead to voltage fluctuations and stability problems in the connected electricity networks. These effects can be reduced effectively by proper short-term cloud passing forecasting and suitable PV power plant output power control. This paper proposes a low-cost Internet of Things (IoT)-based solution for intra-minute cloud passing forecasting. The hardware consists of a Raspberry PI Model B 3 with a WiFi connection and an OmniVision OV5647 sensor with a mounted wide-angle lens, a circular polarizing (CPL) filter and a natural density (ND) filter. The completely new algorithm for cloud passing forecasting uses the green and blue colors in the photo to determine the position of the Sun, to recognize the clouds, and to predict their movement. The image processing is performed in several stages, considering selectively only a small part of the photo relevant to the movement of the clouds in the vicinity of the Sun in the next minute. The proposed algorithm is compact, fast and suitable for implementation on low cost processors with low computation power. The speed of the cloud parts closest to the Sun is used to predict when the clouds will cover the Sun. WiFi communication is used to transmit this data to the PV power plant control system in order to decrease the output power slowly and smoothly. PMID:28505078

  15. NIR-Selective electrochromic heteromaterial frameworks: a platform to understand mesoscale transport phenomena in solid-state electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, TE; Chang, CM; Rosen, EL; Garcia, G; Runnerstrom, EL; Williams, BL; Koo, B; Buonsanti, R; Milliron, DJ; Helms, BA

    2014-01-01

    We report here the first solid-state, NIR-selective electrochromic devices. Critical to device performance is the arrangement of nanocrystal-derived electrodes into heteromaterial frameworks, where hierarchically porous ITO nanocrystal active layers are infiltrated by an ion-conducting polymer electrolyte with mesoscale periodicity. Enhanced coloration efficiency and transport are realized over unarchitectured electrodes in devices, paving the way towards new smart windows technologies.

  16. Coordination of International Standards with Implementation of the IECRE Conformity Assessment System to Provide Multiple Certification Offerings for PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, George; Haring, Adrian; Spooner, Ted; Ball, Greg; Kurtz, Sarah; Heinze, Matthias; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Eguchi, Yoshihito; Ramu, Govind

    2016-11-21

    To help address the industry's needs for assuring the value and reducing the risk of investments in PV power plants; the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a new conformity assessment system for renewable energy (IECRE). There are presently important efforts underway to define the requirements for various types of PV system certificates, and publication of the international standards upon which these certifications will be based. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the interrelationship of these activities and the timing for initiation of IECRE PV system certifications.

  17. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  18. Electrochromic properties of WO{sub x} thin films on ZnO:Al (AZO) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichtweiss, Thomas; Stiebich, Jennifer; Polity, Angelika; Meyer, Bruno K. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany). I. Physikalisches Institut

    2009-07-01

    Electrochromic materials such as tungsten oxide in contact with a suitable electrolyte change their optical transmission upon the application of a potential due to ion intercalation. Technical applications include switchable mirrors and smart windows. The latter are made up of several thin-film layers containing at least one electrochromic active material and make it possible to control the light- and energy-input of a building. In such a device the electrochromic layer is deposited on top of a transparent conductive oxide film (TCO) for electrical connection. In this work we report on the deposition of optical active tungsten oxide layers on aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by sputtering. The effect of the deposition parameters on the electrochemical and optical properties of the films is discussed and layers with optimized coloration efficiency are presented. Non stoichiometric WO{sub x} layers have been therefore deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on aluminum-doped zinc oxide substrates. The electrochemical behavior of these films has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the Li{sup +}-ion chemical diffusion coefficients have been evaluated by GITT (galvanostatic intermittent titration technique). Optical spectra have been recorded in-situ when charging the layers in order to calculate their coloration efficiency.

  19. An Inexpensive Device for Studying Electrochromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Puente-Caballero, Rodrigo; Torres-Perez, Jonatan; Bustos, Daniel; Carmona-Orbezo, Aranzazu; Sevilla, Fortunato B., III

    2012-01-01

    A novel procedure for the preparation of electrochromic WO[subscript 3] films from readily available materials is presented. It is based on the electrochemical preparation of potassium tungstate from tungsten filaments of incandescent light bulbs in a potassium hydroxide solution. Tungstic acid is then produced by proton exchange using a…

  20. Multicolor Electrochromics: Rainbow-Like Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesanco, Yolanda; Viñuales, Ana; Palenzuela, Jesús; Odriozola, Ibon; Cabañero, Germán; Rodriguez, Javier; Tena-Zaera, Ramón

    2016-06-15

    Stimuli-responsive reversible coloration-change materials represent a highly demanded type of smart systems useful for a wide variety of applications, with a significant growing interest in multicolor abilities. In particular, electrochromic materials have received a great deal of attention due to their versatility and broad range of industrial uses. However, most of the existing electrochromic technologies provide a single coloration, while achieving multiple colors based on simple approaches remains a challenge. The present article reports on PVA gel-based electrochromic devices, containing a single viologen, providing a colorless and two different well-defined colored states. The successful fabrication of a device, based on two viologens (multi-EC gel) with a simple architecture (glass/TCO/multi-EC gel/TCO/glass), with five different multiswitchable colors based on four-zoned electrodes (rainbow-like ECD) is also demonstrated. This novel easy-to-make multichromic system represents a significant breakthrough toward the generation of full-color devices, expanding the potential of electrochromic technology.

  1. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  2. Double-electrochromic coordination polymer network films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Anna; Cheng, Kalie; Savych, Julia; Tieke, Bernd

    2011-07-01

    Formation and characteristic properties of organized double-electrochromic films consisting of electrochromic poly(4-(2,2':6,2″-terpyridyl)phenyliminofluorene) (P-1)-zinc ion complexes and electrochromic anions are reported. The anions are 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and poly((4-sulfonatophenyl)iminofluorene) (P-2). The films were prepared upon multiple sequential adsorption of P-1 and the zinc salts of ABTS and P-2 on solid supports using coordinative interactions between the Zn ions and the terpyridine (tpy) ligands. The ABTS and P-2 ions are incorporated in the films via electrostatic forces neutralizing the charge of the complexed divalent zinc (Zn(2+)) ions. The optical, electrochemical, and electrochromic properties of the films are described. Films consisting of the Zn ion complex of P-1 and ABTS are yellow in the neutral state and change their color to brownish gray and finally blue, if anodically oxidized at ∼640 mV vs FOC. Films containing the Zn ion complex of P-1, with P-2 as a counterion, are yellow in the neutral state and change color to dark red and finally blue, if anodically oxidized at ∼450 mV vs FOC. Compared with previously reported films of the Zn ion complex of P-1 with nonelectroactive hexafluorophosphate as the counterion, the new films exhibit faster response times, as well as higher contrast, and the colors in the oxidized state are modified. The films are stable under ambient conditions and might be useful as active layers in electrochromic devices.

  3. Electrochromic Devices Deposited on Low-Temperature Plastics by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, Joshua; Seman, Michael

    2005-09-20

    Electrochromic windows have been identified by the Basic energy Sciences Advisory committee as an important technology for the reduction of energy spent on heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings. Electrochromic devices have the ability to reversibly alter their optical properties in response to a small electric field. By blocking ultraviolet and infrared radiation, while modulating the incoming visible radiation, electrochromics could reduce energy consumption by several Quads per year. This amounts to several percent of the total annual national energy expenditures. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate proof of concept for using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for depositing all five layers necessary for full electrochromic devices, as an alternative to sputtering techniques. The overall goal is to produce electrochromic devices on flexible polymer substrates using PECVD to significantly reduce the cost of the final product. We have successfully deposited all of the films necessary for a complete electrochromic devices using PECVD. The electrochromic layer, WO3, displayed excellent change in visible transmission with good switching times. The storage layer, V2O5, exhibited a high storage capacity and good clear state transmission. The electrolyte, Ta2O5, was shown to functional with good electrical resistivity to go along with the ability to transfer Li ions. There were issues with leakage over larger areas, which can be address with further process development. We developed a process to deposit ZnO:Ga with a sheet resistance of < 50 W/sq. with > 90% transmission. Although we were not able to deposit on polymers due to the temperatures required in combination with the inverted position of our substrates. Two types of full devices were produced. Devices with Ta2O5 were shown to be functional using small aluminum dots as the top contact. The polymer electrolyte devices were shown to have a clear state transmission of

  4. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  5. Photopatterned conjugated polymer electrochromic nanofibers on paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Asemota, C; Invernale, M; Sotzing, G A [Department of Chemistry and the Polymer Program, 97, N. Eagleville Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT-06269-3136 (United States); Padilla, J; Otero, T F [Center for Electrochemistry and Intelligent Materials C/Carlos III s/n, Campus Alfonso XIII, Polytechnic University of Cartagena, 30203 (Spain)], E-mail: sotzing@ims.uconn.edu

    2008-08-15

    Electrochromic nanofibers of conducting polymer (terthiophene) have been deposited over a conventional paper sheet by means of the electrospinning technique, and subsequently photopatterned by means of UV radiation. The synthesis of a processable precursor copolymer with a norbornylene matrix and pendant units of terthiophene makes the electrospinning process available, and allows for chemical or electrochemical crosslinking of the precursor copolymer to obtain a conducting polymer. The inclusion of photocrosslinkable units (methacrylate) in the precursor copolymer also allows for photopatterning of the material. This was applied to obtain patterns on the paper which can be chemically oxidized or reduced resulting in electrochromic characters. SEM images of the conducting polymer nanofibers together with the cellulose fibers show how these materials can be attached to textile fibers, adding new functionalities that are reminiscent of the chameleonic abilities of some living creatures.

  6. Optical constants of electrochromic films and contrast ratio of reflective electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Tang, Chien-Jen; Chan, Chih-Chao; Lee, Kun-Hsien; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the optical constants of WO3 electrochromic films and NiO ion-storage films in bleached and colored states and that of a Ta2O5 film used as an ion conductor. These thin films were all prepared by electron-beam evaporation and characterized using a spectroscopic ellipsometer. The spectra obtained using a spectrophotometer and those calculated from the optical constants agreed closely. An all-solid thin-film reflective electrochromic device was fabricated and discussed. Its mean contrast ratio of reflectance in the range of 400-700 nm was 37.91.

  7. Design, fabrication, and certification of advanced modular PV power systems. Annual technical progress report, 8 September 1995--7 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambarski, T.; Minyard, G. [Solar Electric Specialties, Willits, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during the first year of a nominal 2-year effort by Solar Electric Specialties Company (SES) under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project of the National Photovoltaic Program. The goal of the SES contract is to reduce the installed system life-cycle costs by developing certified and standardized prototype products for two SES product lines--MAPPS{trademark} and Photogenset{trademark}. The MAPPS (modular autonomous PV power supply) systems are used for DC applications up to about a thousand watt-hours. The Photogensets are hybrid PV/generator systems for AC applications. SES expects these products to provide the basis for future commercial product lines of standardized certified, packaged systems.

  8. Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-02-01

    Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on 1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and 2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems.

  9. Electrochemical treatment of tannery effluent using a battery integrated DC-DC converter and solar PV power supply--an approach towards environment and energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyappan, K; Basha, C Ahmed; Saravanathamizhan, R; Vedaraman, N; Tahiyah Nou Shene, C A; Begum, S Nathira

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of tannery effluent was carried out in batch, batch recirculation and continuous reactor configurations under different conditions using a battery-integrated DC-DC converter and solar PV power supply. The effect of current density, electrolysis time and fluid flow rate on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy consumption has been evaluated. The results of batch reactor show that a COD reduction of 80.85% to 96.67% could be obtained. The results showed that after 7 h of operation at a current density of 2.5 A dm(-2) and flow rate of 100 L h(-1) in batch recirculation reactor, the removal of COD is 82.14% and the specific energy consumption was found to be 5.871 kWh (kg COD)(-1) for tannery effluent. In addition, the performance of single pass flow reactors (single and multiple reactors) system of various configurations are analyzed.

  10. A transparent electrochromic metal-insulator switching device with three-terminal transistor geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Onozato, Takaki; Hirono, Misako; Mizuno, Taku; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-05-01

    Proton and hydroxyl ion play an essential role for tuning functionality of oxides because their electronic state can be controlled by modifying oxygen off-stoichiometry and/or protonation. Tungsten trioxide (WO3), a well-known electrochromic (EC) material for smart window, is a wide bandgap insulator, whereas it becomes a metallic conductor HxWO3 by protonation. Although one can utilize electrochromism together with metal-insulator (MI) switching for one device, such EC-MI switching cannot be utilized in current EC devices because of their two-terminal structure with parallel-plate configuration. Here we demonstrate a transparent EC-MI switchable device with three-terminal TFT-type structure using amorphous (a-) WO3 channel layer, which was fabricated on glass substrate at room temperature. We used water-infiltrated nano-porous glass, CAN (calcium aluminate with nano-pores), as a liquid-leakage-free solid gate insulator. At virgin state, the device was fully transparent in the visible-light region. For positive gate voltage, the active channel became dark blue, and electrical resistivity of the a-WO3 layer drastically decreased with protonation. For negative gate voltage, deprotonation occurred and the active channel returned to transparent insulator. Good cycleability of the present transparent EC-MI switching device would have potential for the development of advanced smart windows.

  11. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why...

  12. Graphene as an efficient interfacial layer for electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Bult, Justin B; Nanayakkara, Sanjini; Dillon, Anne C; Richards, Ryan M; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Engtrakul, Chaiwat

    2015-06-03

    This study presents an interfacial modification strategy to improve the performance of electrochromic films that were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering technique. High-quality graphene sheets, synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, were used to modify fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates, followed by the deposition of high-performance nanocomposite nickel oxide electrochromic films. Electrochromic cycling results revealed that a near-complete monolayer graphene interfacial layer improves the electrochromic performance in terms of switching kinetics, activation period, coloration efficiency, and bleached-state transparency, while maintaining ∼100% charge reversibility. The present study offers an alternative route for improving the interfacial properties between electrochromic and transparent conducting oxide films without relying on conventional methods such as nanostructuring or thin film composition control.

  13. Variable optical attenuator made by using new electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaz, Ricardo; Barrios, David; Sanchez-Pena, Jose M.; Vazquez, Carmen; Pozo-Gonzalo, Cristina; Mecerreyes, David; Pomposo, Jose

    2005-07-01

    Electrochromic (EC) materials are used mainly for domotic applications, such as transparency controlled windows or rear-view mirrors in cars. The device construction is a sandwich of electrochemical compounds, which change their optical properties when applying voltage. Although the changes that are used in the applications take place in the visible, there are also changes in the near infrared region. In the last years, some works have proposed their use in fiber optic applications, mainly as optical modulators or VOAs (Variable Optical Attenuator). EC devices have usually slow responses (several seconds) and low transmittance range, specially the organic ones. The slow response is the major drawback for their use as modulators. But in NIR transmittance ranges, there are promising results in materials like ruthenium or PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)). In this work, we will study the possible use in VOAs of new EC devices developed with the minimum number of layers, by their response in telecommunications wavelengths. These devices are manufactured in such a way that the integration in fiber optic devices is an easy task. The minimum number of layers and the easy construction are improvements over the existing possibilities. PEDOT is the EC material on these devices, and different manufacturing ways are compared in order to detect the best possible candidate to use.

  14. Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW ac solar tracking sub- array for grid-connected PV power system applications. Phase 1, Annual technical report, 11 July 1995--31 July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G. [Utility Power Group, Chatsworth, CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The overall goal of this effort is to reduce the installed cost of utility scale grid connected photovoltaic power systems. The focus of the effort is on ``BOS`` (Balance-Of-System) component manufacturing technology, which essentially involves all PV power system engineering, manufacturing, assembly and construction tasks from the receipt of a PV module to the deliver of grid connected electricity.

  15. Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Study on large-scale PV power supply system; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyo energy kyokyu system no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on large-scale PV power supply systems in fiscal 1994. (1) On optimization of large-scale systems, the conceptual design of the model system was carried out which supposes a large-scale integrated PV power generation system in desert area. As a result, a pair of 250kW generation system was designed as minimum one consisting power unit. Its frame and construction method were designed considering weather conditions in the inland of China. (2) On optimization of large-scale transmission systems, as large-scale power transmission systems for PV power generation, the following were studied: AC aerial transmission, DC aerial transmission, superconducting transmission, hydrogen gas pipeline, and LH2 tanker transport. (3) On the influence of large-scale systems, it was estimated that emission control is expected by substituting PV power generation for coal fired power generation, the negative influence on natural environment cannot be supposed, and the favorable economic effect is expected as influence on social environment. 4 tabs.

  16. Liquid phase deposition of electrochromic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Rubin, Michael D.

    2000-08-18

    Thin films of titanium, zirconium and nickel oxides were deposited on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by immersion in aqueous solutions. The films are transparent, conformal, of uniform thickness and appearance, and adhere strongly to the substrates. On electrochemical cycling, TiO2, mixed TiO2-ZrO2, and NiOx films exhibited stable electrochromism with high coloration efficiencies. These nickel oxide films were particularly stable compared with films prepared by other non-vacuum techniques. The method is simple, inexpensive, energy efficient, and readily scalable to larger substrates.

  17. Application of Nanostructures in Electrochromic Materials and Devices: Recent Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Min; Sun, Xiao Wei; Jiao, Zhihui

    2010-11-26

    The recent progress in application of nanostructures in electrochromic materials and devices is reviewed. ZnO nanowire array modified by viologen and WO₃, crystalline WO₃ nanoparticles and nanorods, mesoporous WO₃ and TiO₂, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes, Prussian blue nanoinks and nanostructures in switchable mirrors are reviewed. The electrochromic properties were significantly enhanced by applying nanostructures, resulting in faster switching responses, higher stability and higher optical contrast. A perspective on the development trends in electrochromic materials and devices is also proposed.

  18. Application of Nanostructures in Electrochromic Materials and Devices: Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Min Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent progress in application of nanostructures in electrochromic materials and devices is reviewed. ZnO nanowire array modified by viologen and WO3, crystalline WO3 nanoparticles and nanorods, mesoporous WO3 and TiO2, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene nanotubes, Prussian blue nanoinks and nanostructures in switchable mirrors are reviewed. The electrochromic properties were significantly enhanced by applying nanostructures, resulting in faster switching responses, higher stability and higher optical contrast. A perspective on the development trends in electrochromic materials and devices is also proposed.

  19. Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

    2012-06-30

    The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational

  20. Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

    2012-06-30

    The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational

  1. Multicolor Electrochromic Devices Based on Molecular Plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Grant J; Lauchner, Adam; Cui, Yao; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2017-03-28

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, the hydrogen-terminated, sub-nanometer-scale version of graphene, support plasmon resonances with the addition or removal of a single electron. Typically colorless when neutral, they are transformed into vivid optical absorbers in either their positively or negatively charged states. Here, we demonstrate a low-voltage, multistate electrochromic device based on PAH plasmon resonances that can be reversibly switched between nearly colorless (0 V), olive (+4 V), and royal blue (-3.5 V). The device exhibits highly efficient color change compared to electrochromic polymers and metal oxides, lower power consumption than liquid crystals, and is shown to reversibly switch for at least 100 cycles. We also demonstrate the additive property of molecular plasmon resonances in a single-layer device to display a reversible, transmissive-to-black device. This work illuminates the potential of PAH molecular plasmonics for the development of color displays and large-area color-changing applications due to their processability and ultralow power consumption.

  2. Quantitative self-powered electrochromic biosensors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04469g Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitero, Miguel Aller; Guimerà, Anton; Kitsara, Maria; Villa, Rosa; Rubio, Camille; Lakard, Boris; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Self-powered sensors are analytical devices able to generate their own energy, either from the sample itself or from their surroundings. The conventional approaches rely heavily on silicon-based electronics, which results in increased complexity and cost, and prevents the broader use of these smart systems. Here we show that electrochromic materials can overcome the existing limitations by simplifying device construction and avoiding the need for silicon-based electronics entirely. Electrochromic displays can be built into compact self-powered electrochemical sensors that give quantitative information readable by the naked eye, simply controlling the current path inside them through a combination of specially arranged materials. The concept is validated by a glucose biosensor coupled horizontally to a Prussian blue display designed as a distance-meter proportional to (glucose) concentration. This approach represents a breakthrough for self-powered sensors, and extends the application of electrochromic materials beyond smart windows and displays, into sensing and quantification. PMID:28451316

  3. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al3+ ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al3+ films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni3+/Ni2+ also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni3+ making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film.

  4. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  5. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Photovoltaic (PV) power generation; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Taiyoko hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of understanding the present status of photovoltaic power system (PVPS) and supporting its promotion, various data were collected. The significance of adopting PV power technology was specified for customers of various levels, such as nation, local communities, industries and individual households, to clarify the CO2 reduction effect and energy pay-back time. Data illustrate the solar cell production according to region, cell types, industries, applications, production value, and market price. Policies for PVPS in industrial countries were compared with those in Japan. Distribution of PVPS in various countries was compared with that in Japan in respect to installations and purposes of the introduction of PVPS. Financial aid programs such as subsidies, tax benefits and loans for the installation of PVPS in Japan were listed. The trend of PV-related budget of MITI was shown with every project`s description. Steps of introducing PVPS from plan to installation were depicted in the form of flow chart. Were shown measures sponsored by the government or local organizations to promote PVPS. Domestic and foreign firms related to PVPS including PV module suppliers, and PV installation contractors were listed

  6. 沙漠戈壁光伏电厂的生态功能%Ecological Functions of PV Power Plants in the Desert and Gobi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常兆丰; 刘世增; 朱淑娟; 韩福贵; 仲生年; 段晓峰

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an emerging energy industry that is developing rapidly. A number of PV power plants have been established in the desert and Gobi areas in northwest China in recent years. Is there any ecological significance to the establishment of PV power plants? If yes, what is it? This paper tries to find the answer by analyzing meteorological data from the Hexi Corridor as wel as the observational data of light and veg-etation in the Minqin desert area. The results show that the solar energy converted from 1 m2 of PV panels is equivalent to the solar energy that is utilized by 260.75 m2of desert plants in the desert area. In China, there is vast area of desert and Gobi, with frequent dust storms and aeolian sand, as wel as rich sunlight resources. Therefore, to develop the PV industry in the desert and Gobi regions wil not only create considerable economic benefits, but wil also be of great ecological significance. On the one hand, PV can effectively regulate thermodynamic equilib-rium on the surface, helping to prevent sandstorms and reduce aeolian sand. The development of the PV industry is a win-win that generates economic returns and provides ecological protection by combating desertification. On the other hand, the PV industry can be developed without taking up arable land or other types of land. There are fre-quently high winds in the desert and Gobi region. PV power plants, together with wind power generation, are useful to transform and consume the power source that creates duststorms and aeolian sandflow in the desert and Gobi areas. This results in fewer sandstorms and reduced aeolian sandflow.%光伏发电作为一种新兴的能源产业发展很快,近些年来在我国西北沙漠、戈壁地区也建立了一批光伏发电厂。那么,在沙漠、戈壁上建造光伏电厂有无生态学意义,有何生态学意义呢?本文运用河西走廊的气象资料和民勤沙区的光照观测资料以及植被观测资

  7. Fast Switching Electrochromic Devices Containing Optimized BEMA/PEGMA Gel Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Garino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized thermoset gel polymer electrolyte based on Bisphenol A ethoxylate dimethacrylate and Poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (BEMA/PEGMA was prepared by facile photo-induced free radical polymerisation technique and tested for the first time in electrochromic devices (ECD combining WO3 sputtered on ITO as cathodes and V2O5 electrodeposited on ITO as anodes. The behaviour of the prepared ECD was investigated electrochemically and electro-optically. The ECD transmission spectrum was monitored in the visible and near-infrared region by varying applied potential. A switching time of ca. 2 s for Li+ insertion (coloring and of ca. 1 s for Li+ de-insertion (bleaching were found. UV-VIS spectroelectrochemical measurements evidenced a considerable contrast between bleached and colored state along with a good stability over repeated cycles. The reported electrochromic devices showed a considerable enhancement of switching time with respect to the previously reported polymeric ECD indicating that they are good candidates for the implementation of intelligent windows and smart displays.

  8. Direct Growth of Crystalline Tungsten Oxide Nanorod Arrays by a Hydrothermal Process and Their Electrochromic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Hao; Hon, Min Hsiung; Leu, Ing-Chi

    2016-12-01

    Transparent crystalline tungsten oxide nanorod arrays for use as an electrochromic layer have been directly prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass via a facile tungsten film-assisted hydrothermal process using aqueous tungsten hexachloride solution. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the phase and morphology of the grown nanostructures. Arrays of tungsten oxide nanorods with diameter of ˜22 nm and length of ˜240 nm were obtained at 200°C after 8 h of hydrothermal reaction. We propose a growth mechanism for the deposition of the monoclinic tungsten oxide phase in the hydrothermal environment. The tungsten film was first oxidized to tungsten oxide to provide seed sites for crystal growth and address the poor connection between the growing tungsten oxide and substrate. Aligned tungsten oxide nanorod arrays can be grown by a W thin film-assisted heterogeneous nucleation process with NaCl as a structure-directing agent. The fabricated electrochromic device demonstrated optical modulation (coloration/bleaching) at 632.8 nm of ˜41.2% after applying a low voltage of 0.1 V for 10 s, indicating the potential of such nanorod array films for use in energy-saving smart windows.

  9. Direct Growth of Crystalline Tungsten Oxide Nanorod Arrays by a Hydrothermal Process and Their Electrochromic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Hao; Hon, Min Hsiung; Leu, Ing-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Transparent crystalline tungsten oxide nanorod arrays for use as an electrochromic layer have been directly prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass via a facile tungsten film-assisted hydrothermal process using aqueous tungsten hexachloride solution. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the phase and morphology of the grown nanostructures. Arrays of tungsten oxide nanorods with diameter of ˜22 nm and length of ˜240 nm were obtained at 200°C after 8 h of hydrothermal reaction. We propose a growth mechanism for the deposition of the monoclinic tungsten oxide phase in the hydrothermal environment. The tungsten film was first oxidized to tungsten oxide to provide seed sites for crystal growth and address the poor connection between the growing tungsten oxide and substrate. Aligned tungsten oxide nanorod arrays can be grown by a W thin film-assisted heterogeneous nucleation process with NaCl as a structure-directing agent. The fabricated electrochromic device demonstrated optical modulation (coloration/bleaching) at 632.8 nm of ˜41.2% after applying a low voltage of 0.1 V for 10 s, indicating the potential of such nanorod array films for use in energy-saving smart windows.

  10. PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottermann, Clemens R.; Segner, Johannes G.; Bange, Klaus

    1992-11-01

    The electrochromic properties of all solid state devices (ASSDs) are strongly defined by thin film materials used as well as the method of deposition. Various thin film materials deposited by evaporation and sputtering are described serving as electrode, reflector, electrolyte, storage medium, or electrochromic film in ASSD. The impact of process parameters upon the device functionality is shown. In addition, the long-term stability of ASSDs for the different thin film systems is reported.

  11. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet-synthesized electrochromic organomolybdenum oxide thin films for flexible electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yung-Sen, E-mail: yslin@fcu.edu.tw; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Tien, Shih-Wei

    2013-02-01

    An investigation is conducted into fast synthesis of electrochromic organomolybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}C{sub y}) thin films onto 40 Ω/□ flexible polyethylene terephthalate/indium tin oxide substrates via atmospheric pressure plasma jet. A precursor [molybdenum carbonyl, Mo(CO){sub 6}] vapor, carried by argon gas, is injected into air plasma torch to synthesize MoO{sub x}C{sub y} films for offering extraordinary electrochromic performance. Only low driving voltages from − 1 V to 1 V are needed to offer reversible Li{sup +} ion intercalation and deintercalation in a 1 M LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte. Light modulation with transmittance variation of up to 61%, optical density change of 0.54 and coloration efficiency of 37.5 cm{sup 2}/C at a wavelength of 550 nm after 200 cycles of cyclic voltammetry switching measurements is achieved. - Highlights: ► Fast deposition of MoO{sub x}C{sub y} film by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet ► Organic–inorganic hybrid MoO{sub x}C{sub y} films synthesized ► Flexible and electrochromic MoO{sub x}C{sub y} films produced.

  12. Polymer-based symmetric electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbizzani, Catia; Cerroni, Maria Grazia [Department of Chemistry `G. Ciamician`, University of Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Mastragostino, Marina [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Palermo, via Archirafi 26, 20123 Palermo (Italy)

    1998-12-30

    The fact that conjugated polymers repeatedly undergo electrochemical doping/undoping processes, which are accompanied by color changes, makes these materials very attractive, and much effort has been devoted to their use in advanced devices. There is renewed interest in electroactive polymers that reversibly undergo both p- and n-doping because of their potential application in symmetric electrochemical devices. We employed fused molecules, dithienothiophenes, as monomers to obtain polymers with a narrow band gap suitable for n- and p-doping. The performance results of two symmetric electrochromic devices having as electrodes both poly(dithieno[3,4-b:3`,4`-d]thiophene) (pDTT1) and poly(dithieno[3,4-b:2`,3`-d]thiophene) (pDTT3) are reported and discussed

  13. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Youb, E-mail: youby@etri.re.kr [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  14. Electrochromics and thermochromics for energy efficient fenestration: Functionalities based on nanoparticles of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn and VO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, C.G., E-mail: claes-goran.granqvist@angstrom.uu.se; Bayrak Pehlivan, İ.; Ji, Y.-X.; Li, S.-Y.; Niklasson, G.A.

    2014-05-30

    Windows incorporating electrochromic (EC) and thermochromic (TC) materials are of great interest for today's and tomorrow's buildings and can create energy efficiency jointly with indoor comfort. This paper summarizes several recent studies and shows that nanoparticles of transparent conducting oxides—specifically In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn (ITO) and thermochromic VO{sub 2}—can lead to desirable functionalities. We consider three examples: (i) the use of ITO nanoparticles in conventional polaronic EC devices in order to suppress near-infrared solar transmittance, (ii) performance limits for plasmonic EC devices based on ITO nanoparticles, and (iii) ITO–VO{sub 2}-based nanocomposites combining low thermal emittance with TC properties. We also consider Mg doping of VO{sub 2} to enhance the luminous transmittance and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/VO{sub 2} double layers with improved durability. Both experimental and theoretical results are reported. - Highlights: • Electro- and thermochromism in windows can give energy efficiency and comfort • Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (NP) can yield plasmonic electrochromism • ITO NP in polaronic electrochromic devices suppress near-infrared transmittance • ITO–VO{sub 2} nanocomposites can combine low thermal emittance with thermochromism.

  15. Dual Band Electrochromic Devices Based on Nb-Doped TiO2 Nanocrystalline Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barawi, Mariam; De Trizio, Luca; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Veramonti, Giulia; Manna, Liberato; Manca, Michele

    2017-04-25

    The reliable exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance in transparent conductive oxides is being pursued to push the developement of an emerging class of advanced dynamic windows, which offer the opportunity to selectively and dynamically control the intensity of the incoming thermal radiation without affecting visible transparency. In this view, Nb-doped TiO2 colloidal nanocrystals are particularly promising, as they have a wide band gap and their plasmonic features can be finely tailored across the near-infrared region by varying the concentration of dopants. Four batches of Nb-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with different doping levels (from 0% to 15% of niobium content) have been used here to prepare highly transparent mesoporous electrodes for near-infrared selective electrochromic devices, capable of dynamically modulating the intensity of the transmitted radiation upon the application of a relatively small bias voltage. An engineered dual band electrochromic device (made of 10%-Nb-doped TiO2 nanocrystals) has been eventually fabricated. It was shown to provide two complementary spectroelectrochemical responses, which can be independently controlled through the intensity of the applied potential: a large variation of the optical transmittance in the near-infrared region (by the intensification of the localized surface plasmon scattering) was achievable in the 0-3 V voltage window, reaching values greater than 64% in the spectral range from 800 to 2000 nm, whereas the visible absorption could also be intensively varied at higher potentials (from 3 to 4 V), driven by Li intercalation into the TiO2 anatase lattice.

  16. Brown coloring electrochromic devices based on NiO-TiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kahlout, A.; Aegerter, M. [Department of Coating Technology, Leibniz-Institut fuer Neue Materialien INM, Im Stadtwald, Gebaeude 2 2, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Pawlicka, A. [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2006-12-15

    Brown coloring electrochromic 5x10cm{sup 2} windows with the configuration K-glass/NiO-TiO{sub 2}/electrolyte/CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}/K-glass have been prepared and characterized by optoelectrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and galvanostatic measurements). The electrochromic layers have been prepared by the sol-gel technique. As electrolyte either a 1M aqueous KOH solution or a newly developed starch-based gel impregnated with KOH have been used. The CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} sol-gel layers sintered at 550{sup o}C have been previously characterized in 1M aqueous KOH electrolyte as a function of the thickness up to 2000 cycles and showed a highly reversible behavior without any corrosion effect. The NiO-TiO{sub 2} sol-gel layers sintered at 300{sup o}C have been extensively characterized in the same electrolyte up to about 7000 cycles. All windows present a deep brown color characteristic of the presence of Ni{sup 3+} (NiOOH) species, that is fully reversible for several thousands of cycles with a rather-fast kinetics (<30s). The transmittance of the bleached state however slowly decreases with cycling (permanent coloration). The full-bleached condition can be nevertheless recovered by applying a negative potential for a long duration. Deeper coloration is usually obtained by cycling the windows galvanostatically with a current density of 20{mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The lifetime of the windows is however limited because of the degradation of the NiO-based layers due to the not fully reversible exchange of OH{sup -} that turns the layers mechanically fragile and leads eventually to their complete removal from the substrate. Windows working satisfactorily up to 7000 and 17000cycles have been obtained using aqueous KOH electrolyte and starch KOH gel electrolyte, respectively. Memory tests showed that the devices bleach at the open circuit potential from T=39% (colored state) to about T=50% in 60min. (author)

  17. Window shopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, D.

    1990-03-01

    The author addresses the energy efficiency of windows and describes changes and new products available in this consumer information article. Experiments currently being done by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Bonneville Power Authority and the Washington State Energy Office show that some of these superwindows collect more energy from the sun than they let escape from inside the home. One type of window in current production is the low-E (low-emissivity) and the IGUs (insulated glass units). Low-E techniques include glazing of the glass with various materials including polyester and metallic coatings. Other measures include filling the airspace in double pane windows with argon, aerogel or by creating a vacuum in the airspace. Another factor the author considers is ultraviolet light protection.

  18. PV-powered microirrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlin, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Tens of millions of farmers currently subsist on small farms below two hectares in size. The increasing cost of animal irrigation coupled with decreasing farm size and the lack of a utility grid or acceptable alternate power sources is causing interest in the use of solar photovoltaic for these very small (subkilowatt) water pumping systems. The attractive combinations of system components (array, pump, motor, storage, and controls) have been identified and their interactions characterized in order to optimize overall system efficiency. Computer simulations as well as component tests were made of systems utilizing flat plate and low concentration arrays, direct-coupled and electronic impedance matching controls, fixed and incremental (once or twice a day) tracking, dc and ac motors, and positive displacement, centrifugal and verticle turbine pumps. The results of these analyses and tests are presented for Orissa, India and Cairo, Egypt, and include water volume pumped as a function of time of day and year. Finally, a description and operational data is given for the prototype unit that was developed as a result of the previous analyses and tests.

  19. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...... these for the construction of a final installation that focuses on the construction of a dark room that provides artificial stimuli through a window with only artificial information. The abstract translation of sound to image through artificial light is a common endeavour in the history of arts and its aesthetics, since...

  20. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun, E-mail: lujun@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al{sup 3+} ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al{sup 3+} films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni{sup 3+} making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film. - Graphical abstract: The ratio of Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range, fast switching speed and excellent durability. Display Omitted.

  1. ITO-Free Solution-Processed Flexible Electrochromic Devices Based on PEDOT:PSS as Transparent Conducting Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rekha; Tharion, Joseph; Murugan, Sengottaiyan; Kumar, Anil

    2017-06-14

    Electrochromic devices (ECDs) are emerging as novel technology for various applications ranging from commercialized smart window glasses, goggles, and autodimming rear view mirrors to uncommon yet more sophisticated applications such as infrared camouflage in military and thermal control in space satellites. The development of low-power, lightweight, inexpensive, and flexible devices is the need of the hour. In this respect, utilizing PEDOT:PSS as transparent conducting electrode (TCE) to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) and metal based TCEs for ECDs is a promising solution for the aforementioned requirements. In this work we have demonstrated the performance of PEDOT:PSS films coated on flexible substrates, treated with PTSA-DMSO, as TCEs for ECD applications and their comparison with that of ITO based ECDs. The PEDOT:PSS based flexible TCEs used in this study have conductivity of 1400-1500 S·cm(-1) and figure of merit (FoM) of 70-77. The process of increasing the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS films also led to the broadening of the conducting potential window (CPW), which is important for electrochemical applications of PEDOT:PSS when used as a stand-alone electrode. More than achieving a comparable electrochromic contrast, switching time, and coloration efficiency with respect to the ITO based ECDs, PEDOT:PSS devices also had the added advantage of good mechanical flexibility. These devices demonstrated superior stability during electrochemical cycling and multiple mechanical bending tests, making them an inexpensive alternative to the costly ITO based ECD technology.

  2. Electrochromic devices based on poly(3-methylthiophene) and various secondary electrochromic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Emerson da Costa; Viana Rosario, Adriane [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica - Centro Multidisciplinar para o Desenvolvimento de Materiais Ceramicos - Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, CP 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Flavia Nogueira, Ana [Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia e Energia Solar, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Micaroni, Liliana [Laboratorio de Eletroquimica Aplicada e Polimeros - Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, the electrochemical properties of poly(3-methylthiophene) (PMT), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) films deposited on ITO are described. PMT films were made by galvanostatic electrodeposition. PEDOT and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} were deposited by spin-coating from a suspension, in the case of PEDOT, and from a precursor solution obtained by the Pechini method, for Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Three electrochromic devices were assembled from these films, with different arrangements of electrodes, using poly(epichlorohydrin-co-ethylene oxide) (P(EPI-EO))+LiClO{sub 4} as the polymer electrolyte. The PMT films were employed as the working electrode (E{sub 1}) and PEDOT, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} or ITO as counter-electrodes (E{sub 2}). The devices showed color changes from red to blue in response to the applied potential from -1.5 to +1.5 V (PMT vs. E{sub 2}), respectively. The transmittance variation was measured in the visible region ({lambda}=650 nm) during the polarization. The systems were also characterized with respect to their coulombic efficiency (CE), electrochromic efficiency ({eta}) and response time ({tau}). The three devices gave similar results, as follows: CE of 107%, {eta} from 92 to 126 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1} and {tau}{proportional_to}2 s. The cycle life and optical memory were also analyzed and the devices showed good durability for 1000 cycles and good optical memory, demonstrating the potential applicability of the electrochromic devices presented here. (author)

  3. Brushless DC motor drives supplied by PV power system based on Z-source inverter and FL-IC MPPT controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari Niapour, S.A.KH., E-mail: s.a.kh.mozaffari.niapour@gmail.com [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, 51664 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Danyali, S.; Sharifian, M.B.B.; Feyzi, M.R. [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, 51664 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Employing the BLDC motor in water pumping systems. {yields} Utilizing the ZSI as a single-stage power converter in the PV water pumping systems based on BLDC motor. {yields} Improvement of the conventional IC MPPT method with the fuzzy logic control scheme to save more energy from the PV array. {yields} Taking the advantages of the DTC drive of the BLDC motor. {yields} Optimizing the water pumping system speed response characteristic by PSO. - Abstract: This paper discusses operation performance of a water pumping system consist of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor coupled a centrifugal pump and accompanying a Z-source inverter (ZSI) fed by a photovoltaic (PV) array, to be improved. Despite conventional double-stage power converters, this paper proposes utilizing a single-stage ZSI to extract the maximum power of the PV array and supply the BLDC motor simultaneously. Utilizing the ZSI provides some inherent advantages such as high efficiency and low cost, which is very promising for PV systems due to its novel voltage buck/boost capability. In addition, in order to precisely perform the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV array the fuzzy logic-incremental conductance (FL-IC) MPPT scheme is proposed. The proposed FL-IC MPPT scheme provides enough modification to the conventional IC method to enjoy an appropriate variable step size MPPT control signal for the ZSI. Moreover, direct torque control (DTC) is found more effective in comparison with hysteresis current control with current shaping to drive the BLDC motor, because it benefits from faster torque response, reduced torque ripple, less sensitivity to parameters variations, and simple implementation. In the mean time, due to the frequently variations of the PV power generation; delivered mechanical power to the centrifugal pump is variable. Thus, the BLDC motor should be driven with variable reference speed. In order to improve the speed transient response of the BLDC motor and enhance

  4. Large-area flexible monolithic ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO electrochromic devices prepared by using magnetron sputter deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Ye, Jia-Ming; Yang, Yueh-Ting; He, Ju-Liang

    2016-05-01

    Electrochromic devices (ECDs) have been applied in smart windows to control the transmission of sunlight in green buildings, saving up to 40-50% electricity consumption and ultimately reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the high manufacturing costs and difficulty of transportation of conventional massive large area ECDs has limited widespread applications. A unique design replacing the glass substrate commonly used in the ECD windows with inexpensive, light-weight and flexible polymeric substrate materials would accelerate EC adoption allowing them to be supplemented for regular windows without altering window construction. In this study, an ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO all-solid-state monolithic ECD with an effective area of 24 cm × 18 cm is successfully integrated on a PET substrate by using magnetron sputter deposition. The electrochromic performance and bending durability of the resultant material are also investigated. The experimental results indicate that the ultimate response times for the prepared ECD is 6 s for coloring at an applied voltage of -3 V and 5 s for bleaching at an applied voltage of +3 V, respectively. The optical transmittances for the bleached and colored state at a wavelength of 633 nm are 53% and 11%, respectively. The prepared ECD can sustain over 8000 repeated coloring and bleaching cycles, as well as tolerate a bending radius of curvature of 7.5 cm.

  5. Carbazole based electrochromic polymers with benzoazole units: Effect of heteroatom variation on electrochromic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Doyranli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of carbazole-based polymers were synthesized via Suzuki polymerization between N-(2-ethylhexylcarbazole-3,6-bis(ethyleneboronate (Cbz and dibromobenzazole unit. Three different polymers, PCBN, PCBS and PCBSe were obtained from 4,7-dibromo-2-hexyl-2H-benzotriazole (BN, 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole- (BS and 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole (BSe, respectively. It is observed that, the variation of heteroatoms (N,S and Se on the benzazole unit have most important effect on electro-optic properties of the PCBX polymers. Neutral state color of the polymer films and their electrochromic performances are also influenced. Among the synthesized polymers, the PCBS bearing 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole as acceptor units has a broad absorption and 50% of ΔT in the near-IR regime at the oxidized state. This property of PCBS is a great advantage for near-IR electrochromic applications.

  6. Elucidation of the electrochromic mechanism of nanostructured iron oxides films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lobato, M.A.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Castro-Roman, M. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav Campus Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13, Ramos Arizpe, Coah. 25900 (Mexico); Perry, Dale L. [Mail Stop 70A1150, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zarate, R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Escobar-Alarcon, L. (Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    Nanostructured hematite thin films were electrochemically cycled in an aqueous solution of LiOH. Through optical, structural, morphological, and magnetic measurements, the coloration mechanism of electrochromic iron oxide thin films was elucidated. The conditions for double or single electrochromic behavior are given in this work. During the electrochemical cycling, it was found that topotactic transformations of hexagonal crystal structures are favored; i.e. {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Fe(OH){sub 2} and subsequently to {delta}-FeOOH. These topotactic redox reactions are responsible for color changes of iron oxide films. (author)

  7. From the bottom up--flexible solid state electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob; Krebs, Frederik C

    2014-11-12

    Solid-state flexible polymer-based electrochromic devices are fabricated continuously by stacking layers in one direction. This novel bottom-up approach with no need for a lamination step is realized through in situ photo-crosslinking of the electrolyte using a "curing-chamber" fitted to a roll-coater, which lowers the oxygen concentration at the electrolyte surface. This enables fully printed and 2D patterned organic electrochromics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Insertion of lithium into electrochromic devices after completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Frey, Jonathan Mack; Barrett, Kathryn Suzanne; DuPont, Paul Damon; Schaller, Ronald William

    2015-12-22

    The present disclosure describes methods of inserting lithium into an electrochromic device after completion. In the disclosed methods, an ideal amount of lithium can be added post-fabrication to maximize or tailor the free lithium ion density of a layer or the coloration range of a device. Embodiments are directed towards a method to insert lithium into the main device layers of an electrochromic device as a post-processing step after the device has been manufactured. In an embodiment, the methods described are designed to maximize the coloration range while compensating for blind charge loss.

  9. Insertion of lithium into electrochromic devices after completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Frey, Jonathan Mack; Barrett, Kathryn Suzanne; DuPont, Paul Damon; Schaller, Ronald William

    2015-12-22

    The present disclosure describes methods of inserting lithium into an electrochromic device after completion. In the disclosed methods, an ideal amount of lithium can be added post-fabrication to maximize or tailor the free lithium ion density of a layer or the coloration range of a device. Embodiments are directed towards a method to insert lithium into the main device layers of an electrochromic device as a post-processing step after the device has been manufactured. In an embodiment, the methods described are designed to maximize the coloration range while compensating for blind charge loss.

  10. Aluminum ion electrolyte for enhanced electrochromism of polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peijian; Ye, Meidan; Guo, Wenxi; Liu, Xiangyang

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes influence the electrochemical behaviors of active materials in the electrochromism. In our work, it is demonstrated that the trivalent ion, aluminum ion (Al3+), can be used as an efficient insertion ion of polyaniline (PANI) electrodeposited on the FTO-coated glass, which brings the desired large optical contrast (ΔT), long-term cyclic (coloration/bleaching) stability and high coloration efficiency compared with that based on the H+ electrolyte. Differing from the usual degradation by repeated doping/dedoping, the Al3+ insertion may introduce strong electrostatic forces, which on some degree stabilize the polymer chain structure and consequently yield enhanced electrochromic performances.

  11. Printed Multicolor High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Han; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Hu, Chih-Wei; Higuchi, Masayoshi; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2015-11-18

    In this study, electrochemical responses of inkjet-printed multicolored electrochromic devices (ECD) were studied to evaluate the feasibility of presenting multiple colors in one ECD. Metallo-supramolecular polymers (MEPE) solutions with two primary colors were inkjet-printed on flexible electrodes. By digitally controlling print dosages of each species, the colors of the printed EC thin film patterns can be adjusted directly without premixing or synthesizing new materials. The printed EC thin films were then laminated with a solid transparent thin film electrolyte and a transparent conductive thin film to form an ECD. After applying a dc voltage, the printed ECDs exhibited great contrast with a transmittance change (ΔT) of 40.1% and a high coloration efficiency of 445 cm(2) C(-1) within a short darkening time of 2 s. The flexible ECDs also showed the same darkening time of 2 s and still had a high ΔT of 30.1% under bending condition. This study demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate display devices with different color setups by an all-solution process and can be further extended to other types of displays.

  12. 分布式光伏电站过程层设备通讯故障的探讨%Discussion on the Communication Malfunction of the Process Level Equipment in Distributed PV Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛琪; 苏战辉; 谢红伟; 董永超; 霍富强

    2016-01-01

    The automatic control system of distributed grid connected photovoltaic (PV)power sta-tion plays a critical role in the safe production.In this paper,the author analyzed the communication mal-function of the process level equipment,and based on the operation mechanism and features of the electri-cal equipment in PV power station as well as the on site troubleshooting experiences,concluded that the reason of such malfunction was the optical fiber netstorm,grounding grid failure,and inverter common mode interference.In addition,some corresponding solutions were proposed,providing references for pro-cessing the failure in the domestic large scale distributed grid connected PV power station,which will promote the healthy development of the PV industry.%分布式并网光伏电站自动化监控系统在电站的安全生产中占有关键地位,针对过程层设备通讯故障的研究分析,根据光伏电站电气设备的运行机理及特性,并结合一定的现场故障处理经验,将过程层通信故障原因归纳为光纤环网风暴、接地网故障和逆变器共模干扰,并提出工程中相应的处理方法,为国内大型分布式并网光伏电站故障处理提供一定的参考依据,推动光伏产业的健康发展。

  13. 用于混合储能平抑光伏波动的小波包-模糊控制%Wavelet Packet-fuzzy Control of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for PV Power Smoothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振威; 蒋小平; 马会萌; 马速良

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid energy storage system consisting of energy-type storage system and power-type storage system is used to smooth the PV power generation fluctuations. With a comprehensive analysis of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of PV power signal and the performances characteristics of different energy storage systems, the PV power signal is decomposed and the smoothing objective power and the charging and discharging power of energy storage systems are obtained by wavelet packet decomposition which can get more signals’ detail information. Full consideration is given to the real-time control requirements for computing speed in practical application, and the filter delay effect is compensated through threshold judgment. SOC adaptive control of power-type storage system using fuzzy control method is applied to achieve optimal allocation and improve smoothing result. Numerical results show that the proposed control strategy can smooth the PV power generation fluctuations effectively by taking full advantages of the performance benefits of different types of energy storage systems.%采用能量型储能和功率型储能组成的混合储能系统平抑光伏输出功率波动。利用小波包分解可获取更多信号细节信息的优点,综合分析光伏功率信号的幅频特性、储能的性能特点,将光伏功率信号分解,得到光伏平抑目标功率和不  同类型储能的充放电功率。充分考虑实际工程应用中实时控制对运算速度的要求,并通过阈值判断补偿滤波延迟效应。采用模糊控制方法对功率型储能的荷电状态(state of charge,SOC)进行自适应控制,实现功率的优化分配,提高平抑效果。算例结果表明,所提控制策略能够充分利用不同类型储能的性能优势有效平抑光伏输出功率波动。

  14. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    strategies for overheating or to communicate with people in a more user informed way. The people participating in the study lived in different houses and had different backgrounds. They were involved in the project over a period of 3-4 months. The prolonged participation was facilitated through a variety......, as well as the opposite. The report also includes a special focus on overheating and people’s strategies against this. Knowing about what people appreciate in a window and their actual practices and the reasons for their behaviour may be useful in many different ways, for instance to inform public...

  15. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  16. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  17. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    SHY, Oz

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  18. Electrochromic response of WO3 and WO3-TiO2 thin films prepared from water-soluble precursors and a block copolymer template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuroki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic tungsten trioxide (WO3 thin films are attracting renewed attention as transmittance-controllable windows for use in automobile, aircraft, and building applications. In order to achieve high electrochromic performance, high cycle stability, and high reliability, the microstructure and compositional homogeneity of WO3 thin films have to be optimized. In this study, non-doped WO3 and TiO2-doped WO3 thin films were fabricated from water-soluble precursors of tungsten and titanium, and their electrochromic response was investigated. Amorphous WO3 and TiO2-doped WO3 thin films were fabricated by calcining the spin-coated films at 573 K. The use of a PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer as a porogen facilitated the redox reactions occurring on the thin film/electrolyte interface. Although the effect of TiO2-doping on the cycle stability of WO3 thin films has not been fully elucidated, this study demonstrated that TiO2 doping up to 15 mol% effectively enhanced the cycle stability.

  19. Electrochromic artificial muscles based on nanoporous metal-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows that a nano-coating of electrochromic polymer grown onto the ligaments of nanoporous gold causes reversible dimensional and color changes during electrochemical actuation. This combination of electromechanical and optical properties opens additional avenues for the applications of

  20. Electrochromic blueshift in polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, R A; Sharma, S C

    2004-10-01

    Electrochromic blueshift in the absorption band of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells is reported as a function of applied electric field. The changes in the peak absorption wavelength, absorption broadening, and their possible relationships with the nonlinear optical properties of polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells are discussed.

  1. Highly Transparent Conducting Nanopaper for Solid State Foldable Electrochromic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenbin; Lin, Meng-Fang; Chen, Jingwei; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-12-01

    It is of great challenge to develop a transparent solid state electrochromic device which is foldable at the device level. Such devices require delicate designs of every component to meet the stringent requirements for transparency, foldability, and deformation stability. Meanwhile, nanocellulose, a ubiquitous natural resource, is attracting escalating attention recently for foldable electronics due to its extreme flexibility, excellent mechanical strength, and outstanding transparency. In this article, transparent conductive nanopaper delivering the state-of-the-art electro-optical performance is achieved with a versatile nanopaper transfer method that facilitates junction fusing for high-quality electrodes. The highly compliant nanopaper electrode with excellent electrode quality, foldability, and mechanical robustness suits well for the solid state electrochromic device that maintains good performance through repeated folding, which is impossible for conventional flexible electrodes. A concept of camouflage wearables is demonstrated using gloves with embedded electrochromics. The discussed strategies here for foldable electrochromics serve as a platform technology for futuristic deformable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Electrochromic artificial muscles based on nanoporous metal-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows that a nano-coating of electrochromic polymer grown onto the ligaments of nanoporous gold causes reversible dimensional and color changes during electrochemical actuation. This combination of electromechanical and optical properties opens additional avenues for the applications of ar

  3. 多机电力系统中光伏发电厂附加稳定器的设计%Design of astabilizer attached to a grid-connected PV power plant in a multi-machine power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文娟; 王海风; 曹军

    2011-01-01

    在未来电力系统中,光伏发电厂将是一种重要的可再生电源.光伏发电厂接入未来电力系统将会影响输电系统稳定运行和控制.提出一种多机电力系统中光伏发电厂稳定器的设计新方法.首先搭建接入电网的光伏发电厂局部线性化模型.给出在光伏发电厂接入地点附近线路上发生低频功率振荡与附加稳定器控制的关系.在此局部线性化模型基础上,演示如何使用经典的相位补偿法设计附加稳定器,向线路低频功率振荡提供正阻尼.该方法无需获得和验证全多机电力系统的运行和参数信息,就能进行稳定器的设计,是一种简单、局部化的设计方法.实例分析验证了该方法的有效性,即通过在光伏发电厂上附加稳定器,可以有效帮助提高电力系统的稳定性.%Photovoltaic (PV) generation will be one of the main renewable power sources in future power systems.Grid connection of PV generation can facilitate efficient and large-scale applications,which can affect significantly the operation and control of power transmission in future.This paper presents a novel method to design a stabilizer attached to a grid-connected PV power plant in a multi-machine power system.Firstly in the paper,a localized model of the grid-connected PV power plant is derived.The model gives the relationship between power oscillations along the transmission lines where the PV power plant is connected and the stabilizing control of the stabilizer.Based on the localized model,it is demonstrated that the conventional phase compensation method can be applied to design the stabilizer to provide positive damping to the line power oscillations.Hence the proposed application of the phase compensation method to design the stabilizer is both simple and localized,as it does not need to obtain and validate the information and parameters of the entire multi-machine power system.In the paper,an example fourmachine power system

  4. Properties, performance and current status of the laminated electrochromic glass of Gesimat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Alexander; Rottmann, Matthias [Gesimat GmbH, Koepenicker Str. 325, 12555 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In the last 10 years Gesimat has developed a large-area electrochromic glazing with an advanced polymer electrolyte and tungsten oxide and Prussian Blue as complementary electrochromic layers. This electrochromic glass has a switching range between 75% and 8% visible transmittance and between 56% and 6% solar transmittance. The polymer electrolyte is based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB), a polymer in use as an interlayer for laminated safety glass since more than 60 years. The electrochromic films are deposited by a new large-area electrodeposition process. For lamination the standard methods of laminated safety glass production can be used. (author)

  5. Variable Emissivity Electrochromics using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work further developed a highly promising variable emissivity technology for spacecraft thermal control, based on unique conducting polymer (CP) electrochromics...

  6. Spray deposited CeO2–TiO2 counter electrode for electrochromic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Bhosale; S R Kulal; V M Gurame; P S Patil

    2015-04-01

    * = 40.32, * = −1.16, * = −5.65) with steady decrease in relative lightness. Yxy and *** coordinates signify CeO2–TiO2 films and it also exhibits the application as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain their transparency under charge insertion/extraction.

  7. Gasochromic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittwer, V.; Datz, M.; Ell, J.; Georg, A.; Graf, W.; Walze, G. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Gasochromic windows can change their transmittance over a wide range. This change is caused by a thin layer of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), covered by a very thin layer of platinum. Exposing this coating to diluted hydrogen gas leads to reduction of the WO{sub 3}, resulting in colouring. This process can be reversed by introducing diluted oxygen. The hydrogen and oxygen are produced by an electrolyser. Only small amounts of gas are needed for the switching process. The coatings are produced by sputtering. Water is needed in the WO{sub 3} films to allow rapid transport of the hydrogen. However, this water should not escape when the system is operated at higher temperatures, which can exceed 60 deg C. By adjusting the conditions of the sputtering process appropriately, a large amount of water can be incorporated in the films, which remains even up to temperatures above 100 deg C. The best transmittance values obtained for a coated double-glazed unit with a moderate film thickness (560 nm) and hydrogen concentrations below the combustion limit are 76% and 77% for solar and visual transmittance, respectively, in the bleached state and 5% and 6% for solar and visual transmittance, respectively, in the coloured state. Darker states can be obtained by applying thicker films of tungsten oxide without reducing the transmittance in the bleached state. Gasochromic coatings can also be deposited easily on plastic substrates and - because their coating structure is so simple - combined with prismatic microstructures, which allow light to be redirected. In addition, the gasochromic systems technology can be used with metal hydride systems. (Author)

  8. Semiconductor/Solid Electrolyte Junctions for Optical Information Storage. Electrochromic Effects on Heptylviologen Incorporated within a Solid Polymer Electrolyte Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-15

    cathode5 . Electrochromic devices based upon these electrochemically reversible viologen redox couples would greatly benefit by their incorporation...electrolyte analogs. Here we wish to discuss some recent work from our laboratory on solid- state electrochromic cells in which heptyl viologen (HV2+) was...OPTICAL INFORMATION STORAGE. ELECTROCHROMIC EFFECTS QN HEPTYLVIOLOGEN INCORPORATED WITHIN A SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTE CELL By Anthony F. Sammells and

  9. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensing. Both the preloaded analyte and the analyte in the sample initiate the color change of Prussian Blue to Prussian White. With a reaction time of 60 s, the number of electrochemical cells with complete color changes is correlated to the concentration of analyte in the sample. As a proof-of-concept analyte, lactic acid was detected semi-quantitatively using the naked eye.

  10. Efficient electrochromic devices made from 3D nanotubular gyroid networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Maik R J; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-07-10

    Ion intercalation processes into metal oxide porous materials benefit from a high surface-to-volume ratio, while electronic charge transport requires a continuous network morphology. Detailed control over structure formation on the 10 nm length scale is therefore an effective strategy to enhance performance in electrochromic devices, supercapacitors, and batteries. Here we demonstrate the transformation of nickel patterned in a three-dimensional, highly interconnected, periodic nanomorphology into a self-supporting nickel oxide array with hollow struts. The oxidation of nickel gives rise to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, which substantially increases the surface area of the NiO gyroid framework, without sacrificing its connectivity. Applicable to a vast range of electroplatable metals, this is a versatile route to high surface area metal oxides/chalcogenides which is especially suitable for various thin film applications. Nanostructured NiO electrodes showed substantially enhanced electrochromic performance, combining fast switching speeds with high coloration contrast.

  11. Colorless to Neutral Color Electrochromic Devices Based on Asymmetric Viologens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesanco, Yolanda; Viñuales, Ana; Cabañero, Germán; Rodriguez, Javier; Tena-Zaera, Ramón

    2016-11-02

    Electrochromic materials have extensively been investigated because of their potential fields of application, with a significant growing interest in expanding the provided colorations. However, among all palette of colors, colorless electrochromic devices (ECDs) that provide neutral-grayish colorations with a simple configuration remain a key challenge. The present study reports on the synthesis of asymmetrically 1-alkyl-1'-aryl-substituted viologens and their incorporation in PVA-borax gel polyelectrolytes for ECDs that constitute the simplest device architecture (glass/TCO/EC gel/TCO/glass). We demonstrate herein that these EC gels based on single asymmetric viologens provide more neutral-colored state than their corresponding symmetric viologens (a* and b* ≤ |15|), while maintaining satisfactory colorless bleached state (%Tb > 70% in the whole visible range), transmittance changes (i.e., ∼60%) and cyclability (i.e., ∼15 000 cycles). Additionally, the effect of the solvent on the observed coloration has also been investigated. This easy-to-make neutral-grayish color ECDs may significantly extend the potential of the electrochromic technology, because they adapt better aesthetically to the surrounding environment, as they are easier to implement in different applications.

  12. Active metameric security devices using an electrochromic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloukas, Bill; Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Martinu, Ludvik

    2011-03-20

    In order to increase the anticounterfeiting performance of interference security image structures, we propose to implement an active component using an electrochromic material. This novel device, based on metamerism, offers the possibility of creating various surprising optical effects, it is more challenging to duplicate due to its complexity, and it adds a second level of authentication. By designing optical filters that match the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic device, one can obtain two hidden images-one appearing when the device is tilted, and the other one disappearing when the device is colored under an applied potential. Specifically, we present an example of a filter that is metameric with the colored state of the electrochromic device, demonstrate how the dynamic nature of the device offers more fabrication flexibility, and discuss its performance. We also describe a design methodology for metameric filters based on the luminous efficiency curve of the human eye: this approach results in filters with a lower number of layers and hence lower fabrication costs, and with a lower color difference sensitivity under various illuminants and for nonstandard observers.

  13. Electrochromic study on amorphous tungsten oxide films by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuan, E-mail: cli10@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China); Hung, Ming-Tsung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Huang, B.Q. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-31

    Tungsten oxide films under different oxygen flow rates are deposited by DC sputtering. The voltage change at target and analyses for the deposited films by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible-near infrared spectroscopy consistently indicate that low oxygen flow rate (5 sccm) only creates metal-rich tungsten oxide films, while higher oxygen flow rate (10–20 sccm) assures the deposition of amorphous WO{sub 3} films. To explore the electrochromic function of deposited WO{sub 3} films, we use electrochemical tests to perform the insertion of lithium ions and electrons into films. The WO{sub 3} films switch between color and bleach states effectively by both potentiostat and cyclic voltammetry. Quantitative evaluation on electrochemical tests indicates that WO{sub 3} film with composition close to its stoichiometry is an optimal choice for electrochromic function. - Highlights: • Amorphous WO{sub 3} films are deposited by DC sputtering under different O{sub 2} flow rates. • Higher oxygen flow rate (> 10 sccm) assures the deposition of amorphous WO{sub 3} films. • Both potentiostat and cyclic voltammetry make WO{sub 3} films switch its color. • An optimal electrochromic WO{sub 3} is to make films close to its stoichiometry.

  14. Poly(3-buthyl-co-3,4-dibuthylthiophene)s: synthesis and electrochromic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catellani, M. [Istituto di Chimica delle Macromolecole, CNR, via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Arbizzani, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica ``G. Ciamician``, Universita di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Mastragostino, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica ``G. Ciamician``, Universita di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Zanelli, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica ``G. Ciamician``, Universita di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    We have prepared a series of soluble, processable copolymers containing both 3-buthylthiophene and 3,4-dibuthylthiophene units in well defined percentages. The modification of the copolymer composition produces materials with various {pi}-electron conjugation length and with diverse electrochromic properties tested for applications in electrochromic devices. (orig.)

  15. Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Weir, Douglas G

    2014-04-01

    An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

  16. FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus Milling

    2004-09-23

    Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

  17. Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Jesús; Viñuales, Ana; Odriozola, Ibon; Cabañero, Germán; Grande, Hans J; Ruiz, Virginia

    2014-08-27

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films have been electrodeposited on indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO-PET) substrates from graphene oxide (GO) solutions, and the resulting flexible transparent electrodes have been used in electrochromic devices of ethyl viologen (EtV(2+)). The electrochromic performance of devices with bare ITO-PET electrodes and ITO-PET coated with RGO has been compared. Under continuous cycling tests up to large voltages, the RGO film was oxidized and dispersed in the electrochromic mixture. The resulting devices, which contained GO and RGO in the electrochromic mixture, showed lower switching voltages between the colored and bleached states. This electrocatalytic activity of the solution-phase GO/RGO pair toward the electrochemical reaction of the electrochromic redox couple (the dication EtV(2+) and the radical cation EtV(+•)) allowed devices with an optical contrast higher than the contrast of those free of GO at the same applied voltage.

  18. An Electrochromic Ionic Liquid: Design, Characterization, and Performance in a Solid-State Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis and characteristics of a novel electrochromic ionic liquid (IL) based on a phosphonium core tethered to a viologen moiety. When integrated into a solid-state electrochromic platform, the viologen modified IL behaved as both the electrolyte and the electrochromic material. Platform fabrication was achieved through in situ photo-polymerization and encapsulation of this novel IL within a hybrid sol–gel. Important parameters of the platform performance, including its coloration efficiency, switching kinetics, and optical properties were characterised using UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry in tandem. The electrochromic platform exhibits a coloration efficiency of 10.72 cm2 C–1 and a varied optical output as a function of the incident current. Despite the rather viscous nature of the material, the platform exhibited approximately 2 orders of magnitude faster switching kinetics (221 s to reach 95 % absorbance) when compared to previously reported electrochromic ILs (18 000 s). PMID:23206366

  19. Comparative study of electrochromic enhancement of latent fingerprints with existing development techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Ann L; Brown, Rachel M; Hillman, A Robert; Bond, John W

    2012-01-01

    To address the challenge of capturing latent fingerprint evidence from metal surfaces, a new method of latent fingerprint enhancement based on electrochromic polymer films has recently been developed. Here, we present a study comparing the development and visualization of nonvisible fingerprints on stainless steel substrates using this electrochromic enhancement approach with three classical methods (dusting, wet powder, and cyanoacrylate fuming). Two variants of the electrochromic enhancement method were utilized with polyaniline and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as the electrochromic materials. Fingerprint samples were taken from different donors (varying in age and gender) and were exposed to different environments for systematically varied periods of time (up to 28 days). The environments represent plausible evidential scenarios: left under ambient conditions, washed with aqueous soap solution, washed with acetone, submerged in water, and maintained at elevated temperature. The electrochromic enhancement procedure frequently outperformed the traditional methods, particularly for samples exposed to more challenging histories.

  20. Eliminating Electrochromic Degradation in Amorphous TiO2 through Li-Ion Detrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Granqvist, Claes G

    2016-03-09

    The quest for superior and low-cost electrochromic (EC) thin films, for applications in smart windows, remains strong because of their large importance for energy-efficient buildings. Although the development of new EC materials for improved devices is important, diminishing or reversing degradation is another key issue, and electrical rejuvenation of degraded EC materials can offer new opportunities. Here we demonstrate that cathodically coloring EC thin films of TiO2, which normally suffer from ion-trapping-induced degradation of charge capacity and optical modulation upon extensive electrochemical cycling, can recover their initial EC performance by a rejuvenation procedure involving Li(+) ion detrapping. Thus, the initial performance can be regained, and refreshed TiO2 films exhibit the same degradation features as as-deposited films upon prolonged electrochemical cycling. The rejuvenation was carried out by using either galvanostatic or potentiostatic treatments. Our study may open avenues to explore the recovery not only of EC materials and devices based on those but also for other ion-exchange-based devices.

  1. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

  2. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

  3. Applications of Three Dithienylpyrroles-Based Electrochromic Polymers in High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shan Su

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three dithienylpyrroles (1-(4-(methylthiophenyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrole (MPS, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrole (MPO, and 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrol-1-ylbenzonitrile (ANIL were synthesized and their corresponding polydithienylpyrroles (PSNS were electrosynthesized using electrochemical polymerization. Spectroelectrochemical studies indicated that poly(1-(4-(methylthiophenyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrole (PMPS film was green, dark green, and brown in the neutral, oxidation, and highly oxidized state, respectively. The incorporation of a MPS unit into the PSNS backbone gave rise to a darker color than those of the MPO and ANIL units in the highly oxidized state. The PMPS film showed higher ΔTmax (54.47% at 940 nm than those of the PMPO (43.87% at 890 nm and PANIL (44.63% at 950 nm films in an ionic liquid solution. Electrochromic devices (ECDs employing PMPS, PMPO, and PANIL as anodic layers and poly(3,4-(2,2-diethypropylenedioxythiophene(PProDOT-Et2 as a cathodic layer were constructed. PMPO/PProDOT-Et2 ECD showed the highest ΔTmax (41.13% and coloration efficiency (674.67 cm2·C−1 at 626 nm, whereas PMPS/PProDOT-Et2 ECD displayed satisfactory ΔTmax (32.51% and coloration efficiency (637.25 cm2·C−1 at 590 nm. Repeated cyclic voltammograms of PMPS/PProDOT-Et2, PMPO/PProDOT-Et2, and PANIL/PProDOT-Et2 ECDs indicated that ECDs had satisfactory redox stability.

  4. Development and Manufacture of Polymer-based Electrochromic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Hösel, Markus; Dyer, Aubrey L.

    2015-01-01

    The field of organic electrochromics is reviewed here, with particular focus on how the “electrochromic” as a functional material can be brought from the current level of accurate laboratory synthesis and characterization to the device and application level through a number of suited roll......-to-roll methods compatible with upscaling and manufacture. The successful approaches to operational devices are presented in detail, as well as areas where future research would have a high impact and accelerate the development such as highly conducting and transparent substrates, electrolytes adapted...

  5. Electrochromic switchable mirror glass fabricated using adhesive electrolyte layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Kazuki; Hotta, Hiromi; Yamada, Yasusei; Okada, Masahisa; Yoshimura, Kazuki

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a simple process for fabricating electrochromic switchable mirror glass using an adhesive electrolyte layer. The adhesive electrolyte layer was a mixture of polyethyleneimine electrolyte and polyvinyl butyral adhesive dissolved in gamma-butyrolactone. The device was formed from two substrates; the adhesive electrolyte layer was applied to one of the substrates before they were stuck together. The applied voltage required to change the state of the device was smaller than that of a conventional device with a solid electrolyte layer deposited by sputtering. Our method is simple, fast, and efficient and can be used to fabricate large devices.

  6. Electrochemistry of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polyaniline/ Prussian blue electrochromic devices containing an ionic liquid based gel electrolyte film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, Melepurath; Awadhia, Arvind; Bhandari, Shweta

    2009-07-21

    Electrochromic devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the cathodic coloring electrode and polyaniline (PANI) or Prussian blue (PB) as the counter electrode containing a highly conductive, self-supporting, distensible and transparent polymer-gel electrolyte film encapsulating an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidiniumbis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, have been fabricated. Polarization, charge transfer and diffusion processes control the electrochemistry of the functional electrodes during coloration and bleaching and these phenomena differ when PEDOT and PANI/PB were employed alternately as working electrodes. While the electrochemical impedance response shows good similitude for PEDOT and PANI electrodes, the responses of PEDOT and PB were significantly different in the PEDOT-PB device, especially during reduction of PB, wherein the overall amplitude of the impedance response is enormous. Large values of the coloration efficiency maxima of 281 cm2 C(-1) (lambda = 583 nm) and 274 cm2 C(-1) (lambda = 602 nm), achieved at -1.0 and -1.5 V for the PEDOT PANI and PEDOT-PB devices have been correlated to the particularly low magnitude of charge transfer resistance and high polarization capacitance operative at the PEDOT ionic liquid based electrolyte interface at these dc potentials, thus allowing facile ion-transport and consequently resulting in enhanced absorption modulation. Moderately fast switching kinetics and the ability of these devices to sustain about 2500 cycles of clear-to-dark and dark-to-clear without incurring major losses in the optical contrast, along with the ease of construction of these cells in terms of high scalability and reproducibility of the synthetic procedure for fabrication of the electrochromic films and the ionic liquid based gel electrolyte film, are indicators of the promise these devices hold for practical applications like electrochromic windows and displays.

  7. A Study on Electrical Performances and Lifetime of a Flexible Electrochromic Textile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Constance

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using their ability to change their color according to an external stimulation, chromic materials can be used to form a color-changing textile. Electrochromism, more particularly, is a colour change phenomenon caused by the application of an electrical potential. A flexible textile electrochromic device composed of four layers is presented. In order to improve the lifetime of this structure, the electrical performances of the electrolyte layer are studied. A method to measure and calculate the resistance variations of the electrolyte applied on a textile cotton substrate is given. Relations between the electrical performances of the electrolyte and the electrochromic effect of the device are also highlighted.

  8. Reversible modulation of gold nanoclusters photoluminescence based on electrochromic poly(methylene blue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Yanling; Dong, Shaojun

    2014-11-01

    Reversible photoluminescence (PL) switches based on a complex of gold nanoclusters and electrochromic poly(methylene blue) (PMB) were realized. The gold nanoclusters PL of hybrid device can be modulated reversibly under electrochemical stimulation. Such an electrochromic device presents several advantages, such as large fluorescence contrast under reduction and oxidation potentials, good reversibility and excellent long-time stability. This simple protocol is anticipated to offer important hints for other nanoclusters and electrochromic materials in the field of photoelectric devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, Klaus; Ottermann, Clemens R.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Rauch, Friedrich

    1990-08-01

    Electrochromic all-solid-state devices (ASSD) produced by reactive evaporation have been investigated by iaeans of reflectance measurements in the VIS/NIR range and cyclovoltammetry. Hydrogen depth proil were then by a NRA-technique employing the resonant reaction H( N, ar) C. Two different types of designs have been characterized. The electrochromic behaviour of ASSD's can not be described by models based on H transport for devices containing only W03 layers as active materials. Using NiOXH films as electrochromic substances, the injected/ejected charge corelates with changes in the H content.

  10. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  11. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  12. Design and Implementation of the Hybrid Wind/PV Power System's Remote Monitoring for Mobile Communication Base Station%移动通信基站风光互补系统远程监控设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢瑛珂; 龚恒翔; 巫江; 朱新才

    2013-01-01

    According to the demand of the hybrid wind/photovoltaic power system for mobile communication site,the study designed a distant monitoring system based on GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) network.The system achieved the hybrid wind/PV power system's real-time data collect and alarm,which include the operation parameters,environmental parameters,storage battery temperature and the video images.The monitoring software and website are designed and developed under the Visual studio.net and SQL Server 2005 environment,and realize the monitoring center and the mobile communication site monitoring terminal wireless communication,hybrid wind/photovoltaic system of remote real-time monitoring,the state analysis,remote controlling and alarming etc.And the real-time data are acquired and processed for display,statistics,analysis and storage,also support for internet access.The monitoring system has been trial running in hybrid wind/PV power system which generate electricity for Yangliu base station that lies in Chongqing Banan district,and meets the requirements of networkization and intelligentialization.It has important guiding significance for application and popularization in Chongqing with geographical meteorological characteristics of hybrid wind/photovoltaic system.%根据移动通信基站风光互补供电系统的需要,设计了基于GPRS网络的远程监控系统,实现了风光互补供电系统现场终端运行状况参数、现场环境参数、蓄电池组温度及现场视频图像的远程实时数据监测与报警.基于Visual.net与SQL Server 2005平台开发了监控软件,实现了监控中心与移动通信基站监控终端的无线通信,风光互补发电系统的远程实时监测、状态分析、远程控制和预警等功能,以及监控数据的实时显示、分析、统计及存储,并支持Internet远程查询和访问.该监控系统目前已在重庆移动公司巴南区杨柳基站风光互补供电系统中试运行,能满足系统

  13. 一种基于 HHT 的光伏并网发电系统保护方法%A protection method of grid-connected PV power system based on HHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宏波; 陈臣; 王勋; 伦利; 闫俊丽

    2016-01-01

    When the short circuit faults of grid-connected PV ( photovoltaic ) power system supply occurred , the fault current of PV power happens transient , due to the protective effect of inverter control circuit , the amplitude of fault current is small , as a result that the traditional detection methods cann ’ t satisfy the requirements of grid connected PV generation .In order to seek protection method for grid-connected PV power system , the simulation model was set up based on PSCAD/EMTDC, the characteristics of the short-circuit current are analyzed , and Hilbert-Huang transform ( HHT) was proposed to decompose the fault waveform of current , which found the instantaneous frequency of the fault current is changing when single-phase to ground fault occurs , with this the protection scheme of grid connected PV system based on HHT is proposed .The effectiveness and feasibility of this protection scheme are verified .%当光伏发电系统所连电网发生短路故障时,光伏电源的故障电流会发生暂态突变,但由于逆变器控制电路的保护作用,短路电流的幅值较小,因而传统的保护方法对光伏并网发电系统不一定适用。为寻求适合光伏并网发电系统的保护方法,建立了基于PSCAD/EMTDC的光伏并网发电系统仿真模型,对其短路电流的特性进行了仿真分析,利用希尔伯特-黄变换( HHT)对故障电流的波形进行分解,提出一种基于HHT的光伏并网发电系统保护方法,并进行了算例分析。结果表明,在含有光伏发电的电网发生短路故障时,该保护方法具有一定的有效性和可行性。

  14. Low-cost fabrication of WO{sub 3} films using a room temperature and low-vacuum air-spray based deposition system for inorganic electrochromic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Ik [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sooyeun, E-mail: sooyeunk@u.washington.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Oh; Song, Ji-Hyeon [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Taya, Minoru [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ahn, Sung-Hoon, E-mail: ahnsh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Advanced Machines and Design, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    We report the deposition of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates by using a room-temperature deposition system based on low-vacuum air-spray for the fabrication of inorganic electrochromic windows. The structure of the WO{sub 3} films was characterized using X-ray diffraction, and the surface morphology and film thickness were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The color of the prepared WO{sub 3} films changed from slight yellow to dark blue under applied voltages, demonstrating electrochromism. The WO{sub 3} film coated FTO glass exhibited a large electrochromic contrast of up to 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm. The electrochemical properties of the films were examined using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} thin films were fabricated using an air-spray based deposition system at room temperature under low-vacuum conditions. • Dry WO{sub 3} particles were directly deposited on FTO and ITO glasses by using a low-cost deposition system. • The FTO glass based WO{sub 3} film showed the optical contrast of 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  15. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  16. Electrochromic performances of nonstoichiometric NiO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulki, H.; Faure, C. [CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Mihelčič, M.; Vuk, A. Šurca [National Institute of Chemistry, NIC, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Švegl, F. [Amanova Ltd., Tehnološki Park 18, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Orel, B. [National Institute of Chemistry, NIC, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Campet, G. [CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Alfredsson, M.; Chadwick, A.V. [Functional Materials Group, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NH (United Kingdom); Gianolio, D. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, OX11 0DE Didcot (United Kingdom); Rougier, A., E-mail: Rougier@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2014-02-28

    Electrochromic (EC) performances of Ni{sup 3+} containing NiO thin films, called modified NiO thin films, prepared either by pulsed laser deposition or by chemical route are reported. When cycled in lithium based electrolyte, the comparison of the EC behavior of nonstoichiometric NiO thin films points out a larger optical contrast for the films synthesized by chemical route with the absence of an activation period on early electrochemical cycling due in particular to a larger porosity. Herein we demonstrate faster kinetics for modified NiO thin films cycled in lithium ion free electrolyte. Finally, X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used for a preliminary understanding of the mechanism involved in this original EC behavior linked to the film characteristics including their disorder character, the presence of Ni{sup 3+} and their porous morphology. - Highlights: • Nonstoichiometric NiO thin films • Electrochromic performances in lithium free electrolyte • X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of as-deposited films and upon cycling.

  17. Novel bipyridinium ionic liquids as liquid electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Noémi; Cabrita, Luis; Pina, Fernando; Branco, Luís C

    2014-04-01

    Novel mono and dialkylbipyridinium (viologens) cations combined with iodide, bromide, or bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [NTf2] as anions were developed. Selective alkylation synthetic methodologies were optimized in order to obtain the desired salts in moderate to high yields and higher purities. All prepared mono- and dialkylbipyridinium salts were completely characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F NMR spectroscopy, Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (in the case of NTf2 salts). Melting points, glass transition temperatures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, and decomposition temperatures were also checked for different prepared organic salts. Viscosities at specific temperatures and activation energies were determined by rheological studies (including viscosity dependence with temperature in heating and cooling processes). Electrochemical studies based on cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulsed voltammetry (DPV), and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) were performed in order to determine the redox potential as well as evaluate reversibility behavior of the novel bipyridinium salts. As proof of concept, we developed a reversible liquid electrochromic device in the form of a U-tube system, the most promising dialkylbipyridinium-NTf2 ionic liquid being used as the electrochromic material and the room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide [EMIM][NTf2], as a stable and efficient electrolyte. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electrochromic and photonic devices utilizing polymer colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Goo Hwan

    Since polymer colloidal particles have small size and stable surface properties, these materials have characteristics such as the ability to self-assemble, the ease of functionalization, the flexible coupling with other materials, and the formation of the stable dispersion in a liquid that can be beneficial to the fabrication of the electro-optic and photonic devices to enhance the performance. The main objective of this research is the fabrication of electrochromic devices (ECDs) employing the intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) colloidal particles as electroactive materials and the crystalline colloidal array (CCA)-based photonic devices using polystyrene (PS) colloidal particles as building blocks. The research reported here focuses on: (1) the fabrication of the patterned ECDs through the inkjet printing of the ICP colloidal particles; (2) the fabrication of the reflection-type ECDs employing the polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) as a reflection mirror; (3) the dynamic tuning of a photoluminescence (PL) dye through the coupling of a PL dye to the CCA. In the first part, polyaniline (PANI)-silica and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-silica composite particles having a diameter of 200-300 nm were synthesized, then converted to the ICP-ink via solvent exchange. This ICP-ink could be inkjet-printed on various substrates such as ITO-PET film, commercial transparency film, and cotton fabric using a commercial desktop inkjet printer. ECDs could be fabricated employing an inkjet printed PANI-silica or PEDOT-silica layer on an ITO-PET film as an electrochromic layer. These devices exhibit various color changes corresponding to applied potentials between +1V and -1V. In the spectroelectrochemical analysis PANI-based ECD presents up to 50% transmittance contrast ratio and PEDOT-based one shows up to 40% at lambda max. The switching time of the PANI-based device was 30 seconds and that of PEDOT-based ECD was 5 seconds. The PANI-based ECD could be

  19. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  20. Characterization of MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films for electrochromic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, S. I.; Stefan, N.; Szilágyi, I. M.; Mihailescu, N.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stan, G. E.; Besleaga, C.; Iliev, M. T.; Gesheva, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a widely studied material for electrochromic applications. The structure, morphology and optical properties of WO3 thin films, grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from monoclinic WO3 nano-sized particles, were investigated for their possible application as electrochromic layers. A KrF* excimer (λ=248 nm, ζFWHM=25 ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cyclic voltammetry measurements were also performed, and the coloring and bleaching were observed. The morpho-structural investigations disclosed the synthesis of single-phase monoclinic WO3 films consisting of crystalline nano-grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. All thin films showed good electrochromic properties, thus validating application of the MAPLE deposition technique for the further development of electrochromic devices.

  1. Variable Emissivity Electrochromics Using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent work, this firm developed a highly promising, patented variable emittance technology based on electrochromic Conducting Polymers, with: (1) Thin (< 0.2...

  2. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  3. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  4. Windows 7 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Get more done and have more fun with Windows 7 Windows 7 is loaded with features, tools, and shortcuts designedto make life easier for all users. This handy guide is sure to makeWindows as clear as can be. It helps you get started, use foldersand files, find handy gadgets, and search on your PC or online. Open the book and find: Ways to find photos, music, and video on your PCAdvice on jazzing up the Windows 7 interfaceReasons for making the switch to Windows 7Tools for staying organizedSteps for setting up your user accounts and passwords

  5. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  6. Assessing feasibility of electrochromic space suit radiators for reducing extravehicular activity water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Jonathan Glen

    Water consumption for space suit thermal control is a limiting factor on long-term space exploration missions. A concept is proposed for an integrated, flexible suit radiator using infrared electrochromic materials for modulated heat rejection from the suit. Properties of electrochromic materials, the structure of electrochromic devices, and relevant heat transfer processes are presented as background information. Analytical methods are employed to bound theoretical performance and determine required emissivity ranges for lunar surface operations. Case studies are presented incorporating Apollo program and Advanced Walkback Test metabolic and environmental data to estimate sublimator water consumption and hypothetical water savings with the electrochromic radiator. Concepts are presented and analyzed for integrating an electrochromic radiator with existing and future space suit designs. A preliminary systems-level trade analysis is performed with the Equivalent System Mass metric used to compare this technology with the legacy sublimator and other extravehicular activity cooling technologies in development. Experimental objectives, procedures, and results are presented for both bench-top and thermal vacuum testing of electrochromic radiator materials.

  7. A Modular Framework for 3 Way Electrochromic Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    no person shall be subject to any penalty  for failing to comply with  a  collection of  information  if  it does not display  a   currently valid OMB...NUMBER        OF           PAGES  19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a . REPORT    b. ABSTRACT    c. THIS PAGE    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area...code)   Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98)    Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 September 2017 Technical Report A Modular Framework for 3-Way Electrochromic

  8. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  9. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  10. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  11. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  12. 滑模变结构矢量控制在三相光伏并网系统中的应用%SLIDING MODE VARIABLE STRUCTURE VECTOR CONTROL OF THREE-PHASE GRID-CONNECTED PV POWER SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军红; 洪镇南

    2013-01-01

    研究三相单级光伏并网系统,建立并网逆变器在同步旋转d-q坐标系下的数学模型,提出一种新型的滑模变结构矢量控制方法.将并网电流分解为有功电流和无功电流,控制无功电流分量为零,实现单位功率因数并网;控制有功电流分量为MPPT算法给定的参考值,实现最大输出功率跟踪.组建实验样机,进行稳态和动态性能测试,实验结果表明所提出系统的可行性和控制策略的有效性.%The three-phase on-grid PV power generation system is studied,and mathematical model of three-phase on-grid inverter was established in synchronous rotating reference frame (d-q).A novel sliding mode variable structure vector control methods is put forward,which made the grid current into the active current and the reactive current.Unit power factor is achieved by controlling the reactive current component to be zero; and PV maximum power output was realized by controlling the active current component to be the reference value given by MPPT controller.A laboratory prototype is designed to perform static and dynamic experiments.Some experimental results verify that the proposed control strategy can improve the quality of grid current and supply power to grid with unity power factor.

  13. Ancillary services provided by PV power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PIERNO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are widely utilized in distributed generation systems, and, recently, they are also considered for providing ancillary services. The paper is focused on PV plants, a survey of the most interesting papers published in the literature in the last decade is reported and the main characteristics of the technical proposals, with their advantages and limits, are evidenced. The results are schematically shown in a table that immediately gives the opportunity to be aware of what was already done, representing a reference tool.

  14. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  15. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  16. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  17. Multi-functional windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

  18. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  19. Acrylated poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) for enhancement of lifetime and optical properties for single-layer electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otley, Michael T; Alamer, Fahad Alhashmi; Zhu, Yumin; Singhaviranon, Ashwin; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Li, Mengfang; Kumar, Amrita; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-02-12

    We utilized our in situ method for the one-step assembly of single-layer electrochromic devices (ECDs) with a 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) acrylate derivative, and long-term stability was achieved. By coupling the electroactive monomer to the cross-linkable polymer matrix, preparation of the electrochromic ProDOT polymer can occur followed by UV cross-linking. Thus, we achieve immobilization of the unreacted monomer, which prevents any degradative processes from occurring at the counter electrode. This approach eliminated spot formation in the device and increased stability to over 10 000 cycles when compared to 500 cycles with conventional ProDOT devices wherein the monomer is not immobilized. The acrylated electrochromic polymer exhibits similar electrochromic properties as conventional ProDOT devices, such as photopic contrast (48% compared to 46%) and switch speed (both 2 s). This method can be applied to any one-layer electrochromic system where improved stability is desired.

  20. Luminescent ion pairs with tunable emission colors for light-emitting devices and electrochromic switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Huang, Tianci; Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Yang, Huiran; Han, Jianmei; Zhao, Qiang; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Most recently, stimuli-responsive luminescent materials have attracted increasing interest because they can exhibit tunable emissive properties which are sensitive to external physical stimuli, such as light, temperature, force, and electric field. Among these stimuli, electric field is an important external stimulus. However, examples of electrochromic luminescent materials that exhibit emission color change induced by an electric field are limited. Herein, we have proposed a new strategy to develop electrochromic luminescent materials based on luminescent ion pairs. Six tunable emissive ion pairs (IP1-IP6) based on iridium(iii) complexes have been designed and synthesized. The emission spectra of ion pairs (IPs) show concentration dependence and the energy transfer process is very efficient between positive and negative ions. Interestingly, IP6 displayed white emission at a certain concentration in solution or solid state. Thus, in this contribution, UV-chip (365 nm) excited light-emitting diodes showing orange, light yellow and white emission colors were successfully fabricated. Furthermore, IPs displayed tunable and reversible electrochromic luminescence. For example, upon applying a voltage of 3 V onto the electrodes, the emission color of the solution of IP1 near the anode or cathode changed from yellow to red or green, respectively. Color tunable electrochromic luminescence has also been realized by using other IPs. Finally, a solid-film electrochromic switch device with a sandwiched structure using IP1 has been fabricated successfully, which exhibited fast and reversible emission color change.

  1. Preparation, characterization and electrochromic properties of composite thin films incorporation of polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Mahshid; Golzan, M. Maqsood; Farhadi, Khalil; Shojaei, S. H. Reza; Gheisvandi, Sorayya

    2016-05-01

    Two different electrochromic composite films consisting of aniline/sodium molybdate (S1) and aniline/ferric nitrate (S2) were obtained by electrochemical polymerization method on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates in oxalic acid (H2C2O4ṡ2H2O) aqueous solution. The electrochromic properties of the resulting thin films were investigated by spectroelectrochemical measurement and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Under a square electrical potential, they show capacitive current characteristic and represent electrochromic performance, with maximum optical attenuations (ΔT%) of 30.8% at 355nm and 28.3% at 400nm for aniline/ferric nitrate and aniline/sodium molybdate thin films, respectively. Optical behavior of thin films was examined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry technique. The doped films indicated multiple color changes (yellow; green; and bluish green). The spectra also showed that produced layers have high absorption of UV radiation with respect to pure polyaniline (PANI) films. The optical band gap energy of PANI film decreased by dopant injection. Due to their decent transparency and electrochromic behavior, they are promising materials for electrochromic devices.

  2. Optimization of PEDOT films in ionic liquid supercapacitors: demonstration as a power source for polymer electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Shen, D Eric; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2013-12-26

    We report on the optimization of the capacitive behavior of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films as polymeric electrodes in flexible, Type I electrochemical supercapacitors (ESCs) utilizing ionic liquid (IL) and organic gel electrolytes. The device performance was assessed based on figures of merit that are critical to evaluating the practical utility of electroactive polymer ESCs. PEDOT/IL devices were found to be highly stable over hundreds of thousands of cycles and could be reversibly charged/discharged at scan rates between 500 mV/s and 2 V/s depending on the polymer loading. Furthermore, these devices exhibit leakage currents and self-discharge rates that are comparable to state of the art electrochemical double-layer ESCs. Using an IL as device electrolyte allowed an extension of the voltage window of Type I ESCs by 60%, resulting in a 2.5-fold increase in the energy density obtained. The efficacies of tjese PEDOT ESCs were assessed by using them as a power source for a high-contrast and fast-switching electrochromic device, demonstrating their applicability in small organic electronic-based devices.

  3. Roll-to-Roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Mok; Ko, Eun-Hye; Kim, Tae-Ho; Nah, Yoon-Chae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jae Heung; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We fabricate high-performance, flexible, transparent electrochromic (EC) films and thin film heaters (TFHs) on an ITO/Cu/ITO (ICI) multilayer electrode prepared by continuous roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering of ITO and Cu targets. The RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer on a 700 mm wide PET substrate at room temperature exhibits a sheet resistance of 11.8 Ω/square and optical transmittance of 73.9%, which are acceptable for the fabrication of flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs. The effect of the Cu interlayer thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the ICI multilayer was investigated in detail. The bending and cycling fatigue tests demonstrate that the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer was more flexible than a single ITO film because of high strain failure of the Cu interlayer. The flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs fabricated on the ICI electrode show better performances than reference EC films and TFHs with a single ITO electrode. Therefore, the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer is the best substitute for the conventional ITO film electrode in order to realize flexible, transparent, cost-effective and large-area EC devices and TFHs that can be used as flexible and smart windows. PMID:27653830

  4. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian D' Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents

  5. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  6. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  7. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  8. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  9. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  10. Electrochromic effect in domain-inversion process in LiNbO3: Ru: Fe crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Qingxin; LIU De'an; ZHI Ya'nan; ZHU Luan; LIU Liren

    2005-01-01

    A reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion during the electrical poling process in LiNbO3: Ru: Fe crystals at room temperature has been observed. In electrode area, both electrochromism and domain-inversion occur alternately, and electrochromism is also reversible during back-switch poling, which is experimentally verified and whose mechanism is briefly explained using a microstructure ferroelectric model. In addition, because of the enhancing elcctrochromic effect, different from the undoped LiNbO3 crystals, the coercive filed (21.0 kV/mm or so) measured in LiNbO3: Ru: Fe is lower than its breakdown field, thus providing a possible new technique for realizing the domain-inversion by constant electric field rather than a pulsed one.

  11. Synthesis and Electrochromic Properties of Star-Shaped Oligothiophene Derivatives with Triphenylamine as Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li; Liu, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Two star-shaped oligothiophene derivatives with triphenylamine as core, Tris[4-(2-thienyl)- phenyl]amine (3TPA) and Tris[4-(5-cyano-2-thienyl)-phenyl]amine (3TPA-3CN) were synthesized and characterized for photophysical, electrochemical and electrochromic properties. The results show that introduction of cyano group to the α-position of thiophene unit of 3TPA-3CN makes the maximum absorption red-shifted in comparison with those of 3TPA, but leads the oxidation potentials shift to positive value. Two electrochromic devices were fabricated using 3TPA and 3TPA-3CN as electroactive layer, and the electrochromic properties of both compounds were studied. 3TPA-3CN exhibits reversible, clear color change from yellow to orange on electrochemical doping and dedoping. 3TPA is electropolymerized firstly, and then switches the colors when the applied potential changes.

  12. Electrochromic behavior of NiO film prepared by e-beam evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Sahu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The NiO thin films were prepared by the electron beam evaporation method using synthesized sintered targets. As-prepared films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–VIS spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The thicker films were found to exhibit a well-defined structure and a well-developed crystallite size with greater transmittance modulation and durability. The as-deposited thinner films of 170 nm showed a faster response time during electrochromic cycles with a coloration efficiency of 53.1 C/cm2 than the thicker ones. However, the thicker films showed no enhanced electrochromic properties such as a larger intercalated charge than the thinner ones. The electrochromic properties of the thinner films became deteriorated after 800 cycling tests.

  13. Laminated all-solid state NiO/WO3 complementary electrochromic device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡行方; 陈晓峰; 李智勇; 高濂; 严东生

    1997-01-01

    Based on the previous studies on the rf reactive sputtered nickel oxide film with nanostructure and its electrochromism, i. e. electrochromic effect of the films is attributed to the reversible change of the non-stoichiometry in the nanocrystaltine gram boundaries and interfaces due to the injection and ejection of Li+ ions, a prototype of all-solid-state NiO/WO3 complementary electrochromic device using LixTaOy thin film as inorganic electrolyte was designed and prepared. The results indicate that the solar reflectance of the device could be modulated from 0. 15 in colored state to 0.60 in bleached state with excellent cyclic reversibility, durability and high response speed (less than 0.3 s from colored state to bleached state).

  14. Effect of cobalt on the electrochromic properties of NiO films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Oliva, J.; Garcia, C. R.; Avalos-Belmontes, F.; Garcia-Lobato, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the morphological, optical and electrochromic properties of NiO and Ni-Co oxides films are reported. Those films were deposited on FTO glass substrates using a simple spray pyrolysis method. SEM images indicated that the size of particles that formed the Ni-Co oxide films decreased from 18 to 6 nm as the content of Co increases. In addition, the thickness of the films decreased from 378 to 310 nm as the content of cobalt augments from 0 to 10 mol%. This reduction of thickness also produced a diminution of the band gap of the films, which benefited the electrochromic properties. Electrochemical measurements were carried out and found that the diffusion coefficient, reversibility and coloration efficiency were enhanced in samples with cobalt with respect to the sample with pure NiO. Thus, the results suggest that our films could be useful for electrochromic applications.

  15. Self-powered electrochromic display as an example for integrated modules in printed electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; Leyland, N.; Copeland, G.; Cassidy, M.

    2010-09-01

    The growing market for flexible electronics devices is asking for reduction of manufacturing process complexity. One way to reduce complexity is to decrease the number of single components of a device by using integrated modules, i.e. device components providing multiple functions. In this article, the concept of a self-powered electrochromic graphics display device is demonstrated. The device is based on a three electrode system comprising an electrochromic electrode, a battery anode and a battery cathode, all in contact with a common electrolyte. The electrochromic electrode can be charged and discharged directly when connected to either the anode or cathode. Such a self-powered display integrates the functions of both a display and a battery. As part of a flexible electronics device, a self-powered display would be able to power other components, such as driver electronics.

  16. Electrochromic performance of hybrid tungsten oxide films with multiwalled-CNT additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chung-Kwei, E-mail: cklin@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Sheng-Chung; Cheng, Chin-Hua; Chen, Chin-Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Chon [Department of Energy and Resources, National United University, Miaoli, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-30

    In this study, tungsten oxide films were prepared by sol-gel technique. Various amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were added during sol-gel process to obtain hybrid WO{sub 3}/MWCNT films. The original and hybrid films were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and scanning electron microscopy analysis, whereas the electrochromic performance was evaluated by measuring changes in the optical transmittance caused by potentiostatic charge-discharge intercalation. The influence on the structure and properties of tungsten oxide film due to MWCNT addition was also investigated. The results showed that all of the films were amorphous and exhibited porous microstructure. The electrochromic performance of pristine WO{sub 3} film was improved by adding MWCNTs that served as a template for the growth of WO{sub 3} and resulted in more porous microstructure. The hybrid tungsten oxide films with 0.1 wt.% MWCNT addition exhibited the best electrochromic performance.

  17. 并网光伏电站的PSASP/UPI仿真建模及分析%PSASP/UPI Simulation Modelling and Analysis of the PV Power Station in Grid Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文涛; 刘涤尘; 赵洁; 董飞飞; 陈恩泽; 曾正

    2014-01-01

    针对光伏电站和电网之间的交互影响,研究了适用于电网暂态分析的光伏电站模型,建立了含光伏阵列、逆变器、滤波器及控制保护系统的并网光伏电站暂态模型,并应用 Matlab实时工具包模块和 VC++语言生成了可被PSASP调用的自定义模型,仿真研究了并网光伏电站出力变化对电网影响及电网故障对以不同方式接入电网的并网光伏电站的影响。结果表明,该模型可用于光伏电站与电网的联合仿真。大规模光伏电源集中接入会引起电网电压波动;电网故障可能触发光伏电站脱网,使故障扩大;且在负荷母线集中接入方式下对电网电压及暂态稳定的影响更大。%To study the interaction between the PV power plant and power grid, grid-connected photovoltaic system( GCPS) transient model is built. The transient model includes photovoltaic array, inverter, filter, as well as control and protection system. The custom model that can be called by PSASP is generated by RTW ( Real-Time Workshop, RTW) modules in Matlab and VC+ +. In addi-tion, the variation of GCPS's power output and its impact on power grid are researched, and the influence of power grid fault on GCPS with different connection modes is also analyzed. The simulation results show that the model can be used for joint simulation between the GCPS and the power grid. Large-scale photovoltaic power connected to power grid will cause the grid voltage fluctuation, The power grid fault may lead to disconnection between the GCPS and the grid, resulting in the fault to expand. It takes the greater adverse impact to the voltage and transient stability of power grid when the GCPS is connected to the load bus.

  18. Research on the method for balancing fluctuant PV power based on hybrid energy storage system%基于混合储能的光伏波动功率平抑方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰冰; 庄哲; 邱晓燕; 刘念; 孙斌; 刘明; 朱椤方; 崔伟; 魏杰; 郑乔

    2013-01-01

    针对光伏发电系统中发电功率波动问题,构建了一种基于混合储能的光伏并网发电系统模型,以平抑并网功率的波动。该模型引入了由超级电容器和蓄电池组成的混合储能系统,可以有效应对在各种天气条件下所引起的光伏输出功率波动问题,从而对并网功率进行削峰填谷。同时,对现有的MPPT法进行相应改进,提出了单向变步长追踪法,能够更加稳定且迅速地调整光伏系统的最大输出功率,提高发电效率。最后,在Matlab/Simulink上进行仿真,结果表明该混合储能控制系统能够有效提高光伏并网功率输送的稳定性能。%Aiming at the question of balancing the fluctuating photovoltaic grid-connected generation system, a hybrid energy storage-based grid-connected PV power system model is proposed to overcome the fluctuation of grid-injected power caused by the change of illumination intensity and temperature. An ultracapacitor-battery based energy storage control system is employed to smooth the fluctuation of grid-injected power caused by the change of various weather conditions. A new method to track the maximum power point is proposed to modulate the maximum output power of PV system more stably and instantly, and it can also improve the power generation efficiency. Finally, this model is tested by using Matlab/Simulink. The result proves that the hybrid energy storage-based control system can efficiently improve the stability of PV grid-injected power.

  19. Simulation Analysis of Household Single-phase Grid-connected PV Power System%户用型单相光伏并网系统仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钢; 何军; 蒋辉

    2012-01-01

    针对3 kW光伏并网发电系统,详细分析了光伏电池的模型;采用扰动观察法实现最大功率点跟踪;选择电流内环电压外环的双环控制作为并网逆变器的控制策略,其中电流内环控制并网逆变器的输出电流跟随电网电压,电压外环控制直流母线电压稳定在400 V;将主动式频率偏移法运用于孤岛检测的算法控制,孤岛出现后2 s内迅速检测出孤岛并切断光伏逆变器。给出了基于MATLAB/Simulink的系统仿真模型。结果表明:光伏电池能很好地实现最大功率点跟踪,逆变后成功并网,在规定的时间内对孤岛做出判断,达到预期的设计目的。%In terms of a 3 kW grid-connected PV power system, this paper elaborates the model for PV cells. The ap- proach of perturbation and observation is utilized to track the maximum power point. A double loop control strategy is chosen for the grid inverter. Double loop control consists of an inner current loop and an outer voltage loop, where the inner current loop keeps the output of grid inverter following the network voltage and the outer voltage loop maintains the DC bus voltage at 400V. The application of active frequency shift method in the control algorithm of island detec- tion enables a quick detection of island (2s after its appearance) followed by the abscission of PV inverter. Then a system simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink comes into being. The results show that PV cells can perfectly realize the track of maximum power point, as well as the successful interconnection after inverted, and can make right decision on island within regulated time. In brief, the expected design objective is fully attained.

  20. Windows 10 Technical Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Jyväsjärvi, Teppo

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutustaan uuden kesällä 2015 virallisesti julkaistavan Windows 10 -käyttöjärjestelmän Technical Preview -kehitysversioon. Ensimmäinen Technical Preview -versio julkaistiin syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyössä tutustaan Windows 10:n uusin ominaisuuksiin ja tehdään vertailua aiemman Windows 8.1 -version kanssa. Työssä Windows 10 Technical Preview asennetaan virtuaalikoneelle, käydään läpi asennuksen eri vaiheet sekä suurimmat muutokset käyttöliittymässä ja sovelluksissa. Op...

  1. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  2. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  3. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  4. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  5. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  6. An electrolyte-free flexible electrochromic device using electrostatically strong graphene quantum dot-viologen nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunhee; Seo, Sohyeon; Bak, Sora; Lee, Hanleem; Min, Misook; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2014-08-13

    A strong electrostatic MV(2+) -GQD nanocomposite provides an electrolyte-free flexible electrochromic device wih high durability. The positively charged MV(2+) and negatively charged GQD are strongly stabilized by non-covalent intermolecular forces (e.g., electrostatic interactions, π-π stacking interactions, and cation-π electron interactions), eliminating the need for an electrolyte. An electrolyte-free flexible electrochromic device fabricated from the GQD-supported MV(2+) exhibits stable performance under mechanical and thermal stresses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis and electrochromic, acidochromic properties of Schiff bases containing triphenylamine and thiophene units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaotong; Wang, Wen; Li, Bin; Hou, Yanjun; Niu, Haijun; Zhang, Yanhong; Wang, Shuhong; Bai, Xuduo

    2015-04-05

    A series of Schiff bases (SBs) were designed and prepared from 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and different triphenylamine (TPA) derivatives. The structures of the compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The optical and electrochemical properties were tested by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The SBs exhibited stable and reversible electrochromic properties. Furthermore, multiple reversible colors states were also observed with the change of pH. Consequently, the SBs can be used as electrochromic and acidochromic materials.

  8. Near infrared electrochromic variable optical attenuator based on ruthenium complex and polycrystalline tungsten oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jidong; WU Xianguo; YU Hongan; YAN Donghang; WANG Zhiyuan

    2005-01-01

    A near infrared (NIR) electrochromic attenuator based on a dinuclear ruthenium complex and polycrystalline tungsten oxide was fabricated and characterized. The results show that the use of the NIR-absorbing ruthenium complex as a counter electrode material can improve the device performance. By replacing the visible electrochromic ferrocene with the NIR-absorbing ruthenium complex, the optical attenuation at 1550 nm was enhanced from 19.1 to 30.0 dB and color efficiency also increased from 29.2 to 121.2 cm2/C.

  9. Electrochemical and optical properties of biphenyl bridged-dicarbazole oligomer films: Electropolymerization and electrochromism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyuncu, Sermet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Can Vocational School, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17400 Canakkale (Turkey)], E-mail: sermetkoyuncu@hotmail.com; Gultekin, Burak [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Zafer, Ceylan [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: ceylan.zafer@ege.edu.tr; Bilgili, Hakan; Can, Mustafa; Demic, Serafettin [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Kaya, Ismet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Icli, Siddik [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-10-01

    4,4'-Di(N-carbazoyl)biphenyl monomer (CBP) was synthesized and coated onto ITO-glass surface by electrochemical oxidative polymerization. Its CV shows two distinct one-electron and stepwise oxidation processes occurred at 1.29 and 1.61 V. By using this property, the monomer was electrochemically polymerized separately at these oxidation states and thus, two different oligomer films were obtained afterwards. Their spectro-electrochemical and electrochromic properties were also investigated. Switching ability of the oligomers was evaluated by kinetic studies upon measuring the percent transmittance (%T) at their maximum contrast point, indicating that these oligomers were found to be suitable material for electrochromic devices.

  10. Ageing of electrochromic WO{sub 3} coatings characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlivan, Esat; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes-Goeran [Department of Engineering Sciences, Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Georen, Peter [ChromoGenics AB, Maerstagatan 4, 753 23 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    We have developed a method for characterization of ageing of electrochromic materials by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochromic WO{sub 3} thin films have been electrochemically cycled in propionic acid electrolyte and probed by EIS and optical measurements. A very small amount of optical degradation was observed in both the bleached and coloured states. The samples exhibited a few hundred times higher impedance in the bleached state than in the coloured state. It was observed that, in the bleached state, impedance values at low frequencies increased significantly with increasing number of cycles. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Electrochromic coatings made of surface modified rutile and anatase pigments: Influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on electrochromic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihelčič, Mohor [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Francetič, Vojmir [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljani, Aškerčeva cesta 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pori, Pavli [Chemcolor Sevnica d.o.o., Dolenje Brezovo 35, 8290 Sevnica (Slovenia); Gradišar, Helena [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovač, Janez [Jožef Stefan Institute., Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Orel, Boris, E-mail: boris.orel@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); CO-NOT, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent pigmented coatings were deposited from titania dispersions. • Trisilanol POSS was used as dispersant. • Surface modification of pigment particles was established from TEM, TG and IR. • IR spectra studies revealed covalent and H-bond dispersant/pigment interactions. • Electrochromic properties of titanina pigment coatings were shown and discussed. - Abstract: Polyhedral oligomeric silsesqioxanes (POSS) compounds consisting of [RSiO{sub 3/2}]{sub n} groups organized in the form of various polyhedra (T{sub n}, n = 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, ….) have not often been used as pigment surface modifiers. Their interactions with pigments are not known in detail and coatings deposited from pigments modified by POSS dispersants are rare. Identification of interactions between a dispersant and the surface of pigments is important from the point of view of obtaining stable pigment dispersions enabling the deposition of optical coatings with high pigment loading, low haze and mechanical integrity. Thin TiO{sub 2} (anatase) pigment coatings (70–260 nm) were deposited from pigment dispersions prepared by milling metatitanic acid (mTiA) powder agglomerates with trisilanol heptaisobutyl silsesquioxane dispersant (trisilanol POSS) in butanol and hexane. The results of TEM, EDAX and TG measurements confirmed the influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on the formation of a dispersion with a uniform distribution of mTiA and rutile (mTiR) nanoparticles with a size of about 30 ± 5.0 nm and 90 ± 5.0 nm, respectively, as determined from dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The mTiA/trisilanol POSS dispersions with added titanium tetraisopropoxide were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass (spin-coating) and indium tin oxide coated polymeric substrate (ITO PET) (coil-coating) and thermally treated at 150 °C. UV–vis spectra, AFM and SEM results showed that the pigment coatings exhibited low haze (up to 6

  12. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  13. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  14. Low energy switching driver for printed electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    This paper continues our investigations in relatively new developed printed electrochromic displays (ECDs). There are some advantages of ECDs that recommend them for specific low end and short time disposable display applications, for instance the ECD devices present low power consumption (they are non-emissive, reflective, i.e. passive) and have a good viewing angle, looking like ink on paper. It is to note that these displays are still in research, and partly present on the market. There are a lot of papers regarding the chemistry and electro-chemistry of the device, but very few about concrete schematics for driving these displays. Due to their low penetration in applications, and due to lack of standardization, there are not yet realized custom drivers in form of integrated circuits. The driving of these circuits is not at all so simple. These are very sensitive devices in what it concerns exceeding the drive pulse duration and voltage level. In order to take full advantage of the low power consumption of this device, a good driver circuitry needs to be realized also in the "low power" class. We propose in this paper an original driving circuit, that has very low consumption and that can be even supplied by a supercapacitor or by a printed battery. The whole structure can be further integrated as a system on foil.

  15. Solar performance of an electrochromic geodesic dome roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta-Gandara, M.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, BCS (Mexico); Gomez-Munoz, V. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencas Marinas, BCS (Mexico)

    2005-10-01

    A Fuller type geodesic dome was modeled in terms of the variation of the solar energy that passes to the interior when the dome is covered with electrochromic glazing (ECG), compared with common glass, by means of two different solar control strategies: one discrete and the other continuous. With the discrete strategy, when a solar beam strikes any ECG pane at any angle, it is darkened to its maximum level. In the continuous strategy, each ECG pane is darkened by using a direct function of solar beam radiation. The results demonstrate the advantages of solar control achieved with the former strategy. For the discrete strategy, the daily reduction in solar energy intake, with respect to the ordinary glass, was around 86% for all considered latitudes along the year. The optimum values for the continuous strategy occurred during the equinoxes with a maximum reduction of 69% for all latitudes. During the summer solstice, the reduction percentages increase with the latitude from 52 to 57%. During the winter solstice, the energy reduction with the continuous strategy decreases with the latitude from 52% in the Equator to 46% at 40{sup o} north latitude. (author)

  16. Electrochromism: a useful probe to study algal photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Benjamin; Cardol, Pierre; Breyton, Cécile; Finazzi, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    In photosynthesis, electron transfer along the photosynthetic chain results in a vectorial transfer of protons from the stroma to the lumenal space of the thylakoids. This promotes the generation of an electrochemical proton gradient (Δμ(H)(+)), which comprises a gradient of electric potential (ΔΨ) and of proton concentration (ΔpH). The Δμ(H)(+) has a central role in the photosynthetic process, providing the energy source for ATP synthesis. It is also involved in many regulatory mechanisms. The ΔpH modulates the rate of electron transfer and triggers deexcitation of excess energy within the light harvesting complexes. The ΔΨ is required for metabolite and protein transport across the membranes. Its presence also induces a shift in the absorption spectra of some photosynthetic pigments, resulting in the so-called ElectroChromic Shift (ECS). In this review, we discuss the characteristic features of the ECS, and illustrate possible applications for the study of photosynthetic processes in vivo.

  17. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyuha [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, A-Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode.

  18. Dual Emissive-Reflective Display Materials with Large Emission Switching Using Highly Luminescent Lanthanide(III) Complex and Electrochromic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Norihisa

    2013-05-01

    Electroswitching of emission and coloration was achieved by a combination of a luminescent Eu(III) complex and an electrochromic molecule of diheptyl viologen (HV2+), in order to utilize them as novel display devices with dual emissive-reflective modes. The coloration was associated with the HV2+ electrochromism. Emission control was also achieved by the HV2+ electrochromism via intermolecular energy transfer from the excited state of the Eu(III) ion to the HV+. In order to improve ON-OFF contrast in emission, the emission quantum yield of Eu(III) complex were considerably improved using low vibrational phosphine oxide ligands, resulting in the large control of emission switching.

  19. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  20. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  1. Foil-based TiO2/gel electrolyte/Ni1-xO electrochromic device made of electrochromic pigment coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelčič, Mohor; Šurca-Vuk, Angela; Vrhovšk, Dejan; Švegl, Franc; Hajzeri, Metka; Orel, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Thin electrochromic coatings were obtained by co-grinding the mTiA particle aggregates (300 nm in size) with open-corner heptaisobutyl trisilanol POSS (T(8) IB(7)(OH)(3) POSS) acting as dispersant. After the addition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (3-5%) the mTiA pigment dispersion was deposited on FTO glass and plastic ITO PET foils and coatings were obtained by thermal treatment at 150 °C. Optical transmittance and luminous haze from 2 to 6% of the coatings were determined from the corresponding UV-Vis spectra. The achieved electrochromic effect was evaluated by electrochemical charging/discharging in 1 M LiClO(4)/PC electrolyte. Results revealed that the colouring/bleaching changes depended on the extent of grinding and the size of the milling zirconia beads, enabling to distinguish between the surface charging of the mTiA grains and the filling and emptying of the anatase density of states. mTiA pigment coatings deposited on plastic foil were used in combination with Ni(1-x)O pigment coatings for construction of foil-based electrochromic device employing novel gel electrolyte with ionic liquid co-solvent.

  2. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    The handbook on windows and energy is a general description of windows with the main focus put on the energy performance. Common window products are described by commonly used nomenclature, description of frame and sash conctructions and description of commonly used glazing types.The energy...... transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... are described.A method for estimation of the net energy flow on a yearly basis and/or during the heating season is presented. The method is able to combine the influence of window orientation, window size and window shape, type of glazing, frame area relative to total window area and type of spacer in sealed...

  3. Four shades of brown: tuning of electrochromic polymer blends toward high-contrast eyewear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Shen, D Eric; Kerszulis, Justin A; Bulloch, Rayford H; Kuepfert, Michael; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2015-01-28

    We report a straightforward strategy of accessing a wide variety of colors through simple predictive color mixing of electrochromic polymers (ECPs). We have created a set of brown ECP blends that can be incorporated as the active material in user-controlled electrochromic eyewear. Color mixing of ECPs proceeds in a subtractive fashion, and we acquire various hues of brown through the mixing of cyan and yellow primaries in combination with orange and periwinkle-blue secondary colors. Upon oxidation, all of the created blends exhibit a change in transmittance from ca. 10 to 70% in a few seconds. We demonstrate the attractiveness of these ECP blends as active materials in electrochromic eyewear by assembling user-controlled, high-contrast, fast-switching, and fully solution-processable electrochromic lenses with colorless transmissive states and colored states that correspond to commercially available sunglasses. The lenses were fabricated using a combination of inkjet printing and blade-coating to illustrate the feasibility of using soluble ECPs for high-throughput and large-scale processing.

  4. Solid state tungsten oxide hydrate/tin oxide hydrate electrochromic device prepared by electrochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kentaro; Matsuo, Ryo; Sasano, Junji; Yokoyama, Seiji; Izaki, Masanobu

    2017-03-01

    The solid state electrochromic device composed of tungsten oxide hydrate (WO3(H2O)0.33) and tin oxide hydrate (Sn(O,OH)) has been constructed by anodic deposition of WO3(H2O)0.33 and Sn(O,OH) layers and showed the color change from clear to blue by applying voltage through an Au electrode.

  5. SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF THE ELECTROCHROMICALLY ACTIVE CAROTENOIDS OF RHODOBACTER-SPHAEROIDES IN CHROMATOPHORES AND RECONSTITUTED LIPOSOMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CRIELAARD, W; VANMOURIK, F; VANGRONDELLE, R; KONINGS, WN; HELLINGWERF, KJ

    1992-01-01

    Reaction centers with both light harvesting complexes I and II (B875 and B800/850; i.e., RCLH(I)LH(II) complexes) have been isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. These complexes have been incorporated into liposomes made from lipids purified from Escherichia coli. The electrochromic bandshift of ca

  6. A first truly all-solid state organic electrochromic device based on polymeric ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaplov, Alexander S; Ponkratov, Denis O; Aubert, Pierre-Henri; Lozinskaya, Elena I; Plesse, Cédric; Vidal, Frédéric; Vygodskii, Yakov S

    2014-03-25

    Using polymeric ionic liquids and PEDOT as ion conducting separators and electrodes, respectively, an all-polymer-based organic electrochromic device (ECD) has been constructed. The advantages of such an ECD are: fast switching time (3 s), high coloration efficiency (390 cm(2) C(-1) at 620 nm), optical contrast up to ΔT = 22% and the possibility of working under vacuum.

  7. 并网风光发电中混合储能系统容量优化配置%Capacity Optimization of Hybrid Energy Storage System in Grid-Connected Wind and PV Power Generation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珺; 张建成; 桂勋

    2013-01-01

      提高并网风光发电系统的调度灵活性需要引入储能技术,而储能技术研究的首要关键技术问题就是储能系统的容量配置。利用蓄电池和超级电容器的互补特性,提出了一种以优化蓄电池工作状态为原则,以提高储能系统整体经济性为目标的能量管理策略。基于该能量管理策略分析了并网风光发电系统能量损失率和能量缺失率的计算流程,根据全生命周期费用理论,建立了储能装置的年均费用函数表达式,并建立了以该函数值最小为目标,以系统能量损失率及能量缺失率等运行指标为约束的储能容量优化配置模型。运用改进混沌优化算法对实例进行了计算,验证了该优化模型与算法的正确性和有效性。%  To improve scheduling flexibility of grid-connected Wind and PV power generation system, it is necessary for the system to apply energy storage technology, and the primary key technological problem to be researched is how to determine the capacity configuration of the energy storage system. Using complementary characteristics of the battery and the supercapacitor, an energy management strategy, in which the optimization of battery operating condition is taken as the principle and the improvement of overall economy of energy storage system as the objective, is proposed. Based on the proposed energy management storage, the energy loss rate of grid-connected wind and PV generation system and the calculation course of the rate are analyzed. According to the theory of life cycle cost, the expressions for annual average cost function of energy storage system is established;taking the minimization of this function value as the objective and the loss of produced power probability and the loss of power supply probability as constraints, an optimal configuration model for optimal configuration of the capacity of energy storage system is built. Case calculation is performed by

  8. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    The importance of dynamic daylight to support health and well-being has been more and more recognized. People in hospitals and health care environments have a specific need for optimized daylight conditions. Daylight penetration through window openings is crucial to stimulate circadian rhythm...... and maintain a healthy sleep-awake pattern. At the same time, the window can provide a pleasant view and connection to the surroundings and enhance the perception of the interior space and materials. All three factors are recognized as important for human well-being and health, but never the less...

  9. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  10. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  11. Windows Azure mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Get up and running with Windows Azure Mobile Services Windows Azure Mobile Services (WAMS) is a turn-key backend solution for applications, mobile or otherwise, to utilize structured storage in the cloud. It includes basic data access functionality and built-in authentication with Microsoft Account, Facebook, Twitter and Google, as well as push notification to the client app. This compact, to the point book gives you just what you need to get up and running with these tools. Demonstrates how to add, update, delete and retrieve data using standard .NET classes or REST-based requestsDescribes h

  12. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  13. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the

  14. Smart windows application of carbazole and triazine based star shaped architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, Merve; Soganci, Tugba; Ayranci, Rukiye; Ak, Metin

    2016-08-01

    A novel triazine-based, star shape and electroactive monomer, 2,4,6-tris(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TCZ) which contains 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as the core and 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethanol as the arms, was successfully synthesized. After electrochemical polymerization of the TCZ monomer, called PTCZ, the polymer shows superior optoelectronic and thermal properties due to its unique three-dimensional shape and highly-branched structure in comparison with linear analogues. Electrochromic studies exhibited that PTCZ has turquoise color in the oxidized state and is transparent in the neutral state. Due to the fact that the redox color characteristics of PTCZ are indispensable for smart windows, a PTCZ-based electrochromic device was formed with PEDOT as complementary coloring material. A potential range of -1.5 to +1.8 V was determined to be suitable for operating the PTCZ/PEDOT device between transparent and blue colors. Characterizations of the device were performed in term of switching times, optical contrast, optical memory and redox stability.

  15. Investigation of bipyridilium and Prussian blue systems for their potential application in electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, J.L

    1999-07-01

    Analogues of 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridilium, 'paraquat' or methyl viologen, have been investigated. A series of symmetrical 1,1'-di-alkyl-4,4'-bipyridilium, methyl to n-nonyl viologen, were synthesised. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical data in aqueous solution are reported. With the exception of n-heptyl, n-octyl and n-nonyl viologens, all the compounds in the series were successfully incorporated into films of the sulphonated perfluorinated polyether Nafion. Iso-propyl, iso-butyl, allyl and cinnamyl viologens were also synthesised. Electrochemical data in aqueous solution are reported and the influence of size/conformation of the molecules on incorporation into Nafion has been investigated. The incorporation of methyl viologen into two other solid electrolytes, DAIS and Flemion, has also been investigated and a comparison of the results is presented. 1,1'-Ethylene-2.,2'-dipyridilium, 'diquat', and its benzo-15-crown-5 and 1,2-dimethyloxybenzene derivatives were the second group of compounds to be investigated. Diquat has many similar properties to paraquat and thus it was striking that the electrochromic properties of diquat had not been previously reported. The thesis presents new electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical data for diquat and its derivatives in aqueous solution. Iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II), Prussian blue, is an important and well studied electrochromic system. The present work surveys analogous transition metal hexacyanoferrates for electrochromic properties. Results are presented for the thin film deposition of metal hexacyanoferrates onto ITO glass working electrodes. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical data are reported. Finally practical devices using the electrochromic systems studied above were constructed. An electrochromic device utilising, Prussian blue and Nafion is described and its optical switching behaviour is characterised and compared to a device containing

  16. Electrochemical and electrochromic properties of layer-by-layer films from WO(3) and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenin, Fritz; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2005-07-07

    The design of improved materials for electrochromic applications now involves extensive use of novel composites, thus requiring an investigation of the mechanisms responsible for electrochromism in these structures. Using films of WO(3) and chitosan produced with the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique, we demonstrate that characteristics such as the number of electrochemical active sites (K), the molar absorption coefficient (epsilon), and the electrochromic efficiency (eta) can be obtained using the quadratic logistic equation (QLE). The complexation ability between chitosan and WO(3) allowed the growth of visually uniform multilayers of the composite, with the same amount of material adsorbed in each deposition cycle. By fitting the absorbance changes (DeltaA) resulting from the electronic intervalence transfer from W(V) to W(VI) sites in four-bilayer LBL films of WO(3)/chitosan and WO(3)/chitosan with ethanol in the precursor dispersion, K was estimated to be ca. 5.5 x 10(-8) mol cm(-2) and 3.6 x 10(-8) mol cm(-2), respectively. The molar absorption coefficient and electrochromic efficiency vary with the charge injected because of the saturation of W(V) sites and the dissipation and feedback effects implicit in the QLE associated with ion-network interactions, such as the proton trapping effect. The LBL film of WO(3)/chitosan showed a smaller molar absorption coefficient and electrochromic efficiency than that containing ethanol because of a greater proton trapping effect for the LBL film with no ethanol. This enhanced trapping effect was seen as a decrease in the electronic flux involved in intervalence transfer in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments.

  17. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  18. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised...

  19. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  20. Windows and lighting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  1. Synthesis of Dimethyl-Substituted Polyviologen and Control of Charge Transport in Electrodes for High-Resolution Electrochromic Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan Sato; Ryusuke Mizukami; Takahiro Mizuma; Hiroyuki Nishide; Kenichi Oyaizu

    2017-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) polymers such as polyviologens have been attracting considerable attention as wet-processable electrodes for EC displays, thanks to their brilliant color change accompanied with reversible redox reactions...

  2. A dual electrochrome of poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped by N,N'-bis(3-sulfonatopropyl)-4-4'-bipyridinium--redox chemistry and electrochromism in flexible devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shweta; Deepa, Melepurath; Pahal, Suman; Joshi, Amish G; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Kant, Rama

    2010-01-01

    An electrochromic zwitterionic viologen, N,N'-bis(3-sulfonatopropyl)-4-4'-bipyridinium, has been used for the first time for doping poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiopene) (PEDOT) films during electropolymerization. Slow and fast diffusional rates for the monomer at deposition potentials of +1.2 and +1.8 V, respectively yielded the viologen-doped PEDOT films with granular morphology and with dendrite-like shapes. The dual electrochrome formed at +1.8 V, showed enhanced coloration efficiency, larger electrochemical charge storage capacity, and superior redox activity in comparison to its analogue grown at +1.2 V, thus demonstrating the role of dendritic shapes in amplifying electrochromism. Flexible electrochromic devices fabricated with the viologen-doped PEDOT film grown at +1.8 V and Prussian blue with an ionic liquid-based gel electrolyte film showed reversible coloration between pale and dark purple with maximum coloration efficiency of 187 cm2C(-1) at lambda=693 nm. The diffusional impedance parameters and switching kinetics of the device showed the suitability of this dual electrochrome formed as a single layer for practical electrochromic cells.

  3. Study on the large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power generation in desert of China and its utilization. Development of energy and agriculture in solar farm; Chugoku ni okeru ogata taiyoko hatsuden to sono riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Solar farm ni yoru energy to nogyo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S.; Ohashi, Y.; Ito, H. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ojima, S. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper proposes solar farm, a system suitable for China`s present circumstances, and describes its development plan. In this plan, agriculture and stock farming are promoted through irrigation using PV power in the desert zone, middle-east China. In addition, electric power is produced by laying PV power generation modules. The solar farm has 100 blocks of farmland equivalent to 700 ha, which includes 300 farmhouses (population of 1200). It can be a food supply base producing rice and wheat. The power generation capacity is at least 1000 kW, and the night power is supplied by battery installed in each farmhouse. The power generated in the daytime is used not only for agriculture but also for secondary industry such as processing of agricultural and stock farming products. The Chinese government requires 300,000 ha of farmland development every year up to 2030, the peak of population. When a half of this is developed by the solar farm, 200 solar farms are to be developed every year. For 30 years, 6000 solar farms are to be developed. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Study on the large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power generation in desert of China and its utilization. Development of energy and agriculture in solar farm; Chugoku ni okeru ogata taiyoko hatsuden to sono riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Solar farm ni yoru energy to nogyo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S.; Ohashi, Y.; Ito, H. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ojima, S. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper proposes solar farm, a system suitable for China`s present circumstances, and describes its development plan. In this plan, agriculture and stock farming are promoted through irrigation using PV power in the desert zone, middle-east China. In addition, electric power is produced by laying PV power generation modules. The solar farm has 100 blocks of farmland equivalent to 700 ha, which includes 300 farmhouses (population of 1200). It can be a food supply base producing rice and wheat. The power generation capacity is at least 1000 kW, and the night power is supplied by battery installed in each farmhouse. The power generated in the daytime is used not only for agriculture but also for secondary industry such as processing of agricultural and stock farming products. The Chinese government requires 300,000 ha of farmland development every year up to 2030, the peak of population. When a half of this is developed by the solar farm, 200 solar farms are to be developed every year. For 30 years, 6000 solar farms are to be developed. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Transparent TiO2 nanotube electrodes via thin layer anodization: fabrication and use in electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, S; Ghicov, A; Nah, Y-C; Schmuki, P

    2009-05-05

    In the present work, we describe an anodization process that is able to fully transform a thin Ti metal layer on a conductive glass into a TiO(2) nanotubular array. Under optimized conditions, nanotube electrodes can be obtained that are completely transparent and defect-free and allow electrochromic switching. These electrochromic electrodes show remarkable properties and can be directly integrated into devices.

  6. Spectroscopic, morphological and electrochromic characterization of layer-by-layer hybrid films of polyaniline and hexaniobate nanoscrolls

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claudio H. B.; Galiote, Nelson A.; Huguenin,Fritz; Teixeira-Neto, Erico; Constantino, Vera R. L.; Marcia L. A. Temperini

    2012-01-01

    The combination of semiconducting oxides and polyaniline in the nanoscale range may result in hybrid materials having enhanced properties, such as electrochromism and charge capacity. This paper reports the spectroscopic, morphological and electrochromic characterization of hybrid films made up of hexaniobate one-dimensional (1D) nanoscrolls and polyaniline prepared by the layer-by-layer assembly technique (LbL). Secondary electron imaging and backscattered electron imaging techniques perform...

  7. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... resulted in a window with a positive net energy gain (in short the Net Gain Window), which means that it contributes to the space heating of the building. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods. The results from this work show that the energy performances of windows can...

  8. Windows CE自定制Shell%Customizing Windows CE Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃朗; 雷跃明

    2010-01-01

    Shell是用户访问操作系统的接口.Shell开发在Windows CE操作系统开发中占据一定的重要性.对Windows CE Shell进行了概述,并通过建立Shell模型,讲述如何自定制Windows CE Shell和定制Shell必须注意的问题,对Windows CE Shell的定制进行深入研究.

  9. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  10. Process window metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

    2000-06-01

    This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

  11. Duplication of Windows Services

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Zhiyong; Chiueh, Tzi-cker; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    OS-level virtualization techniques virtualize system resources at the system call interface, has the distinct advantage of smaller run-time resource requirements as compared to HAL-level virtualization techniques, and thus forms an important building block for virtualizing parallel and distributed applications such as a HPC clusters. Because the Windows operating system puts certain critical functionalities in privileged user-level system service processes, a complete OS-level virtualization ...

  12. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  13. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  14. Mobilní platforma Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Ženíšek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis describes to mobile operating system Windows Phone 8. That was introduced in half of the year 2012. The main aim this thesis is to introduce operating system Windows Phone 8. It includes all its parameters, features and technologies, which are necessary for future application development. Partial goal is to explain the possibilities and processes of the development not only for Windows Phone 8 but also for Windows 8. Another crucial goal is the illustrative example of usi...

  15. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  16. Beginner's guide to Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This concise, accessible and down-to-earth guide will help you get the most out of your computer using Windows 7, whether you're a complete beginner or upgrading from previous Microsoft operating systems. You'll learn about exciting new features of Windows 7, including how to work with Windows 7 Libraries, how to communicate using Windows Live Mail, how to use Windows Live Photo Gallery, how to browse and search the web using Internet Explorer, and Version 8 and Accelerators.

  17. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  18. Windows 8.1 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 400,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. Using a Visual approach, this book covers the new features of Windows 8.1 and provides step-by-step instructions for readers who are entirely new to the subject. Inside, you'll discover tasks on topics such as: Windows basics, creating movies, sharing their computer, working with and managing files, browsing the web, and new ways to customize Windows to w

  19. The Influence of the Constitution of Acrylate Copolymers on Electrochromic Properties of Their Pan Composite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several polyacrylate matrixes were prepared with monomers such as methyl methacrylate,KH-570,acrylic acid and butyl acrylate,and the electrochromic behavior of their soluble Pan composite coatings was also studied by electrochemical analysis and spectrophotometry.It shows that the constitution of the polymer matrixes have great effects on the electrochromic process and the color change of the composite coatings.When the matrix consists of acrylic acid unit,Pan of both interior and exterior composite possesses the same electrochemical reactivity,shorter responding time and wider color-changing range.But it is contrary when matrixes contain no acrylic acid.Furthermore,the composite containing acrylic acid units has still electrochemical reactivity in distilled water instead of LiClO4-PC electrolyte.

  20. Patternable PEDOT nanofilms with grid electrodes for transparent electrochromic devices targeting thermal camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumsoo; Koh, Jong Kwan; Park, Junyong; Ahn, Changui; Ahn, Joonmo; Kim, Jong Hak; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports a new type of transmitting mode electrochromic device that uses the high-contrast electrochromism of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and operates at long-wavelength infrared (8-12 μm) . To maximize the transmittance contrast and transmittance contrast ratio of the device for thermal camouflage, we control the thickness of the thin PEDOT layer from 25 nm to 400 nm and develop a design of grid-type counter electrodes. The cyclability can be greatly improved by selective deposition of the PEDOT film on grid electrodes as an ion storage layer without any loss of overall transmittance. The device with optimized architectures shows a high transmittance contrast ratio of 83 % at a wavelength of 10 μm with a response rate under 1.4 s when alternating voltage is applied. Captured images of an LED lamp behind the device prove the possibility of active, film-type camouflage against thermal detection.

  1. Electrostatic-Force-Assisted Dispensing Printing of Electrochromic Gels for Low-Voltage Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keon-Woo; Oh, Hwan; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Haekyoung; Moon, Hong Chul; Kim, Se Hyun

    2017-06-07

    In this study, low-voltage, printed, ion gel-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) were successfully fabricated. While conventional dispensing printing provides irregularly printed electrochromic (EC) gels, we improved the adhesion between the printed gel and the substrate by applying an external voltage. This is called electrostatic-force-assisted dispensing printing. As a result, we obtained well-defined, printed, EC gels on substrates such as indium tin oxide-coated glass. We fabricated a gel-based ECD by simply sandwiching the printed EC gel between two transparent electrodes. The resulting ECD, which required a low coloration voltage (∼0.6 V), exhibited a high coloration efficiency (η) of 161 cm(2)/C and a large transmittance contrast (∼82%) between the bleached and colored states at -0.7 V. In addition, electrostatic-force-assisted dispensing printing was utilized to fabricate directly patterned ECDs.

  2. A new approach for design of organic electrochromic devices with inter-digitated electrode structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, Galit; Strum, Galit; Gvishi, Raz [Electro-optics Division, Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Larina, Nina; Lokshin, Vladimir; Khodorkovsky, Vladimir [Interdisciplinary Center of Nanoscience CINaM (CNRS UPR 3118), 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Grinis, Larissa; Zaban, Arie [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Kiryuschev, Irina [Irus Optomechanics LTD (Israel)

    2009-12-15

    We present a new approach for design of organic electrochromic devices (ECD) with inter-digitated electrode (IDE) structure and three-electrode dynamic operation. The advantages of the IDE design include the ability to produce fast and homogenous color change over large areas. In addition, it enables fabrication of multi-color devices. Our method involves photolithographic etching of ITO followed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and mechanical compression of porous titania to produce finely patterned electrodes with high surface area. The titania layer is chemically modified by new stable and reversible electrochromic viologen derivatives involving phenylphosphonic acid anchoring moiety. The new device demonstrates reversible and strong color change from colorless to deep blue and yellow. (author)

  3. Lanthanide doped ceria thin films as possible counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hartridge, A

    2000-01-01

    suitability of these thin films as counter electrodes in electrochromic devices. The final chapter then turns to the electrochemical insertion of lithium into these materials using cyclic voltammetry. All films studied enabled the reversible insertion of lithium with varying potentials and charge capacities without the loss of transmission of light common to other potential counter electrode materials. Certain compositions however, comprising ceria doped with Dy, Y, Nd and Pr, allowed enough lithium insertion (charge capacity) to fulfil the requirements of counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices. These materials are therefore worthy of further study. Crystalline solid solutions of lanthanide doped ceria have long been known for their high ionic conductivity and as such have found applications as oxygen sensors and in solid oxide fuel cells. With advances in preparative techniques over the years, thin films of ceria doped with zirconia and titania have been studied and found to possess the necess...

  4. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  5. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  6. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised...... the supercritical washing step included in the drying phase. At the same time the production plant have been modified to recycle most of the chemicals involved in the production process. A large number of aerogel glazing prototypes have been made with partly evacuated aerogel in between two layers of low iron...

  7. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  8. Laplacian magic windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    A transparent sheet, flat to unaided vision but with a gentle surface relief, can concentrate light onto a screen with intensity reproducing any desired image: the sheet is a ‘magic window’. When the ray deflections are sufficiently small that there are no caustics between the window and the screen, the image intensity is the Laplacian function of the relief height function—a very simple approximation to general freeform optics. Therefore the desired relief is obtained by solving Poisson’s equation. Numerical simulations indicate that the Laplacian image approximation will apply to realistic situations.

  9. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...... skaller, så facetternes sande størrelse vises, og danne en liste med alle mål. Både skallernes tredimensionelle og todimensionelle form kan eksporteres som DXF-filer til CAD programmer. Programmet indeholder stadig fejl - jeg arbejder på en ny version....

  10. Radiation controlling reversible window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, H.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A coated glass glazing system is presented including a transparent glass substrate having one surface coated with a radiation absorptive film which is overcoated with a radiation reflective film by a technique which renders the radiation reflective film radiation absorptive at the surface contracting the radiating absorptive film. The coated glass system is used as glazing for storm windows which are adapted to be reversible so that the radiation reflective surface may be exposed to the outside of the dwelling during the warm seasons to prevent excessive solar radiation from entering a dwelling and reversed during cold seasons to absorb solar radiation and utilize it to aid in keeping the dwelling interior warm.

  11. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  12. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a considerable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focussed on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... of the heating demand in typical single-family houses in Denmark and Greenland. The examined windows are typical new windows from Nordic countries and new proposals of improved windows with low thermal transmittance and high total solar energy transmittance. The results show that net energy gain can be increased...

  13. Tailoring nanoscale properties of tungsten oxide for inkjet printed electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Pawel Jerzy; Santos, Lidia; Pereira, Luis; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the engineering procedures governing the synthesis of tungsten oxide nanocrystals and the formulation of printable dispersions for electrochromic applications. By that means, we aim to stress the relevancy of a proper design strategy that results in improved physicochemical properties of nanoparticle loaded inks. In the present study inkjet printable nanostructured tungsten oxide particles were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal processes using pure or acidified aqueous sol-gel precursors. Based on the proposed scheme, the structure and morphology of the nanoparticles were tailored to ensure the desired printability and electrochromic performance. The developed nanomaterials with specified structures effectively improved the electrochemical response of printed films, resulting in 2.5 times higher optical modulation and 2 times faster coloration time when compared with pure amorphous films.This paper focuses on the engineering procedures governing the synthesis of tungsten oxide nanocrystals and the formulation of printable dispersions for electrochromic applications. By that means, we aim to stress the relevancy of a proper design strategy that results in improved physicochemical properties of nanoparticle loaded inks. In the present study inkjet printable nanostructured tungsten oxide particles were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal processes using pure or acidified aqueous sol-gel precursors. Based on the proposed scheme, the structure and morphology of the nanoparticles were tailored to ensure the desired printability and electrochromic performance. The developed nanomaterials with specified structures effectively improved the electrochemical response of printed films, resulting in 2.5 times higher optical modulation and 2 times faster coloration time when compared with pure amorphous films. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05765a

  14. The Beer-Lambert law for electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarminio, J.; Urbano, A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Gardes, B. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Dept. de Quimica, Lab. FILMAT, 86.051-970, Londrina (Brazil)

    1999-10-15

    Electrochemical intercalation of Li{sup +} ions into amorphous and polycrystalline tungsten oxide films were performed by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry techniques. From transmittance measurements at 632 nm, it was observed that the optical absorption intensities were proportional to the intercalated charge. The Beer-Lambert law is suggested to explain these results for which the intercalated electrons answer as absorptive species. The highest optical absorption coefficients or electrochromic efficiencies were obtained for the amorphous films. (orig.)

  15. The immediate effects of glare and electrochromic glare-reducing mirrors in simulated truck driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, T A; Simmons, L A; Masalonis, A J

    2000-01-01

    In this experiment 12 experienced truck drivers drove a fixed-base driving simulator for three 8-h sessions under simulated nighttime driving conditions. Sessions included (a) no glare, (b) intermittent glare presented in the exterior rearview mirrors to simulate following vehicles, and (c) intermittent glare with electrochromic glare reduction. The driving task combined vehicle control on straight and curved road segments with detection of pedestrians appearing alongside the road and targets appearing in the rearview mirrors. The presence of glare slowed detection of pedestrians and, to a lesser extent, slowed the detection of targets appearing in mirrors. Glare was also associated with increased lane position variability, reduced speed on curves, and, most consistently, increased steering variability. We found only meager evidence that electrochromic glare reduction improved target detection performance and no evidence that glare reduction improved vehicle control, despite the fact that participants consistently voiced positive preferences for glare reduction. The results will aid decision making that requires incorporation of the benefits of electrochromic glare-reducing mirrors.

  16. Visualization of energy: light dose indicator based on electrochromic gyroid nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di; Scherer, Maik R. J.; Astley, Michael; Steiner, Ullrich

    2015-06-01

    The typical applications of electrochromic devices do not make use of the charge-dependent, gradual optical response due to their slow voltage-sensitive coloration. However, in this paper we present a design for a reusable, self-powered light dose indicator consisting of a solar cell and a gyroid-structured nickel oxide (NiO) electrochromic display that measures the cumulative charge per se, making use of the efficient voltage-sensitive coloration of gyroid materials. To circumvent the stability issues associated with the standard aqueous electrolyte that is typically accompanied by water splitting and gas evolution, we investigate a novel nano-gyroid NiO electrochromic device based on organic solvents of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol, and room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) triethylsulfonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([SET3][TFSI]) containing lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide. We show that an effective light dose indicator can be enabled by nano-gyroid NiO with RTIL; this proves to be a reliable device since it does not involve solvent degradation or gas generation.

  17. Inkjet printing of sol-gel synthesized hydrated tungsten oxide nanoparticles for flexible electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cláudia; Pinheiro, Carlos; Henriques, Inês; Laia, César A T

    2012-03-01

    Tungsten oxide nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel route using metallic tungsten as precursor, and were printed on a flexible electrode using inkjet printing in order to build solid-state electrochromic cells. Several spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize and compare tungsten oxide particles obtained from different origins. FTIR, Raman and X-ray diffraction spectroscopic measurements showed that the sol-gel synthesis described here produces nanoparticles mainly in an amorphous state with hexagonal crystalline domains and allowed the analysis of the hydration extent of those nanoparticles. The size was measured combining dynamic light scattering, sedimentation, and microscopic techniques (AFM), showing a consistent size of about 200 nm. The tungsten oxide nanoparticles were used to produce an ink formulation for application in inkjet printing. Solid-state electrochromic devices were assembled at room temperature, without sintering the tungsten oxide printed films, showing excellent contrast between on/off states. Electrochemical characterization of those films is described using cyclic voltammetry. The devices were then tested through spectroelectrochemistry by Visible/NIR absorption spectroscopy (400-2200 nm range), showing a dual spectroscopic response depending on the applied voltage. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of two different crystalline states in accordance with results obtained from the spectroscopic characterization of the nanoparticles. The electrochromic cells had a good cycling stability showing high reversibility and a cyclability up to more than 50,000 cycles with a degradation of 25%. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Highly transparent AgNW/PDMS stretchable electrodes for elastomeric electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-Shen; Pan, Bo-Cheng; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2017-02-16

    Stretchable conductors based on silver nanowires (AgNWs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been studied extensively for many years. However, it is still difficult to achieve high transparency with low resistance due to the low attractive force between AgNWs and PDMS. In this paper, we report an effective method to transfer AgNWs into PDMS by using substrates which have a hydrophobic surface, and successfully prepared stretchable AgNW/PDMS electrodes having high transparency and low sheet resistance at the same time. The obtained electrodes can be stretched, twisted, and folded without significant loss of conductivity. Furthermore, a novel elastomeric HV electrochromic device (ECD) fabricated based on these stretchable AgNW/PDMS hybrid electrodes exhibited excellent electrochromic behavior in the full AgNW electrode system and could change color between colorless and blue even after 100 switching cycles. As most existing electrochromic devices are based on ITO and other rigid conductors, elastomeric conductors demonstrate advantages for next-generation electronics such as stretchable, wearable, and flexible optoelectronic applications.

  19. Dip-Coating Process Engineering and Performance Optimization for Three-State Electrochromic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lu; Yang, Dejiang; Fei, Lixun; Huang, Yue; Wu, Fang; Sun, Yiling; Shi, Jiayuan; Xiang, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were modified onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) via dip-coating technique with different nanoparticle sizes, lifting speeds, precursor concentrations, and dipping numbers. Electrodeposition-based electrochromic device with reversible three-state optical transformation (transparent, mirror, and black) was fabricated subsequently by sandwiching a suitable amount of gel electrolyte between modified FTO electrode and flat FTO electrode. Correlation between dip-coating process engineering, morphological features of TiO2 thin films, i.e., thickness and roughness, as well as performance of electrochromic devices, i.e., optical contrast, switching time, and cycling stability, were investigated. The modified device exhibits high optical contrast of 57%, the short coloration/bleaching switching time of 6 and 20 s, and excellent cycling stability after 1500 cycles of only 27% decrement rate by adjusting dip-coating processes engineering. The results in this study will provide valuable guidance for rational design of the electrochromic device with satisfactory performance.

  20. Self-powered biosensor for ascorbic acid with a Prussian blue electrochromic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zloczewska, Adrianna; Celebanska, Anna; Szot, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Dorota; Opallo, Marcin; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2014-04-15

    We report on the development of a nanocarbon based anode for sensing of ascorbic acid (AA). The oxidation of AA on this anode occurs at a quite low overpotential which enables the anode to be connected to a biocathode to form an ascorbic acid/O2 biofuel cell that functions as a self-powered biosensor. In conjunction with a Prussian blue electrochromic display the anode can also work as a truly self-powered sensor. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the anode leads to a reduction of the Prussian blue in the display. The reduced form of Prussian blue, called Prussian white, is transparent. The rate of change from blue to colourless is dependent on the concentration of ascorbic acid. The display can easily be regenerated by connecting it to the biocathode which returns the Prussian blue to its oxidized form. In this way we have created the first self-powered electrochromic sensor that gives quantitative information about the analyte concentration. This is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of ascorbic acid in orange juice. The reported quantitative read-out electrochromic display can serve as a template for the creation of cheap, miniturizable sensors for other relevant analytes.

  1. Control of disability glare by means of electrochromic filtering glasses: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Coco-Martín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential clinical usability of a new prototype of ophthalmic blue light filters developed by using electrochromic technology in pseudophakic patients complaining of glare. Methods: A prototype of electrochromic device was developed, with a specific frame that enclosed an electronic driver that allowed personalizing its function for each patient. A prospective, observational case series study was performed to test it. Five patients who had undergone cataract surgery with clear intraocular lenses and complaining of glare were included in the study. Main outcome measures were the results obtained in the satisfaction questionnaire that was delivered to patients. Then, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reading ability data were evaluated with and without the prototype under different lighting conditions and different modes of the prototype after a complete month of use. Lens transmittance was also measured. Results: Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and reading function did not change significantly with prototype use. The main activity for which the prototype was used was walking. Only one patient found that the dimming level was insufficient. No patients reported variable discomfort when passing tunnels, not sufficiently clear indoors, or put on and remove discomfort. The lenses slightly decreased their transmittance at the end of the study. Conclusion: Glasses based on electrochromic technology may be acceptable for outdoor/indoor use and for distance–near vision. Future studies with larger samples must be conducted to confirm the clinical usability of these glasses.

  2. Constraints on Relaxion Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kiwoon

    2016-01-01

    We examine low energy phenomenology of the relaxion solution to the weak scale hierarchy problem. Assuming that the Hubble friction is responsible for the dissipation of relaxion energy, we identify the cosmological relaxion window which corresponds to the parameter region compatible with a given value of the acceptable number of inflationary $e$-foldings. We then discuss a variety of observational constraints on the relaxion window, while focusing on the case that the barrier potential to stabilize the relaxion is induced by new physics, rather than by low energy QCD dynamics. We find that majority of the parameter space with a relaxion mass $m_\\phi\\gtrsim 100$ eV or a relaxion decay constant $f\\lesssim 10^7$ GeV is excluded by existing constraints. There is an interesting small parameter region with $m_\\phi\\sim \\,0.2-1$ GeV and $f\\sim\\, {\\rm few}-10$ TeV, which is allowed by existing constraints, but can be probed soon by future beam dump experiment such as the SHiP experiment, or by improved EDM experiment...

  3. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  4. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  5. High Performance and Long-Term Stability in Ambiently Fabricated Segmented Solid-State Polymer Electrochromic Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Julian; Shen, D Eric; Mustonen, Tero; Fruehauf, Norbert

    2015-06-10

    This work reports on the performance of a segmented polymer electrochromic display that was fabricated with solution-based processes in ambient atmosphere. An encapsulation process and the combination of structured wells for the polymer electrochrome and electrolyte layers as well as the use of a preoxidized counter polymer yields high contrasts and fast switching speeds. Asymmetric driving-with respect to time-of the display is investigated for the first time and the degradation effects in the electrochrome layer are analyzed and addressed to yield a stable device exceeding 100,000 switching cycles. A printed circuit board was integrated with the display, allowing the device to be run as a clock, where the segments only required short pulses to switch without the need for a constant current to maintain its state. Such an application pairs well with the advantages of electrochromic polymers, drawing on its high contrast, stability, and ability to maintain its colored or colorless state without the need for a constant power supply, to demonstrate the promise as well as the challenges of developing more sophisticated electrochromic devices.

  6. Effect of Ablation Rate on the Microstructure and Electrochromic Properties of Pulsed-Laser-Deposited Molybdenum Oxide Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S; Mathankumar, M; Selva Chandrasekaran, S; Nanda Kumar, A K; Murugan, P; Subramanian, B

    2017-01-10

    Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) is a well-known electrochromic material. In the present work, n-type α-MoO3 thin films with both direct and indirect band gaps were fabricated by varying the laser repetition (ablation) rate in a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system at a constant reactive O2 pressure. The electrochromic properties of the films are compared and correlated to the microstructure and molecular-level coordination. Mixed amorphous and textured crystallites evolve at the microstructural level. At the molecular level, using NMR and EPR, we show that the change in the repetition rate results in a variation of the molybdenum coordination with oxygen: at low repetition rates (2 Hz), the larger the octahedral coordination, and greater the texture, whereas at 10 Hz, tetrahedral coordination is significant. The anion vacancies also introduce a large density of defect states into the band gap, as evidenced by XPS studies of the valence band and supported by DFT calculations. The electrochromic contrast improved remarkably by almost 100% at higher repetition rates whereas the switching speed decreased by almost 6-fold. Although the electrochromic contrast and coloration efficiency were better at higher repetition rates, the switching speed, reversibility, and stability were better at low repetition rates. This difference in the electrochromic properties of the two MoO3 films is attributed to the variation in the defect and molecular coordination states of the Mo cation.

  7. Electrochromic Properties of Sol-gel Deposited V2O5 and TiO2-V2O5 Binary Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Transparent mixed phase (1 - x)V2O5-xTiO2 (x=0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4) thin films were prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass via sol-gel process. The films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, optical spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, IR and X-ray diffractometer.Electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction showed that the porous structure of sol-gel (1 -x)V2.O5-xTiO2 thin films exhibited good recharge ability of Li+/e- insertion/extraction process.For a 220 nm thick (1 - x)V2O5-xTiO2 film with 90% V2O5, the capacity of charge exchange reached 9 mC/cm2. In both Li+ intercalated and free states, the films were highly transparent to visible light. Such films have potential applications in counter electrodes for electrochromic smart windows and other electrochemical devices.

  8. Results on the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu Karuppasamy, K.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2008-02-01

    In this investigation, vanadium doped tungsten oxide (V : WO3) thin films are prepared at room temperature by reactive dc magnetron sputtering employing a tungsten-vanadium 'inlay' target. In comparison with pure sputtered tungsten oxide thin films, 11% vanadium doping is observed to decrease the optical band gap, enhance the colour neutral property, decrease the coloration efficiency (from 121 to 13 cm2 C-1), increase the surface work function (4.68-4.83 eV) and significantly enhance the photocatalytic efficiency in WO3 thin films. These observations suggest that (i) vanadium creates defect levels that are responsible for optical band gap reduction, (ii) multivalent vanadium bonding with terminal oxygen in the WO3 lattice gives rise to localized covalent bonds and thus results in an increase in the work function, and (iii) a suitable work function of V : WO3 with ITO results in an enhancement of the photocatalytic activity. These results on electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of V : WO3 thin films show good promise in the low maintenance window application.

  9. Results on the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuppasamy, K Muthu; Subrahmanyam, A [Semiconductor Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2008-02-07

    In this investigation, vanadium doped tungsten oxide (V : WO{sub 3}) thin films are prepared at room temperature by reactive dc magnetron sputtering employing a tungsten-vanadium 'inlay' target. In comparison with pure sputtered tungsten oxide thin films, 11% vanadium doping is observed to decrease the optical band gap, enhance the colour neutral property, decrease the coloration efficiency (from 121 to 13 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1}), increase the surface work function (4.68-4.83 eV) and significantly enhance the photocatalytic efficiency in WO{sub 3} thin films. These observations suggest that (i) vanadium creates defect levels that are responsible for optical band gap reduction, (ii) multivalent vanadium bonding with terminal oxygen in the WO{sub 3} lattice gives rise to localized covalent bonds and thus results in an increase in the work function, and (iii) a suitable work function of V : WO{sub 3} with ITO results in an enhancement of the photocatalytic activity. These results on electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of V : WO{sub 3} thin films show good promise in the low maintenance window application.

  10. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  11. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a considerable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focussed on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy perform-ance of windows in a simple...

  12. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  13. Redefining the Axion Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Mescia, Federico; Nardi, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    A major goal of axion searches is to reach inside the parameter space region of realistic axion models. Currently, the boundaries of this region depend on somewhat arbitrary criteria, and it would be desirable to specify them in terms of precise phenomenological requirements. We consider hadronic axion models and classify the representations RQ of the new heavy quarks Q . By requiring that (i) the Q 's are sufficiently short lived to avoid issues with long-lived strongly interacting relics, (ii) no Landau poles are induced below the Planck scale; 15 cases are selected which define a phenomenologically preferred axion window bounded by a maximum (minimum) value of the axion-photon coupling about 2 times (4 times) larger than is commonly assumed. Allowing for more than one RQ, larger couplings, as well as complete axion-photon decoupling, become possible.

  14. Redefining the Axion Window

    CERN Document Server

    Di Luzio, Luca; Nardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of axion searches is to reach inside the parameter space region of realistic axion models. Currently, the boundaries of this region depend on somewhat arbitrary criteria, and it would be desirable to specify them in terms of precise phenomenological requirements. We consider hadronic axion models and classify the representations $R_Q$ of the new heavy quarks $Q$. By requiring that $i)$ the $Q$ are sufficiently short lived to avoid issues with long lived strongly interacting relics, $ii)$ no Landau poles are induced below the Planck scale, fifteen cases are selected, which define a phenomenologically preferred axion window bounded by a maximum (minimum) value of the axion-photon coupling about twice (four times) larger than commonly assumed. Allowing for more than one $R_Q$, larger couplings, as well as complete axion-photon decoupling, become possible.

  15. Real Clifford Windowed Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mawardi BAHRI; Sriwulan ADJI; Ji Man ZHAO

    2011-01-01

    We study the windowed Fourier transform in the framework of Clifford analysis, which we call the Clifford windowed Fourier transform (CWFT). Based on the spectral representation of the Clifford Fourier transform (CFT), we derive several important properties such as shift, modulation,reconstruction formula, orthogonality relation, isometry, and reproducing kernel. We also present an example to show the differences between the classical windowed Fourier transform (WFT) and the CWFT. Finally, as an application we establish a Heisenberg type uncertainty principle for the CWFT.

  16. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  17. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  18. 探索Windows2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红

    2000-01-01

    Window S2000刚刚发布,微软就在开发其后继产品WindowS2001(产品代号Whistler),Windows 2001就是传说中的Windows Whistler,微软在.net计划中称之为“下个版本的Windows”,它将是第一个同时包含消费型和商业型操作系统代码的Windows,采用基于XML的全新用户界面(被称作“视觉风格”)。

  19. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  20. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  1. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  2. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  3. Manufacture and demonstration of organic photovoltaic-powered electrochromic displays using roll coating methods and printable electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Dam, Henrik Friis; Reynolds, John R.

    2012-01-01

    times of photovoltaic devices (with or without the use of a lithium-polymer battery) to power the devices between the colored and bleached state, illustrating a self-powered ECD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B......Electrochromic devices (ECDs) were prepared on flexible substrates using spray coating and slot-die coating methods. The electrochromic materials were the conjugated electroactive polymers, poly((2,2-bis(2-ethylhexyloxymethyl)-propylene-1,3-dioxy)-3,4-thiophene-2,5-diyl) as a vibrantly colored......: Polym Phys, 2012...

  4. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  5. Inventions on Displaying and Resizing Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Windows are used quite frequently in a GUI environment. The greatest advantage of using windows is that each window creates a virtual screen space. Hence, although the physical screen space is limited to a few inches, use of windows can create unlimited screen space to display innumerable items. The use of windows facilitates the user to open and interact with multiple programs or documents simultaneously in different windows. Sometimes a single program may also open multiple windows to displ...

  6. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance and neighbourh......Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  7. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    The handbook on windows and energy is a general description of windows with the main focus put on the energy performance. Common window products are described by commonly used nomenclature, description of frame and sash conctructions and description of commonly used glazing types.The energy...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...... a comprehensive list of window related standards and a list of Nordic research and development projects.Two programs are encloased in the handbook for calculation of solar radiation on inclined surfaces including a shadow correction and a simple program for evaluation of energy savings and risk of overtemperature....

  8. Securing Applications in Windows Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkat Sandeep

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Windows Phone 7 has been planned with speed in mind. Windows phone is the new baby from Microsoft which is impressed by its features. More than 80,000 apps have now been published in the Windows Phone Marketplace and new content is currently being added at the rate of 340 apps per day [1]. Although there are many benefits, these are not without risks. Most of today’s mobile applications are transaction based, the security is even greater. In this paper we will discuss about the security in mobile devices, and how the windows phone has supported in developing secure applications. Also discuss about the isolated storage feature in windows phone. As security is more important for the Mobile devices, this also discusses how the additional security is provided to the apps.

  9. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... with the minimum acceptable surface temperature regarding surface condensation or mold growth, implemented in the Danish Building Regulations in 2010, and the calculation method for this temperature based on international standards is discussed. The introduction of the minimum acceptable surface temperature has...

  10. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    of the heating demand in typical single-family houses in Denmark and Greenland. The examined windows are typical new windows from Nordic countries and new proposals of improved windows with low thermal transmittance and high total solar energy transmittance. The results show that net energy gain can be increased...... considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... bridges achieve this. Applying shutters or low emissivity coated roller blinds incorporated in the glazing that are activated during night time can improve the energy performance of windows. The results from this work show that it is possible to develop windows with a positive net energy in a fairly...

  11. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  12. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  13. Zirconium dioxide nanofilled poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) complexed with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as composite polymer electrolyte for electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puguan, John Marc C.; Chinnappan, Amutha [Department of Energy and Biotechnology, Energy and Environment Fusion Technology Center, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 449-728 (Korea, Republic of); Kostjuk, Sergei V. [Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kim, Hern, E-mail: hernkim@mju.ac.kr [Department of Energy and Biotechnology, Energy and Environment Fusion Technology Center, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 449-728 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Successful synthesis of electrolyte by blending PVdF-HFP, ZrO{sub 2} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. • ZrO{sub 2} increased electrolyte conductivity by two orders of magnitude. • ZrO{sub 2} doubled bulk mechanical strength of electrolyte in terms of Young’s modulus. • Electrolytes gave a optimum optical transmittance of 52.6%. - Abstract: Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) polymer electrolyte containing zirconium dioxide nanocrystals (ZrO{sub 2}-NC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) has been synthesized using the conventional solution casting method. The addition of ZrO2-NC into the polymeric substrate gave remarkable properties in terms of the electrolyte’s ionic conductivity as well as its bulk mechanical strength. The enhanced amorphicity of the polymeric substrate due to ZrO{sub 2} and the nanofiller’s high dielectric constant make an excellent combination to increase the ionic conductivity (above 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}). Increasing the nanofiller content raises the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte by two orders of magnitude of which the optimum is 2.65 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 13.04 wt% ZrO{sub 2}-NC loading. Also, the Young’s modulus, an indicator of electrolyte’s mechanical stability, dramatically increased to 207 MPa upon loading 13.04 wt% ZrO{sub 2}-NC. Using UV–vis spectroscopy, the electrolytes with 13.04% ZrO{sub 2}-NC scanned from 200–800 nm wavelengths exhibited a maximum optical transmittance of 52.6% at 10 μm film thickness. The enhanced conductivity, high mechanical strength and reasonable optical transmittance shown by our composite polymer electrolyte make an excellent electrolyte for future energy saving smart windows such as electrochromic devices.

  14. Preparation of UV curing crosslinked polyviologen film and its photochromic and electrochromic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-ping; Ding, Guo-jing; Wang, Yue-chuan; Yang, Yu-lin

    2011-11-01

    Polyether urethane diacrylate matrix (PEUDA) and acrylate-functional viologen (ACV2+) were successfully synthesized and characterized in detail by FTIR and 1H NMR spectra, respectively. Subsequently, they were used to prepare UV curing crosslinked polyviologen film in combination with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate (TMPTA) and diphenyl (2, 4, 6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide (TPO). UV curing approach confined the polyviologen film on ITO electrode, which imparted the film excellent adhesion ability to ITO glass, good solvent resistance, excellent chemical stability, excellent optical and electrochemical properties. The crosslinked PACV2+ film exhibited excellent photochromic and electrochromic performances. After UV illumination for 60 s, the crosslinked PACV2+ film can swiftly change its color from pale yellow to deep blue, while the optical transmission of crosslinked PACV2+ film at 610 nm did not change significantly and still retained about 63.6% after 30 cycles. Simultaneously, the cyclic voltammetry experiment showed the PACV2+ film can undergo repeatable electrochemical redox reactions with good reversibility beyond the 10th scan. Furthermore, the electrochromic device composed of the PACV2+ film and gel electrolyte film can undergo reversible color change in response to the external voltages of -2.0 V and 2.0 V, respectively, while the contrast of EC device at 610 nm did not change significantly and still retained about 39.5% after 10 cycles. This UV curing approach to preparing viologen-functional film offers a method to preparing large-scale photo- and electrochromic device, which is relatively simple, high productivity, energy saving, and environmental protection.

  15. Thermally Cured Dual Functional Viologen-Based All-in-One Electrochromic Devices with Panchromatic Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Lu, Hsin-Che; Kung, Chung-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Chang, Ting-Hsiang; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2016-02-17

    Vinyl benzyl viologen (VBV) was synthesized and utilized to obtain all-in-one thermally cured electrochromic devices (ECDs). The vinyl moiety of VBV monomer could react with methyl methacrylate (MMA) to yield bulky VBV/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains and even cross-linked network without the assistance of additional cross-linker. Both the bulky VBV/PMMA chains and the resulting polymer network can hinder the aggregation of the viologens and reduce the possibility of dimerization, rendering enhanced cycling stability. Large transmittance changes (ΔT) over 60% at both 570 and 615 nm were achieved when the VBV-based ECD was switched from 0 V to a low potential bias of 0.5 V. Ultimately, the dual functional of VBV molecules, serving simultaneously as a promising electrochromic material and a cross-linker, is fully utilized in the proposed electrochromic system, making its fabrication process much easier. Negligible decays in ΔT at both wavelengths were observed for the cured ECD after being subjected to 1000 repetitive cycles, while 17.1% and 22.0% decays were noticed at 570 and 615 nm, respectively, for the noncured ECD. In addition, the low voltage-driven feature of the VBV-based ECD enables it to be incorporated with phenyl viologen (PV), further expanding the absorption range of the ECD. Panchromatic characteristic of the proposed PV/VBV-based ECD was demonstrated while exhibiting ΔT over 60% at both wavelengths. Only 5.3% and 6.9% decays, corresponding at 570 and 615 nm, respectively, were observed in the PV/VBV-based ECD after 10 000 continuous cycles at bleaching/coloring voltages of 0/0.5 V with an interval of 10 s for both bleaching and coloring processes.

  16. High-Performance Electrochromic Devices Based on Poly[Ni(salen)]-Type Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marta; Araújo, Mariana; Fonseca, Joana; Moura, Cosme; Hillman, Robert; Freire, Cristina

    2016-06-08

    We report the application of two poly[Ni(salen)]-type electroactive polymer films as new electrochromic materials. The two films, poly[Ni(3-Mesalen)] (poly[1]) and poly[Ni(3-MesaltMe)] (poly[2]), were successfully electrodeposited onto ITO/PET flexible substrates, and their voltammetric characterization revealed that poly[1] showed similar redox profiles in LiClO4/CH3CN and LiClO4/propylene carbonate (PC), while poly[2] showed solvent-dependent electrochemical responses. Both films showed multielectrochromic behavior, exhibiting yellow, green, and russet colors according to their oxidation state, and promising electrochromic properties with high electrochemical stability in LiClO4/PC supporting electrolyte. In particular, poly[1] exhibited a very good electrochemical stability, changing color between yellow and green (λ = 750 nm) during 9000 redox cycles, with a charge loss of 34.3%, an optical contrast of ΔT = 26.2%, and an optical density of ΔOD = 0.49, with a coloration efficiency of η = 75.55 cm(2) C(-1). On the other hand, poly[2] showed good optical contrast for the color change from green to russet (ΔT = 58.5%), although with moderate electrochemical stability. Finally, poly[1] was used to fabricate a solid-state electrochromic device using lateral configuration with two figures of merit: a simple shape (typology 1) and a butterfly shape (typology 2); typology 1 showed the best performance with optical contrast ΔT = 88.7% (at λ = 750 nm), coloration efficiency η = 130.4 cm(2) C(-1), and charge loss of 37.0% upon 3000 redox cycles.

  17. Lanthanide doped ceria thin films as possible counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartridge, A

    2000-09-01

    Crystalline solid solutions of lanthanide doped ceria have long been known for their high ionic conductivity and as such have found applications as oxygen sensors and in solid oxide fuel cells. With advances in preparative techniques over the years, thin films of ceria doped with zirconia and titania have been studied and found to possess the necessary criteria to meet the requirements of counter electrode materials in solid state electrochromic devices. Existing preparative techniques however, have failed to produce thin films of lanthanide doped ceria for study of their optical and electrochemical properties. This thesis therefore presents in the first chapter, existing knowledge of these materials, a novel preparation technique developed as part of the thesis to prepare these materials as crystalline aqueous dispersions suitable for the preparation of quality thin films and the subsequent characterisation of sols and gels of these materials compared to the same materials prepared by conventional techniques. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy has also been used to assess the homogeneity of these nanocrystals on a nanoscale for the first time. The second chapter then discusses the optical properties of solids and thin films in general before using the crystalline sols produced in chapter 1 to fabricate thin films of these materials for the first time. The optical properties of these materials is then discussed in detail and the results show the optical suitability of these thin films as counter electrodes in electrochromic devices. The final chapter then turns to the electrochemical insertion of lithium into these materials using cyclic voltammetry. All films studied enabled the reversible insertion of lithium with varying potentials and charge capacities without the loss of transmission of light common to other potential counter electrode materials. Certain compositions however, comprising ceria doped with Dy, Y, Nd and Pr, allowed enough lithium

  18. Electrochromic devices based on wide band-gap nanocrystalline semiconductors functionalized with mononuclear charge transfer compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; Argazzi, R.; Bignozzi, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    A series of ruthenium and iron mononuclear complexes were prepared and their spectroeletrochemical behavior characterized oil Optically Transparent Thin Layer Electrodes (OTTLE) and on Fluorine Doped SnO2 (FTO) conductive glasses coated with Sb-doped nanocrystalline SnO2. These systems display...... a reversible electrochemical response and offer potential application in electrochromic devices. On SnO2 films distinct spectral changes are observed in a narrow potential range (-0.5/0.9 V vs SCE) with switching times of the order of 0.8 s. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Neutral color tuning of polymer electrochromic devices using an organic dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Otley, Michael T; Kumar, Amrita; Li, Mengfang; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Asemota, Chris; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-08-04

    Herein, we present a facile, one-step method to color tune electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch between two neutral colors via in situ electrochemical polymerization of electroactive monomers in the presence of a small molecule organic yellow dye using all commercially available materials. These devices exhibited photopic contrasts of ca. 30% without background correction when assembled on flexible PET-ITO substrates. In addition, devices exhibited switching speeds as low as 1 second, color uniformity, and stability. Large defect free ECDs of 100 cm(2) were fabricated exceeding the active switch area required for goggles, lenses, and small display applications.

  20. Structural, Optical and Electrochromic Properties of Sol–Gel V2O5 Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide thin films are prepared by the sol–gel route by dissolving V2O5 powder (99.5% purity) in H2O2 solution. The solution is spin-coated on glass substrates for optical (UV–VIS–NIR) and XRD analysis, and on ITOcoated glass substrates for electrochromic measurements. The samples are then annealed at 150°C for 1 hour. The resulting films have a yellow-orange color, typical of polycrystalline V2O5. XRD measurements have shown that after annealing in air at 400°C the structur...

  1. Optical and Electrochromic Properties of E-Beam Evaporated Nickel Oxide Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel oxide (NiO thin films were deposited by e-beam evaporation on glass and ITO coated glass substrates initially held at room temperature without post-heat treatments. The structural and optical properties were investigated using glancing incident X-ray diffractometer (GIXRD and spectrophotometer. The electrochromic (EC behavior of NiO thin film was investigated using electrochemical technique viz. cyclic voltammetry, constant current measurement, and chronoamperometry in 1 M KOH electrolyte. The transmittance modulation and switching time with different operating voltage were also studied.

  2. FORMATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF POLYION COMPLEXES FOR ELECTROCHROMIC DISPLAY MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Guoxiang; WANG Bing; DENG Zhenghua; LUO Chunqiao

    1988-01-01

    Formation of intermacromolecular complexes containing viologen and electron-transfer reaction occurred on the electrode modified by the complex films were studied. Compositions and morphology of the complexes depend on the properties of polyanion and chemical environment of complexation. The analytical results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk voltammetry(RDV) indicated: (1) active sites of viologen in network of complexes transferred single electron reversibly; (2) the redox peak currents showed excellent symmetry and stability; (3) redox potentials were related to properties of polyanions, varying from -0.4 to -0.6V (vs. SCE). Electrochromic materials with different displaying colors could be obtained by changing the structure of polyviologen.

  3. Conformal ALON® and spinel windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Smith, Mark; Ramisetty, Mohan; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2017-05-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft based reconnaissance systems are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. ALON consists primarily of aluminum and oxygen, similar to that of alumina, with a small amount of nitrogen added to help stabilize the cubic gamma-AlON phase. ALON's chemical similarity to alumina, translates into a robust manufacturing process. This ease of processing has allowed Surmet to produce ALON windows and domes in a wide variety of geometries and sizes. Spinel (MgAl2O4) contains equal molar amounts of MgO and Al2O3, and is a cubic material, that transmits further into the Infrared than ALON. Spinel is produced via powder processing techniques similar to those used to produce ALON. Surmet is now applying the lessons learned with ALON to produce conformal spinel windows and domes as well.

  4. Constructing three-dimensional quasi-vertical nanosheet architectures from self-assemble two-dimensional WO3·2H2O for efficient electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haizeng; Wang, Jinmin; Shi, Qiuwei; Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Shi, Guoying; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Chi, Qijin

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) quasi-vertical nanosheet (QVNS) architectures are of great importance in the application of electrochromic devices due to its 3D porous structures, large surface area and lamellar permeable space of nanosheets. In this study, we demonstrate successful preparing of WO3·2H2O nanosheets via a novel and facile solution route and repurposing the typical electrodeposition technique to obtain 3D QVNS electrodes. The electrode was successfully assembled into an electrochromic device which exhibits good electrochromic performance.

  5. Electrochromism: basis and application of nanomaterials in development of high performance electrodes; Eletrocromismo: fundamentos e a aplicacao de nanomateriais no desenvolvimento de eletrodos de alto desempenho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilha, Ronaldo C.; Rocha, Igor; Vichessi, Raquel B.; Lucht, Emili; Naidek, Karine; Winnischofer, Herbert; Vidotti, Marcio, E-mail: mvidotti@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    This review deals with the basis and novel trends in electrochromism, describing the basic aspects and methodologies employed for the construction and analyses of different modified electrodes. The work presents the classic materials used for the construction of electrochromic electrodes, such as WO{sub 3} and a view on the basic concepts of chromaticity as a useful approach for analyzing colorimetric results. The report also addresses how the incorporation of nanomaterials and the consequent novel modification of electrodes have furthered this area of science, producing electrochromic electrodes with high performance, high efficiency and low response times. (author)

  6. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  7. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  8. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  9. WO3∕SiO2 composite optical films for the fabrication of electrochromic interference filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloukas, Bill; Martinu, Ludvik

    2012-06-01

    New security devices based on innovative technologies and ideas are essential in order to limit counterfeiting's profound impact on our economy and society. Interference security image structures have been in circulation for more than 20 years, but commercially available iridescent products now represent a potential threat. Therefore, the introduction of active materials, such as electrochromic WO3, to present-day optical security devices offers interesting possibilities. We have previously proposed electrochromic interference filters based on porous and dense WO3, which possessed an angle-dependent and voltage-driven color shift. However, the low index contrast required filters with a high number of layers. In this article, we increase the index contrast (0.61) by mixing WO3 with SiO2 and study the physical and electrochromic properties of mixtures. We next combine high and low index films in tandem configurations to observe the bleaching/coloration dynamics. To account for the film performance, we propose a simple explanation based on the differences in electron diffusion coefficients. An 11 layer electrochromic interference filter (EIF) based on the alternation of pure WO3 and (WO3)0.17(SiO2)0.83 films with a blue to purple angular color shift is then presented. Finally, we discuss possible applications of these EIFs for security.

  10. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    the paper describes how the net energy gain from a complete typical window can be increased in a fairly simple way by reducing the frame width and using glass with low iron content. The changes primary increase the g-value. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  11. A window on urban sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  12. Investigation of mechanical bending instability in flexible low-temperature-processed electrochromic display devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chin-Pao; Chou, Chuan-Pu; Hsu, Che-Hsiang; Teng, Tun-Chien; Cheng, Chun-Hu, E-mail: chcheng@ntnu.edu.tw; Syu, Yu-Yang

    2015-06-01

    In this study, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) was investigated as a flexible substrate because, compared with polyethylene terephthalate, it achieves a lower root mean square roughness and transmittance, which is favorable for reducing leakage from the bottom of flexible substrates. A flexible device structure composed of tungsten oxide/indium-doped tin oxide/PEN was used in an electrochromic (EC) test. The experimental results show that the flexible EC display device achieved a high transmittance difference of > 40% and color efficiency of 70.2 cm{sup 2}/C at 560 nm. The transmittance difference was degraded in the visible range after 200 cycles of continuous bending. Furthermore, compared with flat fresh devices, the WO{sub 3} device exhibited poor retention properties in a colored state after being subjected to longer bending cycles. - Highlights: • Flexible electrochromic device with endurance bending was demonstrated. • Interface defects or vacancies near the flexible substrate affect the self-bleaching behavior. • High color efficiency of 117.2 cm{sup 2}/coul at 700 nm wavelength is reached. • Interface defect centers lower the redox energy barrier which reduces the bleaching time.

  13. Effect of electrolytes on electrochromic properties and morphology of poly(2,5-dimethoxy aniline) films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bureerat Suephatthima; Nophawan Paradee; Anuvat Sirivat; Datchanee Pattavarakorn

    2014-08-01

    Poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline) (PDMA) was electrochemically synthesized in oxalic (H2C2O4) nitric (HNO3) and hydrochloric (HCl) acids and deposited onto flexible indium tin oxide at various synthesis times and deposition potentials as electrochromic materials. The PDMA films were characterized by FT–IRspectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry. All PDMA films show reversible colour changes from yellow to green corresponding to the transition from the fully reduced state to the fully oxidized state under potential switching. The surface morphology and thickness of PDMA films depend critically on the type of acids used in the electrochemical polymerization process. The morphology of PDMA are highly porous microfibres (H2C2O4 and HNO3), tiny granular aggregate (HCl) and particle agglomerate depending on the polymerization time. The fastest response time observed via colour changing of 3.7 s is obtained from the HCl–PDMA film at 3.5 volt and at the synthesis time of 6 min, as primarily due to the thickness of the film. The flexible PDMA film is demonstrated here as a potential candidate to be used in electrochromic devices.

  14. Preparation and characterization, stable bismaleimide-triarylamine polymers with reversible electrochromic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Niu, Haijun; Ji, Yan; Wu, Wenjun; Cai, Jiwei; Wang, Cheng; Lian, Yongfu; Bai, Xuduo; Wang, Wen

    2013-07-01

    A series of novel polyimides were synthesized from bismaleimide containing different diaminetriarylamines by Michael addition reaction. The prepolymer is readily soluble in many common organic solvents, such as CHCl3, Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). Prepolymers can be solution-cast into transparent, tough, and flexible films. These aromatic polyimides display good thermal stabilities, i.e. 5% weight-loss temperatures in excess of 200 °C under nitrogen. All obtained polyimides revealed excellent stability of electrochromic characteristics, changing color from original yellowish to green. The energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels of the investigated the polymers were estimated by experimental method are in the range of -4.78 eV to -4.98 eV and -1.64 eV to -2.09 eV vs the vacuum level, respectively. All the polymer films reveal good electrochemical and electrochromic stability under repeatedly switching electrode voltages, with coloration change from the yellow neutral state to green oxidized state.

  15. Live spectroscopy to observe electrochromism in viologen based solid state device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Suryakant; Pandey, Haardik; Yogi, Priyanka; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Roy, Swarup; Sagdeo, P. R.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-08-01

    In-situ Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies have been carried out from viologen based electrochromic device fabricated in two simple geometries. Ethyl viologen diperchlorate in polyethylene oxide matrix was used as the active layer in the device without any counter material to understand the effect of bias on viologen. The device, which is transparent otherwise, changes its color to navy blue when a bias of 2 V is applied. Reduction of viologen to its free radical state as revealed from Raman spectroscopy recorded in-situ in both the geometries appears to be the mechanism for this color switching. It is also observed that absorbance of the device is perturbed when bias is applied with maximum change in absorbance corresponding to green wavelength which is giving the blue tint of the device in on state. We establish that UV-vis and Raman spectroscopies prove to be the best method for understanding the mechanism of color switching in viologen based electrochromic device because it gives the advantage to see a device 'live' while operating.

  16. Electrochromic Performance of Nanocomposite Nickel Oxide Counter Electrodes Containing Lithium and Zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Feng [Formerly NREL; Colorado School of Mines; Montano, Manuel [Colorado School of Mines; Tian, Chixia [Colorado School of Mines; Ji, Yazhou [Colorado School of Mines; Nordlund, Dennis [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Weng, Tsu-Chien [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Moore, Rob G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Gillaspie, Dane T. [Formerly NREL; Jones, Kim M. [Formerly NREL; Dillon, Anne C. [Formerly NREL; Richards, Ryan M. [Colorado School of Mines

    2013-12-02

    Nickel oxide materials are suitable for counter electrodes in complementary electrochromic devices. The state-of-the-art nickel oxide counter electrode materials are typically prepared with multiple additives to enhance peformance. Herein, nanocomposite nickel oxide counter electrodes were fabricated via RF magnetron co-sputtering from Ni-Zr alloy and Li2O ceramic targets. The as-deposited nanocomposite counter electrodes were characterized with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It was found that the stoichiometry, crystal structure and electronic structure of the nickel oxide-based materials could be readily tuned by varying the Li2O sputter deposition power level. Comprehensive electrochromic evaluation demonstrated that the performance of the nickel oxide-based materials was dependent on the overall Li stoichiometry. Overall, the nanocomposite nickel oxide counter electrode containing lithium and zirconium synthesized with a Li2O deposition power of 45 W exhibited the optimal performance with an optical modulation of 71% and coloration efficiency of 30 cm2/C at 670 nm in Li-ion electrolyte.

  17. A skin-integrated transparent and stretchable strain sensor with interactive color-changing electrochromic displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heun; Kim, Dong Sik; Hong, Soo Yeong; Kim, Chulmin; Yun, Jun Yeong; Oh, Seung Yun; Jin, Sang Woo; Jeong, Yu Ra; Kim, Gyu Tae; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report on the development of a stretchable, transparent, and skin-attachable strain sensor integrated with a flexible electrochromic device as a human skin-inspired interactive color-changing system. The strain sensor consists of a spin-coated conductive nanocomposite film of poly(vinyl alcohol)/multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The sensor exhibits excellent performance of high sensitivity, high durability, fast response, and high transparency. An electrochromic device (ECD) made of electrochemically synthesized polyaniline nanofibers and V2O5 on an indium-tin-oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate film experiences a change in color from yellow to dark blue on application of voltage. The strain sensor and ECD are integrated on skin via an Arduino circuit for an interactive color change with the variation of the applied strain, which enables a real-time visual display of body motion. This integrated system demonstrates high potential for use in interactive wearable devices, military applications, and smart robots.

  18. Inorganic-solid-state electrolyte layer deposited by cathodic arc plasma for rapidly switching electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Wen; Chang, Chen-Te; Wu, Jin-Yu; Jan, Der-Jun; Li, Yu-Chen; Hsieh, Cheng-Chang; Tsai, Wen-Fa

    2017-08-01

    This work focuses on fabricating a solid electrolyte Ta2O5 thin film deposited by cathodic arc plasm (CAP) deposition through three different ratio of oxygen and argon. In our experiments, refractive index of Ta2O5 films are taken as 2.25, 1.96, 1.9 with various O2/Ar= 1.5, O2/Ar= 2, O2/Ar= 2.4, respectively. Our results show that the refractive index mostly decreased as we increase the oxygen flow rate, in which the minimum is found at 240 sccm. It provides good conduction pathways for ions through smaller thin-film's refractive index that exhibits more porosity voids. This property enhances ion's mobility for electrochromic device causing rapid coloring/bleaching phenomenon. Ta2O5 thin film is suitable as a solid electrolyte layer in center of electrochromic device (ECD) using CAP deposition. As a result, rapid response times were observed in fabricated device with an area of 5 cm×5 cm, exhibiting transmittance optical modulation ΔT = 61.5% (@550 nm) with the bleaching time τ = 8 s and transmittance optical modulation ΔT = 50% (@550 nm) with the coloring time τ = 10 s.

  19. Voltage-Tunable Multicolor, Sub-1.5 V, Flexible Electrochromic Devices Based on Ion Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwan; Seo, Dong Gyu; Yun, Tae Yong; Kim, Chan Young; Moon, Hong Chul

    2017-03-01

    Voltage-tunable multicolor electrochromic devices (ECDs) are fabricated based on flexible ion gels consisting of copolymers and ionic liquids as an electrolyte layer. Dimethyl ferrocene (dmFc) is incorporated into the gel, which serves as an anodic species. In this study, two electrochromic (EC) materials, monoheptyl viologen (MHV(+)) and diheptyl viologen (DHV(2+)), are employed and show significantly different EC behavior despite the similar chemical structure. Both MHV(+)- and DHV(2+)-containing ECDs are slightly yellowish in the bleached state, whereas the colored states are magenta and blue, respectively. All devices have good coloration efficiency of 87.5 cm(2)/C (magenta) and 91.3 cm(2)/C (blue). In addition, the required power of ∼248 μW/cm(2) (magenta) and ∼72 μW/cm(2) (blue) to maintain the colored state put the ion gel-based ECDs in a class of ultralow power consumption displays. On the basis of the distinct difference in the coloration voltage range between MHV(+) and DHV(2+), and the rubbery character of the gel, flexible ECDs showing multiple colors are demonstrated. These results imply that voltage-tunable multicolor ECDs based on the gel are attractive to functional electrochemical displays.

  20. A Facile Approach for Constructing Conductive Polymer Patterns for Application in Electrochromic Devices and Flexible Microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dabum; Kim, Jeonghun; Ko, Youngsang; Shim, Kyubin; Kim, Jung Ho; You, Jungmok

    2016-12-07

    We developed a novel strategy for fabricating poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) patterns on various substrates, including hydrogels, via sequential solution procedure without multistep chemical etching or lift-off processes. First, PEDOT nanothin films were prepared on a glass substrate by solution phase monomer casting and oxidative polymerization. As a second step, after UV-induced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) photolithography at the PEDOT/PEG interface through a photomask, the hydrogel was peeled away from the PEDOT-coated glass substrate to detach the UV-exposed PEDOT region, which left the UV nonexposed PEDOT region intact on the glass substrate, resulting in PEDOT patterns. In a final step, the PEDOT patterns were cleanly transferred from the glass to a flexible hydrogel substrate by a direct-transfer process based on a second round of gelation process. Using this strategy, PEDOT patterns on ITO glass or ITO film were used to successfully fabricate an electrochromic (EC) device that exhibited stable electrochromic switching as a function of applied potential. Furthermore, PEDOT patterns on hydrogel were used to fabricate all organic, flexible microelectrodes with good electrical properties and excellent mechanical flexibility. Importantly, the conductivity of PEDOT patterns on hydrogel (ca. 235 S cm(-1)) described here is significantly higher than that previously reported (ca. 20-70 S cm(-1)). This approach can be easily integrated into various technological fabrication steps for the development of next-generation bioelectronics systems.

  1. Interfacial redox centers as origin of color switching in organic electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Suryakant; Pandey, Haardik; Yogi, Priyanka; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Roy, Swarup; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-04-01

    In an attempt to understand the color switching mechanism of organic electrochromic devices, live spectroscopy of a viologen based device has been done. Role of redox reactions taking place at the electrode/electrolyte interface has been identified using Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies carried out during the device operation. In-situ Raman and transmission/absorption studies establish the origin of bias induced color change, between a transparent and navy blue color, in the electrochromic device. The origin of color change has been attributed to the bias induced redox switching between its dication and free radical forms which have different optical properties from each other. Raman spectra collected from negative and positive electrodes of the device reveal that blue color species (free radical) are present at the negative electrode which is created due to reduction of the dicationic form. In-situ UV-Vis spectra reveals that the navy blue color of the device under biased condition is not due to increase in the transparency corresponding to the blue wavelength but due to suppression of its transparency corresponding to the complementary colors as studied using a from CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairge International Commission on Illumination) chart. Absorption modulation has been reported from the device with good ON/OFF contrast of the device.

  2. High ionic conductivity P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO blended polymer electrolytes for solid electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chien A; Xiong, Shanxin; Ma, Jan; Lu, Xuehong; Lee, Pooi See

    2011-08-07

    Solid polymer electrolytes with excellent ionic conductivity (above 10(-4) S cm(-1)), which result in high optical modulation for solid electrochromic (EC) devices are presented. The combination of a polar host matrix poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) and a solid plasticized of a low molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (M(w)≤ 20,000) blended polymer electrolyte serves to enhance both the dissolution of lithium salt and the ionic transport. Calorimetric measurement shows a reduced crystallization due to a better intermixing of the polymers with small molecular weight PEO. Vibrational spectroscopy identifies the presence of free ions and ion pairs in the electrolytes with PEO of M(w)≤ 8000. The ionic dissolution is improved using PEO as a plasticizer when compared to liquid propylene carbonate, evidently shown in the transference number analysis. Ionic transport follows the Arrhenius equation with a low activation energy (0.16-0.2 eV), leading to high ionic conductivities. Solid electrochromic devices fabricated with the blended P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO electrolytes and polyaniline show good spectroelectrochemical performance in the visible (300-800 nm) and near-infrared (0.9-2.4 μm) regions with a modulation up to 60% and fast switching speed of below 20 seconds. The successful introduction of the solid polymer electrolytes with its best harnessed qualities helps to expedite the application of various electrochemical devices. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  3. Simple and rapid synthesis of NiO/PPy thin films with improved electrochromic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonavane, A.C. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Inamdar, A.I. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Dalavi, D.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Deshmukh, H.P. [Department of Physics, Y.M. College, Bharati Vidyapeeth, Erandwane, Pune (India); Patil, P.S., E-mail: psp_phy@unishivaji.ac.i [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2010-02-28

    Nickel oxide/polypyrrole (NiO/PPy) thin films were deposited by a two step process in which the NiO layer was electrodeposited potentiostatically from an aqueous solution of NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O at pH 7.5 on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates, followed by the deposition of polypyrrole (PPy) thin films by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from pyrrole mixed with ammonium persulfate (APS). The NiO/PPy films were further characterized for their structural, optical, morphological and electrochromic properties. X-ray diffraction study indicates that the films composed of polycrystalline NiO and amorphous PPy. Infrared transmission spectrum reveals chemical bonding between NiO and PPy. Rectangular faceted grains were observed from scanning electron microscopy results. The electrochromic (EC) property of the film was studied using cyclic voltammogram (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and optical modulation. The NiO/PPy presents superior EC properties than their individual counterparts. The coloration/bleaching kinetics (response time of few ms) and coloration efficiency (358 cm{sup 2}/C) were found to be improved appreciably. The dramatic improvement in electrochemical stability (from about 500 c/b cycles for PPy to 10,000 c/b cycles for NiO/PPy) was observed. This work therefore demonstrates a cost-effective and simple way of depositing highly efficient, faster and stable NiO/PPy electrodes for EC devices.

  4. VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED CHIROPTICAL GELS CONTAINING ELECTROCHROMIC ANTHRAQUINONE IMIDE GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zheng; Yi-jun Zheng; Xin-hua Wan; Zhi Yuan Wang

    2012-01-01

    A cholesterol-based organogelator bearing an anthraquinone imide (AQI) group was synthesized and characterized.It self-assembled into chiral gels in acetonitrile at low concentrations,which displayed a combination of electrochromic and chiroptical properties.Upon electrochemical reduction at -700 mV,the gel exhibited new absorption bands at around 820 nm corresponding to π*-π* (SOMO→LUMO) transitions of the radical anion of AQI and strong negative Cotton effects in the same spectral region.With further reduction at -1000 mV,a new CD band with a negative Cotton effect in the range from 500 nm to 800 nm appeared concomitant with the variation of absorption spectrum.Thus,with the use of electrochromic AQI chromophore as a switch-responsive unit and the stable gel of compound N-[3β-cholest5-en-3-yl N-(2-aminoethyl) carbamate] anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide as a chiral scaffold,a redox-triggered chiroptical switch operating in visible and near-infrared region was realized.

  5. Characterization of Porous WO3 Electrochromic Device by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Chon Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the microstructure of the anodic tungsten oxide (WO3 and its use in an electrochromic (EC glass device. When voltages between 100 V and 160 V were applied to tungsten film for 1 h under 0.4 wt. % NaF electrolyte, porous WO3 film was formed. The film, which had a large surface area, was used as electrochromic film for EC glass. The average transmittance in a visible region of the spectrum for a 144 cm2 EC device was above 75% in the bleached state and below 40% in the colored state, respectively. Repeatability using of the colored/bleached cycles was tested good by a cyclic voltammograms method. The internal impedance values under colored and bleached states were detected and simulated using an electrical impedance spectra (EIS technique. The EC glass impedance characteristics were simulated using resistors, capacitors, and Warburg impedance. The ITO/WO3, WO3/electrolyte, electrolyte/NiO, and NiO/ITO interfaces can be simulated using a resistance capacitance (RC parallel circuits, and bulk materials such as the indium tin oxide (ITO and conducting wire can be simulated by using a series of resisters.

  6. Electrochromic properties of inkjet printed vanadium oxide gel on flexible polyethylene terephthalate/indium tin oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cláudia; Pinheiro, Carlos; Henriques, Inês; Laia, César A T

    2012-10-24

    Vanadium oxide gel was synthesized and formulated for the assembly of solid-state electrochromic cells on flexible and transparent electrodes using inkjet printing. FTIR, Raman, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopic measurements showed that the vanadium oxide gel here synthesized consisted of V(2)O(5)·6H(2)O, microstructures similar to orthorhombic V(2)O(5), while Raman spectroscopy also shows the presence of amorphous domains. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the thin films printed using an inkjet shows a ribbonlike structure, which is in accordance with previous results of the vanadium oxide gels in solution. Solid-state electrochromic devices were assembled at room temperature using the inkjet printed films, without any sinterization step. The electrochemical properties of the vanadium oxide gel were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry by visible/NIR absorption spectroscopy (in both liquid and solid-state). Several redox steps are observed, which gives rise to a variety of color transitions as a function of the applied voltage. The different optical properties of the vanadium oxide gel are assigned to different intercalation steps of Li(+), leading to different crystalline phases of the gel. The final result is a solid-state electrochromic cell showing excellent contrast between the redox states, giving rise to colors such as yellow, green, or blue. Color space analysis was used to characterize the electrochromic transitions, and while absorption spectra showed rather long switching times (up to 100 s), in L*a*b* color space coordinates, the switching time is smaller than 30 s. These electrochromic cells also have an excellent cycling stability showing high reversibility and a cyclability up to more than 30,000 cycles with a degradation of 18%.

  7. 拥抱Windows 10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春海

    2015-01-01

    微软新一代操作系统Windows10已正式发布,新系统统一PC、平板、手机和Xbox等多个平台,在性能、安全性和用户体验方面都有全面提升,并对系统底层、开始菜单、操作中心等做出多项改进,包括更智慧的Cortana语音助理、全新多桌面体验和新的开始选单等。除此之外,Windows10还加强了安全性的设计,Windows10的内核版本直接从Windows8.1的6.4提升到了10.0,操作系统的底层架构和安全特性发生了多项重大变化。在初次使用Windows10的时候,可以看到“手机、平板”的风格到处都是。

  8. 热蒸镀法制备WO3薄膜及其电致变色性能%Preparation of tungsten trioxide film by thermal evaporation method and its electrochromic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中威; 强鹏飞; 杨培华; 麦文杰; 李玲

    2014-01-01

    -related products such as electrochromic glass and smart window.

  9. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  10. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  11. Windows Server 2012 : Uudet ominaisuudet ja muutokset

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opintyön tarkoituksena on valottaa Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmän muutoksia verrattuna vanhaan Windows Server 2008 R2 -versioon. Työ aloitettiin ennen Windows Server 2012 -julkaisua Release Candidate -version testauksella ja myöhemmin julkaisun jälkeen Windows Serverin kokeiluversiolla. Työssä on silti ajankohtaista tietoa Windows Server 2012:sta. Aluksi käsitellään Windows Servereiden kehityskaarta lyhyesti ja käsitellään uusinta Windows Serveriä tuotteena se...

  12. Windows 7 is supported at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The new version of the Windows operating system - Windows 7 - is now officially supported at CERN. Windows 7 32-bit is now the default operating system for the new computers at CERN. What’s new in Windows 7 Users of Windows XP will find many new features and options. Users of Windows Vista will feel very familiar with one major difference: higher performance and better responsiveness of the operating system. Other enhancements include: refined Aero desktop that makes it easier to navigate between your different application windows; new snapping windows that allows user to resize a window simply by dragging it to the edge of the screen and “pin” that allows grouping and arranging often accessed applications on the taskbar. Windows 7 introduces the new concept of libraries – containers for user files that have links to different local or network folders. By default, users can see four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures and Videos. These libraries point to the cor...

  13. Windows 7 Server名称之谜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    按理说,Windows 7 Server 也算得上是一款新系统,为何不见其介绍呢?其实“Windows 7 Server”只是我们这些Windows拥戴者给它的命名,微软在研发Windows7的服务器版本时,并没有用“Windows 7 Server”作为开发代号,而是命名为“Windows Server 2008 R2”,这表示Windows7的服务器版本并不像是从Windows 2000 Server到Windows Server 2003式的重大产品升级,只是对现有Windows Server2008的一次更新,或者说是Windows Seryer 2008的增强版。

  14. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi......With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...

  15. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  16. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  17. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  18. Experimental study of plasma window

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Liang, Shi; Kun, Zhu; Yuan-Rong, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Plasma window is an advanced apparatus which can work as the interface between vacuum and high pressure region. It can be used in many applications which need atmosphere-vacuum interface, such as gas target, electron beam welding, synchrotron radiation and spallation neutron source. A test bench of plasma window is constructed in Peking University. A series of experiments and corresponding parameter measurements have been presented in this article. The experiment result indicates the feasibility of such a facility acting as an interface between vacuum and high pressure region.

  19. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  20. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    the paper describes how the net energy gain from a complete typical window can be increased in a fairly simple way by reducing the frame width and using glass with low iron content. The changes primary increase the g-value. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  1. Defect engineering of two-dimensional WO3 nanosheets for enhanced electrochromism and photoeletrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofang; Zheng, Xiaoli; Yan, Bo; Xu, Tao; Xu, Qun

    2017-04-01

    The capability of introduction of oxygen vacancies in a controlled way has emerged as the heart of modern transition metal oxide semiconductor chemistry. As chemical defects, the oxygen vacancies have been proposed as electron donors, which are prone to increase carrier density and promote charge carrier separation. Herein, we have successfully prepared 2D WO3 ultrathin nanosheets with abundant surface oxygen vacancies by a combination of facile solvothermal reaction and hydrogenation method. The resultant hydrogenated WO3 ultrathin nanosheets exhibit remarkable electrochromism and photocatalytic performances compared with the non-hydrogenated samples, mainly due to their increased oxygen vacancies, narrowed band gap coupled with fast charge transfer and enhanced adsorption of visible light.

  2. Electrochromic Metallo-Organic Nanoscale Films: Fabrication, Color Range, and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elool Dov, Neta; Shankar, Sreejith; Cohen, Dana; Bendikov, Tatyana; Rechav, Katya; Shimon, Linda J W; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E

    2017-08-23

    In this study, we demonstrate a versatile approach for the formation of electrochromic nanoscale assemblies on transparent conductive oxides on both rigid and flexible substrates. Our method is based on the application of alternating spin-coated layers of well-defined metal polypyridyl complexes and a palladium(II) salt to form electrochemically addressable films with a high chromophore density. By varying the central metal ion of the polypyridyl complexes (Os, Ru, and Fe) and their ligands and by mixing these complexes, coatings with a wide range of colors can be achieved. These coatings cover a large area of RGB color space. The coloration intensities of these nanoscale films can be tuned by the number of deposition steps. The materials have very attractive ON/OFF ratios, electrochemical stabilities, and coloration efficiencies. Reversible color-to-colorless and color-to-color transitions were demonstrated, and the films were further integrated into sandwich cells.

  3. Multicolored Polyanilines Doped by Different Acid Dyes and Their Electrochromic Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicolored polyanilines (PANIs are synthesized by using different acid dyes containing sulfonic acid group as the functional dopant. It is found that the FTIR spectra of the acid dye doped PANI and pure PANI are similar with each other, which are all doped state PANI, and the new arising peaks indicate the acid dyes existing in the PANI molecular. The UV-Visible spectra show that the different acid dye doped PANI present different colors as the effect of the chromophore of the acid dye. From the CV curves, it is clear that all the acid dye doped PANIs exist two pairs of oxidation and reduction peaks with vivid reversibly multicolor changes from light color (-0.5~0V to dark color (0~0.8V. It is shown that acid dye doping is an effective method to broaden the color change range of the electrochromic mateials.

  4. Electrochromism and Swelling of Polypyrrole Membranes: An Electrochemical and Ellipsometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Zerbino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of polypyrrole (Ppy layers on gold electrodes in nearly neutral pH solutions is analysed using “in situ” voltametric and ellipsometric techniques. Different film structures are obtained depending on the potentiodynamic programme and the composition of the electrolyte. More compact dodecylsulphate-(DS doped Ppy layers were grown at 1.2 V versus RHE than those obtained by applying a higher potential. The more compact layers correspond to the growth of an oxidised Ppy/DS layer that shows low pseudo capacity behaviour. After dipping, the doped Ppy/DS film in KCl solution-significant variations in optical indices and thickness are detected as a function of the applied potential. Higher electrochromism as well as decrease in film thickness after cathodisation is achieved. The optical indices and the thickness of the Ppy layer formed under different applied potential/time programmes are estimated.

  5. NEAR INFRARED ELECTROCHROMIC VARIABLE OPTICAL ATTENUATOR FABRICATED BY LAYER-BY-LAYER ASSEMBLY*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zheng; Yi-jun Zheng; Xin-hua Wan

    2011-01-01

    An electrochromic variable optical attenuator (ECVOA) was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of disodium N,N-bis(p-sulfonatophenyl)naphthalenedicarboximide (Naph-SO3Na) and common cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA). The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the multilayer films revealed that approximately an equal amount of Naph-SO3Na was assembled in each deposition cycle. Upon one-electron reduction, multilayer films exhibited intense absorption around 452 nm and also a broad absorption band from 1200 nm to 1900 nm. Owing to the improved ionic conductivity, the optical attenuation at 1550 nm of the films showed rapid response time and reached 1.3 dB/μm within 5 s. These results indicate that layer-by-layer assembly could be an effective method for the preparation of ECVOA operating in near infrared region.

  6. Deposition of electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henley, W.B.; Sacks, G.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Center of Microelectronics

    1997-03-01

    Use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for electrochromic WO{sub 3} film deposition is investigated. Oxygen, hydrogen, and tungsten hexafluoride were used as source gases. Reactant gas flow was investigated to determine the effect on film characteristics. High quality optical films were obtained at deposition rates on the order of 100 {angstrom}/s. Higher deposition rates were attainable but film quality and optical coherence degraded. Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), was used to provide an in situ assessment of the plasma deposition chemistry. Through AES, it is shown that the hydrogen gas flow is essential to the deposition of the WO{sub 3} film. Oxygen gas flow and tungsten hexafluoride gas flow must be approximately equal for high quality films.

  7. Band Gap, Molecular Energy and Electrochromic Characterization of Electrosynthesized Hydroxymethyl 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Thien Thanh; Tran, Tri Quoc; Le, Hai Viet; Ho, Vu Anh Pham; Tran, Lam Dai

    2016-12-01

    Hydroxymethyl functionalized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT-MeOH) monomer was synthesized according to a previously reported procedure. Electropolymerization of EDOT-MeOH was performed in acetonitrile (ACN) containing tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (Bu4NClO4) as the supporting electrolyte by chronoamperometry on platinum (Pt) and fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The resulting conjugated polymer (PEDOT-MeOH) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectrophotometer techniques. The polymer showed a deep HOMO energy level of -5.31 eV with a very low band gap of 1.54 eV. Spectroelectrochemical study revealed that the PEDOT-MeOH has interesting electrochromic properties.

  8. Electrochromic and chemochromic performance of mesoporous thin-film vanadium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ping; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Turner, John A.; Pitts, J. Roland; Deb, Satyen K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Mesoporous vanadium oxide thin films have been deposited electrochemically from a water/ethanol solution of vanadyl sulfate and a nonionic polymer surfactant. Aggregates of the polymer surfactant serve as templates that result in the formation of a mesoporous structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate the presence of both macroporosity and mesoporosity in the electrodeposited film. Chemochromic behavior of mesoporous vanadium oxide is demonstrated in a palladium/vanadium oxide thin-film device, which colors when exposed to hydrogen gas. A comparison of results with evaporated vanadium oxide reveals that the mesoporous film displays an improved kinetic performance, which is most likely attributable to its highly porous structure. Also, the electrochemical properties have been explored in a lithium-battery configuration. Mesoporous vanadium oxide exhibits a very high lithium storage capacity and greatly enhanced charge-discharge rate. In situ optical measurements show that the film exhibits a multicolor electrochromic effect.

  9. Band Gap, Molecular Energy and Electrochromic Characterization of Electrosynthesized Hydroxymethyl 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Thien Thanh; Tran, Tri Quoc; Le, Hai Viet; Ho, Vu Anh Pham; Tran, Lam Dai

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxymethyl functionalized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT-MeOH) monomer was synthesized according to a previously reported procedure. Electropolymerization of EDOT-MeOH was performed in acetonitrile (ACN) containing tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (Bu4NClO4) as the supporting electrolyte by chronoamperometry on platinum (Pt) and fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The resulting conjugated polymer (PEDOT-MeOH) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectrophotometer techniques. The polymer showed a deep HOMO energy level of -5.31 eV with a very low band gap of 1.54 eV. Spectroelectrochemical study revealed that the PEDOT-MeOH has interesting electrochromic properties.

  10. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  11. Annealing induced structural evolution and electrochromic properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ching-Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chung-Kwei [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chun-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Sheng-Chang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: JLH888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-31

    The effect of microstructure on the optical and electrochemical properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films was evaluated as a function of annealing temperature. The films using block copolymer as the template were prepared from peroxotungstic acid (PTA) by spin-coating onto the substrate and post-annealed at 250–400 °C to form tungsten oxide films with nanostructure. The microstructure of the films was measured by X-ray diffraction and surface electron microscopy. The films annealed at temperatures below 300 °C are characterized by amorphous or nanocrystalline structures with a pore size of less than 10 nm. The evaluated annealing temperature caused a triclinic crystalline structure and microcracks. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed in a LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte. The results showed that the ion inserted capacity were maximized for films annealed at 300 °C and decreased with the increasing of annealing temperature. The electrochromic properties of the nanostructured tungsten oxide films were evaluated simultaneously by potentiostat and UV–vis spectroscopy. The films annealed at 300 °C exhibit high transmission modulation (∆T ∼ 40%) at λ = 633 nm and good kinetic properties. As a result, the correlation between the microstructure and kinetic properties was established, and the electrochromic properties have been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted WO{sub 3} films have been prepared by sol–gel method. • Nanostructure of porous WO{sub 3} film is retained after crystallization. • Kinetic properties of WO{sub 3} can be improved by nanostructure and crystallinity.

  12. Closed bipolar electrode-enabled dual-cell electrochromic detectors for chemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Fu, Kaiyu; Ma, Chaoxiong; Bohn, Paul W

    2016-10-17

    Bipolar electrodes (BPE) are electrically floating metallic elements placed in electrified fluids that enable the coupling of anodic and cathodic redox reactions at the opposite ends by electron transfer through the electrode. One particularly compelling application allows electron transfer reactions at one end of a closed BPE to be read out optically by inducing a redox-initiated change in the optical response function of a reporter system at the other end. Here, a BPE-enabled method for electrochemical sensing based on the electrochromic response of a methyl viologen (MV) reporter is developed, characterized, and rendered in a field-deployable format. BPE-enabled devices based on two thin-layer-cells of ITO and Pt were fabricated to couple an analytical reaction in one cell with an MV reporter reaction, producing a color change in the complementary cell. Using Fe(CN)6(3/4-) as a model analyte, the electrochemically induced color change of MV was determined initially by measuring its absorbance via a CCD camera coupled to a microscope. Then, smartphone-based detection and RGB analysis were employed to further simplify the sensing scheme. Both methods produced a linear relationship between the analyte concentration, the quantity of MV generated, and the colorimetric response, yielding a limit of detection of 1.0 μM. Similar responses were observed in the detection of dopamine and acetaminophen. Further evolution of the device replaced the potentiostat with batteries to control potential, demonstrating the simplicity and portability of the device. Finally, the physical separation of the reporter and analytical cells renders the device competent to detect analytes in different (e.g. non-aqueous) phases, as demonstrated by using the electrochromic behavior of aqueous MV to detect ferrocene in acetonitrile in the analytical cell.

  13. Evaluation of an Electrochromic Device for Variable Emittance in Simulated Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterbaugh, Rebekah L.; Mychkovsky, Alexander G.; Ponnappan, Rengasamy; Kislov, Nikolai

    2005-02-01

    Unprotected skin and external surfaces of a spacecraft in earth orbit may experience temperature variations from -50°C to +100°C during exposure to cold space or sun. As a result, thermal management of spacecraft becomes extremely important. One latest trend is to provide flexibility and control in the thermal design that involves variable emittance surfaces consisting of electrochromic (EC) coatings. For investigational purposes, a sample electrochromic device is evaluated for variable emittance in simulated space conditions. A vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen circulated blackbody shroud is employed to simulate space conditions. The 63.5 × 63.5 mm test sample supplied by a small business research firm is mounted on an aluminum plate heated by an electrical resistance heater. The sample is thermally insulated by a heat shield from all surroundings excluding the active front surface facing the shroud. The heat shield is uniformly maintained at the sample temperature using an independent circuit of resistance heaters and temperature controllers. A steady state energy balance is applied to the test sample to determine the emittance as a function of temperature and DC bias voltage applied across the anode and cathode. Tests were performed to verify the switchability from high to low emittance states and vice versa. The difference between the high and low emittance values (Δɛ) obtained in the present calorimetric measurement is compared with the data obtained from FTIR measurements performed by the supplier of the EC sample. Results obtained in the present experiments compare closely with supplier data and prove the effectiveness of the variable emittance sample in space conditions. The validity of the calorimetric experiment is confirmed by testing materials with known emittances, such as black paint and polished metals. Error analysis of the system predicts an emittance accuracy of ±5% at sample temperatures in the range of -50°C to 100°C.

  14. Inkjet-printed all solid-state electrochromic devices based on NiO/WO3 nanoparticle complementary electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guofa; Darmawan, Peter; Cui, Mengqi; Chen, Jingwei; Wang, Xu; Eh, Alice Lee-Sie; Magdassi, Shlomo; Lee, Pooi See

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured thin films are important in the fields of energy conversion and storage. In particular, multi-layered nanostructured films play an important role as a part of the energy system for energy saving applications in buildings. Inkjet printing is a low-cost and attractive technology for patterning and deposition of multi-layered nanostructured materials on various substrates. However, it requires the development of a suitable ink formulation with optimum viscosity, surface tension and evaporation rate for various materials. In this study, a versatile ink formulation was successfully developed to prepare NiO and WO3 nanostructured films with strong adhesion to ITO coated glass using inkjet printing for energy saving electrochromic applications. We achieved a high performance electrochromic electrode, producing porous and continuous electrochromic films without aggregation. The NiO film with 9 printed layers exhibits an optical modulation of 64.2% at 550 nm and a coloration efficiency (CE) of 136.7 cm2 C-1. An inkjet-printed complementary all solid-state device was assembled, delivering a larger optical modulation of 75.4% at 633 nm and a higher CE of 131.9 cm2 C-1 among all solid-state devices. The enhanced contrast is due to the printed NiO film that not only performs as an ion storage layer, but also as a complementary electrochromic layer.Nanostructured thin films are important in the fields of energy conversion and storage. In particular, multi-layered nanostructured films play an important role as a part of the energy system for energy saving applications in buildings. Inkjet printing is a low-cost and attractive technology for patterning and deposition of multi-layered nanostructured materials on various substrates. However, it requires the development of a suitable ink formulation with optimum viscosity, surface tension and evaporation rate for various materials. In this study, a versatile ink formulation was successfully developed to prepare NiO and

  15. Optical detection of ion diffusion in electrochromic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene film using microcantilever electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Stokbro, Kurt; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard;

    2005-01-01

    potential of the film induced dark (light-absorbing) rings, which spread out from the anode on a time scale of seconds. The rate of expansion of the rings as well as the final diameter depended on the bias voltage. Using two micro four-point probes simultaneously, we measured with one probe the conductance......We present measurements of microscale electrochromic switching of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene doped with poly(4-styrene sulfonate), thin film using microfabricated multi-point probe electrodes. After treatment with a dilute hydrochloric acid, a voltage bias above 3 V with respect to the ground...... of the film outside, near and inside a dark ring induced by a voltage applied to another probe and found the resistivity to be directly related to the observed absorbance of the film. The standard electrochromic mechanism of ion insertion was used to explain the observations. We anticipate this experimental...

  16. Preparation of a Star Network PEG-based Gel Polymer Electrolyte and Its Application to Electrochromic Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yong-Feng; FU Xiang-Kai; ZHANG Shu-Peng; JIANG Qing-Long

    2007-01-01

    A star network polymer with a pentaerythritol core linking four PEG-block polymeric arms was synthesized,and its corresponding gel polymer electrolyte based on lithium perchlorate and plasticizers EC/PC with the character being colorless and highly transparent has been also prepared. The polymer host was characterized and confirmed to be of a star network and an amorphous structure by FTIR, 1H NMR and XRD studies. The polymer host hold good mechanical properties for pentaerythritol cross-linking. Maximum ionic conductivity of the prepared electrolyte showed that the thermal stability was up to at least 150 ℃. The gel polymer electrolyte was further evaluated in electrochromic devices fabricated by transparent PET-ITO and electrochromically active viologen derivative films, and its excellent performance promised the usage of the gel polymer electrolyte as ionic conductor material in electrochrornic devices.

  17. The research on the high quality TiO2, MoO3-doped WO3 electrochromic film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The high quality TiO2, MoO3-doped WO3 electrochromic film was prepared by the sol-gel method for the first time.The sol, which has hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxalic acid (H2C2O4), was very stable at room temperature and quite suitable for the deposition of films. The WO3 electrochromic film prepared from this doped sol had excellent performance, such as short response time, no cracks, good adhesion to the substrate, high coloring efficiency and longevity of service.(C) 2007 Xiang Kai Fu. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Low band-gap polymers incorporating benzotriazole and 5,6-dialkoxy-benzothiadiazole as solution processable electrochromic materials

    OpenAIRE

    W. T. Neo; Ye, Q.; X. Wang; H. Yan; Xu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Two series of donor-acceptor type conjugated polymers bearing benzotriazole or 5,6-dialkoxy-benzothiadiazole as acceptors unit are synthesized via Stille coupling. The optical, electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical characterizations and theoretical calculations are carried out. The polymers display excellent solubility in common organic solvents upon the introduction of long aliphatic side chains. The electrochromic performances of the polymers are also studied. Upon oxidation, the polymers...

  19. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    windows have already been developed and prototypes constructed for laboratory test and a third generation of the window design is now in the developing and designing face in a new project. The first window constructed was made of wood profiles and a low-energy double glazing unit. The second and third......This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...

  20. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathave forensic values. This paper also discusses how the Windows Registry forensic keys can be applied in intrusion detection.

  1. Windows 8 and Office 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Learn to: Navigate the Windows 8 Start screenCreate user accounts and set passwordsUse Word, Excel®, PowerPoint®, and Outlook® Master the basics of Windows 8 and Office 2013! Windows and Office work together to turn your PC into a productivity tool. The unique Windows 8 interface combines with updates to Office 2013 to create a new computing experience. This book offers quick answers for when you get stuck. Learn your way around the Windows 8 Start screen and Charms bar as well as Office 2013 applications.The new Windows - see how to laun

  2. Non-volatile polymer electrolyte based on poly(propylene carbonate), ionic liquid, and lithium perchlorate for electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Chuanxiang; Yee, Wu-Aik; Kong, Junhua; Ding, Guoqiang; Lu, Xuehong

    2013-06-27

    A series of solvent-free ionic liquid (IL)-based polymer electrolytes composed of amorphous and biodegradable poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) host, LiClO4, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM(+)BF4(-)) were prepared and characterized for the first time. FTIR studies reveal that the interaction between PPC chains and imidazolium cations weakens the complexation between PPC chains and Li(+) ions. Thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) results show that the incorporation of BMIM(+)BF4(-) into PPC/LiClO4 remarkably decreases the glass transition temperature and improves the thermal stability of the electrolytes. AC impedance results show that the ionic conductivities of the electrolytes are significantly increased with the increase of BMIM(+)BF4(-) amount, the ambient ionic conductivity of the electrolyte at a PPC/LiClO4/BMIM(+)BF4(-) weight ratio of 1/0.2/3 is 1.5 mS/cm, and the ionic transport behavior follows the Arrhenius equation. Both PPC/LiClO4/BMIM(+)BF4(-) and PPC/BMIM(+)BF4(-) electrolytes were applied in electrochromic devices with polyaniline as the electrochromic layer. The PPC/LiClO4/BMIM(+)BF4(-)-based device exhibits much better electrochromic performance in terms of optical contrast and switching time due to the presence of much smaller cations.

  3. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the electrochemical properties of Prussian blue electrodes for transparent electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A-Young [Advanced Energy Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hun [Advanced Energy Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Dongjin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Advanced Energy Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    The effect of oxygen plasma on the electrochromic characteristics of electrochromic devices that utilize Prussian blue electrodes is investigated. Prussian blue working electrodes were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide films that were grown on glass substrates by electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition. An indium tin oxide coated glass was employed as the counter electrode that served as an ion storage layer. The goal of the oxygen plasma treatment is to increase the oxygen functional groups on the surface of the Prussian blue electrode leading to the enhancement of the oxidation reaction and eventually the increase in coloration efficiency. Improvement of electrochromic properties, such as optical density and response time, was also observed following plasma treatment. - Highlights: • Prussian blue (PB) films on SnOx:F thin film as a working electrode are investigated. • PB color changed that in oxidation state is blue and in reduction state is transparent. • Enhancement of electrochemical performance of electrode after oxygen plasma treatment.

  4. Electrochromic Radiator Coupon Level Testing and Full Scale Thermal Math Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Erika T.; Bower, Chad E.; Sheth, Rubik; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    In order to control system and component temperatures, many spacecraft thermal control systems use a radiator coupled with a pumped fluid loop to reject waste heat from the vehicle. Since heat loads and radiation environments can vary considerably according to mission phase, the thermal control system must be able to vary the heat rejection. The ability to "turn down" the heat rejected from the thermal control system is critically important when designing the system. Electrochromic technology as a radiator coating is being investigated to vary the amount of heat rejected by a radiator. Coupon level tests were performed to test the feasibility of this technology. Furthermore, thermal math models were developed to better understand the turndown ratios required by full scale radiator architectures to handle the various operation scenarios encountered during a mission profile for the Altair Lunar Lander. This paper summarizes results from coupon level tests as well as the thermal math models developed to investigate how electrochromics can be used to increase turn down ratios for a radiator. Data from the various design concepts of radiators and their architectures are outlined. Recommendations are made on which electrochromic radiator concept should be carried further for future thermal vacuum testing.

  5. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of novel electrochromic poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-Diclofenac) with surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manisankar, P. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: pms11@rediffmail.com; Vedhi, C. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: cvedhi@rediffmail.com; Selvanathan, G. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu (India); Gurumallesh Prabu, H. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2006-03-15

    Copolymers prepared from 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and Diclofenac (DCF) through cyclic voltammetric method exhibited electroactive and electrochromic behaviours. Addition of DCF produced bathochromic shift of the EDOT main absorption band from 253.4 to 269.7 nm in the UV-vis spectra. The cyclic voltammetric studies were carried out with different feed concentration of DCF and in the presence of two different surfactants, SDS and CTAB on glassy carbon electrode surface. Effect of scan rate on the three types of electroactive copolymer films was studied. The three different copolymers showed good adherence on the glassy carbon electrode surface in aqueous 0.1 M KCl medium. Spectroelectrochemical analysis of copolymer film was carried out on Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) plate and it showed multicolor electrochromic behaviour when the applied potential was changed. The color of the copolymer was changed from neutral yellow to brown and to violet in 0.1 M KCl medium. Among the three different copolymers, the copolymer prepared in presence of CTAB resulted in high contrast colors. The electrochromic parameters such as coloration efficiency, optical contrast, response time and stability were also evaluated. The surface morphology of the copolymer films was characterized by SEM analysis.

  6. Remote and Centralized Monitoring of PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopacz, Csaba; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2014-01-01

    the inverters within each PV plant. The monitoring software stores the PV measurements in a data warehouse optimized for managing and data mining large amounts of data, from where it can be later visualized, analyzed and exported. By combining PV production measurements data with I-V curve measurements......This paper presents the concept and operating principles of a low-cost and flexible monitoring system for PV plants. Compared to classical solutions which can require dedicated hardware and/or specialized data logging systems, the monitoring system we propose allows parallel monitoring of PV plants...

  7. Grid Integration of Large PV Power Systems Using HVDC Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Sowilam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the interconnection of large scale Photo-Voltaic (PV systems to the grid though a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC link. HVDC link is recently utilized for transmission lines longer than 50 km. It is usually utilized to interconnect two asynchronous grids with the same or different frequencies while avoiding stability disturbances greatly. A suitable Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT techniques is employed to control the performance of the integrated PV system. The system of the HVDC link has two 12-pulse converter using thyristor-bridges. The delay and the extinction angles at the rectifier and the inverter units control the flow and the quantity of the transmitted power from the PV system into the grid. Fixed capacitors and filters are used to provide the AC side with the required reactive power and reduce the harmonic contents. For evaluation purposes, different simulation investigations are carried out with a detailed modeling using the MATLAB. These tests corroborate the efficacy of HVDC link for integrating large PV systems to electrical grids.

  8. Development of PV powered consumer products using future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Meulen, van der B.J.R.; Eger, A.O.

    2006-01-01

    Given the high potential of PV technology to reduce the environmental impact of electricity use of consumer products, it would be worthwhile to advance the application of PV systems in mass produced products. To date this field of application has been explored only to a limited extent. For this reas

  9. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  10. PV power forecast using a nonparametric PV model

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Marcelo Pinho; Perpiñan Lamigueiro, Oscar; Narvarte Fernández, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting the AC power output of a PV plant accurately is important both for plant owners and electric system operators. Two main categories of PV modeling are available: the parametric and the nonparametric. In this paper, a methodology using a nonparametric PV model is proposed, using as inputs several forecasts of meteorological variables from a Numerical Weather Forecast model, and actual AC power measurements of PV plants. The methodology was built upon the R environment and uses Quant...

  11. Design and Implementation of A PV Powered Tri-Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Das

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV technology is one of the first among the various renewable energy technologies that have been adopted and accepted universally in order to meet the basic needs of generation of electricity. The objective of this paper is to propose a tri-cycle that utilises the application of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV system. A preliminary design and construction of a solar tri-cycle has been performed by evaluating and estimating the required panel size, battery capacity and motor power. Calculation in this paper exhibit that the solar power alone will be sufficient to operate a tri-cycle from one place to another.

  12. Codes, standards, and PV power systems. A 1996 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J

    1996-06-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) electrical power systems gain increasing acceptance for both off-grid and utility-interactive applications, the safety, durability, and performance of these systems gains in importance. Local and state jurisdictions in many areas of the country require that all electrical power systems be installed in compliance with the requirements of the National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}). Utilities and governmental agencies are now requiring that PV installations and components also meet a number of Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. PV installers are working more closely with licensed electricians and electrical contractors who are familiar with existing local codes and installation practices. PV manufacturers, utilities, balance of systems manufacturers, and standards representatives have come together to address safety and code related issues for future PV installations. This paper addresses why compliance with the accepted codes and standards is needed and how it is being achieved.

  13. Design of a Solar Tracker System for PV Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Tudorache

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design and execution of a solar tracker systemdedicated to the PV conversion panels. The proposed single axis solar tracker deviceensures the optimization of the conversion of solar energy into electricity by properlyorienting the PV panel in accordance with the real position of the sun. The operation of theexperimental model of the device is based on a DC motor intelligently controlled by adedicated drive unit that moves a mini PV panel according to the signals received from twosimple but efficient light sensors. The performance and characteristics of the solar trackerare experimentally analyzed.

  14. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  15. A Window of Chinese Folklore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    PRESENI-DAY Chinese folk-lore is a window throughwhich one can see Chineseculture;one can see contemporarylife,but mostly one views traditional folk culture.China’s 5,000 years ofhistory,civilization,vast lands and national background have brought afascinating variety of local customsto China’s 56 nationalities.The fol-lowing is a brief introduction to their religious beliefs,sacrificial ritesand festive gatherings.

  16. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-12

    captures from Windows machines and the methodology for extracting digital artifacts from forensic memory captures. The two types of malware implemented on...proposed to improve upon the design implemented in the D3 JavaScript Visualization Tool. 7 II. Literature Review Due to the recent rise...18. Resource Slice Selected – Associated Process Nodes Highlighted. ... vice\\Nam~~~~~~~~ffi~~ iFr ~)~~~ ... vice\\NamedPipe\

  17. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Mojaza, Matin; Ryttov, Thomas A; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according to a spinorial representation. We investigate the phase diagram using a purely perturbative four loop analysis, the all-orders beta function and the ladder approximation.

  18. Conformal window and Landau singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Grunberg, G

    2001-01-01

    A physical characterization of Landau singularities is emphasized, which should trace the lower boundary N_f^* of the conformal window in QCD and supersymmetric QCD. A natural way to disentangle ``perturbative'' from ``non-perturbative'' contributions below N_f^* is suggested. Assuming an infrared fixed point is present in the perturbative part of the QCD coupling even in some range below N_f^* leads to the condition gamma(N_f^*)=1, where gamma is the critical exponent. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion, one gets 4window. Some evidence for such a fixed point in QCD is provided through a modified Banks-Zaks expansion. Conformal window amplitudes, which contain power contributions, are show...

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Potentiostatically Electrodeposited Tungsten Oxide Thin Films for Smart Window Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, A. J.; Patil, R. S.; Dalavi, D. S.; Suryawanshi, M. P.; Burungale, V. V.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

    2017-02-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films have been synthesized using electrodeposition in potentiostatic mode and the effect of different deposition potentials on their structural, morphological, optical, and electrochromic (EC) properties investigated. The deposition potential versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was varied from -0.35 V to -0.50 V in steps of -0.05 V for 20 min each. The electrodeposited WO3 thin films were characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, revealing amorphous nature with nanograins having average size from 40 nm to 60 nm. The EC performance of the WO3 thin films exhibited response times of 1.35 s for bleaching ( t b) and 3.1 s for coloration ( t c) with excellent reversibility of 64.36%. The highest coloration efficiency of the electrodeposited WO3 thin films was found to be 87.95 cm2/C. The electrochemical reversibility and stability of the WO3 thin films obtained in this study make them promising for use in smart window applications.

  20. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.