WorldWideScience

Sample records for pv tomato population

  1. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. [74 FR 26536, June 3, 2009] ...

  2. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.

  3. Molecular characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato isolates from Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Stephan, D.; Mabagala, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is an emerging disease of tomato in Tanzania. Following reports of outbreaks of the disease in many locations in Tanzania, 56 isolates of P. syringae pv. tomato were collected from four tomato- producing areas and characterized using...

  4. Natural variation for responsiveness to flg22, flgII-28, and csp22 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in heirloom tomatoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar Veluchamy

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is susceptible to many diseases including bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Bacterial speck disease is a serious problem worldwide in tomato production areas where moist conditions and cool temperatures occur. To enhance breeding of speck resistant fresh-market tomato cultivars we identified a race 0 field isolate, NC-C3, of P. s. pv. tomato in North Carolina and used it to screen a collection of heirloom tomato lines for speck resistance in the field. We observed statistically significant variation among the heirloom tomatoes for their response to P. s. pv. tomato NC-C3 with two lines showing resistance approaching a cultivar that expresses the Pto resistance gene, although none of the heirloom lines have Pto. Using an assay that measures microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, we investigated whether the heirloom lines showed differential responsiveness to three bacterial-derived peptide MAMPs: flg22 and flgII-28 (from flagellin and csp22 (from cold shock protein. Significant differences were observed for MAMP responsiveness among the lines, although these differences did not correlate strongly with resistance or susceptibility to bacterial speck disease. The identification of natural variation for MAMP responsiveness opens up the possibility of using a genetic approach to identify the underlying loci and to facilitate breeding of cultivars with enhanced disease resistance. Towards this goal, we discovered that responsiveness to csp22 segregates as a single locus in an F2 population of tomato.

  5. First report of bacterial speck of tomato caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, L.; Cruz, J.; Eloy, M.; Oliveira, Helena; Vaz, H.; Tenreiro, R.

    2010-01-01

    Protected and open field tomato crops are economically important for Portuguese agriculture. In 1983, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Okabe, 1933) Young, Dye & Wilkie, 1978 was first reported affecting protected crops (3) and then later under open field conditions (1). In the 2009 spring/summer season, several outbreaks of bacterial speck of tomato showing an unusual degree of severity were observed in open fields from the Tagus Valley Region

  6. Assessment of strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato from Tanzania for resistance to copper and streptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Wydra, K.; Mabagala, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-six strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (P.s. pv. tomato) were collected from tomato-producing areas in Tanzania and assessed for resistance to copper and antibiotics. The collection was done from three tomato-producing regions (Morogoro, Arusha and Iringa), representing three...... different ecological conditions in the country. After isolation and identification, the P. s. pv. tomato strains were grown on King's medium B (KB) amended with 20% copper sulphate (w/v). The strains were also assessed for resistance to antibiotics. Results indicated that there was widespread resistance...... strains of the pathogen were moderately resistant to copper sulphate, such that 54.0% of them were able to grow on the KB medium amended with 20% (w/v) of the copper compound....

  7. A rapid seedling resistance assay identifies wild tomato lines that are resistant to Psuedomonas syringe pv. tomato race 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae has historically been controlled by the Pto/Prf gene cluster. Emerging strains like P. syringae pv. tomato race 1 overcome resistance conferred by Pto/Prf, and can cause serious crop loss under appropriate environmental conditions. We developed a rapid ...

  8. The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is genetically monomorphic and under strong selection to evade tomato immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongman Cai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, genome sequencing of many isolates of genetically monomorphic bacterial human pathogens has given new insights into pathogen microevolution and phylogeography. Here, we report a genome-based micro-evolutionary study of a bacterial plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only 267 mutations were identified between five sequenced isolates in 3,543,009 nt of analyzed genome sequence, which suggests a recent evolutionary origin of this pathogen. Further analysis with genome-derived markers of 89 world-wide isolates showed that several genotypes exist in North America and in Europe indicating frequent pathogen movement between these world regions. Genome-derived markers and molecular analyses of key pathogen loci important for virulence and motility both suggest ongoing adaptation to the tomato host. A mutational hotspot was found in the type III-secreted effector gene hopM1. These mutations abolish the cell death triggering activity of the full-length protein indicating strong selection for loss of function of this effector, which was previously considered a virulence factor. Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. Interestingly, the ancestral allele of this MAMP induces a stronger tomato immune response than the derived alleles. The ancestral allele has largely disappeared from today's Pto populations suggesting that flagellin-triggered immunity limits pathogen fitness even in highly virulent pathogens. An additional non-synonymous mutation was identified in flg22 in South American isolates. Therefore, MAMPs are more variable than expected differing even between otherwise almost identical isolates of the same pathogen strain.

  9. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonassyringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feil, Helene; Feil, William S.; Chain, Patrick; Larimer, Frank; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Copeland, Alex; Lykidis, Athanasios; Trong,Stephen; Nolan, Matt; Goltsman, Eugene; Thiel, James; Malfatti,Stephanie; Loper, Joyce E.; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, John C.; Land, Miriam; Richardson, Paul M.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lindow, StevenE.

    2005-04-01

    producing avariety of different symptoms depending on the host species and site ofinfection. For example, it causes leaf spot diseases that defoliateplants such as tomato, bean, soybean, trunk cankers, and so-called"blast" diseases on fruit, nut and ornamental species. Considerablevariation occurs both between and within different pathovars of P.syringae (1). Because of its importance as a plant pathogen, it has beenthe subject of much research, especially of its epidemiology andvirulence mechanisms (2). Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) strainB728a is typical of most strains of this pathovar in that it exhibits avery pronounced epiphytic phase on plants. Such strains achieve andmaintain large populations on healthy plants, where they are exposed tostressful conditions such as dryness and sunlight that are hostile tobacterial growth(2). Epiphytic Pss populations serve as inocula that cansubsequently invade plants and initiate disease. Pss strains are distinctfrom many P. syringae strains, such as P. syringae pv. tomato (Pst)strain DC3000, that poorly colonize the exterior of plants; these strainsmay be considered "endophytes" based on their ability to multiply mostlywithin the plant (3). True epiphytes such as Pss B728a often reachsurface populations of over 107 cells/g while strains such as Pst DC3000seldom exceed 105 cells/g (2, 3). Thus, these strains might be consideredto occupy different ends of the epiphytic/endophytic spectrum of plantcolonization as described by Beattie and Lindow (4). As a pathogen and anepiphyte, Pss B728a has evolved to exploit at least two distincthabitats: the leaf surface and apoplast. Because rapid changes intemperature, low water content, and incident solar radiation occur onleaf surfaces, it has been hypothesized that the epiphyte Pss B728aposseses more genes conferring environmental stress tolerance than theendophyte Pst DC3000 (4). Pss B728a also exhibits several traits such asice nucleation activity and SR production (2) that are

  10. Identification of a Candidate Gene in Solanum habrochaites for Resistance to a Race 1 Strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Bao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial speck disease caused by pv. ( is a persistent problem on tomato ( L.. Resistance against race 0 strains is conferred by the Pto protein, which recognizes either of two pathogen effectors: AvrPto or AvrPtoB. However, current tomato varieties do not have resistance to the increasingly common race 1 strains, which lack these effectors. We identified accessions of S. Knapp & D. M. Spooner that are resistant to the race 1 strain T1. Genome sequence comparisons of T1 and two strains that are virulent on these accessions suggested that known microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or effectors are not involved in the resistance. We developed an F population from a cross between one T1-resistant accession, LA2109, and a susceptible tomato cultivar to investigate the genetic basis of this resistance. Linkage analysis using whole-genome sequence of 58 F plants identified quantitative trait loci (QTL, , in a 5.8-Mb region on chromosome 2, and , in a 52.4-Mb region on chromosome 8, which account for 24 and 26% of the phenotypic variability, respectively. High-resolution mapping of confirmed it contributed to T1 resistance and delimited it to a 1060-kb region containing 139 genes, including three encoding receptor-like proteins (RLPs and 17 encoding receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs. One RLK gene, Solyc02g072470, is a promising candidate for , as it is highly expressed in LA2109 and induced on treatment with MAMPs. might be useful for enhancing resistance to race 1 strains and its future characterization could provide insights into the plant immune system.

  11. Isolation and sequence analysis of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato gene encoding a 2,3-diphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglyceromutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, V L; Jackson, D P; Grattan, M; Ainsworth, T; Cuppels, D A

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3481, a Tn5-induced mutant of the tomato pathogen DC3000, cannot grow and elicit disease symptoms on tomato seedlings. It also cannot grow on minimal medium containing malate, citrate, or succinate, three of the major organic acids found in tomatoes. We report here that this mutant also cannot use, as a sole carbon and/or energy source, a wide variety of hexoses and intermediates of hexose catabolism. Uptake studies have shown that DC3481 is not deficient in transport. A 3.8-kb EcoRI fragment of DC3000 DNA, which complements the Tn5 mutation, has been cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of two of the three open reading frames (ORFs) present on this fragment, ORF2 and ORF3, had no significant homology with sequences in the GenBank databases. However, the 510-amino-acid sequence of ORF1, the site of the Tn5 insertion, strongly resembled the deduced amino acid sequences of the Bacillus subtilis and Zea mays genes encoding 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG)-independent phosphoglyceromutase (PGM) (52% identity and 72% similarity and 37% identity and 57% similarity, respectively). PGMs not requiring the cofactor DPG are usually found in plants and algae. Enzyme assays confirmed that P. syringae PGM activity required an intact ORF1. Not only is DC3481 the first PGM-deficient pseudomonad mutant to be described, but the P. syringae pgm gene is the first gram-negative bacterial gene identified that appears to code for a DPG-independent PGM. PGM activity appears essential for the growth and pathogenicity of P. syringae pv. tomato on its host plant. PMID:7896694

  12. Isolation and sequence analysis of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato gene encoding a 2,3-diphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglyceromutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, V L; Jackson, D P; Grattan, M; Ainsworth, T; Cuppels, D A

    1995-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3481, a Tn5-induced mutant of the tomato pathogen DC3000, cannot grow and elicit disease symptoms on tomato seedlings. It also cannot grow on minimal medium containing malate, citrate, or succinate, three of the major organic acids found in tomatoes. We report here that this mutant also cannot use, as a sole carbon and/or energy source, a wide variety of hexoses and intermediates of hexose catabolism. Uptake studies have shown that DC3481 is not deficient in transport. A 3.8-kb EcoRI fragment of DC3000 DNA, which complements the Tn5 mutation, has been cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of two of the three open reading frames (ORFs) present on this fragment, ORF2 and ORF3, had no significant homology with sequences in the GenBank databases. However, the 510-amino-acid sequence of ORF1, the site of the Tn5 insertion, strongly resembled the deduced amino acid sequences of the Bacillus subtilis and Zea mays genes encoding 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG)-independent phosphoglyceromutase (PGM) (52% identity and 72% similarity and 37% identity and 57% similarity, respectively). PGMs not requiring the cofactor DPG are usually found in plants and algae. Enzyme assays confirmed that P. syringae PGM activity required an intact ORF1. Not only is DC3481 the first PGM-deficient pseudomonad mutant to be described, but the P. syringae pgm gene is the first gram-negative bacterial gene identified that appears to code for a DPG-independent PGM. PGM activity appears essential for the growth and pathogenicity of P. syringae pv. tomato on its host plant.

  13. Differential secretome analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato using gel-free MS proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg eSchumacher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (DC3000 causes virulence by delivering effector proteins into host plant cells through its type three secretion system (T3SS. In response to the plant environment DC3000 expresses hypersensitive response and pathogenicity genes (hrp. Pathogenesis depends on the ability of the pathogen to manipulate the plant metabolism and to inhibit plant immunity, which depends to a large degree on the plant’s capacity to recognise both pathogen and microbial determinants (PAMP/MAMP-triggered immunity. We have developed and employed MS-based shotgun and targeted proteomics to (i elucidate the extracellular and secretome composition of DC3000 and (ii evaluate temporal features of the assembly of the T3SS and the secretion process together with its dependence of pH. The proteomic screen, under hrp inducing in vitro conditions, of extracellular and cytoplasmatic fractions indicated the segregated presence of not only T3SS implicated proteins such as HopK1, HrpK1, HrpA1 and Avrpto1, but also of proteins not usually associated with the T3SS or with pathogenicity. Using multiple reaction monitoring MS (MRM-MS to quantify HrpA1 and Avrpto1, we found that HrpA1 is rapidly expressed, at a strict pH-dependent rate and is post-translationally processed extracellularly. These features appear to not interfere with rapid Avrpto1 expression and secretion but may suggest some temporal post-translational regulatory mechanism of the T3SS assembly. The high specificity and sensitivity of the MRM-MS approach should provide a powerful tool to measure secretion and translocation in infected tissues.

  14. Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 Type III secretion effector polymutants reveal an interplay between hopAD1 and AvrPtoB

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of plants by injecting a complex repertoire of effector proteins into host cells via the type III secretion system. The model effector AvrPtoB has multiple domains and plant protein interactors i...

  15. Inducible Expression of the De-Novo Designed Antimicrobial Peptide SP1-1 in Tomato Confers Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areli Herrera Diaz

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are small peptides with less than 50 amino acids and are part of the innate immune response in almost all organisms, including bacteria, vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. AMPs are active against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. The inducible expression of AMPs in plants is a promising approach to combat plant pathogens with minimal negative side effects, such as phytotoxicity or infertility. In this study, inducible expression of the de-novo designed AMP SP1-1 in Micro Tom tomato protected tomato fruits against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The peptide SP1-1 was targeted to the apoplast which is the primary infection site for plant pathogens, by fusing SP1-1 peptide to the signal peptide RsAFP1 of radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogen inducibility of the expression was enabled by using an optimized inducible 4XW2/4XS promoter. As a result, the tomato fruits of independently generated SP1-1 transgenic lines were significantly more resistant to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria than WT tomato fruits. In transgenic lines, bacterial infection was reduced up to 65% in comparison to the infection of WT plants. Our study demonstrates that the combination of the 4XW2/4XS cis-element from parsley with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide SP1-1 is a good alternative to protect tomato fruits against infections with X. campestris pv. vesicatoria.

  16. Co-silencing of tomato S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase genes confers increased immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and enhanced tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao Hui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH, catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and homocysteine, is a key enzyme that maintain the cellular methylation potential in all organisms. We report here the biological functions of tomato SlSAHHs in stress response. The tomato genome contains three SlSAHH genes that encode SlSAHH proteins with high level of sequence identity. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that SlSAHHs responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea as well as to defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and a precursor of ethylene. Virus-induced gene silencing-based knockdown of individual SlSAHH gene did not affect the growth performance and the response to Pst DC3000. However, co-silencing of three SlSAHH genes using a conserved sequence led to significant inhibition of vegetable growth. The SlSAHH-co-silenced plants displayed increased resistance to Pst DC3000 but did not alter the resistance to B. cinerea. Co-silencing of SlSAHHs resulted in constitutively activated defense responses including elevated SA level, upregulated expression of defense-related and PAMP-triggered immunity marker genes and increased callose deposition and H2O2 accumulation. Furthermore, the SlSAHH-co-silenced plants also exhibited enhanced drought stress tolerance although they had relatively small roots. These data demonstrate that, in addition to the functions in growth and development, SAHHs also play important roles in regulating biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants.

  17. Response of tobacco to the Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 is mainly dependent on salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Li; Cai, Guohua; Jiang, Shanshan; Sun, Liping; Li, Dequan

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) was the first pathogen to be demonstrated to infect Arabidopsis and to cause disease symptoms in the laboratory setting. However, the defense response to Pst DC3000 was unclear in tobacco. In this report, the expression profiles of twelve defense response-related genes were analyzed after treatment with salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and pathogen Pst DC3000 by qRT-PCR. According to our results, it could be presented that the genes primarily induced by SA were also induced to higher levels after Pst DC3000 infection. SA accumulation could be induced to a higher level than that of JA after Pst DC3000 infection. In addition, SA could result in hypersensitive response (HR), which did not completely depend on accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These results indicated that tobacco mainly depended on SA signaling pathway rather than on JA signaling pathway in response to Pst DC3000. Further study demonstrated that JA could significantly inhibit the accumulation of SA and the generation of the HR induced by Pst DC3000. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Real time expression of ACC oxidase and PR-protein genes mediated by Methylobacterium spp. in tomato plants challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, W J; Kim, K Y; Lee, Y W; Sundaram, S P; Lee, Y; Sa, T M

    2014-07-15

    Biotic stress like pathogenic infection increases ethylene biosynthesis in plants and ethylene inhibitors are known to alleviate the severity of plant disease incidence. This study aimed to reduce the bacterial spot disease incidence in tomato plants caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCV) by modulating stress ethylene with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse condition, Methylobacterium strains inoculated and pathogen challenged tomato plants had low ethylene emission compared to pathogen infected ones. ACC accumulation and ACC oxidase (ACO) activity with ACO related gene expression increased in XCV infected tomato plants over Methylobacterium strains inoculated plants. Among the Methylobacterium spp., CBMB12 resulted lowest ACO related gene expression (1.46 Normalized Fold Expression), whereas CBMB20 had high gene expression (3.42 Normalized Fold Expression) in pathogen challenged tomato. But a significant increase in ACO gene expression (7.09 Normalized Fold Expression) was observed in the bacterial pathogen infected plants. In contrast, Methylobacterium strains enhanced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activities in pathogen challenged tomato plants. The respective increase in β-1,3-glucanase related gene expressions due to CBMB12, CBMB15, and CBMB20 strains were 66.3, 25.5 and 10.4% higher over pathogen infected plants. Similarly, PAL gene expression was high with 0.67 and 0.30 Normalized Fold Expression, in pathogen challenged tomato plants inoculated with CBMB12 and CBMB15 strains. The results suggest that ethylene is a crucial factor in bacterial spot disease incidence and that methylobacteria with ACC deaminase activity can reduce the disease severity with ultimate pathogenesis-related protein increase in tomato. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Arabidopsis AtERF15 positively regulates immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Upon pathogen infection, activation of immune response requires effective transcriptional reprogramming that regulates inducible expression of a large set of defense genes. A number of ethylene-responsive factor transcription factors have been shown to play critical roles in regulating immune responses in plants. In the present study, we explored the functions of Arabidopsis AtERF15 in immune responses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, a (hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen, and Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen. Expression of AtERF15 was induced by infection of Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea and by treatments with salicylic acid (SA and methyl jasmonate. Biochemical assays demonstrated that AtERF15 is a nucleus-localized transcription activator. The AtERF15-overexpressing (AtERF15-OE plants displayed enhanced resistance while the AtERF15-RNAi plants exhibited decreased resistance against Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea. Meanwhile, Pst DC3000- or B. cinerea-induced expression of defense genes was upregulated in AtERF15-OE plants but downregulated in AtERF15-RNAi plants, as compared to the expression in wild type plants. In response to infection with B. cinerea, the AtERF15-OE plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS while the AtERF15-RNAi plants accumulated more ROS. The flg22- and chitin-induced oxidative burst was abolished and expression levels of the pattern-triggered immunity-responsive genes AtFRK1 and AtWRKY53 were suppressed in AtER15-RNAi plants upon treatment with flg22 or chitin. Furthermore, SA-induced defense response was also partially impaired in the AtERF15-RNAi plants. These data demonstrate that AtERF15 is a positive regulator of multiple layers of the immune responses in Arabidopsis.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Two Tomato Species from the Galapagos Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Pailles, Yveline; Ho, Shwen; Pires, Inê s S.; Tester, Mark A.; Negrã o, Só nia; Schmö cke, Sandra M.

    2017-01-01

    with cultivated tomato. However, information about genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations is necessary to use these resources efficiently in plant breeding. In this study, we analyzed 3,974 polymorphic SNP markers, obtained through

  1. Cell wall-bound invertase limits sucrose export and is involved in symptom development and inhibition of photosynthesis during compatible interaction between tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Nurcan; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2008-11-01

    Cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv) plays an important role in carbohydrate partitioning and regulation of sink-source interaction. There is increasing evidence that pathogens interfere with sink-source interaction, and induction of cw-Inv activity has frequently been shown in response to pathogen infection. To investigate the role of cw-Inv, transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants silenced for the major leaf cw-Inv isoforms were generated and analyzed during normal growth and during the compatible interaction with Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria. Under normal growth conditions, activities of sucrolytic enzymes as well as photosynthesis and respiration were unaltered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. However, starch levels of source leaves were strongly reduced, which was most likely caused by an enhanced sucrose exudation rate. Following X. campestris pv vesicatoria infection, cw-Inv-silenced plants showed an increased sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast of leaves. Symptom development, inhibition of photosynthesis, and expression of photosynthetic genes were clearly delayed in transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, induction of senescence-associated and pathogenesis-related genes observed in infected wild-type plants was abolished in cw-Inv-silenced tomato lines. These changes were not associated with decreased bacterial growth. In conclusion, cw-Inv restricts carbon export from source leaves and regulates the sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast. Furthermore, an increased apoplastic hexose to sucrose ratio can be linked to inhibition of photosynthesis and induction of pathogenesis-related gene expression but does not significantly influence bacterial growth. Indirectly, bacteria may benefit from low invertase activity, since the longevity of host cells is raised and basal defense might be dampened.

  2. Virus-induced Gene Silencing-based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalase in tomato genome. Nine SlTPSs, 4 SlTPPs and SlTRE1 were selected for functional analyses to explore their involvement in tomato disease resistance. Some selected SlTPSs, SlTPPs and SlTRE1 responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 as well as to defense signaling hormones (e.g. salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and a precursor of ethylene. Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4 or SlTPS7 led to deregulation of ROS accumulation and attenuated the expression of defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and thus deteriorated the resistance against B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. By contrast, silencing of SlTPS5 or SlTPP2 led to an increased expression of the defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and conferred an increased resistance against Pst DC3000. Silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7 or SlTPP2 affected trehalose level in tomato plants with or without infection of B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. These results demonstrate that SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7 and SlTPP2 play roles in resistance against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000, implying the importance of trehalose and tis metabolism in regulation of defense response against pathogens in tomato.

  3. A New Advanced Backcross Tomato Population Enables High Resolution Leaf QTL Mapping and Gene Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fulop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL mapping is a powerful technique for dissecting the genetic basis of traits and species differences. Established tomato mapping populations between domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and its more distant interfertile relatives typically follow a near isogenic line (NIL design, such as the S. pennellii Introgression Line (IL population, with a single wild introgression per line in an otherwise domesticated genetic background. Here, we report on a new advanced backcross QTL mapping resource for tomato, derived from a cross between the M82 tomato cultivar and S. pennellii. This so-called Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL population is comprised of a mix of BC2 and BC3 lines, with domesticated tomato as the recurrent parent. The BIL population is complementary to the existing S. pennellii IL population, with which it shares parents. Using the BILs, we mapped traits for leaf complexity, leaflet shape, and flowering time. We demonstrate the utility of the BILs for fine-mapping QTL, particularly QTL initially mapped in the ILs, by fine-mapping several QTL to single or few candidate genes. Moreover, we confirm the value of a backcrossed population with multiple introgressions per line, such as the BILs, for epistatic QTL mapping. Our work was further enabled by the development of our own statistical inference and visualization tools, namely a heterogeneous hidden Markov model for genotyping the lines, and by using state-of-the-art sparse regression techniques for QTL mapping.

  4. Highly Diverse Endophytic and Soil Fusarium oxysporum Populations Associated with Field-Grown Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Jill E.; Gugino, Beth K.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and genetic differentiation of populations of Fusarium oxysporum associated with tomato fields, both endophytes obtained from tomato plants and isolates obtained from soil surrounding the sampled plants, were investigated. A total of 609 isolates of F. oxysporum were obtained, 295 isolates from a total of 32 asymptomatic tomato plants in two fields and 314 isolates from eight soil cores sampled from the area surrounding the plants. Included in this total were 112 isolates from the stems of all 32 plants, a niche that has not been previously included in F. oxysporum population genetics studies. Isolates were characterized using the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1α gene. A diverse population of 26 sequence types was found, although two sequence types represented nearly two-thirds of the isolates studied. The sequence types were placed in different phylogenetic clades within F. oxysporum, and endophytic isolates were not monophyletic. Multiple sequence types were found in all plants, with an average of 4.2 per plant. The population compositions differed between the two fields but not between soil samples within each field. A certain degree of differentiation was observed between populations associated with different tomato cultivars, suggesting that the host genotype may affect the composition of plant-associated F. oxysporum populations. No clear patterns of genetic differentiation were observed between endophyte populations and soil populations, suggesting a lack of specialization of endophytic isolates. PMID:25304514

  5. Defining essential processes in plant pathogenesis with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 disarmed polymutants and a subset of key type III effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Lei; Collmer, Alan

    2017-12-25

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and its derivatives cause disease in tomato, Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana. The primary virulence factors include a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system and the phytotoxin coronatine. The complete repertoire of effector genes and key coronatine biosynthesis genes have been progressively deleted and minimally reassembled to reconstitute basic pathogenic ability in N. benthamiana, and in Arabidopsis plants that have mutations in target genes that mimic effector actions. This approach and molecular studies of effector activities and plant immune system targets have highlighted a small subset of effectors that contribute to essential processes in pathogenesis. Most notably, HopM1 and AvrE1 redundantly promote an aqueous apoplastic environment, and AvrPtoB and AvrPto redundantly block early immune responses, two conditions that are sufficient for substantial bacterial growth in planta. In addition, disarmed DC3000 polymutants have been used to identify the individual effectors responsible for specific activities of the complete repertoire and to more effectively study effector domains, effector interplay and effector actions on host targets. Such work has revealed that AvrPtoB suppresses cell death elicitation in N. benthamiana that is triggered by another effector in the DC3000 repertoire, highlighting an important aspect of effector interplay in native repertoires. Disarmed DC3000 polymutants support the natural delivery of test effectors and infection readouts that more accurately reveal effector functions in key pathogenesis processes, and enable the identification of effectors with similar activities from a broad range of other pathogens that also defeat plants with cytoplasmic effectors. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geun C; Choi, Hye K; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 μM and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR) gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved SA and JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  7. Expression of Vitis amurensis VaERF20 in Arabidopsis thaliana Improves Resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factors play important roles in regulating immune responses in plants. In our study, we characterized a member of the ERF transcription factor family, VaERF20, from the Chinese wild Vitis genotype, V. amurensis Rupr “Shuangyou”. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that VaERF20 belongs to group IXc of the ERF family, in which many members are known to contribute to fighting pathogen infection. Consistent with this, expression of VaERF20 was induced by treatment with the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea in “Shuangyou” and V. vinifera “Red Globe”. Arabidopsis thaliana plants over-expressing VaERF20 displayed enhanced resistance to B. cinerea and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000. Patterns of pathogen-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation were entirely distinct in B. cinerea and PstDC3000 inoculated plants. Examples of both salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET responsive defense genes were up-regulated after B. cinerea and PstDC3000 inoculation of the VaERF20-overexpressing transgenic A. thaliana plants. Evidence of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI, callose accumulation and stomatal defense, together with increased expression of PTI genes, was also greater in the transgenic lines. These data indicate that VaERF20 participates in various signal transduction pathways and acts as an inducer of immune responses.

  8. Modular Study of the Type III Effector Repertoire in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Reveals a Matrix of Effector Interplay in Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Lei; Zhang, Wei; Collmer, Alan

    2018-05-08

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of Nicotiana benthamiana and other plants by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E) proteins. Effectorless polymutant DC3000D36E was used with a modularized system for native delivery of the 29 DC3000 T3Es singly and in pairs. Assays of the performance of this T3E library in N. benthamiana leaves revealed a matrix of T3E interplay, with six T3Es eliciting death and eight others variously suppressing the death activity of the six. The T3E library was also interrogated for effects on DC3000D36E elicitation of a reactive oxygen species burst, for growth in planta, and for T3Es that reversed these effects. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens heterologous delivery systems yielded notably different sets of death-T3Es. The DC3000D36E T3E library system highlights the importance of 13 T3Es and their interplay in interactions with N. benthamiana. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Arabidopsis thaliana cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase CRK20 modulates host responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Madeo, Laura; Calderini, Ornella; Gehring, Chris; Moretti, Chiaraluce; Buonaurio, Roberto; Paolocci, Francesco; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2011-10-15

    In plants, the cysteine-rich repeat kinases (CRKs) are a sub-family of receptor-like protein kinases that contain the DUF26 motif in their extracellular domains. It has been shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana, CRK20 is transcriptionally induced by pathogens, salicylic acid and ozone (O(3)). However, its role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress remains to be elucidated. To determine the function of CRK20 in such responses, two CRK20 loss-of-function mutants, crk20-1 and crk20-2, were isolated from public collections of Arabidopsis T-DNA tagged lines and examined for responses to O(3) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. crk20-1 and crk20-2 showed similar O(3) sensitivities and no differences in the expression of defense genes when compared with the wild-type. However, pathogen growth was significantly reduced, while there were no differences in the induction of salicylic acid related defense genes or salicylic acid accumulation. Furthermore, correlation analysis of CRK20 gene expression suggests that it has a role in the control of H(2)O and/or nutrient transport. We therefore propose that CRK20 promotes conditions that are favorable for Pst DC3000 growth in Arabidopsis, possibly through the regulation of apoplastic homeostasis, and consequently, of the environment of this biotrophic pathogen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptional Dynamics Driving MAMP-Triggered Immunity and Pathogen Effector-Mediated Immunosuppression in Arabidopsis Leaves Following Infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura A; Polanski, Krzysztof; de Torres-Zabala, Marta; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Bowden, Laura; Moore, Jonathan; Penfold, Christopher A; Jenkins, Dafyd J; Hill, Claire; Baxter, Laura; Kulasekaran, Satish; Truman, William; Littlejohn, George; Prusinska, Justyna; Mead, Andrew; Steinbrenner, Jens; Hickman, Richard; Rand, David; Wild, David L; Ott, Sascha; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Smirnoff, Nick; Beynon, Jim; Denby, Katherine; Grant, Murray

    2015-11-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming is integral to effective plant defense. Pathogen effectors act transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally to suppress defense responses. A major challenge to understanding disease and defense responses is discriminating between transcriptional reprogramming associated with microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) and that orchestrated by effectors. A high-resolution time course of genome-wide expression changes following challenge with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the nonpathogenic mutant strain DC3000hrpA- allowed us to establish causal links between the activities of pathogen effectors and suppression of MTI and infer with high confidence a range of processes specifically targeted by effectors. Analysis of this information-rich data set with a range of computational tools provided insights into the earliest transcriptional events triggered by effector delivery, regulatory mechanisms recruited, and biological processes targeted. We show that the majority of genes contributing to disease or defense are induced within 6 h postinfection, significantly before pathogen multiplication. Suppression of chloroplast-associated genes is a rapid MAMP-triggered defense response, and suppression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and induction of ubiquitin-related genes coincide with pathogen-induced abscisic acid accumulation. Specific combinations of promoter motifs are engaged in fine-tuning the MTI response and active transcriptional suppression at specific promoter configurations by P. syringae. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. The Arabidopsis thaliana cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase CRK20 modulates host responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection

    KAUST Repository

    Ederli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    In plants, the cysteine-rich repeat kinases (CRKs) are a sub-family of receptor-like protein kinases that contain the DUF26 motif in their extracellular domains. It has been shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana, CRK20 is transcriptionally induced by pathogens, salicylic acid and ozone (O3). However, its role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress remains to be elucidated. To determine the function of CRK20 in such responses, two CRK20 loss-of-function mutants, crk20-1 and crk20-2, were isolated from public collections of Arabidopsis T-DNA tagged lines and examined for responses to O3 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. crk20-1 and crk20-2 showed similar O3 sensitivities and no differences in the expression of defense genes when compared with the wild-type. However, pathogen growth was significantly reduced, while there were no differences in the induction of salicylic acid related defense genes or salicylic acid accumulation. Furthermore, correlation analysis of CRK20 gene expression suggests that it has a role in the control of H2O and/or nutrient transport. We therefore propose that CRK20 promotes conditions that are favorable for Pst DC3000 growth in Arabidopsis, possibly through the regulation of apoplastic homeostasis, and consequently, of the environment of this biotrophic pathogen. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Cheol eSong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 M and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through SA, JA, and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Two Tomato Species from the Galapagos Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Pailles, Yveline

    2017-02-15

    Endemic flora of the Galapagos Islands has adapted to thrive in harsh environmental conditions. The wild tomato species from the Galapagos Islands, Solanum cheesmaniae and S. galapagense, are tolerant to various stresses, and can be crossed with cultivated tomato. However, information about genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations is necessary to use these resources efficiently in plant breeding. In this study, we analyzed 3,974 polymorphic SNP markers, obtained through the genotyping-by-sequencing technique, DArTseq, to elucidate the genetic diversity and population structure of 67 accessions of Galapagos tomatoes (compared to two S. lycopersicum varieties and one S. pimpinellifolium accession). Two clustering methods, Principal Component Analysis and STRUCTURE, showed clear distinction between the two species and a subdivision in the S. cheesmaniae group corresponding to geographical origin and age of the islands. High genetic variation among the accessions within each species was suggested by the AMOVA. High diversity in the S. cheesmaniae group and its correlation with the islands of origin were also suggested. This indicates a possible influence of the movement of the islands, from west to east, on the gene flow. Additionally, the absence of S. galapagense populations in the eastern islands points to the species divergence occurring after the eastern islands became isolated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the population structure of the Galapagos tomatoes collection partially explains the evolutionary history of both species, knowledge that facilitates exploitation of their genetic potential for the identification of novel alleles contributing to stress tolerance.

  14. Virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Is Influenced by the Catabolite Repression Control Protein Crc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Suma; Butcher, Bronwyn G; Liu, Yingyu; D'Amico, Katherine; Coster, Matthew; Filiatrault, Melanie J

    2017-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse plant species and is widely used as a model system in the study of effector function and the molecular basis of plant diseases. Although the relationship between bacterial metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and virulence has attracted increasing attention in bacterial pathology, it is largely unexplored in P. syringae. The Crc (catabolite repression control) protein is a putative RNA-binding protein that regulates carbon metabolism as well as a number of other factors in the pseudomonads. Here, we show that deletion of crc increased bacterial swarming motility and biofilm formation. The crc mutant showed reduced growth and symptoms in Arabidopsis and tomato when compared with the wild-type strain. We have evidence that the crc mutant shows delayed hypersensitive response (HR) when infiltrated into Nicotiana benthamiana and tobacco. Interestingly, the crc mutant was more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that, in planta, the mutant may be sensitive to reactive oxygen species generated during pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Indeed, HR was further delayed when PTI-induced tissues were challenged with the crc mutant. The crc mutant did not elicit an altered PTI response in plants compared with the wild-type strain. We conclude that Crc plays an important role in growth and survival during infection.

  15. The Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase LecRK-V.5 represses stomatal immunity induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desclos-Theveniau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomata play an important role in plant innate immunity by limiting pathogen entry into leaves but molecular mechanisms regulating stomatal closure upon pathogen perception are not well understood. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana L-type lectin receptor kinase-V.5 (LecRK-V.5 negatively regulates stomatal immunity. Loss of LecRK-V.5 function increased resistance to surface inoculation with virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Levels of resistance were not affected after infiltration-inoculation, suggesting that LecRK-V.5 functions at an early defense stage. By contrast, lines overexpressing LecRK-V.5 were more susceptible to Pst DC3000. Enhanced resistance in lecrk-V.5 mutants was correlated with constitutive stomatal closure, while increased susceptibility phenotypes in overexpression lines were associated with early stomatal reopening. Lines overexpressing LecRK-V.5 also demonstrated a defective stomatal closure after pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP treatments. LecRK-V.5 is rapidly expressed in stomatal guard cells after bacterial inoculation or treatment with the bacterial PAMP flagellin. In addition, lecrk-V.5 mutants guard cells exhibited constitutive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inhibition of ROS production opened stomata of lecrk-V.5. LecRK-V.5 is also shown to interfere with abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure signaling upstream of ROS production. These results provide genetic evidences that LecRK-V.5 negatively regulates stomatal immunity upstream of ROS biosynthesis. Our data reveal that plants have evolved mechanisms to reverse bacteria-mediated stomatal closure to prevent long-term effect on CO(2 uptake and photosynthesis.

  16. Modular Study of the Type III Effector Repertoire in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Reveals a Matrix of Effector Interplay in Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lei Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of Nicotiana benthamiana and other plants by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E proteins. Effectorless polymutant DC3000D36E was used with a modularized system for native delivery of the 29 DC3000 T3Es singly and in pairs. Assays of the performance of this T3E library in N. benthamiana leaves revealed a matrix of T3E interplay, with six T3Es eliciting death and eight others variously suppressing the death activity of the six. The T3E library was also interrogated for effects on DC3000D36E elicitation of a reactive oxygen species burst, for growth in planta, and for T3Es that reversed these effects. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens heterologous delivery systems yielded notably different sets of death-T3Es. The DC3000D36E T3E library system highlights the importance of 13 T3Es and their interplay in interactions with N. benthamiana. : Wei et al. used a Pseudomonas syringae strain lacking all known type III effectors with a modularized library expressing the 29 active effectors in the strain’s native repertoire, individually and in pairs, to comprehensively determine effector actions and interplay in inducing and suppressing responses associated with plant pathogenesis and immunity. Keywords: effector-triggered-immunity, pattern-triggered-immunity, Hop proteins, plant immunity, mini-Tn7

  17. A genetic screen reveals Arabidopsis stomatal and/or apoplastic defenses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zeng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection of plants often begins with colonization of the plant surface, followed by entry into the plant through wounds and natural openings (such as stomata, multiplication in the intercellular space (apoplast of the infected tissues, and dissemination of bacteria to other plants. Historically, most studies assess bacterial infection based on final outcomes of disease and/or pathogen growth using whole infected tissues; few studies have genetically distinguished the contribution of different host cell types in response to an infection. The phytotoxin coronatine (COR is produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. COR-deficient mutants of P. s. tomato (Pst DC3000 are severely compromised in virulence, especially when inoculated onto the plant surface. We report here a genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants that could rescue the virulence of COR-deficient mutant bacteria. Among the susceptible to coronatine-deficient Pst DC3000 (scord mutants were two that were defective in stomatal closure response, two that were defective in apoplast defense, and four that were defective in both stomatal and apoplast defense. Isolation of these three classes of mutants suggests that stomatal and apoplastic defenses are integrated in plants, but are genetically separable, and that COR is important for Pst DC3000 to overcome both stomatal guard cell- and apoplastic mesophyll cell-based defenses. Of the six mutants defective in bacterium-triggered stomatal closure, three are defective in salicylic acid (SA-induced stomatal closure, but exhibit normal stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA, and scord7 is compromised in both SA- and ABA-induced stomatal closure. We have cloned SCORD3, which is required for salicylic acid (SA biosynthesis, and SCORD5, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein, AtGCN20/AtABCF3, predicted to be involved in stress-associated protein translation control. Identification of SCORD5 begins to

  18. Population Growth Parameters of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Tomato Plant Using Organic Substrate and Biofertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, P; Razmjou, J; Naseri, B; Hassanpour, M

    2017-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a devastating pest associated with tomato. In this study, effects of tomato plants treated with vermicompost (20, 40, and 60%), humic fertilizer (2, 4 and 6 g/kg soil) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) were investigated on the life table parameters of T. absoluta in a growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 (L:D) h. Significant differences were found for the total developmental time, fecundity, and oviposition period of T. absoluta on the treatments tested. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), mean generation time (T), and doubling time (DT) of T. absoluta were significantly different among treatments tested. We found that in all vermicompost, humic fertilizer and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria treatments, values of R0, rm, and λ were lower than control treatment. However, the lowest values of these parameters were obtained on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer and 40% vermicompost. Furthermore, T. absoluta had longest T and DT values on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer treatment. Data obtained showed that the addition of 2 g/kg humic fertilizer and 40% vermicompost to the growing soil reduced T. absoluta populations in tomato cultures. In addition, these levels of fertilizers improved growth parameters of tomato seedlings (plant height, wet weight, and dry weight) compared with other treatments. These results could be useful in improving the sustainable management of the moth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense , both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense . We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens ( Alternaria solani , Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp .) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense , resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  20. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Stam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp. and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  1. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp.) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved. PMID:28133579

  2. Spreading, Infestation and Damage Rates and Adult Population Monitoring of Tomato Leaf Miner [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] on Open Field Tomato Grown in the South Marmara Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, Gürsel; GÖKSEL, Pınar; DURA, Onur; HANTAŞ, Cemil

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine spreading, infestation and fruit damage rates and adult population monitoring of Tomato leaf miner, (Tuta absoluta, Meyrick) on open field tomato grown in the South Marmara Region (Bilecik, Bursa, Kocaeli, Sakarya and Yalova provinces) of Turkey in 2011-2012. As result of spreading studies carried out according to systematic sampling method, it was determined that all tomato locations in every province were infested by this pest. Infestation rate...

  3. Role of soil, crop debris, and a plant pathogen in Salmonella enterica contamination of tomato plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri D Barak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work examined the role of contaminated soil, the potential for crop debris to act as inoculum from one crop to the next, and any interaction between the seedbourne plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and S. enterica on tomato plants. Our results show S. enterica can survive for up to six weeks in fallow soil with the ability to contaminate tomato plants. We found S. enterica can contaminate a subsequent crop via crop debris; however a fallow period between crop incorporation and subsequent seeding can affect contamination patterns. Throughout these studies, populations of S. enterica declined over time and there was no bacterial growth in either the phyllosphere or rhizoplane. The presence of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria on co-colonized tomato plants had no effect on the incidence of S. enterica tomato phyllosphere contamination. However, growth of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere occurred on co-colonized plants in the absence of plant disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: S. enterica contaminated soil can lead to contamination of the tomato phyllosphere. A six week lag period between soil contamination and tomato seeding did not deter subsequent crop contamination. In the absence of plant disease, presence of the bacterial plant pathogen, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was beneficial to S. enterica allowing multiplication of the human pathogen population. Any event leading to soil contamination with S. enterica could pose a public health risk with subsequent tomato production, especially in areas prone to bacterial spot disease.

  4. Population Modeling Approach to Optimize Crop Harvest Strategy. The Case of Field Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh T; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Tran, Thi L H; Quyen, Nguyen T; Van de Poel, Bram; Mata, Clara I; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to develop a population model based approach to optimize fruit harvesting strategies with regard to fruit quality and its derived economic value. This approach was applied to the case of tomato fruit harvesting under Vietnamese conditions. Fruit growth and development of tomato (cv. "Savior") was monitored in terms of fruit size and color during both the Vietnamese winter and summer growing seasons. A kinetic tomato fruit growth model was applied to quantify biological fruit-to-fruit variation in terms of their physiological maturation. This model was successfully calibrated. Finally, the model was extended to translate the fruit-to-fruit variation at harvest into the economic value of the harvested crop. It can be concluded that a model based approach to the optimization of harvest date and harvest frequency with regard to economic value of the crop as such is feasible. This approach allows growers to optimize their harvesting strategy by harvesting the crop at more uniform maturity stages meeting the stringent retail demands for homogeneous high quality product. The total farm profit would still depend on the impact a change in harvesting strategy might have on related expenditures. This model based harvest optimisation approach can be easily transferred to other fruit and vegetable crops improving homogeneity of the postharvest product streams.

  5. Induction of mutagenized tomato populations for investigation on agronomic traits and mutant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiul Amin Laskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for tomato production increased tremendously due to its diverse utility in raw, cooked and processed form of food. This necessitates the continued supply of highly nutritious and better yielding improved cultivars to the producers, considering the rapid changing agro-climatic condition. In this study, induced mutant tomato populations of widely recommended tomato genotype Arka Vikas (Sel-22 were generated using chemical mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS, hydrazine hydrates (HZ and their combined treatments. In the in vitro study, a gradual reduction in germination percentage and seedling height occurred with the increasing concentrations of mutagens. Combination of EMS and HZ caused maximum biological inhibition followed by EMS and HZ treatments alone in M1 generation. The rate of survival and fertility in M1 plants of tomato was found highly affected due to mutagenic treatment, in which sensitivity toward combined treatment was found highest followed by EMS and HZ. Inspection on induced phenotypic variations in individual plants of M2 population resulted in identification and isolation of wide range of mutants with altered phenotypes. Highest mutation frequency was resulted by combined mutagens followed by the EMS and HZ treatment. Agronomic trait analyses showed intra and inter treatment variations in three quantitative traits (Plant height, fertile branch per plant and fruits per plant of M2 mutagenized population. Assessment on rate of mutant recovery in M2 population showed highest mutant recovery is possible with combination treatments and then 0.02% HZ followed by 0.02% EMS. In the present study, phenotyping of the mutants revealed that vegetative organs (‘plant size’, ‘plant habit’ and ‘leaf morphology’ was the most sensitive category (69.33% to which most of the mutant belongs, followed by ‘fruit color and size’ (20.27% and ‘germination’ (9.79%. Comparative investigation on number of mutants and

  6. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-sensitized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Carnés, Jerónimo; García-Abujeta, José Luís; García-Endrino, Ana; Muñoz-Palomino, Elena; Huertas, Angel Julio; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Ferrer, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. sativa and to characterize the C. sativa leaf extract. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: group A, 10 individuals sensitized to tomato, reporting reactions by contact or inhalation to Cannabis; group B, 14 individuals sensitized to tomato, without reactions to Cannabis; group C, 8 individuals not sensitized to tomato and without reactions to Cannabis. Sensitivity to Cannabis, tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects (and 1 negative) had positive skin tests to C. sativa leaves and hashish. Specific IgE to C. sativa and peach peel was more common than to tomato. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. vulgaris extracts inhibited most of the bands present in C. sativa. P. hybrida inhibited only the high-molecular-weight bands. Sensitization to C. sativa with or without symptoms is frequent among patients in Spain sensitized to tomato. C. sativa leaves are a potential allergenic source and their allergens may cross-react with other allergenic sources from plants (fruit peels and pollen). (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Structure and Origin of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni Populations Causing Bacterial Spot of Stone Fruit Trees in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Sylvain; Manceau, Charles; Nottéghem, Jean-Loup

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot on stone fruit, was found in 1995 in several orchards in southeastern France. We studied population genetics of this emerging pathogen in comparison with populations from the United States, where the disease was first described, and from Italy, where the disease has occurred since 1920. Four housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, efp, and glnA) and the intergenic transcribed spacer region were sequenced from a total of 3.9 kb of sequences, and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis was performed. A collection of 64 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains, including 23 strains from France, was analyzed. The X. arboricola pv. pruni population had a low diversity because no sequence polymorphisms were observed. Population diversity revealed by FAFLP was lower for the West European population than for the American population. The same bacterial genotype was detected from five countries on three continents, a geographic distribution that can be explained by human-aided migration of bacteria. Our data support the hypothesis that the pathogen originated in the United States and subsequently has been disseminated to other stone-fruit-growing regions of the world. In France, emergence of this disease was due to a recent introduction of the most prevalent genotype of the bacterium found worldwide.

  8. Development of immunofluorescence colony staining (IFC) for detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis in tomato seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, J.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Immunofluorescence colony-staining (IFC) is based on sample pour plating in combination with immunofluorescence staining for recognition of the target colony. IFC was optimised for detecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in

  9. Susceptibility of geographically isolated populations of the Tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard to commonly used acaricides on tomato crops in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Toroitich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in Kenya continue to raise concerns of difficulty in managing Tetranychus evansi, the most widespread pest species of tomato applying the most commonly used acaricides. This invasive pest species is not only found in Kenya, but in Eastern and Southern Africa, as well as parts of Europe and Asia. In the current study, populations of T. evansi were collected from farms in the four major tomato-growing areas of Kenya (Loitoktok, Kibwezi, Athi-River and Subukia and their susceptibility compared to a laboratory culture (ICIPE that had been maintained for three years without exposure to acaricides. Susceptibility of T. evansi eggs and adults (contact and residual to Brigade (bifenthrin, Dimethoate (dimethoate, Karate (lambdacyhalothrin, Kelthane (dicofol, Omite (propargite and Polytrin (profenofos+ cypermethrin was tested in the laboratory using respective manufacturer’s recommended concentrations. Dimethoate resulted in variable ovicidal mortality while Kelthane, Brigade, Karate, Omite and Polytrin had high mortality across all populations. Similarly, adult contact and residual mortality was lower than that of the other chemicals when exposed to Dimethoate regardless of the location. Furthermore, it also had no residual effect on the mites from ICIPE and Kibwezi. On the other hand, Kelthane was most lethal against the mites from all locations followed by Brigade and Polytrin in that order. Omite caused significantly lower mortality on mites from Subukia while Karate produced variable effects on mites from Kibwezi, Loitoktok and Subukia. The implications of these findings are further discussed.

  10. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) F2 population segregation for improving shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendra, K N; Ramanjini Gowda, P H

    2013-02-27

    Breeding for better quality fruits is a major focus for tomatoes, which are continuously subjected to post-harvest losses. Several methods have been used to improve the fruit shelf life of tomatoes, including the use of ripening gene mutants of Solanum lycopersicum. We developed extended shelf-life tomato hybrids with better quality fruits using ripening mutants. Nine tomato crosses were developed using 3 fruit ripening gene mutants of S. lycopersicum [alcobaca (alc), non-ripening, and ripening inhibitor] and 3 agronomically superior Indian cultivars ('Sankranti', 'Vaibhav', and 'Pusaruby') with short shelf life. The hybrid progenies developed from alc x 'Vaibhav' had the highest extended shelf life (up to 40 days) compared with that of other varieties and hybrids. Further, the F(2) progenies of alc x 'Vaibhav' were evaluated for fruit quality traits and yield parameters. A wide range of genetic variability was observed in shelf life (5-106 days) and fruit firmness (0.55-10.65 lbs/cm(2)). The potential polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers underlying shelf life traits were identified in an F(2) mapping population. The marker association with fruit quality traits and yield was confirmed with single-marker analysis and composite interval mapping. The genetic parameters analyzed in the parents and F(1) and F(2) populations indicated that the cross between the cultivar 'Vaibhav' and ripening gene mutant alc yielded fruit with long shelf life and good quality.

  11. Immunocytochemical localization of HrpA and HrpZ supports a role for the Hrp pilus in the transfer of effector proteins from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato across the host plant cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I R; Mansfield, J W; Taira, S; Roine, E; Romantschuk, M

    2001-03-01

    The Hrp pilus, composed of HrpA subunits, is an essential component of the type III secretion system in Pseudomonas syringae. We used electron microscopy (EM) and immunocytochemistry to examine production of the pilus in vitro from P. syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 grown under hrp-inducing conditions on EM grids. Pili, when labeled with antibodies to HrpA, developed rapidly in a nonpolar manner shortly after the detection of the hrpA transcript and extended up to 5 microm into surrounding media. Structures at the base of the pilus were clearly differentiated from the basal bodies of flagella. The HrpZ protein, also secreted via the type III system, was found by immunogold labeling to be associated with the pilus in vitro. Accumulation and secretion of HrpA and HrpZ were also examined quantitatively after the inoculation of wild-type DC3000 and hrpA and hrpZ mutants into leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The functional pilus crossed the plant cell wall to generate tracks of immunogold labeling for HrpA and HrpZ. Mutants that produced HrpA but did not assemble pili were nonpathogenic, did not secrete HrpA protein, and were compromised for the accumulation of HrpZ. A model is proposed in which the rapidly elongating Hrp pilus acts as a moving conveyor, facilitating transfer of effector proteins from bacteria to the plant cytoplasm across the formidable barrier of the plant cell wall.

  12. Expression of the Grape VaSTS19 Gene in Arabidopsis Improves Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Botrytis cinerea but Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringe pv Tomato DC3000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stilbene synthase (STS is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19, from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. “Tonghua-3”, and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis. We then generated VaSTS19-expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000. VaSTS19 enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and B. cinerea, but increased susceptibility to PstDC3000. Aniline blue staining revealed that VaSTS19 transgenic lines accumulated more callose compared to nontransgenic control plants, and showed smaller stomatal apertures when exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (flagellin fragment (flg22 or lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Analysis of the expression of several disease-related genes suggested that VaSTS19 expression enhanced defense responses though salicylic acid (SA and/or jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways. These findings provide a deeper insight into the function of STS genes in defense against pathogens, and a better understanding of the regulatory cross talk between SA and JA pathways.

  13. Expression of the Grape VaSTS19 Gene in Arabidopsis Improves Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Botrytis cinerea but Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringe pv Tomato DC3000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiong; Wang, Dejun; Wang, Fan; Huang, Li; Tian, Xiaomin; van Nocker, Steve; Gao, Hua; Wang, Xiping

    2017-09-17

    Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19 , from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. "Tonghua-3", and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis . We then generated VaSTS19 -expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 ( Pst DC3000). VaSTS19 enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and B. cinerea , but increased susceptibility to Pst DC3000. Aniline blue staining revealed that VaSTS19 transgenic lines accumulated more callose compared to nontransgenic control plants, and showed smaller stomatal apertures when exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (flagellin fragment (flg22) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS)). Analysis of the expression of several disease-related genes suggested that VaSTS19 expression enhanced defense responses though salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. These findings provide a deeper insight into the function of STS genes in defense against pathogens, and a better understanding of the regulatory cross talk between SA and JA pathways.

  14. Transmission of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus by Thrips tabaci populations originating from leek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Nagata, T.; Katis, N.I.; Peters, D.

    1999-01-01

    The transmission of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) by Thrips tabaci collected from leek was studied using the petunia local-lesion leaf-disc assay. After an acquisition-access period of 72 h given to newborn larvae up to 8 h old, the efficiency of transmission by adults was determined in

  15. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  16. Evolution and structure of Tomato spotted wilt virus populations: evidence of extensive reassortment and insights into emergence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentchev, Diana; Verdin, Eric; Marchal, Cécile; Jacquet, Monique; Aguilar, Juan M; Moury, Benoît

    2011-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) genetic diversity was evaluated by sequencing parts of the three RNA genome segments of 224 isolates, mostly from pepper and tomato crops in southern Europe. Eighty-three per cent of the isolates showed consistent clustering into three clades, corresponding to their geographical origin, Spain, France or the USA, for the three RNA segments. In contrast, the remaining 17% of isolates did not belong to the same clade for the three RNA segments and were shown to be reassortants. Among them, eight different reassortment patterns were observed. Further phylogenetic analyses provided insights into the dynamic processes of the worldwide resurgence of TSWV that, since the 1980s, has followed the worldwide dispersal of the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) tospovirus vector. For two clades composed essentially of Old World (OW) isolates, tree topology suggested a local re-emergence of indigenous TSWV populations following F. occidentalis introductions, while it could not be excluded that the ancestors of two other OW clades were introduced from North America contemporarily with F. occidentalis. Finally, estimation of the selection intensity that has affected the evolution of the NSs and nucleocapsid proteins encoded by RNA S of TSWV suggests that the former could be involved in the breakdown of resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in pepper.

  17. The Ca2+ induced two-component system, CvsSR regulates the Type III secretion system and the extracytoplasmic function sigma-factor AlgU in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Maxwell R; Zhang, Johnson; Bronstein, Philip A; Stodghill, Paul; Filiatrault, Melanie J

    2017-12-20

    Two-component systems (TCSs) of bacteria regulate many different aspects of the bacterial life cycle including pathogenesis. Most TCSs remain uncharacterized with no information about the signal(s) or regulatory targets and/or role in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we characterized a TCS in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 ( Pto ) composed of the histidine kinase, CvsS, and the response regulator, CvsR. CvsSR is necessary for virulence of Pto , since ΔcvsS and ΔcvsR strains produced fewer symptoms and demonstrated reduced growth on multiple hosts as compared to WT. We discovered that expression of cvsSR is induced by Ca 2+ concentrations found in leaf apoplastic fluid. Thus, Ca 2+ can be added to the list of signals that promote pathogenesis of Pto during host colonization. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and global transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) we discerned the CvsR regulon. CvsR directly activated expression of the type III secretion system regulators, hrpR and hrpS , that regulates Pto virulence in a type III secretion system dependent manner. CvsR also indirectly repressed transcription of the extracytoplasmic sigma factor algU and production of alginate. Phenotypic analysis determined that CvsSR inversely regulated biofilm formation, swarming motility, and cellulose production in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Overall, our results show that CvsSR is a key regulatory hub critical for interaction with host plants. Importance Pathogenic bacteria must be able to react and respond to the surrounding environment, make use of available resources, and avert or counter host immune responses. Often, these abilities rely on two-component systems (TCSs) composed of interacting proteins that modulate gene expression. We identified a TCS in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae that responds to the presence of calcium, which is an important signal during the plant

  18. Novel Mutations Detected in Avirulence Genes Overcoming Tomato Cf Resistance Genes in Isolates of a Japanese Population of Cladosporium fulvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Iida

    Full Text Available Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction of resistance genes Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 new races have evolved. Here we first determined the virulence spectrum of 133 C. fulvum isolates collected from 22 prefectures in Japan, and subsequently sequenced the avirulence (Avr genes Avr2, Avr4, Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9 to determine the molecular basis of overcoming Cf genes. Twelve races of C. fulvum with a different virulence spectrum were identified, of which races 9, 2.9, 4.9, 4.5.9 and 4.9.11 occur only in Japan. The Avr genes in many of these races contain unique mutations not observed in races identified elsewhere in the world including (i frameshift mutations and (ii transposon insertions in Avr2, (iii point mutations in Avr4 and Avr4E, and (iv deletions of Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9. New races have developed by selection pressure imposed by consecutive introductions of Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 genes in commercially grown tomato cultivars. Our study shows that molecular variations to adapt to different Cf genes in an isolated C. fulvum population in Japan are novel but overall follow similar patterns as those observed in populations from other parts of the world. Implications for breeding of more durable C. fulvum resistant varieties are discussed.

  19. Effects of copper-based compounds, antibiotics and a plant activator on population sizes and spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in greenhouse tomato seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Milijašević Svetlana; Todorović Biljana; Potočnik Ivana; Rekanović Emil; Stepanović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Three copper-based compounds (copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate), two antibiotics (streptomycin and kasugamycin) and a plant activator (ASM) significantly reduced population sizes and spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis among tomato seedlings in the greenhouse. Streptomycin had the best effect in reducing pathogen population size in all sampling regions. Moreover, this antibiotic completely stopped the spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in the regi...

  20. Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a PV-diesel hybrid power system with battery backup for a village being fed with diesel generated electricity to displace part of the diesel by solar. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the site along with PV modules mounted on fixed foundations, four generators of different rated powers, diesel prices of 0.2-1.2US$/l, different sizes of batteries and converters were used to find an optimal power system for the village. It was found that a PV array of 2000 kW and four generators of 1250, 750, 2250 and 250 kW; operating at a load factor of 70% required to run for 3317 h/yr, 4242 h/yr, 2820 h/yr and 3150 h/yr, respectively; to produce a mix of 17,640 MWh of electricity annually and 48.33 MWh per day. The cost of energy (COE) of diesel only and PV/diesel/battery power system with 21% solar penetration was found to be 0.190$/kWh and 0.219$/kWh respectively for a diesel price of 0.2$/l. The sensitivity analysis showed that at a diesel price of 0.6$/l the COE from hybrid system become almost the same as that of the diesel only system and above it, the hybrid system become more economical than the diesel only system. (author)

  1. Baby leaf lettuce germplasm enhancement: developing diverse populations with resistance to bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby leaf lettuce cultivars with resistance to bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) are needed to reduce crop losses. The objectives of this research were to assess the genetic diversity for BLS resistance in baby leaf lettuce cultivars and to select early gen...

  2. Life history data and population growth of Tuta absoluta at constant and alternating temperatures on two tomato lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, D.B.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Lins, Juracy Caldeira; Lenteren, Van J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The tomato borer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera Gelechiidae), is of growing concern worldwide as a key pest of tomato. In Brazil, the pest is controlled by frequent pesticide sprays, leading to quick development of pesticide resistance in the pest, to high pesticide residue levels on the

  3. Effects of Variety and Postharvest Handling Practices on Microbial Population at Different Stages of the Value Chain of Fresh Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Western Terai of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Ram B; Marasini, Madan; Rawal, Ranjana; Gautam, Durga M; Acedo, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Background . Fresh vegetables such as tomato should have low microbial population for safe consumption and long storage life. The aerobic bacterial count (ABC) and coliform bacterial count (CBC), yeast, and mold population are the most widely used microbial indicators in fresh vegetables which should be lower than 4 log CFU g -1 for safe consumption. The stages of the supply chain, postharvest handling methods, and crop varieties had significant effects on microbial population. ABC, CBC, yeast, and mold population were significantly highest ( P < 0.05) at retail market (5.59, 4.38, 2.60, and 3.14 log CFU g -1 , resp.), followed by wholesale market (4.72, 4.71, 2.43, and 2.44 log CFU g -1 , resp.), and were least at farm gate (3.89, 3.63, 2.38, and 2.03 log CFU g -1 , resp.). Improved postharvest practices (washing in clean water and grading and packaging in clean plastic crate) helped to reduce ABC, CBC, and mold population by 2.51, 32.70, and 29.86 percentage as compared to the conventional method (no washing and no grading and packaging in mud plastered bamboo baskets). Among varieties, Pusa ruby had the lowest microbial load of 2.58, 4.53, 0.96, and 1.77 log CFU g -1 for ABC, CBC, yeast, and mold count, respectively. Significantly negative correlation ( P < 0.05) was observed between fruit pH & ABC and pH & mold count. Although the microbial quality of fresh tomato is safe in the local market of western Terai of Nepal both in conventional and in improved practices however still it is essential to follow improved postharvest handling practices in production and marketing of newly introduced tomato cultivars (high-pH cultivars) for ensuring the safe availability of fresh tomato in the market.

  4. Pooled Enrichment Sequencing Identifies Diversity and Evolutionary Pressures at NLR Resistance Genes within a Wild Tomato Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-06-02

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing proteins that are important in plant resistance signaling. Many of the known pathogen resistance (R) genes in plants are NLRs and they can recognize pathogen molecules directly or indirectly. As such, divergence and copy number variants at these genes are found to be high between species. Within populations, positive and balancing selection are to be expected if plants coevolve with their pathogens. In order to understand the complexity of R-gene coevolution in wild nonmodel species, it is necessary to identify the full range of NLRs and infer their evolutionary history. Here we investigate and reveal polymorphism occurring at 220 NLR genes within one population of the partially selfing wild tomato species Solanum pennellii. We use a combination of enrichment sequencing and pooling ten individuals, to specifically sequence NLR genes in a resource and cost-effective manner. We focus on the effects which different mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism calling software and settings have on calling polymorphisms in customized pooled samples. Our results are accurately verified using Sanger sequencing of polymorphic gene fragments. Our results indicate that some NLRs, namely 13 out of 220, have maintained polymorphism within our S. pennellii population. These genes show a wide range of πN/πS ratios and differing site frequency spectra. We compare our observed rate of heterozygosity with expectations for this selfing and bottlenecked population. We conclude that our method enables us to pinpoint NLR genes which have experienced natural selection in their habitat. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Pooled Enrichment Sequencing Identifies Diversity and Evolutionary Pressures at NLR Resistance Genes within a Wild Tomato Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing proteins that are important in plant resistance signaling. Many of the known pathogen resistance (R) genes in plants are NLRs and they can recognize pathogen molecules directly or indirectly. As such, divergence and copy number variants at these genes are found to be high between species. Within populations, positive and balancing selection are to be expected if plants coevolve with their pathogens. In order to understand the complexity of R-gene coevolution in wild nonmodel species, it is necessary to identify the full range of NLRs and infer their evolutionary history. Here we investigate and reveal polymorphism occurring at 220 NLR genes within one population of the partially selfing wild tomato species Solanum pennellii. We use a combination of enrichment sequencing and pooling ten individuals, to specifically sequence NLR genes in a resource and cost-effective manner. We focus on the effects which different mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism calling software and settings have on calling polymorphisms in customized pooled samples. Our results are accurately verified using Sanger sequencing of polymorphic gene fragments. Our results indicate that some NLRs, namely 13 out of 220, have maintained polymorphism within our S. pennellii population. These genes show a wide range of πN/πS ratios and differing site frequency spectra. We compare our observed rate of heterozygosity with expectations for this selfing and bottlenecked population. We conclude that our method enables us to pinpoint NLR genes which have experienced natural selection in their habitat. PMID:27189991

  6. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  7. Predicting the presence of whiteflies and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Florida tomato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...

  8. Association mapping of main tomato fruit sugars and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of S. lycopersicum (123 accessions and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS over two years using the mixed linear model (MLM. We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P<0.001 for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  9. Novel mutations detected in avirulence genes overcoming tomato Cf resistance genes in isolates of a Japanese population of Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, Y.; Hof, van 't P.M.J.; Beenen, H.G.; Mesarich, C.H.; Kubota, M.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Mehrabi, A.; Notsu, A.; Fujiwara, K.; Bahkali, A.; Abd-Elsalam, K.; Collemare, J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction

  10. Building Integrated PV and PV/Hybrid Products - The PV:BONUS Experience: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H.; Pierce, L. K.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Successes and lessons learned from PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the United States in PV). This program has funded the development of PV or PV/hybrid products for building applications.

  11. Development of a Multiple Loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) to Unravel the Intra-Pathovar Structure of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Populations Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarroni, Serena; Gallipoli, Lorenzo; Taratufolo, Maria C.; Butler, Margi I.; Poulter, Russell T. M.; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles; Balestra, Giorgio M.; Mazzaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial canker of kiwifruit by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an emblematic example of a catastrophic disease of fruit crops. In 2008 a new, extremely virulent form of the pathogen emerged and rapidly devastated many Actinidia spp. orchards all over the world. In order to understand differences in populations within this pathovar and to elucidate their diffusion and movements on world scale, it is necessary to be able to quickly and on a routine basis compare new isolates with previous records. In this report a worldwide collection of 142 strains was analyzed by MLVA, chosen as investigative technique for its efficacy, reproducibility, simplicity and low cost. A panel of 13 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) loci was identified and used to describe the pathogen population. The MLVA clustering is highly congruent with the population structure as previously established by other molecular approaches including whole genome sequencing and correlates with geographic origin, time of isolation and virulence. For convenience, we divided the VNTR loci in two panels. Panel 1 assay, using six loci, recognizes 23 different haplotypes, clustered into ten complexes with highest congruence with previous classifications. Panel 2, with seven VNTR loci, provides discriminatory power. Using the total set of 13 VNTR loci, 58 haplotypes can be distinguished. The recent hypervirulent type shows very limited diversity and includes, beside the strains from Europe, New Zealand and Chile, a few strains from Shaanxi, China. A broad genetic variability is observed in China, but different types are also retrievable in Japan and Korea. The low virulent strains cluster together and are very different from the other MLVA genotypes. Data were used to generate a public database in MLVAbank. MLVA represents a very promising first-line assay for large-scale routine genotyping, prior to whole genome sequencing of only the most relevant samples. PMID:26262683

  12. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  13. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  14. Simulation of Distributed PV Power Output in Oahu Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation in Oahu has grown rapidly since 2008. For applications such as determining the value of energy storage, it is important to have PV power output timeseries. Since these timeseries of not typically measured, here we produce simulated distributed PV power output for Oahu. Simulated power output is based on (a) satellite-derived solar irradiance, (b) PV permit data by neighborhood, and (c) population data by census block. Permit and population data was used to model locations of distributed PV, and irradiance data was then used to simulate power output. PV power output simulations are presented by sub-neighborhood polygons, neighborhoods, and for the whole island of Oahu. Summary plots of annual PV energy and a sample week timeseries of power output are shown, and a the files containing the entire timeseries are described.

  15. PV ready roofing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The integration of PV technology into roofs of houses has become very popular in the United States, Japan, Germany and The Netherlands. There could be a considerable market in the UK for these systems, given the large number of houses that are projected to be built in the next 10 years, and taking account of increased awareness of energy issues. A significant proportion of the market share of annual installed PV is for solar PV systems installed into homes (currently 15%), this is expected to rise to 23% (900MW) by 2010. The grid connected roof and building mounted facade systems represent the fastest growing market for PV systems in Europe. In conclusion, therefore, innovative approached for fixing PV technology onto roofs have been identified for both domestic roofs and for the commercial sector. With reference to production methodologies within the roofing industry, both approaches should be capable of being designed with PV-ready connections suitable for fixing PV modules at a later date. This will help overcome the key barriers of cost of installation, skills required and the lack of retrofit potential. Based on the results of this project, Sustainable Energy together with PV Systems are keen to take forward the full research and development of PV-ready systems for both the domestic and commercial sectors.

  16. Building brighter PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current status and future prospects of the UK market for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity are briefly discussed. Through the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the UK Government has supported research and development (R and D) into PV for a number of years. This programme has now been extended to demonstrating PV systems on houses. Phase 2 - the domestic field trial programme - aims to monitor the performance of individual systems and the impact on a cluster of systems on the electricity network. New funding had allowed a trebling of the size of this programme, which involves both private developers and housing associations. The DTI is also working to promote PV on commercial buildings, eg the installation of BP Solar PV systems at BP petrol stations. The PV industry in the UK is technically strong and is working to overcome the barriers in the UK to greater uptake of the technology (including cost, conservatism, legal requirements and metering practices). Improvements are expected in a number of recent initiatives in the electricity industry to boost PV use and the PV industry is lobbying for PV to be included in the Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA) scheme

  17. Bemisia tabaci MED Population Density as Affected by Rootstock-Modified Leaf Anatomy and Amino Acid Profiles in Hydroponically Grown Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Žanić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is one of the most devastating pests in tomato greenhouse production. Insecticide resistance management for B. tabaci requires a novel approach that maximizes non-chemical methods for pest control. The aim of this study was to test the effects of rootstocks on B. tabaci populations in hydroponically grown tomato plants. In order to contribute to the better understanding of the mechanisms defining the attractiveness of plant to the aerial pest, the effects of rootstocks on leaf anatomy and the amino acid composition of phloem sap were assessed. A two-factorial experimental design was adopted using cultivars (rootstock cultivars and Clarabella grown as either non-grafted or grafted with cultivar Clarabella as a scion. The rootstock cultivars included Arnold, Buffon, Emperador, and Maxifort. A reduction in B. tabaci density was observed using all rootstock cultivars. The number of adult individuals per leaf was 2.7–5.4 times lower on rootstock cultivars than on Clarabella. The number of large nymphs per square centimeter was at least 24% higher on non–grafted Clarabella compared with all other treatments. The leaf lamina thickness and mesophyll thickness were lower in self-grafted Clarabella than in non-grafted or in one grafted on rootstock cultivars; however, the extent of this reduction depended on the rootstock. The leaves with thinner laminae were generally less attractive to B. tabaci. Eighteen amino acids were detected in the exudates of phloem sap. In all treatments, the most abundant amino acid was γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, followed by proline, serine, alanine, and histidine. The scion cultivar Clarabella was the most attractive to B. tabaci and had a higher content of leucine than did rootstock cultivars, and a higher content of lysine compared to Buffon and Maxifort. The features modified by rootstock such are changes in leaf anatomy can affect the attractiveness of plants to B. tabaci. Thus, the grafting of tomato

  18. Xanthomonads and other yellow-pigmented, Xanthomonas-like bacteria associated with tomato seeds in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbega, Ernest Rashid; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Mabagala, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    of Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum, were pathogenic on tomato and pepper plants. Strains identified by Biolog as Sphingomonas sanguinis and Sphingomonas terrae also incited black rot symptoms on pepper leaves. However, bacterial strains belonging to the genus Stenotrophomonas, Chryseobacterium, Pantoea...... and Flavobacterium were not pathogenic on tomato and pepper. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strains of the genus Xanthomonas are more closely related to Stenotrophomonas and Pantoea compared to the other bacterial genera found in tomato seeds....

  19. The PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1990s. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market however is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy the cost of PV systems utility acceptance of PV and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, and OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer stand-alone and utility markets

  20. Zesty Tomato Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/zestytomatosoup.html Zesty Tomato Soup To use the sharing features on this page, ... Number of Servings: 4 Not your traditional tomato soup, this quick-cooking dish can be a side ...

  1. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  2. Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2013-08-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  3. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  4. PV Life Cycle Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten Wambach

    2017-01-01

    This presentation was part of the Workshop: Recycling, reuse and resource efficiency: New solutions for a PV circular economy - Results from the projects CABRISS and ECOSOLAR. The workshop was organized within Freiberg Silicon Days 2017.

  5. Inhibition of apoptic cell death induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tabaci and mycotoxin fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Batchvorova, R.; Kapchina, V.; Popov, T.; Atanassov, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of programmed cell death (PCD) inhibitors on lesion formation and biochemical events in transgenic (ttr line) and non-transgenic (Nevrokop 1164) tobacco infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci was tested. Programmed cell death in tomato cell culture was induced by Fumonisin B1 (FUM)

  6. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ON THE PROCESSING TOMATO CROP AND TOMATO FOR CONSUMPTION IN NATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. O. Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Weeds cause direct and indirect damage to processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura. The coexistence period is decisive for the intensity of damage, although the economic cost is also considered for decision making when to control the weeds. There are similarities between processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura cropping system and peculiarities. This causes the management has adopted its common applications and its variables within each system. As control alternative, the farmer has basically the preventive control, mechanical, cultural, biological and chemical. The application of a single method is not recommended. Ideally, the methods needs to be integrated in order to combat weeds, highly evolved populations and resistant to unfavorable conditions. Consider weed management taking only one control measure is to underestimate the evolutionary ability of such species. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate the various methods available to the weed interference not impede the tomato production.

  7. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P conveyors. After conveying uninoculated tomatoes over contaminated foam rollers, 96% of the 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at >100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P < 0.05). Adding peroxyacetic acid or chlorine to the wash water significantly decreased cross-contamination during tomato conveying, with chlorine less effective in controlling Salmonella on foam compared with plastic and brush rollers.

  8. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, P

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members.

  9. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.

    2003-01-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members

  10. Global PV Market Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The dawn of 2009 saw several events which caused major turbulence in the global photovoltaic industry. In 2008 the Spanish PV market grew beyond all expectations and even outranked Germany as the world's number one market. However, the promotion scheme was modified and a market cap was introduced in 2009, cutting back the maximum capacity to be installed to about the level of 2007. In addition, the industry is facing an oversupply of PV modules and a harsh recession which is significantly affecting the traditionally strong PV markets. International photovoltaic companies are challenged by a changing market situation: all of a sudden, competition has increased significantly, pushing the customer to the fore. As a result, a consolidation process is expected within the PV industry worldwide. However, the story is not all negative. In the U.S., the election of Barack Obama may be seen as the starting signal for a massive expansion in PV, likely to bring the country to first place globally within the next five years. Furthermore, different markets and market segments are being opened up - especially in Europe - thanks to the gradual arrival of generation parity and new PV support mechanisms. EuPD Research has observed and studied international PV markets since its foundation. The information included in the presentation is based on a wide range of quantitative and qualitative studies that EuPD Research has conducted in the key markets since 2002. Florian Schmidt, EuPD Research's Head of Product Management, will give an overview of the global PV market and how it is developing in this crucial year 2009. Aspects such as technology development, production capacities and the demand side will be included, with a special emphasis on the European PV markets. So far Chinese PV companies have often benefited from the booming PV markets in Europe, above all Germany and Spain. Due to the lack of domestic market, the Chinese industry strongly depends on the export and is

  11. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  12. Identification of an A2 population of Phythophthora andina attacking tree tomato in Peru indicates a risk of sexual reproduction in this pathosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva Pérez, Ricardo Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Tree tomato, Solanum betaceum , is an Andean fruit crop previously shown to be attacked by Phytophthora andina in Ecuador and Colombia. Blight-like symptoms were discovered on tree tomato plants in the central highlands of Peru in 2003 and shown to be caused by P. andina. Isolates of P. andina, collected from three different plantations in Peru over a 6-year time span (2003–2008), were compared genetically with P. andina isolates from Colombia and Ecuador to test whether the pathogen populati...

  13. Three QTLs for Botrytis cinerea resistance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H.J.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Berloo, van R.; Have, ten A.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus was identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as S. habrochaites LYC4. In order to identify loci involved in quantitative resistance (QTLs) to B. cinerea, a population of

  14. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  15. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch...

  16. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  17. Functional genomics of tomato

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... 1Repository of Tomato Genomics Resources, Department of Plant Sciences, School .... Due to its position at the crossroads of Sanger's sequencing .... replacement for the microarray-based expression profiling. .... during RNA fragmentation step prior to library construction, ...... tomato pollen as a test case.

  18. Antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis SB1 and its biocontrol effect on tomato bacterial wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    A potential biocontrol agent of bacterial wilt, Bacillus subtilis SB1, isolated from tomato roots, showed a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity in in vitro experiments. It inhibited the growth of many plant pathogens, including Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Fusarium ox...

  19. PV and PV/hybrid products for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H. P.; Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L., Pierce, L. K.

    2000-05-15

    Residential, commercial, and industrial buildings combined are the largest consumers of electricity in the United States and represent a significant opportunity for photovoltaic (PV) and PV/hybrid systems. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a phased research and product development program, Building Opportunities in the United States for Photovoltaics (PV:BONUS), focused on this market sector. The purpose of the program is to develop technologies and foster business arrangements integrating cost-effective PV or hybrid products into buildings. The first phase was completed in 1996 and a second solicitation, PV:BONUS2, was initiated during 1997. These projects are resulting in a variety of building-integrated products. This paper summarizes the recent progress of the seven firms and collaborative teams currently participating in PV:BONUS2 and outlines planned work for the final phase of their work.

  20. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tomatoes. (a) Identity—(1) Description. (i) Canned tomatoes is the food prepared from mature tomatoes...). Without shifting the tomatoes, so incline the sieve as to facilitate drainage of the liquid. Two minutes...

  1. Advances in PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander

    and preferably low complexity leads to new research demands. This is especially true in the field of low cost residential PV inverters where efficiencies are used as major selling arguments. Traditional converter topologies equipped with conventional Silicon based semiconductors to date reach their limitations......, a replacement of only two switching devices per phase leg can greatly reduce the semiconductor losses. The Hybrid-NPC converter can be seen as an attractive and cost competitive alternative to the Silicon Carbide based converter, also allowing to overcome the major drawbacks with the conventional Silicon IGBT...

  2. Screening of tomato genotypes for resistance to tomato fruit borer (helicoverpa armiger hubner) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.; Ashfaq, M.; Suhail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato genotypes viz., Roma Local, Rio Grande, Tanja, Chico III, Long Tipped, Red-Top, FS-8001, FS-8002, Tropic, Pakit, Peelo, NARC-1, Roma VFN, Pant Bahr, Ebein, Nova Mech, Rockingham, Nagina, Shalkot-96, Pomodoro, Manik, Gressilesse, Nadir, Early Mech, Tommy, Pusha Rubi, Tropic boy, Big Long, Sahil, Sun 6002, Money-Maker and Royesta were evaluated to screen out the suitable resistant/susceptible genotypes against the fruit borer in Pakistan. The results imparted that the percentage of fruit infestation and larval population per plant on tested genotypes of tomato varied significantly. Roma VF, NARC-1 and FS-8002 were categorized as susceptible genotypes with fruit infestation (37.69%, 37.08% and 36.41%, respectively) and larval population per plant (1.02%, 1.02% and 0.84 %, respectively). Whereas, the genotypes Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb had fruit infestation (12.30%, 13.14% and 13.96%, respectively) and larval population per plant (0.42%, 0.42% and 0.43%, respectively) and declared as resistant genotypes to tomato fruit borer. Lower values of host plant susceptibility indices (HPSI) were recorded on resistant genotypes. Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb could be used as a source of resistance for developing tomato genotypes resistant to tomato fruit borer. (author)

  3. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key...

  4. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  5. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or .... stored at -20°C. Enzymatic in vitro synthesis of radiolabeled ..... with nematicidal activity from Culture of basidiomycetes.

  6. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  7. POSTHARVEST FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    commercial food vendors often intentionally use physically damaged tomatoes and ... The production of the bulk of the fresh tomato and. 'tatase' in Nigeria is in ...... mycotoxin contamination of food include but not limited to mycotoxicoses, liver ...

  8. PV in a sports arena; PV im Hexenkessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, B.

    2008-05-19

    The German soccer club Werder Bremen is reconstructing its stadium. Apart from higher spectator comfort and a better atmosphere, there will also be PV systems on the roof and external walls of the arena. (orig.)

  9. Impacts of PV Array Sizing on PV Inverter Lifetime and Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    . However, oversizing the PV array will increase the loading of PV inverters, which may have undesired influence on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability. In that case, it may result in a negative impact on the overall PV energy cost, due to the increased maintenance for the PV inverters. This paper...... evaluates the lifetime of PV inverters considering the PV array sizing and installation sites, e.g., Denmark and Arizona. The results reveal that the PV array sizing has a considerable impact on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability, especially in Denmark, where the average solar irradiance level...

  10. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  11. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  12. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  13. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  14. Impacts of PV Array Sizing on PV Inverter Lifetime and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In order to enable a more wide-scale utilization of PV systems, the cost of PV energy has to be comparable with other energy sources. Oversizing the PV array is one common approach to reduce the cost of PV energy, since it increases the PV energy yield during low solar irradiance conditions. However, oversizing the PV array will increase the loading of PV inverters, which may have undesired influence on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability. In that case, it may result in a negative impact...

  15. Economic PV - a shift in thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article argues that photovoltaic (PV) technology is already economically viable contrary to current opinion. A table of world PV module shipments for 1990 to 1998 by market sector is presented, and use of PV modules in consumer electronics such as calculators, battery trickle chargers, and garden lights; in communications and signals (eg. microwave repeaters, cellular communication); and in the residential sector in fluorescent lights, radios etc. are discussed. The early adopters of PV technology, and the value placed on PV devices by consumers are considered. Details of PV manufacturing costs for 1997, and forecasts for 2000 and 2010 are tabulated

  16. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  17. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. on tomatoes by plant molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Tyler E; Johny, Anup Kollanoor; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; More, Karen; Schreiber, David T; Patel, Jitu; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2011-01-05

    The efficacy of carvacrol (CAR), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), eugenol (EUG) and β-resorcylic acid (BR) as a wash treatment for reducing Salmonella spp. on tomatoes was investigated. Plum tomatoes inoculated with a six-serotype mixture of Salmonella (10⁸CFU) were subjected to washing in sterile deionized water (control) or deionized water containing chlorine (100 ppm), CAR (0.25 and 0.75%), TC (0.5 and 0.75%), EUG (0.25 and 0.75%), or BR (0.75 and 1.0%) for 15 sec, 1 min, and 3 min. The plant molecules were more effective (Pwashing in water and chlorine. Both concentrations of CAR and TC, and 0.75% EUG decreased Salmonella counts on tomatoes by~6.0 log CFU/ml at 1 min. Both concentrations of BR decreased the pathogen on tomatoes to undetectable levels at 3 min of exposure. Washing of tomatoes in deionized water and chlorine for 3 min reduced Salmonella by ca. 2.0 and 4.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. No Salmonella was detected in the wash water containing the plant molecules or chlorine, whereas a substantial population of the pathogen survived in the control wash water. Moreover, none of the dipping treatments had any effect on the red color of tomatoes (P>0.05). Results indicate that CAR, TC, EUG and BR could effectively be used to kill Salmonella on tomatoes, but additional studies on sensory and quality characteristics of tomatoes treated with plant molecules are warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  19. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  20. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  1. Divergência genética e subcoleção representativa de populações da traça-do-tomateiro Genetic divergence and representative tomato pinworm populations subcollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Rodrigues Moreira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a divergência genética e propor uma subcoleção representativa da traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (TDT. O experimento foi conduzido com quatro populações do inseto procedentes de Uberlândia, MG, Viçosa, MG, Camocim de São Félix, PE, e Santa Teresa, ES, e cinco acessos de tomateiro, 'Santa Clara', 'Moneymaker', TOM-601, PI 126445 (Lycopersicon hirsutum f. typicum e PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum. Foi realizada análise de agrupamento (método de Tocher, usando a distância de Mahalanobis como medida de dissimilaridade e verificada a importância relativa dos caracteres da TDT para a divergência genética entre populações por meio do método de Singh. As populações de cada grupo obtido pela análise de agrupamento foram combinadas e, para cada caráter, foi realizado o teste t de Student para uma média. Existe variabilidade genética entre populações da TDT provenientes de diferentes localidades do Brasil, quando estão infestando Lycopersicon spp. A mortalidade larval teve maior contribuição para a divergência genética entre as populações, com exceção de PI 134417, cujo caráter de maior contribuição foi o número de pupas fêmeas. Propõe-se uma subcoleção da TDT tomando-se por base a combinação das populações de Santa Teresa e Uberlândia.This work aimed to study the genetic diversity and to propose a representative tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (TDT, subcollection. Populations of insect originally from Uberlândia, MG, Viçosa (MG, Camocim de São Félix, PE, and Santa Teresa, ES, Brazil, and five tomato accessions, 'Santa Clara', 'Moneymaker', TOM-601, PI 126445 (Lycopersicon hirsutum f. typicum and PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum were used. Grouping analysis (Tocher method, using the Mahalanobis distance as dissimilarity measurement was performed and the relative importance of TDT characters to the genetic divergence among populations was evaluated by Singh

  2. Photovoltaics for Buildings Cutting-Edge PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology development for building-integrated applications (commonly called PV for Buildings) is one of the fastest growing areas in the PV industry. Buildings represent a huge potential market for photovoltaics because they consume approximately two-thirds of the electricity consumed in the US. The PV and buildings industries are beginning to work together to address issues including building codes and standards, integration, after-market servicing, education, and building energy efficiency. One of the most notable programs to encourage development of new PV-for-buildings products is the PV:BONUS program, supported by the US Department of Energy. Demand for these products from building designers has escalated since the program was initiated in 1993. This paper presents a range of PV-for-buildings issues and products that are currently influencing today's PV and buildings markets

  3. A case study of utility PV economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.; Hoff, T.; Osborn, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from a detailed study of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) applications within the service area of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. The intent is to better understand the economics and markets for grid-connected PV systems in a utility setting. Research results include: Benefits calculations for utility-owned PV systems at transmission and distribution voltages; How the QuickScreen software package can help utilities investigate the viability of distributed PV; Energy production and capacity credit estimates for fixed and tracking PV systems; Economics and rate impacts of net metering residential PV systems; Market potential estimates for residential rooftop PV systems; and Viability and timing of grid-connected PV commercialization paths

  4. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a...

  5. PV supply chain growing pains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, A. [Matrix Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  6. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  7. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, Chris; DiOrio, Nick; Jordan, Dirk; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-12

    PowerPoint slides for a presentation given at Solar Power International 2016. Presentation includes System Advisor Model (SAM) introduction and battery modeling, bifacial PV modules and modeling, shade modeling and module level power electronics (MLPE), degradation rates, and PVWatts updates and validation.

  8. Redox proteomics of tomato in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Kelly Mayrink; Parker, Jennifer; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mammals with adaptive immunity, plants rely on their innate immunity based on pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) for pathogen defense. Reactive oxygen species, known to play crucial roles in PTI and ETI, can perturb cellular redox homeostasis and lead to changes of redox-sensitive proteins through modification of cysteine sulfhydryl groups. Although redox regulation of protein functions has emerged as an important mechanism in several biological processes, little is known about redox proteins and how they function in PTI and ETI. In this study, cysTMT proteomics technology was used to identify similarities and differences of protein redox modifications in tomato resistant (PtoR) and susceptible (prf3) genotypes in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) infection. In addition, the results of the redox changes were compared and corrected with the protein level changes. A total of 90 potential redox-regulated proteins were identified with functions in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, biosynthesis of cysteine, sucrose and brassinosteroid, cell wall biogenesis, polysaccharide/starch biosynthesis, cuticle development, lipid metabolism, proteolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein targeting to vacuole, and oxidation–reduction. This inventory of previously unknown protein redox switches in tomato pathogen defense lays a foundation for future research toward understanding the biological significance of protein redox modifications in plant defense responses. PMID:26504582

  9. City and County Solar PV Training Program, Module 2: Screening and Identifying PV Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-09

    When screening and identifying PV projects, cities and counties should understand the different factors that impact the technical and economic potential of a PV project, the steps of the PV screening process, and how to use REopt Lite to screen a site for PV and storage project potential.

  10. Effects of Copper-based Compounds, Antibiotics and a Plant Activator on Population Sizes and Spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Greenhouse Tomato Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three copper-based compounds (copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, two antibiotics (streptomycin and kasugamycin and a plant activator (ASM significantly reduced population sizes and spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis among tomatoseedlings in the greenhouse. Streptomycin had the best effect in reducing pathogen population size in all sampling regions. Moreover, this antibiotic completely stopped the spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in the region most distant from the inoculumfocus. Copper hydroxide mixed with streptomycin significantly limited the pathogen population, compared with copper hydroxide alone, the other copper-based compounds, ASM and kasugamycin. However, combining streptomycin with copper hydroxide did notcontribute to its greater efficacy against the pathogen population. Copper-based compounds, in general, were less effective in limiting pathogen population sizes than the other treatments in all three sampling regions, primarily copper oxychloride and the combinationof copper hydroxide and mancozeb. Among copper compounds, copper hydroxide was the most prominent in reducing the bacterial population, especially in the region closest to the inoculum focus, while its combination with mancozeb did not improve the effects. Kasugamycin significantly limited pathogen population size, compared to copper bactericides, but it was less effective than the other antibiotic compound, i.e. streptomycin. The plant activator ASM significantly reduced population density, and it was more effectivewhen used three days prior to inoculation than six days before inoculation.

  11. The case for better PV forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Rising levels of PV penetration mean increasingly sophisticated forecasting technologies are needed to maintain grid stability and maximise the economic value of PV systems. The Grid Integration working group of the European Technology and Innovation Platform – Photovoltaics (ETIP PV) shares the ...

  12. Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) Version 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functio ns are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in th e OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function i n the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  13. Control of the Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Open-Field Tomatoes by Indigenous Natural Enemies Occurring in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltiel-Harpaz, Liora; Gerling, Dan; Graph, Shaul; Kedoshim, Hendrika; Azolay, Lotem; Rozenberg, Tamir; Nachache, Yaakov; Steinberg, Shimon; Allouche, Arnon; Alon, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), had established in Israel by 2010, attacking both open-field tomatoes and greenhouse crops.We searched for its natural enemies in open-field tomatoes, and tried to determine their potential for controlling this pest. We surveyed the local natural enemies in open tomato fields and measured their impact on pest populations in an unsprayed field. We assessed the suppressive ability of the dominant hemipteran predator, Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter, against T. absoluta under controlled laboratory conditions and evaluated the impact of its augmentation on T. absoluta control in open-field tomatoes. We found five natural enemy species:the predator, N. tenuis, two braconids, and two eulophids. Predation accounted for 64.5±9.2% (mean ± SE) of T. absoluta larval mortality, whereas parasitism accounted for 20.96±7.5%. Together, they eliminated the pest population at tomato harvest time. Under controlled conditions, predation by N. tenuis rose from 58 to 72% with increased density of T. absoluta, suggesting positive density dependence. The reduction of T. absoluta (83%) by N. tenuis was higher than that of Bemisia tabaci (32%), suggesting a preference of N. tenuis for T. absoluta. Augmentation of N.tenuis was as effective as conventional treatment insecticide treatment, and plant damage was low and did not seem to affect yield. Results indicate that reduced pesticide use enables indigenous natural enemies, particularly N.tenuis, to successfully control T. absoluta and prevent crop damage in open-field tomatoes.

  14. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana eBaldina

    2016-05-01

    as an experimental population, paving the way for investigating their genetic/molecular basis and facilitating breeding for quality-related compounds in tomato fruits.

  15. Exploration of wild relatives of tomato for enhanced stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junming Li,

    2010-01-01

    Among the different abiotic and biotic stresses, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans and high salt concentrations are world-wide the most destructive. Several wild relatives of tomato were identified as source for tolerance to these stresses. Three introgression line (IL) populations derived

  16. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  17. Colonization of Tomato Root by Antagonistic Bacterial Strains to Fusarium Wilt of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol is an important disease in tomato which cause a significant loss of yield in major growing regions of the world. This study examined the ability of bacterial strains antagonistic to F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (H5, H22, H63, H71, Burkholderia cepacia strain 65 and 526 to colonize tomato seedlings and the effect of plant growth. The effect of bacterial population size and air temperature on the bacterial colonization and their spread along the root systems was also assessed.The results of this study showed that the bacterial population at 28°/23° C day/night temperature 14 days after planting was significantly greater than 23°/18° C for 4 of 6 strains tested. Although there was no significant effect of temperature on bacterial population observed in this study, the ability of the baacterial strains to colonize the rhizosphere was significantly different. Three strains (H5, B. cepacia strain 65 and 526 survived well in the rhizosphere and at 4 weeks after planting rhizosphere populations per gram fresh root were not significantly different from those recovered 2 weeks after planting. The largest population of the bacterial inoculants developed in the basal region of the roots and this differed between strains by log10 2.7 cfu/cm root. The bacterial populations in other parts of the root were also strain dependent. Strain H71, for example, was able to colonize the root segments at a high population level. However strain H63 was recovered only in small number in all root segments.

  18. PV-CAD: an integrated tool for designing PV facades; PV-CAD - Ein integriertes Werkzeug zur Auslegung von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, H.; Viotto, M. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany); Esser, M.; Pukrop, D. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Abt. Energie- und Halbleiterforschung; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    PV-CAD provides PV system planners with a practice-oriented tool for an efficient design of PV facades. Being compatible with the standard programmes of the architects` and electrical engineering sectors it can be used on already existing systems and allows the user to draw on previously acquired knowedge. Its open interfaces permit the integration of further design tools. PV CAD works under Microsoft Windows for which it has the necessary graphic user interface. Its compliance to PC standards opens up a wide range of applications and permits its use also on inexpensive computers. Thanks to its promotion by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology under the research project ``Computer programmes for the design of photovoltaic facades`` PV-CAD is available at a moderate price. PV-CAD permits an efficient planning of solar facades and therefore has the potential to stimulate the use of PV on buildings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit PV-CAD steht dem Anlagenplaner ein anwendungsorientiertes Werkzeug zur Verfuegung, das eine rationelle Auslegung von PV-Fassaden ermoeglicht. Die Kompatibilitaet zu Standardprogrammen aus dem Architektur- und Elektrosektor erlaubt die Nutzung bereits vorhandener Systeme und damit erworbener Kenntnisse. Offene Schnittstellen gestatten die Einbindung weiterer Entwurfswerkzeuge. PV-CAD arbeitet unter Microsoft-Windows und verfuegt ueber die entsprechende grafische Benutzerschnittstelle. Die Kompatibilitaet zum PC-Standard eroeffnet eine sehr breite Anwenderbasis und ermoeglicht den Einsatz des Programms auch auf preiswerten Rechnern. Aufgrund der Foerderung durch das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts `Rechnerprogramm zur Auslegung von Photovoltaik-Fassaden` steht PV-CAD preiswert zur Verfuegung. PV-CAD ermoeglicht eine effiziente Planung von Solarfassaden und kann daher dem PV-Einsatz in Gebaeuden weitere Impulse geben. (orig.)

  19. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  20. Photovoltaics: PV takes off the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Ray; Gregory, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Despite historical ups and downs, there is still ambition to bring increasingly efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems to the market. PV for major remote telecommunications systems is now an established part of the market, many mobile phone systems are powered by PV and there is potential for increased use of home solar systems, especially in developing countries. Over the past few years, building-integrated PV (BIPV) has been on the increase. In 1999, global production from PV exceeded 200 MW and the UK installed capacity was greater than 1 MW. BIPV is a fast growing market and its characteristics and advantages are discussed. PV installations at Nottingham University, Greenwich Pavilion, BP Amoco Sunbury, Baglan Bay, BP filling stations, and Sainsbury's are described

  1. PV monitoring at Jubilee Campus - Nottingham University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffat, S.B.; Gan, G.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project monitoring the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) modules integrated in the roofs of atria to meet the energy consumption needs of ventilation fans in the academic buildings at the Jubilee Campus of the University of Nottingham. Details are given of the instrumentation of one atrium to allow the monitoring the effectiveness of the ventilation in cooling the PV arrays integrated in the atrium roof, the economic analysis of the benefit of cooling the PV system, and the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to predict the performance of the atrium. The design of the PV system, the calculated system efficiency, the high cost of atrium integrated PV power supplies, the periodic failure of the inverters, and the overheating of the PV array and the atrium space in the summer are discussed.

  2. Annual technical report. PV domestic field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report describes progress at the first five sites of the UK photovoltaic (PV) domestic field trial. All five sites are generating electricity, but one has not yet been commissioned and two sites are not yet monitoring performance. The BedZED development has roof-mounted PV modules and PV cells installed in sealed double-glazing. Solar slates/tiles have been installed at the Laing Homes development in Montagu Road, where the designer has sought to minimise the visual impact of the PV system on the roofs. At Hunters Moon, PV modules have been retrofitted and some unforeseen difficulties have arisen. PV is an integral part of the roof design at the state-of-the-art low energy development by Integer Houses at Greenfields. Corn Croft uses a British mounting system to facilitate integration of the modules flush with the roof. Installation issues and the progress of the trial are discussed.

  3. PV panel model based on datasheet values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell....... Based on these equations, a PV panel model, which is able to predict the panel behavior in different temperature and irradiance conditions, is built and tested....

  4. Good and bad practices in pv plants

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Moreno, Francisco; Helleputte, F.; Tyutyundzhiev, N.; Rabal Echeverria, Daniel; Conlon, Michael; Fartaria, Tomás; Oteiza, David

    2013-01-01

    The PVCROPS project (PhotoVolta ic Cost r€duction, Reliability, Operational performance, Prediction and Simulation), cofinanced by European Commission in the frame of Seventh Framework Programme, has compiled in the “Good and bad practices: Manual to improve the quality and reduce the cost of PV systems” a collection of good and bad practices in actual PV plants . All the situations it collects represent the state-of-the-art of existing PV installations all around Europe. They show how ...

  5. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-Cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett; Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings from the report 'SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future.' This presentation was given as a webinar on September 26, 2017.

  6. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  7. EFFECTIVE COMPLEX PROCESSING OF RAW TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIDA M. GADZHIEVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5 - 6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids, 0.5 % minerals, etc. are used as research material. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have long term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace, the CO2 extraction method is applied. The technological and environmental feasibility of graded tomato drying in the atmosphere of an inert gas and in a solar drier is evaluated; the scheme of dried tomatoes production is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a scheme of tomato powder production from pulp, skin and seeds is developed. The combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing hot nitrogen on the product surface. Conducting the drying process in the atmosphere of nitrogen intensifies the process of removing moisture from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as an enriching additive is proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from the Dagestan varieties, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of finished products, we prove the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder in the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  8. Processes and Materials for Flexible PV Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gierow, Paul

    2002-01-01

    .... A parallel incentive for development of flexible PV arrays are the possibilities of synergistic advantages for certain types of spacecraft, in particular the Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) Vehicle...

  9. Data monitoring system for PV solar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, M.; Katerski, A.; Williams, A.

    2000-01-01

    The two 1.5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar generators are installed and the new PC data monitoring system is developed by applying EC standards for European Solar Test Installation (ESTI). The schematic system diagram of PV generator is presented. The recording parameters for analytical and global monitoring are discussed. The meteorological data from ESTI sensors, temperature sensor and electrical data from inverter and calibrated shunt are stored via analog digital converters (ADC) on a hard disk of data storage PC. Data Logger and Monitor software for automatic data acquisition, treatment and visual distance control of all output PV data from PV solar generator has been created

  10. Practical issues for testing thin film PV modules at standard test conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Marín González, Omar; Raga Arroyo, Manuela Pilar; Alonso Garcia, M. Carmen; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic (TF) modules have gained importance in the photovoltaic (PV) market. New PV plants increasingly use TF technologies. In order to have a reliable sample of a PV module population, a huge number of modules must be measured. There is a big variety of materials used in TF technology. Some of these modules are made of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon. Other are made of CIS or CdTe. Not all these materials respond the same under standard test conditions (STC) of power...

  11. Effects of temperature and storage time on inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 populations by sophorolipid and sanitizer in-vitro and on tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased consumption of produce by consumers has been reported due to perceived health benefits of post-harvest produce. However, periodic pathogen occurrences and contamination of tomatoes and leafy greens have exacerbated food safety risks for consumers; and therefore pathogen control is cruc...

  12. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  13. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  14. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  15. The PV market - Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1900's. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market, however, is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy, the cost of PV systems, utility acceptance of PV, and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer, stand-alone, and utility markets. PV has unique attributes which make it a desirable source of energy in specific applications. It is a renewable source of energy, non-polluting, very reliable, predictable, low maintenance, modular, and has a very low operating cost. The energy source (sunlight) is distributed around the globe. Its limitations are high initial cost, no inherent energy storage, and low energy density

  16. PV integration into a CSP plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Javier López; Barea, Jose M.; Barragan, Jose; Ortega, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a preliminary techno-economic analysis of the integration of a PV plant into an optimized Parabolic Trough Plant in order to reduce the online consumptions and thus, increase the net electricity injected into the grid. The idea is to assess the feasibility of such project and see what configuration would be the optimal. An extra effort has been made in terms of modelling as the analysis has to be done to the integrated CSP + PV plant instead of analyzing them independently. Two different technologies have been considered for the PV plant, fix and one-axis tracking. Additionally three different scenarios have been considered for the CSP plant auxiliary consumptions as they are essential for determining the optimal PV plant (the higher the auxiliary consumption the higher the optimal PV plant). As could be expected, the results for all cases with PV show an improvement in terms of electricity generation and also in terms of LCOE with respect to the CSP plant. Such improvement is slightly higher with tracking technology for this specific study. Although this exercise has been done to an already designed CSP plant (so only the PV plant had to be optimized), the methodology could be applied for the optimization of an integrated CSP + PV plant during the design phase.

  17. PV Module Reliability Workshop | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Cara Fagerholm, David M. Burns, Timothy J. Peshek, Laura S. Bruckman, Roger H. French Backsheet Chen, C. H. Hsueh, W. J. Hsieh Accurately Measuring PV Power Loss Due to Soiling-Michael Gostein and Walters, Stephen Barkaszi Tracking PV Changes: Bridging Between Thin-Film Cells and Modules-Russell

  18. Global PV markets and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfsegger, Cristoph [European Photolvoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Brussels, Belgium (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the global importance of the PV industry, not only in the environmental sphere but also in the economic sphere. It is firstly given the major information of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), where there can be found the lists of those full member countries that work as: components manufacturers, consulting, and associate members. Then, it is given a briefly explanation about the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), and the reasons why the -PV systems- are almost the panacea to both the energy and the environmental issue. In addition, it is given the most relevant information about how to implement this system in those regions that have not yet implemented it. Besides, there are explained some of the benefits that this system has. It is shortly explained how this system is working in German and it is also shown a comparison chart about the photovoltaic feed-in tariffs. There are shown some graphics and charts having information related to the global markets and the global installations of PV systems and other issues related to them. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente acerca de la importancia que hoy en dia tiene la industria fotovoltaica alrededor del mundo, esto no solo ocurre en el ambito ambiental sino tambien en el economico. En la primer parte se muestra la informacion mas importante acerca de la Asociacion Europea de la Industria Fotovoltaica (EPIA por sus siglas en ingles), en donde se encuentran las listas de los paises que son miembros permanentes trabajando como: fabricantes de componentes, asesores y miembros asociados. Enseguida, se da, de manera escueta, una explicacion acerca de la ARE, asi como las razones por las que los sistemas fotovoltaicos son casi la panacea tanto para los problemas ambientales como para los energeticos. Ademas, se explica la informacion mas relevante acerca de como implementar este sistema en aquellas partes del mundo que todavia no lo han realizado

  19. Gamma-irradiation of tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of gamma-ray on tomatoes picked in a pink-red ripening stage, good for consumption, is studied. For that purpose tomatoes of ''Pioneer 2'' variety packed in perforated 500 g plastic bags were irradiated on a gamma device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min with doses 200 or 300 krad. Samples were stored after irradiation at room temperature (20 - 22sup(o)C). Microbiological studies demonstrated that 44 resp. 99.96 per cent of the initial number of microorganisms was destroyed after irradiation with 200 resp. 300 krad. The time required for the number of microorganisms to be restored was accordingly increased. Irradiation delayed tomato ripening by 4 to 6 days, demonstrable by the reduced content of the basic staining substances - carotene and licopine. Immediately after irradiation the ascorbic acid content was reduced by an average of 13 per cent. After 18 days the amount of ascorbic acid in irradiated tomatoes was increased to a higher than the starting level, this is attributed to reductone formation during irradiation. The elevated total sugar content shown to be invert sugar was due to further tomato ripening. (Ch.K.)

  20. Learning in PV trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; De Moor, H.H.C.

    2004-06-01

    For large scale application of PV cost reduction is essential. It is shown in this study that the price evolution is on track and even accelerating the last 15 years. Using an experience curve approach a learning rate of little over 20% was found consistent with other studies. As data were collected for small rooftop grid connected systems, it could be shown that this learning rate is not only found for modules, but also for BOS (all costs apart from the modules) in Germany as well as in the Netherlands. Projections of the future price of PV systems show that a learning rate of at least 20% is needed to make introduction of PV affordable. It is very effective to invest in learning, thus increasing the learning rate, as well as developing market segments were the value of PV is higher, such as residential PV systems in southern Europe

  1. Dissipation of heat from building integrated PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.M.L.

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of the project were to investigate methods for improving heat transfer and the reflection of heat from PV modules in building integrated situations and to develop the design of a building integrated PV element with improved heat transfer characteristics, with the aim of reducing the operating temperature of the PV cells. The prototypes developed for improving heat transfer have only shown small reductions in the PV cell operating temperature and these results have not been fully quantified due to problems associated with experimental testing. The improvement in the overall electrical performance of PV modules operating at lower temperatures is consequently even smaller. As a result, none of the prototypes can be considered to be economically viable. Based upon the theoretical and experimental results of this work, it is the recommendation of this project that no further work be conducted in improving BIPV performance through improved heat transfer of BIPV. (Author)

  2. Building opportunities in the U.S. for PV (PV:BONUS): A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Five contract teams are developing photovoltaic (PV) products that will have a significant impact on building-integrated PV systems. The product lines that these teams are pursuing include roofing materials, building facade materials, PV integrated into modular homes, ac-PV modules, and utility-dispatchable PV systems. The objective of these efforts is to develop product and market opportunities that can provide for the introduction of PV into the buildings market sector at higher allowable installed systems costs than conventional ground- or roof-mounted systems. Each of the teams has a unique approach, and synergistic opportunities among teams are beginning to emerge. This paper reviews the product and market development efforts of these teams and describes the links between the product efforts and parallel analytical work to develop PV as a demand-side management option

  3. Effect of a Bacterial Grass Culture on the Plant Growth and Disease Control in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Seong Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the plant growth-promoting and biocontrol potential of a grass culture with Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN8 on tomato. For this experiment, treatments of a chemical fertilizer (F, a bacterial grass culture (G, a 1/3 volume of G plus 2/3 F (GF, and F plus a synthetic fungicide (FSf were applied to tomato leaves and roots. The result showed that the severity of Alternariasolani and Botrytiscinerea symptoms were significantly reduced after the application of the bacterial grass culture (G and GF and FSf. In addition, root mortality in G and GF was lower compared to F. Tomato plants treated with G or GF had better vegetative growth and yield compared to F. Application of G affected the fungal and bacterial populations in the soil. In conclusion, treatment with a bacterial grass culture decreased disease severity and increased tomato growth parameters. However, there were no statistically significant correlations between disease occurrence and tomato yields. This experiment presents the possibility to manage diseases of tomato in an environmentally friendly manner and to also increase the yield of tomato by using a grass culture broth containing P. ehimensis KWN38.

  4. Evaluation of some varieties and breeding lines of tomato (Lycopersison sp) against tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the Greater Accra Region (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusi-Adjei, R.

    2011-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate ten (10) tomato varieties and breeding lines against tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease in Ghana. The research was undertaken at the research farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were evaluated in the field under natural whitefly inoculation in insect-proof cages. The field trial was done in the dry season from October, 2010 to February, 2011 and wet season from March, 2011 to July, 2011. Plants in the fields and in the cage exhibited varied symptoms such as leaf curling, leaf yellowing and reduced leaf sizes. Assessment of disease incidence and symptom severity using a four point scale (0-4) showed that, in the field there was higher disease incidence in the dry season as compared to the wet season. This was attributed to the higher number of whiteflies in the dry season as demonstrated through a whitefly population survey conducted in the field. Differences among means for disease incidence and whitefly surveys on the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were statistically significant (p≤ 0.05). Wild Tomato (Solanum pimpinellifollium) and two hybrids, Wosowoso x Wild Tomato and Cherry Red x Wild Tomato exhibited signs of resistance in the field and did not show any symptoms of TYLCV disease symptoms. All the commercial varieties were highly susceptible and showed severe symptoms. Evaluation of fruit yield in the field revealed that the commercial variety Tomato Advanta had the heaviest fruit weight (42 g/ fruit) whilst Wosowoso had the highest total fruit yield (5.74 t/ha) in the wet season. Wild Tomato and the hybrids produced higher number of fruits compared to the commercial varieties. There were highly significant differences in the means of number of fruits, fruit weight (g) and total fruit yield (t/ha) among the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines in both the wet and dry seasons

  5. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Cinzia

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported

  6. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil; Negrã o, Só nia; Essack, Magbubah; Morton, Mitchell J. L.; Bougouffa, Salim; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tester, Mark A.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  7. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  8. Dinâmica populacional de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomate monocultivo e consorciado com coentro sob cultivo orgânico e convencional Population dynamic of Benisua tabaci B biotype in monoculture tomato crop and consortium with coriander in organic and conventional crop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro HB Togni

    2009-06-01

    direct effect on this herbivore population, without the need of chemical insecticide spraying. The effect of organic and conventional production systems and the tomato-coriander consortium were evaluated in this study, in field, during May-September 2006. Adults of whitefly and its natural enemies were monitored using yellow adhesive traps installed at the edge and inside the experimental plots, and nymphs were sampled by direct observation on tomato plants. Although adult populations in the neighborhood of the different treatments were equivalent, the abundance of whitefly adults was significantly lower in the plots with the consortium tomato-coriander in both systems, conventional and organic. Significant reduction in the amount of nymphs per plant was only observed in the consortium tomato-coriander when all treatments were compared. There were more natural enemies in organic system and a negative correlation was observed between natural enemies abundance collected in the traps and whitefly nymphs' density. The association tomato-coriander and the organic management of the agroecossystem favored natural biological control of B. tabaci.

  9. The market for photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzis, L.; Vejtasa, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was intended to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with a market analysis for photovoltaic (PV) technologies under development by EPRI and others. The analysis was to focus on markets and factors leading to significant incremental growth for PV demand, large enough to support more efficient scale PV manufacturing capacity. EPRI anticipates that PV ultimately could provide grid-connected power, however, the 1995--2010 market dynamics are uncertain. The specific objectives of this study, therefore, were to: determine what major future domestic US markets for PV technologies will emerge and provide enough volume to support significant improvements in manufacturing costs through manufacturing economies of scale; provide insight on what is needed to gain acceptance of PV technologies for electric power generation in those major markets; provide insight on when investments in demonstration and manufacturing facilities should be made and what is needed to be successful in each element of the business that these markets could support (e.g., technology development, manufacturing, sales, installation, and service); and provide key insights on the requirements for commercial success of PV in the utility sector

  10. Competitiveness of tomato production in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Qureshi, A.H.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study measures competitiveness at farm level and economic efficiency at country level of tomato production in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competitiveness difference in two regions indicated that Central Punjab has more competitiveness at farm level in tomato production. Economic efficiency results i.e. Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) ratio remained 0.39 and 0.51 in Central and Southern Punjab, respectively with positive social profitability indicating strong comparative advantage under importable scenario. The above results implied that Central Punjab has greater economic efficiency than Southern Punjab in domestic resources use for production of tomato as import substitute commodity. Results of Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC) indicated that combine effects of policies on output and tradable input market did not pass any protection to tomato farmers in the study area. Net effect of policy or market failure is reducing the profitability of tomato producers at farm level which indicates lack of motivation from policies for farmers to expand tomato production as import substitute crop. Present study recommended competitiveness and economic efficiency analysis in other tomato producing regions of the country for year round tomato supply on the basis of resource efficiency and to curtail tomato imports to save the precious foreign exchange. To enhance the competitiveness there is need to increase farmer's incentives through increase of farm level price up to

  11. Multifunctional a-Si PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K; Lund, P; Vartiainen, E [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The optimal use of the various forms of solar energy (passive, active, daylighting, photovoltaics) in buildings calls for an optimal integration of the technologies. As energy conservation potential in space heating may soon be exhausted, electricity efficiency and on-site generation will play an increasing role in energy-conscious building design. There, dispersed PV systems integrated into buildings show a significant market potential, due to a number of benefits: no extra land area is required, PV-array may replace conventional cladding materials and become a building element. Moreover, the produced PV-electricity is more valuable for the building owner than for an electric utility

  12. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  13. State financed PV technology projects in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoh, L.; Gyoh, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the progress made by the democratic government of Nigeria to eradicate poverty, there are still millions of people without access to electricity. It would not be financially viable to extend the national electricity grid to each electoral ward, in remote locations in the country. The use of photovoltaic technology now brings electricity to many rural areas as part of the provision of basic needs by the Nigerian authorities. The Nasarawa State Government has embarked on the provision of all it electoral wards with solar powered water supply systems to carter for a mostly rural population of 3.4 million people. The Benue, Taraba, Bauchi and Jigawa State governments have embarked on similar schemes in Rural Water Supply, Health and the Educational sectors of the economy. Ambitious PV programmes, of this nature, inevitably face challenges in developing countries. The preliminary recommendations, of this ongoing study, have been made to address some of the potential challenges in some of the key areas. This paper reviews the implementation progress and suggests some of the lessons that might be learnt. (authors)

  14. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  15. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  16. Identification of Isolates that Cause a Leaf Spot Disease of Brassicas as Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani and Pathogenic and Genetic Comparison with Related Pathovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J G; Everett, B; Roberts, S J

    2006-07-01

    ABSTRACT Twenty-five Xanthomonas isolates, including some isolates received as either X. campestris pv. armoraciae or pv. raphani, caused discrete leaf spot symptoms when spray-inoculated onto at least one Brassica oleracea cultivar. Twelve of these isolates and four other Xanthomonas isolates were spray- and pin-inoculated onto 21 different plant species/cultivars including horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), radish (Raphanus sativus), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The remaining 13 leaf spot isolates were spray-inoculated onto a subset of 10 plant species/cultivars. The leaf spot isolates were very aggressive on several Brassica spp., radish, and tomato causing leaf spots and dark sunken lesions on the middle vein, petiole, and stem. Based on the differential reactions of several Brassica spp. and radish cultivars, the leaf spot isolates were divided into three races, with races 1 and 3 predominating. A differential series was established to determine the race-type of isolates and a gene-for-gene model based on the interaction of two avirulence genes in the pathogen races and two matching resistance genes in the differential hosts is proposed. Repetitive-DNA polymerase chain reaction-based fingerprinting was used to assess the genetic diversity of the leaf spot isolates and isolates of closely related Xanthomonas pathovars. Although there was variability within each race, the leaf spot isolates were clustered separately from the X. campestris pv. campestris isolates. We propose that X. campestris isolates that cause a nonvascular leaf spot disease on Brassica spp. should be identified as pv. raphani and not pv. armoraciae. Race-type strains and a neopathotype strain for X. campestris pv. raphani are proposed.

  17. Integrated photovoltaic (PV) monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinder Singh, Balbir Singh; Husain, NurSyahidah; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this research work is to design an accurate and reliable monitoring system to be integrated with solar electricity generating system. The performance monitoring system is required to ensure that the PVEGS is operating at an optimum level. The PV monitoring system is able to measure all the important parameters that determine an optimum performance. The measured values are recorded continuously, as the data acquisition system is connected to a computer, and data is stored at fixed intervals. The data can be locally used and can also be transmitted via internet. The data that appears directly on the local monitoring system is displayed via graphical user interface that was created by using Visual basic and Apache software was used for data transmission The accuracy and reliability of the developed monitoring system was tested against the data that captured simultaneously by using a standard power quality analyzer device. The high correlation which is 97% values indicates the level of accuracy of the monitoring system. The aim of leveraging on a system for continuous monitoring system is achieved, both locally, and can be viewed simultaneously at a remote system.

  18. Transformerless PV inverters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, U.

    2009-12-15

    Since the start of the project the market for grid connected PV inverters have developed further. When the project started three - phase inverter were only available in high power systems. The technology developed within this project will enable three phase technology also to be implemented in string inverters for system down to 10 kW. We expect this to be very attractive due to the increased demand for symmetrical feed-in to the grid. The project relevance is therefore high and the sector continues to develop very much driven by technology. Especially the inverter technology is getting a lot of focus. The inverter systems are expected to take a much larger role in supporting the electrical grid in the future. The technology platform developed within the project is prepared to be extended with these utility functionalities. The main results of the project were: 1) A new technology concept for transformer-less inverters has been demonstrated with a number of prototypes. 2) Efficiency above 97,7% has been proven. 3) Efficiency and Maximum power point tracking has been optimized to ensure that almost all energy produced of the panels is transferred to the grid. 4) The platform is developed with a very fast control board, which enables extended functionality as demanding grid supporting functions in the future. Details about cost price and details about the control loop implementation is excluded from the report due to the competitive situation for Danfoss Solar Inverters A/S. (LN)

  19. DNA polymorphism analysis of Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques using M13 and 16S rRNA primers, respectively, for genotyping of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was studied. RAPD provided a simple, rapid, and ...

  20. Interharmonics from Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration level of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems increases, the power quality is one of the major concerns for system operators and the demands are becoming even stricter. The impact of interharmonics on the grid has been acknowledged in recent research when considering a large......-scale adoption of PV inverters. However, the origins of interharmonics remain unclear. Thus, this paper performs tests on a commercial PV inverter to explore interharmonic generation and more important investigates the mechanism of interharmonic emission. The investigation reveals that the perturbation...... of the solutions. Simulation results indicate that the constant-voltage MPPT method is the most suitable solution to the mitigation of interharmonics introduced by the MPPT operation, as it avoids the perturbation in the PV voltage during operation....

  1. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherring, Chris (Sherring Energy Associates)

    1999-08-30

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented.

  2. Robust PV Degradation Methodology and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deline, Christopher A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kimball, Greg [SunPower; Anderson, Mike [SunPower

    2017-11-15

    The degradation rate plays an important role in predicting and assessing the long-term energy generation of PV systems. Many methods have been proposed for extracting the degradation rate from operational data of PV systems, but most of the published approaches are susceptible to bias due to inverter clipping, module soiling, temporary outages, seasonality, and sensor degradation. In this manuscript, we propose a methodology for determining PV degradation leveraging available modeled clear-sky irradiance data rather than site sensor data, and a robust year-over-year (YOY) rate calculation. We show the method to provide reliable degradation rate estimates even in the case of sensor drift, data shifts, and soiling. Compared with alternate methods, we demonstrate that the proposed method delivers the lowest uncertainty in degradation rate estimates for a fleet of 486 PV systems.

  3. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherring, Chris

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented

  4. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  5. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  6. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  7. The potential of solar PV in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    Canada has lagged behind other industrialized nations in the growth of solar energy markets. Currently, over 78 per cent of the global market for solar energy is for grid-connected applications where power is fed into the electrical distribution network. Less than 3.5 per cent of the Canadian solar market is grid-connected. This report investigated the potential size of the photovoltaic (PV) market in Ontario given adequate support from both governments and utilities. The forecast was based on sustainable growth levels that the solar industry as a whole might maintain over an extended period of time. It was suggested that it is technically feasible to install over 3000 MW of PV in single, detached homes in the province, which could generate over 3200 GWh each year. If the right policy conditions were put in place, the technical potential for PV on all buildings in Ontario is over 14,000 MW by 2025, which would generate over 13,000 GWh annually. Support mechanisms such as the Advanced Renewable Tariff (ART) or Standard Offer Contracts (SOC) will enable the PV industry to build capacity. Future markets for PV include new homes, commercial buildings and the existing housing stock. With a properly designed system, it is forecasted that the deployment of PV by 2025 could result in the involvement of 400,000 homes with over 1200 MW of installed capacity and over 290 MW installed annually by 2025. Recommendations to Ontario Power Authority's (OPA) report supply mix report focused on the use of SOCs as the appropriate support mechanism to start building solar capacity in Ontario, as projections using SOCs would see Ontario following the growth patterns of other nations. It was concluded that the OPA report does not acknowledge the current growth rates of PV globally, nor does it fully consider the potential of PV in Ontario. 9 refs., 8 figs

  8. Building PV markets: customers and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    What makes market deployment strategies for PV successful? A group of specialists (from IEA Task 7) has been looking at the progress made so far. Here, in the first of two articles based on their report, the author presents some of their findings, including benefits and barriers for defined groups of customers; how customers for PV systems are identified, and what they are willing to pay. It also looks at current prices in different countries, and their possible trends. (Author)

  9. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal design of PV and HP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo

    2015-01-01

    Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution is descr...... that the thermal storage with a BT is a better investment than a PV system without HP or no investment. Furthermore, it showed that the optimization model developed in this project is capable of finding the optimal combination of component sizes based on our data.......Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution...... is described, where the thermal energy is stored in a buffer tank (BT) capable of dispersing heat to either the heating system of a house or a hot water tank, for later use. The thermal storage solution including a BT can increase the self-consumption of residentially produced PV power and thereby shift...

  11. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed

  12. PV installations, protection and the code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silecky, L. [Mersen, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    This article discussed the need for improved standards in Ontario's solar industry to ensure safety for the systems and also safety for the workers. Photovoltaic cells used in solar arrays can now deliver between 50 vDC to 600 vDC. The workings of such a high voltage photocell must be understood in order to understand its protection needs. Since PVs are semiconductors and susceptible to damage from short circuits and overloads, a fast-acting overcurrent protective device (OCPD) should be used. Combiner boxes are also needed to provide a clean method of safely connecting all the wires that are needed in the system, including surge protection and a means of isolation between the PV array and the inverter. Section 50 of the Canadian Electrical Code outlines the requirements for solar PV systems, but it does not mention the protection of DC circuits, including DC fuse protectors which are manufactured to provide a high degree of protection for the PV array. As the photovoltaic (PV) market continues to grow in Ontario, the PV industry also has a responsibility to ensure it is in compliance with codes and standards related to photovoltaic systems. This author suggested that Article 690 of the National Electric Code (NEC) is a good document to use when determining the requirements for PV systems. 3 figs.

  13. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  14. Environmental impact of PV cell waste scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, M; Pikoń, K; Landrat, M

    2017-12-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of waste from PV cells is expected in the following years. The problem of its utilization seems to be the most important issue for future waste management systems. The environmental impacts of the PV recycling scenario are presented in the manuscript. The analysis is based on the LCA approach and the average data available in specialized databases for silicon standard PV cell is used. The functional unit includes parameters like: efficiency, composition, surface area. The discussion on the environmental impact change due to the location of the PV production and waste processing plants is presented in the manuscript. Additionally, the discussion on the environmental effect of substituting different energy resources with PV cells is presented in the manuscript. The analysis of the PV cell life cycle scenario presented in the article was performed using the SIMA PRO software and data from Ecoinvent 3.0 database together with additional data obtained from other sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. One-step Multiplex RT-PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Seed Transmissible Bacteria and Viruses in Pepper and Tomato Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusik Jeong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop specific and sensitive PCR-based procedures for simultaneous detection of economically important plant seed infection pathogenic bacteria and virus, Xanthomonns campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc, Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV and Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV in pepper and tomato seeds. Most of pepper and tomato bacterial and virus diseases are responsible for germination and growth obstruction. PCR with arbitral primers: selection of specific primers, performance of PCR with specific primers and determination of the threshold level for pathogens detection. To detect simultaneously the Xcv, Cmm, Ecc, PMMoV and TMGMV in pepper and tomato seeds, five pairs (Cmm-F/R, Ecc-F/R, Xcv-F/R, PMMoV-F/R, TMGMV-F/R of specific primer were synthesized by primer-blast program. The multiplex PCR for the five pathogens in pepper and tomato seeds could detect specially without interference among primers and/or cDNA of plant seeds and other plant pathogens. The PCR result for pathogen detection using 20 commercial pepper and 10 tomato seed samples, Ecc was detected from 4 pepper and 2 tomato seed samples, PMMoV was detected from 1 pepper seed sample, and PMMoV and TMGMV were simultaneously detected from 1 pepper seed sample.

  16. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hossain

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15) were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in co...

  17. Potencialidade de um actinomiceto de rizosfera de tomateiro como agente de biocontrole de doenças Potenciality of an actinomycete from tomato rhizosphere as a biocontrol agent for tomato diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Carrer Filho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Um actinomiceto (Streptomyces setonii, isolado 'UFV-RD1', obtido de rizosfera de planta sadia de tomateiro, foi selecionado dentre outros 117, como promissor agente de biocontrole de enfermidades da cultura. Em testes de antagonismo in vitro contra patógenos do tomateiro, o isolado 'UFV-RD1' foi incapaz de inibir o crescimento de bactérias (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria mas inibiu a germinação de conídios de alguns fungos (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Corynespora cassiicola, Stemphylium solani. Em ensaios de biocontrole experimental in vivo, em casa de vegetação, o actinomiceto foi efetivo em reduzir a severidade de sintomas no caso de patógenos fúngicos e bacterianos testados como desafiantes. A campo, quando A. solani e P. infestans ocorreram naturalmente, as plantas originárias de sementes microbiolizadas com propágulos da estirpe 'UFV-RD1' exibiram sintomas menos severos que as plantas controle para o caso da pinta preta. O agente de biocontrole é promissor para futuros protocolos de manejo integrado, como forma de reduzir a quantidade de defensivos utilizados.An actinomycete (Streptomyces setonii, isolate 'UFV-RD1', isolated from the rhizosphere of a healthy tomato plant was selected out of 117 as a promising biocontrol agent for tomato diseases. In in vitro antagonism tests against tomato pathogens, the isolate 'UFV-RD1' was unable to inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria but inhibited conidium germination of fungi (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Corynespora cassiicola, Stemphylium solani. Experimental biocontrol assays in a greenhouse indicated that the actinomycete was effective for reducing symptom severity in the case of bacteria and fungi tested

  18. Comparative density of CCK- and PV-GABA cells within the cortex and hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul David Whissell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK- and parvalbumin (PV-expressing neurons constitute the two major populations of perisomatic GABAergic neurons in the cortex and the hippocampus. As CCK- and PV-GABA neurons differ in an array of morphological, biochemical and electrophysiological features, it has been proposed that they form distinct inhibitory ensembles which differentially contribute to network oscillations and behaviour. However, the relationship and balance between CCK- and PV-GABA neurons in the inhibitory networks of the brain is currently unclear as the distribution of these cells has never been compared on a large scale. Here, we systemically investigated the distribution of CCK- and PV-GABA cells across a wide number of discrete forebrain regions using an intersectional genetic approach. Our analysis revealed several novel trends in the distribution of these cells. While PV-GABA cells were more abundant overall, CCK-GABA cells outnumbered PV-GABA cells in several subregions of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral temporal cortex. Interestingly, CCK-GABA cells were relatively more abundant in secondary/association areas of the cortex (V2, S2, M2, and AudD/AudV than they were in corresponding primary areas (V1, S1, M1 and Aud1. The reverse trend was observed for PV-GABA cells. Our findings suggest that the balance between CCK- and PV-GABA cells in a given cortical region is related to the type of processing that area performs; inhibitory networks in the secondary cortex tend to favour the inclusion of CCK-GABA cells more than networks in the primary cortex. The intersectional genetic labelling approach employed in the current study expands upon the ability to study molecularly defined subsets of GABAergic neurons. This technique can be applied to the investigation of neuropathologies which involve disruptions to the GABAergic system, including schizophrenia, stress, maternal immune activation and autism.

  19. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  20. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  1. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  2. Tomato type and post-treatment water rinse affect efficacy of acid washes against Salmonella enterica inoculated on stem scars of tomatoes and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Gurtler, Joshua B; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

    2018-09-02

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of post-treatment rinsing with water on the inactivation efficacy of acid treatments against Salmonella inoculated onto stem scar areas of two types of tomatoes. In addition, impact on fruit quality was investigated during 21 days post-treatment storage at 10 °C. A four-strain cocktail of Salmonella enterica (S. Montevideo, S. Newport, S. Saintpaul, and S. Typhimurium) was inoculated onto stem scar areas of grape and large round tomatoes. The inoculated fruits were then treated for 2 min with the following solutions: water, 2% lactic acid +2% acetic acid +2% levulinic acid, 1.7% lactic acid +1.7% acetic acid +1.7% levulinic acid, and 3% lactic acid +3% acetic acid. After treatments, half of the fruits were rinsed with water while another half were not rinsed. Non-inoculated grape tomatoes for quality analysis were treated with the same solutions with and without subsequent water rinse. Results demonstrated that the acid combinations reduced populations of Salmonella enterica on the stem scar area of grape tomatoes by 1.52-1.90 log CFU/fruit, compared with the non-treated control while water wash and rinse removed the bacterium by only 0.23-0.30 log CFU/fruit. On the stem scar of large round tomatoes, the same acid treatments achieved 3.54 log CFU/fruit reduction of the pathogen. The varying response to the acid washes between grape and large round tomatoes seems to be related to the differences in surface characteristics of stem scar areas observed with SEM. Rinsing with water after acid combination treatments did not significantly affect the efficacy of the treatments in either grape or large round tomatoes. Acidic off-odor was detected on fruits treated with acid combination without water rinse 1 day after treatment while water rinse eliminated the off-odor. The acid treatments with and without water rinse did not consistently affect appearance, color, firmness, or lycopene or ascorbic acid contents of

  3. Original Article. An evaluation of some eco-friendly biopesticides against Bemisia tabaci on two greenhouse tomato varieties in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razek Atef S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has two main approaches. First, it exploits the susceptibility of tomato cultivars as a prophylactic measure to detect auto resistance characters of the tested tomato varieties against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae. Secondly, it evaluates the efficacy of different bio-rational insecticides against B. tabaci under greenhouse conditions. The results exhibited a special significance in B. tabaci infestation suitability between the two tomato varieties with a high infestation significance found in the Shifa F1 hybrid tomato variety compared to the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety in the first plantation period. Subsequently, in the second plantation period, there was a significant difference between the two tomato varieties. Bemisia tabaci showed a preference for the Shifa F1 hybrid over the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety. These differences occurred during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 10th weeks. In the experimental trial for the efficacy of eco-friendly biorational insecticides, spinosad, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, there were significant differences between the treated and untreated plants during the two plantation periods. A high efficacy of spinosad on the B. tabaci population was found. Bemisia tabaci infestation under all the applications was reduced from 50 to 94.61% for the two plantation periods. This obvious decrease in B. tabaci population increase attention to benefits of the different bio-rational insecticides.

  4. Estudio de la respuesta de pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 a flavonoides

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Gallego, Paola Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral ha sido realizada en el Grupo Interacciones Planta-Bacteria perteneciente al Departamento de Microbiología del Suelo y Sistemas Simbióticos de la Estación Experimental del Zaidín, gracias a una beca del Programa "Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios" JAE Predoc del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) cofinanciada por FEDER y a una beca Marie Curie Training Site for Marine Microbiology (MARMIC EST), financiada por la Comunidad Europea. La investigación ha...

  5. Assessing the PV business opportunities in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Skylogiannis, Georgios K.; Papastefanakis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach of qualitative judgments for the PV opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. • It can be supplied in other countries by applying different weights to the criteria. • It can be used by everyone in order to find a suitable PV investment without the need of experts in the field. - Abstract: Greece, as a member of the European Union (EU), has undertaken the obligation to meet the expected goals for the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the national energy balance in compliance with “20–20–20” goals (20% of the Gross Energy Consumption and 40% of the Gross Electricity Consumption should be covered by RES). Although the development of RES, and particularly of Photovoltaic (PV), in Greece during the last years has presented a satisfactory growth, the country is still far away from the above goals. The main reason for this delay is that – except the financial crisis – many licenses are inactive and waiting funding in order to be utilized. Additionally, the latest law (L.4152/2013) has forbidden the interconnection of new PV power Plants to the grid until the end of 2013. The above fact determines the significance of the existing PV Licenses in achieving the national goals. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach of qualitative judgments for the PV business opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. The approach, which is based on a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) theory of quantifying multiple qualitative judgments, takes into account the real factors which can affect the expected production and cost of the PV installation and therefore the RoI (Return of Investment)

  6. Optimization of PV-based energy production by dynamic PV-panel/inverter configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    This paper investigates the possible increase in annual energy production of a PV system with more than one MPPT (maximum power point tracker) input channels under Nordic illumination conditions, in case a concept of dynamic switching of the PV panels is used at the inputs of the inverters....

  7. PV/T slates - Laboratory measurements; PV/T-Schiefer. Labormessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with an experimental outdoor set-up and reviews in-situ measurements made on a prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). The report describes the configuration and construction of the experimental PV-tiled roof and the measurement system used to measure its electrical and thermal performance. The results of the measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form. The influence of various factors such as air-slit width and mounting angle are discussed.

  8. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  9. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  10. Latin America as new PV market opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    It is important to recognize solar energy as an international and strategic opportunity for the European market to expand. The objective of this paper is to apply the methodology created during the PV Parity project for analyzing PV Competitiveness in the emerging residential PV market in Brazil, using information from the State of Rio de Janeiro. The dynamic competitiveness analysis was performed considering the price with and without taxes in order to assess the year when PV will reach grid parity in Rio de Janeiro and how the taxes impact on the results. Results are divided into 3 scenarios: Optimistic, Conservative, and Conservative Moderate. The LCOE of residential systems will likely become competitive with the residential electricity tariffs between 2020 and 2030, assuming the residential tariffs in Rio de Janeiro. This is an indicator that PV energy business opportunities are increasing in Brazil and, with the adequate policy support, its market competitiveness could be improved. We are also looking in other markets of Latin America. (full text)

  11. Prospects for PV: a learning curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabi, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the current state-of-the-art of photovoltaic electricity technology, and addresses its potential for cost reductions over the first few decades of the 21st century. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, both in terms of capacity installation and electricity generation, of single crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon and other thin film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected according to the learning-curve methodology. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. Our conclusions are that, (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating learning curves observed in the past, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly over the coming years, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and their internalisation would improve the competitiveness of PV, although probably not enough to close the current cost gap. (author)

  12. Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballester, A.R.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vos, de C.H.; Lintel Hekkert, B.; Orzaez, D.; Fernandez-Moreno, J.P.; Tripodi, S.; Grandillo, S.; Martin, C.; Heldens, J.; Ykema, M.; Granell, A.; Bovy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines

  13. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ protein regulates host and nonhost pathogen-induced cell death in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ishiga

    Full Text Available The nonhost-specific phytotoxin coronatine (COR produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae functions as a jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile mimic and contributes to disease development by suppressing plant defense responses and inducing reactive oxygen species in chloroplast. It has been shown that the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1 is the receptor for COR and JA-Ile. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ proteins act as negative regulators for JA signaling in Arabidopsis. However, the physiological significance of JAZ proteins in P. syringae disease development and nonhost pathogen-induced hypersensitive response (HR cell death is not completely understood. In this study, we identified JAZ genes from tomato, a host plant for P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000, and examined their expression profiles in response to COR and pathogens. Most JAZ genes were induced by COR treatment or inoculation with COR-producing Pst DC3000, but not by the COR-defective mutant DB29. Tomato SlJAZ2, SlJAZ6 and SlJAZ7 interacted with SlCOI1 in a COR-dependent manner. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS, we demonstrated that SlJAZ2, SlJAZ6 and SlJAZ7 have no effect on COR-induced chlorosis in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. However, SlJAZ2-, SlJAZ6- and SlJAZ7-silenced tomato plants showed enhanced disease-associated cell death to Pst DC3000. Furthermore, we found delayed HR cell death in response to the nonhost pathogen Pst T1 or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP, INF1, in SlJAZ2- and SlJAZ6-silenced N. benthamiana. These results suggest that tomato JAZ proteins regulate the progression of cell death during host and nonhost interactions.

  14. Priming by Rhizobacterium Protects Tomato Plants from Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogen Infections through Multiple Defense Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul

    2011-01-01

    A selected strain of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain LSW17S (LSW17S), protects tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Seokwang) from bacterial speck by biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) and bacterial wilt by necrotrophic Ralstonia solanacearum KACC 10703 (Rs10703). To investigate defense mechanisms induced by LSW17S in tomato plants, transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and H2O2 production were analyzed in plants treated with LSW17S and subsequent pathogen inoculation. LSW17S alone did not induce transcriptions of employed PR genes in leaves and roots. DC3000 challenge following LSW17S triggered rapid transcriptions of PR genes and H2O2 production in leaves and roots. Catalase infiltration with DC3000 attenuated defense-related responses and resistance against DC3000 infection. Despite depriving H2O2 production and PR1b transcription by the same treatment, resistance against Rs10703 infection was not deterred significantly. H2O2 is indispensable for defense signaling and/or mechanisms primed by LSW17S and inhibition of bacterial speck, however, it is not involved in resistance against bacterial wilt. PMID:21710203

  15. Induced resistance in tomato by SAR activators during predisposing salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Francis Pye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant activators are chemicals that induce disease resistance. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA is a crucial signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR, and SA-mediated resistance is a target of several commercial plant activators, including Actigard (1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-s-methyl-ester, BTH and Tiadinil (N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide, TDL. BTH and TDL were examined for their impact on abscisic acid (ABA-mediated, salt-induced disease predisposition in tomato seedlings. A brief episode of salt stress to roots significantly increased the severity of disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst and Phytophthora capsici relative to non-stressed plants. Root treatment with TDL induced resistance to Pst in leaves and provided protection in both non-stressed and salt-stressed seedlings in WT and highly susceptible NahG plants. Non-stressed and salt-stressed ABA-deficient sitiens mutants were highly resistant to Pst. Neither TDL nor BTH induced resistance to root infection by P. capsici, nor did they moderate the salt-induced increment in disease severity. Root treatment with these plant activators increased the levels of ABA in roots and shoots similar to levels observed in salt-stressed plants. The results indicate that SAR activators can protect tomato plants from bacterial speck disease under predisposing salt stress, and suggest that some SA-mediated defense responses function sufficiently in plants with elevated levels of ABA.

  16. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  17. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  18. POWERED LED LIGHTING SUPPLIED FROM PV CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with practical realization of efficient lighting system based on LED’s of 80W total power mounted on corridor ceiling total length of which is 120m and substitutes existing traditional lighting system consisting of 29 lighting blocks with 4 fluorescent lamps each of them and summary power 2088W. Realized lighting system is supplied from two photovoltaic panels of power 170W. Generated energy by PV cells is accumulated in two accumulators of 75Ah capacity and from battery by means of specialized convertor is applied to lighting system. Additionally, paper present data measured by digital weather station (solar radiation and UV index, which is mounted near of PV cells and comparative analyze of solar energy with real energy generated by PV cells is done. Measured parameters by digital weather station are stored by computer in on-line mode.

  19. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  20. Mycorrhizal Dependency and Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...

  1. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tomato concentrates. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato concentrates are the class of foods each of... greater in length. (c) Blemishes, such as dark brown or black particles (specks)—not more than four exceed...; place a U.S. No. 12 screen (1.68 millimeters (0.066 inch) openings) over the sink drain; transfer the...

  2. An improved Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato crop throughout the world. This disease is very dangerous in hot and humid regions, where it spreads with the irrigation water to whole field within days, which resulted in severe decline in yield. Two varieties of tomato were used for developing bacterial wilt resistance.

  3. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  4. Isolation and composition of chromoplasts from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Linn U; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2005-08-24

    The fruit of the tomato plant is composed of elongated tomato cells filled with organelles called chromoplasts (plastids). These plastids scattered throughout the cell are rich in nutrients, particularly protein (33%) and lipids (20%). They can be released from the cells by rupture of their cell membranes and then isolated. Plastids and their cell contents can be utilized by the food-processing industry for the preparation of special food products. This study was designed to examine the macronutrient content of isolated tomato plastids and, therefore, determine its potential nutritional value. Use of tomato plastids in pasta sauces and rice dishes, salsa, and extrusion products would increase the nutritional value of the product. Because glucose has been removed in the process of plastid isolation, tomato plastids are useful in the diets of diabetics and cardiovascular patients, as well as for patients in need of weight reduction. Composition comparison of tomato plastid is made with tomato paste, from which glucose has not been removed. Many people require low-sugar products for medical reasons (diabetics and those with cardiovascular disease) and others for weight loss. Therefore, tomato chromoplasts having high protein and lipid contents and low sugar content may be useful in meeting these particular human needs.

  5. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  6. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  7. Novel Methods to Determine Feeder Locational PV Hosting Capacity and PV Impact Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coogan, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seuss, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Often PV hosting capacity analysis is performed for a limited number of distribution feeders. For medium - voltage distribution feeders, previous results generally analyze less than 20 feeders, and then the results are extrapolated out to similar types of feeders. Previous hosting capacity research has often focused on determining a single value for the hosting capacity for the entire feeder, whereas this research expands previous hosting capacity work to investigate all the regions of the feeder that may allow many different hosting capacity values wit h an idea called locational hosting capacity (LHC)to determine the largest PV size that can be interconnected at different locations (buses) on the study feeders. This report discusses novel methods for analyzing PV interconnections with advanced simulati on methods. The focus is feeder and location - specific impacts of PV that determine the locational PV hosting capacity. Feeder PV impact signature are used to more precisely determine the local maximum hosting capacity of individual areas of the feeder. T he feeder signature provides improved interconnection screening with certain zones that show the risk of impact to the distribution feeder from PV interconnections.

  8. Leakage current measurement in transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations have seen a huge increase during the last couple of years. Transformerless PV inverters are gaining more share of the total inverter market, due to their high conversion efficiency, small weight and size. Nevertheless safety should have an important role in case...... of these tranformerless systems, due to the missing galvanic isolation. Leakage and fault current measurement is a key issue for these inverter topologies to be able to comply with the required safety standards. This article presents the test results of two different current measurement sensors that were suggested...

  9. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  10. MPPT algorithm for voltage controlled PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel concept for an MPPT that can be used in case of a voltage controlled grid connected PV inverters. In case of single-phase systems, the 100 Hz ripple in the AC power is also present on the DC side. Depending on the DC link capacitor, this power fluctuation can be used t...... to track the MPP of the PV array, using the information that at MPP the power oscillations are very small. In this way the algorithm can detect the fact that the current working point is at the MPP, for the current atmospheric conditions....

  11. Economic perspective of PV electricity in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Badi, A.H.; Albadi, M.H.; Al-Lawati, A.M.; Malik, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Solar and wind energies are likely to play an important role in the future energy generation in Oman. This paper utilizes average daily global solar radiation and sunshine duration data of 25 locations in Oman to study the economic prospects of solar energy. The study considers a solar PV power plant of 5-MW at each of the 25 locations. The global solar radiation varies between slightly greater than 4 kWh/m 2 /day at Sur to about 6 kWh/m 2 /day at Marmul while the average value in the 25 locations is more than 5 kWh/m 2 /day. The results show that the renewable energy produced each year from the PV power plant varies between 9000 MWh at Marmul and 6200 MWh at Sur while the mean value is 7700 MWh of all the 25 locations. The capacity factor of PV plant varies between 20% and 14% and the cost of electricity varies between 210 US$/MWh and 304 US$/MWh for the best location to the least attractive location, respectively. The study has also found that the PV energy at the best location is competitive with diesel generation without including the externality costs of diesel. Renewable energy support policies that can be implemented in Oman are also discussed. -- Research highlights: → The global solar radiation values for 25 locations in Oman are obtained using satellite data that are corrected by data from ground stations. → The study considers a solar PV power plant of 5-MW to calculate the capacity factor (CF) and the cost of energy (COE) at each of the 25 locations. → The study has found that the CF of PV plant varies between 20% and 14% and the corresponding COE varies between 210 US$/MWh and 304 US$/MWh for the best location to the least attractive location, respectively. → The study has found that the PV energy at the best location is competitive with diesel generation without including the externality costs of diesel. → Since PV energy is not competitive with fossil fuel-based generation in most locations renewable energy support mechanisms have been

  12. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  13. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase exhibit elevated hydroxycinnamic acid amide levels and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Laura; Lisón, Purificación; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Rodrigo, Ismael; Zacarés, Laura; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) are secondary metabolites involved in plant development and defense that have been widely reported throughout the plant kingdom. These phenolics show antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) is the key enzyme in HCAA synthesis and is induced in response to pathogen infection, wounding, or elicitor treatments, preceding HCAA accumulation. We have engineered transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato THT. These plants displayed an enhanced THT gene expression in leaves as compared with wild type (WT) plants. Consequently, leaves of THT-overexpressing plants showed a higher constitutive accumulation of the amide coumaroyltyramine (CT). Similar results were found in flowers and fruits. Moreover, feruloyltyramine (FT) also accumulated in these tissues, being present at higher levels in transgenic plants. Accumulation of CT, FT and octopamine, and noradrenaline HCAA in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection was higher in transgenic plants than in the WT plants. Transgenic plants showed an enhanced resistance to the bacterial infection. In addition, this HCAA accumulation was accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene induction. Taken together, these results suggest that HCAA may play an important role in the defense of tomato plants against P. syringae infection.

  14. Plastid and Stromule Morphogenesis in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    PYKE, KEVIN A.; HOWELLS, CAROLINE A.

    2002-01-01

    By using green fluorescent protein targeted to the plastid organelle in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the morphology of plastids and their associated stromules in epidermal cells and trichomes from stems and petioles and in the chromoplasts of pericarp cells in the tomato fruit has been revealed. A novel characteristic of tomato stromules is the presence of extensive bead‐like structures along the stromules that are often observed as free vesicles, distinct from and apparently unconnected to the plastid body. Interconnections between the red pigmented chromoplast bodies are common in fruit pericarp cells suggesting that chromoplasts could form a complex network in this cell type. The potential implications for carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato fruit and for vesicles originating from beaded stromules as a secretory mechanism for plastids in glandular trichomes of tomato is discussed. PMID:12466096

  15. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  16. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  17. A research related with tomato, carotenoids and factors effecting them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan SÖNMEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid increase of human population, the requirement for foodstuff also increases and new species with high yield are tried to be regenerated in order to fulfill this increasing demand. Apart from the regeneration studies aiming to increase efficiency, increase in demand of healthy, natural nutrition, additive free and higher quality products increase the regeneration studies in this field. Environmental pollution, urban living conditions and high amount of prepared foodstuffs, increased the interest of people towards natural and nutritive foodstuff in recent years. Today, fruits and vegetables are consumed not only for nutrition purpose but also in order to prevent from diseases and considering their therapeutic properties. Therefore fruits and vegetables are preferred due to their content. Functional foodstuff term entered our life as a result of these developments. Almost all of vegetables have protective and therapeutic effects on human health due to the materials in their content. Tomato is one of them. It is widely consumed as fresh in our country just like in other parts of the world as well as in sauce, ketchup and tomato paste forms. Finding high quality tomato in every season has become a normal standard for Turkey.

  18. Effects of tomato variety, temperature differential and post-stem removal time on internalization of Salmonella Thompson into tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatoes have been implicated in several Salmonellosis outbreaks due to possible contamination through bacterial infiltration into tomatoes during post-harvest handling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tomato variety, dump tank water to tomato pulp temperature differential, and...

  19. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  20. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesser, P.; Hostettler, T.

    2007-01-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  1. A Practical Irradiance Model for Bifacial PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill; MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Toor, Fatima; Riley, Daniel; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford

    2017-06-15

    A model, suitable for a row or multiple rows of photovoltaic (PV) modules, is presented for estimating the backside irradiance for bifacial PV modules. The model, which includes the effects of shading by the PV rows, is based on the use of configuration factors (CFs) to determine the fraction of a source of irradiance that is received by the backside of the PV module. Backside irradiances are modeled along the sloped height of the PV module, but assumed not to vary along the length of the PV row. The backside irradiances are corrected for angle-of-incidence losses and may be added to the front side irradiance to determine the total irradiance resource for the PV cell. Model results are compared with the measured backside irradiances for NREL and Sandia PV systems, and with results when using the RADIANCE ray tracing program.

  2. A Practical Irradiance Model for Bifacial PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill; MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Toor, Fatima; Riley, Daniel; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford

    2017-06-21

    A model, suitable for a row or multiple rows of photovoltaic (PV) modules, is presented for estimating the backside irradiance for bifacial PV modules. The model, which includes the effects of shading by the PV rows, is based on the use of configuration factors to determine the fraction of a source of irradiance that is received by the backside of the PV module. Backside irradiances are modeled along the sloped height of the PV module, but assumed not to vary along the length of the PV row. The backside irradiances are corrected for angle-of-incidence losses and may be added to the front side irradiance to determine the total irradiance resource for the PV cell. Model results are compared with the measured backside irradiances for NREL and Sandia PV systems, and with results when using ray tracing software.

  3. Design optimization of grid-connected PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    The DC/AC inverters are the key elements in grid-connected PV energy production systems. In this paper, new design optimization techniques focused on transformerless (very high efficiency) PV inverters are proposed. They have been developed based on an analysis of the deficiencies of the current......, state-of-the-art PV inverters design technology, which limits the amount of PV energy supplied into the electric grid. The influences of the electric grid regulations and standards and the PV array operational characteristics on the design of grid-connected PV inverters have also been considered....... The simulation results verify that the proposed optimization techniques enable the maximization of the PV energy injected into the electric grid by the optimized PV installation....

  4. Industry consultation on grid connection of small PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, J.; Thorneycroft, J.; Cotterell, M.; Gambro, S.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the results of consultation within the PV industry and the electricity supply industry concerning guidelines for the connection of small PV systems to the electricity network. (author)

  5. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  6. Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch is a main renewable bio-resource with low price and mass production in Guangxi, China. It was used as carbon source in growing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. The xanthan gum yield of gelatinized cassava starch was higher than that of ...

  7. PV experience curves for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwig, R.

    2005-01-01

    Experience curves are one of several tools used by policy makers to take a look at market development. Numerous curves have been constructed for PV but none specific to the Netherlands. The objective of this report is to take a look at the price development of grid-connected PV systems in the Netherlands using the experience curve theory. After a literature and internet search and attempts to acquire information from PV companies information on 51% of the totally installed capacity was found. Curves for the period 1991-2001 were constructed based on system price, BOS (balance-of-system) price and inverter price. The progress ratio of the locally learning BOS was similar to the globally learning module market. This indicates that the pace of development of the Dutch PV market is similar to the globally followed pace. Improvement of the detail of the data might help to get a better idea of which BOS components have declined most. The similar progress ratio also shows the importance of investing both in module and system research as is the case in the Netherlands

  8. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  9. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  10. PV-mooduli toodang suurfarmis / Teolan Tomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomson, Teolan, 1932-

    2015-01-01

    Artiklis uuritakse PV-paneelide tootlikkuse langust nende vastastikuse varjutamise tõttu. Näidatakse, et Eesti oludes on soovitav kasutada paneelide madalaid kaldenurki ja suhtelist reavahet, mis ületab paneeli kõrguse pooleteistkordset väärtust

  11. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  12. PV System Component Fault and Failure Compilation and Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Lavrova, Olga; Gooding, Renee Lynne

    2018-02-01

    This report describes data collection and analysis of solar photovoltaic (PV) equipment events, which consist of faults and fa ilures that occur during the normal operation of a distributed PV system or PV power plant. We present summary statistics from locations w here maintenance data is being collected at various intervals, as well as reliability statistics gathered from that da ta, consisting of fault/failure distributions and repair distributions for a wide range of PV equipment types.

  13. Optimal Design of Modern Transformerless PV Inverter Topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Saridakis, Stefanos; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The design optimization of H5, H6, neutral point clamped, active-neutral point clamped, and conergy-NPC transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters is presented in this paper. The components reliability in terms of the corresponding malfunctions, affecting the PV inverter maintenance cost during the operational lifetime period of the PV installation, is also considered in the optimization process. According to the results of the proposed design method, different optimal values of the PV inver...

  14. Study of bypass diodes configuration on PV modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, S.; Boronat, A.; Chouder, A. [Electronics Engineering Department - UPC., C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul C4 Campus Nord UPC., 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    A procedure of simulation and modelling solar cells and PV modules, working partially shadowed in Pspice environment, is presented. Simulation results have been contrasted with real measured data from a commercial PV module of 209 Wp from Siliken. Some cases of study are presented as application examples of this simulation methodology, showing its potential on the design of bypass diodes configuration to include in a PV module and also on the study of PV generators working in partial shading conditions. (author)

  15. Assessing the need for better forecasting and observability of pv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    In its review of the challenges and opportunities associated with massive deployment of solar PV generation, the Grid integration working group of the ETIP PV identified forecasting and observability as critical technologies for the planning and operation of the power system with large PV...... penetration. In this white paper ETIP PV set out to spell out in more details what features are needed from these technologies and what is the state of the art....

  16. On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Baghzouz, Yahia

    2008-01-01

    clarifies the mechanism of partial PV shading on a number of PV cells connected in series and/or parallel with and without bypass diodes. The analysis is presented in simple terms and can be useful to someone who wishes to determine the impact of some shading geometry on a PV system. The analysis...... is illustrated by measurements on a commercial 70 W panel, and a 14.4 kW PV array....

  17. Effects of Intercropping with Potato Onion on the Growth of Tomato and Rhizosphere Alkaline Phosphatase Genes Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Fengzhi; Zhou, Xingang; Fu, Xuepeng; Tao, Yue; Xu, Weihui; Pan, Kai; Liu, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    In China, excessive fertilization has resulted in phosphorus (P) accumulation in most greenhouse soils. Intercropping can improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crop production. In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of intercropping with potato onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings growth and P uptake, the diversity of rhizosphere phosphobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes in phosphorus-rich soil. The experiment included three treatments, namely tomato monoculture (TM), potato onion monoculture (OM), and tomato/potato onion intercropping (TI-tomato intercropping and OI-potato onion intercropping). The growth and P uptake of tomato and potato onion seedlings were evaluated. The dilution plating method was used to determine the population of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (PMB). The genomic DNAs of PSB and PMB in the rhizosphere of tomato and potato onions were extracted and purified, and then, with the primer set of 338f /518r, the PCR amplification of partial bacterial 16S rDNA sequence was performed and sequenced to determine the diversities of PSB and PMB. After extracting the total genomic DNAs from the rhizosphere, the copy numbers and diversities of ALP genes were investigated using real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. Intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato seedlings, but inhibited those of potato onion. After 37 days of transplanting, compared to the rhizosphere of TM, the soil pH increased, while the electrolytic conductivity and Olsen P content decreased (p onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato in phosphorus-rich soil and affected the community structure and function of phosphobacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Intercropping with potato onion also improved soil quality by lowering levels of soil acidification and salinization.

  18. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  19. PV/T slates - Pilot project in Steinhausen; PV/T-Schiefer. Pilotprojekt Steinhausen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates) mounted on a garden shed in Steinhausen, Switzerland. The installation provides power and heat to the main house. The report describes the construction and operation of this pilot project and the results of measurements made on its electrical and thermal performance. The results of measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form and compared with the results of simulation. Suggestions are made for the optimisation of the system. Figures are presented on energy production and energy flows in graphical form.

  20. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi: some like it knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cayo; Matas, Isabel M; Bardaji, Leire; Aragón, Isabel M; Murillo, Jesús

    2012-12-01

    wounds. Populations are very unevenly distributed in the plant, and suffer drastic fluctuations throughout the year, with maximum numbers of bacteria occurring during rainy and warm months. Populations of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi are normally associated with nonpathogenic bacteria, both epiphytically and endophytically, and have been demonstrated to form mutualistic consortia with Erwinia toletana and Pantoea agglomerans, which could result in increased bacterial populations and disease symptoms. Based on preventive measures, mostly sanitary and cultural practices. Integrated control programmes benefit from regular applications of copper formulations, which should be maintained for at least a few years for maximum benefit. Olive cultivars vary in their susceptibility to olive knot, but there are no known cultivars with full resistance to the pathogen. http://www.pseudomonas-syringae.org/; http://genome.ppws.vt.edu/cgi-bin/MLST/home.pl; ASAP access to the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 genome sequence https://asap.ahabs.wisc.edu/asap/logon.php. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  1. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Yang, P.E.; Lin, Y.P.; Lin, B.Y.; Chen, H.J.; Lai, R.C.; Cheng, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well

  2. Impedance characterization of PV modules in outdoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Spataru, Sergiu

    2016-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) has been used for laboratory characterizations of photovoltaic (PV) technologies under well controlled conditions. This work applies IS for outdoor characterization of PV panels, in order to observe the effect of irradiance (G) and temperature (T) on the PV module’s...

  3. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for PV Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to bring down the cost of produced photovoltaic (PV) power had a major impact on the PV market and in consequence the grid operators experienced higher and higher PV power penetration. The growing share of this decentralized generation plants started to affect the grid stability...

  4. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated...

  5. Remote and Centralized Monitoring of PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopacz, Csaba; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2014-01-01

    the inverters within each PV plant. The monitoring software stores the PV measurements in a data warehouse optimized for managing and data mining large amounts of data, from where it can be later visualized, analyzed and exported. By combining PV production measurements data with I-V curve measurements...

  6. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  7. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics; PV-Obelisk Orientierungssystem mit Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed.

  8. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  9. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Moya, Carlos; Gisbert, Carmina; Vilanova, Santiago; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-10-20

    Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1) derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27) with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47). The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8) in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1) and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related to regeneration. In this study we have

  10. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. Results We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1 derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27 with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47. The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1 and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related

  11. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Denise; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric; Taylor, Mark G; Rushing, Sarah; Jones, Jeffrey B; Klee, Harry J

    2010-04-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-methyltransferases. In order to elaborate the mechanism of MeSA synthesis in tomato, we screened a set of O-methyltransferases for activity against multiple substrates. An enzyme that specifically catalyzes methylation of SA, SlSAMT, as well as enzymes that act upon jasmonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid were identified. Analyses of transgenic over- and under-producing lines validated the function of SlSAMT in vivo. The SlSAMT gene was mapped to a position near the bottom of chromosome 9. Analysis of MeSA emissions from an introgression population derived from a cross with Solanum pennellii revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to higher fruit methyl salicylate emissions. The higher MeSA emissions associate with significantly higher SpSAMT expression, consistent with SAMT gene expression being rate limiting for ripening-associated MeSA emissions. Transgenic plants that constitutively over-produce MeSA exhibited only slightly delayed symptom development following infection with the disease-causing bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). Unexpectedly, pathogen-challenged leaves accumulated significantly higher levels of SA as well as glycosylated forms of SA and MeSA, indicating a disruption in control of the SA-related metabolite pool. Taken together, the results indicate that SlSAMT is critical for methyl salicylate synthesis and methyl salicylate, in turn, likely has an important role in controlling SA synthesis.

  12. Nutritional evaluation of dried tomato seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persia, M E; Parsons, C M; Schang, M; Azcona, J

    2003-01-01

    Two samples of tomato seeds, a by-product of the tomato canning industry were evaluated to determine proximate analysis, amino acid content, and digestibility, TMEn, and protein efficiency ratio. Tomato seeds were also used to replace corn and soybean meal (SBM) in a chick diet on an equal true amino acid digestibility and TMEn basis. Tomato seeds were found to contain 8.5% moisture, 25% CP, 20.0% fat, 3.1% ash, 35.1% total dietary fiber, 0.12% Ca, 0.58% P, and 3,204 kcal/kg of TMEn. The total amounts of methionine, cystine, and lysine in the tomato seeds were 0.39, 0.40, and 1.34%, respectively, and their true digestibility coefficients, determined in cecectomized roosters, were 75, 70, and 54%, respectively. The protein efficiency ratio (weight gain per unit of protein intake) value when fed to chicks at 9% CP was 2.5 compared to 3.6 for SBM (P seeds could replace corn and SBM without any adverse affects on chick weight gain, feed intake, or gain:feed ratio from 8 to 21 d posthatch. Tomato seeds at any level in the diet did not significantly affect skin pigmentation. Although the protein quality of tomato seeds may not be as high as SBM, tomato seeds do contain substantial amounts of digestible amino acids and TMEn. When formulating diets on a true digestible amino acid and TMEn basis, tomato seeds can be supplemented into chick rations at up to 15% without any adverse affects on growth performance.

  13. Effect of plant diversification on pest abundance and tomato yields in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diakalia SON

    Effect of plant diversification on pest abundance and tomato yields in two cropping systems in ..... Table 2: Monitoring of evolution of the pests population in IPM plots. Pests ... For pollinators, the most abundant families ...... induced by chemical interaction between unattacked .... in a coastal savannah agro ecological zone.

  14. Virulence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae Isolated from Poa annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Chaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae that infects Poa annua, a grass that is commonly found on golf course greens throughout the world. Bacterial wilt causes symptoms of etiolation, wilting, and foliar necrosis. The damage is most prevalent during the summer and the pathogen can kill turf under conditions optimal for disease development. Fifteen isolates of X. translucens pv. poae were collected from northern regions in the United States and tested for virulence against P. annua. All 15 isolates were pathogenic on P. annua, but demonstrated variable levels of virulence when inoculated onto P. annua under greenhouse conditions. The isolates were divided into two virulence groups. The first group containing four isolates generally resulted in less than 40% mortality following inoculation. The second group, containing the other eleven isolates, produced between 90 and 100% mortality following inoculation. These results suggest that differences in the virulence of bacterial populations present on a golf course may result in more or less severe amounts of observed disease.

  15. COMPARISON OF CAROTENOID CONTENT IN TOMATO, TOMATO PULP AND KETCHUP BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. T. GAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over 80 % the consumption of tomatoes is in the form of processed products such as tomato pulp, ketchup, juice and sauce. Research has indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. The present study was carried out to determine the carotenoid content of fresh tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by high performance liquid chromatography. The major differences among these products were in the concentration of some of the pigments. Tomato had all-trans-lycopene (1046-1099 μg/g DW, cislycopene (125-132 μg/g DW and all-trans- -carotene (45-59 μg/g DW as principal carotenoids. Tomato pulp and ketchup had all-trans-lycopene (951-999 μg/g DW and 455-476 μg/g DW, all-trans- -carotene (76-88 DW μg/g and 20-27 DW μg/g and cis-lycopene (71-83 μg/g DW and 14-25 μg/g DW as the main pigments, respectively. They also contained other carotenoids in much smaller amounts (lycoxanthin, zeaxanthin, anteraxanthin, lutein, -carotene, -carotene and phytofluene.

  16. Hygienic quality of traditional processing and stability of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyapoh, Yaovi; de Souza, Comlan; Traore, Alfred S

    2008-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical qualities of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree production line (ripe tomato, washing, cutting, pounding, bleaching, straining, bottling and pasteurization) and its preservation in Togo, West Africa, were studied using the HACCP method. Samples generated during the steps described previously were analyzed by determining sensory, chemical and microbiological characteristics. Samples were analyzed using MPN for coliform populations and plate count methodology for other bacteria. The microorganisms involved in spoilage of the opened products were moulds of genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor and gram-positive Bacillus bacteria. The preserved tomato puree exhibited a pH value of 4.3, 90% water content, 0.98 water activity (aw) and an average ascorbic acid level of 27.3mg/100g. Results showed that the critical control point (CCP) of this tomato puree processing line is the pasteurization stage. The analysis of selected microbiological and physicochemical parameters during the preservation of bottled tomato puree indicated that this product was stable over 22 months at 29 degrees C. But the stability of the opened product stored at 29 degrees C did not exceed two months.

  17. Effects of postharvest handling conditions on internalization and growth of Salmonella enterica in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Yang, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Qin

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella internalization in tomatoes during postharvest handling is a major food safety concern. This study was conducted to determine the effect of immersion time, immersion depth, and temperature differential between bacterial suspension and tomato pulp on the internalization of Salmonella enterica in tomato fruits. The effect of storage temperature and duration on the survival and growth of internalized Salmonella cells was also evaluated. Overall, immersion time significantly affected the incidence and extent of S. enterica internalization (P internalization. The depth of Salmonella internalization in tomato tissues also increased with increasing immersion time. Immersion time also significantly influenced the degree to which the temperature differential affected Salmonella internalization. With an immersion time of 2 min, the temperature differential had no significant effect on Salmonella internalization (P = 0.2536). However, with an immersion time of 15 min, a significantly larger Salmonella population became internalized in tomatoes immersed in solutions with a -30°F (-16.7°C) temperature differential. Internalized S. enterica cells persisted in the core tissues during 14 days of storage. Strain type and storage duration significantly affected (P internalized Salmonella recovered, but storage temperatures of 55 to 70°F (12.8 to 21.1°C) did not (P > 0.05). These findings indicate the importance of preventing pathogen internalization during postharvest handling.

  18. A Practical Optimization Method for Designing Large PV Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Koutroulis, E.; Eyigun, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays Photovoltaic (PV) plants have multi MW sizes, the biggest plants reaching tens of MW of capacity. Such large-scale PV plants are made up of several thousands of PV panels, each panel being in the range of 150-350W. This means that the design of a Large PV power plant is a big challenge...... and configuring such a plant should be implemented taking into consideration not only the cost of the installation, but also the Annual Energy Production, the Performance Ratio and the Levelized Cost Of Energy. In this paper, an algorithm is presented including the most important models of the PV system...

  19. PV Working with Industry, 2nd Quarter, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.; Moon, S.

    2000-06-29

    NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The Second Quarter, 2000, issue is titled ``Our Shared PV Future''. It contains a review of several important PV-related meetings held in the prior three months: the NCPV Program Review, the 16 European PV Conference, and year-2000 Earth Day activities in Denver, CO. The editorialist is Paul Maycock, Publisher of PV News.

  20. Accelerating residential PV expansion: demand analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Richard; Williams, Robert; Payne, Adam

    2005-01-01

    This article quantifies the potential market for grid-connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) electricity integrated into new homes built in the US. It complements an earlier supply-side analysis by the authors that demonstrates the potential to reduce PV module prices below $1.5/W p by scaling up existing thin-film technology in 100 MW p /yr manufacturing facilities. The present article demonstrates that, at that price, PV modules may be cost effective in 125,000 new home installations per year (0.5 GW p /yr). While this market is large enough to support multiple scaled up thin-film PV factories, inefficient energy pricing and demand-side market failures will inhibit prospective PV consumers without strong public policy support. Net metering rules, already implemented in many states to encourage PV market launch, represent a crude but reasonable surrogate for efficient electricity pricing mechanisms that may ultimately emerge to internalize the externality benefits of PV. These public benefits include reduced air pollution damages (estimated costs of damage to human health from fossil fuel power plants are presented in Appendix A), deferral of transmission and distribution capital expenditures, reduced exposure to fossil fuel price risks, and increased electricity system reliability for end users. Thus, net metering for PV ought to be implemented as broadly as possible and sustained until efficient pricing is in place. Complementary PV 'buydowns' (e.g., a renewable portfolio standard with a specific PV requirement) are needed to jumpstart regional PV markets

  1. Plasmodium vivax Tryptophan Rich Antigen PvTRAg36.6 Interacts with PvETRAMP and PvTRAg56.6 Interacts with PvMSP7 during Erythrocytic Stages of the Parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Tyagi

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is most wide spread and a neglected malaria parasite. There is a lack of information on parasite biology of this species. Genome of this parasite encodes for the largest number of tryptophan-rich proteins belonging to 'Pv-fam-a' family and some of them are potential drug/vaccine targets but their functional role(s largely remains unexplored. Using bacterial and yeast two hybrid systems, we have identified the interacting partners for two of the P. vivax tryptophan-rich antigens called PvTRAg36.6 and PvTRAg56.2. The PvTRAg36.6 interacts with early transcribed membrane protein (ETRAMP of P.vivax. It is apically localized in merozoites but in early stages it is seen in parasite periphery suggesting its likely involvement in parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM development or maintenance. On the other hand, PvTRAg56.2 interacts with P.vivax merozoite surface protein7 (PvMSP7 and is localized on merozoite surface. Co-localization of PvTRAg56.2 with PvMSP1 and its molecular interaction with PvMSP7 probably suggest that, PvTRAg56.2 is part of MSP-complex, and might assist or stabilize the protein complex at the merozoite surface. In conclusion, the PvTRAg proteins have different sub cellular localizations and specific associated functions during intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle.

  2. Plasmodium vivax Tryptophan Rich Antigen PvTRAg36.6 Interacts with PvETRAMP and PvTRAg56.6 Interacts with PvMSP7 during Erythrocytic Stages of the Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Kriti; Hossain, Mohammad Enayet; Thakur, Vandana; Aggarwal, Praveen; Malhotra, Pawan; Mohmmed, Asif; Sharma, Yagya Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is most wide spread and a neglected malaria parasite. There is a lack of information on parasite biology of this species. Genome of this parasite encodes for the largest number of tryptophan-rich proteins belonging to ‘Pv-fam-a’ family and some of them are potential drug/vaccine targets but their functional role(s) largely remains unexplored. Using bacterial and yeast two hybrid systems, we have identified the interacting partners for two of the P. vivax tryptophan-rich antigens called PvTRAg36.6 and PvTRAg56.2. The PvTRAg36.6 interacts with early transcribed membrane protein (ETRAMP) of P.vivax. It is apically localized in merozoites but in early stages it is seen in parasite periphery suggesting its likely involvement in parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) development or maintenance. On the other hand, PvTRAg56.2 interacts with P.vivax merozoite surface protein7 (PvMSP7) and is localized on merozoite surface. Co-localization of PvTRAg56.2 with PvMSP1 and its molecular interaction with PvMSP7 probably suggest that, PvTRAg56.2 is part of MSP-complex, and might assist or stabilize the protein complex at the merozoite surface. In conclusion, the PvTRAg proteins have different sub cellular localizations and specific associated functions during intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle. PMID:26954579

  3. Optimal Design of Modern Transformerless PV Inverter Topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saridakis, Stefanos; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    the operational lifetime period of the PV installation, is also considered in the optimization process. According to the results of the proposed design method, different optimal values of the PV inverter design variables are derived for each PV inverter topology and installation site. The H5, H6, neutral point...... clamped, active-neutral point clamped and conergy-NPC PV inverters designed using the proposed optimization process feature lower levelized cost of generated electricity and lifetime cost, longer mean time between failures and inject more PV-generated energy into the electric grid than their nonoptimized......The design optimization of H5, H6, neutral point clamped, active-neutral point clamped, and conergy-NPC transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters is presented in this paper. The components reliability in terms of the corresponding malfunctions, affecting the PV inverter maintenance cost during...

  4. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (pv): indications, contraindications, and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, R.T.; Jakobs, T.F.; Wallnoefer, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Helmberger, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (pv) is a worldwide increasingly performed interventional therapeutic procedure. This article addresses indications, patient preparation, technical requirements and approach as well as possible complications of percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a technique consisting in an injection of bone cement into a vertebral body under imaging guidance. This procedure is performed to relief pain and support the mechanical stability in partially collapsed vertebral bodies. In the management of spinal compression fractures secondary to osteoporosis, myeloma, osteolytic metastases and aggressive hemangiomas, percutaneous vertebroplasty yields analgesic effect, and provides additional fortification in weakened segments of the vertebral column. Contraindications include major bleeding disorders, radicular pain and pain caused by compression of the myelon. Percutaneous vertebroplasty results in prompt pain relief and rapid rehabilitation. In experienced hands, using correct technique, pv is a safe and effective procedure for treating pain, caused either by osteoporotic or malignant vertebral compression fractures. (orig.) [de

  5. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. ... the ingestion of mycotoxins that are usually associated with fungal species), ...

  6. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  7. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... propagated plants upon transfer to soil under natural conditions. ... Effect of high temperature and heat shock on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) genotypes .... Modulation of mineral and fatty acid profiles during ...

  8. (edta) on the germination of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    response of plant to salinity stress varies according to plant ... National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, Oyo. State .... the work of Mgbeze et al. ... accumulation of four tomato cultivars. American. Journal of Plant Physiology, ...

  9. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  10. Turkish tomato greenhouse gets geothermal heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture will set up an ultramodern greenhouse in Turkey, together with Dutch greenhouse builders and contractors. Geothermal energy will be used there to provide heat and carbon dioxide for tomato cultivation.

  11. Institutional barriers for building integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierlo, B. van

    2000-01-01

    Being an alternative for fossil fuels photovoltaics have to overcome traditional structures, procedures, cultures and values. As a new building material photovoltaics also have to deal with the structure and culture of the building sector. In this paper the institutional bottlenecks for the introduction of PV on a large scale are explored in five areas: financing, administration, structure of energy sector, architecture, communication and marketing. Nevertheless, on the whole the developments are encouraging. (author)

  12. Financial sustainability of PV implementation in Swaziland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, C.A.; Van Roekel, G.M.; Lasschuit, P.E.

    2001-10-01

    During the past 10 years, more than 700 Solar Home Systems have been implemented by this project in Swaziland, southern Africa. The implementation process started with household energy surveys, the results of which showing significant energy needs for cooking, lighting and basic communication applications (i.e. radio/TV), particularly in rural areas. An implementation project of Solar Home Systems was set up to start rural electrification with solar PV and focused on lighting and small electrical demands. The national government, whose own resources were limited, supported the project as an important step towards addressing the country's range of energy needs. Together with a local company, Swazitronix, a joint venture was established to facilitate the implementation project. With a project loan from the Dutch social bank, the Triodosbank, standard Solar Home Systems were sold, assembled, installed and serviced. Customers paid the full cost of their PV systems and services. Awareness and education issues also formed key aspects of the project. During a later project phase, credit financing instruments were introduced providing a final element of experience crucial to future project implementation. The project's relative success and experiences (i.e. 82% loan repayment rate, detailed review of the causes behind loan defaults, and monitoring survey results) are detailed herein, providing valuable lessons regarding financial sustainability, the linchpin of successful PV implementation. 8 refs

  13. Characterisation of the mgo operon in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158 that is required for mangotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mangotoxin is an antimetabolite toxin that is produced by strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae; mangotoxin-producing strains are primarily isolated from mango tissues with symptoms of bacterial apical necrosis. The toxin is an oligopeptide that inhibits ornithine N-acetyl transferase (OAT), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the essential amino acids ornithine and arginine. The involvement of a putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene (mgoA) in mangotoxin production and virulence has been reported. Results In the present study, we performed a RT-PCR analysis, insertional inactivation mutagenesis, a promoter expression analysis and terminator localisation to study the gene cluster containing the mgoA gene. Additionally, we evaluated the importance of mgoC, mgoA and mgoD in mangotoxin production. A sequence analysis revealed an operon-like organisation. A promoter sequence was located upstream of the mgoB gene and was found to drive lacZ transcription. Two terminators were located downstream of the mgoD gene. RT-PCR experiments indicated that the four genes (mgoBCAD) constitute a transcriptional unit. This operon is similar in genetic organisation to those in the three other P. syringae pathovars for which complete genomes are available (P. syringae pv. syringae B728a, P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A). Interestingly, none of these three reference strains is capable of producing mangotoxin. Additionally, extract complementation resulted in a recovery of mangotoxin production when the defective mutant was complemented with wild-type extracts. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that mgoB, mgoC, mgoA and mgoD function as a transcriptional unit and operon. While this operon is composed of four genes, only the last three are directly involved in mangotoxin production. PMID:22251433

  14. An Analysis of Open World PvP in LOTRO's PvMP as a Case Study for PvP Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Weimin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the analysis of emergent gameplay, based on a case study of the author's subjective gameplay experience of Player versus Monster Player (PvMP in The Lord of the Rings Online (LOTRO. The argument presented here is that although there is a core system of Player versus Player (PvP which LOTRO shares with other online games, each type of online game has a specific kind of PvP system which attracts players to engage in the gameplay. For instance, the open world sandbox type of PvP attracts certain players to play in LOTRO's PvMP. One of the main aims of this study is thus to investigate some of the core systems of PvP gameplay in open world sandbox PvP. In this article, LOTRO is shown to offer unique opportunities for studying emergent gameplay in open world games, with particular relevance to PvP studies. Two of the core systems of PvP discussed include the design of the simple gameplay rules to support emergent gameplay, and the community's attitudes towards player's behaviours. The types of emergent gameplay discussed include free play versus negotiated fair play, the players' utilisation of strategies in open world PvP to support collaborative and competitive gameplay, and the changing dynamics of open ended gameplay. It is hoped that the analysis provided in this article would form the­ basis of future work on a more general framework for understanding PvP in other online games.

  15. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  16. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  17. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  18. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  19. Numerical study of PV/T-SAHP system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang PEI; Jie JI; Ke-liang LIU; Han-feng HE; Ai-guo JIANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy effectively and to achieve a higher electrical efficiency by limiting the operating temperature of the photovoltaic (PV) panel, a novel photovoltaic/thermal solar-assisted heat pump (PV/T-SAHP) system was proposed and constructed. The hybrid solar system generates electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. A distributed parameters model of the PV/T-SAHP system was developed and applied to analyze the system dynamic performance in terms of PV action, photothermal action and Rankine cycle processes. The simulation results indicated that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed PV/T-SAHP can be much better than that of the conventional heat pump. Both PV-efficiency and photothermic efficiency have been improved considerably. The results also showed that the performance of this PV/T-SAHP system was strongly influenced by the evaporator area, tube pitch and tilt angle of the PV/T evaporator, which are the key factors in PV/T-SAHP system optimization and PV/T evaporator design.

  20. Serum antibodies and DNA indicate a high prevalence of equine papillomavirus 2 (EcPV2) among horses in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nina M; Favrot, Claude; Birkmann, Katharina; Jackson, Michele; Schwarzwald, Colin C; Müller, Martin; Tobler, Kurt; Geisseler, Marco; Lange, Christian E

    2014-06-01

    The DNA of equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) is consistently found in equine papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas, indicating a causal association of EcPV2 in the pathogenesis of these tumours; however, little is known about the prevalence of this virus. The aim of this study was to determine the geno- and seroprevalence of EcPV2 in clinically healthy horses in Switzerland. Fifty horses presented to the equine department of the university clinic, displaying no skin or mucous membrane lesions or severe signs of other diseases, were sampled. Cytobrush samples from the penis or vulva and serum samples were collected. To determine the genoprevalence of EcPV2, DNA was extracted from cytobrush samples and tested for viral DNA with a PCR assay amplifying a 338 bp fragment of the E7/E1 region of the viral genome. Seroprevalence was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay aimed to detect antibodies against the major capsid protein (L1) of EcPV2. In five of 50 horses (10%), EcPV2-specific DNA was amplified but no antibodies could be detected, whereas in 14 of 50 horses (28%), antibodies against EcPV2 but no DNA were demonstrated. Both antibodies and viral DNA were detected in four of 50 horses (8%). Neither antibodies nor viral DNA were found in 27 of 50 horses (54%). The seroprevalence suggests that EcPV2 is prevalent in the Swiss equine population, while the genoprevalence indicates that currently ongoing infections are less common. The discrepancy between geno- and seroprevalence probably indicates different stages of infection in the tested cohort. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. TARGET MICROFLORA OF A TOMATO C ROPPED SOIL.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of benomyl on the microflora of a tomato cropped soil was investigated. ... both in culture and soil treatments. ... pseudomonads to benomyl in culture .... bacterial pathogens of tomato solanucearum. Indian Pin to 11:01. in vitro.

  3. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the ... Tabora Region on the growth and yield of newly introduced tomato varieties. The tested ..... (1985). Evaluation of some American tomatocultivars grown.

  4. Effect of tomato cultivars, honey finisher and processing methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... microbiological and sensory quality of tomato ketchup that was prepared using low-cost ... The color of tomato ketchup samples were measured by comparing it with standard color chart .... multiple rage tests. RESULTS AND ...

  5. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit soluble solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of [ 3 H]-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of [ 14 C]sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of [ 14 C]-(glycosyl)-1'fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of [ 14 C] sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F 2 population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes

  6. Novel laboratory mouse papillomavirus (MusPV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, A; Ghim, S; Joh, J; Chepkoech, I; Bennett Jenson, A; Sundberg, J P

    2011-03-01

    Most papillomaviruses (PVs) are oncogenic. There are at least 100 different human PVs and 65 nonhuman vertebrate hosts, including wild rodents, which have species-specific PV infections. Florid papillomatosis arose in a colony of NMRI-Foxn1(nu)/Foxn1(nu) (nude) mice at the Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer in India. Lesions appeared at the mucocutaneous junctions of the nose and mouth. Histologically, lesions were classical papillomas with epidermal hyperplasia on thin fibrovascular stalks in a verrucous pattern. Koilocytotic cells were observed in the stratum granulosum of the papillomatous lesions. Immunohistochemically, these abnormal cells were positive for PV group-specific antigens. With transmission electron microscopy, virus particles were observed in crystalline intranuclear inclusions within keratinocytes. The presence of a mouse PV, designated MusPV, was confirmed by amplification of PV DNA with degenerative primers specific for PVs. This report is the first of a PV and its related disease in laboratory mice.

  7. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) markets are relatively non-transparent: PV price and product information is not readily available, searching for this information is costly (in terms of time and effort), and customers are mostly unfamiliar with the new technology. Quote aggregation, where third-party companies collect PV quotes on behalf of customers, may be one way to increase PV market transparency. In this paper, quote aggregation data are analyzed to study the value of transparency for distributed solar PV markets. The results suggest that easier access to more quotes results in lower prices. We find that installers tend to offer lower prices in more competitive market environments. We supplement the empirical analysis with key findings from interviews of residential PV installers.

  8. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  9. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoumah, Y; Yamegueu, D; Py, X

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy energy' concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  10. Lighting rural and peri-urban homes of the Gambia using solar photovoltaics (PV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanneh, E.S.; Hu, A.H. [National Taipei Univ. of Technology, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Environmental Engineering Technology

    2009-07-01

    The main fuel supplies of Gambia are fuel woods, petroleum products, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This study considered the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) as a principal source of power for rural and peri-urban communities in Gambia. The country currently has high rates of poverty and malnutrition, and it is expected that the provision of electricity to communities will encourage economic growth. Gambia is also heavily dependent on foreign imports of oil. To date, PV systems have been used for water pumping, refrigeration, and telecommunications projects. The study showed that better access to sustainable energy services is needed at the micro-level to stimulate businesses and income-generating activities, as well as at the macro level to foster economic growth. Financing methods for developing solar energy in Gambia include credit financing; PV market transformative initiatives; revolving loan funds; and government-granted renewable energy concessions for institutionally-owned and maintained systems. A pilot program has been established to investigate the acceptability of PV lighting systems for rural populations. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  12. The new NOZ-PV: Market-oriented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter Horst, E.

    1995-01-01

    In the proposal for the new National Research Program for Photovoltaics (NOZ-PV) 1995-1999 the focus is on four subjects: solar cell technology, the industrial support, the stimulation of autonomous, favorable applications and markets for PV, and the realization of a training program PV in the Built Areas. The program will be carried out as a market-oriented program. 1 tab., 2 figs

  13. Improving the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) panels by oil coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elhady, M.S.; Fouad, M.M.; Khalil, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is possible to improve the efficiency of PV panels by increasing the amount of light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the amount of sun light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the power output of the panel. • Coating PV panels with a layer of Labovac oil has to be applied in cold countries and not in hot regions. - Abstract: The objective of this research is to develop a new technique for improving the efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) panels. This technique is done by coating the front surface of the PV panel by a fine layer of oil in order to increase the amount of light transmitted to the panel, and consequently its efficiency. Different types of oils are examined, including both mineral oils and natural oils. In case of mineral oils; vacuum pump oil (Labovac oil), engine oil (Mobil oil) and brake oil (Abro oil) are examined, while in case of natural oils; olive and sunflower oils are examined. An experimental setup has been developed to examine the performance of the PV panels as a function of oil coatings. The experimental setup consists of an artificial sun, the PV panel under investigation, a cooling system and a measuring system to measure the performance of the panel. It has been found that coating the PV panel with a fine layer of Labovac oil, ∼1 mm thick, improves the efficiency of the PV panel by more than 20%, and this is due to the high transmissivity of the Labovac oil compared to other oils. However, the Labovac oil has a drawback which is overheating of the panel due to its high transmissivity. Coating of PV panels with a fine layer of Labovac oil should be done only in cold regions, in order to avoid the heating effect that can decrease the power output of PV panels.

  14. A strategic model for PV dissemination in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranvarodom, S. [Rajamangala Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Pathumthani (Thailand); Hill, R. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle Photovoltaics Applications Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); O' Keefe, P. [University of Northumbria, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Management, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The process of information dissemination is necessary for the successful implementation for photovoltaic (PV) programmes in developing countries, and it is essential to consider the strategies for implementation of a PV project to ensure that it will be successful. This paper proposes a strategic model for PV dissemination in Thailand and discusses the roles of key players in the implementation of the strategy and the responsibilities of these organisations. (Author)

  15. Photovoltaic (PV) energy in the Netherlands and Switzerland. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Loo, F.; Spiessens, P.

    1995-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Switzerland and the Netherlands is compared for a number of aspects. The Swiss have realized more PV capacity. Also the economic conditions to develop PV are better in Switzerland than in the Netherlands. In Switzerland the public support is mobilized for solar energy while in the Netherlands a social basis is created for wind energy. 3 ills., 3 tabs

  16. Self-control system in storage unit of PV plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaban, Saad; Mohmoud, Ali [Hadhramout Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Mukalla (Yemen)

    2000-04-01

    A new system for self-controlling of storage batteries being charged by PV plants has been developed. This provides enhanced system reliability, lower system cost, and simpler operation for the user. In this system, the only requirement is to design and select PV panels so that their voltage-sensitive region (on the I-V curve) coincides with that required for a simpler remote PV plant and for long periods. (Author)

  17. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  18. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  19. Economics Of Tomato Production In Yewa North Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions relating to the socio-economic characteristics of the tomato farmers, tomato outputs, output prices and cost of resources viz. labour, seed, fertilizer and land used in production, as well as constraints to tomato production were asked in the questionnaire. Production function analysis was used to show the ...

  20. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Živković; Saša Stojanović; Žarko IVanović; Nenad Trkulja; Nenad Dolovac; Goran Aleksić; Jelica Balaž

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  1. Biochemical evaluation of tomato germplasm part I: workflow and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...

  2. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is ... Hue-mean and red-green color-difference image mean can be used as a criterion for the judgment of tomato maturity, and the tests indicated that the redgreen mean ...

  3. Solar PV-based rooftop power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar, B.; Kumar, Chaitanya; Patel, C.B.; Pattanaik, B.R.; Panda, P.K.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Technical Services Division (TSD) is responsible for providing reliable power supply to various operating reactors, laboratories and facilities of BARC. The power supply to BARC is derived from TATA Power at 110 KV and 22 KV at an average HT tariff of Rs.8.49 per unit at present. Peak power demand of BARC in summer season goes up to 23 MW. TSD has implemented several energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption and as well taken initiatives to install solar PV based rooftop power plants to reduce the cost of energy consumption in BARC

  4. Ancillary services provided by PV power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PIERNO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are widely utilized in distributed generation systems, and, recently, they are also considered for providing ancillary services. The paper is focused on PV plants, a survey of the most interesting papers published in the literature in the last decade is reported and the main characteristics of the technical proposals, with their advantages and limits, are evidenced. The results are schematically shown in a table that immediately gives the opportunity to be aware of what was already done, representing a reference tool.

  5. A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabisky, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price

  6. Population of Tuta absoluta and natural enemies after releasing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the population of tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and efficiency of natural enemies on tomato grown greenhouse in Mediterranean Region of Turkey during 2010 and 2011. Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) ...

  7. Battery storage for PV power systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A; Deambi, S [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1992-06-01

    Batteries used in photovoltaic applications are required to have particular properties in order to minimize the system cost, in addition to meeting stringent reliability requirements associated with PV system installations. The battery sizing, installations, operation and maintenance, thus, are fundamentally different from those used in several other energy storage applications. The current paper gives an overview of battery systems commonly used in PV installation, as well as several new options which are found suitable or have been modified suitably to meet PV energy storage requirements. The systems are discussed briefly with respect to their construction, performance characteristics and compatibility with PV systems. The battery sizing procedures are also reviewed. (Author).

  8. Impact of Rooftop Solar PV on Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    Increased environmental awareness in recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind. Among them, small scale solar PV has been gaining more momentum especially at residential level. Even today moderate penetration of grid tied rooftop solar PV has...... become reality in many countries. In spite of various benefits, higher penetration of rooftop PVs might come up with number of detrimental effects, with power quality and overcurrent protection being the major ones. Therefore, it is reasonable to quantify both drawback and benefits of rooftop PV...

  9. Issues and prospects vis a vis Indian PV commercialization programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deambi, Suneel

    1994-01-01

    Following a large scale demonstration of photovoltaic systems attending to the important requirements of lighting, water pumping, television and battery charging etc. in the remote surroundings of India, serious efforts are being made to promote the commercial use of these systems. A recently launched World Bank-supported project on PV market development has provided the much needed boost to the Indian PV programme. This paper tries to analyse the issues and prospects with respect to the National PV Commercialization Programme in view of the changing PV scenario in the country. (author)

  10. Fault Analysis and Detection in Microgrids with High PV Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khatib, Mohamed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez Alvidrez, Javier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In this report we focus on analyzing current-controlled PV inverters behaviour under faults in order to develop fault detection schemes for microgrids with high PV penetration. Inverter model suitable for steady state fault studies is presented and the impact of PV inverters on two protection elements is analyzed. The studied protection elements are superimposed quantities based directional element and negative sequence directional element. Additionally, several non-overcurrent fault detection schemes are discussed in this report for microgrids with high PV penetration. A detailed time-domain simulation study is presented to assess the performance of the presented fault detection schemes under different microgrid modes of operation.

  11. Solar Energy: Incentives to Promote PV in EU27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del P. Pablo-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the use of renewable energies in the EU has been remarkable. Among these energies is PV. The average annual growth rate for the EU-27 countries in installed PV capacity in the period 2005-2012 was 41.2%. While the installed capacity of PV has reached almost 82 % of National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP targets for the EU-27 countries for 2020, it is still far from being used at its full potential. Over recent years, several measures have been adopted in the EU to enhance and promote PV. This paper undertakes a complete review of the state of PV power in Europe and the measures taken to date to promote it in EU-27. 25 countries have adopted measures to promote PV. The most widespread measure to promote PV use is Feed- in Tariffs. Tariffs are normally adjusted, in a decreasing manner, annually. Nevertheless, currently, seven countries have decided to accelerate this decrease rate in view of cost reduction of the installations and of higher efficiencies. The second instrument used to promote PV in the EU-27 countries is the concession of subsidies. Nevertheless, subsidies have the disadvantage of being closely linked to budgetary resources and therefore to budgetary constraints. In most EU countries, subsidies for renewable energy for PV are being lowered. Twelve EU-27 countries adopted tax measures. Low-interest loans and green certificate systems were only sparingly used.

  12. NREL PV Working With Industry, v. 27, Third Quarter 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.; Nahan, R.

    2000-09-12

    NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The third quarter, contains articles on several important PV-related conferences held in the prior three months: the REAP/HBCU Conference and the IPS-2000 Photochemistry Conference. The issue also contains a preview article of the PV Specialists conference held in Alaska in September. The editorialist is John Benner, PV Specialist Conference Program Chairman.

  13. Accelerating residential PV expansion: supply analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam; Williams, Robert H.; Duke, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is now sufficiently advanced that market support mechanisms such as net metering plus a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) could induce rapid PV market growth in grid-connected applications. With such support mechanisms, markets would be sufficiently large that manufacturers could profitably build and operate 100 MW p /yr PV module factories, and electricity costs for residential rooftop PV systems would compare favorably with residential electricity prices in certain areas (e.g., California and the greater New York region in the US). This prospect is illustrated by economic and market analyses for one promising technology (amorphous silicon thin-film PV) from the perspectives of both module manufacturers and buyers of new homes with rooftop PV systems. With public policies that reflect the distributed and environmental benefits offered by PV-and that can sustain domestic PV market demand growth at three times the historical growth rate for a period of the order of two decades - PV could provide 3% of total US electricity supply by 2025. (Author)

  14. Experimental investigation of PV modules recycling; PV module recycle no jikkenteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unagida, H; Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sakuta, K; Otani, K; Murata, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Recycling, cost/energy analysis and recovery experiment were made on crystalline silicon PV modules with EVA(ethylene vinyl acetate)-laminated structure. The life of modules is dependent not on performance deterioration of PV cells themselves but on yellowing or poor transmittance of EVA caused by ultraviolet ray, and disconnection between cells by thermal stress. Recovery is carried out in 3 stages of cell, wafer and material. Recovery in the stages of cell and wafer results in considerable reduction of energy and cost. The recovery experiment was carried out using PV module samples prepared by cutting the modules into 25times15mm pieces after removing Al frames from the used modules, peeling back sheets and cutting off EVA. Since a nitric acid process at 70-80degC can dissolve EVA effectively, it is promising for reuse of surface glass and PV cells as they are. This process is also carried out under a condition around room temperature and pressure, contributing to cost reduction and energy saving for recycling. Generation of harmful NOx is only a problem to be solved. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Reaction of common bean lines to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of 58 common bean lines against common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and bacterial wilt (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, with four replications per pathogen. The results were subjected to variance analysis by the F test at 1% probability. Significant differences between the treatments indicated different resistance levels among the lines against both pathogens. According to the Scott-Knott test, six lines were resistant to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, 14 moderately resistant, and 38 susceptible. To Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens, 11 lines were resistant, 26 moderately resistant and 21 susceptible. Among these, the lines Pr10-3-4/1, Pr10-5-2/1 and Pr10-5- 2/2 of the black bean group and C10-2-4/2 of the Carioca group were resistant to both major bacterial diseases affecting common bean in Brazil.

  16. Designing PV powered LED products - Integration of PV technology in innovative products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; de Boer, Andries; de Winter, Arjan; Haverlag, Marco; Ossenbrink Sinke, W.; Helm, P.

    2009-01-01

    This study covers the design of innovative product concepts based on a combination of PV and LED technology. The products were developed in a project that took place in 2008 and 2009 during a cooperation of the University of Twente with Philips Lighting. It is shown that surprisingly unpredictable -

  17. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  18. The typical RB76 recombination breakpoint of the invasive recombinant tomato yellow leaf curl virus of Morocco can be generated experimentally but is not positively selected in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabess, Z; Urbino, C; Granier, M; Tahiri, A; Blenzar, A; Peterschmitt, M

    2018-01-02

    TYLCV-IS76 is an unusual recombinant between the highly recombinogenic tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), two Mediterranean begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). In contrast with the previously reported TYLCV/TYLCSV recombinants, it has a TYLCSV derived fragment of only 76 nucleotides, and has replaced its parental viruses in natural conditions (Morocco, Souss region). The viral population shift coincided with the deployment of the popular Ty-1 resistant tomato cultivars, and according to experimental studies, has been driven by a strong positive selection in such resistant plants. However, although Ty-1 cultivars were extensively used in Mediterranean countries, TYLCV-IS76 was not reported outside Morocco. This, in combination with its unusual recombination pattern suggests that it was generated through a rare and possibly multistep process. The potential generation of a recombination breakpoint (RB) at locus 76 (RB76) was investigated over time in 10 Ty-1 resistant and 10 nearly isogenic susceptible tomato plants co-inoculated with TYLCV and TYLCSV clones. RB76 could not be detected in the recombinant progeny using the standard PCR/sequencing approach that was previously designed to monitor the emergence of TYLCV-IS76 in Morocco. Using a more sensitive PCR test, RB76 was detected in one resistant and five susceptible plants. The results are consistent with a very low intra-plant frequency of RB76 bearing recombinants throughout the test and support the hypothesis of a rare emergence of TYLCV-IS76. More generally, RBs were more scattered in resistant than in susceptible plants and an unusual RB at position 141 (RB141) was positively selected in the resistant cultivar; interestingly, RB141 bearing recombinants were detected in resistant tomato plants from the field. Scenarios of TYLCV-IS76 pre-emergence are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  20. Superfamily of ankyrin repeat proteins in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Qing, Xiaohe; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Shiyang; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-10

    The ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein family plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) due to the limited information on whole genome sequences. In this study, we identified a total of 130 ANK genes in tomato genome (SlANK), and these genes were distributed across all 12 chromosomes at various densities. And chromosomal localizations of SlANK genes indicated 25 SlANK genes were involved in tandem duplications. Based on their domain composition, all of the SlANK proteins were grouped into 13 subgroups. A combined phylogenetic tree was constructed with the aligned SlANK protein sequences. This tree revealed that the SlANK proteins comprise five major groups. An analysis of the expression profiles of SlANK genes in tomato in different tissues and in response to stresses showed that the SlANK proteins play roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the tomato ANK gene family. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and putative functions of SlANK genes in tomato. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of the Bs2 pepper gene confers resistance to bacterial spot disease in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, T H; Dahlbeck, D; Clark, E T; Gajiwala, P; Pasion, R; Whalen, M C; Stall, R E; Staskawicz, B J

    1999-11-23

    The Bs2 resistance gene of pepper specifically recognizes and confers resistance to strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that contain the corresponding bacterial avirulence gene, avrBs2. The involvement of avrBs2 in pathogen fitness and its prevalence in many X. campestris pathovars suggests that the Bs2 gene may be durable in the field and provide resistance when introduced into other plant species. Employing a positional cloning strategy, the Bs2 locus was isolated and the gene was identified by coexpression with avrBs2 in an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay. A single candidate gene, predicted to encode motifs characteristic of the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat class of resistance genes, was identified. This gene specifically controlled the hypersensitive response when transiently expressed in susceptible pepper and tomato lines and in a nonhost species, Nicotiana benthamiana, and was designated as Bs2. Functional expression of Bs2 in stable transgenic tomatoes supports its use as a source of resistance in other Solanaceous plant species.

  2. Simulation of Power Produced by a Building Added PV System in Indonesia using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a PV system will be simulated using virtual reality software for PV system simulations -called VR4PV - to show the effectiveness of the modelling of PV systems on buildings which are placed in the tropics. The PV system used for this study has been installed in Papua, Indonesia and

  3. Projecting of PV facades in consideration of PV-specific operating conditions; Besonderheiten bei der Projektierung von Photovoltaik-Fassadenanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, B.; Grimmig, B.; Mencke, D. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany). Gruppe Photovoltaik-Systeme; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgebiet Photovoltaische Anlagentechnik

    1998-02-01

    PV facades can provide several additional functions such as weather protection, thermal insulation, daylighting or sun protection. On the other hand, specific operating conditions for PV facades must be taken into account when selecting components and designing the system. Depending on ventilation conditions, there is a large range of maximum module temperatures. South-oriented PV facades receive about 30% less yearly irradiation than an optimally inclined PV generator, hence reflection losses are approximately 4% higher. The maximum of yearly irradiation lies only in the 400-600 W/m{sup 2} range. Surrounding buildings and/or vegetation can impair performance of the PV-facades. For a south-oriented PV facade an annual yield in the range of 470-560 kwh/kW{sub p}.a has been prodicted which was verified by operating results of eight PV facades. (orig.) [Deutsch] Photovoltaik (PV) Fassaden ermoeglichen neben der Stromerzeugung zusaetzliche Funktionen wie Wetterschutz bzw. Waermedaemmung des Gebaeudes oder Tageslichtnutzung bzw. Sonnenschutz der Innenraeume. Allerdings muessen fassadenspezifische Betriebsbedingungen, bei der Komponentenauswahl und Systemauslegung beruecksichtigt werden. Unterschiedliche Hinterlueftungsbedingungen fuehren zu einer grossen Bandbreite der maximalen Modultemperatur. PV-Suedfassaden empfangen etwa 30% weniger Jahreseinstrahlung als ein optimal geneigter PV-Generator. Die Haelfte der jaehrlichen Einstrahlung trifft mit Einfallswinkeln groesser 50 auf die vertikal angeordneten Module wodurch die Reflexionsverluste um ca. 4% hoeher sind. Das Maximum der Jahreseinstrahlung liegt nur um 400-600 W/m{sup 2} und erreicht selten Werte ueber 800 W/m{sup 2}. Umliegende Gebaeude oder Vegetation koennen zu Teilabschattungen des Generators fuehren. Fuer eine vertikale PV-Suedfassade wird ein Jahresenergieertrag in Hoehe von 470-560 kWh/kW{sub p}.a prognostiziert, der anhand der Betriebsergebnisse von acht PV-Fassadenanlagen verifiziert werden konnte

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes. Fresh fully ripen tomatoes were washed and cut in thin slices with sterilized stainless steel knife and divided into two lots, one was taken as control and other was dipped in 3% potassium meta bisulfite solution for 5 minutes. The samples were spread over stainless steel trays covered with muslin cloth and kept in solar dehydrator for 5 days at 55 +- 2 deg. C. The physicochemical analyses were carried out in both dried and fresh (control) tomatoes. They were also analyzed microbiologically for bacterial and fugal count. Results showed that sun dried tomatoes are microbiologically safe. The values of moisture content and vitamin C of fresh and sun dried tomatoes statistically differ from each others at probability level of 5 %. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. In fresh tomatoes it was 32.5 mg/100 g which is reduced to 24.6 mg/100 g after sun drying and further reduced to 15.86 mg/100 g during three months storage. The moisture content of the fresh tomatoes was 94.4% which decreased to 8.15% after drying, and then slowly increased to 9.95% in the three months storage. Statistically no major difference was found in the other nutrients during storage, which indicates that sun drying is nutritionally and microbiologically safe and can be used to preserve tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables for off season use. (author)

  5. NH4+ protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-11-01

    NH4 (+) nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 (+) nutrition (N-NH4 (+))-induced resistance (NH4 (+)-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 (+) toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 (+)-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 (+)-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 (+) plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 (+) nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. The potential market for PV building products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out by ECOTEC Research and Consulting Limited (ECOTEC) in collaboration with the Newcastle Photovoltaic Application Centre (NPAC) and ECD Energy and Environment (ECD) under the Department of Trade and Industry's (DTI) New and Renewable Energy Programme (contract reference S/P2/00277/00/00). The aim was to assess the future market potential for building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) products in terms of current product availability, product development needs, the nature and size of the potential market, and the opportunities for government and the PV supply industry to work together to develop the market. The study itself comprised a review of existing BIPV products, an analysis of the development of the world market for BIPV, a market research survey of building professionals, and meetings of two 'focus groups' drawn from the PV 'supply side' and from buildings professionals. In principle, BIPV products can be used in virtually any type of building, but the main applications are considered to be housing and offices. (author)

  7. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  8. Generation of gamma irradiation and EMS-induced mutant lines of the H7996 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canama, Alma O.; Galvez, Hayde F.; Tongson, Eden Jane U.; Quilloy, Reynaldo B.; Hautea, Desiree M.

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide for the fresh vegetable market and food processing industry. With the completion of the genome-sequencing projects in various crops, the major challenge will be determine the gene function. One approach is to generate and to analyze mutant phenotypes. The paper reports the generation of gamma-irradiated and ethy methane sulfonate (EMS)-treated mutant populations, identification and phenotypic characterization of dominant and visible mutations in tomato mutant lines. Mutant populations of tomato H7996 were created using physical (cobalt 60 gamma ray) and chemical EMS mutagens. Generally, based on high-throughput phenotypic characterization, mutations were observed on the plant habit, size, morphology, leaf and flower color and morphology and fruit characteristics. Specifically, the most common dominant and visible mutations noted in the M 1 generation were monopodial, compact, short internodes, multi-branch plant type, light yellow and ghost leaf coloration, tiny and long pedicel leaf morphology and small or short plant size. In the M2 generation, homogeneous and segregating M 2 families were selected to constitute the core set of visible tomato mutants. Initial bacterial wilt resistance (BWR) gene knockouts were also identified. The mutant lines will be used as a rich source of genetic materials for breeding and functional genomics of tomato. (author)

  9. Eco-Friendly Nets and Floating Row Covers Reduce Pest Infestation and Improve Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Yields for Smallholder Farmers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha O. Gogo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important vegetable for supplying vitamins, minerals and fiber in human diets worldwide. Successful open field production of tomato in the tropics is limited by insect pests among other constraints. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Teaching Field, Egerton University, Kenya with the objective of evaluating the effects of agricultural nets (agronets herein called eco-friendly nets (EFNs and floating row covers (FRCs on pest population and yield of tomatoes. A randomized complete block design with five replications was used. Tomato plants were protected with either fine mesh EFN (0.4-mm pore diameter, large mesh EFN (0.9-mm pore diameter or FRC. The EFN and FRC were maintained permanently closed or opened thrice a week from 9 am to 3 pm. Two control treatments were used: open unsprayed (untreated control or open and sprayed with alpha-cypermethrin based insecticide (treated control. The use of EFN and FRC helped to manage pests with the lowest pest population obtained under FRC maintained permanently covered and the highest population recorded in the untreated control. Covering tomato plants with EFN or FRC also resulted in more marketable fruit and lower yield losses compared with the unprotected systems. The EFN and FRC offer great potential as part of integrated systems for pest management and yield improvement in tomato production in regions with a tropical climate.

  10. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Desmond W.H.; Adlakha, Sachin; Low, Steven H.; De Martini, Paul; Mani Chandy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. -- Highlights: •Households who install PV reduce their electricity consumption from the grid. •Electricity rates must increase for utility companies to recover its fixed costs. •However, higher electricity rates give households more incentives to adopt PV. •We find that this feedback has significant impact on PV uptake only in later years. •Utility companies could lose a significant fraction of high consumption customers

  11. Less CO2 by means of photovoltaic energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsema, E.A.; Van Brummelen, M.

    1992-11-01

    Regarding the title subject special attention is paid to the technical limitations of a fast introduction of the use of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion. After a brief introduction on PV systems and the operation of a solar cell in chapter two, a state of the art is given of PV technology and possible price developments for PV modules and Balance-Of-System (BOS) components up to the year 2000 in chapters three and four. In chapter five the potential of installing grid-connected PV systems in the Netherlands is determined, taking into account the options of using existing buildings (PV systems on the roof), unexplored ground, in the verge of highways or railroads, industrial areas and airports. In chapter six non-economical bottlenecks for a large-scale introduction of grid-connected PV systems are discussed: the industrial production capacity for PV modules and other components, the fitting-in into the public electricity supply, and institutional aspects of installing PV systems on roofs. In chapter seven it is determined how much costs can be saved and CO 2 emission can be reduced when PV capacity is fitted-in into the Dutch electric power supply. The calculations are based on the Global Shift scenario. In chapter eight two scenarios (an optimistic scenario and a more realistic scenario) for the introduction of PV systems are outlined. For both scenarios the financial consequences and the contribution to the electric power supply are indicated. In chapter nine the net energy yield, being the result of the previously discussed introduction scenarios, is calculated, followed by a calculation of the avoided CO 2 emission, as well as the costs to avoid such emission. 25 figs., 15 tabs., 116 refs., 1 annex

  12. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  13. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  14. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  15. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  16. An active ac/ds transposon system for activation tagging in tomato cultivar m82 using clonal propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jared D; Pereira, Andy; Dickerman, Allan W; Veilleux, Richard E

    2013-05-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a model organism for Solanaceae in both molecular and agronomic research. This project utilized Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and the transposon-tagging construct Activator (Ac)/Dissociator (Ds)-ATag-Bar_gosGFP to produce activation-tagged and knockout mutants in the processing tomato cultivar M82. The construct carried hygromycin resistance (hyg), green fluorescent protein (GFP), and the transposase (TPase) of maize (Zea mays) Activator major transcript X054214.1 on the stable Ac element, along with a 35S enhancer tetramer and glufosinate herbicide resistance (BAR) on the mobile Ds-ATag element. An in vitro propagation strategy was used to produce a population of 25 T0 plants from a single transformed plant regenerated in tissue culture. A T1 population of 11,000 selfed and cv M82 backcrossed progeny was produced from the functional T0 line. This population was screened using glufosinate herbicide, hygromycin leaf painting, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Insertion sites of transposed Ds-ATag elements were identified through thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and resulting product sequences were aligned to the recently published tomato genome. A population of 509 independent, Ds-only transposant lines spanning all 12 tomato chromosomes has been developed. Insertion site analysis demonstrated that more than 80% of these lines harbored Ds insertions conducive to activation tagging. The capacity of the Ds-ATag element to alter transcription was verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in two mutant lines. The transposon-tagged lines have been immortalized in seed stocks and can be accessed through an online database, providing a unique resource for tomato breeding and analysis of gene function in the background of a commercial tomato cultivar.

  17. State distributed PV policies: Can low cost (to government) policies have a market impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasko, Vitaliy A.; Doris, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of distributed generation photovoltaic (PV) markets. The focus is on low-cost market opening policies instead of various forms of government subsidies aimed at reducing installation costs. The ideas tested in this work are: (1) low-cost market opening policies can be effective in facilitating PV market growth without subsidizing projects, and (2) policies can be made more effective if states and localities stage their enactment in a particular order. The policies selected for evaluation emerge from a policy stacking theory outlined in Doris (2012), NREL/CP-7A30-54801, Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A cross-section econometric analysis that takes into account the quality of interconnection standards, net metering standards, Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), RPS set-asides, and a non-policy determinant (population) explains about 70% of the variation in newly installed PV capacity across states and indicates that all of the selected policies are significant. Nonparametric statistical tests confirm the regression results. Qualitative evidence is also presented indicating that effective policy ordering starts with improving interconnection standards, closely followed by improvements in net metering standards, and eventually strengthened by the enactment of an RPS and set-asides. - Highlights: • Impacts of low cost market opening policies on PV capacity are evaluated. • Impact of a strategic policy enactment sequence is evaluated. • Effective interconnection, net metering, RPS, and set-asides increase PV capacity. • Effective ordering is market preparation, then creation, then expansion policies

  18. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  19. Towards allele mining of bacterial wilt disease resistance gene in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, H.F.; Narciso, J.O.; Opina, N.L.; Canama, A.O.; Colle, M.G.; Latiza, M.A.; Caspillo, C.L.; Bituin, J.L.; Frankie, R.B.; Hautea, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is the most important vegetable commodity of the Philippines. Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one serious constraint in tomato production particularly during off-season planting. A major locus derived from H7996 that confers resistance to bacterial wilt has been mapped in the tomato genome. To validate the biological function of the resistance locus and generate multiple allele -mimics-, targeted mutation was induced in tomato using gamma ray and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagens. Suitable mutagen treatment was established by evaluating a wide range of mutagen doses/concentrations for a) percent seed germination, b) reduction in plant height, and c) loss of resistance. Six hundred Gy and 1.0% EMS were identified to generate large M1 families of H7996. From 10,000 initial seeds treated with either gamma ray or EMS, a total of 3,663 M1 plants were generated. M2 seeds were harvested from all surviving M1 plants. Several DNA markers have been resourced and are being developed specific to the bacterial wilt resistant gene. In the large M2 population, of H7996, both the phenotypic manifestation of bacterial wilt susceptibility and nucleotide changes in the resistance locus will be evaluated. Large M3 families for the different allele series of the bacterial wilt resistance gene will be established for future high throughput TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) analysis in the gene region

  20. Tomato fruit and seed colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through external and internal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancos, Matthew A; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Smart, Christine D

    2013-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes.

  1. Interrogating protective space : shielding, nurturing and empowering Dutch solar PV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, B.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Veraart, F.C.A.; Smith, A.G.; Kern, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments of solar photovoltaic technology in the Netherlands. Despite the recent boom in PV industries and deployment around the globe, the Dutch have until now not experienced major growth in the diffusion of PV electricity generation. But this is only part of the story.

  2. PV O&M Cost Model and Cost Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Andy

    2017-03-15

    This is a presentation on PV O&M cost model and cost reduction for the annual Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (2017), covering estimating PV O&M costs, polynomial expansion, and implementation of Net Present Value (NPV) and reserve account in cost models.

  3. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...

  4. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office (SETO) residential 2030 photovoltaics (PV) cost target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour by identifying could influence system costs in key market segments. This report examines two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof

  5. Breakthrough without subsidies? : PV business model experiments in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a lack of steady governmental support for PV in the Netherlands over the last decade, from 2008 onwards an increased number of initiatives started experimenting with new business models for PV. Though absolute numbers of installed capacity are still low, this is a promising sign. In this

  6. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesser, P. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aarau (Switzerland); Hostettler, T. [Ingenieurbuero Hostettler, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  7. NREL Suite of Tools for PV and Storage Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    Many different factors such as the solar resource, technology costs and incentives, utility cost and consumption, space available, and financial parameters impact the technical and economic potential of a PV project. NREL has developed techno-economic modeling tools that can be used to evaluate PV projects at a site.

  8. New Analysis Finds Synergistic Relationship Between High PV Penetration and

    Science.gov (United States)

    photovoltaics (PV) to the electric power grid could increase the potential for energy storage to meet peak based on very limited knowledge," said Paul Denholm, NREL senior analyst and lead author of the PV and storage interact will help build the knowledge base for system planners in all states

  9. Analysis of Long-Term Performance of PV Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordmann, T.; Clavadetscher, L.; van Sark, Wilfried; Green, M.

    This report describes the activities, conclusions and continued efforts undertaken in Subtask 1 by the participating countries in IEA-PVPS Task 13. Subtask 1 examines the PV power plant as a system. It collects and studies the data supplied from installed operating PV plants from different countries

  10. Reliability evaluation of an impedance-source PV microconverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Liivik, Elizaveta; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    The reliability of an impedance-source PV microconverter is evaluated based on the real-field mission profile. As part of a PV microinverter, the dc-dc microconverter is firstly described. Then the electro-thermal and lifetime models are built for the most reliability-critical components, i...

  11. Product integrated PV: the future is design and styling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore how PV powered products have been designed in the past. For this purpose we have drawn a historical time line of the design features of PV powered products in the context of main stream design and styling. Our time frame is 1970 till 2016, focusing in first instance on

  12. A new design for luminescent solar concentrating PV roof tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doudart de la Gree, G.C.H.; Papadopoulos, A.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Krumer, Z.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    In our paper we explore the opportunity of combining luminescent solar concentrating (LSC) materials and crystalline PV solar cells in a new design for a roof tile by design-driven research on the energy performance of various configurations of the LSC PV device and on the aesthetic appeal in a roof

  13. PVSOFT99 - Photovoltaic (PV) System Sizing And Simulation Software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program (PVSOFT99) has been developed for sizing and simulation of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. Two distinct PV sizing algorithms, one based on the worst case and the other on the reliability concept, have been incorporated in the program. The reliability concept is generalized in that variation of ...

  14. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  15. Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.

  16. Microbiological Quality and Incidence of Salmonella on Cherry Tomatoes at Retail in Querétaro, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cervantes, Marla G; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Martínez-Peniche, Ramón; Martínez-Gonzáles, Nanci E; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2018-04-01

    Multiple outbreaks related to Salmonella in tomatoes require an evaluation of the risk associated with cherry tomatoes due to the increase in its production, consumption, and marketing in Mexico's central region. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial quality of cherry tomatoes obtained from two retail sale points (supermarkets and local markets). Cherry tomato samples (333) were collected from four supermarkets and from four local markets, and the contents of aerobic plate count, molds and yeasts, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli were quantified; the presence of Salmonella was simultaneously determined. The median values of the microbial populations were obtained, and the data were analyzed per the sampling site by using the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The median of aerobic plate count content in tomatoes obtained from supermarkets ranged between 2.2 and 4.4 log CFU/g, and in markets from 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/g. For molds and yeasts, the tomatoes from supermarkets (2.0 to 4.1 log CFU/g) and markets (1.5 to 4.5 log CFU/g) showed similar contents. Regardless of the sampling site, the values of total coliforms were very low, ranging from 1.0 to 1.8 log CFU/g. E. coli was detected in 5.4 and 20.1% of samples from supermarkets and markets, respectively; in both sites, the content was low (0.3 to 5.8 most probable number per g). The incidence of Salmonella was 14.1% in supermarkets and 7.8% in local markets. The results obtained from this investigation highlight the elevated risk for consumer health associated with the ingestion of cherry tomatoes.

  17. PV-DSM: Policy actions to speed commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, T.; Wenger, H.J.; Keane, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG ampersand E) recently applied Demand-Side Management (DSM) evaluation techniques to photovoltaic (PV) technology to develop the concept of photovoltaics as a Demand-Side Management option (PV-DSM). The analysis demonstrated that PV-DSM has the potential to be economically attractive. Two criticisms in response to that analysis are that the assumptions of 25 year financing and a 25 year evaluation period are unrealistic. This paper responds to those criticisms and documents the mathematical relationships to calculate the value of PV-DSM from a customer's perspective. It demonstrates how regulatory and government agencies could implement policies to resolve both issues and speed PV commercialization

  18. A global strategy for the European PV industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M.; Hoffmann, W.; Macias, E.; Cameron, M.; Laborde, E.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to develop a comprehensive strategy that answers to the need of today European PV industry. Namely: - Develop PV markets in Europe - Develop export markets. - Position the European PV industry within the European political environment and support the effort of national actors in their local objectives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create actions and synergies, on order to achieve strategy objectives. The whole work is based on working groups clearly defined on the purpose, where all EPIA members are invited to participate. The overall first results are presented during the 19. EU PV Conference in Paris and EPIA will do recommendations on actions to be undertaken in the future. This strategy is co-financed by EPIA members and the 6. Framework Programme for research of the European Commission through the PV Catapult project. (authors)

  19. Optimum Design Of On Grid Pv System Using Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mansour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fossil fuel is a main issue in the world due to the increase of fossil fuel cost and the depletion of the fossil fuel with continuous increasing demand on electricity. With continuous decrease of PV panels cost it is interesting to consider generation of electricity from PV system. To provide electric energy to a load in a remote area where electric grid utility is not available or connection with grid utility is available there are two approaches of photovoltaic system PV without tracking system Fixed System and PV with tracking systems. The result shows that the energy production by using PV with tracking system generates more energy in comparison with fixed panels system. However the cost per produced KWH is less in case of using fixed panels. This is the backbone in choice between two approaches of photovoltaic system. In this work a system design and cost analysis for two approaches of photovoltaic system are considered.

  20. Within-host dynamics of the emergence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus recombinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cica Urbino

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is a highly damaging begomovirus native to the Middle East. TYLCV has recently spread worldwide, recombining with other begomoviruses. Recent analysis of mixed infections between TYLCV and Tomato leaf curl Comoros begomovirus (ToLCKMV has shown that, although natural selection preserves certain co-evolved intra-genomic interactions, numerous and diverse recombinants are produced at 120 days post-inoculation (dpi, and recombinant populations from different tomato plants are very divergent. Here, we investigate the population dynamics that lead to such patterns in tomato plants co-infected with TYLCV and ToLCKMV either by agro-inoculation or using the natural whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. We monitored the frequency of parental and recombinant genotypes independently in 35 plants between 18 and 330 dpi and identified 177 recombinants isolated at different times. Recombinants were detected from 18 dpi and their frequency increased over time to reach about 50% at 150 dpi regardless of the inoculation method. The distribution of breakpoints detected on 96 fully sequenced recombinants was consistent with a continuous generation of new recombinants as well as random and deterministic effects in their maintenance. A severe population bottleneck of around 10 genomes was estimated during early systemic infection-a phenomenon that could account partially for the heterogeneity in recombinant patterns observed among plants. The detection of the same recombinant genome in six of the thirteen plants analysed beyond 30 dpi supported the influence of selection on observed recombination patterns. Moreover, a highly virulent recombinant genotype dominating virus populations within one plant has, apparently, the potential to be maintained in the natural population according to its infectivity, within-host accumulation, and transmission efficiency - all of which were similar or intermediate to those of the parent genotypes. Our

  1. AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Involved in Response to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curly Virus in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV, transmitted by the whitefly (, causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.. The APETALA2 (AP2 and ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factor (TF family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato. A total of 22 tomato AP2/ERF TFs in response to TYLCV were identified according to transcriptome database. Five ERF-B3 TFs were identified in cultivars Hongbeibei (highly resistant, Zheza-301, Zhefen-702 (both resistant, Jinpeng-1, and Xianke-6 (both susceptible. Interaction network indicated that SlERF TFs could interact with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Expression profiles of five ERF-B3 genes (, , , , and were detected by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR after TYLCV infection in five tomato cultivars. expression was upregulated in five tomato cultivars. The expressions of three genes (, , and were upregulated in Zheza-301 and Zhefen-702. and expressions were downregulated in Hongbeibei and Xianke-6, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid showed that the GCC-box binding ability of ERF-B3 TFs differed in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. Expression profiles were related to the GCC-box binding ability of SlERF TFs in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. The defense mechanism underlying the tomato’s response to TYLCV involved a complicated network, which provided important information for us in breeding and genetic analysis.

  2. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  3. The tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares common ancestors with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from wild tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A; Peever, Tobin L; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity.

  4. Do feed-in tariffs drive PV cost or viceversa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli, Marco; Desideri, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The distribution of PV installations on the territory is not a function of the solar radiation. • Cost of PV plants were adapted to the FIT framework. • The FIT for PV in Italy was considered an incentive to financial investment. • The FIT for PV in Italy did not stimulate the development of national PV industry. - Abstract: A survey of the PV market in Italy was done studying a number of installations of different sizes whose economic data were known and assessed. The Italian market has experienced a boom in the PV market after the first mechanism of feed-in tariffs was promoted in 2005. The variations of the tariff structure in the following years have caused significant changes in the market structure in terms of average size and technical characteristics of installed plants. However, an Italian PV industry was not stimulated by the incentives and only companies involved in installation and maintenance were created. At the same time, the cost of the PV plants components, design and commissioning have followed quite a particular trend, which is more determined by the tariffs than by the market development and structure. It is quite clear that the costs of PV plants component are not driven by the amount of installations but by the tariffs, with a trend that follows the decreases in the incentives and not the global installed power. It is therefore very important to study the right tariff mechanisms and benefits to avoid financial disturbances on the market and to promote a real competitive market instead of a simple financial operation under a fake façade of green economy

  5. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  6. PV-hybrid and thermoelectric collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockendorf, G.; Sillmann, R. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Podlowski, L.; Litzenburger, B. [SolarWerk GmbH, Teltow (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Two different principles of thermoelectric cogeneration solar collectors have been realized and investigated. Concerning the first principle, the thermoelectric collector (TEC) delivers electricity indirectly by first producing heat and subsequently generating electricity by means of a thermoelectric generator. Concerning the second principle, the photovoltaic-hybrid collector (PVHC) uses photovoltaic cells, which are cooled by a liquid heat-transfer medium. The characteristics of both collector types are described. Simulation modules have been developed and implemented in TRNSYS 14.1 (1994), in order to simulate their behaviour in typical domestic hot-water systems. The discussion of the results shows that the electric output of the PV-hybrid collector is significantly higher than that of the thermoelectric collector. (author)

  7. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  8. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful for plant pathogen detection. In the present study, multiplex PCR and SYBR green real-time PCR were developed to facilitate simultaneous detection of three important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Bur...

  9. Income Trends of Residential PV Adopters: An analysis of household-level income estimates [PowerPoint presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Darghouth, Naim R.; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2018-04-09

    The residential photovoltaic (PV) market has expanded rapidly over the past decade, but questions exist about how equitably that growth has occurred across income groups. Prior studies have investigated this question but are often limited by narrow geographic study regions, now-dated analysis timeframes, or coarse estimates of PV-adopter incomes. At the same time, a spate of new programs and initiatives, as well as innovations in business models and product design, have emerged in recent years with the aim of making solar more accessible and affordable to broader segments of the population. Yet, many of those efforts are proceeding without robust underlying information about the income characteristics of recent residential PV adopters. This work aims to establish basic factual information about income trends among U.S. residential solar adopters, with some emphasis on low- and moderate-income (LMI) households. The analysis is unique in its relatively extensive coverage of the U.S. solar market, relying on Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun dataset, which contains project-level data for the vast majority of all residential PV systems in the country (a subset of which are ultimately included in the analysis sample). This analysis is also unique in its use of household-level income estimates that provide a more-precise characterization of PV-adopter incomes than in most prior studies.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of PV Adoption in the UK and Their Implications for the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Snape

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed renewable electricity generators facilitate decarbonising the electricity network, and the smart grid allows higher renewable penetration while improving efficiency. Smart grid scenarios often emphasise localised control, balancing small renewable generation with consumer electricity demand. This research investigates the applicability of proposed decentralised smart grid scenarios utilising a mixed strategy: quantitative analysis of PV adoption data and qualitative policy analysis focusing on policy design, apparent drivers for adoption of the deviation of observed data from the feed-in tariff impact assessment predictions. Analysis reveals that areas of similar installed PV capacity are clustered, indicating a strong dependence on local conditions for PV adoption. Analysing time series of PV adoption finds that it fits neither neo-classical predictions, nor diffusion of innovation S-curves of adoption cleanly. This suggests the influence of external factors on the decision making process. It is shown that clusters of low installed PV capacity coincide with areas of high population density and vice versa, implying that while visions of locally-balanced smart grids may be viable in certain rural and suburban areas, applicability to urban centres may be limited. Taken in combination, the data analysis, policy impact and socio-psychological drivers of adoption demonstrate the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding and modelling the adoption of technology necessary to enable the future smart grid.

  11. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    In this report we summarize the implications, impacts, and deployment potential of reaching the SunShot 2030 targets for the electricity system in the contiguous United States. We model 25 scenarios of the U.S. power sector using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) and Distributed Generation (dGen) capacity expansion models. The scenarios cover a wide range of sensitivities to capture future uncertainties relating to fuel prices, retirements, renewable energy capital costs, and load growth. We give special attention to the potential for storage costs to also rapidly decline due to its large synergies with low-cost solar. The ReEDS and dGen models project utility- and distributed-scale power sector evolution, respectively, for the United States. Both models have been designed with special emphasis on capturing the unique traits of renewable energy, including variability and grid integration requirements. Across the suite of scenarios modeled, we find that reaching the SunShot 2030 target has the potential to lead to significant capacity additions of PV in the United States. By 2050, PV penetration levels are projected to reach 28-46 percent of total generation. If storage also sees significant reductions in cost, then the 2050 solar penetration levels could reach 41-64 percent. PV deployment is projected to occur in all of the lower 48 states, though the specific deployment level is scenario dependent. The growth in PV is projected to be dominated by utility-scale systems, but the actual mix between utility and distributed systems could ultimately vary depending on how policies, system costs, and rate structures evolve.

  12. Valley of Death analysis for polymer PV technology; Valley of Death analyse voor polymere PV technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoots, K. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    This report describes the results of a qualitative study of the barriers that actors involved in the development and commercialization of polymer solar cells, may encounter. The purpose of this socio-economic research is to identify these barriers for the (market) development of thin film polymeric PV technology and to develop strategies for them in order to overcome the constraints. The necessary data are collected from interviews with actors who are active in the development and deployment of conventional solar cells. Based on the results from this study, it is conclude that it is important for the Organic PV industry to carry out many market experiments beyond the built environment. The report provides recommendations with regard to the markets in which these experiments are most likely to succeed and which drivers should be taken into account [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een kwalitatief onderzoek naar de barrieres die actoren, betrokken bij de ontwikkeling en marktintroductie van polymere zonnecellen, kunnen tegenkomen. Het doel van dit sociaal-economische onderzoek is deze barrieres voor de (markt)ontwikkeling van dunne film polymere PV technologie te identificeren en strategieen te ontwikkelen om ze voor te zijn of ze te overbruggen. De benodigde gegevens worden verzameld uit interviews met actoren die actief zijn in de ontwikkeling en uitrol van conventionele zonnecellen. Op basis van de resultaten uit dit onderzoek komen we tot de conclusie dat het voor de Organische PV sector belangrijk is veel marktexperimenten aan te gaan buiten de gebouwde omgeving. Het rapport geeft aanbevelingen in welke soort markten deze experimenten de meeste kans van slagen hebben en met welke drivers van marktpartijen rekening moet worden gehouden.

  13. Mangotoxin production of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is regulated by MgoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Víctor J; van der Voort, Menno; Arrebola, Eva; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; de Vicente, Antonio; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2014-02-21

    The antimetabolite mangotoxin is a key factor in virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains which cause apical necrosis of mango trees. Previous studies showed that mangotoxin biosynthesis is governed by the mbo operon. Random mutagenesis led to the identification of two other gene clusters that affect mangotoxin biosynthesis. These are the gacS/gacA genes and mgo operon which harbors the four genes mgoBCAD. The current study shows that disruption of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene mgoA resulted in loss of mangotoxin production and reduced virulence on tomato leaves. Transcriptional analyses by qPCR and promoter reporter fusions revealed that mbo expression is regulated by both gacS/gacA and mgo genes. Also, expression of the mgo operon was shown to be regulated by gacS/gacA. Heterologous expression under the native promoter of the mbo operon resulted in mangotoxin production in non-producing P. syringae strains, but not in other Pseudomonas species. Also introduction of the mbo and mgo operons in nonproducing P. protegens Pf-5 did not confer mangotoxin production but did enhance transcription of the mbo promoter. From the data obtained in this study, we conclude that both mbo and mgo operons are under the control of the gacS/gacA two-component system and that the MgoA product acts as a positive regulator of mangotoxin biosynthesis.

  14. On the Impacts of PV Array Sizing on the Inverter Reliability and Lifetime

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhou, Dao

    2018-01-01

    To enable a more wide scale utilization of PV systems, the cost of PV energy should be comparable to or even lower than other energy sources. Due to the relatively low cost of PV modules, oversizing PV arrays becomes a common approach to reduce the cost of PV energy in practice. By doing so, the total energy yield can be increased under weak solar irradiance conditions. However, oversizing the PV array will increase the loading of PV inverters, which may have undesired influence on the PV inv...

  15. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). The food is preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration, or freezing. When sealed in a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  16. Enhanced regeneration in explants of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The development of a cost effective and efficient protocol for mass propagation of high quality tomato seedlings via tissue culture could help to reduce the price per seedling. A good in vitro plant regeneration system may also assist in further improvement of the commercially important cultivars for disease.

  17. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A) + RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L- 35 S-methionine. The 35 S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues

  18. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccurullo, G; Giordano, L

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling. (paper)

  19. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  20. Genetic (in)stability in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, E.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study tomato lines carrying unstable alleles of the loci yv or sulfurea were characterized. In addition, we aimed at the isolation of an endogenous transposable element supposedly active in the unstable lines. Since the unstable loci were not cloned, we

  1. How to grasp a ripe tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fortunately, we don’t have to think about this when we are standing in the supermarket after a busy day. We adjust our grip without effort, making sure we don’t squish an overripe tomato, while we firmly grasp a hard green one. This is actually a complex task in which humans are surprisingly

  2. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of a new method based on color image analysis and the Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter for the diagnosis of nitrogen deficiencies of tomato seedlings, a field experiment was conducted. In this study, five levels of nitrogen fertilization were established so as to induce nitrogen ...

  3. Response of Pratylenchus spp Infected Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to reduce the negative impact of synthetic nematicides on the environment necessitated the search for bio-pesticides. This study was conducted to evaluate the nematicidal potential of chromatographic fractions from Mangifera indica on tomato in the screenhouse and field. M. indica bark was extracted with ...

  4. Visualization of N-acylhomoserine lactone-mediated cell-cell communication between bacteria colonizing the tomato rhizosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steidle, A.; Sigl, K.; Schuhegger, R.

    2001-01-01

    developed and characterized novel Gfp-based monitor strains that allow in situ visualization of AHL-mediated communication between individual cells in the plant rhizosphere. For this purpose, three Gfp-based AHL sensor plasmids that respond to different spectra of AHL molecules were transferred into AHL......-negative derivatives of Pseudomonas putida IsoF and Serratia liquefaciens MG1, two strains that are capable of colonizing tomato roots. These AHL monitor strains were used to visualize communication between defined bacterial populations in the rhizosphere of axenically grown tomato plants. Furthermore, we integrated...

  5. Combination of ozone and packaging treatments maintained the quality and improved the shelf life of tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri; Jayaputra; Sauqi, A.; Sjah, T.; Desiana, R. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato is very important vegetable crop but has short shelf life. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of ozone and packaging combination treatment on the quality and the storage life of tomato fruit. There were six treatments including: control (without ozone and packaging); without ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; without ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet; with ozone but without packaging; with ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; and with ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet. Each treatment was made into 3 replications. Tomato samples were harvested at turning stage. Ozone treatment was applied for 60 seconds. Tomatoes were then treated with and without packaging. The fruit were then stored at room temperature for up to 12 days. The parameters for assessment were water content, color, texture, weight loss and the population of naturally contamination Escherichia coli. Each parameter was assessed on day 0, 6 and 12 of storage. The results indicated that combination of ozone and packaging treatments significantly affected the physical and biochemical changes (water content, color, texture and weight loss) of the fruit, suppressed the microbiological contamination on the fruit and maintained fruit freshness or quality after 12 days of storage. The combination of ozone and perforated polyethylene packaging treatment was the best treatment to maintain the quality and prolonged the shelf life of tomato fruit to be 12 days at room temperature.

  6. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  7. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  9. Design and preliminary operation of a hybrid syngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohsri, Sompol; Meechai, Apichart; Prapainainar, Chaiwat

    2018-01-01

    , in this study a customized hybrid power system integrating solar, biomass (syngas) power and battery storage system is evaluated a pilot scale for micro off-grid application. This paper shows that for a reliability of a hybrid syngas/solar PV system along with rechargeable batteries, the syngas generator can......Due to the irregular nature of solar resource, solar photovoltaic (PV) system alone cannot satisfy load on a 24/7 demand basis, especially with increasing regional population in developing countries such as Thailand. A hybrid solar PV/biomass based along with battery storage system has been drawing....... Furthermore, the generator has to be always synchronized during the commissioning time. Battery state of charge (SOC) in percent (%) connecting with syngas is greater than solar PV and the charging time appears significantly shorter than that one. All possible combinations between an innovation and existing...

  10. Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... composition and estimation of nutritive value of dried tomato pomace (DTP) using in vitro gas ... of processed products such as tomato juice, paste, puree ..... of feeding ensiled mixed tomato and apple pomace on performance.

  11. The 7B-1 mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) confers a blue light-specific lower sensitivity to coronatine, a toxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bergougnoux, V.; Hlaváčková, V.; Plotzová, R.; Novák, Ondřej; Fellner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2009), s. 1219-1230 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Blue light-specific response * COI1 * coronatine Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.271, year: 2009

  12. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Li, Xueping [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  13. Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of cooling on solar PV performance have been experimentally investigated. • As a solar panel is cooled down, the electric output can have significant increase. • A cooled solar PV system has been proposed for resident application. • Life cycle assessment suggests the cost payback time of cooled PV can be reduced. - Abstract: As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.

  14. Is rooftop solar PV at socket parity without subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerman, Shelly; Jaramillo, Paulina; Morgan, M. Granger

    2016-01-01

    Installations of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, in large part because of state and federal subsidies. In the future, such subsidies may be reduced or eliminated. From the homeowner's perspective, solar PV is competitive when it can produce electricity at a cost equivalent to the retail electricity rate, a condition sometimes referred to as “socket parity”. In assessing the economic viability of residential solar PV, most existing literature considers only a few locations and fails to consider the differences in PV system cost and electricity prices that exist across the U.S. We combined insolation data from more than 1000 locations, installation costs by region, and county-level utility rates to provide a more complete economic assessment of rooftop solar PV across the U.S. We calculated the break-even electricity prices and evaluated the reductions in installed costs needed to reach socket parity. Among the scenarios considered, we estimate that only Hawaii has achieved socket parity without the use of subsidies. With subsidies, six states reach socket parity, yet widespread parity is still not achieved. We find that high installation costs and financing rates are two of the largest barriers to socket parity. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic viability of residential rooftop solar PV across the U.S. • Widespread socket parity has not been achieved in the U.S. without subsidies. • Net metering may be critical for the economic viability of rooftop solar PV.

  15. Sub-synchronous resonance damping using high penetration PV plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyatzadeh, M.; Kazemzadeh, R.

    2017-02-01

    The growing need to the clean and renewable energy has led to the fast development of transmission voltage-level photovoltaic (PV) plants all over the world. These large scale PV plants are going to be connected to power systems and one of the important subjects that should be investigated is the impact of these plants on the power system stability. Can large scale PV plants help to damp sub-synchronous resonance (SSR) and how? In this paper, this capability of a large scale PV plant is investigated. The IEEE Second Benchmark Model aggregated with a PV plant is utilized as the case study. A Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based conventional damping controller is designed and added to the main control loop of PV plant in order to damp the SSR and also investigation of the destructive effect of time delay in remote feedback signal. A new optimization algorithm called teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) algorithm has been used for managing the optimization problems. Fast Furrier Transformer (FFT) analysis and also transient simulations of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controller. Robustness of the proposed system has been analyzed by facing the system with disturbances leading to significant changes in generator and power system operating point, fault duration time and PV plant generated power. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  16. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  17. Combined action of sex pheromone and wasp Apanteles gelechiidivoris in greenhouse Tomato crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Jessica; Munoz, Laura; Rodriguez, Daniel; Cantor, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Tomato budworm, Tuta absoluta, is considered main pest of Tomato crops. Control of this pest is performed with hemicals, although, there are other strategies such as biological and ethological control. In Colombia there is not precedent that combines both strategies: ethological control with sexual pheromone and biological control with Apanteles gelechiidivoris, for the control of this pest in Tomato crops. In this work four different treatments under greenhouse conditions were evaluated including biological control with A. gelechiidivoris, ethological control with sexual pheromone traps, and combined action of both controls and traditional control (chemicals). The experiments aimed to developing a control strategy to reduce populations of T. absoluta. This was done sampling a plant every to 2 meters. From each plant a sample composed by one leaf by stratum was taken and the variables number of total larvae of third instar and parasited and number of captured adults for trap. The maximum parasitism in the population of susceptible larvae was 86.38 % and for total population of larvae was 68.75 %. The combined action of pheromone traps and A. gelechiidivoris presented a greater efficiency and permanence on the control of larvae of T. absoluta.

  18. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools.

  19. PV Project Finance in the United States, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David; Lowder, Travis; Schwabe, Paul

    2016-09-01

    This brief is a compilation of data points and market insights that reflect the state of the project finance market for solar photovoltaic (PV) assets in the United States as of the third quarter of 2016. This information can generally be used as a simplified benchmark of the costs associated with securing financing for solar PV as well as the cost of the financing itself (i.e., the cost of capital). Three sources of capital are considered -- tax equity, sponsor equity, and debt -- across three segments of the PV marketplace.

  20. Recent developments in ASSERT-PV code for subchannel thermalhydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Y.F.; Hammouda, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises recent development of ASSERT-PV, and provides examples of applications to CANDU fuel bundles in predicting flow, heat transfer and sheath temperatures. The development work is intended to improve computational and phenomenological modelling capabilities of ASSERT-PV in simulating various flow scenarios in CANDU fuel bundles. The latest version of ASSERT-PV can be used for simulations of steady state or transient, subchannel thermalhydraulics in CANDU bundles under conditions up to and including post-dryout heat transfer. (author)

  1. Comparison and selection of off-grid PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, Andrey Yu.; Lobachevsky, Yakov P.; Shepovalova, Olga V.

    2018-05-01

    This work deals with comparison, evaluation and selection of PV systems of the same type based on their technical parameters either indicated in their technical specifications or calculated ones. Stand-alone and grid backed up photoelectric systems have been considered. General requirements for photoelectric system selection and evaluation have been presented that ensure system operability and required efficiency in operation conditions. Generic principles and definition of photoelectric systems characteristics have been considered. The described method is mainly targeted at PV engineering personnel and private customers purchasing PV systems. It can be also applied in the course of project contests, tenders, etc.

  2. What's stopping a huge expansion of the PV market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadi, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past 25 years the terrestrial PV industry has turned into a billion-dollar global business. The necessary technology is available and substantial market growth is continuing. It has often been said that the cost of PV must come down further before the technology really takes off. However the author argues here that the dominant segments of the market are not price-sensitive and that the future explosive expansion of PV markets will need financing on a global basis, assured quality in the products, and the institution of an extensive public-awareness programme of advertising, promotion and education. (author)

  3. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter....

  4. Robustness analysis of the efficiency in PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigazo, Alberto; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    topology and control strategy but also on the characteristics of the employed components. The aim of this paper is evaluate the effect of physical variations associated to the main components on the overall efficiency of PV inverters. It is concluded that a statistical evaluation of the power converter......During last years an increasing attention has been paid to the efficiency of grid-connected PV inverters. They are manufactured from a number of discrete components and by using a certain topology and control strategy. Hence, the performance of a certain PV inverter not only depends on the selected...

  5. Variations of PV Panel Performance Installed over a Vegetated Roof and a Conventional Black Roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J. Alshayeb

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The total worldwide photovoltaic (PV capacity has been growing from about 1 GW at the beginning of the twenty-first century to over 300 GW in 2016 and is expected to reach 740 GW by 2022. PV panel efficiency is reported by PV manufacturers based on laboratory testing under Standard Testing Condition with a specific temperature of 25 °C and solar irradiation of 1000 W/m2. This research investigated the thermal interactions between the building roof surface and PV panels by examining the differences in PV panel temperature and energy output for those installed over a green roof (PV-Green and those installed over a black roof (PV-Black. A year-long experimental study was conducted over the roof of an educational building with roof mounted PV panels with a system capacity of 4.3 kW to measure PV underside surface temperature (PV-UST, ambient air temperature between PV panel and building roof (PV-AT, and PV energy production (PV-EP. The results show that during the summer the PV-Green consistently recorded lower PV-UST and PV-AT temperatures and more PV-EP than PV-Black. The average hourly PV-EP difference was about 0.045 kWh while the maximum PV-EP difference was about 0.075 kWh, which represents roughly a 3.3% and 5.3% increase in PV-EP. For the entire study period, EP-Green produced 19.4 kWh more energy, which represents 1.4% more than EP-Black.

  6. Induction of mutations in tomato variety Solar Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiris, R.

    1995-01-01

    The production of tomatoes in Sri Lanka is hampered by many problems. Tomato is an economic crop which is nutritious and has export potential. The major constraint for tomato production is Bacterial Wilt caused by Pseudomonas Solanacearum. A study was initiated with the obnjective of finding tomato genotype having resistance to bacterial wilt. The seeds of the varity, Solar Set which is highly susceptible to bacterial wilt was exposed to irradiation from Co 60 source after adjusting moisture content to 14%. The dosese given were 0, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 krad. The seeds were sown in plastic trays and germination count was taken after 3 days. The LD50 value for the induction of mutants in tomato variety Solar Set is observed to be 35.6 Kr and it is the best dose value for the induction of beneficial mutants in tomato variety, Solar Set by irradiation

  7. Association and Genetic Identification of Loci for Four Fruit Traits in Tomato Using InDel Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit weight (FW, soluble solid content (SSC, fruit shape and fruit color are crucial for yield, quality and consumer acceptability. In this study, a 192 accessions tomato association panel comprising a mixture of wild species, cherry tomato, landraces, and modern varieties collected worldwide was genotyped with 547 InDel markers evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes and scored for FW, SSC, fruit shape index (FSI, and color parameters over 2 years with three replications each year. The association panel was sorted into two subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium ranged from 3.0 to 47.2 Mb across 12 chromosomes. A set of 102 markers significantly (p < 1.19–1.30 × 10−4 associated with SSC, FW, fruit shape, and fruit color was identified on 11 of the 12 chromosomes using a mixed linear model. The associations were compared with the known gene/QTLs for the same traits. Genetic analysis using F2 populations detected 14 and 4 markers significantly (p < 0.05 associated with SSC and FW, respectively. Some loci were commonly detected by both association and linkage analysis. Particularly, one novel locus for FW on chromosome 4 detected by association analysis was also identified in F2 populations. The results demonstrated that association mapping using limited number of InDel markers and a relatively small population could not only complement and enhance previous QTL information, but also identify novel loci for marker-assisted selection of fruit traits in tomato.

  8. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with FST > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species. PMID:21637482

  9. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix; Martínez, Rodrigo; Lobo, Mario; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2010-04-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F(ST) > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species.

  10. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Enciso-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam. and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt. are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32 and tree tomatoes (n = 30 through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII in other Solanaceae (Asterid species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41 for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F ST > 0.90, which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species.

  11. Trichoderma harzianum in combination with sheep manure amendment enhances soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Barakat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum (isolate Jn14 in combination with an amendment of sheep manure has on the soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato was investigated over a 28-month period. A combination of T. harzianum and organic amendment at concentrations (w:w of 6 and 10% reduced tomato wilt by 21–36 % and 29–36% respectively, after 0–28 months of soil incubation. When the amendment was added at concentration of 2%, the wilt was suppressed only after 18–28 months. A combination of T. harzianum and the amendment at 6% also increased tomato plant fresh weights by 52% after 28 months, and the 10% amendment increased fresh weights by 56, 40, and 63%, after 18, 24, and 28 months respectively, compared to the experimental controls. Organic amendment at the higher concentrations further stimulated T. harzianum populations, enhanced microbial activity against Fusarium oxysporum in the soil and reduced pathogen populations. Without T. harzianum, the organic amendment at a concentration of 10% reduced disease by only 22, 24, and 23% and only after 18, 24 and 28 months of soil incubation respectively, compared with the controls. However, tomato wilt was not reduced at a 2% manure concentration in less than 12 months of incubation. Organic amendment alone at 6 and 10% reduced the pathogen population by 25% and 37% respectively after 28 months of soil incubation compared with the control. T. harzianum produced fungitoxic metabolites that reduced mycelial growth of Fusarium by 37% and conidium germination by 55% when the pathogen was grown on potato dextrose agar amended with a T. harzianum culture filtrate.

  12. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15 were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in control plot (999.75 μ mol m-2s-1 was remarkably higher over fruit tree based agroforestry systems and it was 58.8, 43.9 and 31.5% of the control for guava, mango and olive based systems, respectively. The shortest tomato plant was observed in olive based system (54.91 cm, while the tallest plant was observed in mango based system (60.09 cm. The highest SPAD value and number of primary branches per plant was recorded in control plot. Fruit length, fruit girth was found lowest in olive based system. The highest yield (34.06 t ha-1 was recorded in control plot while the lowest yield (10.26 t ha-1 was recorded in olive based system. The economic performance of fruit tree based tomato production system showed that both the net return and BCR of mango and guava based system was higher over control and olive based system. The contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of before experimentation soil were slightly higher in fruit tree based agroforestry systems than the control. After experimentation, nutrient elements in soil were found increased slightly than initial soils. Fruit tree based agroforestry systems could be ranked based on the economic performance as mango> guava> control> olive based system with BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 8, respectively.

  13. LICOPENE AND Β-CAROTENE IN TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kondratieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high antioxidant activity in tomato fruits is caused not only by sufficient content of vitamin C and polyphenols but also the carotenoids and the fat soluble antioxidants. Lycopene and beta-carotene are the main fat-soluble antioxidants, the consumption of which influences positively on human’s health. It is known that tomato fruits are the source of lycopene for human diet, providing up to 85% of the total lycopene in food. The breeding program for tomato cultivars with high content of carotenoids is a very important task for breeders. In our study the content of betacarotene and lycopene was assessed in 18 tomato accessions with red, pink, yellow and orange fruits obtained in Solanaceae Breeding Laboratory at VNIISSOK. All plants were grown in experimental open field in Odintsovo region, Moscow oblast, VNIISSOK. It was revealed that the typical concentration ratio of lycopene to beta-carotene for pink and red fruits was 1.5 to 10.25, but for yellow and orange fruits was 0 to 0.63. Highest ratio was observed in red fruits in line 230-16. The highest lycopene content was found in red fruits of tree type tomato lines 198-16 and 86F1 (11.5 and 8.7 g/100g. respectively. The highest content of betacarotene was in yellow fruits of line 53-16 F1 (4.1 mg/100g and orange fruits of line 184-16 (6.2 mg/100g. All studied accessions with orange fruits had the higher content of beta-carotene than in standard and highest content of lycopene in this group of accessions. Thus, these fruits had the high nutritional value. The balanced content of lycopene and beta-carotene and low acidity in pink and yellow-orange tomato fruits makes these cultivars the most valuable for children’s diet and people with problems of digestive system.

  14. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Dalcantara Ongouya Mouekouba

    Full Text Available Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST, second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(- and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4. Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  15. Promotional drivers for grid-connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Polo, A.; Hass, R.; Suna, D.

    2009-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at promotional measures for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The paper discusses the core objective of this study which was to analyse the success of various governmental regulatory programs and governmental and non-governmental marketing programs for grid-connected PV systems. To meet this objective, a review of the most important past and current programs around the world was conducted. The theoretical bases of supply and demand are explained and the types of existing strategies are documented in a second Section. In Chapter 3, various programs around the world are described. Chapter 4 focuses on defining success criteria which will be used for the analysis of the programs. Finally, the major conclusions drawn complete this analysis.

  16. Performance parameters of a standalone PV plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fathi, Amine; Nkhaili, Lahcen; Bennouna, Amin; Outzourhit, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We described in details a photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (Essaouira Morocco – 7.2 kWp). • We presented the results of monitoring and some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve. • We discussed the energy management of the plant which is based on the droop mode control. • We presented and discussed the yields and the performance ratio of the plant. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed description of a 7.2 kWp photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (province of Essaouira in Morocco). This plant supplies 16 households with electricity through a local grid that was installed for this purpose. The results of monitoring some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve, the yields and the performance ratio are presented and discussed. The performance ratio of the PV plant varied between 33% and 70.2%. The low values of this parameter are mainly attributed to the way the battery inverter manages the energy flow

  17. Electrification of rural areas by solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1992-01-01

    More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

  18. Angle Resolved Performance Measurements on PV Glass and Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juutilainen, Line Tollund; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    The angular response of PV-modules has significant impact on the energy production. This is especially pronounced in BIPV where installation angles often are far from optimal. Nevertheless, a gain in energy yield may be obtained by choosing a proper glass as superstrate. In this work we present...... the concept of PV balconies as cost efficient and easy way of integrating PV into buildings. The experimental work consists of the fabrication of single cell mini modules with different glass covering, and characterizing their angular response in a custom made setup, where only the direct sunlight is used...... as a light source. As a special case we estimate the annual yield for each glass in the case of PV balconies for a specific geographical location and orientation of the module....

  19. New test and characterization methods for PV modules and cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.; Sommeling, P. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Scholten, H. [Solland, Heerlen (Netherlands); Muller, J. [Moser-Baer, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Grossiord, N. [Holst Centre, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Smits, C.; Blanco Mantecon, M. [Holland Innovative, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Verheijen, M.; Van Berkum, J. [Philips Innovation Services, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The results of the project geZONd (shared facility for solar module analysis and reliability testing) are described. The project was set up by Philips, ECN, Holst, Solland, OM and T and Holland Innovative. The partners have shared most of their testing and analysis equipment for PV modules and cells, and together developed new or improved methods (including the necessary application know-how). This enables faster and more efficient innovation projects for each partner, and via commercial exploitation for other interested parties. The project has concentrated on five failure modes: corrosion, delamination, moisture ingress, UV irradiation, and mechanical bending. Test samples represented all main PV technologies: wafer based PV and rigid and flexible thin-film PV. Breakthroughs are in very early detection of corrosion, in quantitative characterization of adhesion, in-situ detection of humidity and oxygen inside modules, and ultra-fast screening of materials on UV stability.

  20. Photovoltaic (PV) contribution to the primary frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafa, Adel Hamad

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is among the most efficient and cost effective renewable energy kinds currently available on the market. The connection of a large number of PVs to the grid may influence the frequency and voltage stability of the power system. This paper proposes load-frequency control technique for system with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV). The proposed controller has been successfully implemented and tested using PSCAD/EMTDC. In this study, the impact of photovoltaic (PV) on frequency stability of the system is studies in detail. This study shows that large penetration of photovoltaic (PV) with load and frequency control has a significant impact on the stability and security level of electrical network.(author)

  1. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2017-01-19

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  2. PV GRID Advisory Paper. Consultation version: key recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Bianca; Concas, Giorgia; Cossent, Rafael; Franz, Oliver; Frias, Pablo; Hermes, Roland; Lama, Riccardo; Loew, Holger; Mateo, Carlos; Rekinger, Manoel; Sonvilla, Paolo Michele; Vandenbergh, Michel

    2014-01-15

    PV GRID is a transnational collaborative effort under the umbrella of the Intelligent Energy Europe programme. The main project goal is to enhance photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution grids while overcoming regulatory and normative barriers hampering the application of available technical solutions. The European PV GRID advisory paper aims at providing an overview of the issues and barriers that need to be addressed in order to enhance the distribution grid hosting capacity for PV and other distributed generation (DG).To this purpose, barriers are classified as either cross-cutting challenges or specific barriers, depending on whether they have an overarching, system-wide character or rather focus on one single issue such as curtailment, self-consumption or storage. Finally, a set of preliminary recommendations on how to overcome these issues is presented, allowing for the implementation of the identified technical solutions.

  3. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  4. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  5. Heritage plaza parking lots improvement project- Solar PV installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Palm Springs, CA (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI or the “Tribe”) installed a 79.95 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system to offset the energy usage costs of the Tribal Education and Family Services offices located at the Tribe's Heritage Plaza office building, 90I Tahquitz Way, Palm Springs, CA, 92262 (the "Project"). The installation of the Solar PV system was part of the larger Heritage Plaza Parking Lot Improvements Project and mounted on the two southern carport shade structures. The solar PV system will offset 99% of the approximately 115,000 kWh in electricity delivered annually by Southern California Edison (SCE) to the Tribal Education and Family Services offices at Heritage Plaza, reducing their annual energy costs from approximately $22,000 annually to approximately $200. The total cost of the proposed solar PV system is $240,000.

  6. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets | Solar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes. Context Prospective PV customers are relatively non-transparent; customers are largely unaware of market prices and may not obtain the lowest available price. PV customers that use quote aggregators-third-party companies that collect quotes

  7. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  8. High-density SNP genotyping of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. reveals patterns of genetic variation due to breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chur Sim

    Full Text Available The effects of selection on genome variation were investigated and visualized in tomato using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array. 7,720 SNPs were genotyped on a collection of 426 tomato accessions (410 inbreds and 16 hybrids and over 97% of the markers were polymorphic in the entire collection. Principal component analysis (PCA and pairwise estimates of F(st supported that the inbred accessions represented seven sub-populations including processing, large-fruited fresh market, large-fruited vintage, cultivated cherry, landrace, wild cherry, and S. pimpinellifolium. Further divisions were found within both the contemporary processing and fresh market sub-populations. These sub-populations showed higher levels of genetic diversity relative to the vintage sub-population. The array provided a large number of polymorphic SNP markers across each sub-population, ranging from 3,159 in the vintage accessions to 6,234 in the cultivated cherry accessions. Visualization of minor allele frequency revealed regions of the genome that distinguished three representative sub-populations of cultivated tomato (processing, fresh market, and vintage, particularly on chromosomes 2, 4, 5, 6, and 11. The PCA loadings and F(st outlier analysis between these three sub-populations identified a large number of candidate loci under positive selection on chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD was examined within each chromosome for these sub-populations. LD decay varied between chromosomes and sub-populations, with large differences reflective of breeding history. For example, on chromosome 11, decay occurred over 0.8 cM for processing accessions and over 19.7 cM for fresh market accessions. The observed SNP variation and LD decay suggest that different patterns of genetic variation in cultivated tomato are due to introgression from wild species and selection for market specialization.

  9. Impacts of Solar PV Arrays on Physicochemical Properties of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, A.; Choi, C. S.; Macknick, J.; Ravi, S.; Bickhart, R.

    2017-12-01

    The deployment of renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is rapidly escalating. While PV can provide clean, renewable energy, there is uncertainty regarding its potential positive and/or negative impacts on the local environment. Specifically, its effects on the physicochemical properties of the underlying soil have not been systematically quantified. This study facilitates the discussion on the effects of PV installations related to the following questions: i. How do soil moisture, infiltration rates, total organic carbon, and nitrogen contents vary spatially under a PV array? ii. How do these physicochemical properties compare to undisturbed and adjacent land covered in native vegetation? iii. Are these variations statistically significant to provide insight on whether PV installations have beneficial or detrimental impacts on soil? We address these questions through field measurements of soil moisture, infiltration, grain particle size distribution, total organic carbon, and nitrogen content at a 1-MW solar PV array located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. We collect data via multiple transects underneath the PV array as as well as in an adjacent plot of undisturbed native vegetation. Measurements are taken at four positions under the solar panels; the east-facing edge, center area under the panel, west-facing edge, and interspace between panel rows to capture differences in sun exposure as well as precipitation runoff of panels. Measurements are collected before and after a precipitation event to capture differences in soil moisture and infiltration rates. Results of this work can provide insights for research fields associated with the co-location of agriculture and PV installations as well as the long term ecological impacts of solar energy development. Trends in physicochemical properties under and between solar panels can affect the viability of co-location of commercial crops in PV arrays, the

  10. Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    . The methodological approach is based on comparative tests of the analyzed models applied to two PV plants installed respectively in north of Denmark (Aalborg) and in the south of Italy (Agrigento). The different ambient, operating and installation conditions allow to understand how these factors impact the precision...... the performance of the studied PV plants with others, the efficiency of the systems has been estimated by both conventional Performance Ratio and Corrected Performance Ratio...

  11. Developing solar: PV solar system markets in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asali, Karim

    2002-01-01

    Governments, NGO's and UN organisations are increasingly convinced that renewable energies not only help to solve energy problems in Africa but are indispensable in alleviating regional disparities, social problems and bridging the digital gap. Still, many years after introducing high efficiency solar PV systems the necessary breakthrough of implementing them on a mass scale is still not a reality. The author provides perspectives on developing solar PV in Africa. (Author)

  12. In the balance. The social costs and benefits of PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-16

    For more than a decade, the growth in PV markets surpassed expectations. Then, in 2012, the European market declined for the first time compared with the previous year. As policymakers' support for PV hesitates over the costs to society of this technology, it is timely to take an overview of the social costs and benefits, also referred to as the 'external costs', of PV electricity. In this article, these costs are put into perspective vis-a-vis those associated with conventional electricity-generating technologies. The external costs of electricity can be broken down into: (1) the environmental and health costs; (2) the costs of subsidies and energy security; and (3) the costs for grid expansion and reliability. Included in these costs are the increased insurance, health, social and environmental costs associated with damages to health, infrastructure and environment, as well as tax payments that subsidize producers of electricity or fuels, their markets and the electricity infrastructure. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of the environmental impact is used in the quantification of the associated environmental and health costs. Because the environmental footprint of PV electricity is highly dependent on the electricity mix used in PV module fabrication, the environmental indicators are calculated for PV electricity manufactured using different electricity mixes, and compared with those for the European electricity mix (UCTE), and electricity generated by burning 100% coal or 100% natural gas. In 2012 USD, coal electricity requires 19-29 eurocent/kWh above the market price, compared with 1-1.6 eurocent/kWh for PV manufactured with 100% coal electricity. The sum of the subsidies, avoided fossil-fuel imports and energy security, and the economic stimulation associated with PV electricity deployment, amounts to net external benefits. Integrating high penetrations of renewables, with the same reliability as we have today, appears to be fully feasible and

  13. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  14. GA Based Optimal Control for Maximizing PV Penetration at Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Veni Chandran, Chittesh

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of distributed energy resources (DER’s) like photo-voltaic generators, is one of the possible solution for present scenario of energy crisis. Most of the study suggest the implementation of PV power stations at distribution level. In this paper detailed theoretical analyses of the impact of large scale PV on transmission level is analysed. The preliminary section of this paper provides literature review with specifications of IEEE-14 bus network. Two methodology ie, constant load ...

  15. Influence of Special Weather on Output of PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-01-01

    The output of PV system is affected by different environmental factors, therefore, it is important to study the output of PV system under different environmental conditions. Through collecting data on the spot, collecting the output of photovoltaic panels under special weather conditions, and comparing the collected data, the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions are obtained. The influence of weather factors such as temperature, humidity and irradiance on the output of photovoltaic panels was investigated.

  16. Improvements in world-wide intercomparison of PV module calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Salis, E.; Pavanello, D.; Field, M.; Kräling, U.; Neuberger, F.; Kiefer, K.; Osterwald, C.; Rummel, S.; Levi, D.; Hishikawa, Y.; Yamagoe, K.; Ohshima, H.; Yoshita, M.; Müllejans, H.

    2017-01-01

    The calibration of the electrical performance for seven photovoltaic (PV) modules was compared between four reference laboratories on three continents. The devices included two samples in standard and two in high-efficiency crystalline silicon technology, two CI(G)S and one CdTe module. The reference value for each PV module parameter was calculated from the average of the results of all four laboratories, weighted by the respective measurement uncertainties. All single results were then anal...

  17. NREL PV working with industry, Third quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.; Cook, G.

    1998-12-04

    This quarterly report encourages cooperative R and D by providing the US PV industry with information on activities and capabilities of the laboratories. This issue contains information on the CIS and CdTe R and D teams, an editorial by Richard King on the stand-out accomplishments of the PV Program, and an overview of the NCPV Program Review Meeting highlighting the strength of US photovoltaics.

  18. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamyansurehn, D [Institut Fiziki i Matematiki Akademii Nauk Mongol' skoj Narodnoj Respubliki, Ulan Bator; Voloozh, D

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit.

  19. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhamyansurehn, D.; Voloozh, D.

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit. (author)

  20. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T system against conventional photovoltaic (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the overall field system involved 15 stand-alone PV panels and 15 retrofitted PV/T panels. The laboratory testing results demonstrated the PV/T panel could achieve the electrical efficiency of about 16.8% (relatively 5% improvement comparing with the stand-alone PV panel, and yield an extra amount of heat with thermal efficiency of nearly 65%. The field testing results indicated that the hybrid PV/T panel could enhance the electrical return of PV panels by nearly 3.5%, and increase the overall energy output by nearly 324.3%. Further opportunities and challenges were then discussed from aspects of different PV/T stakeholders to accelerate the development. It is expected that such technology could become a significant solution to yield more electricity, offset heating load freely and reduce carbon footprint in contemporary energy environment.

  1. Real Time Photovoltaic Array Simulator for Testing Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Valentini, Massimo; Raducu, Alin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a real time flexible PV array simulator is presented. It is a system that can simulate different PV panel arrays in specific environmental conditions. To evaluate performance of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters only measurements...... undertaken with an appropriate PV array simulator provide accurate and reproducible results. Thus the PV array simulator has been developed and implemented. MPPT efficiency tests on a commercial grid-connected PV inverter have been performed to validate the PV array simulator....

  2. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand

  3. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi M El-Helw

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB converter for Photovoltaic (PV arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system.

  4. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Based MPPT Controller for a PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Robles Algarín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a photovoltaic (PV module depends on the solar irradiance and the operating temperature; therefore, it is necessary to implement maximum power point tracking controllers (MPPT to obtain the maximum power of a PV system regardless of variations in climatic conditions. The traditional solution for MPPT controllers is the perturbation and observation (P&O algorithm, which presents oscillation problems around the operating point; the reason why improving the results obtained with this algorithm has become an important goal to reach for researchers. This paper presents the design and modeling of a fuzzy controller for tracking the maximum power point of a PV System. Matlab/Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA was used for the modeling of the components of a 65 W PV system: PV module, buck converter and fuzzy controller; highlighting as main novelty the use of a mathematical model for the PV module, which, unlike diode based models, only needs to calculate the curve fitting parameter. A P&O controller to compare the results obtained with the fuzzy control was designed. The simulation results demonstrated the superiority of the fuzzy controller in terms of settling time, power loss and oscillations at the operating point.

  6. Training and certification of PV installers in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Tournaki, Stavroula; Gkouskos, Zacharias; Masson, Gaetan; Holden, John; Huidobro, Ana; Stoykova, Evelina; Rata, Camelia; Bacan, Andro; Maxoulis, Christos; Charalambous, Anthi

    2013-01-01

    The European strategy for the coming decades sets specific targets for a sustainable growth, including reaching a 20% share of renewables in final energy consumption till 2020. To achieve this target, a number of initiatives and measures have been in force. Europe, is currently the largest market for PV systems with more than 75% of the annual worldwide installations in 2011. The favourable European policies as well as the Member States’ supporting legislations have resulted in high market growth for photovoltaics. Applying PV technologies however, requires high qualified technicians to install, repair and maintain them. Until today, national markets have been growing faster than the skilled PV installers force can satisfy. The PVTRIN, an Intelligent Energy Europe action, addresses these issues by developing a training and certification scheme for technicians active in the installation and maintenance of small scale PV systems. During the implementation of the action, a market research was conducted in the six participating countries in order to record the stakeholders’ attitudes, perceptions and considerations and to adapt the training methods, tools and materials to the national PV industry requirements and markets’ needs. Indicative results of this analysis as well as the current situation regarding relevant training and certification schemes are presented in this paper. - Highlights: ► Market research in six EU countries on PV professional Training and Certification needs. ► PVTRIN scheme integrates the national legislations and the market's needs. ► The different aspects (technical, institutional, financial) are presented

  7. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muller, Matt T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Lin J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  8. Performance analysis of PV panel under varying surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Tripathi Abhishek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of PV panel has an adverse impact on its performance. The several electrical parameters of PV panel, such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current, power output and fill factor depends on the surface temperature of PV panel. In the present study, an experimental work was carried out to investigate the influence of PV panel surface temperature on its electrical parameters. The results obtained from this experimental study show a significant reduction in the performance of PV panel with an increase in panel surface temperature. A 5W PV panel experienced a 0.4% decrease in open circuit voltage for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. Similarly, there was 0.6% and 0.32% decrease in maximum power output and in fill factor, respectively, for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. On the other hand, the short circuit current increases with the increase in surface temperature at the rate of 0.09%/°C.

  9. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  10. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  11. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  12. Performance Parameters for Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, B.; Adelstein, J.; Boyle, K.; Hayden, H.; Hammond, B.; Fletcher, T.; Canada, B.; Narang, D.; Shugar, D.; Wenger, H.; Kimber, A.; Mitchell, L.; Rich, G.; Townsend, T.

    2005-02-01

    The use of appropriate performance parameters facilitates the comparison of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that may differ with respect to design, technology, or geographic location. Four performance parameters that define the overall system performance with respect to the energy production, solar resource, and overall effect of system losses are the following: final PV system yield, reference yield, performance ratio, and PVUSA rating. These performance parameters are discussed for their suitability in providing desired information for PV system design and performance evaluation and are demonstrated for a variety of technologies, designs, and geographic locations. Also discussed are methodologies for determining system a.c. power ratings in the design phase using multipliers developed from measured performance parameters.The use of appropriate performance parameters facilitates the comparison of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that may differ with respect to design, technology, or geographic location. Four performance parameters that define the overall system performance with respect to the energy production, solar resource, and overall effect of system losses are the following: final PV system yield, reference yield, performance ratio, and PVUSA rating. These performance parameters are discussed for their suitability in providing desired information for PV system design and performance evaluation and are demonstrated for a variety of technologies, designs, and geographic locations. Also discussed are methodologies for determining system a.c. power ratings in the design phase using multipliers developed from measured performance parameters.

  13. Energy metrics analysis of hybrid - photovoltaic (PV) modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, 13 k.m. stone, Ghaziabad - Meerut Road, Ghaziabad 201 206, UP (India); Barnwal, P.; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, energy metrics (energy pay back time, electricity production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency) of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) modules have been analyzed and presented for the composite climate of New Delhi, India. For this purpose, it is necessary to calculate (1) the energy consumption in making different components of the PV modules and (2) the annual energy (electrical and thermal) available from the hybrid-PV modules. A set of mathematical relations have been reformulated for computation of the energy metrics. The manufacturing energy, material production energy, energy use and distribution energy of the system have been taken into account, to determine the embodied energy for the hybrid-PV modules. The embodied energy and annual energy outputs have been used for evaluation of the energy metrics. For hybrid PV module, it has been observed that the EPBT gets significantly reduced by taking into account the increase in annual energy availability of the thermal energy in addition to the electrical energy. The values of EPF and LCCE of hybrid PV module become higher as expected. (author)

  14. Automatic fault diagnosis in PV systems with distributed MPPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solórzano, J.; Egido, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An automatic failure diagnosis procedure for PV systems with DMPPT is presented. • The different failures diagnosed and their effects on the PV systems are described. • No use of irradiance and temperature sensors decreasing the cost of the system. • Voltage and current analysis to diagnose different failures. • Hot-spots, localized dirt, shading, module degradation and cable losses diagnosis. - Abstract: This work presents a novel procedure for fault diagnosis in PV systems with distributed maximum power point tracking at module level—power optimizers (DC/DC) or micro-inverters (DC/AC). Apart from the power benefits obtained when an irregular irradiance distribution is present, this type of systems permit the monitoring of the PV plant parameters at the module level: voltage and current at the working power point. With these parameters, a prototype diagnosis tool has been developed in Matlab and it has been experimentally verified in a real rooftop PV generator by applying different failures. The tool can diagnose the following failures: fixed object shading (with distance estimation), localized dirt, generalized dirt, possible hot-spots, module degradation and excessive losses in DC cables. In addition, it alerts the user of the power losses produced by each failure and classifies the failures by their severity. This system does not require the use of irradiance or temperature sensors, except for the generalized dirt failure, reducing the cost of installation, especially important in small PV systems

  15. Examples of successful architectural integration of PV: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, I.B.

    2004-01-01

    In Germany building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are developing rapidly, and much progress has been achieved in the past five years. BIPV can be used today in different ways on both existing and new buildings. Architects and designers are discovering BIPV. With the help of custom-made products available on the German market they are beginning to explore the technical limits of an aesthetic and structural integration of PV in buildings. As a result some exciting high-profile building projects with PV have been built, for example, the small service pavilion Meereslauschen in Steinhude or the new headquarters building of the Wood Trade Association in Munich. These projects show that the use of PV is very varied and offers opportunities for creative architects. However non-technical problems still need to be solved to allow a meaningful and widespread application of PV in the built environment. To decrease costs it is essential to develop further standard BIPV components. The aim of such developments should be to replace standard PV modules by products in which PV and structural building elements are melded into one design and structural unit. (author)

  16. Waste energy boosts tomato industry at distillery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColl, J

    1989-04-01

    A trial project aimed at using waste hot water from the cooling process at a Scottish whisky distillery to heat a glasshouse for tomato production is described. Later developments have involved the installation of a waste heat boiler to make use of the heat from the still burner flue gases. Steam from the boiler is used within the distillery and to supplement the glasshouse system. The payback within the distillery industry has been excellent, but tomato production, though continuing, was adversely affected by severe cutbacks in distillery production in the early eighties. Recently further significant savings have been made in the distillery industry by the installation of a regenerative burner in one of the stills and thermo-compressors in the cooling tower condensers to produce low pressure steam which can be fed back into the system. (U.K.).

  17. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on fatty acids of tomato seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Raouf, M.S.; Morad, M.M.; Rady, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Since gamma irradiation of tomatoes is investigated as a tool for increasing tomato shelf-lefe, in this study the tomato seed oil produced from irradiated tomatoes was compared with that produced from industrial tomato seeds and with cotton seeds. Fatty acid contents of tomato seed oil, produced from industrial tomato seed waste and from tomato seeds (Variety Ace), were found nearly the same as in the edible cotton seed oil. Hence, both tomato seed oils may be considered as an additional source of essential fatty acids especially linoleic. Gamma irradiation doses ranged from 50-200 Krad had no significant effect on total saturated and total unsaturated fatty acids. 200 Krad led to significant increases in lenolic acid on the account of insignificant decrease in palmatic acid. Essentail and non essential amino acids of tomato seed meal seem to be equivalent to these of cotton seed meal. This suggests the possible use of tomato seed meal in animal feeding

  19. Radioactivity in tomatoes grown on mine tailings from Oka, a niobium mining region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, M.; Boudreau, A.; Roy, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity contained in the tailings of a niobium mine in the Oka region, Quebec, was the object of concern for the population of the area in 1979. To find the impact of these tailings on fruit and vegetables grown in this environment, an investigation of the radioactivity found on tomatoes grown in green houses in niobium tailings and in vermiculites was undertaken. The tailings contained a high level of natural radioactivity and a small amount of 137 Cs while the vermiculites had a very low level of natural radioactivity and an appreciable amount of 137 Cs. Cesium-137 was the only nuclide detected in tomato ashes in measurable quantity. Absence of natural radioactivity is explained by its presence as insoluble minerals

  20. The measurement of radioactivity in tomatoes cultivated on mining residues from the Oka niobium mining community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, M.; Boudreau, A.; Roy, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity contained in the tailings of a niobium mine in the Oka region, Quebec, was the object of concern for the population of the area in 1979. To find the impact of these tailings on fruit and vegetables grown in this environment, an investigation of the radioactivity found on tomatoes grown in green houses in niobium tailings and in vermiculites was undertaken. The tailings contained a high level of natural radioactivity and a small amount of 137 Cs while the vermiculites has a very low level of natural radioactivity and an appreciable amount of 137 Cs. Cesium-137 was the only nuclide detected in tomato ashes in measurable quantity. Absence of natural radioactivity is explained by its presence as insoluble minerals. (author) [fr

  1. Lifetime Evaluation of Grid-Connected PV Inverters Considering Panel Degradation Rates and Installation Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    Lifetime of PV inverters is affected by the installation sites related to different solar irradiance and ambient temperature profiles (also referred to as mission profiles). In fact, the installation site also affects the degradation rate of the PV panels, and thus long-term energy production...... and reliability. Prior-art lifetime analysis in PV inverters has not yet investigated the impact of PV panel degradations. This paper thus evaluates the lifetime of PV inverters considering panel degradation rates and mission profiles. Evaluations have been carried out on PV systems installed in Denmark...... and Arizona. The results reveal that the PV panel degradation rate has a considerable impact on the PV inverter lifetime, especially in the hot climate (e.g., Arizona), where the panel degrades at a faster rate. In that case, the PV inverter lifetime prediction can be deviated by 54%, if the impact of PV...

  2. Rheological Behavior of Tomato Fiber Suspensions Produced by High Shear and High Pressure Homogenization and Their Application in Tomato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Adhikari, Benu P.; Li, Dong

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high shear and high pressure homogenization on the rheological properties (steady shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus, and deformation) and homogeneity in tomato fiber suspensions. The tomato fiber suspensions at different concentrations (0.1%–1%, w/w) were subjected to high shear and high pressure homogenization and the morphology (distribution of fiber particles), rheological properties, and color parameters of the homogenized suspensions were measured. The homogenized suspensions were significantly more uniform compared to unhomogenized suspension. The homogenized suspensions were found to better resist the deformation caused by external stress (creep behavior). The apparent viscosity and storage and loss modulus of homogenized tomato fiber suspension are comparable with those of commercial tomato ketchup even at the fiber concentration as low as 0.5% (w/w), implying the possibility of using tomato fiber as thickener. The model tomato sauce produced using tomato fiber showed desirable consistency and color. These results indicate that the application of tomato fiber in tomato-based food products would be desirable and beneficial. PMID:29743890

  3. Biological control of corky root in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, G; Fiume, F

    2008-01-01

    Corky root caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici (Schneider et Gerlach) is one of the most important soil borne fungal pathogens which develops in the soils, causing diseases in different crops. The research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of corky root on tomato. Biological control was performed by using Trichoderma viride Pers. 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and Bacillus subtilis M51 PI. According to present and future regulations on the use of chemical fungicides and considering that treatments must avoids environmental pollution, the main object of this research was to find alternative strategies by using biocontrol agents against P. lycopersici that affect tomato plants. In laboratory, the effectiveness of T. viride 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and B. subtilis M51 PI to control P. lycopersici were studied. In greenhouse, the research was carried out comparing the following treatments: 1) untreated control; 2) T. viride 18/17 SS; 3) Streptomyces spp. AtB42; 4) B. subtilis M51 PI. Roots of plants of tomato H3028 Hazera were treated with the antagonist suspensions just prior of transplant. Treatments were repeated about 2 months after, with the same suspensions sprayed on the soil to the plant collar. In dual culture, the inhibition of P. lycopersici ranged up to 81.2% (caused from T. viride 18/17 SS), 75.6% (from Streptomyces spp. AtB42) and 66.8% (from B. subtilis M51 PI). In greenhouse trials, with regard to corky root symptoms, all treated plots showed signifycative differences compared to untreated. T. viride gave the better results followed by Streptomyces spp. and then by B. subtilis. The fungus antagonist showed good root surface competence such as demonstrated its persistence on the roots surface of the tomato plants whose roots were treated with T. viride 18/17 SS up to 2 months before.

  4. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (Glomus intraradice on Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca. Pers in Cultivated Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba zafarian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycorrhizal symbiosis is one of the most popular and highest symbiotic relationship in plant kingdom. Most plants (about 80% of vascular plant species have at least one type of mycorrhiza. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungies are the most important endomycorhiza fungi that play an important role in agriculture. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradice symbiosis to control Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca. Pers in cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. growth, a glasshouse experiment was conducted in CRD design with four replications in Shahrekord university in summer 2014. Treatments consisted of four arbuscular mycorrhizal levels (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 and two control treatments of weed free and weed infested treatments, respectively. In this experiment, seeds of speedy tomato cultivar planted in the bed that consisted of coco peat and peat moss were transplanted to the pots. Pots with diameter 20 and height 15 cm were filled with soil in the ratio 4: 1: 1 manure, sand and clay respectively and with 50 mg of Orobanche seeds that were collected in the previous year. It should be noted that the soil combination was disinfected at a temperature of 80OC for 72 h to reduce the potential effects of soil microbial population in reducing Orobanche germination. The fungal inoculation, containing sandy soil fungal body parts and organs fungal root was then added to each pot. Fungi strain was provided from the plant protection clinic located in Hamadan. Also, nutrition of tomato after being transplanted to pots was carried out with foliar application of complete micronutrient of 20-20-20 every 7 days under glasshouse condition. At the end of the season, were measured number of stems, number of nodules on the roots of tomato, time of emergence of orobanche flower on the soil surface, orobanche dry weight and tomato root and shoot dry weight. Statistical analysis of

  5. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  6. Virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is modulated through the Catabolite Repression Control protein Crc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas syringae (P.s.) infects diverse plant species and several P.s. pathovars have been used in the study of molecular events that occur during plant-microbe interactions. Although the relationship between bacterial metabolism, nutrient acquisition and virulence has attracted increasing atten...

  7. Linear relationships between cherry tomato traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the linear relationship between cherry tomato yield components. Two uniformity trials, without treatments, were conducted on Lilli cherry tomato plants in a plastic greenhouse during the 2014 spring/summer season, with the plants in two stems. Variables observed for each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, total number of fruits, and total fruit weight; a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to estimate the relationship between the variables. Path analysis was then performed considering total fruit weight as the main variable and the remaining variables as explanatory. Due to the severe multicollinearity, the variable 'number of fruits per bunch' was eliminated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between explanatory and main variables. Mean fruit weight has a low cause-and-effect relationship with the total weight of fruits produced. A low cause-and-effect relationship was also observed between number of fruits and number of bunches. Cherry tomato productivity is directly related to the number of fruits per plant.

  8. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  9. Proposal of Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov., pathogenic to pistachio (Pistacia vera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblot-Ducray, Danièle; Marefat, Alireza; Gillings, Michael R; Parkinson, Neil M; Bowman, John P; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Taylor, Cathy; Facelli, Evelina; Scott, Eileen S

    2009-12-01

    Strains of Xanthomonas translucens have caused dieback in the Australian pistachio industry for the last 15 years. Such pathogenicity to a dicotyledonous woody host contrasts with that of other pathovars of X. translucens, which are characterized by their pathogenicity to monocotyledonous plant families. Further investigations, using DNA-DNA hybridization, gyrB gene sequencing and integron screening, were conducted to confirm the taxonomic status of the X. translucens pathogenic to pistachio. DNA-DNA hybridization provided a clear classification, at the species level, of the pistachio pathogen as a X. translucens. In the gyrB-based phylogeny, strains of the pistachio pathogen clustered among the X. translucens pathovars as two distinct lineages. Integron screening revealed that the cassette arrays of strains of the pistachio pathogen were different from those of other Xanthomonas species, and again distinguished two groups. Together with previously reported pathogenicity data, these results confirm that the pistachio pathogen is a new pathovar of X. translucens and allow hypotheses about its origin. The proposed name is Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov.

  10. Lifetime Evaluation of Grid-Connected PV Inverters Considering Panel Degradation Rates and Installation Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Lifetime of PV inverters is affected by the installation sites related to different solar irradiance and ambient temperature profiles (also referred to as mission profiles). In fact, the installation site also affects the degradation rate of the PV panels, and thus long-term energy production and reliability. Prior-art lifetime analysis in PV inverters has not yet investigated the impact of PV panel degradations. This paper thus evaluates the lifetime of PV inverters considering panel degrada...

  11. Design Optimization of Transformerless Grid-Connected PV Inverters Including Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimal design of transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters targeting a cost-effective deployment of grid-connected PV systems. The optimal switching frequency as well as the optimal values and types of the PV inverter components is calculated such that the PV inverter LCOE generated during the PV system lifetime period is minimized. The LCOE is also calculated considering the failure rates of the components, which affect the reliability performance...

  12. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL for Resistance to Late Blight in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip R. Panthee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Montagne, Bary is a devastating disease of tomato worldwide. There are three known major genes, Ph-1, Ph-2, and Ph-3, conferring resistance to late blight. In addition to these three genes, it is also believed that there are additional factors or quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring resistance to late blight. Precise molecular mapping of all those major genes and potential QTL is important in the development of suitable molecular markers and hence, marker-assisted selection (MAS. The objective of the present study was to map the genes and QTL associated with late blight resistance in a tomato population derived from intra-specific crosses. To achieve this objective, a population, derived from the crossings of NC 1CELBR × Fla. 7775, consisting of 250 individuals at F2 and F2-derived families, were evaluated in replicated trials. These were conducted at Mountain Horticultural Crops Reseach & Extension Center (MHCREC at Mills River, NC, and Mountain Research Staion (MRS at Waynesville, NC in 2011, 2014, and 2015. There were two major QTL associated with late blight resistance located on chromosomes 9 and 10 with likelihood of odd (LOD scores of more than 42 and 6, explaining 67% and 14% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The major QTLs are probably caused by the Ph-2 and Ph-3 genes. Furthermore, there was a minor QTL on chromosomes 12, which has not been reported before. This minor QTL may be novel and may be worth investigating further. Source of resistance to Ph-2, Ph-3, and this minor QTL traces back to line L3707, or Richter’s Wild Tomato. The combination of major genes and minor QTL may provide a durable resistance to late blight in tomato.

  13. Energy rating procedure for PV-modules; Energy rating procedure voor PV-modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Jansen, M.J. [ECN Zon, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The performance of PV-modules is usually characterized by the nominal power at standard test conditions. However more relevant for the end-user is the energy production. To arrive at a so-called energy rating procedure the P(G{sub i},T{sub m}) matrix is defined, which makes it possible to calculate the expected annual energy production of a PV-module at any given location with known frequency distribution of horizontal irradiation and ambient temperature. In order to make the de P(G{sub i},T{sub m}) independent of the time and location of the tests the effective irradiation (G{sub i}) is measured with a device with the same characteristics as the module under test. Such a device can be a suitable reference cell or, even better, the module under test itself. The latter, however, is only possible in case the module under test is stable in time. Measurements were performed to test the applicability of the so-called self-reference for a-Si modules. Furthermore the difference between the effective irradiance and the real irradiance (measured with a pyranometer) was quantified for the test location Petten, the Netherlands. The conclusions are: Self-reference is not applicable for a-Si modules because of the time instability, even after 1 full year of degradation; Self-reference signals (the short circuit current of the module under test) can be calibrated outdoor by comparison with a pyranometer at irradiance levels above 800 W/m{sup 2}. The uncertainty of such a calibration is within 3%; The difference between the effective irradiance and the real irradiance on annual basis at Petten is virtually zero for x-Si modules and about 1% for a-Si modules. [Dutch] Het is gebruikelijk om de prestatie van PV-modules te karakteriseren met het nominale vermogen onder standaard testcondities (STC). Echter dit nominaal vermogen geeft geen directe indicatie voor de energieopbrengst. Om tot een karakteristiek voor de energie-opbrengst (energy rating) te komen wordt de prestatie van de

  14. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. STUDY OF THE USE OF EDIBLE POWDERS TOMATO SAUCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Benderska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Considered the technology for the production of edible powders from vegetable raw materials. The technology for producing powders from berries is developed to produce a high-quality product in which all ingredients of raw materials are stored in a concentrated form.The current trend in nutrition is related to the expansion of the range of functional products whose daily use contributes to the prevention of hypovitaminoses and metabolic disorders, and ultimately to the rehabilitation of the population. New, non-traditional sources of local raw materials, including plant based products, need to be explored and exploited in order to address the issue of instantiate new generation of healthy foods, and the development of technologies for obtaining functionalities. The use of fruit crops, the most source of biologically active substances, is very promising in this direction.The Department of Preservation Technology of the National University Food Technology has conducted a study to enable the use of fruit and berries for food powders. To this end, powder has been obtained from the blueberry berries of ordinary, with the establishment of its physico-chemical properties.The patterns of the influence of the blueberry powder on the functional properties of the foodstuffs were investigated in the example of tomato sauces.Analysis of the results of the studies has shown that a blueberry berry powder can be used in the production of canned and other products not only to enrich their functional ingredients but also to provide them with new technological properties. The food powders received do not contain harmful impurities, have high food value, are easily absorbed by the body, compact and long periods of time. Studies have shown that the blueberry powder is a rich source of vitamins (c acid, β-carotene, tocopherol and can be used successfully in the manufacture of tomato sauces with functional properties.

  16. Large scale PV plants - also in Denmark. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, P [PA Energy, Malling (Denmark); Vedde, J [SiCon. Silicon and PV consulting, Birkeroed (Denmark)

    2011-04-15

    Large scale PV (LPV) plants, plants with a capacity of more than 200 kW, has since 2007 constituted an increasing share of the global PV installations. In 2009 large scale PV plants with cumulative power more that 1,3 GWp were connected to the grid. The necessary design data for LPV plants in Denmark are available or can be found, although irradiance data could be improved. There seems to be very few institutional barriers for LPV projects, but as so far no real LPV projects have been processed, these findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The fast growing number of very large scale solar thermal plants for district heating applications supports these findings. It has further been investigated, how to optimize the lay-out of LPV plants. Under the Danish irradiance conditions with several winter months with very low solar height PV installations on flat surfaces will have to balance the requirements of physical space - and cost, and the loss of electricity production due to shadowing effects. The potential for LPV plants in Denmark are found in three main categories: PV installations on flat roof of large commercial buildings, PV installations on other large scale infrastructure such as noise barriers and ground mounted PV installations. The technical potential for all three categories is found to be significant and in the range of 50 - 250 km2. In terms of energy harvest PV plants will under Danish conditions exhibit an overall efficiency of about 10 % in conversion of the energy content of the light compared to about 0,3 % for biomass. The theoretical ground area needed to produce the present annual electricity consumption of Denmark at 33-35 TWh is about 300 km2 The Danish grid codes and the electricity safety regulations mention very little about PV and nothing about LPV plants. It is expected that LPV plants will be treated similarly to big wind turbines. A number of LPV plant scenarios have been investigated in detail based on real commercial offers and

  17. Use of modern tomato breeding germplasm for deciphering the genetic control of agronomical traits by Genome Wide Association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchet, Guillaume; Grenier, Stéphane; Samson, Nicolas; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Causse, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    A panel of 300 tomato accessions including breeding materials was built and characterized with >11,000 SNP. A population structure in six subgroups was identified. Strong heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium and recombination landscape among groups and chromosomes was shown. GWAS identified several associations for fruit weight, earliness and plant growth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a method of choice in quantitative trait dissection. First limited to highly polymorphic and outcrossing species, it is now applied in horticultural crops, notably in tomato. Until now GWAS in tomato has been performed on panels of heirloom and wild accessions. Using modern breeding materials would be of direct interest for breeding purpose. To implement GWAS on a large panel of 300 tomato accessions including 168 breeding lines, this study assessed the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium decay and revealed the population structure and performed GWA experiment. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses were based on molecular markers (>11,000 SNP) covering the whole genome. Six genetic subgroups were revealed and associated to traits of agronomical interest, such as fruit weight and disease resistance. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium highlighted the heterogeneity of its decay among genetic subgroups. Haplotype definition allowed a fine characterization of the groups and their recombination landscape revealing the patterns of admixture along the genome. Selection footprints showed results in congruence with introgressions. Taken together, all these elements refined our knowledge of the genetic material included in this panel and allowed the identification of several associations for fruit weight, plant growth and earliness, deciphering the genetic architecture of these complex traits and identifying several new loci useful for tomato breeding.

  18. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues, Rbohs are the enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS-based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of each of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. The SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and attenuated expression of defense genes after infection of B. cinerea than the nonsilenced plants. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI and drought tolerance in tomato.

  19. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  20. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhehan

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive control, power management, and fault detection strategy for solar photovoltaic (PV) distribution generations. Battery storages are typically employed in PV systems to mitigate the power fluctuation caused by unstable solar irradiance. With AC and DC loads, a PV-battery system can be treated as a hybrid microgrid which contains both DC and AC power resources and buses. In this thesis, a control power and management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery hybrid microgrid is proposed, which provides 1) the DC and AC bus voltage and AC frequency regulating scheme and controllers designed to track set points; 2) a power flow management strategy in the hybrid microgrid to achieve system generation and demand balance in both grid-connected and islanded modes; 3) smooth transition control during grid reconnection by frequency and phase synchronization control between the main grid and microgrid. Due to the increasing demands for PV power, scales of PV systems are getting larger and fault detection in PV arrays becomes challenging. High-impedance faults, low-mismatch faults, and faults occurred in low irradiance conditions tend to be hidden due to low fault currents, particularly, when a PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is in-service. If remain undetected, these faults can considerably lower the output energy of solar systems, damage the panels, and potentially cause fire hazards. In this dissertation, fault detection challenges in PV arrays are analyzed in depth, considering the crossing relations among the characteristics of PV, interactions with MPPT algorithms, and the nature of solar irradiance. Two fault detection schemes are then designed as attempts to address these technical issues, which detect faults inside PV arrays accurately even under challenging circumstances, e.g., faults in low irradiance conditions or high-impedance faults. Taking advantage of multi-resolution signal decomposition (MSD), a powerful signal