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Sample records for pv systems perform

  1. Performance Parameters for Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, B.; Adelstein, J.; Boyle, K.; Hayden, H.; Hammond, B.; Fletcher, T.; Canada, B.; Narang, D.; Shugar, D.; Wenger, H.; Kimber, A.; Mitchell, L.; Rich, G.; Townsend, T.

    2005-02-01

    The use of appropriate performance parameters facilitates the comparison of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that may differ with respect to design, technology, or geographic location. Four performance parameters that define the overall system performance with respect to the energy production, solar resource, and overall effect of system losses are the following: final PV system yield, reference yield, performance ratio, and PVUSA rating. These performance parameters are discussed for their suitability in providing desired information for PV system design and performance evaluation and are demonstrated for a variety of technologies, designs, and geographic locations. Also discussed are methodologies for determining system a.c. power ratings in the design phase using multipliers developed from measured performance parameters.The use of appropriate performance parameters facilitates the comparison of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that may differ with respect to design, technology, or geographic location. Four performance parameters that define the overall system performance with respect to the energy production, solar resource, and overall effect of system losses are the following: final PV system yield, reference yield, performance ratio, and PVUSA rating. These performance parameters are discussed for their suitability in providing desired information for PV system design and performance evaluation and are demonstrated for a variety of technologies, designs, and geographic locations. Also discussed are methodologies for determining system a.c. power ratings in the design phase using multipliers developed from measured performance parameters.

  2. Optimized controllers for enhancing dynamic performance of PV interface system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Attia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic performance of PV interface system can be improved by optimizing the gains of the Proportional–Integral (PI controller. In this work, gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm are utilized to optimal tuning of PI controller gains. Performance comparison between the PV system with optimized PI gains utilizing different techniques are carried out. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the system is studied under hypothetical sudden variations in irradiance. The examination of the proposed techniques for optimal tuning of PI gains is conducted using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. The main contribution of this work is investigating the dynamic performance of PV interfacing system with application of gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm for optimal PI parameters tuning. Keywords: Photovoltaic power systems, Gravitational search algorithm, Harmony search algorithm, Genetic algorithm, Artificial intelligence

  3. Performance of a directly-coupled PV water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokeddem, Abdelmalek; Midoun, Abdelhamid; Kadri, D.; Hiadsi, Said; Raja, Iftikhar A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Directly coupled PV water pumping system installed and performance studied. → Configured for two static heads, operate without electronic control and auxiliary power. → The system attains steady state soon after any abrupt change. → Cost effective and useful for low head communicating wells system. - Abstract: This paper describes the experimental study carried out to investigate the performance of a simple, directly coupled dc photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping system. The system comprises of a 1.5 kWp PV array, dc motor and a centrifugal pump. The experiment was conducted over a period of 4 months and the system performance was monitored under different climatic conditions and varying solar irradiance with two static head configurations. Although the motor-pump efficiency did not exceed 30%, which is typical for directly-coupled photovoltaic pumping systems, such a system is clearly suitable for low head irrigation in the remote areas, not connected to the national grid and where access to water comes as first priority issue than access to technology. The system operates without battery and complex electronic control, therefore not only the initial cost is low but also maintenance, repairing and replacement cost can be saved. The study showed that directly coupled system attains steady state soon after any abrupt change.

  4. Analysis of Long-Term Performance of PV Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordmann, T.; Clavadetscher, L.; van Sark, Wilfried; Green, M.

    This report describes the activities, conclusions and continued efforts undertaken in Subtask 1 by the participating countries in IEA-PVPS Task 13. Subtask 1 examines the PV power plant as a system. It collects and studies the data supplied from installed operating PV plants from different countries

  5. Performance of a 34 kWp grid-connected PV system in Indonesia - A comparison of tropical and European PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed a monitored grid-connected PV system of 34 kWp in Indonesia to investigate the performance of PV systems in tropical climates. The PV system has been installed in Jayapura, the capital of the Province of Papua, Indonesia, by the beginning of 2012. Due to the aged gensets and frequent

  6. PV System Performance Evaluation by Clustering Production Data to Normal and Non-Normal Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsafarakis, O.; Sinapis, K.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2018-01-01

    The most common method for assessment of a photovoltaic (PV) system performance is by comparing its energy production to reference data (irradiance or neighboring PV system). Ideally, at normal operation, the compared sets of data tend to show a linear relationship. Deviations from this linearity

  7. Performance monitoring of different module technologies and design configurations of PV systems in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Serameng, T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa. The goal of this work was to analyse and report on the performance of PV systems by evaluating the energy output of various PV system configurations and module technologies in the South African (southern hemisphere) climatic conditions. To achieve...

  8. Use of Super-Capacitor to Enhance Charging Performance of Stand-Alone Solar PV System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Ho, P. Y

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The battery charging performance in a stand-alone solar PV system affects the PV system efficiency and the load operating time. The New Energy Center of National Taiwan University has been devoted to the development of a PWM charging

  9. Establishment of key grid-connected performance index system for integrated PV-ES system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Yuan, X. D.; Qi, Q.; Liu, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    In order to further promote integrated optimization operation of distributed new energy/ energy storage/ active load, this paper studies the integrated photovoltaic-energy storage (PV-ES) system which is connected with the distribution network, and analyzes typical structure and configuration selection for integrated PV-ES generation system. By combining practical grid- connected characteristics requirements and technology standard specification of photovoltaic generation system, this paper takes full account of energy storage system, and then proposes several new grid-connected performance indexes such as paralleled current sharing characteristic, parallel response consistency, adjusting characteristic, virtual moment of inertia characteristic, on- grid/off-grid switch characteristic, and so on. A comprehensive and feasible grid-connected performance index system is then established to support grid-connected performance testing on integrated PV-ES system.

  10. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  11. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio; Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen

    2010-01-01

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  12. System performance of a three-phase PV-grid-connected system installed in Thailand. Data monitored analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonmee, Chaiyant; Watjanatepin, Napat; Plangklang, Boonyang

    2009-01-01

    PV-grid-connected systems are worldwide installed because it allows consumer to reduce energy consumption from the electricity grid and to feed the surplus energy back into the grid. The system needs no battery so therefore the system price is very cheap comparing to other PV systems. PV-grid-connected systems are used in buildings that already hooked up to the electrical grid. Finding efficiency of the PV-grid-connected system can be done by using a standard instrument which needs to disconnect the PV arrays from the grid before measurement. The measurement is also difficult and we lose energy during the measurement. This paper will present the system performance of a PV-grid-connected system installed in Thailand by using a monitoring system. The monitored data are installed by acquisition software into a computer. Analysis of monitored data will be done to find out the system performance without disconnecting the PV arrays from the system. The monitored data include solar radiation, PV voltage, PV current, and PV power which has been recorded from a 5 kWp system installed of amorphous silicon PV at Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi, Nonthaburi, Thailand. The system performance of the system by using the data monitored is compared to the standard instrument measurement. The paper will give all details about system components, monitoring system, and monitored data. The result of data analysis will be fully given. (author)

  13. The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system is examined using an analytical model for four different types of commercial PVs and a commercial bismuth telluride TEG. The TEG is applied directly on the back of the PV, so that the two devices have...... the same temperature. The PVs considered are crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous Si (a-Si), copper indium gallium (di) selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cells. The degradation of PV performance with temperature is shown to dominate the increase in power produced by the TEG, due to the low...... efficiency of the TEG. For c-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV cells the combined system produces a lower power and has a lower efficiency than the PV alone, whereas for an a-Si cell the total system performance may be slightly increased by the TEG....

  14. Development and implementation of a PV performance monitoring system based on inverter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Gavriluta, Anamaria Florina; Maaløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Performance monitoring and fault detection systems have become necessary for decreasing operation and maintenance cost in large photovoltaic (PV) plants, as well for maximizing plan yield and lifetime. We expect a similar development for residential and commercial PV system applications, where...... the inverter’s own monitoring and communication capabilities. We also aim to lower the implementation cost, by using a simple, but accurate performance monitoring approach, and show the practical issues that can arise when implementing such a system....

  15. High-Performance Constant Power Generation in Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    An advanced power control strategy by limiting the maximum feed-in power of PV systems has been proposed, which can ensure a fast and smooth transition between maximum power point tracking and Constant Power Generation (CPG). Regardless of the solar irradiance levels, high-performance and stable...... operation are always achieved by the proposed control strategy. It can regulate the PV output power according to any set-point, and force the PV systems to operate at the left side of the maximum power point without stability problems. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed CPG...

  16. A New Controller to Enhance PV System Performance Based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy A AbdelRassoul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a radical increase of photovoltaic (PV power generators installation took place because of increased efficiency of solar cells, as well as the growth of manufacturing technology of solar panels. This paper shows the operation and modeling of photovoltaic systems, particularly designing neural controller to control the system. Neural controller is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO   leads to getting the best performance of the designed PV system. Using neural network the maximum overshoot and rise time obtained become 0.00001% and 0.1798 seconds, respectively also this paper introduce a comparison between some kind of controller for PV system.In recent years, a radical increase of photovoltaic (PV power generators installation took place because of increased efficiency of solar cells, as well as the growth of manufacturing technology of solar panels. This paper shows the operation and modeling of photovoltaic systems, particularly designing neural controller to control the system. Neural controller is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO   leads to getting the best performance of the designed PV system. Using neural network the maximum overshoot and rise time obtained become 0.00001% and 0.1798 seconds, respectively also this paper introduce a comparison between some kind of controller for PV system.

  17. Performance power evaluation of DC fan cooling system for PV panel by using ANSYS CFX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiqah, Z.; Amin, N. A. M.; Irwan, Y. M.; Irwanto, M.; Leow, W. Z.; Amelia, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    A research has been conducted to find the optimum combination for DC fan air cooling system of photovoltaic (PV) panel. During normal operation of PV panel, it is estimated that only 15 % of solar radiation is converted into electrical energy. Meanwhile, the rest of the solar radiation is converted into heat energy which affects the performance of the PV panel. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the performance power evaluation of DC fan cooling system for PV panel by using ANSYS CFX. The effect of airflow configuration of DC fan has been investigated. This is to analyze whether the airflow circulation of DC fan cause a change towards the maximum temperature of PV panel. Besides, the impact of varying number of DC fans attached at the back of PV panel is evaluated. The result of airflow circulation of DC fan has been discussed. Meanwhile, with the increment number of DC fans, the PV panel temperature drops significantly. As a conclusion, the optimum number of DC fans is two with the combination of inlet airflow.

  18. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: AReview of Current Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-11-12

    Some stakeholders continue to voice concerns about the performance of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, particularly because these systems typically receive financial support through ratepayer- or publicly-funded programs. Although much remains to be understood about the extent and specific causes of poor PV system performance, several studies of the larger programs and markets have shed some light on the issue. An evaluation of the California Energy Commission (CEC)'s Emerging Renewables Program, for example, found that 7% of systems, in a sample of 95, had lower-than-expected power output due to shading or soiling (KEMA 2005). About 3% of a larger sample of 140 systems were not operating at all or were operating well below expected output, due to failed equipment, faulty installation workmanship, and/or a lack of basic maintenance. In a recent evaluation of the other statewide PV incentive program in California, the Self-Generation Incentive Program, 9 of 52 projects sampled were found to have annual capacity factors less than 14.5%, although reasons for these low capacity factors generally were not identified (Itron 2005). Studies of PV systems in Germany and Japan, the two largest PV markets worldwide, have also revealed some performance problems associated with issues such as shading, equipment and installation defects, inverter failure, and deviations from module manufacturers' specifications (Otani et al. 2004, Jahn & Nasse 2004). Although owners of PV systems have an inherent incentive to ensure that their systems perform well, many homeowners and building operators may lack the necessary information and expertise to carry out this task effectively. Given this barrier, and the responsibility of PV incentive programs to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should (and often do) play a critical role in promoting PV system performance. Performance-based incentives (PBIs), which are based on actual energy production

  19. Performance evaluation of a 2-mode PV grid connected system in Thailand -- Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jivacate, C.; Mongconvorawan, S.; Sinratanapukdee, E.; Limsawatt, W. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nontha Buri (Thailand)

    1994-12-31

    A PV grid connected system with small battery bank has been set up in a rural district, North Thailand in order to demonstrate a 2-mode operation concept. The objective is to gain experience on the PV grid connected concept without battery storage. However, due to the evening peak demand and a rather weak distribution grid which is typical in rural areas, small battery bank is still required to enable the maximum energy transfer to grid for the time being before moving fully to the no battery mode. The analyzed data seems to indicate possible performance improvement by re-arranging the number of PV modules and battery in the string.

  20. Thermal performance of a linear Fresnel reflector solar concentrator PV/T energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Mohamed R. [State Engineering University of Armenia (Armenia)], E-Mail: Dmoh_elbehary@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    This is a report on an investigation of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. Solar energy conversion efficiency was increased by taking advantage of PV/T collectors and low solar concentration technologies, combined into a PV/T system operated at elevated temperature. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel mirror reflecting concentrator with a channel PV/T collector. Concentrator PV/T collectors can function at temperatures over 100 degrees celsius, and thus thermal energy can be made to drive processes such as refrigeration, desalination and steam production. Solar system analytical thermal performance gives efficiency values over 60%. Combined electric and thermal (CET) efficiency is high. A combined electric and heat power for the linear fresnel reflector approach that employs high performance CPV technology to produce both electricity and thermal energy at low to medium temperatures is presented. A well-functioning PV/T system can be designed and constructed with low concentration and a total efficiency of nearly 80% can be attained.

  1. Performance analysis of hybrid PV/diesel/battery system using HOMER: A case study Sabah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halabi, Laith M.; Mekhilef, Saad; Olatomiwa, Lanre; Hazelton, James

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of two decentralized power stations in Malaysia has been studied. • All possible scenarios of hybrid PV/diesel/battery system have been analyzed. • A comparison with the optimum design was included in this work using HOMER. • Sensitivity analysis showing the impact of main factors on the system was examined. • The advantages/disadvantages of utilizing each scenario are showed and clarified. - Abstract: This study considered two decentralized power stations in Sabah, Malaysia; each contains different combination of photovoltaic (PV), diesel generators, system converters, and storage batteries. The work was built upon previous related site surveys and data collections from each site. Verification of the site data sets, simulation of different operational scenarios, and a comparison with the optimum design were all considered in the work. This includes all possible standalone diesel generators, hybrid PV/diesel/battery, and 100% PV/battery scenarios for the proposed stations. HOMER software has been used in the modeling entire systems. The operational behaviors of different PV penetration levels were analyzed to accurately quantify the impact of PV integration. The performance of these stations was analyzed based on technical, economic and environmental constraints, besides, placing emphasis on comparative cost analysis between different operational scenarios. The results satisfied the load demand with the minimum total net present cost (NPC) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Moreover, sensitivity analysis was carried out to represents the effects of changing main parameters, such as; fuel, PV, battery prices, and load demand (load growth) on the system performance. Comparison of all operational behaviors scenarios was carried out to elucidate the advantages/disadvantages of utilizing each scenario. The impact of different PV penetration levels on the system performance and the generation of harmful emissions is also

  2. On the field performance of PV water pumping system in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbeta, M.; Sasi, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the measured performance of an experimental PV water pumping system of 1200Wp installed in the north-east of Libya. Both the monthly and hourly measured data of the system performance are presented and analised, and the over-all system efficiency has been calculated as monthly and daily averages. The monthly average output of the system has been estimated and compared with measured data. The economic analysis of the system has been carried out and the specific water discharge cost (SDC) has been determined, the obtained SDC was very competitive with the published SDC of the PV water pumping projects in some countries. The obtained results have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of using the PV systems for water pumping especially in the remote areas of high potential of solar insolation.(author)

  3. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Wu, M. S.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system

  4. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for grid-connected performance of integrated distributed PV-ES systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Z. H.; Li, Q.; Huang, R. W.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, D.

    2016-08-01

    Based on the discussion about topology structure of integrated distributed photovoltaic (PV) power generation system and energy storage (ES) in single or mixed type, this paper focuses on analyzing grid-connected performance of integrated distributed photovoltaic and energy storage (PV-ES) systems, and proposes a comprehensive evaluation index system. Then a multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on grey correlation degree is proposed, and the calculations for weight matrix and fuzzy matrix are presented step by step. Finally, a distributed integrated PV-ES power generation system connected to a 380 V low voltage distribution network is taken as the example, and some suggestions are made based on the evaluation results.

  5. PV ready roofing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The integration of PV technology into roofs of houses has become very popular in the United States, Japan, Germany and The Netherlands. There could be a considerable market in the UK for these systems, given the large number of houses that are projected to be built in the next 10 years, and taking account of increased awareness of energy issues. A significant proportion of the market share of annual installed PV is for solar PV systems installed into homes (currently 15%), this is expected to rise to 23% (900MW) by 2010. The grid connected roof and building mounted facade systems represent the fastest growing market for PV systems in Europe. In conclusion, therefore, innovative approached for fixing PV technology onto roofs have been identified for both domestic roofs and for the commercial sector. With reference to production methodologies within the roofing industry, both approaches should be capable of being designed with PV-ready connections suitable for fixing PV modules at a later date. This will help overcome the key barriers of cost of installation, skills required and the lack of retrofit potential. Based on the results of this project, Sustainable Energy together with PV Systems are keen to take forward the full research and development of PV-ready systems for both the domestic and commercial sectors.

  6. Performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power a split air conditioner system in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, E.

    2017-11-01

    Air conditioner for cooling air is one of the major needs for those who live in hot climate area such as Indonesia. This work presents the performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power air conditioner under a hot tropical climate in Surabaya, Indonesia. A 800 WP grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system was used, and its performance was tested to power a 0.5 pk of split air conditioner system. It was found that about 3.5 kWh daily energy was consumed by the tested air conditioner system, and about 80% it could be supplied from the PV system. While the other 20% was supplied by the grid during periods of low solar irradiation, 440 Wh of energy was fed into the grid during operation out of office hours. By using the grid-tied PV system, the energy production by PV system did not need to match the consumption of the air conditioner. However, a larger capacity of PV system would mean that a higher percentage of the load would be covered by PV system.

  7. A novel PV/T-air dual source heat pump water heater system: Dynamic simulation and performance characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jingyong; Ji, Jie; Wang, Yunyun; Zhou, Fan; Yu, Bendong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The PV/T evaporator and air source evaporator connect in parallel and operate simultaneously. • A dynamic model is developed to simulate the behavior of the system. • The thermal and electrical characteristics of the PV/T evaporator are evaluated. • The contribution of the air source evaporator and PV/T evaporator has been discussed. - Abstract: To enable the heat pump water heater maintain efficient operation under diverse circumstances, a novel PV/T-air dual source heat pump water heater (PV/T-AHPWH) has been proposed in this study. In the PV/T-AHPWH system, a PV/T evaporator and an air source evaporator connect in parallel and operate simultaneously to recover energy from both solar energy and environment. A dynamic model is presented to simulate the behavior of the PV/T-AHPWH system. On this basis, the influences of solar irradiation, ambient temperature and packing factor have been discussed, and the contributions of air source evaporator and PV/T evaporator are evaluated. The results reveal that the system can obtain efficient operation with the average COP above 2.0 under the ambient temperature of 10 °C and solar irradiation of 100 W/m 2 . The PV/T evaporator can compensate for the performance degradation of the air source evaporator caused by the increasing condensing temperature. As the evaporating capacity in PV/T evaporator remains at relatively low level under low irradiation, the air source evaporator can play the main role of recovering heat. Comparing the performance of dual source heat pump system employing PV/T collector with that utilizing normal solar thermal collector, the system utilizing PV/T evaporator is more efficient in energy saving and performance improvement.

  8. Parameters affecting the life cycle performance of PV technologies and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacca, Sergio; Sivaraman, Deepak; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses modeling parameters that affect the environmental performance of two state-of-the-art photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies: the PVL136 thin film laminates and the KC120 multi-crystalline modules. We selected three metrics to assess the modules' environmental performance, which are part of an actual 33 kW installation in Ann Arbor, MI. The net energy ratio (NER), the energy pay back time (E-PBT), and the CO 2 emissions are calculated using process based LCA methods. The results reveal some of the parameters, such as the level of solar radiation, the position of the modules, the modules' manufacturing energy intensity and its corresponding fuel mix, and the solar radiation conversion efficiency of the modules, which affect the final analytical results. A sensitivity analysis shows the effect of selected parameters on the final results. For the baseline scenario, the E-PBT for the PVL136 and KC120 are 3.2 and 7.5 years, respectively. When expected future conversion efficiencies are tested, the E-PBT is 1.6 and 5.7 years for the PVL136 and the KC120, respectively. Based on the US fuel mix, the CO 2 emissions for the PVL136 and the KC120 are 34.3 and 72.4 g of CO 2 /kW h, respectively. The most effective way to improve the modules' environmental performance is to reduce the energy input in the manufacturing phase of the modules, provided that other parameters remain constant. Consequently, the use of PV as an electricity source during PV manufacturing is also assessed. The NER of the supplier PV is key for the performance of this scheme. The results show that the NER based on a PV system can be 3.7 times higher than the NER based on electricity supplied by the traditional grid mix, and the CO 2 emissions can be reduced by 80%

  9. Explore the performance limit of a solar PV – thermochemical power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Theoretical net solar-to-electric efficiency of 51.5% is attainable. •Design of efficient PVT systems is governed by at least 5 key considerations. •Concentration ratio has the most pronounced influence on PVT system efficiency. •Efficient PV, low emissivity and high concentration deliver the best performance. -- Abstract: Performance limit of a solar hybrid power generation system integrating efficient photovoltaic (PV) cells and methanol thermal (T) decomposition is explored from a thermodynamic perspective within the capability of state-of-the-art technologies. This type of PVT system features potentially high “net solar-to-electric efficiency” in general, primarily resulting from a key difference in the design of the thermal part compared with conventional PVT systems, i.e. replacing heat engines by a thermochemical power generation module for thermal energy utilization. Key design parameters of the system, including PV cell type, emissivity, solar concentration ratio and solar concentrator type, are individually studied. A system combining all such optimized aspects is projected to achieve net solar-to-electric efficiencies up to 51.5%, after taking all major (e.g. optical, radiative) losses into consideration. This study reveals important insights and enriches understanding on design principles of efficient PVT systems aimed at comprehensive and effective utilization of solar energy.

  10. Performance of a grid connected PV system used as active filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, Hugo; Jimenez, Humberto

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system used as an active filter is presented. Its main feature is the capability to compensate the reactive and harmonic currents drawn by nonlinear loads while simultaneously injecting into the grid the maximum power available from the cells. The system can also operate as a stand alone active filter. The system was connected to a 1 kW PV array and tested with the loads typically found in households: small motors, personal computers and electronic ballasts. The results show that the system can correct the power factor to values close to unity for all the cases tested, thereby improving the efficiency of the electric energy supply

  11. Use of Super-Capacitor to Enhance Charging Performance of Stand-Alone Solar PV System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The battery charging performance in a stand-alone solar PV system affects the PV system efficiency and the load operating time. The New Energy Center of National Taiwan University has been devoted to the development of a PWM charging technique to continue charging the lead-acid battery after the overcharge point to increase the battery storage capacity by more than 10%. The present study intends to use the super-capacitor to further increase the charge capacity before the overcharge point of the battery. The super-capacitor is connected in parallel to the lead-acid battery. This will reduce the overall charging impedance during the charge and increase the charging current, especially in sunny weather. A system dynamics model of the lead-acid battery and super-capacitor was derived and the control system simulation was carried out to predict the charging performance for various weathers. It shows that the overall battery impedance decreases and charging power increases with increasing solar radiation. An outdoor comparative test for two identical PV systems with and without supercapacitor was carried out. The use of super-capacitor is shown to be able to increase the lead-acid charging capacity by more than 25% at sunny weather and 10% in cloudy weather. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  12. Performance analysis of ‘Perturb and Observe’ and ‘Incremental Conductance’ MPPT algorithms for PV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Ehtisham; Lodhi, Zeeshan; Noman Shafqat, Rana; Chen, Fieda

    2017-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system usually employed The Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques for increasing its efficiency. The performance of the PV system perhaps boosts by controlling at its apex point of power, in this way maximal power can be given to load. The proficiency of a PV system usually depends upon irradiance, temperature and array architecture. PV array shows a non-linear style for V-I curve and maximal power point on V-P curve also varies with changing environmental conditions. MPPT methods grantees that a PV module is regulated at reference voltage and to produce entire usage of the maximal output power. This paper gives analysis between two widely employed Perturb and Observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance (INC) MPPT techniques. Their performance is evaluated and compared through theoretical analysis and digital simulation on the basis of response time and efficiency under varying irradiance and temperature condition using Matlab/Simulink.

  13. Effect of tariffs on the performance and economic benefits of PV-coupled battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, David; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pb-acid and Li-ion batteries are compared under three different retail tariffs. • The battery ageing, i.e. capacity and discharge capability reduction is simulated. • A dynamic tariff (1-h resolution) increases the battery discharge value up to 28%. • A Li-ion cost of 375 CHF/kW h is required for Geneva for PV energy time-shift. • This requirement becomes 500 CHF/kW h if demand peak-shaving is also performed. - Abstract: The use of batteries in combination with PV systems in single homes is expected to become a widely applied energy storage solution. Since PV system cost is decreasing and the electricity market is constantly evolving there is marked interest in understanding the performance and economic benefits of adding battery systems to PV generation under different retail tariffs. The performance of lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery systems in combination with PV generation for a single home in Switzerland is studied using a time-dependant analysis. Firstly, the economic benefits of the two battery types are analysed for three different types of tariffs, i.e. a dynamic tariff based on the wholesale market (one price per hour for every day of the year), a flat rate and time-of-use tariff with two periods. Secondly, the reduction of battery capacity and annual discharge throughout the battery lifetime are simulated for PbA and Li-ion batteries. It was found that despite the levelised value of battery systems reaches up to 28% higher values with the dynamic tariff compared to the flat rate tariff, the levelised cost increases by 94% for the dynamic tariff, resulting in lower profitability. The main reason for this is the reduction of equivalent full cycles performed with by battery systems with the dynamic tariff. Economic benefits also depend on the regulatory context and Li-ion battery systems were able to achieve internal rate of return (IRR) up to 0.8% and 4.3% in the region of Jura (Switzerland) and Germany due to

  14. Dynamic Performance Comparison for MPPT-PV Systems using Hybrid Pspice/Matlab Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouchiche, N.; Becherif, M.; HadjArab, A.; Aitcheikh, M. S.; Ramadan, H. S.; Cheknane, A.

    2016-10-01

    The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on the surrounding irradiance and temperature. This paper presents a hybrid Matlab™/Pspice™ simulation model of PV system, combined with Cadence software SLPS. The hybridization is performed in order to gain the advantages of both simulation tools such as accuracy and efficiency in both Pspice electronic circuit and Matlab™ mathematical modelling respectively. For this purpose, the PV panel and the boost converter are developed using Pspice™ and hybridized with the mathematical Matlab™ model of maximum power point method controller (MPPT) through SLPS. The main objective is verify the significance of using the proposed hybrid simulation techniques in comparing the different MPPT algorithms such as the perturbation and observation (P&O), incremental of conductance (Inc-Cond) and counter reaction voltage using pilot cell (Pilot-Cell). Various simulations are performed under different atmospheric conditions in order to evaluate the dynamic behaviour for the system under study in terms of stability, efficiency and rapidity.

  15. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  16. Comparison of specific production performances by two crystalline silicon PV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of two independent photovoltaic (PV systems located close to each other on the south of the Czech Moravian Highland was accomplished. Due to differences in installation parameters; reference quantities were used to calculate transformed data sets for specific production performances comparison. Differences in monthly and annually daily production were performed by t-test.According to obtained results, it was concluded that annually mean daily productions per 1 kWp of installed capacity and per 1 m2 of active area of the panels are significantly better by single crystal silicon installation in tracking system than by stable installation of a different technology of single crystal silicon. However, comparing this performance per 1 m2 of occupied land by studied power-plants the stable installation performed higher production rates on daily mean basis in majority of months of the year 2010 as well as by annually mean daily production.

  17. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2010-06-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique was developed for battery charging control which can increase the charging capacity by 78%. For high-efficiency lighting, the LED is directly driven by battery using a PWM discharge control to eliminate a DC/DC converter. Two solar-powered LED lighting systems (50W and 100W LED) were built. The long-term outdoor tests have shown that the loss of load probability for full-night lighting requirement is zero for 50W LED and 3.6% for 100W LED. © 2010 IEEE.

  18. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch...

  19. Visualization of Operational Performance of Grid-Connected PV Systems in Selected European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Bhavya Kausika

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analyses of operational performance of small-sized residential PV systems, connected to the grid, in the Netherlands and some other European countries over three consecutive years. Web scraping techniques were employed to collect detailed yield data at high time resolution (5–15 min from a large number (31,844 of systems with 741 MWp of total capacity, delivering data continuously for at least one year. Annual system yield data was compared from small and medium-sized installations. Cartography and spatial analysis techniques in a geographic information system (GIS were used to visualize yield and performance ratio, which greatly facilitates the assessment of performance for geographically scattered systems. Variations in yield and performance ratios over the years were observed with higher values in 2015 due to higher irradiation values. The potential of specific yield and performance maps lies in the updating of monitoring databases, quality control of data, and availability of irradiation data. The automatic generation of performance maps could be a trend in future mapping.

  20. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  1. Energetic performance analysis of a commercial water-based photovoltaic thermal system (PV/T) under summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, I.; Ambrosini, D.; de Rubeis, T.; Paoletti, D.; Muttillo, M.; Sfarra, S.

    2017-11-01

    In the last years, the importance of integrating the production of electricity with the production of sanitary hot water led to the development of new solutions, i.e. PV/T systems. It is well known that hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems, able to produce electricity and thermal energy at the same time with better energetic performance in comparison with two separate systems, present many advantages for application in a residential building. A PV/T is constituted generally by a common PV panel with a metallic pipe, in which fluid flows. Pipe accomplishes two roles: it absorbs the heat from the PV panel, thus increasing, or at least maintaining its efficiency; furthermore, it stores the heat for sanitary uses. In this work, the thermal and electrical efficiencies of a commercial PV/T panel have been evaluated during the summer season in different days, to assess the effect of environmental conditions on the system total efficiency. Moreover, infrared thermographic diagnosis in real time has been effected during the operating mode in two conditions: with cooling and without cooling; cooling was obtained by natural flowing water. This analysis gave information about the impact of a non-uniform temperature distribution on the thermal and electrical performance. Furthermore, measurements have been performed in two different operating modes: 1) production of solely electrical energy and 2) simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. Finally, total efficiency is largely increased by using a simple solar concentrator nearby the panel.

  2. A High Performance PSO-Based Global MPP Tracker for a PV Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hsiang Chao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present an improved version of a typical particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, such that the global maximum power point (MPP on a P-V characteristic curve with multiple peaks can be located in an efficient and precise manner for a photovoltaic module array. A series of instrumental measurements are conducted on variously configured arrays built with SANYO HIP2717 PV modules, either unshaded, partially shaded, or malfunctioning, as the building blocks. There appear two, triple and quadruple peaks on the corresponding P-V characteristic curves. Subsequently, the tracking performance comparisons, made by some practical experiments, indicate the superiority of this improved MPP tracking algorithm over the typical one.

  3. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, Chris; DiOrio, Nick; Jordan, Dirk; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-12

    PowerPoint slides for a presentation given at Solar Power International 2016. Presentation includes System Advisor Model (SAM) introduction and battery modeling, bifacial PV modules and modeling, shade modeling and module level power electronics (MLPE), degradation rates, and PVWatts updates and validation.

  4. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  6. A comparison study of performance for three stand-alone PV systems used in rural electrification in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I. M. Saleh; Kreama, N. M.; Khalat, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Rural photovoltaic electrification in Libya is a national program to electrify isolated villages, as part of this program 250 systems with a total peak power of about 300 K Wp has been put into work starting the beginning of the year 2003, the sizes of the systems are 1.8 K Wp, 1.2 K Wp, 0.75 K Wp, and 0.15 K Wp, the systems was designed to supply different family needs. All systems are equipped by a data logger to collect the system parameters. In this paper we will compare the performance of three different PV sizes through two year of work. The results showed that the systems are performing incomparable to the deigned parameters, very little power failure was reported, and there are technical and social issues has to be addressed before the installation of the PV system.(Author)

  7. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J.; Munguia, G.; Flores, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  8. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J; Munguia, G; Flores, J R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  9. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; SHI MingHeng

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermsl(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T sir system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed.The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m~2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency,exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  10. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T air system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed. The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m 2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency, exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  11. Performance analysis of a 11.2 kWp roof top grid-connected PV system in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Barren land and roof tops of buildings are being increasingly used worldwide to install solar panels for generating electricity. One such step has been taken by Siksha ‘O’Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar (Latitude 20.24° N and Longitude 80.85° E by installing a 11.2 kWp grid connected solar power system during February, 2014. This PV system is tilted at an angle of 21° on the top floor of a 25 metre height building. This system was installed This paper presents the results of this grid connected photovoltaic system which was monitored between September 2014 to August 2015. The entire electricity generated by the system was fed into the state grid. The different parameters of the system studied include PV module efficiency, array yield, final yield, inverter efficiency and performance ratio of the system. The total energy generated during this period was found to be 14.960 MWh and the PV module efficiency, inverter efficiency and performance ratio were found to be 13.42%, 89.83% and 0.78 respectively.

  12. Interharmonics from Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration level of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems increases, the power quality is one of the major concerns for system operators and the demands are becoming even stricter. The impact of interharmonics on the grid has been acknowledged in recent research when considering a large......-scale adoption of PV inverters. However, the origins of interharmonics remain unclear. Thus, this paper performs tests on a commercial PV inverter to explore interharmonic generation and more important investigates the mechanism of interharmonic emission. The investigation reveals that the perturbation...... of the solutions. Simulation results indicate that the constant-voltage MPPT method is the most suitable solution to the mitigation of interharmonics introduced by the MPPT operation, as it avoids the perturbation in the PV voltage during operation....

  13. Integrated photovoltaic (PV) monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinder Singh, Balbir Singh; Husain, NurSyahidah; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this research work is to design an accurate and reliable monitoring system to be integrated with solar electricity generating system. The performance monitoring system is required to ensure that the PVEGS is operating at an optimum level. The PV monitoring system is able to measure all the important parameters that determine an optimum performance. The measured values are recorded continuously, as the data acquisition system is connected to a computer, and data is stored at fixed intervals. The data can be locally used and can also be transmitted via internet. The data that appears directly on the local monitoring system is displayed via graphical user interface that was created by using Visual basic and Apache software was used for data transmission The accuracy and reliability of the developed monitoring system was tested against the data that captured simultaneously by using a standard power quality analyzer device. The high correlation which is 97% values indicates the level of accuracy of the monitoring system. The aim of leveraging on a system for continuous monitoring system is achieved, both locally, and can be viewed simultaneously at a remote system.

  14. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  15. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  16. The field performance of a 558 kWp ground mounted single-axis PV system in Pretoria, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kitessa T

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent Green Tech Media (GTM) publication [Moskowitz, 2017], 23% of all ground-mounted photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed on trackers. Trackers are especially beneficial for commercial and utility scale applications, particularly...

  17. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  18. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar System with Different Cooling Methods and a Bi-Reflector PV System (BRPVS: An Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the price of solar photovoltaic (PV systems has been a constant challenge. Despite recent advances, solar PV systems are still more costly than conventional energy resources. For the first time, this study examines the effectiveness of three different structures/materials: (i silvered glass plane mirror; (ii convex spherical mirrors; and (iii aluminum (Al foil as reflector. Comparative analysis of four different cooling techniques, i.e., water sprinkling system, passive heat sink method, active air fan method, and closed loop method, for enhancement of output power was performed. A novel Bi reflector solar PV system (BRPVS was suggested to control the working of the reflectors. The Al foil enhanced the power output compared to the others. In addition, the effect of using a reflector on the temperature of a solar PV system was studied. High operating temperatures resulted in a decrease in the maximum output power under the same solar radiation conditions. The combined enhancement of the output power by both Al foil BRPVS system and cooling system was almost 22.75–38.55%. An optimal control algorithm to use cooling and BRPVS in an efficient manner is described.

  20. A Sensitivity Study of the Impact of Installation Parameters and System Configuration on the Performance of Bifacial PV Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, William F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deline, Christopher A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asgharzadeh, Amir [University of Iowa; Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Laboratories; Stein, Joshua S. [Sandia National Laboratories; Toor, Fatima [University of Iowa

    2018-04-19

    In this paper, we present the effect of installation parameters (tilt angle, height above ground, and albedo) on the bifacial gain and energy yield of three south-facing photovoltaic (PV) system configurations: a single module, a row of five modules, and five rows of five modules utilizing RADIANCE-based ray tracing model. We show that height and albedo have a direct impact on the performance of bifacial systems. However, the impact of the tilt angle is more complicated. Seasonal optimum tilt angles are dependent on parameters such as height, albedo, size of the system, weather conditions, and time of the year. For a single bifacial module installed in Albuquerque, NM, USA (35 degrees N) with a reasonable clearance (~1 m) from the ground, the seasonal optimum tilt angle is lowest (~5 degrees) for the summer solstice and highest (~65 degrees) for the winter solstice. For larger systems, seasonal optimum tilt angles are usually higher and can be up to 20 degrees greater than that for a single module system. Annual simulations also indicate that for larger fixed-tilt systems installed on a highly reflective ground (such as snow or a white roofing material with an albedo of ~81%), the optimum tilt angle is higher than the optimum angle of the smaller size systems. We also show that modules in larger scale systems generate lower energy due to horizon blocking and large shadowing area cast by the modules on the ground. For albedo of 21%, the center module in a large array generates up to 7% less energy than a single bifacial module. To validate our model, we utilize measured data from Sandia National Laboratories' fixed-tilt bifacial PV testbed and compare it with our simulations.

  1. Numerical study of PV/T-SAHP system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang PEI; Jie JI; Ke-liang LIU; Han-feng HE; Ai-guo JIANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy effectively and to achieve a higher electrical efficiency by limiting the operating temperature of the photovoltaic (PV) panel, a novel photovoltaic/thermal solar-assisted heat pump (PV/T-SAHP) system was proposed and constructed. The hybrid solar system generates electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. A distributed parameters model of the PV/T-SAHP system was developed and applied to analyze the system dynamic performance in terms of PV action, photothermal action and Rankine cycle processes. The simulation results indicated that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed PV/T-SAHP can be much better than that of the conventional heat pump. Both PV-efficiency and photothermic efficiency have been improved considerably. The results also showed that the performance of this PV/T-SAHP system was strongly influenced by the evaporator area, tube pitch and tilt angle of the PV/T evaporator, which are the key factors in PV/T-SAHP system optimization and PV/T evaporator design.

  2. Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    . The methodological approach is based on comparative tests of the analyzed models applied to two PV plants installed respectively in north of Denmark (Aalborg) and in the south of Italy (Agrigento). The different ambient, operating and installation conditions allow to understand how these factors impact the precision...... the performance of the studied PV plants with others, the efficiency of the systems has been estimated by both conventional Performance Ratio and Corrected Performance Ratio...

  3. Performance improvement of a battery/PV/fuel cell/grid hybrid energy system considering load uncertainty modeling using IGDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Majidi, Majid; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimum performance of PV/battery/fuel cell/grid hybrid system under load uncertainty. • Employing information gap decision theory (IGDT) to model the load uncertainty. • Robustness and opportunity functions of IGDT are modeled for risk-averse and risk-taker. • Robust strategy of hybrid system's operation obtained from robustness function. • Opportunistic strategy of hybrid system's operation obtained from opportunity function. - Abstract: Nowadays with the speed that electrical loads are growing, system operators are challenged to manage the sources they use to supply loads which means that that besides upstream grid as the main sources of electric power, they can utilize renewable and non-renewable energy sources to meet the energy demand. In the proposed paper, a photovoltaic (PV)/fuel cell/battery hybrid system along with upstream grid has been utilized to supply two different types of loads: electrical load and thermal load. Operators should have to consider load uncertainty to manage the strategies they employ to supply load. In other words, operators have to evaluate how load variation would affect their energy procurement strategies. Therefore, information gap decision theory (IGDT) technique has been proposed to model the uncertainty of electrical load. Utilizing IGDT approach, robustness and opportunity functions are achieved which can be used by system operator to take the appropriate strategy. The uncertainty modeling of load enables operator to make appropriate decisions to optimize the system’s operation against possible changes in load. A case study has been simulated to validate the effects of proposed technique.

  4. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand

  5. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  6. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  7. Battery storage for PV power systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A; Deambi, S [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1992-06-01

    Batteries used in photovoltaic applications are required to have particular properties in order to minimize the system cost, in addition to meeting stringent reliability requirements associated with PV system installations. The battery sizing, installations, operation and maintenance, thus, are fundamentally different from those used in several other energy storage applications. The current paper gives an overview of battery systems commonly used in PV installation, as well as several new options which are found suitable or have been modified suitably to meet PV energy storage requirements. The systems are discussed briefly with respect to their construction, performance characteristics and compatibility with PV systems. The battery sizing procedures are also reviewed. (Author).

  8. First-year performance of the Chorreras pv-hybrid ice-making system in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Luis; Foster, Robert; Cota, Alma D [Southwest Technology Development Institute, Las Cruces, New Mexico (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the reliability and performance of the Chorreras photovoltaic (PV) hybrid ice-making system. The system is a first of its kind in the world and is located near the fishing village of Chorreras, which is located along a man-made lake in a remote desert area of the State of Chihuahua in northern Mexico. The information gathered from technical field visits and a GOES satellite-based data collection system are reviewed to discuss system design and operation. The system has been working well in producing ice on a daily basis with only some minor control problems and water line calcification that reduced ice production until the line was cleaned. The hybrid system provides a daily average of 8.9 kWh at 240 volts to the ice-maker. The system Coefficient of Performance (COP) is about 0.65 and a total of 97 percent of the energy has been supplied by the PV array, while only 3 percent has been supplied by the back-up propane-fueled generator. Production of ice varies slightly each month due to changes in insolation and ambient temperatures. Overall ice production averages about 85 kg of ice per day. This project and this paper are dedicated to the memory of Ing. Juan Jose Onate Rodriguez from the Direccion General de Desarrollo Rural, who was the original project developer for the State of Chihuahua. [Spanish] Este articulo describe la confiabilidad y el rendimiento del sistema hibrido fotovoltaico (PV) de Chorreras para produccion de hielo. El sistema es el primero en su tipo en el mundo y esta localizado cerca del pueblo de pescadores de Chorreras, a la orilla de un lago artificial en un area desertica remota en el estado de Chihuahua, al norte de Mexico. Se esta revisando la informacion recopilada por las visitas tecnicas de campo y por el sistema de recoleccion de datos satelital GOES para analizar el diseno y operacion del sistema, que ha estado funcionando con buenos resultados en la produccion diaria de hielo, teniendo solo problemas menores de

  9. Analysis to Inform CA Grid Integration Rules for PV: Final Report on Inverter Settings for Transmission and Distribution System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeff [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Rylander, Matthew [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Boemer, Jens [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mather, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The fourth solicitation of the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration and Deployment (RD&D) Program established by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) supported the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with data provided from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) conducted research to determine optimal default settings for distributed energy resource advanced inverter controls. The inverter functions studied are aligned with those developed by the California Smart Inverter Working Group (SIWG) and those being considered by the IEEE 1547 Working Group. The advanced inverter controls examined to improve the distribution system response included power factor, volt-var, and volt-watt. The advanced inverter controls examined to improve the transmission system response included frequency and voltage ride-through as well as Dynamic Voltage Support. This CSI RD&D project accomplished the task of developing methods to derive distribution focused advanced inverter control settings, selecting a diverse set of feeders to evaluate the methods through detailed analysis, and evaluating the effectiveness of each method developed. Inverter settings focused on the transmission system performance were also evaluated and verified. Based on the findings of this work, the suggested advanced inverter settings and methods to determine settings can be used to improve the accommodation of distributed energy resources (PV specifically). The voltage impact from PV can be mitigated using power factor, volt-var, or volt-watt control, while the bulk system impact can be improved with frequency/voltage ride-through.

  10. Evaluation of a proper controller performance for maximum-power point tracking of a stand-alone PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafeh, A.E.-S.A.; Fahmy, F.H. [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt); El-Zahab, E.M.A. [Cairo University, Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2003-02-01

    In this paper the implementation of a suggested stand-alone PV system, for maximum-power point tracking (MPPT), is carried out. Also, this paper presents a comparative study, through experimental work, between the conventional PI controller and the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) under different atmospheric conditions. The implemented system with both the PI controller and the FLC gives a good maximum-power operation of the PV array, but the tracking capability for different optimum operating points is better and faster for the case of using the FLC compared to the case of using the PI controller. (author)

  11. Analysis of the Influence of the Stability Factors of PV/T-SAHP on the Performance of the System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The integrated photovoltaic/thermal collector (PV/T with solar assisted heat pump (SAHP often operates under an undesigned condition. Against the backdrop of heat pump system oscillation resulting from the mismatching between collectors area and compressor capacity, this work explores the dynamic performance of heat pump system at a fixed compressor frequency when the condensing water temperature and electronic expansion valve (EEV opening are variable or invariable. We also consider why the system is unstable and propose the theory of SAHP system stability. Also, a preliminary performance analysis is made on SAHP system that is respectively influenced by an inverter compressor and EEV. The MSS(Minimum Stable Signal line theory is proposed to account for system unstabilty in the research of the match between EEV and evaporators, that is to say, the critical problem of keep the system stability is to find out how evaporators superheat under the circumstance of specified loads and its corresponding EEV opening, in other words, to find the MSS line.

  12. Boost Converter Fed High Performance BLDC Drive for Solar PV Array Powered Air Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Rani Depuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the utilization of a DC-DC boost converter as a mediator between a Solar Photovoltaic (SPV array and the Voltage Source Inverters (VSI in an SPV array powered air cooling system to attain maximum efficiency. The boost converter, over the various common DC-DC converters, offers many advantages in SPV based applications. Further, two Brushless DC (BLDC motors are employed in the proposed air cooling system: one to run the centrifugal water pump and the other to run a fan-blower. Employing a BLDC motor is found to be the best option because of its top efficiency, supreme reliability and better performance over a wide range of speeds. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink environment considering the steady state variation in the solar irradiance. Further, the efficiency of BLDC drive system is compared with a conventional Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC motor drive system and from the simulated results it is found that the proposed system performs better.

  13. Energy and Cost Saving of a Photovoltaic-Phase Change Materials (PV-PCM System through Temperature Regulation and Performance Enhancement of Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research seeks to maintain high photovoltaic (PV efficiency and increased operating PV life by maintaining them at a lower temperature. Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM are integrated into PV panels to absorb excess heat by latent heat absorption mechanism and regulate PV temperature. Electrical and thermal energy efficiency analysis of PV-PCM systems is conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in two different climates. Finally costs incurred due to inclusion of PCM into PV system and the resulting benefits are discussed in this paper. The results show that such systems are financially viable in higher temperature and higher solar radiation environment.

  14. Performance monitoring of different module technologies and design configurations of PV system in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available /diesel fuel cost; CSIR analysis Renewables Conventionals 50% 92% 50% 10% Assumed load factor  Fuel cost @ 92 R/GJ 7.39 €/GJ 10% Lifetime cost per energy unit 85% 4 Coal/gas new-build options 7.6 14.3 23.9 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18... distance <10 m) Similar inverter, AC cable size, DC cable size 14 Agenda Polycrystalline and thin film Market and Technology status The ERIC system description Methodology Performance comparison 15 1. Module technology...

  15. Experimental investigations of hybrid PV/Spiral flow thermal collector system performance using Al2O3/water nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadevi, R.; Vinayagam, B. K.; Senthilraja, S.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the PV/T (Photovoltaic thermal unit) system is investigated experimentally to examine the thermal, electrical and overall efficiency by circulating Al2O3/water nanofluid of 1wt% and 2wt% with an optimum flow rate of 40L/H. The overall efficiency of PVT system is largely influenced by various factors such as heat due to photovoltaic action; energy radiated at the infrared wavelength of the solar spectrum, solar irradiance, mounting structure, tilt angle, wind speed direction, Ambient temperature and panel material composition. However, the major factor is considered in this study to extract the heat generated in the PV panel by using nanofluid as a coolant to increase the overall system efficiency. Therefore, the result shows that by using 2 wt% Al2O3/water nanofluid the electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and overall efficiency of the PVT system enhanced by 13%, 45%, and 58% respectively compared with water.

  16. Data monitoring system for PV solar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, M.; Katerski, A.; Williams, A.

    2000-01-01

    The two 1.5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar generators are installed and the new PC data monitoring system is developed by applying EC standards for European Solar Test Installation (ESTI). The schematic system diagram of PV generator is presented. The recording parameters for analytical and global monitoring are discussed. The meteorological data from ESTI sensors, temperature sensor and electrical data from inverter and calibrated shunt are stored via analog digital converters (ADC) on a hard disk of data storage PC. Data Logger and Monitor software for automatic data acquisition, treatment and visual distance control of all output PV data from PV solar generator has been created

  17. Design, performance and cost of energy from high concentration and flat-plate utility-scale PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolte, W.J.; Whisnant, R.A.; McGowin, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent study to assess the near-term cost of power in central station applications. Three PV technologies were evaluated: Fresnel-lens high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV), central receiver HCPV, and flat-plate PV using thin-film copper indium diselenide (CIS) cell technology. Baseline assumptions included PV cell designs and performances projected for the 1995 timeframe, 25 and 100 MW/year cell manufacturing rates, 50 MW power plant size, and mature technology cost and performance estimates. The plant design characteristics are highlighted. Potential sites were evaluated and selected for the PV power plants (Carrisa Plains, CA and Apalachicola, FL) and cell manufacturing plants (Dallas-Fort Worth, TX). Conceptual designs and cost estimates were developed for the plants and their components. Plant performance was modeled and the designs were optimized to minimize levelized energy costs. Overall, the flat plate design exhibited the lowest energy costs among the designs evaluated. Its levelized energy costs at the Carrisa Plains site were estimated to be 11.8 and 10.8 cents/kWh (1990 $) for 25 and 100 MW/year module production rates, respectively. This meets the 12 cents/kWh DOE near-term goal. The energy cost of the Fresnel lens plant (at Carrisa Plains and a 100 MW/year cell production rate) was estimated to be 12.4 cents/kWh and the corresponding central receiver energy cost was estimated to be 13.1 cents/kWh, both of which are very close to the DOE goal. Further design optimization efforts are still warranted and can be expected to reduce plant capital costs

  18. Experimental investigation of the energy performance of a novel Micro-encapsulated Phase Change Material (MPCM) slurry based PV/T system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zhongzhu; Ma, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xudong; Li, Peng; Ali, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental investigation to a novel MPCM slurry based PV/T system was conducted. • The system had the reduced solar efficiency at a higher solar radiation. • The system had the increased solar efficiency at a higher slurry Reynolds number. • The most favourite MPCM concentration was around 10%. • The experimental results approved the accuracy of the established computer model. - Abstract: As a follow-on work of the authors’ theoretical study, the paper presented an experimental investigation into the energy performance of a novel PV/T thermal and power system employing the Micro-encapsulated Phase Change Material (MPCM) slurry as the working fluid. A prototype PV/T module of 800 mm × 1600 mm × 50 mm was designed and constructed based on the previous modelling recommendation. The performance of the PV/T module and associated thermal and power system were tested under various solar radiations, slurry Reynolds numbers and MPCM concentrations. It was found that (1) increasing solar radiation led to the increased PV/T module temperature, decreased solar thermal and electrical efficiencies and reduced slurry pressure drop; (2) increasing the slurry Reynolds number led to the increased solar thermal and electrical efficiencies, decreased module temperature, and increased pressure drop; and (3) increasing the MPCM concentration led to the reduced module temperature and increased pressure drop. The experimental results were used to examine the accuracy of the established computer model, giving a derivation scale ranging from 1.1% to 6.1% which is an acceptable error level for general engineering simulation. The recommended operational conditions of the PV/T system were (1) MPCM slurry weight concentration of 10%, (2) slurry Reynolds number of 3000, and (3) solar radiation of 500–700 W/m"2; at which the system could achieve the net overall solar efficiencies of 80.8–83.9%. To summarise, the MPCM slurry based PV/T thermal and power system

  19. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  20. Performance optimization of solar PV systems to meet school's power requirements. A case study of Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Karnataka State - India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsundar, S.; Kayungilo, Shaaban S.

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar PV systems to provide power for lighting and other applications in India's rural areas has became popular due to the well established promotion and subsidies system adopted by the government to popularize the PV technology. However, there are limited mechanisms put to monitor the performance of the various PV systems once they are installed to ensure that designed output is delivered by the systems. This is important in giving confidence and trust of the technology to end-users and hence further popularization of the PV technology among larger population, increasing the penetration rate and tapping the real benefits of the technology itself like reduced dependence on fossil fuels (kerosene, diesel or electricity generated from coal power plants) and thus saving the environment. This paper describes the results of the study made at Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Mysore District of Karnataka State-India. The study was carried out to investigate the possibility for the school to become energy-self sufficient based on renewable energy technologies, thus becoming a role model in the use and promotion of renewable energy sources within Mysore District and Karnataka State at large. (orig.)

  1. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV panel performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  2. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC) module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV) panel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, A. R.; Jusoh, MA; Shamira Idris, Ida

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC) and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  3. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    relative to DA forecasts, but still imperfect. Finally, we represent decisions within the operating hour by schedulers and transmission system operators as real-time (RT) balancing. We simulate the DA and HA scheduling processes with a detailed unit-commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) optimization model. This model creates a least-cost dispatch and commitment plan for the conventional generating units using forecasts and reserve requirements as inputs. We consider only the generation units and load of the utility in this analysis; we do not consider opportunities to trade power with neighboring utilities. We also do not consider provision of reserves from renewables or from demand-side options. We estimate dynamic reserve requirements in order to meet reliability requirements in the RT operations, considering the uncertainty and variability in load, solar PV, and wind resources. Balancing reserve requirements are based on the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of 1-min deviations from the HA schedule in a previous year. We then simulate RT deployment of balancing reserves using a separate minute-by-minute simulation of deviations from the HA schedules in the operating year. In the simulations we assume that balancing reserves can be fully deployed in 10 min. The minute-by-minute deviations account for HA forecasting errors and the actual variability of the load, wind, and solar generation. Using these minute-by-minute deviations and deployment of balancing reserves, we evaluate the impact of PV on system reliability through the calculation of the standard reliability metric called Control Performance Standard 2 (CPS2). Broadly speaking, the CPS2 score measures the percentage of 10-min periods in which a balancing area is able to balance supply and demand within a specific threshold. Compliance with the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) reliability standards requires that the CPS2 score must exceed 90% (i.e., the balancing area must maintain adequate

  4. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Reviewof Current Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Increasing levels of financial support for customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, provided through publicly-funded incentive programs, has heightened concerns about the long-term performance of these systems. Given the barriers that customers face to ensuring that their PV systems perform well, and the responsibility that PV incentive programs bear to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should, and often do, play a critical role in ensuring that PV systems receiving incentives perform well. To provide a point of reference for assessing the current state of the art, and to inform program design efforts going forward, we examine the approaches to encouraging PV system performance used by 32 prominent PV incentive programs in the U.S. We identify eight general strategies or groups of related strategies that these programs have used to address performance issues, and highlight important differences in the implementation of these strategies among programs.

  5. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  6. Multifunctional a-Si PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K; Lund, P; Vartiainen, E [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The optimal use of the various forms of solar energy (passive, active, daylighting, photovoltaics) in buildings calls for an optimal integration of the technologies. As energy conservation potential in space heating may soon be exhausted, electricity efficiency and on-site generation will play an increasing role in energy-conscious building design. There, dispersed PV systems integrated into buildings show a significant market potential, due to a number of benefits: no extra land area is required, PV-array may replace conventional cladding materials and become a building element. Moreover, the produced PV-electricity is more valuable for the building owner than for an electric utility

  7. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  8. Performance of a PV module augmented by a plane reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, G. E; Hussein, H. M. S; Mohamad, M. A [Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a comparative experimental study on the performance of a PV module augmented by a south facing titled plane reflector and another identical one without reflector. The tilt angles of the two PV modules and reflector overhang are selected to be according to a previous theoretical study by the authors. The reflector tilt angle has been changed once a month so that the reflected beams from the plane reflector cover the total surface area of the PV module all days of every month during the high solar radiation period (i.e. three hours before and after solar noon). The study has been carried out on the two PV modules for a complete year under the actual atmospheric conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The measuring system used in the study comprises a data acquisition system, a computer, an electronic load and weather station. The experimental results indicate that the plane reflector enhances the yearly output energy of the PV module y about 22%. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta un estudio comparativo experimental sobre el rendimiento de un modulo de PV aumentado por un reflector plano inclinado mirando hacia el sur y otro identico sin reflector. Los angulos de inclinacion de los dos modulos y el reflector sobresaliente se seleccionan para que esten de acuerdo con un estudio teorico previo hecho por los autores. El angulo de inclinacion del reflector se cambio una vez al mes de manera que los rayos reflejados por el reflector plano cubrieran el area total de la superficie del modulo de PV todos los dias de cada mes durante el periodo de radiacion alto (o sea tres horas antes y despues del medio dia solar). El estudio ha sido llevado a cabo en dos modulos de PV durante un ano completo bajo condiciones atmosfericas reales de El Cairo, Egipto. El sistema de medicion usado en el estudio comprende un sistema de adquisicion de datos, una computadora, una memoria electronica y una estacion climatologica. Los resultados experimentales indican que el reflector plano

  9. Environmental and exergy benefit of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassani, Samir; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, Saad; Taylor, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental and ExPBT analysis of different PV/T configurations is presented. • The exergy payback time of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is about 2 years. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is a reliable solution for pollution prevention. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is highly recommended at high solar concentration. - Abstract: Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems, which produce both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously, represent a method to achieve very high conversion rates of sunlight into useful energy. In recent years, nanofluids have been proposed as efficient coolants and optical filter for PV/T systems. Aim of this paper is to theoretically analyze the life cycle exergy of three different configurations of nanofluids-based PV/T hybrid systems, and compare their performance to a standard PV and PV/T system. Electrical and thermal performance of the analyzed solar collectors was investigated numerically. The life cycle exergy analysis revealed that the nanofluids-based PV/T system showed the best performance compared to a standard PV and PV/T systems. At the optimum value of solar concentration C, nanofluid-based PV/T configuration with optimized optical and thermal properties produces ∼1.3 MW h/m 2 of high-grade exergy annually with the lowest exergy payback time of 2 years, whereas these are ∼0.36, ∼0.79 MW h/m 2 and 3.48, 2.55 years for standard PV and PV/T systems, respectively. In addition, the nanofluids-based PV/T system can prevent the emissions of about 448 kg CO 2 eq m −2 yr −1 . Overall, it was found that the nanofluids-based PV/T with optimized optical and thermal properties has potential for further development in a high-concentration solar system.

  10. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T system against conventional photovoltaic (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the overall field system involved 15 stand-alone PV panels and 15 retrofitted PV/T panels. The laboratory testing results demonstrated the PV/T panel could achieve the electrical efficiency of about 16.8% (relatively 5% improvement comparing with the stand-alone PV panel, and yield an extra amount of heat with thermal efficiency of nearly 65%. The field testing results indicated that the hybrid PV/T panel could enhance the electrical return of PV panels by nearly 3.5%, and increase the overall energy output by nearly 324.3%. Further opportunities and challenges were then discussed from aspects of different PV/T stakeholders to accelerate the development. It is expected that such technology could become a significant solution to yield more electricity, offset heating load freely and reduce carbon footprint in contemporary energy environment.

  11. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key...

  12. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  13. Optimal design of PV and HP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo

    2015-01-01

    Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution is descr...... that the thermal storage with a BT is a better investment than a PV system without HP or no investment. Furthermore, it showed that the optimization model developed in this project is capable of finding the optimal combination of component sizes based on our data.......Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution...... is described, where the thermal energy is stored in a buffer tank (BT) capable of dispersing heat to either the heating system of a house or a hot water tank, for later use. The thermal storage solution including a BT can increase the self-consumption of residentially produced PV power and thereby shift...

  14. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed

  15. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  16. Performance Analysis of FLC Controlled PV-Wind Hybrid Power System for dc Load with Real-Time Data in Matlab, Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavan Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power system is a combination of different but complementary energy generation systems based on renewable energies. The Hybrid power system harnesses most of the power from the environmental conditions, reduces the losses and repetitive maintenance, thus improving efficiency and reliability of the system. This is achieved by proper coordination control between the Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper focuses on the implementation of Photovoltaic - Wind hybrid power system with real-time data of environmental conditions. The continuous real-time values of the solar irradiation and wind speed are obtained from the weather monitoring system at the location. The PV will be the primary source of generation during the day and wind generation can act as power conditioning. The Hybrid model is implemented in Matlab Simulink and its performance is examined under variable environmental conditions with a variable resistive load. A scale down experiment set-up of PV-Wind hybrid system is utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed control logic. It has emerged from the simulation and experimental study that the hybrid system implemented with the real-time data maintains the output voltage constant irrespective of environmental conditions and load condition.

  17. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi M El-Helw

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB converter for Photovoltaic (PV arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system.

  18. Performance parameters of a standalone PV plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fathi, Amine; Nkhaili, Lahcen; Bennouna, Amin; Outzourhit, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We described in details a photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (Essaouira Morocco – 7.2 kWp). • We presented the results of monitoring and some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve. • We discussed the energy management of the plant which is based on the droop mode control. • We presented and discussed the yields and the performance ratio of the plant. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed description of a 7.2 kWp photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (province of Essaouira in Morocco). This plant supplies 16 households with electricity through a local grid that was installed for this purpose. The results of monitoring some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve, the yields and the performance ratio are presented and discussed. The performance ratio of the PV plant varied between 33% and 70.2%. The low values of this parameter are mainly attributed to the way the battery inverter manages the energy flow

  19. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  20. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  1. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhehan

    processing technique based on discrete wavelet transformation (DWT), the first attempt is devised, which extracts the features of both line-to-line (L-L) and line-to-ground (L-G) faults and employs a fuzzy inference system (FIS) for the decision-making stage of fault detection. This scheme is then improved as the second attempt by further studying the system's behaviors during L-L faults, extracting more efficient fault features, and devising a more advanced decision-making stage: the two-stage support vector machine (SVM). For the first time, the two-stage SVM method is proposed in this dissertation to detect L-L faults in PV system with satisfactory accuracies. Numerous simulation and experimental case studies are carried out to verify the proposed control and protection strategies. Simulation environment is set up using the PSCAD/EMTDC and Matlab/Simulink software packages. Experimental case studies are conducted in a PV-battery hybrid microgrid using the dSPACE real-time controller to demonstrate the ease of hardware implementation and the controller performance. Another small-scale grid-connected PV system is set up to verify both fault detection algorithms which demonstrate promising performances and fault detecting accuracies.

  2. Performance analysis of PV plants: Optimization for improving profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díez-Mediavilla, M.; Alonso-Tristán, C.; Rodríguez-Amigo, M.C.; García-Calderón, T.; Dieste-Velasco, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Real PV production from two 100 kW p grid-connected installations is conducted. ► Data sets on production were collected over an entire year. ► Economic results highlight the importance of properly selecting the system components. ► Performance of PV plants is directly related to improvements of all components. - Abstract: A study is conducted of real PV production from two 100 kW p grid-connected installations located in the same area, both of which experience the same fluctuations in temperature and radiation. Data sets on production were collected over an entire year and both installations were compared under various levels of radiation. The installations were assembled with mono-Si panels, mounted on the same support system, and the power supply was equal for the inverter and the measurement system; the same parameters were also employed for the wiring, and electrical losses were calculated in both cases. The results, in economic terms, highlight the importance of properly selecting the system components and the design parameters for maximum profitability.

  3. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in PV System Installation; Version 1.0, March 2015; Period of Performance, October 2014 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, C. [IBTS and Dividend Solar, Austin, TX (United States). Dividend Solar; Truitt, A. [Acuity Power Group, Denver, CO (United States); Inda, D. [Clean Power Finance, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lawrence, R. [North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners, Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lockhart, R. [Acuity Power Group, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Golden, M. [Efficiency.org and IBTS, Sausalito, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The following Photovoltaics Installation Best Practices Guide is one of several work products developed by the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group, which works to open capital market investment. SAPC membership includes over 450 leading solar developers, financiers and capital managers, law firms, rating agencies, accounting and engineering firms, and other stakeholders engaged in solar asset deployment. SAPC activities are directed toward foundational elements necessary to pool project cash flows into tradable securities: standardization of power purchase and lease contracts for residential and commercial end customers; development of performance and credit data sets to facilitate investor due diligence activities; comprehension of risk perceived by rating agencies; and the development of best practice guides for PV system installation and operations and maintenance (O&M) in order to encourage high-quality system deployment and operation that may improve lifetime project performance and energy production. This PV Installation Best Practices Guide was developed through the SAPC Installation Best Practices subcommittee, a subgroup of SAPC comprised of a wide array of solar industry leaders in numerous fields of practice. The guide was developed over roughly one year and eight months of direct engagement by the subcommittee and two working group comment periods.

  4. Optimum Design Of On Grid Pv System Using Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mansour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fossil fuel is a main issue in the world due to the increase of fossil fuel cost and the depletion of the fossil fuel with continuous increasing demand on electricity. With continuous decrease of PV panels cost it is interesting to consider generation of electricity from PV system. To provide electric energy to a load in a remote area where electric grid utility is not available or connection with grid utility is available there are two approaches of photovoltaic system PV without tracking system Fixed System and PV with tracking systems. The result shows that the energy production by using PV with tracking system generates more energy in comparison with fixed panels system. However the cost per produced KWH is less in case of using fixed panels. This is the backbone in choice between two approaches of photovoltaic system. In this work a system design and cost analysis for two approaches of photovoltaic system are considered.

  5. Simplified Method for Modeling the Impact of Arbitrary Partial Shading Conditions on PV Array Performance: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris

    2015-09-15

    It is often difficult to model the effects of partial shading conditions on PV array performance, as shade losses are nonlinear and depend heavily on a system's particular configuration. This work describes and implements a simple method for modeling shade loss: a database of shade impact results (loss percentages), generated using a validated, detailed simulation tool and encompassing a wide variety of shading scenarios. The database is intended to predict shading losses in crystalline silicon PV arrays and is accessed using basic inputs generally available in any PV simulation tool. Performance predictions using the database are within 1-2% of measured data for several partially shaded PV systems, and within 1% of those predicted by the full, detailed simulation tool on an annual basis. The shade loss database shows potential to considerably improve performance prediction for partially shaded PV systems.

  6. Tropical field performance of dual-pass PV tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, A. Noor; Ya'acob, M. E.; Anuar, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    Solar Photovoltaic technology has become the preferable solution in many countries around the globe to solve the ever increasing energy demand of the consumers. In line with the consumer need, food processing technology has huge potentials of integration with the renewable energy resources especially in drying process which consumes the highest electricity loads. Traditionally, the solar dryer technology was applied in agriculture and food industries utilizing the sun's energy for drying process, but this is highly dependable on the weather condition and surrounding factors. This work shares some field performance of the new design of portable dual-pass PV tray dryer for drying crops in an enclosed system. The dual-pass PV tray dryer encompass a lightweight aluminium box structure with dimensions of 1.1m (L) x 0.6m (W) x 0.2m (H) and can hold a load capacity of 300g - 3kg of crop depending on the types of the crops. Experiments of field performance monitoring were conducted in October -November 2016 which justifies a considerable reduction in time and crops quality improvement when using the dual-pass PV tray dryer as compared to direct-sun drying.

  7. The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy-active building envelope material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, H.; Milko, J.; Danielewicz, J.; Sayegh, M.A.; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M.; Ramos, J.B.; Lester, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel flat heat pipe design has been developed and utilised as a building envelope and thermal solar collector with and without (PV) bonded directly to its surface. The design of the new solar collector has been validated through full scale testing in Cardiff, UK where solar/thermal, uncooled PV and PV/T tests were carried out on three identical systems, simultaneously. The tests showed a solar/thermal energy conversion efficiency of around 64% for the collector with no PV and 50% for the system with the PV layer on it. The effect of cooling on the solar/electrical energy conversion efficiency was also investigated and an efficiency increase of about 15% was recorded for the cooled PV system due to the provided homogenous cooling. The new flat heat pipe solar collector is given the name “heat mat” and, in addition to being an efficient solar collector type, it is also designed to convert a building envelope materials to become energy-active. A full size roof that utilise this new building envelope material is reported in this paper to demonstrate the way this new collector is integrated as a building envelope material to form a roof. A thermal absorption test, in a controlled environment, from the ambient to the heat mat with no solar radiation is also reported. The test has proved the heat mat as an efficient thermal absorber from the ambient to the intermediate fluid that deliver the heat energy to the heat pump system. - Highlights: • A new flat heat pipe PV/T system that can be used as building materials is reported. • The new solar collector enhanced the performance of the PV by about 15%. • The new solar collector is capable of absorbing heat from ambient efficiently. • The new system is efficient from the solar/thermal conversion point of view.

  8. Industry consultation on grid connection of small PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, J.; Thorneycroft, J.; Cotterell, M.; Gambro, S.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the results of consultation within the PV industry and the electricity supply industry concerning guidelines for the connection of small PV systems to the electricity network. (author)

  9. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Reviewof Current Practice in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-10-06

    In the U.S., the increasing financial support for customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems provided through publicly-funded incentive programs has heightened concerns about the long-term performance of these systems. Given the barriers that customers face to ensuring that their PV systems perform well, and the responsibility that PV incentive programs bear to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should, and often do, play a critical role in addressing PV system performance. To provide a point of reference for assessing the current state of the art, and to inform program design efforts going forward, we examine the approaches to encouraging PV system performance used by 32 prominent PV incentive programs in the U.S. We identify eight general strategies or groups of related strategies that these programs have used to address factors that affect performance, and describe key implementation details. Based on this review, we then offer recommendations for how PV incentive programs can be effectively designed to mitigate potential performance issues.

  10. Design and performance test of CPC-PV/TE hybrid power generation system in greenhouse.%温室聚光光伏/温差联合发电系统的设计与性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立舒; 李琳; 梁秋艳; 丁修增; 王博林

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of agricultural science and technology, various types of environmental testing equipments and production facilities consume a lot of energy in greenhouse. Therefore, it is important to design a high-efficiency greenhouse power supply device. At the same time, the energy crisis in the 21st century and the air pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels become serious. It can not wait to solve the environmental pollution. Therefore, increasing the development and utilization of solar energy is imminent. Solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable energy, and the study of solar energy development and utilization has become a hot issue nowadays, but in general, its efficiency is low. In order to solve the problem of large fossil energy consumption in the greenhouse and the current inefficient use of solar energy, compound parabolic concentrator-photovoltaic / thermoelectric hybrid power generation system (CPC-PV/TE) based on the characteristics of greenhouse in Northeast China is proposed in the present paper. A system contains CPC, PV/TE hybrid system and flat heat pipe. CPC converges light to the surface of photovoltaic cells. It enhances light irradiation intensity. Photovoltaic cells use the photovoltaic effect principle to generate electricity. Attached to photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric power generator modules convert the excess heat generated by photovoltaic cells power generation to electricity power simultaneously. Flat heat pipe is used as heat transfer element, and then a certain amount of water is used to effectively transfer the rest of the heat. In order to express the performance of CPC-PV/TE hybrid power generation system accurately, a comprehensive energy transfer model has been established, and the efficiency of CPC-PV/TE hybrid system and PV or TE module alone under different levels of irradiation and various water flows has been discussed. The results show that the faster the cooling water flows, the higher the

  11. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  12. PV (photovoltaics) performance evaluation and simulation-based energy yield prediction for tropical buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Esmail M.; Lee, Siew Eang; Manthapuri, Sumanth; Yi, Wang; Deb, Chirag

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution and climate change increased the importance of renewable energy resources like solar energy in the last decades. Rack-mounted PhotoVoltaics (PV) and Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics (BIPV) are the most common photovoltaic systems which convert incident solar radiation on façade or surrounding area to electricity. In this paper the performance of different solar cell types is evaluated for the tropical weather of Singapore. As a case study, on-site measured data of PV systems implemented in a zero energy building in Singapore, is analyzed. Different types of PV systems (silicon wafer and thin film) have been installed on rooftop, façade, car park shelter, railing and etc. The impact of different solar cell generations, arrays environmental conditions (no shading, dappled shading, full shading), orientation (South, North, East or West facing) and inclination (between PV module and horizontal direction) is investigated on performance of modules. In the second stage of research, the whole PV systems in the case study are simulated in EnergyPlus energy simulation software with several PV performance models including Simple, Equivalent one-diode and Sandia. The predicted results by different models are compared with measured data and the validated model is used to provide simulation-based energy yield predictions for wide ranges of scenarios. It has been concluded that orientation of low-slope rooftop PV has negligible impact on annual energy yield but in case of PV external sunshade, east façade and panel slope of 30–40° are the most suitable location and inclination. - Highlights: • Characteristics of PV systems in tropics are analyzed in depth. • The ambiguity toward amorphous panel energy yield in tropics is discussed. • Equivalent-one diode and Sandia models can fairly predict the energy yield. • A general guideline is provided to estimate the energy yield of PV systems in tropics

  13. PV System Component Fault and Failure Compilation and Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Lavrova, Olga; Gooding, Renee Lynne

    2018-02-01

    This report describes data collection and analysis of solar photovoltaic (PV) equipment events, which consist of faults and fa ilures that occur during the normal operation of a distributed PV system or PV power plant. We present summary statistics from locations w here maintenance data is being collected at various intervals, as well as reliability statistics gathered from that da ta, consisting of fault/failure distributions and repair distributions for a wide range of PV equipment types.

  14. Models for a stand-alone PV system[Photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Hansen, L.H.; Bindner, H.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents a number of models for modelling and simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system with a battery bank verified against a system installed at Risoe National Laboratory. The work has been supported by the Danish Ministry of Energy, as a part of the activities in the Solar Energy Centre Denmark. The study is carried out at Risoe National Laboratory with the main purpose to establish a library of simple mathematical models for each individual element of a stand-alone PV system, namely solar cells, battery, controller, inverter and load. The models for PV module and battery are based on the model descriptions found in the literature. The battery model is developed at UMASS and is known as the Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM). The other component models in the PV system are based on simple electrical knowledge. The implementation is done using Matlab/Simulink, a simulation program that provides a graphical interface for building models as modular block diagrams. The non-linear behaviour of the battery, observed in the measurements, is investigated and compared to the KiBaM model's performance. A set of linear Black box models are estimated based on the battery measurements. The performance of the best linear Black box model is compared to the KiBaM model. A validation of each of the implemented mathematical model is performed by an interactive analysis and comparison between simulation results and measurements, acquired from the stand-alone PV system at Risoe. (au)

  15. Development of solar energy for efficient PV application systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Aziz

    2006-01-01

    It is essential to increase research, development, awareness for the application of solar energy as an important source of life. The cost of PV systems has decreased due to the improvement in techniques of manufacturing and performance. In reality, photovoltaic is one technology that allows the production of electricity with only two components: technological, which is the PV module and environmental, which is the sun. The knowledge of the components market represents a critical parameters in establishing sustainable industrial applications on different activity sectors. This paper illustrates the advantages of using photovoltaic in rural area and their economic and environmental impact. In regions where petroleum or other fossil fuels are not available, and where these remote area are not connected to the electrical grid, there is a strong and increasing demand for the technologies related to photovoltaic application systems. Water extracting and pumping, telecommunication and lighting, irrigation systems, electrical driven cars and trucks represent some of these important applications. The paper also develops critical skills for the most useful PV application in Egypt and provide to the industry a development forecast for the new technology. Then an initiation contacts and cooperation on PV application between industries specially in North Africa Middle East in order to improve the reliability and to get cheaper systems.(Author)

  16. Analysis of measured and simulated performance data of a 3.2 kWp grid-connected PV system in Port Elizabeth, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, D.; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons between actual measured and simulated performance of a grid-connected PV system. • Simulation using measured climate data sets gave good monthly energy yield comparisons to the measured. • The measured performance ratio of 84.3% shows vast solar energy potential in Eastern Cape region of South Africa. • Better annual specific yield is observed in this study compared to other studies internationally. - Abstract: This paper analyzes and compares the actual measured and simulated performance of a 3.2 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system. The system is located at the Outdoor Research Facility (34.01°S, 25.67°E) at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), South Africa. The system consists of 14 poly crystalline silicon modules connected in two strings of 7 series-connected modules, each facing north at a fixed tilt of 34°. The data presented in this study were measured in the year 2013, where the system supplied a total of 5757 kW h to the local electric utility grid. The performance of the system was simulated using PVsyst software using measured and Meteonorm derived climate data sets (solar radiation, ambient temperature and wind speed). The comparison between measured and simulated energy yield are discussed. Although, both simulation results were similar, better comparison between measured and predicted monthly energy yield is observed with simulation performed using measured weather data at the site. The measured performance ratio in the present study is 84% which is slightly higher than values of 74%, 81.5%, 67.4%, 70% and 64.5% reported is Khatkar-Kalan (India), Dublin (Ireland), Crete (Greece), Karnataka (India) and Malaga (Spain), respectively

  17. On-line monitoring system of PV array based on internet of things technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Lin, P. J.; Zhou, H. F.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Su, F. P.

    2017-11-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) Technology is used to inspect photovoltaic (PV) array which can greatly improve the monitoring, performance and maintenance of the PV array. In order to efficiently realize the remote monitoring of PV operating environment, an on-line monitoring system of PV array based on IoT is designed in this paper. The system includes data acquisition, data gateway and PV monitoring centre (PVMC) website. Firstly, the DSP-TMS320F28335 is applied to collect indicators of PV array using sensors, then the data are transmitted to data gateway through ZigBee network. Secondly, the data gateway receives the data from data acquisition part, obtains geographic information via GPS module, and captures the scenes around PV array via USB camera, then uploads them to PVMC website. Finally, the PVMC website based on Laravel framework receives all data from data gateway and displays them with abundant charts. Moreover, a fault diagnosis approach for PV array based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is applied in PVMC. Once fault occurs, a user alert can be sent via E-mail. The designed system enables users to browse the operating conditions of PV array on PVMC website, including electrical, environmental parameters and video. Experimental results show that the presented monitoring system can efficiently real-time monitor the PV array, and the fault diagnosis approach reaches a high accuracy of 97.5%.

  18. Step-Up Partial Power DC-DC Converters for Two-Stage PV Systems with Interleaved Current Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Wladimir Zapata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a partial power converter allowing us to obtain, with a single DC-DC converter, the same feature as the classical interleaved operation of two converters. More precisely, the proposed topology performs similarly as the input-parallel output-series (IPOS configuration reducing the current ripple at the input of the system and dividing the individual converters power rating, compared to a single converter. The proposed topology consists of a partial DC-DC converter processing only a fraction of the total power, thus allowing high efficiency. Experimental results are provided to validate the proposed converter topology with a Flyback-based 100 W test bench with a transformer turns ratio n 1 = n 2 . Experimental results show high performances reducing the input current ripple around 30 % , further increasing the conversion efficiency.

  19. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  20. Self-control system in storage unit of PV plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaban, Saad; Mohmoud, Ali [Hadhramout Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Mukalla (Yemen)

    2000-04-01

    A new system for self-controlling of storage batteries being charged by PV plants has been developed. This provides enhanced system reliability, lower system cost, and simpler operation for the user. In this system, the only requirement is to design and select PV panels so that their voltage-sensitive region (on the I-V curve) coincides with that required for a simpler remote PV plant and for long periods. (Author)

  1. Performance analysis of PV panel under varying surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Tripathi Abhishek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of PV panel has an adverse impact on its performance. The several electrical parameters of PV panel, such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current, power output and fill factor depends on the surface temperature of PV panel. In the present study, an experimental work was carried out to investigate the influence of PV panel surface temperature on its electrical parameters. The results obtained from this experimental study show a significant reduction in the performance of PV panel with an increase in panel surface temperature. A 5W PV panel experienced a 0.4% decrease in open circuit voltage for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. Similarly, there was 0.6% and 0.32% decrease in maximum power output and in fill factor, respectively, for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. On the other hand, the short circuit current increases with the increase in surface temperature at the rate of 0.09%/°C.

  2. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  3. Intelligent control of PV system on the basis of the fuzzy recurrent neuronet*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the fuzzy recurrent neuronet for PV system’s control. Based on the PV system’s state, the fuzzy recurrent neural net tracks the maximum power point under random perturbations. The validity and advantages of the proposed intelligent control of PV system are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed intelligent control of PV system achieves real-time control speed and competitive performance, as compared to a classical control scheme on the basis of the perturbation & observation algorithm.

  4. Evaluating the approach to reduce the overrun cost of grid connected PV systems for the Spanish electricity sector: Performance analysis of the period 2010–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoz, Jordi de la; Martín, Helena; Ballart, Jordi; Monjo, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cost of the Spanish PV promotion policy from 1998 to 2008 is formulated. • The range of scenarios for the cost evolution is determined. • The PV legal measures addressed to reduce the cost are formulated. • The savings range for the Spanish electricity sector has been determined. • The profitability loss of the facilities due to cost containment measures is assessed. - Abstract: A methodology for calculating the overrun cost to the Spanish electricity system caused by the large overshoot of the PV power targets under the RD 661/2007 is here presented. The elements influencing the cost have been identified, which has allowed proposing different scenarios for its possible evolution. Applying the same methodology, the range of savings achievable by the new energy policy developed in 2010–2012 to reduce this cost has been quantified. Inverting the point of view, the profitability reduction that these energy measures might have caused on the PV facilities has been also assessed. The conclusions obtained from the case of four specific facilities may give some insight about the general economic effects on the installations of the 2010–2012 new energy policy, and the consequences for the investors when the inadequacies of the regulatory schemes are tried to be corrected ex-post

  5. Experimental and numerical performance analysis of a converging channel heat exchanger for PV cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, Ahmer A.B.; Bahaidarah, Haitham M.S.; Gandhidasan, Palanichamy; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of varying converging angle on temperature characteristics of PV surface studied. • Optical, CFD, thermal, and electrical models developed for the analysis. • Experimental measurements carried out for two configurations for June and December. • Using this cooling technique, maximum cell temperature reduction was 57.8%. • Maximum percentage improvement in power output was 35.5%. - Abstract: An experimental and numerical investigation of a cooling technique called as converging channel cooling intended to achieve low and uniform temperature on the surface of PV panel is presented in this paper. Experimental evaluation for an uncooled PV system and a converging channel cooled PV system was carried out subjected to the hot climate of Saudi Arabia for the month of June and December. Detailed modeling was performed using numerical analysis to investigate the effect of changing the converging angle on the thermal characteristics of the PV system. Based on the developed model, two degrees angle showed the best performance in terms of temperature distribution and average cell temperature with a standard deviation of 0.91 °C. A comprehensive system model was developed to assess the performance of PV systems numerically by coupling the optical, radiation, thermal, computational fluid dynamics, and electrical model. Thermal measurements for an uncooled PV showed cell temperature as high as 71.2 °C and 48.3 °C for the month of June and December, respectively. By employing converging cooling, cell temperature was reduced significantly to 45.1 °C for June and to 36.4 °C for December. Maximum percentage improvement in power output was 35.5% whereas maximum percentage increase in the conversion efficiency was 36.1% when compared to the performance of an uncooled PV system. For cost feasibility of an uncooled and cooled PV system, levelized cost of energy (LCE) analysis was performed using the annual energy yield simulation for both systems. LCE

  6. Fault Transient Analysis and Protection Performance Evaluation within a Large-scale PV Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a short-circuit test within a large-scale PV power plant with a total capacity of 850MWp is discussed. The fault currents supplied by the PV generation units are presented and analysed. According to the fault behaviour, the existing protection coordination principles with the plant are considered and their performances are evaluated. Moreover, these protections are examined in simulation platform under different operating situations. A simple measure with communication system is proposed to deal with the foreseeable problem about the current protection scheme in the PV power plant.

  7. Thermal modelling of PV module performance under high ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab; Akuffo, F.O. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    When predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) generators, the actual performance is typically lower than test results conducted under standard test conditions because the radiant energy absorbed in the module under normal operation raises the temperature of the cell and other multilayer components. The increase in temperature translates to a lower conversion efficiency of the solar cells. In order to address these discrepancies, a thermal model of a characteristic PV module was developed to assess and predict its performance under real field-conditions. The PV module consisted of monocrystalline silicon cells in EVA between a glass cover and a tedlar backing sheet. The EES program was used to compute the equilibrium temperature profile in the PV module. It was shown that heat is dissipated towards the bottom and the top of the module, and that its temperature can be much higher than the ambient temperature. Modelling results indicate that 70-75 per cent of the absorbed solar radiation is dissipated from the solar cells as heat, while 4.7 per cent of the solar energy is absorbed in the glass cover and the EVA. It was also shown that the operating temperature of the PV module decreases with increased wind speed. 2 refs.

  8. A Standalone PV System with a Hybrid P&O MPPT Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a maximum power point tracking (MPPT design for a photovoltaic (PV system using a hybrid optimization technique is proposed. For maximum power transfer, maximum harvestable power from a PV cell in a dynamically changing surrounding should be known. The proposed technique is compared with the conventional Perturb and Observe (P&O technique. A comparative analysis of power-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of a PV cell with and without the MPPT module when connected to the grid was performed in SIMULINK, to demonstrate the increment in the efficiency of the PV module after using the MPPT module.

  9. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics; PV-Obelisk Orientierungssystem mit Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed.

  10. A Combined Optical, Thermal and Electrical Performance Study of a V-Trough PV System—Experimental and Analytical Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham M. Bahaidarah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to achieve higher efficiency of a PV system while reducing of the cost of energy generation. Concentration photovoltaics was employed in the present case as it uses low cost reflectors to enhance the efficiency of the PV system and simultaneously reduces the cost of electricity generation. For this purpose a V-trough integrated with the PV system was employed for low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV. Since the electrical output of the concentrating PV system is significantly affected by the temperature of the PV cells, the motivation of the research also included studying the ability to actively cool PV cells to achieve the maximum benefit. The optical, thermal and electrical performance of the V-trough PV system was theoretically modeled and validated with experimental results. Optical modeling of V-trough was carried out to estimate the amount of enhanced absorbed radiation. Due to increase in the absorbed radiation the module temperature was also increased which was predicted by thermal model. Active cooling techniques were studied and the effect of cooling was analyzed on the performance of V-trough PV system. With absorbed radiation and module temperature as input parameters, electrical modeling was carried out and the maximum power was estimated. For the V-trough PV system, experiments were performed for validating the numerical models and very good agreement was found between the two.

  11. Modelling PV modules' performance in Sahelian climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C.; Akuffo, F.O. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a thermo-optical model designed to evaluate the temperature of a photovoltaic (PV) module in an effort to design a cost-effective cooling system for PV modules operating under high ambient temperatures. The power output of a PV module is greatly reduced when its temperature rises. This loss in efficiency is particularly significant in Sahelian regions where PV modules are subjected to high solar radiation intensities and high ambient temperatures. The newly developed thermo-optical model confirms that most of the heat in a PV module is generated in the solar cell. The results of the analysis include: the optical absorption, reflection and transmission of the solar radiation incident on the module; the temperature distribution in the module; and, the heat transfer through the top and bottom of the module. At incidence angles of 60 degrees, approximately three-quarters of the heat is generated in the solar cell. The optical efficiency is 88.44 per cent at normal incidence angle and 82.48 per cent when the incidence angle is 60 degrees. It was determined that the cooling system should be located as close as possible to the solar cell in order to increase the thermal heat flow from the cell. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  13. Theoretical investigation of the energy performance of a novel MPCM (Microencapsulated Phase Change Material) slurry based PV/T module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zhongzhu; Zhao, Xudong; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xingxing; Ali, Samira; Tan, Junyi

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the paper is to present a theoretical investigation into the energy performance of a novel PV/T module that employs the MPCM (Micro-encapsulated Phase Change Material) slurry as the working fluid. This involved (1) development of a dedicated mathematical model and computer program; (2) validation of the model by using the published data; (3) prediction of the energy performance of the MPCM (Microencapsulated Phase Change Material) slurry based PV/T module; and (4) investigation of the impacts of the slurry flow state, concentration ratio, Reynolds number and slurry serpentine size onto the energy performance of the PV/T module. It was found that the established model, based on the Hottel–Whillier assumption, is able to predict the energy performance of the MPCM slurry based PV/T system at a very good accuracy, with 0.3–0.4% difference compared to a validated model. Analyses of the simulation results indicated that laminar flow is not a favorite flow state in terms of the energy efficiency of the PV/T module. Instead, turbulent flow is a desired flow state that has potential to enhance the energy performance of PV/T module. Under the turbulent flow condition, increasing the slurry concentration ratio led to the reduced PV cells' temperature and increased thermal, electrical and overall efficiency of the PV/T module, as well as increased flow resistance. As a result, the net efficiency of the PV/T module reached the peak level at the concentration ratio of 5% at a specified Reynolds number of 3,350. Remaining all other parameters fixed, increasing the diameter of the serpentine piping led to the increased slurry mass flow rate, decreased PV cells' temperature and consequently, increased thermal, electrical, overall and net efficiencies of the PV/T module. In overall, the MPCM slurry based PV/T module is a new, highly efficient solar thermal and power configuration, which has potential to help reduce fossil fuel consumption and carbon emission to

  14. Simulation of Power Produced by a Building Added PV System in Indonesia using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a PV system will be simulated using virtual reality software for PV system simulations -called VR4PV - to show the effectiveness of the modelling of PV systems on buildings which are placed in the tropics. The PV system used for this study has been installed in Papua, Indonesia and

  15. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  16. Performance enhancement of PV cells through micro-channel cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of a PV cell is strongly dependent on its surface temperature. The current study is focused to achieve maximum efficiency of PV cells even in scorching temperatures in hot climates like Pakistan where the cell surface temperatures can even rise up to around 80 ℃. The study includes both the CFD and real time experimental investigations of a solar panel using micro channel cooling. Initially, CFD analysis is performed by developing a 3D model of a Mono-Crystalline cell with micro-channels to analyze cell surface temperature distribution at different irradiance and water flow rates. Afterwards, an experimental setup is developed for performance investigations under the real conditions of an open climate of a Pakistan's city, Taxila. Two 35W panels are manufactured for the experiments; one is based on the standard manufacturing procedure while other cell is developed with 4mm thick aluminum sheet having micro-channels of cross-section of 1mm by 1mm. The whole setup also includes different sensors for the measurement of solar irradiance, cell power, surface temperature and water flow rates. The experimental results show that PV cell surface temperature drop of around 15 ℃ is achieved with power increment of around 14% at maximum applied water flow rate of 3 LPM. Additionally, a good agreement is also found between CFD and experimental results. Therefore, that study clearly shows that a significant performance improvement of PV cells can be achieved through the proposed cell cooling technique.

  17. Comparison and selection of off-grid PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, Andrey Yu.; Lobachevsky, Yakov P.; Shepovalova, Olga V.

    2018-05-01

    This work deals with comparison, evaluation and selection of PV systems of the same type based on their technical parameters either indicated in their technical specifications or calculated ones. Stand-alone and grid backed up photoelectric systems have been considered. General requirements for photoelectric system selection and evaluation have been presented that ensure system operability and required efficiency in operation conditions. Generic principles and definition of photoelectric systems characteristics have been considered. The described method is mainly targeted at PV engineering personnel and private customers purchasing PV systems. It can be also applied in the course of project contests, tenders, etc.

  18. A Sensorless Power Reserve Control Strategy for Two-Stage Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the still increasing penetration of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in grid regulations. A power reserve control, where namely the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required for grid...... support. In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize the power reserve for two-stage grid-connected PV systems is proposed. The proposed solution routinely employs a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control to estimate the available PV power and a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control...... performed on a 3-kW two-stage single-phase grid-connected PV system, where the power reserve control is achieved upon demands....

  19. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper. PMID:26230694

  20. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Molina-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors. Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  1. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C

    2015-07-29

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  2. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  3. PVSOFT99 - Photovoltaic (PV) System Sizing And Simulation Software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program (PVSOFT99) has been developed for sizing and simulation of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. Two distinct PV sizing algorithms, one based on the worst case and the other on the reliability concept, have been incorporated in the program. The reliability concept is generalized in that variation of ...

  4. Performance of grid-tied PV facilities: A case study based on real data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díez-Mediavilla, M.; Dieste-Velasco, M.I.; Rodríguez-Amigo, M.C.; García-Calderón, T.; Alonso-Tristán, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new procedure to analyse the performance of PV facilities is presented. • It only requires limited amounts of data that are easily sourced. • Data sets on production were collected over two complete years. • The transformerless inverter outperforms the isolated inverter. - Abstract: A new procedure is presented to analyse the performance of grid-tied PV facilities. It needs limited amounts of data that are easily sourced and is based on knowledge of the analysed system and its mode of operation. The procedure is applied, in a case study, to compare real PV production at two 100 kW p grid-connected PV installations. Located in the same geographical region, the installation of these two facilities followed the same construction criteria – PV panels, panel support system and wiring – and the facilities were exposed to the same atmospheric temperature and solar radiation. They differ with regard to their inverter technology: one facility uses an inverter with an integrated transformer system and the other uses a transformerless inverter. The results show that the transformerless inverter system performed better than the isolated system by a factor of 1.2%, which, in economic terms, represents more than 2000 €/year

  5. Performance Evaluation of PV Panel Under Dusty Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar Tripathi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of PV panel depends on the incoming sunlight on its surface. The accumulated airborne dust particles on panel surface creates a barrier in the path of sunlight and panel surface, which significantly reduces the amount of solar radiation falling on the panel surface. The present study shows a significant reduction in short circuit current and power output of PV panel due to dust deposition on its surface, whereas the reduction in open circuit voltage is not much prominent. This study has been carried in the field as well as in the laboratory. The reduction in maximum power output of PV panel for both the studies ensures a linear relation with the dust deposition on its surface. In the field study, the reduction in the power output due to 12.86gm of dust deposition on the panel surface was 43.18%, whereas in the laboratory study it was 44.75% due to 11gm of dust deposition Article History: Received July 10th 2017; Received in revised form Sept 15th 2017x; Accepted 1st Oct 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tripathi, A.K., Aruna, M. and Murthy, Ch.,S.N. (2017. Performance Evaluation of PV Panel Under Dusty Condition. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(3, 225-233. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.225-233

  6. Sizing procedures for sun-tracking PV system with batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerek Ömer Nezih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deciding optimum number of PV panels, wind turbines and batteries (i.e. a complete renewable energy system for minimum cost and complete energy balance is a challenging and interesting problem. In the literature, some rough data models or limited recorded data together with low resolution hourly averaged meteorological values are used to test the sizing strategies. In this study, active sun tracking and fixed PV solar power generation values of ready-to-serve commercial products are recorded throughout 2015–2016. Simultaneously several outdoor parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wind speed/direction, pressure are recorded with high resolution. The hourly energy consumption values of a standard 4-person household, which is constructed in our campus in Eskisehir, Turkey, are also recorded for the same period. During sizing, novel parametric random process models for wind speed, temperature, solar radiation, energy demand and electricity generation curves are achieved and it is observed that these models provide sizing results with lower LLP through Monte Carlo experiments that consider average and minimum performance cases. Furthermore, another novel cost optimization strategy is adopted to show that solar tracking PV panels provide lower costs by enabling reduced number of installed batteries. Results are verified over real recorded data.

  7. Sizing procedures for sun-tracking PV system with batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezih Gerek, Ömer; Başaran Filik, Ümmühan; Filik, Tansu

    2017-11-01

    Deciding optimum number of PV panels, wind turbines and batteries (i.e. a complete renewable energy system) for minimum cost and complete energy balance is a challenging and interesting problem. In the literature, some rough data models or limited recorded data together with low resolution hourly averaged meteorological values are used to test the sizing strategies. In this study, active sun tracking and fixed PV solar power generation values of ready-to-serve commercial products are recorded throughout 2015-2016. Simultaneously several outdoor parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wind speed/direction, pressure) are recorded with high resolution. The hourly energy consumption values of a standard 4-person household, which is constructed in our campus in Eskisehir, Turkey, are also recorded for the same period. During sizing, novel parametric random process models for wind speed, temperature, solar radiation, energy demand and electricity generation curves are achieved and it is observed that these models provide sizing results with lower LLP through Monte Carlo experiments that consider average and minimum performance cases. Furthermore, another novel cost optimization strategy is adopted to show that solar tracking PV panels provide lower costs by enabling reduced number of installed batteries. Results are verified over real recorded data.

  8. Variations of PV Panel Performance Installed over a Vegetated Roof and a Conventional Black Roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J. Alshayeb

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The total worldwide photovoltaic (PV capacity has been growing from about 1 GW at the beginning of the twenty-first century to over 300 GW in 2016 and is expected to reach 740 GW by 2022. PV panel efficiency is reported by PV manufacturers based on laboratory testing under Standard Testing Condition with a specific temperature of 25 °C and solar irradiation of 1000 W/m2. This research investigated the thermal interactions between the building roof surface and PV panels by examining the differences in PV panel temperature and energy output for those installed over a green roof (PV-Green and those installed over a black roof (PV-Black. A year-long experimental study was conducted over the roof of an educational building with roof mounted PV panels with a system capacity of 4.3 kW to measure PV underside surface temperature (PV-UST, ambient air temperature between PV panel and building roof (PV-AT, and PV energy production (PV-EP. The results show that during the summer the PV-Green consistently recorded lower PV-UST and PV-AT temperatures and more PV-EP than PV-Black. The average hourly PV-EP difference was about 0.045 kWh while the maximum PV-EP difference was about 0.075 kWh, which represents roughly a 3.3% and 5.3% increase in PV-EP. For the entire study period, EP-Green produced 19.4 kWh more energy, which represents 1.4% more than EP-Black.

  9. Validation of PV-RPM Code in the System Advisor Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes efforts made by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to validate the SNL developed PV Reliability Performance Model (PV - RPM) algorithm as implemented in the NREL System Advisor Model (SAM). The PV - RPM model is a library of functions that estimates component failure and repair in a photovoltaic system over a desired simulation period. The failure and repair distributions in this paper are probabilistic representations of component failure and repair based on data collected by SNL for a PV power plant operating in Arizona. The validation effort focuses on whether the failure and repair dist ributions used in the SAM implementation result in estimated failures that match the expected failures developed in the proof - of - concept implementation. Results indicate that the SAM implementation of PV - RPM provides the same results as the proof - of - concep t implementation, indicating the algorithms were reproduced successfully.

  10. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  11. Dynamic Performance Evaluation of PV Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruilin; Jiang, Anwen; Chen, Hongjin

    2018-03-01

    Topics on adaptability of Grid-connected photovoltaic systems (GCPVS) under sag conditions has been proposed. A basic low-voltage-ride-through (LVRT) strategy widely used in engineering practice is taken in this paper and manages to ride through different sag conditions. The role of hardware protection has been discussed in detail. By simulation validated that the proposed GCPVS have strong adaptability

  12. Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic thermal PV/T system with v-groove collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, M.; Fudholi, A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-07-01

    The use of v-groove in solar collector has a higher thermal efficiency in references. Dropping the working heat of photovoltaic panel was able to raise the electrical efficiency performance. Electrical and thermal efficiency were produced by photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system concurrently. Mathematical modeling based on steady-state thermal analysis of PV/T system with v-groove was conducted. With matrix inversion method, the energy balance equations are explained by means of the investigative method. The comparison results show that in the PV/T system with the V-groove collector is higher temperature, thermal and electrical efficiency than other collectors.

  13. Annual analysis of heat pipe PV/T systems for domestic hot water and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Gang; Fu Huide; Ji Jie; Chow Tintai; Zhang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal system with freeze protection was proposed. ► A detailed annual simulation model for the HP-PV/T system was presented. ► Annual performance of HP-PV/T was predicted and analyzed under different condition. - Abstract: Heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (HP-PV/T) systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy. Compared with traditional water-type photovoltaic/thermal systems, HP-PV/T systems can be used in cold regions without being frozen with the aid of a carefully selected heat-pipe working fluid. The current research presents a detailed simulation model of the HP-PV/T system. Using this model, the annual electrical and thermal behavior of the HP-PV/T system used in three typical climate areas of China, namely, Hong Kong, Lhasa, and Beijing, are predicted and analyzed. Two HP-PV/T systems, with and without auxiliary heating equipment, are studied annually under four different kinds of hot-water load per unit collecting area (64.5, 77.4, 90.3, and 103.2 kg/m 2 ).

  14. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  15. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results

  16. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  17. Influence of Special Weather on Output of PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-01-01

    The output of PV system is affected by different environmental factors, therefore, it is important to study the output of PV system under different environmental conditions. Through collecting data on the spot, collecting the output of photovoltaic panels under special weather conditions, and comparing the collected data, the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions are obtained. The influence of weather factors such as temperature, humidity and irradiance on the output of photovoltaic panels was investigated.

  18. Automatic fault diagnosis in PV systems with distributed MPPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solórzano, J.; Egido, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An automatic failure diagnosis procedure for PV systems with DMPPT is presented. • The different failures diagnosed and their effects on the PV systems are described. • No use of irradiance and temperature sensors decreasing the cost of the system. • Voltage and current analysis to diagnose different failures. • Hot-spots, localized dirt, shading, module degradation and cable losses diagnosis. - Abstract: This work presents a novel procedure for fault diagnosis in PV systems with distributed maximum power point tracking at module level—power optimizers (DC/DC) or micro-inverters (DC/AC). Apart from the power benefits obtained when an irregular irradiance distribution is present, this type of systems permit the monitoring of the PV plant parameters at the module level: voltage and current at the working power point. With these parameters, a prototype diagnosis tool has been developed in Matlab and it has been experimentally verified in a real rooftop PV generator by applying different failures. The tool can diagnose the following failures: fixed object shading (with distance estimation), localized dirt, generalized dirt, possible hot-spots, module degradation and excessive losses in DC cables. In addition, it alerts the user of the power losses produced by each failure and classifies the failures by their severity. This system does not require the use of irradiance or temperature sensors, except for the generalized dirt failure, reducing the cost of installation, especially important in small PV systems

  19. Modeling and Control of DC/DC Boost Converter using K-Factor Control for MPPT of Solar PV System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangari, Adithya; Haribabu, Divyanagalakshmi; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the design of a controller for the DC/DC boost converter using K factor control, which is based on modified PI control method, for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of solar PV system. A mathematical model for boost converter based on small signal averaging approach...... is presented. Design of the passive elements of the boost converter as per the system specifications is also illustrated. The performance of the proposed K factor control method is verified with the simulations for MPPT on solar PV system at different atmospheric conditions. A new circuit based model for solar...... PV array, which includes the effect of solar insolation and temperature on PV array output, for the application in power system transient simulations, is also presented. The performance of the PV array model is verified with simulations at different atmospheric conditions. A 160W PV module from BP...

  20. Developing solar: PV solar system markets in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asali, Karim

    2002-01-01

    Governments, NGO's and UN organisations are increasingly convinced that renewable energies not only help to solve energy problems in Africa but are indispensable in alleviating regional disparities, social problems and bridging the digital gap. Still, many years after introducing high efficiency solar PV systems the necessary breakthrough of implementing them on a mass scale is still not a reality. The author provides perspectives on developing solar PV in Africa. (Author)

  1. Plug and Play PV Systems for American Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, Christian [Fraunhofer USA, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    The core objectives of the Plug & Play PV Systems Project were to develop a PV system that can be installed on a residential rooftop for less than $1.50/W in 2020, and in less than 10 hours (from point of purchase to commissioning). The Fraunhofer CSE team’s approach to this challenge involved a holistic approach to system design – hardware and software – that make Plug & Play PV systems: • Quick, easy, and safe to install • Easy to demonstrate as code compliant • Permitted, inspected, and interconnected via an electronic process Throughout the three years of work during this Department of Energy SunShot funded project, the team engaged in a substantive way with inspectional services departments and utilities, manufacturers, installers, and distributors. We received iterative feedback on the system design and on ideas for how such systems can be commercialized. This ultimately led us to conceiving of Plug & Play PV Systems as a framework, with a variety of components compatible with the Plug & Play PV approach, including string or microinverters, conventional modules or emerging lightweight modules. The framework enables a broad group of manufacturers to participate in taking Plug & Play PV Systems to market, and increases the market size for such systems. Key aspects of the development effort centered on the system hardware and associated engineering work, the development of a Plug & Play PV Server to enable the electronic permitting, inspection and interconnection process, understanding the details of code compliance and, on occasion, supporting applications for modifications to the code to allow lightweight modules, for example. We have published a number of papers on our testing and assessment of novel technologies (e.g., adhered lightweight modules) and on the electronic architecture.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Based MPPT Controller for a PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Robles Algarín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a photovoltaic (PV module depends on the solar irradiance and the operating temperature; therefore, it is necessary to implement maximum power point tracking controllers (MPPT to obtain the maximum power of a PV system regardless of variations in climatic conditions. The traditional solution for MPPT controllers is the perturbation and observation (P&O algorithm, which presents oscillation problems around the operating point; the reason why improving the results obtained with this algorithm has become an important goal to reach for researchers. This paper presents the design and modeling of a fuzzy controller for tracking the maximum power point of a PV System. Matlab/Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA was used for the modeling of the components of a 65 W PV system: PV module, buck converter and fuzzy controller; highlighting as main novelty the use of a mathematical model for the PV module, which, unlike diode based models, only needs to calculate the curve fitting parameter. A P&O controller to compare the results obtained with the fuzzy control was designed. The simulation results demonstrated the superiority of the fuzzy controller in terms of settling time, power loss and oscillations at the operating point.

  3. Evaluating the Technical and Economic Performance of PV Plus Storage Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The decreasing costs of both PV and energy storage technologies have raised interest in the creation of combined PV plus storage systems to provide dispatchable energy and reliable capacity. In this study, we examine the tradeoffs among various PV plus storage configurations and quantify the impact of configuration on system net value.

  4. Evaluating the Technical and Economic Performance of PV Plus Storage Power Plants: Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-28

    The decreasing costs of both PV and energy storage technologies have raised interest in the creation of combined PV plus storage systems to provide dispatchable energy and reliable capacity. In this study, we examine the tradeoffs among various PV plus storage configurations and quantify the impact of configuration on system net value.

  5. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC for Photovoltaic (PV System in Solar Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Aji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT for photovoltaic (PV system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cycle value is used to adjust the angle of ignition switch (MOSFET gate on the Boost converter. The proposed method was shown through simulation performed using PSIM and MATLAB software. Simulation results show that the system is able to improve the PV power extraction efficiency significantly by approximately 98% of PV’s power.

  6. Architecturally integrated PV system at the Ford Bridgend Engine Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, K.; Phillips, R.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the project was to design and install a solar photovoltaic (PV) plant that could be retrofitted into an existing factory and to evaluate the cost and advantages of using the most recent advances in photovoltaic technology as follows: to demonstrate the use of the latest mono crystalline silicon technology within a large scale manufacturing environment, with the long term view of designing a state of the art installation for use in an environmentally sensitive {sup F}actory of the Future{sup .} To determine the performance and operating costs of a photovoltaic plant in northern latitudes thus providing data for the potential use of similar integrated systems elsewhere in the UK and Northern Europe. To evaluate the long term behaviour of an integrated system and its component parts. To demonstrate the feasibility of retrofitting PV roof lights into a fully operational manufacturing plant. To provide natural daylight into the manufacturing facility thereby improving the working environment, enhancing productivity and reducing the electrical lighting load within the plant during daylight hours. (author)

  7. Design And Simulation Of A PV System With Battery Storage Using Bidirectional DC-DC Converter Using Matlab Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Mursalin Iqbal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PV Photovoltaic systems are one of the most renowned renewable green and clean sources of energy where power is generated from sunlight converting into electricity by the use of PV solar cells. Unlike fossil fuels solar energy has great environmental advantages as they have no harmful emissions during power generation. In this paper a PV system with battery storage using bidirectional DC-DC converter has been designed and simulated on MATLAB Simulink. The simulation outcomes verify the PV systems performance under standard testing conditions.

  8. Development of an Advanced Grid-Connected PV-ECS System Considering Solar Energy Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Habibur; Yamashiro, Susumu; Nakamura, Koichi

    In this paper, the development and the performance of a viable distributed grid-connected power generation system of Photovoltaic-Energy Capacitor System (PV-ECS) considering solar energy estimation have been described. Instead of conventional battery Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) are used as storage device and Photovoltaic (PV) panel to generate power from solar energy. The system can generate power by PV, store energy when the demand of load is low and finally supply the stored energy to load during the period of peak demand. To realize the load leveling function properly the system will also buy power from grid line when load demand is high. Since, the power taken from grid line depends on the PV output power, a procedure has been suggested to estimate the PV output power by calculating solar radiation. In order to set the optimum value of the buy power, a simulation program has also been developed. Performance of the system has been studied for different load patterns in different weather conditions by using the estimated PV output power with the help of the simulation program.

  9. Performance and Feasibility Analysis of a Grid Interactive Large Scale Wind/PV Hybrid System based on Smart Grid Methodology Case Study South Part – Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais H. Alsafasfeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most recent research on renewable energy resources main one goal to make Jordan less dependent on imported energy with locally developed and produced solar power, this paper discussed the efficient system of Wind/ PV Hybrid System to be than main power sources for south part of Jordan, the proposed hybrid system design based on Smart Grid Methodology,  the solar energy will be installed on top roof of  electricity subscribers across the Governorate of Maan, Tafila, Karak and Aqaba and the wind energy will set in one site by this way the capital cost for project will be reduced also the  simulation result show   the feasibility  is a very competitive and feasible cost . Economics analysis of a proposed renewable energy system was made using HOMER simulation and evaluation was completed with the cost per kilowatt of EDCO company, the net present cost is $2,551,676,416, the cost of energy is 0.07kWhr with a renewable fraction of 86.6 %.

  10. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  11. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  12. Industrial application of PV/T solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, S.A.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems consist of PV modules and heat extraction units mounted together. These systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than plain photovoltaics. Industries show high demand of energy for both heat and electricity and the hybrid PV/T systems could be used in order to meet this requirement. In this paper the application aspects in the industry of PV/T systems with water heat extraction is presented. The systems are analyzed with TRNSYS program for three locations Nicosia, Athens and Madison that are located at different latitudes. The system comprises 300 m 2 of hybrid PV/T collectors producing both electricity and thermal energy and a 10 m 3 water storage tank. The work includes the study of an industrial process heat system operated at two load supply temperatures of 60 deg. C and 80 deg. C. The results show that the electrical production of the system, employing polycrystalline solar cells, is more than the amorphous ones but the solar thermal contribution is slightly lower. A non-hybrid PV system produces about 25% more electrical energy but the present system covers also, depending on the location, a large percentage of the thermal energy requirement of the industry considered. The economic viability of the systems is proven, as positive life cycle savings are obtained in the case of hybrid systems and the savings are increased for higher load temperature applications. Additionally, although amorphous silicon panels are much less efficient than the polycrystalline ones, better economic figures are obtained due to their lower initial cost, i.e., they have better cost/benefit ratio

  13. Monitoring of PV systems at the Centre for Renewable Energy and Eco-Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffat, S.B.; Omer, S.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarises the results of an examination of the design, installation and operation of two building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems at the University of Nottingham. Details are given of the thin film, glass Tedlar PV system installed at the Centre, the average system performance, the installation of the monocrystalline roof slate PV system at the Eco-Energy House, and annualised costs for both systems. A holistic approach to building design, a solution to client and installer uncertainty, training to enhance the skills of related trades, the provision of guidance on the minimum acceptable standard of documentation, and the guaranteeing of a minimum level of performance by the system supplier are among the recommendations given.

  14. Design procedures of hybrid PV/SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ismail; El-Sayas, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents accurate procedures to determine the design parameters of an autonomous hybrid PV/SMES system. Integrating Superconductive magnetic energy storage as a recent storage technology with photovoltaic power system enhances the PV output utilization during the solar radiation fluctuations period. this is because of SMES fast response to any PV output fluctuation. The load demand is supplied either from PV plant or through SMES or from both. Imposed to the technical and economical constrains, the optimum solar cells area and the proper capacity and rating of SMES system are assessed. Regarding solar radiation profile, clear and cloudy days are accurately considered for investigation. Three indices are suggested to express the cloudy and fluctuations conditions. These indices represent the non-utilized PV energy due to clouds (x), fluctuation period (T f ) and location of fluctuations period(t s t). The incremental changes in the design parameters are computed for any variation in these indices. Differentiation between the role of BS and SMES in affecting the results is determined and quantitatively analyzed. The results of clear day condition with SMES are the bas quantities for these changes. Complete analysis of the most effective parameters is presented. Eventually, mathematical models are deduced for each parameter which assists in predicting its behavior against the independent variable.(Author)

  15. PV Reconfiguration Systems: a Technical and Economic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical electrical array reconfiguration strategies for grid-connected PV systems have been proposed as solution to improve energy production due to the mismatch effect of PV plants during partial shading conditions. Strategies are based on the use of dynamic connections between PV panels given by the employment of switches that allow for each panel the series, parallel or exclusion connections, physically changing the electrical connections between the related PV modules, consequentially modifying the layout of the plant. Usually the cost of the dynamic matrix is not taken into account. This novel work evaluates the economic advantages obtained by the use of reconfiguration strategies in PV systems, by taking into consideration the price of energy due to incentives in different European and non-European countries and correlates it with the employment of two types of reconfigurators, with different internal structures. For each of the incentives proposed by the different Countries, the main strength and weakness points of the possible investment are highlighted and critically analyzed. From this analysis, it can be stated that the adoption of reconfiguration systems, in certain cases, can be a very convenient solution.

  16. Models for a stand-alone PV system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    are based on the model descriptions found in the literature. The battery model is developed at UMASS and is known as the Kinetic Battery Model(KiBaM). The other component models in the PV system are based on simple electrical knowledge. The implementation is done using Matlab/Simulink, a simulation program......This report presents a number of models for modelling and simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system with a battery bank verified against a system installed at Risø National Laboratory. The work has been supported by the Danish Ministry ofEnergy, as a part of the activities in the Solar...... Energy Centre Denmark. The study is carried out at Risø National Laboratory with the main purpose to establish a library of simple mathematical models for each individual element of a stand-alone PVsystem, namely solar cells, battery, controller, inverter and load. The models for PV module and battery...

  17. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Bhavesh; Tamboli, Adish; Wubhayavedantapuram, Nandan

    2017-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP) recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology) while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  18. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  19. Numerical investigation of heat pipe-based photovoltaic–thermoelectric generator (HP-PV/TEG) hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makki, Adham; Omer, Siddig; Su, Yuehong; Sabir, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of TE generators with a heat pipe-based PV module as a hybrid system is proposed. • Numerical transient modeling based on the energy balance equations of the system was performed. • Integration of TE generators with PV module aid operating the solar cells at a steady level in harsh conditions. - Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) cells are able to absorb about 80% of the solar spectral irradiance, however, certain percentage accounts for electricity conversion depending on the cell technology employed. The remainder energy however, can elevate the silicon junction temperature in the PV encapsulation perilously, resulting in deteriorated performance. Temperature rise at the PV cell level is addressed as one of the most critical issues that can seriously degrade and shortens the life-time of the PV cells, hence thermal management of the PV module during operation is considered essential. Hybrid PV designs which are able to simultaneously generate electrical energy and utilize the waste heat have been proven to be the most promising solution. In this study, theoretical investigation of a hybrid system comprising of thermoelectric generator integration with a heat pipe-based Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) absorber is proposed and evaluated. The system presented incorporates a PV panel for direct electricity generation, a heat pipe for excessive heat absorption from the PV cells and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) performing direct heat-to-electricity conversion. A mathematical model based on the energy balance within the system is developed to evaluate the performance of the hybrid integration and the improvements associated with the thermal management of PV cells. Results are presented in terms of the overall system efficiency compared to a conventional PV panel under identical operating conditions. The integration of TEG modules with PV cells in such way aid improving the performance of the PV cells in addition to utilizing the waste

  20. EFFECT OF REFLECTOR APPLICATION ON PV PANEL PERFORMANCE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas HELMY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed approach in the present study is to employ a mirror augmented PV solar panel to track the sun and reflect rays on to the PV panel. Its performance was compared with same PV module without reflector under the same environmental conditions. The mirror augmented solar PV panel tracked sun from East to West along the daytime in Winter 2011 with tilt angle0.523 rad (30 deg for panel and 0.122 rad (7deg for mirror which are estimated by experiment. The average energy output values of 1.11 and 0.95 kWh/day were recorded for panel with and without mirror, respectively. The average daily .panel values of 12.6 and 11.02 % were recorded for panel with and without mirror, respectively. The increase percentages in the output of panel and discharge differs with the solar radiation along daytime. The application of mirror is an efficient and an effective way to enhance the performance of solar photovoltaic pumping system with the same panel area.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar PV at the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of solar renewable energy generation at the Atlas Industrial Park. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV configurations. In addition, the study evaluates financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  2. A Single-Phase Multilevel PV Generation System with an Improved Ripple Correlation Control MPPT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hammami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT schemes by the ripple correlation control (RCC algorithm is presented in this paper. A reference is made to single-phase single-stage multilevel photovoltaic (PV generation systems, when the inverter input variables (PV voltage and PV current have multiple low-frequency (ripple harmonics. The harmonic analysis is carried out with reference to a multilevel configuration consisting of an H-bridge inverter and level doubling network (LDN cell, leading to the multilevel inverter having double the output voltage levels as compared to the basic H-bridge inverter topology (i.e., five levels vs. three levels. The LDN cell is basically a half-bridge fed by a floating capacitor, with self-balancing voltage capability. The multilevel configuration introduces additional PV voltage and current low-frequency harmonics, perturbing the basic implementation of the RCC scheme (based on the second harmonic component, leading to malfunctioning. The proposed RCC algorithm employs the PV current and voltage harmonics at a specific frequency for the estimation of the voltage derivative of power dP/dV (or dI/dV, driving the PV operating point toward the maximum power point (MPP in a faster and more precise manner. The steady-state and transient performances of the proposed RCC-MPPT schemes have been preliminarily tested and compared using MATLAB/Simulink. Results have been verified by experimental tests considering the whole multilevel PV generation system, including real PV modules, multilevel insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT inverters, and utility grids.

  3. The implantation of a grid-connected PV system at CEPEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco Antonio, E-mail: marcoag@cepel.br

    2003-07-01

    This technical report presents the experience undertaken by CEPEL for implantation of a grid connected PV system at its headquarters, located in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. This technology, although considered far from Brazilian reach, is expected to grow significantly in the near future. The paper describes briefly several aspects concerning the PV system and the DAS (data acquisition system) implemented in order to allow the continuous evaluation of its performance and operational conditions. The system was installed in December, 2002, and the data are still preliminary. (author)

  4. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject...... the power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  5. A simplified model for the estimation of energy production of PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aste, Niccolò; Del Pero, Claudio; Leonforte, Fabrizio; Manfren, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    The potential of solar energy is far higher than any other renewable source, although several limits exist. In detail the fundamental factors that must be analyzed by investors and policy makers are the cost-effectiveness and the production of PV power plants, respectively, for the decision of investment schemes and energy policy strategies. Tools suitable to be used even by non-specialists, are therefore becoming increasingly important. Many research and development effort have been devoted to this goal in recent years. In this study, a simplified model for PV annual production estimation that can provide results with a level of accuracy comparable with the more sophisticated simulation tools from which it derives is fundamental data. The main advantage of the presented model is that it can be used by virtually anyone, without requiring a specific field expertise. The inherent limits of the model are related to its empirical base, but the methodology presented can be effectively reproduced in the future with a different spectrum of data in order to assess, for example, the effect of technological evolution on the overall performance of PV power generation or establishing performance benchmarks for a much larger variety kinds of PV plants and technologies. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the main methods for estimating the electricity production of photovoltaic systems. • We simulated the same system with two different software in different European locations and estimated the electric production. • We have studied the main losses of a plant PV. • We provide a simplified model to estimate the electrical production of any PV system well designed. • We validated the data obtained by the proposed model with experimental data from three PV systems

  6. A stochastic simulation model for reliable PV system sizing providing for solar radiation fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplani, E.; Kaplanis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar radiation data for European cities follow the Extreme Value or Weibull distribution. ► Simulation model for the sizing of SAPV systems based on energy balance and stochastic analysis. ► Simulation of PV Generator-Loads-Battery Storage System performance for all months. ► Minimum peak power and battery capacity required for reliable SAPV sizing for various European cities. ► Peak power and battery capacity reduced by more than 30% for operation 95% success rate. -- Abstract: The large fluctuations observed in the daily solar radiation profiles affect highly the reliability of the PV system sizing. Increasing the reliability of the PV system requires higher installed peak power (P m ) and larger battery storage capacity (C L ). This leads to increased costs, and makes PV technology less competitive. This research paper presents a new stochastic simulation model for stand-alone PV systems, developed to determine the minimum installed P m and C L for the PV system to be energy independent. The stochastic simulation model developed, makes use of knowledge acquired from an in-depth statistical analysis of the solar radiation data for the site, and simulates the energy delivered, the excess energy burnt, the load profiles and the state of charge of the battery system for the month the sizing is applied, and the PV system performance for the entire year. The simulation model provides the user with values for the autonomy factor d, simulating PV performance in order to determine the minimum P m and C L depending on the requirements of the application, i.e. operation with critical or non-critical loads. The model makes use of NASA’s Surface meteorology and Solar Energy database for the years 1990–2004 for various cities in Europe with a different climate. The results obtained with this new methodology indicate a substantial reduction in installed peak power and battery capacity, both for critical and non-critical operation, when compared to

  7. Towards a CEmark for PV building integrated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jol, J.C.; Bloem, J.J.; Cross, B.M.; Sandberg, M.; Wambach, K.; Wiesner, W.; Zolingen, van R.J.Ch.; Schalkwijk, van M.

    2000-01-01

    The European projects Prescript and Precede aim to pave the way for the development of a procedure to obtain a CE mark for building integrated PV. Prescript has carried out a survey of national building standards and performaed a series of tests on BIPV systems. Prescript has resulted in a proposal

  8. Design development and testing of a solar PV pump based drip system for orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.C.; Singh, A.K.; Ansari, S.; Vyas, S.K.; Dave, B.K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    A Solar Photovoltaic (PV) pump operated drip irrigation system has been designed and developed for growing orchards in arid region considering different design parameters like pumps size, water requirements, the diurnal variation in the pressure of the pump due to change in irradiance and pressure compensation in the drippers. The system comprising a PV pump with 900 W{sub p} PV array and 800 W dc motor-pump mono-block, microfilter, main and sub-mains and three open-able low-pressure compensating drippers on each plant was field tested. The emission uniformity was observed to be 92-94% with discharge of 3.8 l/h in the pressure range of 70-100 kPa provided by the pump and thus the system could irrigate some 1 ha area within 2 h. Based on the performance of the PV pump and the drip system, it was inferred that about 5 ha area of orchard could be covered. The projected benefit-cost ratio for growing pomegranate orchards with such a system was evaluated to be above 2 even with the costly PV pump and therefore the system was considered to be an appropriate technology for the development of arid region. (Author)

  9. R and D into stand-alone PV systems for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The current status of photovoltaic (PV) technology is reviewed for systems to provide electricity where mains supplies are unavailable, known as stand-alone PV systems. Typical applications and experiences with installed stand-alone systems are described. Economic issues and barriers to the wide use of PV systems are also examined. (UK)

  10. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  11. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John; Sibley Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs

  12. Evaluating 5-Years Performance Monitoring of 1 MW Building Integrated PV Project in Nieuwland, Amersfoort, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; de Keizer, A.C.; ter Horst, E.; Molenbroek, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of about 400 decentralised PV systems has been evaluated for a period of five years (2001-2006). The systems are situated in the urban area Nieuwland in the town of Amersfoort in the Netherlands and are part of one of the largest decentralised PV projects in the world. The evaluated systems are situated in eight sections and are characterized by different architectural designs, tilt and azimuth angles. In six of the sections the majority of the systems perform well. Data indic...

  13. The German experience with grid-connected PV-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erge, T.; Hoffmann, V.U.; Kiefer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaics experienced increasing attention in Germany in recent years and are expected to face a major boost at the beginning of the new millennium. Highlights like the German 100,000-Roofs-Solar-Programme, PV programmes at schools financed by utilities and governments (e.g. 'SONNEonline' by PreussenElektra, 'Sonne in der Schule' by BMWi and 'Sonne in der Schule' by Bayernwerk) and large centralised installations of MW size ('Neue Messe Munchen' by Bayernwerk and 'Energiepark Mont-Cenis' by state Nordrhein-Westfalen, Stadtwerke Herne and European Union) count for the potential of grid-connected PV. Today in Germany a typical grid-connected PV installation of 1 kW nominal power produces average annual energy yields of 700 kWh (dependent on location and system components) and shows a high operating availability. The price per kWh from PV installations is still significantly higher than the price for conventional energy, but new funding schemes and cost models (like the large increase of feed-in tariff in Germany due to the Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy Sources in 2000) give optimism about the future. (Author)

  14. A methodology for optimal sizing of autonomous hybrid PV/wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaf, S.; Diaf, D.; Belhamel, M.; Haddadi, M.; Louche, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper presents a methodology to perform the optimal sizing of an autonomous hybrid PV/wind system. The methodology aims at finding the configuration, among a set of systems components, which meets the desired system reliability requirements, with the lowest value of levelized cost of energy. Modelling a hybrid PV/wind system is considered as the first step in the optimal sizing procedure. In this paper, more accurate mathematical models for characterizing PV module, wind generator and battery are proposed. The second step consists to optimize the sizing of a system according to the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and the levelized cost of energy (LCE) concepts. Considering various types and capacities of system devices, the configurations, which can meet the desired system reliability, are obtained by changing the type and size of the devices systems. The configuration with the lowest LCE gives the optimal choice. Applying this method to an assumed PV/wind hybrid system to be installed at Corsica Island, the simulation results show that the optimal configuration, which meet the desired system reliability requirements (LPSP=0) with the lowest LCE, is obtained for a system comprising a 125 W photovoltaic module, one wind generator (600 W) and storage batteries (using 253 Ah). On the other hand, the device system choice plays an important role in cost reduction as well as in energy production

  15. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  16. Concentrating PV/T Hybrid System for Simultaneous Electricity and Usable Heat Generation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhou Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is one of the attractive choices for efficient utilization of solar energy. Considering that the efficiency and cost of PV cells cannot be significantly improved in near future, a relatively cheap concentrator to replace part of the expensive solar cells could be used. The photovoltaic thermal hybrid system (PV/T, combining active cooling with thermal electricity and providing both electricity and usable heat, can enhance the total efficiency of the system with reduced cell area. The effect of nonuniform light distribution and the heat dissipation on the performance of concentrating PV/T was discussed. Total utilization of solar light by spectral beam splitting technology was also introduced. In the last part, we proposed an integrated compound parabolic collector (CPC plate with low precision solar tracking, ensuring effective collection of solar light with a significantly lowered cost. With the combination of beam splitting of solar spectrum, use of film solar cell, and active liquid cooling, efficient and full spectrum conversion of solar light to electricity and heat, in a low cost way, might be realized. The paper may offer a general guide to those who are interested in the development of low cost concentrating PV/T hybrid system.

  17. A low cost wireless data acquisition system for a remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoubi, A.; Mechlouch, R. F.; Brahim, A. B. [National School of Engineering of Gabes, Gabes University, Chemical and Processes Engineering Department, Gabes (Tunisia)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a 16F877 microcontroller-based wireless data acquisition system and a study of the feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field data acquisition from remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems. Various existing data transmission techniques were studied, especially satellite, radio, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The system's hardware and software and an application to test its performance are described. The system will be used for reading, storing and analyzing information from several PV water pumping stations situated in remote areas in the arid region of the south of Tunisia. The remote communications are based on the GSM network and, in particular, on the Short text Message Service (SMS). With this integrated system, we can compile a complete database of the different parameters related to the PV water pumping systems of Tunisia. This data could be made available to interested parties over the Internet. (authors)

  18. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  19. Solar PV energy for water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction into understanding the relative merits, characteristics, including economics, of photovoltically powered water pumping systems. Although more than 10,000 photovoltaic pumping systems are known to be operating through out the world, many potential users do not know how to decide weather feasibility assessment, and system procurement so that the reader can made an informed decision about water pumping systems, especially those powered with photovoltaics. (author)

  20. Angle Resolved Performance Measurements on PV Glass and Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juutilainen, Line Tollund; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    The angular response of PV-modules has significant impact on the energy production. This is especially pronounced in BIPV where installation angles often are far from optimal. Nevertheless, a gain in energy yield may be obtained by choosing a proper glass as superstrate. In this work we present...... the concept of PV balconies as cost efficient and easy way of integrating PV into buildings. The experimental work consists of the fabrication of single cell mini modules with different glass covering, and characterizing their angular response in a custom made setup, where only the direct sunlight is used...... as a light source. As a special case we estimate the annual yield for each glass in the case of PV balconies for a specific geographical location and orientation of the module....

  1. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, N.; Hernandez, J.; Gordillo, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well

  2. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forero, N. [Licenciatura en Fisica, Universidad Distrital, Bogota (Colombia); Hernandez, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Gordillo, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well. (author)

  3. Development of integrated CAD system PV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Ogawa, Kazuya; Shibata, Masayoshi.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated CAD system for pressure vessels, such as heat exchangers, drums, towers, jacketed vessels, and tanks, has been developed. The system is operated by MS-DOS personal computers combined in a LAN. Pressure vessel designers can work watching using the computer display because the system automatically manages design work, on a common data base. The project team members in other sections, such as production, cost control, and design, have the same data concurrently. Personal computers unite the 3D CAD system, and the generated design with detail dimensions and shapes is stored in the 3D CAD system automatically. The system has promoted higher design quality and greatly reduced design cost. (author)

  4. Investigations on the performance of a double pass, hybrid - type (PV/T) solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, M.; Jayaraj, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2013-07-01

    A solar hybrid energy system having photovoltaic and thermal (PV/T) devices, which produces both thermal and electrical energies simultaneously is considered for analysis. A double pass hybrid solar air (PV/T) heater with slats is designed and fabricated to study its thermal and electrical performance. Air as a heat removing fluid is made to flow through upper and lower channels of the collector. The collector is designed in such a way that the absorber plate is partially covered by solar cells. The raise in temperature of the solar cell is expected to decrease its electrical performance. Thin metallic strips called slats are attached longitudinally at the bottom side of the absorber plate to improve the system performance by increasing the cooling rate of the absorber plate. Thermal and electrical performances of the whole system at varying cooling conditions are presented. An artificial neural network model is used for forecasting the system performance at any desired conditions. The proposed model can be successfully used for evaluating the effect of different operating parameters under different ambient conditions for predicting the overall performance of the system.

  5. Exemplar PV system for test and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the construction of Reference Photovoltaic System for Test and Development at University of Southampton between April 1995 and June 2000, which subsequently became known as the STaR Facility. (author)

  6. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilsemann, Frederick [Coherent Systems International, Doylestown, PA (United States); Thompson, Roger [Coherent Systems International, Doylestown, PA (United States)

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  7. Building brighter PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current status and future prospects of the UK market for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity are briefly discussed. Through the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the UK Government has supported research and development (R and D) into PV for a number of years. This programme has now been extended to demonstrating PV systems on houses. Phase 2 - the domestic field trial programme - aims to monitor the performance of individual systems and the impact on a cluster of systems on the electricity network. New funding had allowed a trebling of the size of this programme, which involves both private developers and housing associations. The DTI is also working to promote PV on commercial buildings, eg the installation of BP Solar PV systems at BP petrol stations. The PV industry in the UK is technically strong and is working to overcome the barriers in the UK to greater uptake of the technology (including cost, conservatism, legal requirements and metering practices). Improvements are expected in a number of recent initiatives in the electricity industry to boost PV use and the PV industry is lobbying for PV to be included in the Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA) scheme

  8. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results.

  9. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohini, G; Jamuna, V

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results.

  10. How PV system ownership can impact the market value of residential homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jamie L. [Energy Sense Finance, LLC, Punta Gorda, FL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple ways for a homeowner to obtain the electricity generating and savings benefits offered by a photovoltaic (PV) system. These include purchasing a PV system through various financing mechanisms, or by leasing the PV system from a third party with multiple options that may include purchase, lease renewal or PV system removal. The different ownership options available to homeowners presents a challenge to appraisal and real estate professionals during a home sale or refinance in terms of how to develop a value that is reflective of the PV systems operational characteristics, local market conditions, and lender and underwriter requirements. This paper presents these many PV system ownership options with a discussion of what considerations an appraiser must make when developing the contributory value of a PV system to a residential property.

  11. Performance evaluation of the 1 MW building integrated PV project in Nieuwland, Amersfoort, the Netherlands, January 2001 – February 2006

    OpenAIRE

    de Keizer, A.C.; ter Horst, E.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of 463 decentralised PV systems with a total installed peak power of 1.2 MWp, has been evaluated for a period of five years (2001-2006). The systems are situated in the urban area Nieuwland in the town of Amersfoort in the Netherlands and are part of one of the largest decentralised PV projects in the world. The evaluated systems are situated in eight sections and are characterized by different architectural designs, tilt and azimuth angles. In six of the sections the majority...

  12. Optimal Placement and Sizing of PV-STATCOM in Power Systems Using Empirical Data and Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sirjani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a source of free, clean energy which avoids the destructive effects on the environment that have long been caused by power generation. Solar energy technology rivals fossil fuels, and its development has increased recently. Photovoltaic (PV solar farms can only produce active power during the day, while at night, they are completely idle. At the same time, though, active power should be supported by reactive power. Reactive power compensation in power systems improves power quality and stability. The use during the night of a PV solar farm inverter as a static synchronous compensator (or PV-STATCOM device has recently been proposed which can improve system performance and increase the utility of a PV solar farm. In this paper, a method for optimal PV-STATCOM placement and sizing is proposed using empirical data. Considering the objectives of power loss and cost minimization as well as voltage improvement, two sub-problems of placement and sizing, respectively, are solved by a power loss index and adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO. Test results show that APSO not only performs better in finding optimal solutions but also converges faster compared with bee colony optimization (BCO and lightening search algorithm (LSA. Installation of a PV solar farm, STATCOM, and PV-STATCOM in a system are each evaluated in terms of efficiency and cost.

  13. Performance evaluation of the 1 MW building integrated PV project in Nieuwland, Amersfoort, the Netherlands, January 2001 – February 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keizer, A.C.; ter Horst, E.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of 463 decentralised PV systems with a total installed peak power of 1.2 MWp, has been evaluated for a period of five years (2001-2006). The systems are situated in the urban area Nieuwland in the town of Amersfoort in the Netherlands and are part of one of the largest decentralised

  14. Power Electronic System for Multi-MW PV sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    in Sønderborg (DK) was implemented. A total of 17 PV-inverters have been monitored during a period exceeding one year and the recorded data constitutes the basis of this investigation. A part of the 2.1 MW PV plant was reconfigured to emulate the behavior of a central-inverter and solar panels distributed over...... a distance of 160 m. In parallel a string based inverter configuration was established with solar panels at the same locations. An analysis of irradiation data recorded during the test period showed that non-uniform irradiance due to moving clouds is expected to influence the PV plants for less than 4.......4%. A portable IV-scanning instrument for the fast long term characterization of solar panels was developed as part of the project. Each second a sweep of the IV-characteristics of a solar panel is performed and the result stored for later analysis. The instrument is based on an active load, is optimized...

  15. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  16. Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid Tied Solar PV System with Active Power Filtering Using Power Balance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashi; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, power quality features such as harmonics mitigation, power factor correction with active power filtering are addressed in a single-stage, single-phase solar photovoltaic (PV) grid tied system. The Power Balance Theory (PBT) with perturb and observe based maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed for the mitigation of power quality problems in a solar PV grid tied system. The solar PV array is interfaced to a single phase AC grid through a Voltage Source Converter (VSC), which provides active power flow from a solar PV array to the grid as well as to the load and it performs harmonics mitigation using PBT based control. The solar PV array power varies with sunlight and due to this, the solar PV grid tied VSC works only 8-10 h per day. At night, when PV power is zero, the VSC works as an active power filter for power quality improvement, and the load active power is delivered by the grid to the load connected at the point of common coupling. This increases the effective utilization of a VSC. The system is modelled and simulated using MATLAB and simulated responses of the system at nonlinear loads and varying environmental conditions are also validated experimentally on a prototype developed in the laboratory.

  17. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  18. A Software Tool for Optimal Sizing of PV Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a MATLAB based user friendly software tool called as PV.MY for optimal sizing of photovoltaic (PV systems. The software has the capabilities of predicting the metrological variables such as solar energy, ambient temperature and wind speed using artificial neural network (ANN, optimizes the PV module/ array tilt angle, optimizes the inverter size and calculate optimal capacities of PV array, battery, wind turbine and diesel generator in hybrid PV systems. The ANN based model for metrological prediction uses four meteorological variables, namely, sun shine ratio, day number and location coordinates. As for PV system sizing, iterative methods are used for determining the optimal sizing of three types of PV systems, which are standalone PV system, hybrid PV/wind system and hybrid PV/diesel generator system. The loss of load probability (LLP technique is used for optimization in which the energy sources capacities are the variables to be optimized considering very low LLP. As for determining the optimal PV panels tilt angle and inverter size, the Liu and Jordan model for solar energy incident on a tilt surface is used in optimizing the monthly tilt angle, while a model for inverter efficiency curve is used in the optimization of inverter size.

  19. The microcomputer-based expert system in CAD-PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Qin, S.

    1987-01-01

    As a branch of artificial intelligence, expert system has been revealed day after day in more and more engineering scopes since the successful applications of MYCIN in diagnosis and DENDRAL in the molecular structure of organic compounds etc.. But in the design scope of pressure vessel, as we know, only a few papers have so far been published with respect to the expert system. The necessity and feasibility of accompanying CAD-PV with expert system attracted more scholars to engage in. Although many countries, including China, have regularized the design standards or codes for pressure vessel, but of which no one can solve all of the problems concerning the various practical occasions and experiences. In general, the more domain knowledges a design engineer possesses of, the better decision will be made by him. By virtue of the expert system any less experienced engineer could make the optimum decision in design as well as a skilled senior engineer in addition to the application of design code. It is the due significance for developing high level expert system as an intelligence assistant in the plan option of CAD-PV. In this paper we attempt to introduce a specified software JACKPV used in the design procedure of jacketed pressure vessel as an intelligence front in CAD-PV. JACKPV consists of the function of expert system based on the personal computer IBM-PC/XT with the language PASCAL in its program. It was proved that an ordinary CAD software could be effectively improved while equipped with expert system. (orig.)

  20. Hybrid PV/wind system with quinary asymmetric inverter without increasing DC-link number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Baghbany Oskouei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests quinary asymmetric inverter with coupled inductors and transformer, and uses it in hybrid system including photovoltaic (PV and wind. This inverter produces twenty-five-level voltage in addition to merits of multilevel inverter, has only one DC source. Then, it is adequate for hybrid systems, which prevents increasing DC-link and makes control of system easy. Proposed structure also provides isolation in the system and the switch numbers are reduced in this topology compared with other multilevel structures. In this system, battery is used as backup, where PV and wind have complementary nature. The performance of proposed inverter and hybrid system is validated with simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and experimental results based PCI-1716 data acquisition system.

  1. Intelligent Energy Management System for PV-Battery-based Microgrids in Future DC Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R. K.; Rajpurohit, B. S.; Gonzalez-Longatt, F. M.; Singh, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel intelligent energy management system (IEMS) for a DC microgrid connected to the public utility (PU), photovoltaic (PV) and multi-battery bank (BB). The control objectives of the proposed IEMS system are: (i) to ensure the load sharing (according to the source capacity) among sources, (ii) to reduce the power loss (high efficient) in the system, and (iii) to enhance the system reliability and power quality. The proposed IEMS is novel because it follows the ideal characteristics of the battery (with some assumptions) for the power sharing and the selection of the closest source to minimize the power losses. The IEMS allows continuous and accurate monitoring with intelligent control of distribution system operations such as battery bank energy storage (BBES) system, PV system and customer utilization of electric power. The proposed IEMS gives the better operational performance for operating conditions in terms of load sharing, loss minimization, and reliability enhancement of the DC microgrid.

  2. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin; Dilşad Engin

    2012-01-01

    Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the desi...

  3. Rooftop PV system. PV:BONUS Phase 3B, final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Under the PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar developed, demonstrated and commercialized two new lightweight, flexible BIPV modules specifically designed as replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and can be used to address the even larger roofing-replacement market. An important design feature of these modules, which minimizes the installation and balance-of-system costs, is their ability to be installed by conventional roofing contractors without special training. The modules are fabricated from high-efficiency, triple-junction spectrum-splitting a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible stainless steel substrates and encapsulated with polymer materials. The Phase 3 program began in August 1995. The principal tasks and goals of this program, which have all been successfully completed by ECD and United Solar, are described in the body and appendices of this report.

  4. User's Manual for Data for Validating Models for PV Module Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, W.; Anderberg, A.; Deline, C.; Glick, S.; Muller, M.; Perrin, G.; Rodriguez, J.; Rummel, S.; Terwilliger, K.; Silverman, T. J.

    2014-04-01

    This user's manual describes performance data measured for flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in Cocoa, Florida, Eugene, Oregon, and Golden, Colorado. The data include PV module current-voltage curves and associated meteorological data for approximately one-year periods. These publicly available data are intended to facilitate the validation of existing models for predicting the performance of PV modules, and for the development of new and improved models. For comparing different modeling approaches, using these public data will provide transparency and more meaningful comparisons of the relative benefits.

  5. Control and Modulation Techniques for a Centralized PV Generation System Grid Connected via an Interleaved Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brando

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of grid connected photovoitaic (PV generation systems, there are two paramount aspects regarding the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT of the photovoltaic units and the continuity of the service. The most diffused MPPT algorithms are based on either perturb and observe, or on an incremental conductance approach and need both PV current and voltage measurements. Several topology reconfigurable converters are also associated with the PV plants, guaranteeing fault-tolerant features. The generation continuity can also be assured by interleaved inverters, which keep the system operating at reduced maximum power in case of failure. In this paper, an evolution of a hysteresis based MPPT algorithm is presented, based on the measurement of only one voltage, together with a novel space vector modulation suitable for a two-channel three-phase grid connected interleaved inverter. The proposed MMPT algorithm and modulation technique are tested by means of several numerical analyses on a PV generation system of about 200 kW maximum power. The results testify the validity of the proposed strategies, showing good performance, even during a fault occurrence and in the presence of deep shading conditions.

  6. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Eltamaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT and PV module types. The proposed computer program changes the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain increments and calculates the required size of all components and the optimum battery size to get the predefined lowest acceptable probability. This computer program has been designed in flexible fashion that is not available in market available software like HOMER and RETScreen. Actual data for Saudi sites have been used with this computer program. The data obtained have been compared with these market available software. The comparison shows the superiority of this computer program in the optimal design of the autonomous PV/wind/battery hybrid system. The proposed computer program performed the optimal design steps in very short time and with accurate results. Many valuable results can be extracted from this computer program that can help researchers and decision makers.

  7. Building integrated multi PV/T/A solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ami Elazari

    2000-01-01

    Previous development in solar energy for residential applications proved that there is merit in further development and improvement of combined electricity and hot water and hot air collectors. The justification stems from the fact that waste heat is generated when PV cells are producing electricity but it decrease its efficiency dramatically, and any effective way to cool the cells can improve their efficiency and long while the heat that generated from this cooling process could be stored and used as standard solar hot water/air system. The core unit comprises of integrated PV cells mounted on a flat-plate collector for water and air, hot water storage tank hot air inlet pips to the house electric battery bank, inverter, connecting cables and controller. Double-glazing serving as solar trap to triple the amount of sun ray reaching the PV cells and other technical innovation make the system more cost effective and cost benefit for stand alone and grid connected domestic application. Two way interconnection with the electric grid like in all the roof top program may bring it to economic viability by selling excess electricity during the costly peak hours while buying low cost electricity during the night off-peak hours, and free electricity from the sun plus free hot water and hot air for domestic use as by-product. A basic domestic two-collector system may deliver up to 4 kWh of electricity and 12000 kcal of hot water and air daily. Some 22 systems are currently operating at various locations in Israel, some for 8 years with very good results. (Author)

  8. A GUI Based Software for Sizing Stand Alone AC Coupled Hybrid PV-Diesel Power System under Malaysia Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiqah Syahirah Mohamed, Nor; Amalina Banu Mohamat Adek, Noor; Hamid, Nurul Farhana Abd

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of Graphical User Interface (GUI) software for sizing main component in AC coupled photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power system based on Malaysia climate. This software provides guideline for PV system integrator to design effectively the size of components and system configuration to match the system and load requirement with geographical condition. The concept of the proposed software is balancing the annual average renewable energy generation and load demand. In this study, the PV to diesel generator (DG) ratio is introduced by considering the hybrid system energy contribution. The GUI software is able to size the main components in the PV hybrid system to meet with the set target of energy contribution ratio. The rated powers of the components to be defined are PV array, grid-tie inverter, bi-directional inverter, battery storage and DG. GUI is used to perform all the system sizing procedures to make it user friendly interface as a sizing tool for AC coupled PV hybrid system. The GUI will be done by using Visual Studio 2015 based on the real data under Malaysia Climate.

  9. Control of a Multi-Functional Inverter for Grid Integration of PV and Battery Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Beirami, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-functional control of a DC/AC inverter for Power Quality compensation of nonlinear and unequal local loads and grid integration of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems. Multi-layer neural network estimator and a DC/DC converter are used for maximum...... is used for delivering desire power to the grid. For compensation aim, instantaneous active and reactive power theory (p-q) is used. Via the algorithm, the DC/AC inverter not only can be controlled to inject the power of battery and PV, but also it is used as shunt active filter for compensating unequal...... power point tracking (MPPT) of PV array. The power system is 3-phase 4-wires and the DC/AC inverter is chosen 4-leg three phase inverter which has good performance in presence of zero sequence components. Battery energy storage is connected to PV system in common DC bus and a power management strategy...

  10. Energy management for a PEMFC–PV hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, Nabil; Moubayed, Nazih; Outbib, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The proposed hybrid structure is a grid-connected system composed of a PV panel, a FC, a battery, and a SC. • The output voltage of each component is regulated using a buck converter controlled by a type-III compensator. • All these components share one DC bus. • Loads can be the used battery, the grid, a DC load and/or an AC load. • The proposed topology offers a simple management technique using a low cost system controller. - Abstract: Most renewable energy sources depend on climatic circumstances and lack consistency even during a single day. The Hybrid System (HS) solves this drawback by relying on many types of renewable sources and managing them to get a satisfactory continuous power. In this paper, a grid connected HS composed of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), a Photovoltaic panel (PV), a battery and a Supercapacitor (SC) is proposed. Sources are pushed to deliver their maximum power thanks to a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT). The output voltage of each component is regulated using a buck converter controlled by a type-III compensator. Consequently, HS components share the power on a single DC bus. The proposed topology offers a simple management technique using an affordable system controller. In order to illustrate our approach, a prototype is modeled, simulated and implemented on an emulator of a real system

  11. Comparison of PV system design software packages for urban applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharakhani Siraki, Arbi; Pillay, Pragasen

    2010-09-15

    A large number of software packages are available for solar resource evaluation and PV system design. However, few of them are suitable for urban applications. In this paper a comparison has been made between two specifically designed solar tools known as the Ecotect 2010 and the PVsyst 5.05. Conclusions have been made for proper use of these packages based on their specifications and privileges. Moreover, the calculations have been repeated with HOMER software package (which is a generic tool) for the same location. The results suggest that a generic solar software tool should not be used for an urban application.

  12. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Experimental study of the effect of fully shading on the Solar PV module performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-chaderchi, Monadhil; Sopain, K.; Alghoul, M. A.; Salameh, T.

    2017-11-01

    Experimental tests were performed to study the effects of shading for different string inside the photovoltaic (PV) panels, power equipped with different number of diodes from the same manufacturer as of solar panel. The IV curve for all cases were recorded to see how the bypass diodes will reduce the effects of shading .The case for 3 by pass diode show the best performance of solar PV module under shading phenomena.

  14. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K. [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  16. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  17. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  18. Analysis on the MPPT control of PV generation system using SPRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Won [Osaka University (Japan); Kim, Bong Tae; Lee, Jae Deuk; Yu, In Keun [Changwon National University (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system has been studied and watch with keen interest due to a clean and renewable power source. But, because the output power of PV system is not only unstable but also uncontrollable, the MPPT control of PV power system is still hard to be optimized with the tracking failure under the sudden fluctuation of irradiance. Authors proposed a novel transient phenomenon simulation method for PV power generation system under the real field weather condition(SPRW), and the research and development of PV power generation system is expected to be able to analyze easily and cheaply under various conditions with considering the sort of cell, the capacity of system and the used converter system. In this paper, a PV array was simulated to confirm the availability of SPRW. And, several real weather conditions were used with various MPPT controls. (author). 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Comparison of a three-phase single-stage PV system in PSCAD and PowerFactory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Afshin; Eriksson, Robert; Della, Jose; Mahmood, Farhan; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Soeder, Lennart [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Systems

    2012-07-01

    Accommodating more and more distributed PhotoVoltaic (PV) systems within load pockets has changed the shape of distribution grids. It is not, therefore, accurate anymore to address distribution grids just only as a lumped load. So it will be crucial in the near future to have an aggregate model of PV systems in distribution grids. By doing so, it is important to develop models for PV systems in different simulation platforms to study their behavior in order to derive an aggregate model of them. Although, there have been several detailed-switching model of a PV system in EMTDC/PSCAD simulation platform in literature, these non-proprietary switching models are slow in simulation, particularly when the number of the PV systems increases on the grounds that in PSCAD the simulation is based on time domain instantaneous values and requires more mathematical details of components. Therefore, in this paper a model of the PV system in DIgSILENT/Power Factory is developed, which is a proper environment to run rms simulation and works based on the phasors, and, moreover, from mathematical perspective is more simplified. The performance of the stemming model is compared with the switching model in PSCAD. Comparing the simulation results of the proposed model in PowerFactory with the model in PSCAD shows the credibility and accuracy of the proposed model. (orig.)

  20. Consequences of Reducing the Cost of PV Modules on a PV Wind Diesel Hybrid System with Limited Sizing Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable resources for power supply in family homes has passed the stage of utopia to became a reality, with limits set by technical and economic parameters. This paper presents the results of a project originated from the initiative of a middle-class family to achieve energy independence at home. The starting point was the concept of home with “zero energy” in which the total energy available is equal to the energy consumed. The solution devised to meet the energy demand of the residence in question is a PV wind diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, with the possibility of energy storage in batteries and in the form of heating water and the environment of the house. As a restriction, the family requested that the system would represent little impact to the lifestyle and landscape. This paper aims to assess the consequences of reductions in the cost of the PV modules on the optimization space, as conceived by the software Homer. The results show that for this system, a 50% reduction in the cost of PV modules allows all viable solutions including PV modules.

  1. Implementation of a PV lighting system based on DC-DC converter with intelligent controlled approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C.-C.; Chuang, D.-J. [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Chuang, C.-W. [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology

    2007-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems for municipalities represent one of the largest cost effective markets for PVs. The installation cost of just one or two utility power poles can justify the initial cost of a PV lighting system. However, many previous PV lighting systems have experienced a number of component failures including premature charge controller, battery, and ballast illumination failures. This paper presented the design and implementation of a digital high performance photovoltaic lighting system based on a microcontroller. A high brightness light-emitting diode (HBLED), was used as it can work at very high efficiency with a specially designed lighting power module. The proposed system consisted of a photovoltaic module, a light emitting diode (LED) lighting module, a bi-directional buck-boost converter and a battery. The paper analysed battery charging methods and proposed a control strategy and hardware implementation. The dimming control methods for LED were also discussed and compared. The experimental results were also provided to verify the theoretical analysis and design procedure of a digital controlled photovoltaic lighting system. It was concluded that the experimental results verified the performance of the proposed photovoltaic lighting system. 8 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs.

  2. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we examine some of the limits to large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems. Specifically, we evaluate the ability of PV to provide a large fraction (up to 50%) of a utility system's energy by comparing hourly output of a simulated large PV system to the amount of electricity actually usable. The simulations use hourly recorded solar insolation and load data for Texas in the year 2000 and consider the constraints of traditional electricity generation plants to reduce output and accommodate intermittent PV generation. We find that under high penetration levels and existing grid-operation procedures and rules, the system will have excess PV generation during certain periods of the year. Several metrics are developed to examine this excess PV generation and resulting costs as a function of PV penetration at different levels of system flexibility. The limited flexibility of base load generators produces increasingly large amounts of unusable PV generation when PV provides perhaps 10-20% of a system's energy. Measures to increase PV penetration beyond this range will be discussed and quantified in a follow-up analysis

  3. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  4. Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar collectors: Features and performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza-Márquez, Antonio; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto; Korolija, Ivan; Greenough, Richard; Wright, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells ranges between 5–25%. One of the most important parameters that affects the electrical efficiency of a PV collector is the temperature of its cells: the higher temperature, the lower is the efficiency. Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) technology is a potential solution to ensure an acceptable solar energy conversion. The PV/T technology produces both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. It is suitable for low temperature applications (25–40 o C) and overall efficiency increases compared to individual collectors. This paper describes an installation in a single-family house where PV/T collectors are coupled with a ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for domestic hot water and space heating purposes. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the features of the PV/T technology are analyzed. Second, a model of a flat-plate PV/T water collector was developed in TRNSYS in order to analyze collectors performance. (author)

  5. An insight on advantage of hybrid sun–wind-tracking over sun-tracking PV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Banybayat, Meisam; Tagheie, Yaghoub; Valeh-e-Sheyda, Peyvand

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Real photograph of hybrid sun–wind-tracking system. - Highlights: • Novel hybrid sun–wind-tracking system proposed to enhance PV cell performance. • The wind tracker can cool down the PV cell as sun-tracking system work. • The hybrid tracker achieved 7.4% increase in energy gain over the sun tracker. • The overall daily output energy gain was increased by 49.83% by using this system. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design and application of a novel hybrid sun–wind-tracking system. This hybrid system employs cooling effect of wind, besides the advantages of tracking sun for enhancing power output from examined hybrid photovoltaic cell. The principal experiment focuses on comparison between dual-axes sun-tracking and hybrid sun–wind-tracking photovoltaic (PV) panels. The deductions based on the research tests confirm that the overall daily output energy gain was increased by 49.83% compared with that of a fixed system. Moreover, an overall increase of about 7.4% in the output power was found for the hybrid sun–wind-tracking over the two-axis sun tracking system.

  6. Design and Implementation of an Innovative Residential PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najm, Elie Michel

    This work focuses on the design and implementation of an innovative residential PV system. In chapter one, after an introduction related to the rapid growth of solar systems' installations, the most commonly used state of the art solar power electronics' configurations are discussed, which leads to introducing the proposed DC/DC parallel configuration. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the power electronics' configurations are deliberated. The scope of work in the power electronics is defined in this chapter to be related to the panel side DC/DC converter. System integration and mechanical proposals are also within the scope of work and are discussed in later chapters. Operation principle of a novel low cost PV converter is proposed in chapter 2. The proposal is based on an innovative, simplified analog implementation of a master/slave methodology resulting in an efficient, soft-switched interleaved variable frequency flybacks, operating in the boundary conduction mode (BCM). The scheme concept and circuit configuration, operation principle and theoretical waveforms, design equations, and design considerations are presented. Furthermore, design examples are also given, illustrating the significance of the newly derived frequency equation for flybacks operating in BCM. In chapters 3, 4, and 5, the design implementation and optimization of the novel DC/DC converter illustrated in chapter 2 are discussed. In chapter 3, a detailed variable frequency BCM flyback design model leading to optimizing the component selections and transformer design, detailed in chapter 4, is presented. Furthermore, in chapter 4, the method enabling the use of lower voltage rating switching devices is also discussed. In chapter 5, circuitry related to Start-UP, drive for the main switching devices, zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) as well as turn OFF soft switching and interleaving control are fully detailed. The experimental results of the proposed DC/DC converter are presented in

  7. Efficient outdoor performance of esthetic bifacial a-Si:H semi-transparent PV modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, Seung Yeop; Jeon, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 1.43 m"2 a-Si:H semi-transparent PV modules with emotionally inoffensive and esthetically pleasing colors are developed. • Seasonal outdoor performance of the developed colorful PV modules is measured and simulated. • The bifacial TBC a-Si:H semi-transparent PV module performs at a superior annual electrical energy output. • An impressive performance ratio of 124.5% is achieved by surpassing a simulated prediction considerably. - Abstract: We developed bifacial transparent back contact (TBC) hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) semi-transparent glass-to-glass photovoltaic (PV) modules with emotionally inoffensive and esthetically pleasing colors have been developed by combining the transparent back contact and color of the back glass. Due to the high series resistance of the transparent back contact, the bifacial TBC a-Si:H semi-transparent PV modules had a lower rated power after light soaking than the monofacial opaque (metal) back contact (OBC) a-Si:H semi-transparent PV modules fabricated using the additional laser scribing patterns. However, the TBC a-Si:H semi-transparent PV module produced a higher annual electrical energy output than the OBC a-Si:H semi-transparent PV module thanks to bifacial power generation during the outdoor field test. In particular, the performance ratio of the TBC a-Si:H semi-transparent PV module measured at the optimal tilt angle of 30° surpassed its simulated prediction by a drastically high value of 124.5%. At a higher tilt angle of 85°, bifacial power generation produced a higher deviation between the measured and simulated annual performance of the TBC a-Si:H semi-transparent PV module. Since the reflected albedo has a tendency to increase toward higher tilt angles, bifacial power generation can compensate for the loss of lower direct plane-of-array irradiation at a higher tilt angle. Therefore, the TBC a-Si:H semi-transparent PV module is suitable for the vertically mounted building integrated

  8. LPV model for PV cell and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for V-I characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Reviewed

  9. LPV model for PV cells and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for VI characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Rev...

  10. Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Based Direct-Current Vector Control Strategy for Solar PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAMMALVAR, P.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PIPSO based direct current vector control technology for the integration of photovoltaic array in an AC micro-grid to enhance the system performance and stability. A photovoltaic system incorporated with AC micro-grid is taken as the pursuit of research study. The test system features two power converters namely, PV side converter which consists of DC-DC boost converter with Perturbation and Observe (P&O MPPT control to reap most extreme power from the PV array, and grid side converter which consists of Grid Side-Voltage Source Converter (GS-VSC with proposed direct current vector control strategy. The gain of the proposed controller is chosen from a set of three values obtained using apriori test and tuned through the PIPSO algorithm so that the Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE between the actual and the desired DC link capacitor voltage reaches a minimum and allows the system to extract maximum power from PV system, whereas the existing d-q control strategy is found to perform slowly to control the DC link voltage under varying solar insolation and load fluctuations. From simulation results, it is evident that the proposed optimal control technique provides robust control and improved efficiency.

  11. Firefighter safety for PV systems: Overview of future requirements and protection systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    for operators during maintenance or fire-fighting. One of the solutions is individual module shutdown by short-circuiting or disconnecting each PV module from the PV string. However, currently no standards have been adopted either for implementing or testing these methods, or doing an evaluation of the module...... shutdown procedures. This paper gives an overview on the most recent fire - and firefighter safety requirements for PV systems, with focus on system and module shutdown systems. Several solutions are presented, analyzed and compared by considering a number of essential characteristics, including......An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic systems is that, as long as they are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters, independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch, which poses a risk...

  12. A novel maximum power point tracking method for PV systems using fuzzy cognitive networks (FCN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlis, A.D. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical & amp; Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, V. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kottas, T.L.; Boutalis, Y.S. [Automatic Control Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical & amp; Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, V. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2007-03-15

    Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play an important role in photovoltaic (PV) power systems because they maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency. This paper presents a novel MPPT method based on fuzzy cognitive networks (FCN). The new method gives a good maximum power operation of any PV array under different conditions such as changing insolation and temperature. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  13. A Sensorless Power Reserve Control Strategy for Two-Stage Grid-Connected PV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the still increasing penetration of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in grid regulations. A power reserve control, where namely the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required for grid support. In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize the power reserve for two-stage grid-connected PV systems is proposed. The proposed solution routinely employs a Maximum Power Point Track...

  14. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  15. Systems-based modeling of generation variability under alternate geographic configurations of photovoltaic (PV) installations in Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Ross D.; Crowther, Kenneth G.

    2011-01-01

    With increased focus on renewable energy in our modern era, it is increasingly important to understand the impact of policies on the performance and reliability of regional energy systems. This research develops a model to understand how geographic dispersion of PV installations impacts the reliability of electricity generated from the total PV network, measured by the variance of the distribution of generated electricity. Using NREL data, beta probability distributions of sunlight (kWh/m 2 /day) in various regions of Virginia are estimated using a fitting method that minimizes the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic. A Monte Carlo simulation model is developed to measure PV electricity generation from multiple centralized and dispersed configurations over 100,000 days of probabilistic sunlight. There is a calculable tradeoff between average generation and generation variability, and increased geographic dispersion of PV installations can decrease this variability. Controlling variable generation through policies that promote efficient PV siting can help provide reliable power, minimizing the need for load-balancing peaking power infrastructure and costly electricity purchases from the grid. Using a tradeoff framework of generation and costs, this paper shows that geographically dispersed generation can mitigate the risk of unreliable solar generation that can significantly impact the end-user costs and make PV infrastructure unattractive. - Highlights: → We model how uncertain sunlight affects generation of different PV systems. → We show that geographically dispersed systems decrease generation variability. → Geographically dispersed PV systems are potentially more costly in the short run. → Controlling variability provides reliable power, which can decrease long-run costs. → Promoting mixes of uncertain energy sources requires assessment of these tradeoffs.

  16. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  17. A transformerless single-phase symmetrical Z-source HERIC inverter with reduced leakage currents for PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Shen, Yanfeng; Yang, Yongheng

    2018-01-01

    and thus low leakage currents in PV applications. The symmetric Z-source HERIC inverter requires two extra active switches. Nevertheless, the operation frequency of the two switches is the line frequency, leading to negligible losses. More importantly, the performance in terms of low leakage currents...... and harmonics is improved. Experimental tests are performed to validate the analysis and performance of the proposed system....

  18. Progress in markets for grid-connected PV systems in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade of the twentieth century a wide variety of promotion strategies increased the market penetration of small grid-connected PV systems world-wide. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of these promotion strategies on the market for and on the economic performance of small grid-connected PV systems. The most important conclusions of this analysis are: Pure cost-effectiveness is not crucial for private customers. Affordability is rather what counts. Non-monetary issues play an important role for a substantial increase in market deployment. Comprehensive accompanied information and education activities are also important along with financial incentives. There are still considerable barriers in the market: on the one hand transparent and competitive markets exist in only a few countries; on the other hand non-monetary transaction costs still represent a major barrier. Progress with respect to cost reduction has been achieved, but mainly for non-module components. (author)

  19. PV led engine characterization lab for standalone light to light systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Lindén, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    PV-powered lighting systems, light-to-light systems (L2L), offer outdoor lighting where it is else where cumbersome to enable lighting. Application of these systems at high latitudes, where the difference in day length between summer and winter is large and the solar energy is low requires smart...... dimming functions for reliable lighting. In this work we have built a laboratory to characterize these systems up to 200 Wp from “nose to tail” in great details to support improvement of the systems and to make accurate field performance predictions....

  20. Sensor System for Long-term Recording of Photovoltaic (PV) IV-curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    The purpose of this paper is to present a recording system for long-term investigation of PV panel dynamics under partial shading conditions. The system is intended to be a low-cost system deployable for stand-alone field use and long-term data recording at PV-plants. Passing clouds will affect...

  1. Dynamic response evaluation of sensorless MPPT method for hybrid PV-DFIG wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method for a hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind system, which consists of Photovoltaic (PV system and Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG Wind Turbine. In the hybrid system, the DC/DC converter output of the PV system is directly connected to the DC-link of DFIG’s back-to-back converter. Therefore, the PV inverter and its associated circuit can be removed in this structure. Typically, the PV power is monitored by using PV current sensor and PV voltage sensor for MPPT. In this paper, the powers of converters on grid side and rotor side of DFIG are used to estimate the PV power without the PV current sensor. That can efficiently reduce the cost of the hybrid system. The detailed analysis of the sensorless MPPT method, which includes derived equations and operation response, is also presented in this paper. In addition, an overview of PV-DFIG research in literature is stated to supply comprehensive knowledge of related research.

  2. Characterization of high performance silicon-based VMJ PV cells for laser power transmission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsien; Zahuranec, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Continuing improvements in the cost and power of laser diodes have been critical in launching the emerging fields of power over fiber (PoF), and laser power beaming. Laser power is transmitted either over fiber (for PoF), or through free space (power beaming), and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells designed to efficiently convert the laser light. MH GoPower's vertical multi-junction (VMJ) PV cell, designed for high intensity photovoltaic applications, is fueling the emergence of this market, by enabling unparalleled photovoltaic receiver flexibility in voltage, cell size, and power output. Our research examined the use of the VMJ PV cell for laser power transmission applications. We fully characterized the performance of the VMJ PV cell under various laser conditions, including multiple near IR wavelengths and light intensities up to tens of watts per cm2. Results indicated VMJ PV cell efficiency over 40% for 9xx nm wavelengths, at laser power densities near 30 W/cm2. We also investigated the impact of the physical dimensions (length, width, and height) of the VMJ PV cell on its performance, showing similarly high performance across a wide range of cell dimensions. We then evaluated the VMJ PV cell performance within the power over fiber application, examining the cell's effectiveness in receiver packages that deliver target voltage, intensity, and power levels. By designing and characterizing multiple receivers, we illustrated techniques for packaging the VMJ PV cell for achieving high performance (> 30%), high power (> 185 W), and target voltages for power over fiber applications.

  3. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atik, L., E-mail: lotfi.atik@univ-usto.dz; Ternifi, Z. T. [University of science and technology of Oran, USTO, LDDE, Oran (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Aillerie, M., E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Bachir, G. [University of science and technology of Oran, USTO, LDDE, Oran (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, for all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.

  4. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atik, L.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Aillerie, M.; Bachir, G.

    2016-01-01

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, for all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.

  5. A Novel Supervisory Control Algorithm to Improve the Performance of a Real-Time PV Power-Hardware-In-Loop Simulator with Non-RTDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Jin Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A programmable direct current (DC power supply with Real-time Digital Simulator (RTDS-based photovoltaic (PV Power Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL simulators has been used to improve the control algorithm and reliability of a PV inverter. This paper proposes a supervisory control algorithm for a PV PHIL simulator with a non-RTDS device that is an alternative solution to a high-cost PHIL simulator. However, when such a simulator with the conventional algorithm which is used in an RTDS is connected to a PV inverter, the output is in the transient state and it makes it impossible to evaluate the performance of the PV inverter. Therefore, the proposed algorithm controls the voltage and current target values according to constant voltage (CV and constant current (CC modes to overcome the limitation of the Computing Unit and DC power supply, and it also uses a multi-rate system to account for the characteristics of each component of the simulator. A mathematical model of a PV system, programmable DC power supply, isolated DC measurement device, and Computing Unit are integrated to form a real-time processing simulator. Performance tests are carried out with a commercial PV inverter and prove the superiority of this proposed algorithm against the conventional algorithm.

  6. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  7. Design and optimization of cascaded DCG based holographic elements for spectrum-splitting PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Pelaez, Silvana Ayala; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the technique of designing and optimizing broadband volume transmission holograms using dichromate gelatin (DCG) is summarized for solar spectrum-splitting application. Spectrum splitting photovoltaic system uses a series of single bandgap PV cells that have different spectral conversion efficiency properties to more fully utilize the solar spectrum. In such a system, one or more high performance optical filters are usually required to split the solar spectrum and efficiently send them to the corresponding PV cells. An ideal spectral filter should have a rectangular shape with sharp transition wavelengths. DCG is a near ideal holographic material for solar applications as it can achieve high refractive index modulation, low absorption and scattering properties and long-term stability to solar exposure after sealing. In this research, a methodology of designing and modeling a transmission DCG hologram using coupled wave analysis for different PV bandgap combinations is described. To achieve a broad diffraction bandwidth and sharp cut-off wavelength, a cascaded structure of multiple thick holograms is described. A search algorithm is also developed to optimize both single and two-layer cascaded holographic spectrum splitters for the best bandgap combinations of two- and three-junction SSPV systems illuminated under the AM1.5 solar spectrum. The power conversion efficiencies of the optimized systems under the AM1.5 solar spectrum are then calculated using the detailed balance method, and shows an improvement compared with tandem structure.

  8. Concise Approach for Determining the Optimal Annual Capacity Shortage Percentage using Techno-Economic Feasibility Parameters of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    PV power systems have been commercially available and widely used for decades. The performance of a reliable PV system that fulfils the expectations requires correct input data and careful design. Inaccurate input data of the techno-economic feasibility would affect the size, cost aspects, stability and performance of PV power system on the long run. The annual capacity shortage is one of the main input data that should be selected with careful attention. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of different annual capacity shortages on the techno-economic feasibility parameters and determining the optimal value for Baghdad city location using HOMER simulation tool. Six values of annual capacity shortage percentages (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%), and wide daily load profile range (10 kWh - 100 kWh) are implemented. The optimal annual capacity shortage is the value that always "wins" when each techno-economic feasibility parameter is at its optimal/ reasonable criteria. The results showed that the optimal annual capacity shortage that reduces significantly the cost of PV power system while keeping the PV system with reasonable technical feasibility is 3%. This capacity shortage value can be carried as a reference value in future works for Baghdad city location. Using this approach of analysis at other locations, annual capacity shortage can be always offered as a reference value for those locations.

  9. MPPT-Based Control Algorithm for PV System Using iteration-PSO under Irregular shadow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulkadir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT techniques can hardly track the global maximum power point (GMPP because the power-voltage characteristics of photovoltaic (PV exhibit multiple local peaks in irregular shadow, and therefore easily fall into the local maximum power point. These conditions make it very challenging, and to tackle this deficiency, an efficient Iteration Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO has been developed to improve the quality of solution and convergence speed of the traditional PSO, so that it can effectively track the GMPP under irregular shadow conditions. This proposed technique has such advantages as simple structure, fast response and strong robustness, and convenient implementation. It is applied to MPPT control of PV system in irregular shadow to solve the problem of multi-peak optimization in partial shadow. In order to verify the rationality of the proposed algorithm, however, recently the dynamic MPPT performance under varying irradiance conditions has been given utmost attention to the PV society. As the European standard EN 50530 which defines the recommended varying irradiance profiles, was released lately, the corresponding researchers have been required to improve the dynamic MPPT performance. This paper tried to evaluate the dynamic MPPT performance using EN 50530 standard. The simulation results show that iterative-PSO method can fast track the global MPP, increase tracking speed and higher dynamic MPPT efficiency under EN 50530 than the conventional PSO.

  10. Wide-band gap devices in PV systems - opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Cristian; Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    have an important role in the cost reduction. To increase the efficiency of PV systems, most of solutions for PV inverters have moved to three-level (3L) structures reaching typical efficiencies of 98% due to low switching losses of 600V Si IGBT or MOSFET and reduced core losses in the filter......The recent developments in wide band-gap devices based GaN and SiC is showing a high impact on the PV-inverter technology, which is strongly influenced by efficiency, power density and cost. Besides the high efficiency of PV inverters, also the mechanical size, the compactness and simple structure......) three-phase PV-inverter topologies in terms of efficiency, thermal loading distribution and costs. Moreover the above mentioned PV-inverters are built and tested in laboratory in order to validate the obtained results....

  11. Evaluation of irradiation measurements on tilted planes at PV systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betcke, J.W.H.; Dijk, V.A.P. van; Ramaekers, L.A.M.; Zolingen, R.J.C. van

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring data of Dutch PV systems in the field show lower values for the measured global irradiation in the array plane than expected from model calculatations. Since the locations of the PV systems contain obstacles, we expect that shielding of diffuse irradiation may cause the difference. For

  12. Distributed measurement system for long term monitoring of clouding effects on large PV plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, K. M.; Nymand, M.; Haase, F.

    2013-01-01

    A recording system for the generation of current-voltage characteristics of solar panels is presented. The system is intended for large area PV power plants. The recorded curves are used to optimize the energy output of PV power plants, which are likely to be influenced by passing clouds...

  13. Optimizing economic benefit of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems through lowering energy demand of industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems on the rooftop. To promote deployment of PV systems, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the electricity rate is available in many countries to subsidize

  14. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems : a cost–benefit analysis study of industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems can be readily deployed on industrial halls with relatively large rooftop area. Feed-in tariff above the base price of electricity is offered in many countries to subsidize the high initial investment of PV systems. In order to fully capitalize the benefit of the

  15. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  16. Energy performance of semi-transparent PV modules for applications in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Yu Yan

    Owing to the increasing awareness on energy conservation and environmental protection, building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) has been developed rapidly in the past decade. A number of research studies have been conducted on the energy performance of BIPV systems. However, most of the previous studies focused on the systems that incorporated with opaque type PV modules, little attention has been devoted to semi-transparent type PV modules, which have been commonly integrated in modern architectures. This thesis aims at evaluating the energy performance of the semi-transparent BIPV modules, including heat gains to the indoor environment, power generation from the PV modules and daylight utilization. Solar radiation intensity on PV module's surfaces is an essential parameter for assessing energy performance of the PV modules. Different slope solar radiation models are analyzed and compared. The model that best suits Hong Kong situations is selected for the further development of the energy performance of the BIPV modules. The optimum orientation and tilted angle are determined in the analysis. In addition to the solar radiation models, a detailed investigation on the heat gain through the semi-transparent BIPV modules is carried out in this study. A one-dimensional transient heat transfer model, the SPVHG model, for evaluating the thermal performance of the semi-transparent BIPV modules is developed. The SPVHG model considers in detail the energy that is transmitted, absorbed and reflected in each element of the BIPV modules such as solar cells and glass layers. A computer program of the model is written accordingly. By applying the SPVHG model, the heat gain through the semi-transparent BIPV module of any thickness can be determined for any solar irradiance level. The annual performance can also be assessed by inputting annual weather data to the model. In order to verify the SPVHG model, laboratory tests have been carried out on semi-transparent BIPV modules. A

  17. Decentralized control of a scalable photovoltaic (PV)-battery hybrid power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myungchin; Bae, Sungwoo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design and control of a PV-battery hybrid power system. • Reliable and scalable operation of hybrid power systems is achieved. • System and power control are performed without a centralized controller. • Reliability and scalability characteristics are studied in a quantitative manner. • The system control performance is verified using realistic solar irradiation data. - Abstract: This paper presents the design and control of a sustainable standalone photovoltaic (PV)-battery hybrid power system (HPS). The research aims to develop an approach that contributes to increased level of reliability and scalability for an HPS. To achieve such objectives, a PV-battery HPS with a passively connected battery was studied. A quantitative hardware reliability analysis was performed to assess the effect of energy storage configuration to the overall system reliability. Instead of requiring the feedback control information of load power through a centralized supervisory controller, the power flow in the proposed HPS is managed by a decentralized control approach that takes advantage of the system architecture. Reliable system operation of an HPS is achieved through the proposed control approach by not requiring a separate supervisory controller. Furthermore, performance degradation of energy storage can be prevented by selecting the controller gains such that the charge rate does not exceed operational requirements. The performance of the proposed system architecture with the control strategy was verified by simulation results using realistic irradiance data and a battery model in which its temperature effect was considered. With an objective to support scalable operation, details on how the proposed design could be applied were also studied so that the HPS could satisfy potential system growth requirements. Such scalability was verified by simulating various cases that involve connection and disconnection of sources and loads. The

  18. Review on the Recent Developments of Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Based Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T system emerged as one of the convenient type of renewable energy system acquire the ability to generate power and thermal energy in the absence of moving parts. However, the power output of PV/T is intermittent due to dependency on solar irradiation condition. Furthermore, its efficiency decreases because of cells instability at high temperature. On the other hand, fuel cell co-generation system (CGS is another technology that can generate power and heat simultaneously. Integration of PV/T and fuel cell CGS could enhance the reliability and sustainability of both systems as well as increasing the overall system performance. Hence, this paper intended to present the parameters that affect performance of PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC CGS. Moreover, recent developments on PV/T-fuel cell hybrid system are also presented. Based on literates, mass flow rate of moving fluid in PV/T was found to affect the system efficiency. For the PEMFC, when the heat is utilized, the system performance can be increased where the heat efficiency is similar to electrical efficiency which is about 50%. Recent developments of hybrid PV/T and fuel cell show that most of the studies only focus on the power generation of the system. There are less study on the both power and heat utilization which is indeed necessary in future development in term of operation strategy, optimization of size, and operation algorithm.

  19. A modified P&O MPPT algorithm for single-phase PV systems based on deadbeat control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    A modified perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is presented to improve maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This modified algorithm is applied to a single-phase PV system based on deadbeat control in order to test the tracking accuracy and its impact...... on the reliability of the whole system. Both simulations and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm offers a fast response as well as smaller steady-state oscillations even under low irradiance condition compared with classical methods....

  20. Grid tied PV/battery system architecture and power management for fast electric vehicle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed O.

    The prospective spread of Electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) arises the need for fast charging rates. Higher charging rates requirements lead to high power demands, which cant be always supported by the grid. Thus, the use of on-site sources alongside the electrical grid for EVs charging is a rising area of interest. In this dissertation, a photovoltaic (PV) source is used to support the high power EVs charging. However, the PV output power has an intermittent nature that is dependable on the weather conditions. Thus, battery storage are combined with the PV in a grid tied system, providing a steady source for on-site EVs use in a renewable energy based fast charging station. Verily, renewable energy based fast charging stations should be cost effective, efficient, and reliable to increase the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. Thus, this Dissertation proposes a novel power flow management topology that aims on decreasing the running cost along with innovative hardware solutions and control structures for the developed architecture. The developed power flow management topology operates the hybrid system at the minimum operating cost while extending the battery lifetime. An optimization problem is formulated and two stages of optimization, i.e online and offline stages, are adopted to optimize the batteries state of charge (SOC) scheduling and continuously compensate for the forecasting errors. The proposed power flow management topology is validated and tested with two metering systems, i.e unified and dual metering systems. The results suggested that minimal power flow is anticipated from the battery storage to the grid in the dual metering system. Thus, the power electronic interfacing system is designed accordingly. Interconnecting bi-directional DC/DC converters are analyzed, and a cascaded buck boost (CBB) converter is chosen and tested under 80 kW power flow rates. The need to perform power factor correction (PFC) on

  1. Assessment of MPPT Techniques During the Faulty Conditions of PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhukya Krishna Naick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Distributed Generation (DG systems like wind energy systems and solar Photovoltaic (PV systems on the generation of electricity has increased. Out of these DG systems, the PV systems have gained wide popularity, because of the availability of solar energy throughout the day. Depending on the size of PV installations, a large number of PV modules can be interconnected in the form of series and parallel connection. Since a large number of modules are interconnected, it is possible for the faults in a PV array to occur due to the failure of protection system, which can cause damage to the PV module and also the decrease in the output power. This paper presents the tracking of a maximum power point under the faulty conditions of 12x5 PV array. The fault conditions that have been considered in the PV array are open circuit fault, line to ground, line to line and failure of bypass diodes. Perturb and observe, incremental conductance and fuzzy logic controller are the maximum power point tracking techniques that have been implemented. For each of the fault conditions, the results have been presented in terms of the maximum power tracked, tracking time and tracking efficiency.

  2. Maximum power point tracking controller for PV systems using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, A.B.G. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering; Helwa, N.H.; Ahmad, G.E.; El Shenawy, E.T. [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt). Solar Energy Dept.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a development and implementation of a PC-based maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for PV system using neural networks (NN). The system consists of a PV module via a MPPT supplying a dc motor that drives an air fan. The control algorithm is developed to use the artificial NN for detecting the optimal operating point under different operating conditions, then the control action gives the driving signals to the MPPT. A PC is used for data acquisition, running the control algorithm, data storage, as well as data display and analysis. The system has been implemented and tested under various operating conditions. The experimental results showed that the PV system with MPPT always tracks the peak power point of the PV module under various operating conditions. The MPPT transmits about 97% of the actual maximum power generated by the PV module. The MPPT not only increases the power from the PV module to the load, but also maintains longer operating periods for the PV system. The air velocity and the air mass flow rate of the mechanical load are increased considerably, due to the increase of the PV system power. It is also found that the increase in the output energy due to using the MPPT is about 45.2% for a clear sunny day. (Author)

  3. Performance of CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test has shown encouraging results for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the performance of the test could be affected by different factors like gene polymorphisms, excess heat and humidity. Hence, evaluation of the performance of ...

  4. Operational characteristic analysis of PV generation system for grid connection by using a senseless MPPT control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.-J.; Kim, K.-H.; Park, H.-Y.; Seo, H.-R.; Park, M.; Yu, I.-K. [Changwon National Univ., SarimDong (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    In photovoltaics, the sun's light energy is captured to create electricity. One of the key issues about a photovoltaic (PV) generation system is to keep the output power of photovoltaic cells maximized under any weather conditions. In a conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control method, both voltage and current coming out from PV array require feedback. The system may fail to track the MPP of a PV array when unexpected weather conditions happen. This paper proposed a novel PV output senseless (POS) control method to solve the problem. The proposed POS MPPT control method only had one factor to consider, the load current. To verify this theory, a POS MPPT control was applied to a manufactured PV generation system, and the results of the the simulated and experimental data under real weather conditions were compared and analyzed. Several tables and diagrams were presented, including the circuit diagram of a manufactured PV generation system connected to grid as well as the the specifications of the PV array and PCS used for the experiment. Reasonable results were obtained in this study. In addition, the scheme was found to be very useful in maximizing power from PV array to load with feedback of only the load current. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 15 figs.

  5. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  6. Design of Energy Storage Control Strategy to Improve the PV System Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Mingyu; Yang, Zilong; Wang, Yibo

    2016-01-01

    Random fluctuation of PV power is becoming a more and more serious problem affecting the power quality and stability of grid as the PV penetration keeps increasing recent years. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposed a control strategy of energy storage system based on Model Predictive Contr...

  7. Overview of PV Wind hybrid system activities in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines, in some cases additionally with wind energy converters, and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centers in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300,000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaic, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilization of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. [Espanol] Para la electrificacion en toda Europa de casas de campo en la montana, centros de informacion, parques naturales, granjas aisladas o conjuntos habitacionales, se estan usando generadores fotovoltaicos combinados con maquinas diesel, en algunos casos adicionalmente con convertidores de energia del viento y baterias para el almacenamiento de energia. Se estima que en Europa un total de 300,000 edificios no estan conectados a la red publica. Esto representa un gran mercado potencial para los sistemas fotovoltaicos, ya que a menudo la generacion fotovoltaica es menos costosa que una conexion a la empresa electrica. El Instituto Fraunhofer para Sistemas de Energia Solar ISE ha planeado, llevado a cabo y monitoreado alrededor de 30 sistemas hibridos remotos de suministro de energia con generadores fotovoltaicos

  8. Overview of PV Wind hybrid system activities in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G; Gabler, H; Kiefer, K; Preiser, K; Wiemken, E [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines, in some cases additionally with wind energy converters, and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centers in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300,000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaic, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilization of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. [Espanol] Para la electrificacion en toda Europa de casas de campo en la montana, centros de informacion, parques naturales, granjas aisladas o conjuntos habitacionales, se estan usando generadores fotovoltaicos combinados con maquinas diesel, en algunos casos adicionalmente con convertidores de energia del viento y baterias para el almacenamiento de energia. Se estima que en Europa un total de 300,000 edificios no estan conectados a la red publica. Esto representa un gran mercado potencial para los sistemas fotovoltaicos, ya que a menudo la generacion fotovoltaica es menos costosa que una conexion a la empresa electrica. El Instituto Fraunhofer para Sistemas de Energia Solar ISE ha planeado, llevado a cabo y monitoreado alrededor de 30 sistemas hibridos remotos de suministro de energia con generadores fotovoltaicos

  9. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Wind-PV-ES and Transmission Hybrid Power System Consideration of System Functionality and Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizheng Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background of decreasing fossil fuels and increasing environmental pollution, the wind-photovoltaic energy storage and transmission hybrid power system (or called the wind-PV-ES and transmission hybrid system has become a strategic choice to achieve energy sustainability. However, the comprehensive benefit evaluation of such a combined power system is in a relatively blank state in China, which will hinder the reasonable and orderly development of this station. Four parts, the technical performance, economic benefit, ecological impact and social benefit, are considered in this paper, and a multi-angle evaluation index system of the wind-PV-ES and transmission system is designed. The projection pursuit model is used to evaluated system functionality conventionally; relative entropy theory is used to evaluate the system functionality simultaneously; and a comprehensive benefit evaluation model of the technique for order preference by similar to ideal solution (TOPSIS considering both system functionality and proportionality is constructed. Finally, the national demonstration station of the wind-PV-ES-transmission system is taken as an example to testify to the practicability and validity of the evaluation index system and model.

  10. Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huayamave, Victor [Centecorp; Divo, Eduardo [Centecorp; Ceballos, Andres [Centecorp; Barriento, Carolina [Centecorp; Stephen, Barkaszi [FSEC; Hubert, Seigneur [FSEC

    2014-03-21

    The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals

  11. Integration of Behind-the-Meter PV Fleet Forecasts into Utility Grid System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Thomas Hoff [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States); Kankiewicz, Adam [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Four major research objectives were completed over the course of this study. Three of the objectives were to evaluate three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models. The fourth objective was to improve the California Independent System Operator’s (ISO) load forecasts by integrating behind-the-meter (BTM) PV forecasts. The three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models included: the infrared (IR) satellite-based cloud motion vector (CMV) model; the WRF-SolarCA model and variants; and the Optimized Deep Machine Learning (ODML)-training model. The first two forecasting models targeted known weaknesses in current operational solar forecasts. They were benchmarked against existing operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts, visible satellite CMV forecasts, and measured PV plant power production. IR CMV, WRF-SolarCA, and ODML-training forecasting models all improved the forecast to a significant degree. Improvements varied depending on time of day, cloudiness index, and geographic location. The fourth objective was to demonstrate that the California ISO’s load forecasts could be improved by integrating BTM PV forecasts. This objective represented the project’s most exciting and applicable gains. Operational BTM forecasts consisting of 200,000+ individual rooftop PV forecasts were delivered into the California ISO’s real-time automated load forecasting (ALFS) environment. They were then evaluated side-by-side with operational load forecasts with no BTM-treatment. Overall, ALFS-BTM day-ahead (DA) forecasts performed better than baseline ALFS forecasts when compared to actual load data. Specifically, ALFS-BTM DA forecasts were observed to have the largest reduction of error during the afternoon on cloudy days. Shorter term 30 minute-ahead ALFS-BTM forecasts were shown to have less error under all sky conditions, especially during the morning time periods when traditional load forecasts often experience their largest

  12. Comparative study of adaptive controller using MIT rules and Lyapunov method for MPPT standalone PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, N.; Bouknadel, A.; Haddou, A.; Ikken, N.; Omari, Hafsa El; Omari, Hamid El

    2017-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Generator have a nonlinear characteristic function relating the intensity at the voltage I = f (U) and depend on the variation of solar irradiation and temperature, In addition, its point of operation depends directly on the load that it supplies. To fix this drawback, and to extract the maximum power available to the terminal of the generator, an adaptation stage is introduced between the generator and the load to couple the two elements as perfectly as possible. The adaptation stage is associated with a command called MPPT MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) whose is used to force the PVG to operate at the MPP (Maximum Power Point) under variation of climatic conditions and load variation. This paper presents a comparative study between the adaptive controller for PV Systems using MIT rules and Lyapunov method to regulate the PV voltage. The Incremental Conductance (IC) algorithm is used to extract the maximum power from the PVG by calculating the voltage Vref, and the adaptive controller is used to regulate and track quickly the PV voltage. The two methods of the adaptive controller will be compared to prove their performance by using the PSIM tools and experimental test, and the mathematical model of step-up with PVG model will be presented.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC PERFORMANCE OF STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra Kishore; Anirban Nandy*; O.P. Pandey

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an insight solar PV Stand Alone system which is a practical model with a halogen light source. At different situations the performance of solar PV cells are analyzed. The system produces power with depending on the change in halogen light intensity & temperature. A theoretical & experimental analysis of the PV cell can be achieved. In this paper the I-V & P-V characteristic of the solar photovoltaic cells with changes in temperature and isolation have been showed. With...

  14. Economic Comparison of Two Business Models for Implementation of Small Integrated PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matak, N.; Krajacic, G.; Jerkic, E.; Duic, N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared two different models for the implementation of small photovoltaic solar systems in the Croatia. The new prosumer model presented in the new Croatian law on the Renewable Energy Sources and Highly Efficient Cogeneration (OG 100/15) and PV ESCO model which is similar to net metering. The PV ESCO model is developed from authors to determine possibility to raise payback period of small integrated PV systems. The comparison was done on a 15-minute basis and there were compared values of Simple Payback Period (SPP) for different locations and systems size considering electricity demand and market prices. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) were compared for 4 different cases. Conducted comparison showed that PV ESCO model is always more favourable for the owner of PV system in terms of lower SPP and higher IRR and NPV. It has been noticed that for systems higher than 5 kWp use of PV ESCO model is recommended. For smaller systems it is not always clear which model should be used, since some losses are generated in the system on the side of the electricity supply company. For smaller systems from 2 to 5 kWp, PV ESCO model has SPP from 7.5 to 13 years and SPP value for the prosumer model is 8.7 to 15 years. This difference is higher when comparing PV system from 6 to 10 kWp. SPP for PV ESCO model, in that case, is from 10 to 13 years and in the prosumer model is from 17.5 to 28 years.(author).

  15. A novel solar multifunctional PV/T/D system for green building roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chaoqing; Zheng, Hongfei; Wang, Rui; Yu, Xu; Su, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel transparent roof combines the solar PV/T/D system with green building design. • Novel photovoltaic-thermal roofing design can achieve excellent light control at noon. • The roof has no obvious influence on indoor light intensity in morning and afternoon. • Higher efficiency of solar energy utilization could be achieved with new roofing. - Abstract: A novel transparent roof which is made of solid CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) PV/T/D (Photovoltaic/Thermal/Day lighting) system is presented. It combines the solar PV/T/D system with green building design. The PV/T/D system can achieve excellent light control at noon and adjust the thermal environment in the building, such that high efficiency utilization of solar energy could be achieved in modern architecture. This kind of roof can increase the visual comfort for building occupants; it can also avoid the building interior from overheating and dazzling at noon which is caused by direct sunlight through transparent roof. Optical simulation software is used to track the light path in different incidence angles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and steady state experiment have been taken to investigate the thermal characteristic of PV/T/D device. Finally, the PV/T/D experimental system was built; and the PV efficiency, light transmittance and air heating power of the system are tested under real sky conditions

  16. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T. [Cascade Engineering, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  17. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Jinzhi; Duan, Yuanfeng; Lu, Xilin; Peng, Jinqing

    2014-01-01

    BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV) modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedd...

  18. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to networks in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and

  19. Analytical evaluation of the operation data from selected PV-demonstration systems in the MuD-programme. Final report; Analytische Auswertung der Messergebnisse von ausgewaehlten PV-Demonstrationsanlagen im MuD-Programm. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabler, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Heinemann, D. [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 8 - Physik; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    From several PV-demonstration programmes, real performance data and the range in utilizing the systems are obtained. Nevertheless, for a particular system, no precise assessment and interpretation of the real system behaviour can be given: The quantification and the separation of the avoidable and of the unavoidable energy losses in the system is not to perform from the monitored data alone. Aim of this project was the interpretation of real operation data of PV-systems, the calculation of all steps of energy conversion and hence the determination of the energy losses in particular PV-systems as well as the presentation of a measure for energy production and system performance. This task includes a brief survey of the optimization potential of the energetic performance. The method choosen was an energy flow analysis, carried out on selected demonstration plants of the MuD-programme. For this reason, detailed simulation models were used. The results of the simulation calculations gives the measure to interprete the monitored system performance. In the course of the project, the analytical evaluation has shown a large ability in the assessment and interpretation of real system perforamances. Since the concept of the evaluation is transferable to many PV-systems, it represents a base for further applications in this field and in the field of the online-system control of PV-plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] In verschiedenen Demonstrationsprogrammen werden aus Langzeitmessungen Groessenordnung und Spannbreite der Nutzungsgrade photovoltaischer Anlagen ermittelt. Fuer eine spezifische Anlage ist damit jedoch keine praezise Einschaetzung bzw. Interpretation des Systemverhaltens moeglich, da die Quantifizierung der unvermeidbaren und der vermeidbaren Energieverluste im System nicht aus den Messdaten allein erfolgen kann. Ziel dieses Projektes war die Interpretation des reellen Betriebs von PV-Anlagen, die Berechnung der Zusammensetzung und der Bandbreite der Energieverluste im

  20. Adaptive Harmonic Compensation in Residential Distribution Grid by Roof-Top PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    grid- connected roof-top PV inverters in residential distribution grid can be an opportunity to engage these systems in the power quality issues as custom power devices. By implementing a proper control for roof-top PV inverters, these systems may in addition to inject the fundamental current......, additionally act like a virtual harmonic resistance and dedicate their additional current capacity to compensate the harmonics of residential distribution grid. In this paper, each roof-top PV system is a grid harmonic supervisor, where it continually measures the PCC voltage harmonics by Sliding Discrete...

  1. Simplified life-cycle analysis of PV systems in buildings: present situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankl, P.; Masini, A.; Gamberale, M.; Toccaceli, D.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings shows several advantages compared to conventional PV power plants. The main objectives of the present study are the quantitative evaluation of the benefits of building-integrated PV systems over their entire life-cycle and the identification of best solutions to maximise their energy efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential. In order to achieve these objectives, a simplified life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been carried out. Firstly, a number of existing applications have been studied. Secondly, a parametric analysis of possible improvements in the balance-of-system (BOS) has been developed. Finally, the two steps have been combined with the analysis of crystalline silicon technologies. Results are reported in terms of several indicators: energy pay-back time, CO 2 yield and specific CO 2 emissions. The Indicators show that the integration of PV systems in buildings clearly increases the environmental benefits of present PV technology. These benefits will further increase with future PV technologies. Future optimised PV roof-integrated systems are expected to have an energy pay-back time of around 1-5 years (1 year with heat recovery) and to save during their lifetime more than 20 times the amount of CO 2 emitted during their manufacturing (34 times with heat recovery). (Author)

  2. Performance Investigation of Air Velocity Effects on PV Modules under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Junction temperature of PV modules is one of the key parameters on which the performance of PV modules depends. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out to analyze the effects of air velocity on the performance of two PV modules, that is, monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon under the controlled conditions of a wind tunnel in the presence of an artificial solar simulator. The parameters investigated include the surface temperature variation, power output, and efficiency of PV modules under varying air velocity from near zero (indoor lab. conditions to 15 m/s. Additionally, the results were also determined at two different module angular positions: at 0° angle, that is, parallel to air direction and at 10° angle with the direction of coming air to consider the effects of tilt angles. Afterwards, the thermal analysis of the modules was performed using Ansys-Fluent in which junction temperature and heat flux of modules were determined by applying appropriate boundary conditions, such as air velocity, heat flux, and solar radiation. Finally, the numerical results are compared with the experiment in terms of junction temperatures of modules and good agreement was found. Additionally, the results showed that the maximum module temperature drops by 17.2°C and the module efficiency and power output increased from 10 to 12% with increasing air velocity.

  3. Comparative analysis of fixed and sun tracking low power PV systems considering energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Longo, Michela; Roscia, Mariacristina; Pagano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic system prototype with sun tracking. • Energy analysis of fixed and sun tracking built prototypes. • Experimental tests in different environmental conditions. • Theoretical and experimental validation of the prototype. - Abstract: Photovoltaic technology allows to directly convert solar energy into electrical energy with clear advantages: no environmental impact during operation, reliability and durability of the systems, reduced operating costs and maintenance, ability to both supply remote customers and simply connect to the electrical network. This paper evaluates the performance of two photovoltaic systems: one fixed and one equipped with a sun tracker. The objective of this research is to analyze the increase of daily produced energy by using the sun tracking system. The analysis accounts also the energy consumption of the sun tracker. An analytical approach is proposed. To validate the results through experimental tests, two alternative low power PV systems were built. Each system consists of a PV source, a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) power converter and a 12 V–40 A h electrochemical battery, which is used as electric load. The sun tracker system evidenced an important growth of power production during morning and evening

  4. Assessing the influence of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on self-consumption and sizing of PV-battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.; Kondziella, H.; Huard, G.; Bruckner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP optimization model for operation and investment of PV-battery systems. • Use of high resolution (10 s) electrical household load and PV generation profiles. • Analysis of influence of temporal resolution on self-consumption and optimal sizing. • Electrical load profile characteristics influence required temporal resolution. - Abstract: The interest in self-consumption of electricity generated by rooftop photovoltaic systems has grown in recent years, fueled by decreasing levelized costs of electricity and feed-in tariffs as well as increasing end customer electricity prices in the residential sector. This also fostered research on grid-connected PV-battery storage systems, which are a promising technology to increase self-consumption. In this paper a mixed-integer linear optimization model of a PV-battery system that minimizes the total discounted operating and investment costs is developed. The model is employed to study the effect of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on the rate of self-consumption and the optimal sizing of PV and PV-battery systems. In contrast to previous studies high resolution (10 s) measured input data for both PV generation and electrical load profiles is used for the analysis. The data was obtained by smart meter measurements in 25 different households in Germany. It is shown that the temporal resolution of load profiles is more critical for the accuracy of the determination of self-consumption rates than the resolution of the PV generation. For PV-systems without additional storage accurate results can be obtained by using 15 min solar irradiation data. The required accuracy for the electrical load profiles depends strongly on the load profile characteristics. While good results can be obtained with 60 s for all electrical load profiles, 15 min data can still be sufficient for load profiles that do not exhibit most of their electricity consumption at power levels above 2 k

  5. Forecasting the Cell Temperature of PV Modules with an Adaptive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Ciulla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce energy consumptions and to optimize the processes of energy production has pushed the technology towards the implementation of hybrid systems for combined production of electric and thermal energies. In particular, recent researches look with interest at the installation of hybrid system PV/T. To improve the energy performance of these systems, it is necessary to know the operating temperature of the photovoltaic modules. The determination of the operating temperature is a key parameter for the assessment of the actual performance of photovoltaic panels. In the literature, it is possible to find different correlations that evaluate the referring to standard test conditions and/or applying some theoretical simplifications/assumptions. Nevertheless, the application of these different correlations, for the same conditions, does not lead to unequivocal results. In this work an alternative method, based on the employment of artificial neural networks (ANNs, was proposed to predict the operating temperature of a PV module. This methodology does not require any simplification or physical assumptions. In the paper is described the ANN that obtained the best performance: a multilayer perception network. The results have been compared with experimental monitored data and with some of the most cited empirical correlations proposed by different authors.

  6. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for Photovoltaic (PV) System in Solar Car

    OpenAIRE

    Aji, Seno; Ajiatmo, Dwi; Robandi, Imam; Suryoatmojo, Heri

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC) is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cy...

  7. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed M.; El-arini, Mahdi M. M.; Ghitas, Ahmed; Fathy, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  8. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Othman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC. The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  9. Research on comprehensive decision-making of PV power station connecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Erxiong; Xin, Chaoshan; Ma, Botao; Cheng, Kai

    2018-04-01

    In allusion to the incomplete indexes system and not making decision on the subjectivity and objectivity of PV power station connecting system, based on the combination of improved Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation (CRITIC) as well as grey correlation degree analysis (GCDA) is comprehensively proposed to select the appropriate system connecting scheme of PV power station. Firstly, indexes of PV power station connecting system are divided the recursion order hierarchy and calculated subjective weight by the improved AHP. Then, CRITIC is adopted to determine the objective weight of each index through the comparison intensity and conflict between indexes. The last the improved GCDA is applied to screen the optimal scheme, so as to, from the subjective and objective angle, select the connecting system. Comprehensive decision of Xinjiang PV power station is conducted and reasonable analysis results are attained. The research results might provide scientific basis for investment decision.

  10. Improving Performance of LVRT Capability in Single-phase Grid-tied PV Inverters by a Model Predictive Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    dynamic response and stability. To fill in this gap, this paper presents a fast and robust current controller based on a Model-Predictive Control (MPC) for single-phase PV inverters in other to deal with the LVRT operation. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed controller, results...... the voltage sag period is short, a fast dynamic performance along with a soft behavior of the controller is the most important issue in the LVRT duration. Recently, some methods like Proportional Resonant (PR) controllers, have been presented to control the single phase PV systems in LVRT mode. However......, these methods have had uncertainties in respect their contribution in LVRT mode. In PR controllers, a fast dynamic response can be obtained by tuning the gains of PR controllers for a high bandwidth, but typically the phase margin is decreased. Therefore, the design of PR controllers needs a tradeoff between...

  11. A comparative study on the effect of glazing and cooling for compound parabolic concentrator PV systems – Experimental and analytical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahaidarah, Haitham M.; Gandhidasan, P.; Baloch, Ahmer A.B.; Tanweer, Bilal; Mahmood, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We model glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems with and without active water cooling. • Model is validated with experimental results and found good agreement. • Significant increase in the maximum power output is observed with active cooling. • Unglazed PV-CPC system is recommended for greater electric power output. • Levelized cost of energy found was found lower for unglazed CPC with cooling. - Abstract: A key barrier to achieving the economic viability and widespread adoption of photovoltaic (PV) technology for the direct conversion of solar radiation to electricity is the losses related to the high operating temperatures of typical flat-type PV modules. This technical and economic study addresses the cost reduction of PV systems by proposing a methodology for the improvement of solar cell efficiency using low-concentration PV technology and compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs). A theoretical model was developed to evaluate the performance of PV-CPC systems considering their optical, thermal and electrical properties. The model was implemented to investigate glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems with and without active cooling and it was validated against experimental data. A laboratory-scale bench-top PV string was designed and built with symmetrically truncated CPC modules in these four configurations. The constructed glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems were used for measurements at the geographic location of Dhahran and showed a very good agreement of 3.8–6.5% between the calculated and experimental results. The effect of glazing was studied and from the electrical point of view, glazing was found to reduce the power output. From the thermal point of view, glazing increased the thermal gain of the PV-CPC system. An unglazed PV-CPC system is recommended for greater electric power output, and glazed system is recommended for higher thermal gain. For economic feasibility, levelized cost of energy (LCE) analysis was performed using annual

  12. Static Equivalent of Distribution Grids With High Penetration of PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samadi, Afshin; Söder, Lennart; Shayesteh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    High penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems within load pockets in distribution grids have changed pure consumers to prosumers. This can cause technical challenges in distribution and transmission grids, such as overvoltage and reverse power flow. Embedding voltage support schemes into PVs...... equivalent that can fairly capture the dominant behavior of the distribution grids. The aim of this paper is to use gray-box modeling concepts to develop a static equivalent of distribution grids comprising a large number of PV systems embedded with voltage support schemes. In the proposed model, the PV...... systems are aggregated as a separate entity, and not as a negative load, which is traditionally done. The results demonstrate the superior quality of the proposed model compared with the model with PV systems as the negative load....

  13. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  14. PV power system using hybrid converter for LED indictor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Hung-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a LED indictor driving circuit with a PV arrays as its power source. • The perturb-and-observe method is adopted to extract the maximum power of PV arrays. • The proposed circuit structure has a less component counts and higher conversion efficiency. • A prototype of LED indictor driving circuit has been implemented to verify its feasibility. • The proposed hybrid converter is suitable for LED inductor applications. - Abstract: This paper presents a LED indictor driving circuit with a PV arrays as its power source. The LED indictor driving circuit includes battery charger and discharger (LED driving circuit). In this research, buck converter is used as a charger, and forward converter with active clamp circuit is adopted as a discharger to drive the LED indictor. Their circuit structures use switch integration technique to simplify them and to form the proposed hybrid converter, which has a less component counts, lighter weight, smaller size, and higher conversion efficiency. Moreover, the proposed hybrid converter uses a perturb-and-observe method to extract the maximum power from PV arrays. Finally, a prototype of an LED indictor driving circuit with output voltage of 10 V and output power of 20 W has been implemented to verify its feasibility. It is suitable for the LED inductor applications

  15. Environmental aspects of PV power systems. Report on the IEA PVPS Task 1 Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwlaar, E.; Alsema, E.

    1997-12-01

    During normal operation, photovoltaic (PV) power systems do not emit substances that may threaten human health or the environment. In fact, through the savings in conventional electricity production they can lead to significant emission reductions. There are, however, several indirect environmental impacts related to PV power systems that require further consideration. The production of present generation PV power systems is relatively energy intensive, involves the use of large quantities of bulk materials and (smaller) quantities of substances that are scarce and/or toxic. During operation, damaged modules or a fire may lead to the release of hazardous substances. Finally, at the end of their useful life time PV power systems have to be decommissioned, and resulting waste flows have to be managed. An expert workshop was held as part of the International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems Implementing Agreement Programme, to address these environmental aspects of PV power systems. The objectives of the workshop were: (a) review/overview of issues and approaches regarding environmental aspects of PV power systems; (b) enhanced clarity and consensus regarding e.g. Energy Pay-Back Time; (c) identification of issues of environmental importance regarding PV power systems ('hot spots'); (d) identification of issues requiring further attention ('white spots'); and (e) establish a network of researchers working on PV environmental issues. 25 participants from Europe, the United States, Japan, and Australia attended the workshop, representing the researchers in the field of environmental aspects of PV systems, R ampersand D managers, industry and utilities. The environmental issues that are considered most relevant for PV power systems were identified in the workshop as well as the approaches that may be used to investigate them. The main environmental issues discussed at the workshop were: energy use; resource depletion (e.g. the resource availability for indium

  16. The Development of Monitoring and Control System of the Low PV/T Solar System

    OpenAIRE

    Okhorzina Alena; Bikbulatov Alexander; Yurchenko Alexey; Bernhard Norbert; Aldoshina Oksana

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an autonomous PV/T solar installation. Installing converts solar energy into electricity and heat. The description of its components and elements that enhance its effectiveness shows. The description of the control program and control of the installation is given. The control system provides for tracking the sun and cooling the photovoltaic module.

  17. Understanding innovation system build up. The rise and fall of the Dutch PV Innovation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, S.O.; Vasseur, V.; Hekkert, M.P.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies have a hard time to break through in the existing energy regime. In this paper we focus on analysing the mechanisms behind this problematic technology diffusion. We take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to photovoltaic solar energy technology (PV) in the Netherlands. The reason for this is that there is a long history of policy efforts in The Netherlands to stimulate PV but results in terms of diffusion of PV panels is disappointingly low, which clearly constitutes a case of slow diffusion. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build up of innovation systems. We show that the processes related to knowledge development are very stable but that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to 'guidance of the search' and 'market formation'. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the theoretical implications for the technological innovation system framework.

  18. Optimal Design of Wind-PV-Diesel-Battery System using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryoatmojo, Heri; Hiyama, Takashi; Elbaset, Adel A.; Ashari, Mochamad

    Application of diesel generators to supply the load demand on isolated islands in Indonesia has widely spread. With increases in oil price and the concerns about global warming, the integration of diesel generators with renewable energy systems have become an attractive energy sources for supplying the load demand. This paper performs an optimal design of integrated system involving Wind-PV-Diesel-Battery system for isolated island with CO2 emission evaluation by using genetic algorithm. The proposed system has been designed for the hybrid power generation in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia-latitude 09.30S, longitude 122.0E. From simulation results, the proposed system is able to minimize the total annual cost of the system under study and reduce CO2 emission generated by diesel generators.

  19. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  20. Quantification, challenges and outlook of PV integration in the power system: a review by the European PV Technology Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Baccaro, Federica; De Felice, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Integration in the power system has become a limiting factor to the further development of photovoltaics. Proper quantification is needed to evaluate both issues and solutions; the share of annual electricity demand is widely used but we found that some of the metrics which are related to power...... rather than energy better reflect the impact on networks. Barriers to wider deployment of PV into power grids can be split between local technical issues (voltage levels, harmonics distortion, reverse power flows and transformer loading) and system-wide issues (intermittency, reduction of system...... resilience). Many of the technical solutions to these issues rely on the inverters as actuators (e.g., for control of active and reactive power) or as interfaces (e.g., for local storage). This role requires further technical standardisation and needs to be taken into account in the planning of power...

  1. Optimum Design Of PV Systems For BTS In Remote And Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Hossam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available knowing that Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile network the economical problem of providing electrical energy to mobile BTS stations may be solved to a great extent if renewable energy sources are used. In remote areas where electric utility is not available photovoltaic PV stand-alone system using storage batteries represent a good solution although it is costly. It is also possible to have a hybrid stand-alone system using diesel generator combined with PV to supply BTS stations in remote areas. In urban areas PV on grid system is an economical solution. In such a system during sunshine hours PV system delivers part of its generated energy to BTS station and the rest to grid utility whereas during night BTS station is supplied by grid to get back what was supplied to the grid during day. The economics of the different proposals is the criterion of optimization i.e. the cost per generated Kwh is the crucial objective function to be minimized. In this work we optimize both stand-alone PV system and PV on grid system to supply remote and urban indoor or outdoor BTS stations.

  2. User acceptance of diesel/PV hybrid system in an island community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuangpornpitak, N.; Kumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted at a rural (island) community to understand the role of PV hybrid system installed on an island. Until 2004, most islanders had installed diesel generators in their homes to generate electricity, which was directly supplied to appliances or stored in the batteries for later use. A field survey was carried out to study the user satisfaction of the PV hybrid system in the island community. The attitude of islanders to the PV hybrid system was mostly positive. The islanders can use more electricity, the supply of which can meet the demand. A comparison of pollutions before and after installation of the PV hybrid system was made along with the interviews with the users. The data show that the users are highly satisfied with the PV hybrid system which can reduce environmental impact, especially air and noise pollutions. New opportunities as a result of access to electric service include studying and reading at night that were not possible earlier. All the islanders use the PV hybrid system and more importantly, no one found that the system made their life worse as compared to the earlier state of affairs. (author)

  3. A Fuzzy-Based PI Controller for Power Management of a Grid-Connected PV-SOFC Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankar Sukumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar power generation is intermittent in nature. It is nearly impossible for a photovoltaic (PV system to supply power continuously and consistently to a varying load. Operating a controllable source like a fuel cell in parallel with PV can be a solution to supply power to variable loads. In order to coordinate the power supply from fuel cells and PVs, a power management system needs to be designed for the microgrid system. This paper presents a power management system for a grid-connected PV and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, considering variation in the load and solar radiation. The objective of the proposed system is to minimize the power drawn from the grid and operate the SOFC within a specific power range. Since the PV is operated at the maximum power point, the power management involves the control of SOFC active power where a proportional and integral (PI controller is used. The control parameters of the PI controller Kp (proportional constant and Ti (integral time constant are determined by the genetic algorithm (GA and simplex method. In addition, a fuzzy logic controller is also developed to generate appropriate control parameters for the PI controller. The performance of the controllers is evaluated by minimizing the integral of time multiplied by absolute error (ITAE criterion. Simulation results showed that the fuzzy-based PI controller outperforms the PI controller tuned by the GA and simplex method in managing the power from the hybrid source effectively under variations of load and solar radiation.

  4. An investigation of the maximum penetration level of a photovoltaic (PV) system into a traditional distribution grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have remained the fastest growing renewable power generating technology, variability as well as uncertainty in the output of PV plants is a significant issue. This rapid increase in PV grid-connected generation presents not only progress in clean energy but also challenges in integration with traditional electric power grids which were designed for transmission and distribution of power from central stations. Unlike conventional electric generators, PV panels do not have rotating parts and thus have no inertia. This potentially causes a problem when the solar irradiance incident upon a PV plant changes suddenly, for example, when scattered clouds pass quickly overhead. The output power of the PV plant may fluctuate nearly as rapidly as the incident irradiance. These rapid power output fluctuations may then cause voltage fluctuations, frequency fluctuations, and power quality issues. These power quality issues are more severe with increasing PV plant power output. This limits the maximum power output allowed from interconnected PV plants. Voltage regulation of a distribution system, a focus of this research, is a prime limiting factor in PV penetration levels. The IEEE 13-node test feeder, modeled and tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, was used as an example distribution feeder to analyze the maximum acceptable penetration of a PV plant. The effect of the PV plant's location was investigated, along with the addition of a VAR compensating device (a D-STATCOM in this case). The results were used to develop simple guidelines for determining an initial estimate of the maximum PV penetration level on a distribution feeder. For example, when no compensating devices are added to the system, a higher level of PV penetration is generally achieved by installing the PV plant close to the substation. The opposite is true when a VAR compensator is installed with the PV plant. In these cases, PV penetration levels over 50% may be

  5. Highlight of Grid-connected PV systems in administrative buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy applications are becoming increasingly common in Egypt. The abundant sunshine in Egypt, as well as the increasing competitiveness of solar energy systems including- but not limited to photovoltaic (PV, – predicts that these technologies could be weighed to be raised in Egypt.PV systems are installed on roof tiles or other parts of building structures to supplement grid utility, reduce electric bills, and provide emergency back–up energy. Moreover, they simultaneously reduce significant amounts of CO2 emissions. It is foreseen, a number of residential and public buildings in Egypt are using solar power to cut electric utility bills significantly. The approximately payback period to recover the investment costs for PV systems is up to about 5 years.  In addition, it is more economical to use PV system than grid utility systems. The two components that determine the total initial price of a grid- connected PV system are the modules and the balance of systems (BOS. The BOS includes different components such as mounting frames, inverters and site- specific installation hardware.The Government of Egypt (GOE has endorsed the deployment of PV systems through three approaches. It started with a prime minister decree to install PV projects on one-thousand of the governmental buildings. This was followed by as an initiative called "Shamsk ya Masr", and finally the Feed-in Tariff (FiT projects.Following the prime minster decree the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC and its affiliated companies took the lead to install PV systems at the top roof of their administrative buildings and interconnect these systems to the electricity network where the suitable locations have been selected for mounting them. About 90 PV systems have been already mounted with about a capacity of 9 MW. On the other hand, "Shamsk ya Masr" has considered energy efficiency (EE so as to complement the PV systems, which will be installed on administrative

  6. A Modular PV System Using Chain-Link-Type Multilevel Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Nobuhiko; Ise, Toshifumi

    This paper presents a modular photovoltaic system (MPVS) that uses a chain-link-type multilevel converter (CLMC). In large-scale PV generating systems, the DC power supply is generally composed of a large number of PV panels. Hence, losses are caused by differences in the maximum power point at each PV panel. An MPVS has been proposed to address the above mentioned problem. It helps improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by applying maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control to each group of PV panels. In addition, if a CLMC is used in an MPVS, a high voltage can be output from the AC side and transmission losses can be decreased. However, with this circuit configuration, the current output from the AC side may be unbalanced. Therefore, we propose a method to output balanced current from the AC side, even if the output of the DC power supply is unbalanced. The validity of the proposed method is examined by digital simulation.

  7. Efficiency improvement of the maximum power point tracking for PV systems using support vector machine technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareim, Ameer A; Mansor, Muhamad Bin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve efficiency of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for PV systems. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) was proposed to achieve the MPPT controller. The theoretical, the perturbation and observation (P and O), and incremental conductance (IC) algorithms were used to compare with proposed SVM algorithm. MATLAB models for PV module, theoretical, SVM, P and O, and IC algorithms are implemented. The improved MPPT uses the SVM method to predict the optimum voltage of the PV system in order to extract the maximum power point (MPP). The SVM technique used two inputs which are solar radiation and ambient temperature of the modeled PV module. The results show that the proposed SVM technique has less Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and higher efficiency than P and O and IC methods.

  8. System modelling and energy management for grid connected PV systems associated with storage

    OpenAIRE

    Riffonneau , Yann; DELAILLE , Arnaud; Barruel , Franck; Bacha , Seddik

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the modelling and energy management of a grid connected PV system associatedwith storage. Within the economic, energetic and environmental context, objective of the system is to ensure loadssupply at the least cost by optimising the use of solar power. Therefore, due to the complicated operating patterns, anenergy management system which decides on energy flow for any moment is necessary. First, we present the systemstudied. Based on an AC bus typol...

  9. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd.Ikram Mohd. Rashid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the amount of sunlight captured by the photovoltaic modules/arrays. This paper describes a simple electro-mechanical dual axis solar tracking system designed and developed in a study. The control of the two axes was achieved by the pulses generated from the data acquisition (DAQ card fed into four relays. This approach was so chosen to effectively avoid the error that usually arises in sensor-based methods. The programming of the mathematical models of the solar elevation and azimuth angles was done using Borland C++ Builder. The performance and accuracy of the developed system was evaluated with a PV panel at latitude 3.53o N and longitude 103.5o W in Malaysia. The results obtained reflect the effectiveness of the developed tracking system in terms of the energy yield when compared with that generated from a fixed panel. Overall, 20%, 23% and 21% additional energy were produced for the months of March, April and May respectively using the tracker developed in this study.

  10. Integrating solar PV (photovoltaics) in utility system operations: Analytical framework and Arizona case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Botterud, Audun; Mills, Andrew; Zhou, Zhi; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Heaney, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed to estimate the impact on operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources. The framework quantifies the integration costs associated with sub-hourly variability and uncertainty as well as day-ahead forecasting errors in solar PV (photovoltaics) power. A case study illustrates how changes in system operations may affect these costs for a utility in the southwestern United States (Arizona Public Service Company). We conduct an extensive sensitivity analysis under different assumptions about balancing reserves, system flexibility, fuel prices, and forecasting errors. We find that high solar PV penetrations may lead to operational challenges, particularly during low-load and high solar periods. Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing integration costs and maintaining reliability. In a set of sensitivity cases where such flexibility is provided, in part, by flexible operations of nuclear power plants, the estimated integration costs vary between $1.0 and $4.4/MWh-PV for a PV penetration level of 17%. The integration costs are primarily due to higher needs for hour-ahead balancing reserves to address the increased sub-hourly variability and uncertainty in the PV resource. - Highlights: • We propose an analytical framework to estimate grid integration costs for solar PV. • Increased operating costs from variability and uncertainty in solar PV are computed. • A case study of a utility in Arizona is conducted. • Grid integration costs are found in the $1.0–4.4/MWh range for a 17% PV penetration. • Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing grid integration costs

  11. An analysis of residential PV system price differences between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, Joachim; Barbose, Galen L.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany (median of $5.29/W vs. $2.59/W) in 2012. This price discrepancy stems primarily from differences in non-hardware or “soft” costs between the two countries, which can only in part be explained by differences in cumulative market size and associated learning. A survey of German PV installers was deployed to collect granular data on PV soft costs in Germany, and the results are compared to those of a similar survey of U.S. PV installers. Non-module hardware costs and all analyzed soft costs are lower in Germany, especially for customer acquisition, installation labor, and profit/overhead costs, but also for expenses related to permitting, interconnection, and inspection procedures. Additional costs occur in the United States due to state and local sales taxes, smaller average system sizes, and longer project-development times. To reduce the identified additional costs of residential PV systems, the United States could introduce policies that enable a robust and lasting market while minimizing market fragmentation. Regularly declining incentives offering a transparent and certain value proposition—combined with simple interconnection, permitting, and inspection requirements—might help accelerate PV cost reductions in the United States. - Highlights: • Residential PV system prices are twice as high in the USA than in Germany in 2012. • Different cumulative national PV market sizes explain only 35% of price gap. • Installer surveys show that price differences stem from non-module and soft costs. • Largest cost differences stem from customer acquisition and installation labor. • Incentives in the US are less effective in driving and following cost reductions

  12. Simulation Model developed for a Small-Scale PV-System in a Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a PV panel simulation model using the single-diode four-parameter model based on data sheet values. The model was implemented first in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results have been compared with the data sheet values and characteristics of the PV panels in standard test condition...... and implemented in PowerFactory to study load flow, steady-state voltage stability and dynamic behavior of a distributed power system....

  13. Optimal Photovoltaic System Sizing of a Hybrid Diesel/PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Belhamadia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost analysis study of a hybrid diesel and Photovoltaic (PV system in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. It first presents the climate conditions of the city followed by the load profile of a 2MVA network; the system was evaluated as a standalone system. Diesel generator rating was considered such that it follows ISO 8528. The maximum size of the PV system was selected such that its penetration would not exceed 25%. Several sizes were considered but the 400kWp system was found to be the most cost efficient. Cost estimation was done using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER. Based on the simulation results, the climate conditions and the NEC 960, the numbers of the maximum and minimum series modules were suggested as well as the maximum number of the parallel strings.

  14. Development of a test facility for PV-Wind hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Mustafa [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Ege Tech., Electronics Technolgy; Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

    2010-07-01

    To quantify the potential for performance improvements of photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy systems, a test facility has been installed at the Solar Energy Institute, Ege University. Hybrid system consist of a wind turbine, PV array, battery, AC and DC loads, inverters, charge regulators and a data logging and control unit. The collected data are first conditioned using precision electronic circuits and then interfaced to a PC using a data logging unit. The LABVIEW program is used to further process, display and store the collected data in the PC disk. The proposed data logging and control unit permits the rapid system development and has the advantage of flexibility in the case of changes, while it can be easily extended for controlling the of photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy system operation. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of long term performance measurements of PV modules with different technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Degner, T.; Ries, M.

    2004-01-01

    PV modules of six different technologies (m-Si, mc-Si, EFG, CIS, CdTe, a-Si) have been monitored concerning the performance under external conditions for a period of more than 2 years. In addition to the standard solar radiation measurements with pyranometer solar sensors with corresponding cell technology have been used to supplement the measurements. This allows in principle to consider spectral effects. The solar radiation measured with the sensor and the pyranometer is analysed on monthly...

  16. Integrated application of combined cooling, heating and power poly-generation PV radiant panel system of zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan

    2018-02-01

    A new type of combined cooling, heating and power of photovoltaic radiant panel (PV/R) module was proposed, and applied in the zero energy buildings in this paper. The energy system of this building is composed of PV/R module, low temperature difference terminal, energy storage, multi-source heat pump, energy balance control system. Radiant panel is attached on the backside of the PV module for cooling the PV, which is called PV/R module. During the daytime, the PV module was cooled down with the radiant panel, as the temperature coefficient influence, the power efficiency was increased by 8% to 14%, the radiant panel solar heat collecting efficiency was about 45%. Through the nocturnal radiant cooling, the PV/R cooling capacity could be 50 W/m2. For the multifunction energy device, the system shows the versatility during the heating, cooling and power used of building utilization all year round.

  17. Dynamic modelling of a PV pumping system with special consideration on water demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaluation of water demand and solar energy is essential for PV pumping system. ► The design for a PV water pumping system has been optimized based on dynamic simulations. ► It is important to conduct dynamic simulations to check the matching between water demand and water supply. ► AC pump driven by the fixed PV array is the most cost-effective solution. - Abstract: The exploitation of solar energy in remote areas through photovoltaic (PV) systems is an attractive solution for water pumping for irrigation systems. The design of a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) strictly depends on the estimation of the crop water requirements and land use since the water demand varies during the watering season and the solar irradiation changes time by time. It is of significance to conduct dynamic simulations in order to achieve the successful and optimal design. The aim of this paper is to develop a dynamic modelling tool for the design of a of photovoltaic water pumping system by combining the models of the water demand, the solar PV power and the pumping system, which can be used to validate the design procedure in terms of matching between water demand and water supply. Both alternate current (AC) and direct current (DC) pumps and both fixed and two-axis tracking PV array were analyzed. The tool has been applied in a case study. Results show that it has the ability to do rapid design and optimization of PV water pumping system by reducing the power peak and selecting the proper devices from both technical and economic viewpoints. Among the different alternatives considered in this study, the AC fixed system represented the best cost effective solution

  18. Degradation and performance evaluation of PV module in desert climate conditions with estimate uncertainty in measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezzani Amor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of photovoltaic (PV module is affected by outdoor conditions. Outdoor testing consists installing a module, and collecting electrical performance data and climatic data over a certain period of time. It can also include the study of long-term performance under real work conditions. Tests are operated in URAER located in desert region of Ghardaïa (Algeria characterized by high irradiation and temperature levels. The degradation of PV module with temperature and time exposure to sunlight contributes significantly to the final output from the module, as the output reduces each year. This paper presents a comparative study of different methods to evaluate the degradation of PV module after a long term exposure of more than 12 years in desert region and calculates uncertainties in measuring. Firstly, this evaluation uses three methods: Visual inspection, data given by Solmetric PVA-600 Analyzer translated at Standard Test Condition (STC and based on the investigation results of the translation equations as ICE 60891. Secondly, the degradation rates calculated for all methods. Finally, a comparison between a degradation rates given by Solmetric PVA-600 analyzer, calculated by simulation model and calculated by two methods (ICE 60891 procedures 1, 2. We achieved a detailed uncertainty study in order to improve the procedure and measurement instrument.

  19. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in

  20. Discrete Model Predictive Control-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking for PV Systems: Overview and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashab, Abderezak; Sera, Dezso; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to provide an overview and evaluation of discrete model predictive controlbased maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for PV systems. A large number of MPC based MPPT methods have been recently introduced in the literature with very promising performance, however......, an in-depth investigation and comparison of these methods have not been carried out yet. Therefore, this paper has set out to provide an in-depth analysis and evaluation of MPC based MPPT methods applied to various common power converter topologies. The performance of MPC based MPPT is directly linked...... with the converter topology, and it is also affected by the accurate determination of the converter parameters, sensitivity to converter parameter variations is also investigated. The static and dynamic performance of the trackers are assessed according to the EN 50530 standard, using detailed simulation models...

  1. A comparative study of the maximum power point tracking methods for PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Luo, Xi; Wang, Meidi; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved maximum power point tracking method for PV system was proposed. • Theoretical derivation procedure of the proposed method was provided. • Simulation models of MPPT trackers were established based on MATLAB/Simulink. • Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT method. - Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms play an important role in the optimization of the power and efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) generation system. According to the contradiction of the classical Perturb and Observe (P and Oa) method between the corresponding speed and the tracking accuracy on steady-state, an improved P and O (P and Ob) method has been put forward in this paper by using the Atken interpolation algorithm. To validate the correctness and performance of the proposed method, simulation and experimental study have been implemented. Simulation models of classical P and Oa method and improved P and Ob method have been established by MATLAB/Simulink to analyze each technique under varying solar irradiation and temperature. The experimental results show that the tracking efficiency of P and Ob method is an average of 93% compared to 72% for P and Oa method, this conclusion basically agree with the simulation study. Finally, we proposed the applicable conditions and scope of these MPPT methods in the practical application

  2. Multi-Input Converter with MPPT Feature for Wind-PV Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-input converter (MIC to process wind-PV power is proposed, designed, analyzed, simulated, and implemented. The MIC cannot only process solar energy but deal with wind power, of which structure is derived from forward-type DC/DC converter to step-down/up voltage for charger systems, DC distribution applications, or grid connection. The MIC comprises an upper modified double-ended forward, a lower modified double-ended forward, a common output inductor, and a DSP-based system controller. The two modified double-ended forwards can operate individually or simultaneously so as to accommodate the variation of the hybrid renewable energy under different atmospheric conditions. While the MIC operates at interleaving mode, better performance can be achieved and volume also is reduced. The proposed MIC is capable of recycling the energy stored in the leakage inductance and obtaining high step-up output voltage. In order to draw maximum power from wind turbine and PV panel, perturb-and-observe method is adopted to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT feature. The MIC is constructed, analyzed, simulated, and tested. Simulations and hardware measurements have demonstrated the feasibility and functionality of the proposed multi-input converter.

  3. The Integration and Control of Multifunctional Stationary PV-Battery Systems in Smart Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Mulder, Grietus; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the potential of using lumped stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS) in the public low-voltage distribution grid in order to defer upgrades needed in case of large penetration of electric vehicle (EV), electrified heat pump (HP) in presence of photovoltaic (PV....... The objective of this paper is to develop and detail the method of optimum sizing energy storage for grid connected distribution systems using newly devised BESS control protocol and investigate its sensitivity to factors which are known to influence energy system performance and hence storage requirements......) panel on the view of techno economic optimal sizing taking the consideration of season-based diurnal dynamics. The BESS is primarily dimensioned for the peak shaving operation targeted for the counterbalance of overloading of transformer; BESS also participates in arbitrage (buy low, sell high...

  4. Design and Analysis of Stepped DC Link Hybrid Converter for Solar PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uthirasamy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A structure of single phase DC Link Multilevel H-Bridge Inverter (DCLMLHBI is proposed for symmetrical Photo Voltaic (PV systems. Voltage stress across the inverter switches, Power Spectral Density (PSD, voltage and current harmonics are reduced in the proposed configuration. Compared with conventional 13-level Cascaded Multilevel Inverter (CMLI configuration, the proposed system configuration is structured with less number of series connected power switches and gate drive circuits. None of the passive components are utilized in the proposed inverter configuration, which highlight the significance of the proposed system. The performance parameters are investigated through Phase Opposition Pulse Width Modulation (POD-PWM switching scheme and its results are validated with computer simulation and prototype hardware models.

  5. New current control based MPPT technique for single stage grid connected PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sachin; Agarwal, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on current control for a single stage grid connected photovoltaic system. The main advantage of this algorithm comes from its ability to predict the approximate amplitude of the reference current waveform or power that can be derived from the PV array with the help of an intermediate variable β. A variable step size for the change in reference amplitude during initial tracking helps in fast tracking. It is observed that if the reference current amplitude is greater than the array capacity, the system gets unstable (i.e. moves into the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics of the array). The proposed algorithm prevents the PV system from entering the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics. It is also capable of restoring stability if the system goes unstable due to a sudden environmental change. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a new single stage grid connected PV configuration recently developed by the authors to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. The system is operated in a continuous conduction mode to realize advantages such as low device current stress, high efficiency and low EMI. A fast MPPT tracker with single stage inverter topology operating in CCM makes the overall system highly efficient. Specific cases of the system, operating in just discontinuous current mode and discontinuous current mode and their relative merits and demerits are also discussed

  6. Automatic supervision and fault detection of PV systems based on power losses analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouder, A.; Silvestre, S. [Electronic Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord UPC, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, we present a new automatic supervision and fault detection procedure for PV systems, based on the power losses analysis. This automatic supervision system has been developed in Matlab and Simulink environment. It includes parameter extraction techniques to calculate main PV system parameters from monitoring data in real conditions of work, taking into account the environmental irradiance and module temperature evolution, allowing simulation of the PV system behaviour in real time. The automatic supervision method analyses the output power losses, presents in the DC side of the PV generator, capture losses. Two new power losses indicators are defined: thermal capture losses (L{sub ct}) and miscellaneous capture losses (L{sub cm}). The processing of these indicators allows the supervision system to generate a faulty signal as indicator of fault detection in the PV system operation. Two new indicators of the deviation of the DC variables respect to the simulated ones have been also defined. These indicators are the current and voltage ratios: R{sub C} and R{sub V}. Analysing both, the faulty signal and the current/voltage ratios, the type of fault can be identified. The automatic supervision system has been successfully tested experimentally. (author)

  7. Embodied energy analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system based on macro- and micro-level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, I.; Tiwari, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the energy payback time and CO 2 emissions of photovoltaic (PV) system have been analyzed. The embodied energy for production of PV module based on single crystal silicon, as well as for the manufacturing of other system components have been computed at macro- and micro-level assuming irradiation of 800-1200 W/m 2 in different climatic zones in India for inclined surface. The energy payback time with and without balance-of-system for open field and rooftop has been evaluated. It is found that the embodied energy at micro-level is significantly higher than embodied energy at macro-level. The effect of insolation, overall efficiency, lifetime of PV system on energy pay back time and CO 2 emissions have been studied with and without balance of system. A 1.2 kW p PV system of SIEMENS for mudhouse at IIT, Delhi based on macro- and micro-level has been evaluated. The CO 2 mitigation potential, the importance and role of PV system for sustainable development are also highlighted

  8. New topology of multiple-input single-output PV system for DC load applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. ELhagry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving PV system structure and maximizing the output power of a PV system has drawn many researchers attention nowadays. A proposed multi-input single-output PV system is proposed in this paper. The system consists of multiple PV modules; each module feeds a DC–DC converter. The outputs of the converters are tied together to form a DC voltage source. In order to minimize the output ripples of the converters, the control signal of each converter is time shifted from each other by a certain time interval depending on the number of converters used in the topology. In this study a battery is used as the main load, the load current used as the control variable. A fuzzy logic controller designed to modulate the operating point of the system to get the maximum power. The results show that the proposed system has very good response for various operating conditions of the PV system. In addition the output filter is minimized with excellent quality of the DC output voltage.

  9. Automatic supervision and fault detection of PV systems based on power losses analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouder, A.; Silvestre, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a new automatic supervision and fault detection procedure for PV systems, based on the power losses analysis. This automatic supervision system has been developed in Matlab and Simulink environment. It includes parameter extraction techniques to calculate main PV system parameters from monitoring data in real conditions of work, taking into account the environmental irradiance and module temperature evolution, allowing simulation of the PV system behaviour in real time. The automatic supervision method analyses the output power losses, presents in the DC side of the PV generator, capture losses. Two new power losses indicators are defined: thermal capture losses (L ct ) and miscellaneous capture losses (L cm ). The processing of these indicators allows the supervision system to generate a faulty signal as indicator of fault detection in the PV system operation. Two new indicators of the deviation of the DC variables respect to the simulated ones have been also defined. These indicators are the current and voltage ratios: R C and R V . Analysing both, the faulty signal and the current/voltage ratios, the type of fault can be identified. The automatic supervision system has been successfully tested experimentally.

  10. Automatic Supervision And Fault Detection In PV System By Wireless Sensors With Interfacing By Labview Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousra M Abbas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a wireless monitoring system are designed for automatic detection localization fault in photovoltaic system. In order to avoid the use of modeling and simulation of the PV system we detected the fault by monitoring the output of each individual photovoltaic panel connected in the system by Arduino and transmit this data wirelessly to laptop then interface it by LabVIEW program which made comparison between this data and the measured data taking from reference module at the same condition. The proposed method is very simple but effective detecting and diagnosing the main faults of a PV system and was experimentally validated and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the detection and diagnosing of main faults present in the DC side of PV system.

  11. Design and Operation Studies of A Stand-Alone PV Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yanting; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Donglai

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, design and operation of a PV powered stand-alone system, which includes a PV array, a battery bank, power electronic converters and the associated control system. The design considerations are analyzed and a design platform is presented. Furthermore the operation...... modes of the system are described. A power electronic system with the associated control scheme has been proposed and simulation models have been developed. Simulation studies have been conducted on an example system; the results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the presented methods....

  12. Grid-Tied PV System with Energy Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Shahjehan; Waleed Shahjehan; Muhammad Naeem Arbab

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Electricity that is generated from coal, natural gas and fossil fuel has an impact on human health and also causes global warming. The integration of renewable energy sources with the grid is a good solution to these problems. This approach is known as smart grid. Sources of renewable energy such as wind or PV are not able to provide a continuous supply of energy to the load due to periodic or seasonal variations. Connecting these renewable sources to the grid can help...

  13. MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Sameeullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic system is one of the renewable energy device, which directly converts solar radiation into electricity. The I-V characteristics of PV system are nonlinear in nature and under variable Irradiance and temperature, PV system has a single operating point where the power output is maximum, known as Maximum Power Point (MPP and the point varies on changes in atmospheric conditions and electrical load. Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT is used to track MPP of solar PV system for maximum efficiency operation. The various MPPT techniques together with implementation are reported in literature. In order to choose the best technique based upon the requirements, comprehensive and comparative study should be available. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of various MPPT techniques for uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. Furthermore, the comparison of practically accepted and widely used techniques has been made based on features, such as control strategy, type of circuitry, number of control variables and cost. This review work provides a quick analysis and design help for PV systems. Article History: Received March 14, 2016; Received in revised form June 26th 2016; Accepted July 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Sameeullah, M. and Swarup, A. (2016. MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 79-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.79-94 

  14. Control and management of energy in a PV system equipped with batteries storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Hirech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a work concerning the conception, implementation and testing of a photovoltaic system that is equipped with a new concept of control and manage the energy in a PV system with a battery storage. The objective is to exploit the maximum of power using Hill climbing improved algorithm that considers optimal electrical characteristics of PV panels regardless of the system perturbation, to manage the energy between blocs of PV system in order to control the charge/discharge process and inject the energy surplus into the grid and also to estimate the state of charge with precision. Moreover, the system guarantees the acquisition and presentation of results on computer, supervision and so on. The results obtained show the robustness of the PV system, good control and protection of batteries under the maximum of energy provided by the PV panels. The state of charge estimation is evaluated by using measured parameters in real time; it shows an improvement of around 5% compared to the conventional technique.

  15. Improved Synthesis of Global Irradiance with One-Minute Resolution for PV System Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hofmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution global irradiance time series are needed for accurate simulations of photovoltaic (PV systems, since the typical volatile PV power output induced by fast irradiance changes cannot be simulated properly with commonly available hourly averages of global irradiance. We present a two-step algorithm that is capable of synthesizing one-minute global irradiance time series based on hourly averaged datasets. The algorithm is initialized by deriving characteristic transition probability matrices (TPM for different weather conditions (cloudless, broken clouds and overcast from a large number of high resolution measurements. Once initialized, the algorithm is location-independent and capable of synthesizing one-minute values based on hourly averaged global irradiance of any desired location. The one-minute time series are derived by discrete-time Markov chains based on a TPM that matches the weather condition of the input dataset. One-minute time series generated with the presented algorithm are compared with measured high resolution data and show a better agreement compared to two existing synthesizing algorithms in terms of temporal variability and characteristic frequency distributions of global irradiance and clearness index values. A comparison based on measurements performed in Lindenberg, Germany, and Carpentras, France, shows a reduction of the frequency distribution root mean square errors of more than 60% compared to the two existing synthesizing algorithms.

  16. Design, fabrication and performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Two solar stills (single slope passive and single slope photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still) were fabricated and tested at solar energy park, IIT New Delhi (India) for composite climate. Photovoltaic operated DC water pump was used between solar still and photovoltaic (PV) integrated flat plate collector to re-circulate the water through the collectors and transfer it to the solar still. The newly designed hybrid (PV/T) active solar still is self-sustainable and can be used in remote areas, need to transport distilled water from a distance and not connected to grid, but blessed with ample solar energy. Experiments were performed for 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m water depth, round the year 2006-2007 for both the stills. It has been observed that maximum daily yield of 2.26 kg and 7.22 kg were obtained from passive and hybrid active solar still, respectively at 0.05 m water depth. The daily yield from hybrid active solar still is around 3.2 and 5.5 times higher than the passive solar still in summer and winter month, respectively. The study has shown that this design of the hybrid active solar still also provides higher electrical and overall thermal efficiency, which is about 20% higher than the passive solar still.

  17. Optimization of an off-grid hybrid PV-wind-diesel-battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merei, Ghada [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS)

    2012-07-01

    The power supply of remote sites and applications at minimal cost and with low emissions is an important issue when discussing future energy concepts. This paper presents the modelling and optimisation of a stand-alone hybrid energy system. The system consists of photovoltaic (PV) panels and a wind turbine as renewable power sources, a diesel generator for back-up power and batteries to store excess energy and to improve the system reliability. For storage the technologies of lithium-ion, lead-acid, vanadium redox-flow or a combination thereof are considered. In order to use different battery technologies at once, a battery management system (BMS) is needed. The presented BMS minimises operation cost while taking into account different battery operating points and ageing mechanisms. The system is modelled and implemented in Matlab/Simulink. As input, the model uses data of the irradiation, wind speed and air temperature measured in ten minute intervals for ten years in Aachen, Germany. The load is assumed to be that of a rural UMTS/GSM base station for telecommunication. For a timeframe of 20 years, the performance is evaluated and the total costs are determined. Using a genetic algorithm, component sizes and settings are then varied and the system re-evaluated to minimise the overall cost. The optimisation results show that using batteries in combination with the renewables is economic and ecologic. However, the best solution is to combine redox-flow batteries with the renewables. In addition, a power supply system consisting only of batteries, PV and wind generators can satisfy the power demand.

  18. Novel concept of a PV power generation system adding the function of shunt active filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.G.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K. [Changwon National Univ., Changwon City (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A new photovoltaics (PV) power generation system that used an active filter (AF) function was proposed. The AF was installed to condition reactive power and harmonic compensation as well as flicker and voltage regulation. A maximum point power tracking (MPPT) control system was used to stabilize the voltage source inverter (VSI) output current. A general dq transformation was used to compensate the negative components and the harmonics component. The output terminal of the PV array was connected to a smoothing capacitor interfacing the PV-AF inverter. A voltage source PWM converter was controlled with feedback loops of the output current of the inverter. Optimal values of the power inverter gains and filter constants were tuned to obtain responses. The PV system was simulated using real weather conditions. Results of the study demonstrated the stability and effectiveness of the proposed system. It was concluded that the PV-AF can also be used to provide harmonic damping throughout power distribution systems. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Grid Connected Solar PV System with SEPIC Converter Compared with Parallel Boost Converter Based MPPT

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco Raj, T. Ajith; Ramesh, R.; Maglin, J. R.; Vaigundamoorthi, M.; William Christopher, I.; Gopinath, C.; Yaashuwanth, C.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the behaviour of the solar PV systems and model the efficient Grid-connected solar power system. The DC-DC MPPT circuit using chaotic pulse width modulation has been designed to track maximum power from solar PV module. The conversion efficiency of the proposed MPPT system is increased when CPWM is used as a control scheme. This paper also proposes a simplified multilevel (seven level) inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The primary g...

  20. Performance of PV panels for solar energy conversion at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeran, Syed M.

    Expanding research facilities at the Amundson-Scott South pole station require increased electric power generation. Presently, electric power generation is by diesel generators using the JP8 fuel. As the station is accessible only for a short supply period during the austral summer, there are limitations upon the supply of fuel for power generation. This makes it necessary to seriously consider the use of the renewable energy sources. Although there is no sunlight for six months in the year, abundant solar energy is available during the remaining 6 months because of the clear skies, the clarity of air and the low humidity at the south pole. As the buildings at the south pole are built either without windows or with only porthole type windows, large areas on the walls and the roof are available for mounting the photovoltaic (PV) panels. In addition there is unlimited space around the station for constructing a PV panel 'farm'. In this paper four types of PV panels are evaluated; the 2-axis tracking panels, vertical 1-axis tracking panels, fixed vertical panels on the walls of buildings and mounted outdoors, and fixed horizontal panels on the roofs of the buildings. Equations are developed for the power output in KW/sq. ft and annual energy in kWh/sq. ft for each type of panel. The equations include the effects of the inclination of the sun above the horizon, the movement of the sun around the horizon, the direct, reflected and diffused components of the solar radiation, the characteristics of the solar cells and the types of dc/ac inverters used to interface the output of the cells with the existing ac power. A conceptual design of a 150-kW PV generation system suitable for the south pole is also discussed in this paper.

  1. Performance of PV-Trombe wall in winter correlated with south facade design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Ji, Jie; Luo, Chenglong; He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    PV-Trombe wall (PVTW) is a novel version of Trombe-wall. Photovoltaic cells on the cover glazing of the PVTW can convert solar radiation into electricity and heat simultaneously. A window on the south facade can also introduce solar heat into the room in the winter season. Experiment has been conducted to study the temperature field of a building with both southern facing window and the PVTW. A dynamic numerical model is developed for the simulation of the whole building system. The temperature of the indoor air is found to be vertically stratified from the measurement. The nodal model is adopted to calculate the temperature profile in the room. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The different south facade designs affect the thermal efficiency of the PVTW significantly from the numerical simulation. With a southern facing window, the thermal efficiency of the PVTW is reduced by 27% relatively. The increase of PV coverage on the glazing can reduce the thermal efficiency of the TW by up to 17%. By taking account of electric conversion, the total efficiency of solar utilization is reduced by 5% at most while the glazing is fully covered with PV cells. The electric conversion efficiency of the PVTW achieves 11.6%, and is slightly affected by south facade designs.

  2. Comparative performance of PV panels of different technologies over one year of exposure: Application to a coastal Mediterranean region of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenounou, A.; Malek, A.; Aillerie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances of four PV panels of various technologies are compared during one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions. • An original platform and methodology of test allow a real-time scan of several PV panel parameters. • The technologies compared are micromorph silicon, monocrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon. • The performance ratio point out a difference of behavior between the four technologies over one year. • Results are directly exploitable in costal regions of Mediterranean countries. - Abstract: The aim of this contribution is to compare the performance of four PV panels of different technologies for one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions of a coastal region in the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. An original platform of test, especially dedicated for this study is presented describing operations and techniques used for measurements of the pertinent experimental data and for their exploitation. The four panel technologies studied are micromorph silicon (μ-Si), monocrystalline silicon (M-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polycrystalline silicon (Poli-Si). Two types of results are analyzed and presented. The first type is straight forwardly linked to the PV panels standard data calculated experimentally from measurements recorded during one year of exposure and compared with the values provided by the manufacturers in their datasheets. The second type is related to the energy yield in which the corresponding monthly and annual performance ratios of the four PV panels is calculated in two ways, using 1 – the datasheet’s value of Power Max, and 2 – the data providing from experimental campaign. In addition to the general conclusions concerning the fundamental role of the experimental study at a natural site for a good sizing of a renewable energy production system, we extend the analysis and discussion for the specific localization case of southern coastal region of

  3. Core Abilities Evaluation Index System Exploration and Empirical Study on Distributed PV-Generation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In line with the constraints of environmental problems and economic development, large-scale renewable-generation projects have been planned and constructed in recent years. In order to achieve sustainable power development and improve the power supply structure, China’s government has focused on distributed photovoltaic (PV generation projects due to their advantages of clean emission and local consumption. However, their unstable output power still brings a series of problems concerning reliability, investment income, and available substitution proportion to traditional power, and so on. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the competitive development abilities of distributed PV generation projects and measure them effectively. First, through various investigation methods such as literature reviews, feasibility report analysis and expert interviews, the factors that influence the core abilities of distributed PV-generation projects were explored based on the micro-grid structure. Then, with the indexed exploration results, the factors were classified into 6 dimensions, i.e., investment and earning ability, production and operation ability, power-grid coordination ability, energy-conservation and emission-reduction ability, sustainable development ability, and society-serving ability. Meanwhile, an evaluation index system for core abilities of distributed PV-generation project was constructed using all quantitative indicators. Third, for examining the availability of the evaluation index system, combination weighting and techniques for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS methods were adopted to assess the practical distributed PV-generation projects. The case study results showed that installed capacity, local economy development, and grid-connected power quantity will influence the core abilities of distributed PV-generation project, obviously. The conclusions of the evaluation analysis on core abilities can

  4. A semi-distributed electric demand-side management system with PV generation for self-consumption enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Cagigal, M.; Gutierrez, A.; Monasterio-Huelin, F.; Caamano-Martin, E.; Masa, D.; Jimenez-Leube, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We have developed a DSM system with PV electricity and battery storage. → To implement the DSM system, we have developed a modular architecture. → Simulations and real experiments have been executed for different weather conditions. → The use of theses technologies increase the self-consumed energy. -- Abstract: This paper presents the operation of an Electrical Demand-Side Management (EDSM) system in a real solar house. The use of EDSM is one of the most important action lines to improve the grid electrical efficiency. The combination between the EDSM and the PV generation performs a new control level in the local electric behavior and allows new energy possibilities. The solar house used as test-bed for the EDSM system owns a PV generator, a lead-acid battery storage system and a grid connection. The electrical appliances are controllable from an embedded computer. The EDSM is implemented by a control system which schedules the tasks commanded by the user. By using the control system, we define the house energy policy and improve the energy behavior with regard to a selected energy criterion, self-consumption. The EDSM system favors self-consumption with regard to a standard user behavior and reduces the energy load from the grid.

  5. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  6. Forecasting and observability: critical technologies for system operations with high PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    – Photovoltaics (ETIP PV) reviews the different use cases for these technologies, their current status, and the need for future developments. Power system operations require a real-time view of PV production for managing power reserves and for feeding shortterm forecasts. They also require forecasts on all......Forecasting and monitoring technologies for photovoltaics are required on different spatial and temporal scales by multiple actors, from the owners of PV systems to transmission system operators. In this paper the Grid integration working group of the European Technology and Innovation Platform...... timescales from the short (for dispatching purposes), where statistical models work best, to the very long (for infrastructure planning), where physics-based models are more accurate. Power system regulations are driving the development of these techniques. This application also provides a good basis...

  7. Output Control Technologies for a Large-scale PV System Considering Impacts on a Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Akira

    The mega-solar demonstration project named “Verification of Grid Stabilization with Large-scale PV Power Generation systems” had been completed in March 2011 at Wakkanai, the northernmost city of Japan. The major objectives of this project were to evaluate adverse impacts of large-scale PV power generation systems connected to the power grid and develop output control technologies with integrated battery storage system. This paper describes the outline and results of this project. These results show the effectiveness of battery storage system and also proposed output control methods for a large-scale PV system to ensure stable operation of power grids. NEDO, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan conducted this project and HEPCO, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc managed the overall project.

  8. PV monitoring at Jubilee Campus - Nottingham University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffat, S.B.; Gan, G.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project monitoring the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) modules integrated in the roofs of atria to meet the energy consumption needs of ventilation fans in the academic buildings at the Jubilee Campus of the University of Nottingham. Details are given of the instrumentation of one atrium to allow the monitoring the effectiveness of the ventilation in cooling the PV arrays integrated in the atrium roof, the economic analysis of the benefit of cooling the PV system, and the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to predict the performance of the atrium. The design of the PV system, the calculated system efficiency, the high cost of atrium integrated PV power supplies, the periodic failure of the inverters, and the overheating of the PV array and the atrium space in the summer are discussed.

  9. Technical model for optimising PV/diesel/battery hybrid power systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available A solar-based power supply system, such as a photovoltaic (PV)-diesel-battery system, is a particularly attractive option for decentralised power supply in southern Africa where solar radiation is ubiquitous in most countries. Such systems can make...

  10. Solar eclipse. The rise and 'dusk' of the Dutch PV innovation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, S.O.; Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Vasseur, V. [International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development, University Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy technology in the Netherlands. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build-up of innovation systems. We show that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to guidance of the search and market formation. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the implications for policy making.

  11. The role of PV electricity generation in fully renewable energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Peter, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy supply will be based on renewable energies and it must use available resources efficiently. Earlier or later the energy supply will rely completely on renewable sources. A solar energy system that provides a reliable energy supply throughout the year includes the consistent use of local renewable energy sources (e.g. PV) wherever possible. Using Japan as a example it was shown that the vision of a full renewable energy supply, even with high shares of domestic sources is possible. Detailed simulations of such a system show that the PV systems play an important role delivering electricity at peak demand times. (authors)

  12. Feasibility study of an islanded microgrid in rural area consisting of PV, wind, biomass and battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shakti; Singh, Mukesh; Kaushik, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A cost effective hybrid PV-wind-biomass energy system with storage is proposed. • Mathematical modeling and operational strategy of the proposed system is discussed. • Optimal sizing of components is evaluated using evolutionary algorithms. • Results obtained is compared with software tool HOMER. • The performance of the hybrid system in the critical case has been presented. - Abstract: Renewable energy systems are proving to be promising and environment friendly sources of electricity generation, particularly, in countries with inadequate fossil fuel resources. In recent years, wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and biomass based systems have been drawing more attention to provide electricity to isolated or energy deficient regions. This paper presents a hybrid PV-wind generation system along with biomass and storage to fulfill the electrical load demand of a small area. For optimal sizing of components, a recently introduced swarm based artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is applied. To verify the strength of the proposed technique, the results are compared with the results obtained from the standard software tool, hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. It has been verified from the results that the ABC algorithm has good convergence property and ability to provide good quality results. Further, for critical case such as the failure of any source, the behavior of the proposed system has been observed. It is evident from the results that the proposed scheme is able to manage a smooth power flow with the same optimal configuration.

  13. Thermal Performance and Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection Outside Feed-In Operating Hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Reactive power support by photovoltaic (PV) systems is of increasingly interest, when compared to the conventional reactive power compensation devices. PV inverters can exchange reactive power with the utility grid in a decentralized manner even outside feed-in operation, especially at nights when...... there is no solar irradiance. However, reactive power injection causes additional power losses in the switching components leading to a temperature rise in the devices. Thus, this paper analyses the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance...... of their power switching components. A thermal analysis based on the mission profile (i.e., solar irradiance and ambient temperature) has been incorporated, so as to determine the additional temperature rise in the components induced by the operation outside feed-in hours. An analytical lifetime model has been...

  14. Concept of large scale PV-WT-PSH energy sources coupled with the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent/non-dispatchable energy sources are characterized by a significant variation of their energy yield over time. In majority of cases their role in energy systems is marginalized. However, even in Poland which is strongly dedicated to its hard and brown coal fired power plants, the wind generation in terms of installed capacity starts to play a significant role. This paper briefly introduces a concept of wind (WT and solar (PV powered pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH which seems to be a viable option for solving the problem of the variable nature of PV and WT generation. Additionally we summarize the results of our so far conducted research on the integration of variable renewable energy sources (VRES to the energy systems and present conclusions which strictly refer to the prospects of large scale PV-WT-PSH operating as a part of the polish energy system.

  15. Design Optimization of Transformerless Grid-Connected PV Inverters Including Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimal design of transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters targeting a cost-effective deployment of grid-connected PV systems. The optimal switching frequency as well as the optimal values and types of the PV inverter components is calculated such that the PV inverter LCOE generated during the PV system lifetime period is minimized. The LCOE is also calculated considering the failure rates of the components, which affect the reliability performance...

  16. Impact of fuel-dependent electricity retail charges on the value of net-metered PV applications in vertically integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Alexandros I.; Milidonis, Andreas; Charalambous, Charalambos A.

    2015-01-01

    Retail electricity charges inevitably influence the financial rationale of using net-metered photovoltaic (PV) applications since their structure as well as their level may vary significantly over the life-cycle of a customer-sited PV generation system. This subsequently introduces a further uncertainty for a ratepayer considering a net-metered PV investment. To thoroughly comprehend this uncertainty, the paper employs a top-down approach – in vertically integrated environments – to model the volatility of partially hedged electricity charges and its subsequent impact on the value of bill savings from net-metered PV systems. Besides the utility's pricing strategy and rate structures, particular emphasis is given in modeling the fossil fuel mix component that introduces a significant source of uncertainty on electricity charges and thus on the value of bill savings of net-metered, customer-sited, PV applications. - Highlights: • A top-down approach of developing traditional electricity charges is provided. • The combined effect of pricing strategies, rate structures and fuels is examined. • Fossil fuel prices can substantially affect the net metering compensation. • A financial risk assessment for net-metered PV systems is performed

  17. Real Time Photovoltaic Array Simulator for Testing Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Valentini, Massimo; Raducu, Alin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a real time flexible PV array simulator is presented. It is a system that can simulate different PV panel arrays in specific environmental conditions. To evaluate performance of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters only measurements...... undertaken with an appropriate PV array simulator provide accurate and reproducible results. Thus the PV array simulator has been developed and implemented. MPPT efficiency tests on a commercial grid-connected PV inverter have been performed to validate the PV array simulator....

  18. Sizing energy storage systems to make PV tradable in the Iberian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltram, H.; Perez, E.; Aparicio, N.; Vidal, R.; Belenguer, E. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Castello de la Plana (Spain). Electrical Engineering Area; Piqueres, T. [Energia Solar Aplicada (ESA), Valencia (Spain). Technical Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is intended to provide some reference values for the ratings required by an energy storage system, to be integrated in a large-scale PV power plant placed at any location of the Iberian Peninsula, to operate it according to an energy management strategy (EMS) whic allowed its participation in the Iberian electricity market while minimizing the economic penalties. The proposed EMS produces a constant-by-hours power reference to be tracked by the PV plant with storage and, in that way, mitigate the stochastic nature of the PV production. This operation mode will enable PV power plants to take part reliably in the different electricity markets, profiting the intraday market sessions to continuously refine the power production commitment. Different configurations of the EMS are analysed, introducing on each of them different meteorologically-based adjustments which allow minimizing the energy capacity required by the storage system. The proposals are analysed through one-year long simulations which use real-world data and PV power forecasting models extracted from solar databases. (orig.)

  19. Annual technical report. PV domestic field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report describes progress at the first five sites of the UK photovoltaic (PV) domestic field trial. All five sites are generating electricity, but one has not yet been commissioned and two sites are not yet monitoring performance. The BedZED development has roof-mounted PV modules and PV cells installed in sealed double-glazing. Solar slates/tiles have been installed at the Laing Homes development in Montagu Road, where the designer has sought to minimise the visual impact of the PV system on the roofs. At Hunters Moon, PV modules have been retrofitted and some unforeseen difficulties have arisen. PV is an integral part of the roof design at the state-of-the-art low energy development by Integer Houses at Greenfields. Corn Croft uses a British mounting system to facilitate integration of the modules flush with the roof. Installation issues and the progress of the trial are discussed.

  20. RTDS implementation of an improved sliding mode based inverter controller for PV system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Gazi; Muyeen, S M; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Hasanien, Hany M

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for testing dynamics and control aspects of a large scale photovoltaic (PV) system in real time along with resolving design hindrances of controller parameters using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). In general, the harmonic profile of a fast controller has wide distribution due to the large bandwidth of the controller. The major contribution of this paper is that the proposed control strategy gives an improved voltage harmonic profile and distribute it more around the switching frequency along with fast transient response; filter design, thus, becomes easier. The implementation of a control strategy with high bandwidth in small time steps of Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) is not straight forward. This paper shows a good methodology for the practitioners to implement such control scheme in RTDS. As a part of the industrial process, the controller parameters are optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) performance under network disturbance. The response surface methodology (RSM) is well adapted to build analytical models for recovery time (Rt), maximum percentage overshoot (MPOS), settling time (Ts), and steady state error (Ess) of the voltage profile immediate after inverter under disturbance. A systematic approach of controller parameter optimization is detailed. The transient performance of the PSO based optimization method applied to the proposed sliding mode controlled PV inverter is compared with the results from genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique. The reported real time implementation challenges and controller optimization procedure are applicable to other control applications in the field of renewable and distributed generation systems. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of PV system's values beyond energy - by country and stakeholder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Polo, A.; Hass, R.; Suna, D.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme and PV-Up-Scale analyses, identifies, evaluates and quantifies the major values and benefits of urban scale photovoltaics (PV) based on country and stakeholder specifics. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The values evaluated and quantified in this report are categorised under the following groups: Avoiding fossil fuels, environmental benefits, benefits for electric utilities, industry development and employment benefits and the customer's individual benefits. The relevance of PV to meeting peak demand is discussed, as are the benefits for architects and building developers.

  2. Online model-based fault detection for grid connected PV systems monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-12-14

    This paper presents an efficient fault detection approach to monitor the direct current (DC) side of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The key contribution of this work is combining both single diode model (SDM) flexibility and the cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart efficiency to detect incipient faults. In fact, unknown electrical parameters of SDM are firstly identified using an efficient heuristic algorithm, named Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. Then, based on the identified parameters, a simulation model is built and validated using a co-simulation between Matlab/Simulink and PSIM. Next, the peak power (Pmpp) residuals of the entire PV array are generated based on both real measured and simulated Pmpp values. Residuals are used as the input for the CUSUM scheme to detect potential faults. We validate the effectiveness of this approach using practical data from an actual 20 MWp grid-connected PV system located in the province of Adrar, Algeria.

  3. Online model-based fault detection for grid connected PV systems monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Saidi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient fault detection approach to monitor the direct current (DC) side of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The key contribution of this work is combining both single diode model (SDM) flexibility and the cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart efficiency to detect incipient faults. In fact, unknown electrical parameters of SDM are firstly identified using an efficient heuristic algorithm, named Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. Then, based on the identified parameters, a simulation model is built and validated using a co-simulation between Matlab/Simulink and PSIM. Next, the peak power (Pmpp) residuals of the entire PV array are generated based on both real measured and simulated Pmpp values. Residuals are used as the input for the CUSUM scheme to detect potential faults. We validate the effectiveness of this approach using practical data from an actual 20 MWp grid-connected PV system located in the province of Adrar, Algeria.

  4. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, Barbara C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buhrmann, Jan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  5. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...

  6. PV Horizon : Proceedings of the Workshop on Photovoltaic Hybrid Systems. CD ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this workshop was to share information on current photovoltaic (PV) and hybrid system technology, and to present information on international experience and trends in research and development. It brought together 70 experts from Canada, the United States, several European countries, Japan and Australia. Currently, PV hybrid systems are used for stand-alone projects in telecommunication applications, remote housing, and leisure lodges. The applications for these sectors are well known and the technology is cost effective. Other applications are for micro-grid applications such as small remote islands, village power and tourist resorts. The costs for these types of applications can also be effective as long as the power demand is relatively low. A keynote presentation which highlighted the current application of PV hybrid systems, was followed by three sessions dealing with international experience with hybrid systems, the research and development opportunities for hybrid systems, and visual presentations on a range of subjects dealing with PV hybrid systems, their components, system integration, standards, guidelines, and control system issues. It was noted that the future for renewables looks bright, particularly for developing countries. Their use will also reduce the environmental footprint of remote power solutions. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Analysis of the influences of grid-connected PV power system on distribution grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Popandron

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of producing an electric power of 2.8 MW using a solar photovoltaic plant. The PV will be grid connected to the distribution network. The study is focused on the influences of connecting to the grid of a photovoltaic system, using modern software for analysis, modeling and simulation in power systems.

  8. Performance Stabilization of CdTe PV Modules using Bias and Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Reversible performance changes due to light exposure frustrate repeatable performance measurements on CdTe PV modules. It is common to use extended light-exposure to ensure that measurements are representative of outdoor performance. We quantify the extent to which such a light-exposed state depends on module temperature and consider bias in the dark to aid in stabilization. We evaluate the use of dark forward bias to bring about a performance state equivalent to that obtained with light exposure, and to maintain a light-exposed state prior to STC performance measurement. Our results indicate that the most promising method for measuring a light-exposed state is to use light exposure at controlled temperature followed by prompt STC measurement with a repeatable time interval between exposure and the STC measurement.

  9. Distribution System Augmented by DC Links for Increasing the Hosting Capacity of PV Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Demirok, Erhan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a concept of enhancing the photovoltaic (PV) power generation hosting capacity of distribution networks. Distribution network serving electrical energy to farm settlements was selected as an example for their large roof area available for PV installation. Further, they are cha......This paper presents a concept of enhancing the photovoltaic (PV) power generation hosting capacity of distribution networks. Distribution network serving electrical energy to farm settlements was selected as an example for their large roof area available for PV installation. Further......, they are characterized by long radial feeders. Such feeders suffer from voltage rise and transformer overloading problems as the total number and capacity of the PV installations increase. The distribution network can be augmented by dc distribution links with power electronic converter interfaces to the traditional ac...... distribution systems. It is shown here that the dc links can be used to interconnect the different radial feeders and the excess power thus could be transferred to the nearby industrial load-center....

  10. Conception and realization of a PV system provided with a sun tracker operating at dual axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Kassmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the conception, the realization and the experimentation of  a photovoltaic (PV system provided with a sun tracker reliable and low cost operating at dual axis. The tracker's role is to orient the PV generator, whose weight may reach 9 Kg, perpendicular to the sun with very good accuracy. This tracking  based on the use of four LDR sensors, which detect the intensity of light scattered by the sun a processing unit, from  command and control (UTCC, which manages all of the sun tracking tasks (the end detection of parcours, regulation of the power supplied by the PV panels (Command MPPT, ... . The results obtained show a significant improvement of the energy produced, compared to conventional PV installations where generators are fixed and oriented south at a  tilt 45°. During a day of operation, improvement could reach 41% and consumption of the tracking does not exceed 0.55% of the energy production produced by the PV generator (an improvement of 5 % compared to existing trackers.

  11. Analysis of grid connected solar PV system in the Southeastern Part of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariful Islam; Fatema Akther Shima; Akhera Khanam

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a potential site of implementing renewable energy system to reduce the severe power crisis throughout the year. According to this, Chittagong is the southeastern part of Bangladesh is also a potential site for implementing renewable energy system such as grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. Financial viability and green-house gas emission reduction of solar PV as an electricity generation source are assessed for 500 kW grid connected solar PV system at University of Chittagong, Chittagong. Homer simulation soft-ware and monthly average solar radiation data from NASA is used for this task. In the proposed system monthly electricity generation varies between 82.65 MW h and 60.3 MW h throughout the year with a mean value of 68.25 MW h depending on the monthly highest and lowest solar radiation data. It is found that per unit electricity production cost is US$ 0.20 based on project lifetime 25 years. The IRR, equity payback and benefit-cost ratio shows favorable condition for development of the proposed solar PV system in this site. A minimum 664 tones of green-house gas emissions can be reduced annually utilizing the proposed system. (authors)

  12. Allocation of ESS by interval optimization method considering impact of ship swinging on hybrid PV/diesel ship power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shuli; Lan, Hai; Hong, Ying-Yi; Yu, David C.; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An uncertainty model of PV generation on board is developed based on the experiments. • The moving and swinging of the ship are considered in the optimal ESS sizing problem. • Optimal sizing of ESS in a hybrid PV/diesel/ESS ship power system is gained by the interval optimization method. • Different cases were studied to show the significance of the proposed method considering the swinging effects on the cost. - Abstract: Owing to low efficiency of traditional ships and the serious environmental pollution that they cause, the use of solar energy and an energy storage system (ESS) in a ship’s power system is increasingly attracting attention. However, the swinging of a ship raises crucial challenges in designing an optimal system for a large oil tanker ship, which are associated with uncertainties in solar energy. In this study, a series of experiments are performed to investigate the characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) system on a moving ship. Based on the experimental results, an interval uncertainty model of on-board PV generation is established, which considers the effect of the swinging of the ship. Due to the power balance equations, the outputs of the diesel generator and the ESS on a large oil tanker are also modeled using interval variables. An interval optimization method is developed to determine the optimal size of the ESS in this hybrid ship power system to reduce the fuel cost, capital cost of the ESS, and emissions of greenhouse gases. Variations of the ship load are analyzed using a new method, taking five operating conditions into account. Several cases are compared in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Power Generation Potential and Cost of a Roof Top Solar PV System in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjel, N.; Zhand, A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a comparative study of the 3 most used solar PV module technologies in Nepal, which are Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous. The aim of the paper is to present and discuss the recorded Global Solar Radiation, received in the Kathmandu valley by three different, Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous calibrated solar cell pyranometers and to propose the best-suited solar PV module technology for roof top solar PV systems inside the Kathmandu valley. Data recorded over the course of seven months, thus covering most of the seasonal meteorological conditions determining Kathmandu valley's global solar radiation reception are presented. The results indicate that the Si-amorphous pyranometer captured 1.56% more global solar radiation than the Si-mono-crystalline and 18.4% more than Si-poly-crystalline pyranometer over the course of seven months. Among the three pyranometer technologies the maximum and minimum cell temperature was measured by the Si-mono-crystalline pyranometer. Following the technical data and discussion, an economical analysis, using the versatile software tool PVSYST V5.01is used to calculate the life cycle costs of a 1kW roof top solar PV RAPS system, with battery storage, and a 1kW roof top solar PV grid connected system with no energy storage facility, through simulations, using average recorded global solar radiation data for the KTM valley and investigated market values for each solar PV module and peripheral equipment costs.

  14. Detailed performance analysis of realistic solar photovoltaic systems at extensive climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ankit; Chauhan, Yogesh K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, solar energy has been considered as one of the principle renewable energy source for electric power generation. In this paper, single diode photovoltaic (PV) system and double/bypass diode based PV system are designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment based on their mathematical modeling and are validated with a commercially available solar panel. The novelty of the paper is to include the effect of climatic conditions i.e. variable irradiation level, wind speed, temperature, humidity level and dust accumulation in the modeling of both the PV systems to represent a realistic PV system. The comprehensive investigations are made on both the modeled PV systems. The obtained results show the satisfactory performance for realistic models of the PV system. Furthermore, an in depth comparative analysis is carried out for both PV systems. - Highlights: • Modeling of Single diode and Double diode PV systems in MATLAB/Simulink software. • Validation of designed PV systems with a commercially available PV panel. • Acquisition and employment of key climatic factors in modeling of the PV systems. • Evaluation of main model parameters of both the PV systems. • Detailed comparative assessment of both the modeled PV system parameters.

  15. Effect of wind speed and solar irradiation on the optimization of a PV-Wind-Battery system to supply a telecommunications station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Lujano, Juan; Zubi, Ghassan [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Electrical Engineerign Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the optimization of a PV-Wind hybrid system with batteries storage to supply the electrical power to a small telecommunications station. The load demanded by the station is 100 W continuously. We have considered 6 different wind speed profiles, from 2 m/s average speed (low wind speed in many places in Spain) to 8 m/s average (very high wind speed, in few places in Spain) and 3 different irradiation profiles, from the lowest average daily irradiation in Spain, about 2.5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day, to the highest one in Spain, about 5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. Therefore we have considered 6 x 3 = 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles. For each combination of wind speed and irradiation profiles, we have optimized the PV-Wind-Battery system to supply the power demand, considering some different PV panels, wind turbines and batteries. We have also considered in the optimization non-hybrid systems (PV-Battery systems and Wind-Battery systems). The simulation of the system performance has been done hourly. The optimal system for each combination of wind speed and irradiation is the one which can supply the whole demand of the telecommunications station with the lowest Net Present Cost of the system. Simulation and optimization has been done using HOGA (Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms) software, developed by some of the authors. The results show that, with actual prices of PV panels and wind turbines, in 13 of the 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles the optimal system is a hybrid system (it includes PV panels, wind turbine and batteries). In the other 5 combinations (the ones with lowest wind speed and/or highest irradiation), the optimal system is PV-Battery, i.e., without wind turbine. We conclude that, in most of the places in Spain, the optimal system to supply the demand of a communications station (with continous demand profile) is a hybrid system (PV-Wind-Batteries) instead of a PV-Batteries system or a Wind

  16. What Factors Affect the Prices of Low-Priced U.S. Solar PV Systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mercator Research Inst. on Global Commons and Climate Change, Berlin (Germany); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gillingham, Ken [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The price of solar PV systems has declined rapidly, yet there are some much lower-priced systems than others. This study explores the factors leading some systems to be so much lower priced than others. Using a data set of 42,611 residential-scale PV systems installed in the U.S. in 2013, we use quantile regressions to estimate the importance of factors affecting the installed prices for low-priced (LP) systems (those at the 10th percentile) in comparison to median-priced systems. We find that the value of solar to consumers–a variable that accounts for subsidies, electric rates, and PV generation levels–is associated with lower prices for LP systems but higher prices for median priced systems. Conversely, systems installed in new home construction are associated with lower prices at the median but higher prices for LP. Other variables have larger cost-reducing effects on LP than on median priced systems: systems installed in Arizona and Florida, as well as commercial and thin film systems. In contrast, the following have a smaller effect on prices for LP systems than median priced systems: tracking systems, self-installations, systems installed in Massachusetts, the system size, and installer experience. These results highlight the complex factors at play that lead to LP systems and shed light into how such LP systems can come about.

  17. Modeling and simulation of a micro grid-connected solar PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameen AbdelHady

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy (MERE; began promoting the system of ‘Feed-in Tariff’ in billing. The introduced system allows the user to generate electricity through solar panels mounted on the roofs of residential buildings and governmental organizations and tied to the grid. To benefit from MERE’s approach, the National Water Research Center (NWRC (Qanatir, Egypt set up a pilot rooftop 91 kW PV system. All the generated electricity is fed into the 220 V, 50 Hz low voltage grid serving NWRC premises. In this manuscript a MATLAB Simulink model is constructed mimicking a detailed representation of the system tied either to the local low voltage grid or to the national high voltage grid. The aim of such modeling effort is to provide early evaluation of the system performance. The economical savings of both scenarios are compared based on the new billing system. Results show that the current system saves 100 thousand L.E./year, while tying the system to the national grid will save 235.8 thousand L.E./year.

  18. Grid Connected Solar PV System with SEPIC Converter Compared with Parallel Boost Converter Based MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ajith Bosco Raj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to study the behaviour of the solar PV systems and model the efficient Grid-connected solar power system. The DC-DC MPPT circuit using chaotic pulse width modulation has been designed to track maximum power from solar PV module. The conversion efficiency of the proposed MPPT system is increased when CPWM is used as a control scheme. This paper also proposes a simplified multilevel (seven level inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The primary goal of these systems is to increase the energy injected to the grid by keeping track of the maximum power point of the panel, by reducing the switching frequency, and by providing high reliability. The maximum power has been tracked experimentally. It is compared with parallel boost converter. Also this model is based on mathematical equations and is described through an equivalent circuit including a PV source with MPPT, a diode, a series resistor, a shunt resistor, and dual boost converter with active snubber circuit. This model can extract PV power and boost by using dual boost converter with active snubber. By using this method the overall system efficiency is improved thereby reducing the switching losses and cost.

  19. Optimized design and control of an off grid solar PV/hydrogen fuel cell power system for green buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenai, C.; Bettayeb, M.

    2017-11-01

    Modelling, simulation, optimization and control strategies are used in this study to design a stand-alone solar PV/Fuel Cell/Battery/Generator hybrid power system to serve the electrical load of a commercial building. The main objective is to design an off grid energy system to meet the desired electric load of the commercial building with high renewable fraction, low emissions and low cost of energy. The goal is to manage the energy consumption of the building, reduce the associate cost and to switch from grid-tied fossil fuel power system to an off grid renewable and cleaner power system. Energy audit was performed in this study to determine the energy consumption of the building. Hourly simulations, modelling and optimization were performed to determine the performance and cost of the hybrid power configurations using different control strategies. The results show that the hybrid off grid solar PV/Fuel Cell/Generator/Battery/Inverter power system offers the best performance for the tested system architectures. From the total energy generated from the off grid hybrid power system, 73% is produced from the solar PV, 24% from the fuel cell and 3% from the backup Diesel generator. The produced power is used to meet all the AC load of the building without power shortage (system produces 18.2% excess power that can be used to serve the thermal load of the building. The proposed hybrid power system is sustainable, economically viable and environmentally friendly: High renewable fraction (66.1%), low levelized cost of energy (92 /MWh), and low carbon dioxide emissions (24 kg CO2/MWh) are achieved.

  20. Leakage Current Elimination of Four-Leg Inverter for Transformerless Three-Phase PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; He, Ran; Jian, Jiamin

    2016-01-01

    Eliminating the leakage current is one of the most important issues for transformerless three phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this paper, the leakage current elimination of a three-phase four-leg PV inverter is investigated. With the common mode loop model established, the generation mechanism...... of the leakage current is clearly identified. Different typical carrier-based modulation methods and their corresponding common mode voltages are discussed. A new modulation strategy with Boolean logic function is proposed to achieve the constant common mode voltage for the leakage current reduction. Finally...

  1. High Efficiency Non-isolated Three Port DC-DC Converter for PV-Battery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Manez, Kevin; Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a nonisolated Three Port Converter (TPC) with a unidirectional port for photovoltaic (PV) panels and a bidirectional port for energy storage. With the proposed topology single power conversion is performed between each port, so high efficiencies are obtained. A theoretical...

  2. An automated model for rooftop PV systems assessment in ArcGIS using LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesude Bayrakci Boz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As photovoltaic (PV systems have become less expensive, building rooftops have come to be attractive for local power production. Identifying rooftops suitable for solar energy systems over large geographic areas is needed for cities to obtain more accurate assessments of production potential and likely patterns of development. This paper presents a new method for extracting roof segments and locating suitable areas for PV systems using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR data and building footprints. Rooftop segments are created using seven slope (tilt, ve aspect (azimuth classes and 6 different building types. Moreover, direct beam shading caused by nearby objects and the surrounding terrain is taken into account on a monthly basis. Finally, the method is implemented as an ArcGIS model in ModelBuilder and a tool is created. In order to show its validity, the method is applied to city of Philadelphia, PA, USA with the criteria of slope, aspect, shading and area used to locate suitable areas for PV system installation. The results show that 33.7% of the buildings footprints areas and 48.6% of the rooftop segments identi ed is suitable for PV systems. Overall, this study provides a replicable model using commercial software that is capable of extracting individual roof segments with more detailed criteria across an urban area.

  3. Quantitative Analysis Method of Output Loss due to Restriction for Grid-connected PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yuzuru; Oozeki, Takashi; Kurokawa, Kosuke; Itou, Takamitsu; Kitamura, Kiyoyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Yokota, Masaharu; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    Voltage of power distribution line will be increased due to reverse power flow from grid-connected PV systems. In the case of high density grid connection, amount of voltage increasing will be higher than the stand-alone grid connection system. To prevent the over voltage of power distribution line, PV system's output will be restricted if the voltage of power distribution line is close to the upper limit of the control range. Because of this interaction, amount of output loss will be larger in high density case. This research developed a quantitative analysis method for PV systems output and losses to clarify the behavior of grid connected PV systems. All the measured data are classified into the loss factors using 1 minute average of 1 second data instead of typical 1 hour average. Operation point on the I-V curve is estimated to quantify the loss due to the output restriction using module temperature, array output voltage, array output current and solar irradiance. As a result, loss due to output restriction is successfully quantified and behavior of output restriction is clarified.

  4. Potential and cost-effectiveness of off-grid PV systems in Indonesia - An evaluation on a provincial level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we estimate the potential of off-grid PV systems in Indonesia at a provincial level as a follow-up of a study on the potential of grid-connected PV systems in Indonesia which we executed in 2012 [1]. For this study we use an adapted methodology leading to cumulative numbers for the

  5. Monitoring and evaluation of Solar Home Systems. Experiences with applications of solar PV for households in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Van Dijk, A.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Hirsch, D.; Lasschuit, P.E.; Van Roekel, G.; Arriaza, H.; Hankins, M.; Sharma, B.D.; Wade, H.

    2000-09-01

    Solar energy is a promising solution to meet demand for electricity services of rural households in remote locations in developing countries. After some early successes, more and more doubts have arisen about the effectiveness and suitability of small PV systems for rural development. Many organisational, financial and technical problems appear difficult to tackle. A literature survey has been conducted to make an inventory of experiences with solar photovoltaic applications for households in developing countries. The major conclusion from the extensive literature research performed during this study is that there is not enough information available about the performance of solar home systems and projects. This slows down further development and successful dissemination. refs

  6. PV Power-Generation System with a Phase-Shift PWM Technique for High Step-Up Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A PV power-generation system with a phase-shift pulse-width modulation (PWM technique for high step-up voltage applications is proposed. The proposed power-generation system consists of two stages. In the input stage, all power switches of the full-bridge converter with phase-shift technique can be operated with zero-current switching (ZCS at turn-on or turn-off transition. Hence, the switching losses of the power switches can be reduced. Then, in the DC output stage, a voltage-doubler circuit is used to boost a high dc-link bus voltage. To supply a utility power, a dc/ac inverter is connected to induce a sinusoidal source. In order to draw a maximum power from PV arrays source, a microcontroller is incorporated with the perturbation and observation method to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In this study, a full load power of 300 W prototype has been built. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power-generation system.

  7. An experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV)-solar thermal hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdil, Erzat; Ilkan, Mustafa; Egelioglu, Fuat

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid system, composed of a photovoltaic (PV) module and a solar thermal collector is constructed and tested for energy collection at a geographic location of Cyprus. Normally, it is required to install a PV system occupying an area of about 10 m 2 in order to produce electrical energy; 7 kWh/day, required by a typical household. In this experimental study, we used only two PV modules of area approximately 0.6 m 2 (i.e., 1.3x0.47 m 2 ) each. PV modules absorb a considerable amount of solar radiation that generate undesirable heat. This thermal energy, however, may be utilized in water pre-heating applications. The proposed hybrid system produces about 2.8 kWh thermal energy daily. Various attachments that are placed over the hybrid modules lead to a total of 11.5% loss in electrical energy generation. This loss, however, represents only 1% of the 7 kWh energy that is consumed by a typical household in northern Cyprus. The pay-back period for the modification is less than 2 years. The low investment cost and the relatively short pay-back period make this hybrid system economically attractive

  8. Droop Control with Improved Disturbance Adaption for PV System with Two Power Conversion Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    with no or insufficient storage for cushioning climatic changes. In addition, most droop-controlled literatures have assumed a single dc-ac inverter with its input dc source fixed. Front-end dc-dc converter added to a two-stage photovoltaic (PV) system has therefore usually been ignored. To address these unresolved...

  9. Potential of hybrid PV systems for rural South Africa: addressing income activities and water supply

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortiz, B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available " player to develop sustainable solutions and to scale-up hybrid PV systems for supplying energy and water to rural areas and to other African countries. The challenge to scale-up new renewable energy technologies in the next years is that they have...

  10. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems for industrial halls: Achieving economic benefit via lowering energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of renewable energy generation, such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, on the rooftop. To promote deployment of renewable energy generation, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the

  11. Evaluation, testing and further development of PV systems in Indonesia. Final report; Evaluation, Erprobung und Weiterentwicklung von PV-Systemen in Indonesien. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preiser, K.; Schweizer-Ries, P.; Kuhmann, J.; Adib, R.

    2000-06-01

    The Indonesian government initiated the World's biggest decentralised rural electrification programme with PV systems, the so-called 50 MW PV programme, which is to provide 10 million households with PV systems within the next decade. The report describes the financing, distribution strategies, organisation of maintenance work, and training. The focus will be on locally produced components, with cooperation of German organisations. [German] Indonesien besteht aus mehr als 17.500 Inseln, so dass die Ausdehnung der nationalen Netze auf verschiedene Barrieren stoesst. Dort gibt es ungefaehr 23 Millionen Haushalte, die nicht an das nationale Stromnetz angeschlossen sind. Um diese zu ueberwinden, hat die indonesische Regierung das weltweit groesste dezentrale rurale Elektrifizierungsprogramm mit Photovoltaik, das sogenannte 50 MW PV-Programm, ins Leben gerufen. Im Rahmen dieses Programmes sollen in den naechsten zehn Jahren eine Million Haushalte mit Photovoltaik versorgt werden. Welchen Einfluss dabei nicht-technische Aspekte, wie Finanzierungssysteme, Verbreitungsstrategien, Organisation von Wartungsarbeiten, Ausbildung der Programmakteure auf die Zufriedenheit der Nutzer mit den gelieferten Energiedienstleistungen hat und wie diese eine dauerhaften Betrieb und eine nachhaltige Verbreitung dieser Technologie foerdern koennen, war Gegenstand detaillierter Untersuchungen. Grossen Wert legten wir auf Tests lokal produzierter Komponenten und Systeme, mit dem Ziel den beteiligten Firmen die Verbesserung der Qualitaet ihrer Produkte und Dienstleistungen zu ermoeglichen. Neben verschiedenen Projekterfolgen ist sicherlich erwaehnenswert, dass initiiert durch unsere Taetigkeiten, ein deutscher Ladereglerhersteller die Produktion seiner Regler in Zusammenarbeit mit einer indonesischen Firma ausweiten konnte. (orig.)

  12. Study on analytical modelling approaches to the performance of thin film PV modules in sunny inland climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ramírez, M.; Nofuentes, G.; Silva, J.P.; Silvestre, S.; Muñoz, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at verifying that analytical modelling approaches may provide an estimation of the outdoor performance of TF (thin film) PV (photovoltaic) technologies in inland sites with sunny climates with adequate accuracy for engineering purposes. Osterwald's and constant fill factor methods were tried to model the maximum power delivered and the annual energy produced by PV modules corresponding to four TF PV technologies. Only calibrated electrical parameters at STC (standard test conditions), on-plane global irradiance and module temperature are required as inputs. A 12-month experimental campaign carried out in Madrid and Jaén (Spain) provided the necessary data. Modelled maximum power and annual energy values obtained through both methods were statistically compared to the experimental ones. In power terms, the RMSE (root mean square error) stays below 3.8% and 4.5% for CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules, respectively, while RMSE exceeds 5.4% for a-Si (amorphous silicon) or a-Si:H/μc-Si PV modules. Regarding energy terms, errors lie below 4.0% in all cases. Thus, the methods tried may be used to model the outdoor behaviour of the a-Si, a-Si:H/μc-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV modules tested – ordered from the lowest to the highest accuracy obtained – in sites with similar spectral characteristics to those of the two sites considered. - Highlights: • Simple analytical methods to model the outdoor behaviour of thin film PV (photovoltaic) technologies. • 8 PV modules were deployed outdoors over a 12-month period in two sunny inland sites. • RMSE (root mean square error) values stay below 3.8% and 4.5% in CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules. • Errors remain below 4.0% for all the PV modules and sites in energy terms. • Simple methods: suitable estimation of PV outdoor behaviour for engineering purposes

  13. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume III. Technical issues and design guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    This report provide appropriate guidance for addressing the major technical issues associated with the design and installation of a photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) system. Nomographs are presented for developing preliminary sizing and costing, and issues associated with specific components and the overall design of the electrical and mechanical system are discussed. SAND82-7157/2 presents a review of current PV-T technology and operating systems and a study of potential PV-T applications. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  14. Numerical investigation of the thermal and electrical performances for combined solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) modules based on internally extruded fin flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. C.; Li, Q. P.; Wang, G. J.

    2017-11-01

    A solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) module based on internally extruded fin flow channel was investigated numerically in this paper. First of all, the structures of the thin plate heat exchanger and the PV/T module were presented. Then, a numerical model of the PV/T module considering solar irradiation, fluid flow and heat transfer was developed to analyze the performance of the module. Finally, the steady electrical and thermal efficiencies of the PV/T module at different inlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were achieved. These numerical results supply theory basis for practical application of the PV/T module.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Inversors for Small PV Systems Grid Connected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidrach de Cardona, M.; Ramirez, L.

    2001-01-01

    The energy produced by a grid connected photovoltaic system is a function of weather conditions, mainly available radiation and temperature, photovoltaic array efficiency and inverter characteristics. The results obtained in experimental measurements with four small grid-connected inverters are described in this work. The main goal is to know the inverter performance in real operation conditions. For this purpose a 2 kW photovoltaic system has been used. These results allow us to know both the inverter efficiency and its output power quality. The following parameters have been evaluated as a function of output inverter power: efficiency, point of maximum power tracking, intensity and voltage waveform, total harmonic distortion and harmonic values to 31 order, frequency, power factor and reactive power. Other interesting parameters like stand-by energy consumption and daily losses due to the inverter threshold have also been analyzed. The results allow us to know the inverter features as a function of its real work point. In our comparative study it is possible to observe remarkable differences between the inverters; these results show how important it is to have a unique standard for inverters to photovoltaic grid-connected systems. (Author) 10 refs

  16. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoumah, Y; Yamegueu, D; Py, X

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy energy' concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  17. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  18. Closed Loop Fuzzy Logic Controlled PV Based Cascaded Boost Five-Level Inverter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revana, Guruswamy; Kota, Venkata Reddy

    2018-04-01

    Recent developments in intelligent control methods and power electronics have produced PV based DC to AC converters related to AC drives. Cascaded boost converter and inverter find their way in interconnecting PV and Induction Motor. This paper deals with digital simulation and implementation of closed loop controlled five-level inverter based Photo-Voltaic (PV) system. The objective of this work is to reduce the harmonics using Multi Level Inverter based system. The DC output from the PV panel is boosted using cascaded-boost-converters. The DC output of these cascaded boost converters is applied to the bridges of the cascaded inverter. The AC output voltage is obtained by the series cascading of the output voltage of the two inverters. The investigations are done with Induction motor load. Cascaded boost-converter is proposed in the present work to produce the required DC Voltage at the input of the bridge inverter. A simple FLC is applied to CBFLIIM system. The FLC is proposed to reduce the steady state error. The simulation results are compared with the hardware results. The results of the comparison are made to show the improvement in dynamic response in terms of settling time and steady state error. Design procedure and control strategy are presented in detail.

  19. Topology and Control of Transformerless High Voltage Grid-connected PV System Based on Cascade Step-up Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zilong; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    -up structure, instead of applying line-frequency step-up transformer, is proposed to connect PV directly to the 10 kV medium voltage grid. This series-connected step-up PV system integrates with multiple functions, including separated maximum power point tracking (MPPT), centralized energy storage, power...

  20. Power and Energy Management with Battery Storage for a Hybrid Residential PV-Wind System – A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Zaharof, Andreea; Iov, Florin

    2018-01-01

    The energy generation paradigm is shifting from centralized fossil-fuel-based generation to distributed-based renewable generation. Thus, hybrid residential energy systems based on wind turbines, PV panels and/or micro-turbines are gaining more and more terrain. Nevertheless, such a system needs...... to be coupled with an energy storage solution, most often a battery, in order to mitigate its power generation variability and to ensure a stable and reliable operation. In this work, two power and energy management strategies for a hybrid residential PV-wind system with battery energy storage were evaluated....... Simple but customized performance models for PV modules and a small wind turbine have been developed; furthermore the models have been parameterized based on real-life time-series for irradiance and wind speed, characteristic for a site in Denmark. The stress to which the battery was subjected, while...

  1. Simulation of stand alone PV system; Dokuritsugata taiyoko hatsuden system no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, H; Ogawa, H; Sekii, Y [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Tsuda, I; Nozaki, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to evaluate the simulation results of a photovoltaic power generation system, an operation simulation was carried out using the actual measured data of a stand alone PV system in Miyakojima, Okinawa Prefecture, so as to make a comparison with the actual operation data. The electric power was supplied to 250 houses and primary/junior high schools in the surrounding villages, which had an average demand load of approximately 90kw and the maximum of approximately 200kw. The power was supplied through the PV power generation in the duration of the sunshine, with an excess power charged in storage batteries and then supplied from the batteries at night. The array capacity was made 750kWp, the output current and storage batteries being characteristic type with an actual efficiency curve used for the inverter. The weather data used were the actual inclined insolation quantity and the outside air temperature data for a period of one month of November. The power charged in excess of 100% in the batteries was termed as an overflow power. With the charging condition 30% or less, a diesel generator was run for a rated operation for one hour, the power of which was termed as a backup power. As a result, the simulation was found nearly in agreement with the actual measurements. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedded steel plates. The lateral cyclic loading test is executed to investigate the seismic behavior and the electric and thermal performance with different drift angles. The seismic behavior, including failure pattern, lateral force-top displacement relationship, and deformation capacity, was investigated. The power generation and temperature variation on the back of the PV module and both sides of the shear wall were also tested. Two main results are demonstrated through the experiment: (1 the U-shaped steel connectors provide enough deformation capacity for the compatibility of the PV module to the shear wall during the whole cyclic test; (2 the electricity generation capacity is effective and stable during this seismic simulation test.

  3. Analysis of performance and device parameters of CIGS PV modules deployed outdoors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)], E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.za; Dyk, E.E. van; Macabebe, E.Q. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-02-02

    Two 20 W copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic modules were subjected to a thorough indoor assessment procedure, followed by outdoor deployment at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University as part of an ongoing study. The initial indoor measurement of maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of one of the modules was considerably higher than the manufacturer's rating (E.E. van Dyk, C. Radue and A.R. Gxasheka, Thin Solid Films 515 (2007) 6196). The modules were deployed on a dual-axis solar tracker and current-voltage characteristics were obtained weekly. In addition to the normal PV parameters of short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, P{sub MAX}, fill factor and efficiency, shunt and series resistances were also monitored. The performances of the two modules are compared and analyzed and the results presented in this paper.

  4. Analysis of performance and device parameters of CIGS PV modules deployed outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radue, C.; Dyk, E.E. van; Macabebe, E.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Two 20 W copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic modules were subjected to a thorough indoor assessment procedure, followed by outdoor deployment at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University as part of an ongoing study. The initial indoor measurement of maximum power output (P MAX ) of one of the modules was considerably higher than the manufacturer's rating (E.E. van Dyk, C. Radue and A.R. Gxasheka, Thin Solid Films 515 (2007) 6196). The modules were deployed on a dual-axis solar tracker and current-voltage characteristics were obtained weekly. In addition to the normal PV parameters of short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, P MAX , fill factor and efficiency, shunt and series resistances were also monitored. The performances of the two modules are compared and analyzed and the results presented in this paper

  5. Influence of mathematical models in design of PV-Diesel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the influence of mathematical models in the optimal design of PV-Diesel systems. For this purpose, a design tool developed by the authors, which allows obtaining the most cost effective design of a PV-Diesel system through the genetic algorithm technique, has been used. The mathematical models of some elements of the hybrid system have been improved in comparison to those usually employed in hybrid systems design programs. Furthermore, a more complete general control strategy has been developed, one that also takes into account more characteristics than those usually considered in this kind of design. Several designs have been made, evaluating the effect on the results of the different mathematical models and the novel strategy that can be considered

  6. A Practical Optimization Method for Designing Large PV Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Koutroulis, E.; Eyigun, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays Photovoltaic (PV) plants have multi MW sizes, the biggest plants reaching tens of MW of capacity. Such large-scale PV plants are made up of several thousands of PV panels, each panel being in the range of 150-350W. This means that the design of a Large PV power plant is a big challenge...... and configuring such a plant should be implemented taking into consideration not only the cost of the installation, but also the Annual Energy Production, the Performance Ratio and the Levelized Cost Of Energy. In this paper, an algorithm is presented including the most important models of the PV system...

  7. A wind-PV-battery hybrid power system at Sitakunda in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Sanjoy Kumar; Ghosh, Himangshu Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    The measured wind data of Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) for 2006 at 30 m height shows a good prospect for wind energy extraction at the site. For a few months and hours the speed is below the cut in speeds of the available turbines in the market. The predicted solar radiation data from directly related measured cloud cover and sunshine duration data of Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) for 1992-2003 indicates that a reliable power system can be developed over the year if the solar energy technology is merged with the wind energy technologies for this site. This research work has studied on optimization of a wind-photovoltaic-battery hybrid system and its performance for a typical community load. The assessment shows that least cost of energy (COE) is about USD 0.363/kWh for a community using 169 kWh/day with 61 kW peak and having minimum amount of access or unused energy. Moreover, compared to the existing fossil fuel-based electricity supply, such an environment friendly system can mitigate about 25 t CO 2 /yr. The analysis also indicates that wind-PV-battery is economically viable as a replacement for conventional grid energy supply for a community at a minimum distance of about 17 km from grid.

  8. Grid-Competitive Residential and Commercial Fully Automated PV Systems Technology: Final technical Report, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Katie E.; Cousins, Peter; Culligan, Matt; Jonathan Botkin; DeGraaff, David; Bunea, Gabriella; Rose, Douglas; Bourne, Ben; Koehler, Oliver

    2011-08-26

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership program, SunPower Corporation developed turn-key, high-efficiency residential and commercial systems that are cost effective. Key program objectives include a reduction in LCOE values to 9-12 cents/kWh and 13-18 cents/kWh respectively for the commercial and residential markets. Target LCOE values for the commercial ground, commercial roof, and residential markets are 10, 11, and 13 cents/kWh. For this effort, SunPower collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete the tasks below. Subcontractors included: Solaicx, SiGen, Ribbon Technology, Dow Corning, Xantrex, Tigo Energy, and Solar Bridge. SunPower's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain: from ingot growth through system deployment. Throughout the award period of performance, SunPower has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of 20%+ efficient modules, increased cell efficiency through the understanding of loss mechanisms and improved manufacturing technologies, novel module development, automated design tools and techniques, and reduced system development and installation time. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, SunPower achieved the 2010 target range, as well as progress toward 2015 targets.

  9. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  10. Adaptive Fuzzy Logic based MPPT Control for PV System Under Partial Shading Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Subhashree; Rout, Pravat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Partial shading causes power loss, hotspots and threatens the reliability of the Photovoltaic generation system. Moreover characteristic curves exhibit multiple peaks. Conventional MPPT techniques under this condition often fail to give optimum MPP. Focusing on the afore mentioned problem an attempt has been made to design an Adaptive Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System based Fuzzy Logic Control MPPT.The mathematical model of PV array is simulated using in MATLAB/Simulink environment.Various...

  11. Marketing residential grid-connected PV systems using a balanced scorecard as a marketing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, N.; Calais, P.; Calais, M.

    2001-01-01

    A strategic analysis of the electricity market in Western Australia yields a market potential for renewable energy in Western Australia. However, from a purely financial viewpoint the installation of grid-connected pv-systems still is not economically viable. In this paper a balanced scorecard (BSC) is developed to capture and visualize other than financial benefits. Therefore, the BSC can be used as a marketing tool to communicate the benefits of a privately owned GCPV system to potential customers. (author)

  12. Energy performance of water hybrid PV/T collectors applied to combisystems of Direct Solar Floor type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, G.; Johannes, K. [Laboratoire Optimisation de la Conception et Ingenierie de l' Environnement, Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Chambery, Campus Scientifique Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Menezo, C. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Bat. Freyssinet, 20, Avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-11-15

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) modules in buildings allows one to consider a multifunctional frame and then to reduce the cost by substitution of components. In order to limit the rise of the cell operating temperature, a photovoltaics/thermal (PV/T) collector combines a solar water heating collector and PV cells. The recovered heat energy can be used for heating systems and domestic hot water. A combination with a Direct Solar Floor is studied. Its low operating temperature level is appropriate for the operating conditions of the mono- or poly-crystalline photovoltaic modules which are selected in that study. However, for a system including a glass covered collector and localised in Macon area in France, we show that the annual photovoltaic cell efficiency is 6.8% which represents a decrease of 28% in comparison with a conventional non-integrated PV module of 9.4% annual efficiency. This is obviously due to a temperature increase related to the cover. On the other hand, we show that without a glass cover, the efficiency is 10% which is 6% better than a standard module due to the cooling effect. Moreover, in the case of a glazed PV/T collector with a conventional control system for Direct Solar Floor, the maximum temperature reached at the level of the PV modules is higher than 100{sup o}C. This is due to the oversize of the collectors during the summer when the heating needs are null, i.e. without a heated swimming pool for example. This temperature level does not allow the use of EVA resin (ethylene vinyl acetate) in PV modules due to strong risks of degradation. The current solution consists of using amorphous cells or, if we do not enhance the thermal production, uncovered PV/T collector. Further research led to water hybrid PV/T solar collectors as a one-piece component, both reliable and efficient, and including the thermal absorber, the heat exchanger and the photovoltaic functions. (author)

  13. Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-02-01

    Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on 1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and 2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems.

  14. Market Assessment of Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.; Coburn, T.

    2000-09-29

    This report presents research done in response to a decision by the Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Conservation and Management (OEC) and Colorado utility companies to consider making residential grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems available in Colorado. The idea was to locate homeowners willing to pay the costs of grid-tied PV (GPV) systems without batteries-$8,000 or $12,000 for a 2- or 3-kilowatt (kW) system, respectively, in 1996. These costs represented two-thirds of the actual installed cost of $6 per watt at that time and assumed the remainder would be subsidized. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and OEC partnered to conduct a market assessment for GPV technology in Colorado. The study encompassed both qualitative and quantitative phases. The market assessment concluded that a market for residential GPV systems exists in Colorado today. That market is substantial enough for companies to successfully market PV systems to Colorado homeowners. These homeo wners appear ready to learn more, inform themselves, and actively purchase GPV systems. The present situation is highly advantageous to Colorado's institutions-primarily its state government and its utility companies, and also its homebuilders-if they are ready to move forward on GPV technology.

  15. A Market Assessment of Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.; Coburn, T.

    2000-09-13

    This is the Executive Summary of a report that presents research done in response to a decision by the Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Conservation and Management (OEC) and Colorado utility companies to consider making residential grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems available in Colorado. The idea was to locate homeowners willing to pay the costs of grid-tied PV (GPV) systems without batteries--$8,000 or $12,000 for a 2- or 3-kilowatt (kW) system, respectively, in 1996. These costs represented two-thirds of the actual installed cost of $6 per watt at that time and assumed the remainder would be subsidized. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and OEC partnered to conduct a market assessment for GPV technology in Colorado. The study encompassed both qualitative and quantitative phases. The market assessment concluded that a market for residential GPV systems exists in Colorado today. That market is substantial enough for companies to successfully market PV systems to Colorado homeowners. These homeowners appear ready to learn more, inform themselves, and actively purchase GPV systems. The present situation is highly advantageous to Colorado's institutions--primarily its state government and its utility companies, and also its homebuilders--if they are ready to move forward on GPV technology.

  16. A new method for estimating insolation based on PV-module currents in a cluster of stand-alone solar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhout, F; van der Borg, N; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of solar home systems (SHSs), data on local insolation is a prerequisite. We present a new method to estimate insolation if direct measurements are unavailable. This method comprises estimation of daily irradiation by correlating photovoltaic (PV) module currents

  17. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  18. Modified Grid-Connected CSI for Hybrid PV/Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amorndechaphon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a power conditioning unit for hybrid PV/wind power generation system is proposed. The proposed power conditioner is based on the current source inverter (CSI topology. All energy sources are connected in parallel with a DC-bus through the modified wave-shaping circuits. To achieve the unity power factor at the utility grid, the DC-link current can be controlled via the wave-shaping circuits with the sinusoidal PWM scheme. In this work, the carrier-based PWM scheme is also proposed to minimize the utility current THD. The power rating of the proposed system can be increased by connecting more PV/wind modules through their wave-shaping circuits in parallel with the other modules. The details of the operating principles, the system configurations, and the design considerations are described. The effectiveness of the proposed CSI is demonstrated by simulation results.

  19. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  20. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Ribeiro, C.M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energie Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  1. Brushless DC motor drives supplied by PV power system based on Z-source inverter and FL-IC MPPT controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari Niapour, S.A.KH.; Danyali, S.; Sharifian, M.B.B.; Feyzi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Employing the BLDC motor in water pumping systems. → Utilizing the ZSI as a single-stage power converter in the PV water pumping systems based on BLDC motor. → Improvement of the conventional IC MPPT method with the fuzzy logic control scheme to save more energy from the PV array. → Taking the advantages of the DTC drive of the BLDC motor. → Optimizing the water pumping system speed response characteristic by PSO. - Abstract: This paper discusses operation performance of a water pumping system consist of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor coupled a centrifugal pump and accompanying a Z-source inverter (ZSI) fed by a photovoltaic (PV) array, to be improved. Despite conventional double-stage power converters, this paper proposes utilizing a single-stage ZSI to extract the maximum power of the PV array and supply the BLDC motor simultaneously. Utilizing the ZSI provides some inherent advantages such as high efficiency and low cost, which is very promising for PV systems due to its novel voltage buck/boost capability. In addition, in order to precisely perform the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV array the fuzzy logic-incremental conductance (FL-IC) MPPT scheme is proposed. The proposed FL-IC MPPT scheme provides enough modification to the conventional IC method to enjoy an appropriate variable step size MPPT control signal for the ZSI. Moreover, direct torque control (DTC) is found more effective in comparison with hysteresis current control with current shaping to drive the BLDC motor, because it benefits from faster torque response, reduced torque ripple, less sensitivity to parameters variations, and simple implementation. In the mean time, due to the frequently variations of the PV power generation; delivered mechanical power to the centrifugal pump is variable. Thus, the BLDC motor should be driven with variable reference speed. In order to improve the speed transient response of the BLDC motor and enhance the energy saving aspect of

  2. A New Energy Management Technique for PV/Wind/Grid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozdal Mengi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent energy management system (IEMS for maintaining the energy sustainability in renewable energy systems (RES is introduced here. It consists of wind and photovoltaic (PV solar panels are established and used to test the proposed IEMS. Since the wind and solar sources are not reliable in terms of sustainability and power quality, a management system is required for supplying the load power demand. The power generated by RES is collected on a common DC bus as a renewable green power pool to be used for supplying power to loads. The renewable DC power bus is operated in a way that there is always a base power available for permanent loads. Then the additional power requirement is supplied from either wind or PV or both depending upon the availability of these power sources. The decision about operating these systems is given by an IEMS with fuzzy logic decision maker proposed in this study. Using the generated and required power information from the wind/PV and load sides, the fuzzy reasoning based IEMS determines the amount of power to be supplied from each or both sources. Besides, the IEMS tracks the maximum power operating point of the wind energy system.

  3. High Efficiency Non-isolated Three Port DC-DC Converter for PV-Battery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Manez, Kevin; Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Ouyang, Ziwei; Franke, Toke

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a nonisolated Three Port Converter (TPC) with a unidirectional port for photovoltaic (PV) panels and a bidirectional port for energy storage. With the proposed topology single power conversion is performed between each port, so high efficiencies are obtained. A theoretical analysis is carried out to analyze all operating modes and design considerations with the main equations are given. A 4kW laboratory prototype is developed and tested under all operatingconditions. Resul...

  4. A Virtual PV Systems Lab for Engineering Undergraduate Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ozkop

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and utilization of a Virtual Photovoltaic Systems Laboratory for undergraduate curriculum are introduced in this paper. The laboratory introduced in this study is developed to teach students the basics and design steps of photovoltaic solar energy systems in a virtual environment before entering the field. The users of the proposed virtual lab will be able to determine the sizing by selecting related parameters of the photovoltaic system to meet DC and AC loading conditions. Besides, the user will be able to analyze the effect of changing solar irradiation and temperature levels on the operating characteristics of the photovoltaic systems. Common DC bus concept and AC loading conditions are also included in the system by utilizing a permanent magnet DC motor and an RLC load as DC and AC loading examples, respectively. The proposed Virtual Photovoltaic Systems Laboratory is developed in Matlab/Simulink GUI environment. The proposed virtual lab has been used in Power Systems Lab in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at Karadeniz Technical University as a part of undergraduate curriculum. A survey on the students who took the lab has been carried out and responses are included in this paper.

  5. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  6. The case for a single-axis tracking solar PV array system to mitigate against the time-of-use tariff

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available peak tariff is from 6:00pm to 8:00pm. A fixed-axis PV system generates peak electricity when the sun is overhead of the PV array. A single-axis PV tracking system allows for maximum production of electricity by tracking the sun soon after it appears...

  7. Integrated Three-Port DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Stand-alone Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    of solar energy. Moreover, a novel transformer configuration enables variable turns ratio controlled by the phase between the two current excitations subjected to the primary windings, allowing a wider input/output range. 1 kW experimental prototype has been built to demonstrate a wellmanaged power flow......Several power sources such as PV solar arrays and battery are often used to manage the power flow for a photovoltaic (PV) based stand-alone power system due to the fluctuation nature of solar energy resource, and deliver a continuous power to the users in an appropriate form. Traditionally, three...... different single-input single-output (SISO) dc/dc converters would have been used. To reduce the cost and improve the power density of the system, an integrated three-port isolated dc/dc converter is proposed in this paper. It can realize all functions of the energy delivery due to the fluctuation nature...

  8. Enhancement of real-time EPICS IOC PV management for the data archiving system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ha

    2015-10-01

    The operation of a 100-MeV linear proton accelerator, the major driving values and experimental data need to be archived. According to the experimental conditions, different data are required. Functions that can add new data and delete data in real time need to be implemented. In an experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input output controller (IOC), the value of process variables (PVs) are matched with the driving values and data. The PV values are archived in text file format by using the channel archiver. There is no need to create a database (DB) server, just a need for large hard disk. Through the web, the archived data can be loaded, and new PV values can be archived without stopping the archive engine. The details of the implementation of a data archiving system with channel archiver are presented, and some preliminary results are reported.

  9. Distributed Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraati, Mehdi; Golshan, Mohamad Esmaeil Hamedani; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    of their installed capacity whereas the second one modifies the BESs performance in terms of their state of charge (SoC) to prevent the excessive saturation or depletion of batteries. The proposed controller enables the effective use of storage capacity in different conditions. Finally, the simulation results based...... issues of distribution networks. In this paper, the battery energy storage (BES) systems are used in order to solve the voltage rise during the peak PV generation as well as the voltage drop while meeting the peak load. A coordinated control strategy is proposed to regulate the charge/discharge of BESs...

  10. A simple tracking system to monitor solar PV panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaher, H.; Kaich, H.; Ayadi, N.; Ben Hmouda, M.; Maalej, A.; Lemmer, U.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We designed and constructed a solar tracking system based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs). • A study was made to determine the optimal angle of LDRs inducing the best precision of the device. • An experimental system was built to test different values of the angle between LDRs. • Results showed a good agreement between the experience and the predicted values. • The obtained results are useful for the design of new trackers based on the use of LDRs. - Abstract: The solar tracking systems are a center of interest of a big number of researchers from the fifties. The deflection of sun rays on a solar photovoltaic panel can reduce its power output until 50%. For concentrators solar trackers are master parts of the systems. A simple tracking system based on light dependent resistors was locally constructed, tested and optimized. Good agreement was recorded between numerical optimization results and experimental ones. These results are useful for the design and construction of new sun trackers

  11. Prioritized rule based load management technique for residential building powered by PV/battery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Ayodele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Solar Photovoltaic (PV system has presented itself as one of the main solutions to the electricity poverty plaguing the majority of buildings in rural communities with solar energy potential. However, the stochasticity associated with solar PV power output owing to vagaries in weather conditions is a major challenge in the deployment of the systems. This study investigates approach for maximizing the benefits of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-Battery (SAPVB system via techniques that provide for optimum energy gleaning and management. A rule-based load management scheme is developed and tested for a residential building. The approach allows load prioritizing and shifting based on certain rules. To achieve this, the residential loads are classified into Critical Loads (CLs and Uncritical Loads (ULs. The CLs are given higher priority and therefore are allowed to operate at their scheduled time while the ULs are of less priority, hence can be shifted to a time where there is enough electric power generation from the PV arrays rather than the loads being operated at the time period set by the user. Four scenarios were created to give insight into the applicability of the proposed rule based load management scheme. The result revealed that when the load management technique is not utilized as in the case of scenario 1 (Base case, the percentage satisfaction of the critical and uncritical loads by the PV system are 49.8% and 23.7%. However with the implementation of the load management scheme in scenarios 2, 3 and 4, the percentage satisfaction of the loads (CLs, ULs are (93.8%, 74.2%, (90.9%, 70.1% and (87.2%, 65.4% for scenarios 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  12. Residential PV system users' perception of profitability, reliability, and failure risk: An empirical survey in a local Japanese municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Toshihiro; Kawamoto, Shishin; Ueda, Yuzuru; Saijo, Miki; Abe, Naoya

    2011-01-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the reliability of residential PV systems in order to improve the dissemination of the systems among individual users and societies, few have examined users' perception of their own PV systems, which might contain solutions to firmly establish the system into society. First, the present paper examined the extent to which residential PV system users understand specification, reliability, and failure risk of their own systems. Second, causal factors affecting users' satisfaction with PV systems were examined. By analyzing data collected in Kakegawa City, this paper revealed that users did not appropriately understand the basic specifications of their residential PV systems, and in particular, the fact that the systems sometimes failed and therefore needed proper maintenance. Furthermore, a strong causal relationship between users' expectations of financial return from the system and their level of satisfaction was confirmed empirically. These results suggested that excessive focus on profitability and relatively low interest in the systems' reliability and failure risk should be addressed more to avoid problems that could potentially hamper the establishment of this technology into society. - Highlights: → We examined PV users' perception of its specification, reliability, and failure risk. → Data for analysis were collected by questionnaire survey in a Japanese local municipality. → We revealed users did not appropriately understand the basic specifications. → A strong causal relationship between users' expectations of financial return and their level of satisfaction was confirmed empirically.

  13. Application of PSpice in simulation of a photovoltaic (PV) system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two approaches in computer simulation of any system- developing custom software from the scratch or application of one of the commercially available software packages. In the later approach, either dedicated simulating software can be used or general-purpose software can be adapted to suit particular needs.

  14. Field Performance of Photovoltaic Systems in the Tucson Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsburn, Sean; Brooks, Adria; Cormode, Daniel; Greenberg, James; Hardesty, Garrett; Lonij, Vincent; Salhab, Anas; St. Germaine, Tyler; Torres, Gabe; Cronin, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    At the Tucson Electric Power (TEP) solar test yard, over 20 different grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems are being tested. The goal at the TEP solar test yard is to measure and model real-world performance of PV systems and to benchmark new technologies such as holographic concentrators. By studying voltage and current produced by the PV systems as a function of incident irradiance, and module temperature, we can compare our measurements of field-performance (in a harsh desert environment) to manufacturer specifications (determined under laboratory conditions). In order to measure high-voltage and high-current signals, we designed and built reliable, accurate sensors that can handle extreme desert temperatures. We will present several benchmarks of sensors in a controlled environment, including shunt resistors and Hall-effect current sensors, to determine temperature drift and accuracy. Finally we will present preliminary field measurements of PV performance for several different PV technologies.

  15. Hybrid PV and solar-thermal systems for domestic heat and power provision in the UK: Techno-economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrando, María; Markides, Christos N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable heat and power generation in UK homes with PVT systems studied. • PVT/w generation: 2.3 MW_e h/yr (51% of demand) and 1.0 MW_t_h h/yr (36% hot water). • Optimised PVT/w system has 9–11 year payback periods (PV-only: 6.8 years). • Same system allows 16.0-t CO_2 reduction and 14-t primary fossil-fuel saving. • With a ∼2:1 support (£/W_e h:£/W_t_h h), PVT and PV have similar payback periods. - Abstract: A techno-economic analysis is undertaken to assess hybrid PV/solar-thermal (PVT) systems for distributed electricity and hot-water provision in a typical house in London, UK. In earlier work (Herrando et al., 2014), a system model based on a PVT collector with water as the cooling medium (PVT/w) was used to estimate average year-long system performance. The results showed that for low solar irradiance levels and low ambient temperatures, such as those associated with the UK climate, a higher coverage of total household energy demands and higher CO_2 emission savings can be achieved by the complete coverage of the solar collector with PV and a relatively low collector cooling flow-rate. Such a PVT/w system demonstrated an annual electricity generation of 2.3 MW h, or a 51% coverage of the household’s electrical demand (compared to an equivalent PV-only value of 49%), plus a significant annual water heating potential of to 1.0 MW h, or a 36% coverage of the hot-water demand. In addition, this system allowed for a reduction in CO_2 emissions amounting to 16.0 tonnes over a life-time of 20 years due to the reduction in electrical power drawn from the grid and gas taken from the mains for water heating, and a 14-tonne corresponding displacement of primary fossil-fuel consumption. Both the emissions and fossil-fuel consumption reductions are significantly larger (by 36% and 18%, respectively) than those achieved by an equivalent PV-only system with the same peak rating/installed capacity. The present paper proceeds further, by

  16. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  17. Procedures for Determining the Performance of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBlasio, R.; Durand, S.; Hansen, R.; Hutchinson, P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Rosenthal, A.; Thomas, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the procedures for determining the performance of stand-alone PV systems. The procedures in this document provide a common approach for evaluating whether a given PV system is suitable to perform the function for which it was designed and manufactured to accomplish, and whether it will provide adequate power to run the load. These procedures cover small stand-alone PV systems. They cover complete outdoor system testing. Test results are valid only for the system that is tested

  18. Methodology for assessment of characteristics of PV water pumping systems using a DC power supply; Metodologia de levantamento de caracteristicas de sistemas fotovoltaicos de bombeamento d'agua utilizando fonte de alimentacao CC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Olga de Castro; Fraidenraich, Naum [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (FAE/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Grupo de Fontes Alternativas de Energia. Dept. de Energia Nuclear], Emails: ocv@ufpe.br, nf@ufpe.br; Galdino, Marco Antonio [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcoag@cepel.br

    2010-07-01

    This article describes a methodology which was used to reduce the time required to perform experimental assessment of characteristic curves (flowrate vs. solar irradiance) of PV water pumping systems showing different configurations. The characteristic curves are proposed to be obtained from two other types of curves: flowrate vs. DC power - measured using a DC power supply adjusted to simulate the operation of the PV panel in the system, and DC power vs. solar irradiance - obtained through outdoors measurements using PV panels. It is demonstrated how is possible to reduce the number of days of outdoor measurements necessary for obtaining these curves when the systems under test show configurations using the same pumping heights or the same PV panels. The flowrates, thus also the daily pumped volumes, calculated using the curves obtained through this methodology are considered the upper limits of system performance. (author)

  19. Optimum community energy storage system for PV energy time-shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, David; Gillott, Mark; Norman, Stuart A.; Walker, Gavin S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance and economic benefits of Pb-acid and Li-ion batteries are compared. • The business case during the decarbonisation pathway is assessed. • The aggregation from a community approach reduced the levelised cost by 37% by 2020. • For a forecast price of 16.3 p/kW h Li-ion battery cost must be less than 275 £/kW h. • A 10% subsidy will be needed for Li-ion batteries to achieve the 2020 forecast. - Abstract: A novel method has been designed to obtain the optimum community energy storage (CES) systems for end user applications. The method evaluates the optimum performance (including the round trip efficiency and annual discharge), levelised cost (LCOES), the internal rate of return and the levelised value of suitable energy storage technologies. A complimentary methodology was developed including three reference years (2012, 2020 and zero carbon year) to show the evolution of the business case during the low carbon transition. The method follows a community approach and the optimum CES system was calculated as a function of the size of the community. In this work, this method was put in practice with lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion battery (Li-ion) technologies when performing PV energy time-shift using real demand data from a single home to a 100-home community. The community approach reduced the LCOES down to 0.30 £/kW h and 0.11 £/kW h in 2020 and the zero carbon year respectively. These values meant a cost reduction by 37% and 66% regarding a single home. Results demonstrated that PbA batteries needs from 1.5 to 2.5 times more capacity than Li-ion chemistry to reduce the LCOES, the worst case scenario being for the smallest communities, because the more spiky demand profile required proportionately larger PbA battery capacities

  20. Design of A Grid Integrated PV System with MPPT Control and Voltage Oriented Controller using MATLAB/PLECES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreng, Bineeta; Behera, Pradyumna; Pradhan, Raseswari

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents model of a grid-integrated photovoltaic array with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) and voltage oriented controller. The MPPT of the PV array is usually an essential part of PV system as MPPT helps the operating point of the solar array to align its maximum power point. In this model, the MPPT along with a DC-DC converter lets a PV generator to produce continuous power, despite of the measurement conditions. The neutral-point-clamped converter (NPC) with a boost converter raises the voltage from the panels to the DC-link. An LCL-filter smoothens the current ripple caused by the PWM modulation of the grid-side inverter. In addition to the MPPT, the system has two more two controllers, such as voltage controller and a current controller. The voltage control has a PI controller to regulate the PV voltage to optimal level by controlling the amount of current injected into the boost stage. Here, the grid-side converter transfers the power from the DC-link into the grid and maintains the DC-link voltage. Three-phase PV inverters are used for off-grid or designed to create utility frequency AC. The PV system can be connected in series or parallel to get the desired output power. To justify the working of this model, the grid-integrated PV system has been designed in MATLAB/PLECS. The simulation shows the P-V curve of implemented PV Array consisting 4 X 20 modules, reactive, real power, grid voltage and current.

  1. Performance and costs of a roof-sized PV/thermal array combined with a ground coupled heat pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Zondag, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. Hence, PVT panels are an alternative for a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. A promising system concept,

  2. Large-area, high-intensity PV arrays for systems using dish concentrating optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Zweibel, K.; Coutts, T.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, the authors report on efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

  3. Numerical investigation of dust pollution on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on an isolated building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of dust pollution on PV panels mounted on building roofs were investigated by CFD. • The dust deposition rates first increased and then decreased with the increase of dust size. • The gravity has different influences on dust deposition rates of large and small dusts. • The influence of released dust number on dust deposition rate is less than 8%. • A simple model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratio by dust pollution. - Abstract: Dust deposition on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on the windward roof of an isolated building was investigated by CFD simulation. The SST k-ω turbulence model with UDF inlet profiles and the discrete particle model (DPM) were adopted to simulate the wind flow fields and the dust deposition behavior, respectively. The CFD wind flow velocity profiles around the building were in good agreement with experimental results reported in the literature. The effects of various dust particle sizes, differing quantities of released dust particles, and the force of gravity on the rates of dust deposition upon the PV panels were investigated in detail. It was found that the dust deposition rate first rose and then declined with the increase of dust particle size. The maximum deposition rate was about 0.28% for 10 μm dust, and the minimum deposition rate was about 0.13% for 50 μm dust. Gravity also had a significant effect on the rate of dust deposition for large-particle dust (d_p > 5 μm), and the rate could reach 75% for 50 μm dust. However, the effect of gravity on dust deposition was less than 5% for small-particle dust (d_p < 5 μm). The effect of releasing differing quantities of dust particles on the dust deposition rate was less than 8%. Moreover, the mechanisms by which dust was deposited on the PV roof were analyzed and discussed. Finally, a simple empirical model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratios in relation to exposure time, as based on this

  4. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, P

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members.

  5. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.

    2003-01-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members

  6. Analysis of PV system energy balance based on meteorological data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokop, L.; Mišák, S.; Pelikán, Emil; Juruš, Pavel; Kasanický, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 11 (2013), s. 27-30 ISSN 0033-2097 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/1842; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0069; VŠB(CZ) sp2013/68; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : photovoltaic power plant * energy concept * energy consumption * PAX system * solar radiation Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 0.244, year: 2011 http://pe.org.pl/abstract_pl.php?nid=8034

  7. Design, Fabrication, and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyard, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the overall accomplishments and benefits of Solar Electric Specialties Co. (SES) under this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. SES addressed design issues related to their modular autonomous PV power supply (MAPPS) and a mobile photogenset. MAPPS investigations included gel-cell batteries mounted horizontally; redisgn of the SES power supply; modified battery enclosure for increased safety and reduced cost; programmable, interactive battery charge controllers; and UL and FM listings. The photogenset systems incorporate generators, battery storage, and PV panels for a mobile power supply. The unit includes automatic oil-change systems for the propane generators, collapsible array mounts for the PV enclosure, and internal stowage of the arrays. Standardizing the products resulted in product lines of MAPPS and Photogensets that can be produced more economically and with shorter lead times, while increasing product quality and reliability. Product assembly and quality control have also been improved and streamlined with the development of standardized assembly processes and QC testing procedures. SES offers the UL-listed MAPPS at about the same price as its previous non-standardized, unlisted products

  8. Grid-Connection Half-Bridge PV Inverter System for Power Flow Controlling and Active Power Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A half-bridge photovoltaic (PV system is proposed, which can not only deal with bidirectional power flowing but also improve power quality. According to varying insolation, the system conditions real power for dc and ac loads to accommodate different amounts of PV power. Furthermore, the system eliminates current harmonics and improves power factor simultaneously. As compared with conventional PV inverter, the total number of active switches and current sensors can be reduced so that its cost is lower significantly. For current command determination, a linear-approximation method (LAM is applied to avoid the complicated calculation and achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT feature. For current controlling, a direct-source-current-shaping (DSCS algorithm is presented to shape the waveform of line current. Simulation results and practical measurements also demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed half-bridge PV system.

  9. Performance of different types of renewable power supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Motawakel, M K [Sana' a Univ. (Republic of Yemen). Dept. of Physics; Abu-El-Eizz, H M; Awwad, Z [Zagazig Univ. (EG). Dept. of Physics

    1991-10-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of a hybrid Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator power supply system operating under good and fair insolation and wind regimes. The effectiveness of such a hybrid system is measured by the Relative Sizing Parameter (RSP), Money Saving Parameter (MSP), and the Overall Reliability Parameter (ORP). Under specified weather conditions and for a nominal load demand, the RSP relates the product of the PV-modules and storage batteries involved in sizing the PV-Wind hybrid system to those of a stand alone PV-system sized to meet the same load. The MSP reports the difference between the total costs of a stand-alone PV power supply system and a hybrid PV-Wind power supply system, both sized to meet the same load, as a percentage of the total costs involved in supplying the load with a stand-alone PV power supply system only. The ORP compares the yearly average of the daily excess energy (positive difference between generated and consumed energy) of the hybrid system to that of the stand-alone PV power system. Based on this strategy we were able to develop a number of design diagrams which can be used in judging the benefits of utilizing hybrid PW-Wind generators on both economic and energy reliability grounds. (author).

  10. Optimal LFC SMC for three – area power system with high penetration of PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Klimontowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical power systems are subjected to new trends appearing in grid structuring, electrical power sources, new control strategies, etc. The introduction of inverterbased distributed energy resources to replace conventional synchronous machines depletes the mechanical inertia, and causing the system to become more sensitive to disturbances. This paper proposed a simple and reliable solution to assure sufficient frequency stability of electrical power systems when subjected to high penetration of decoupled distributed generation. To achieve this, a decentralized sliding mode control was designed to operate as a compensator for conventional load frequency controllers. Subsequently, PV farms and battery energy storage systems were interconnected. Simulated network under different configurations were conducted using MATLAB.

  11. Life-cycle air emissions from PV power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, M.E.; Johnson, A.J.; Outhred, H.R.; Ellis, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the air emission of grid supply versus grid-connected and off-grid photovoltaic power generation, using the framework of life-cycle assessment, in the contents of rural household energy supply in Australia. Emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxde and nitrous oxides are calculated for the three life-cycle stages of manufacture, use and disposal. Sensitivities to materials and data inputs, as well as to component efficiencies, lifetimes and sizing are discussed. For each supply option, demand management options, including insulation and appliance choice, and the substitution of solar heating or bottled gas for electricity are considered. The best option in all cases, in terms of life-cycle air emissions, is a grid-connected photovoltaic system used to supply an energy-efficient household with a mix of solar, gas and electric appliances. However, in financial terms, with current Australian energy prices, this option represents a high capital and life-cycle costs. Additionally, for the grid options, electricity costs do not significantly disadvantage the high demand scenarios. Both results provide a clear illustration of current Australian energy-pricing policies being in conflict with long-term environmental sustainability. (Author)

  12. MATLAB Simulation of Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Farah H. M.; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the photovoltaic reduces when the photovoltaic cell temperature increased due to solar irradiance. One solution is come up with the cooling system photovoltaic system. This combination is forming the photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) system. Not only will it generate electricity also heat at the same time. The aim of this research is to focus on the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic (PV) and photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) electrical performance by using single-diode equivalent circuit model. Both PV and PV/T models are developed in Matlab/Simulink. By providing the cooling system in PV/T, the efficiency of the system can be increased by decreasing the PV cell temperature. The maximum thermal, electrical and total efficiency values of PV/T in the present research are 35.18%, 15.56% and 50.74% at solar irradiance of 400 W/m2, mass flow rate of 0.05kgs-1 and inlet temperature of 25 °C respectively has been obtained. The photovoltaic-thermal shows that the higher efficiency performance compared to the photovoltaic system.

  13. Performance evaluation of photovoltaic systems on Kuwaiti schools’ rooftop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Otaibi, A.; Al-Qattan, A.; Fairouz, F.; Al-Mulla, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of rooftop PV installations at 2 Kuwaiti schools was carried out. • Lack of real plants data in the region and specifically Kuwait motivated the work. • Automated cleaning system allowed for minimization of soiling loss. • The average PV system performance was greater than 76%. • Schools show high potential for rooftop installations. - Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) is a high-potential renewable energy technology for Kuwait to pursue due to high daily irradiation, and has garnered local attention in recent years due to the growing energy demand and concerns over climate change. As yet, no data are available regarding the actual performance of PV systems in Kuwait’s harsh environment. This paper presents a 12-month-long performance evaluation of the first 85.05 kW p and 21.6 kW p copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin film, grid-connected PV systems on the rooftops of two schools. The schools’ monthly energy consumption and PV generation profiles, the actual performance of the PV plants, the effectiveness of automated cleaning systems on the power output, and the benefits of PV implementation in schools were analyzed and evaluated. Data analysis was applied to filter and normalize the data in order to identify the actual performance parameters. The findings of the study, based on solar irradiation collected, the performance of the module technology and the effectiveness of the automated cleaning systems, show that the performance ratio was maintained between 0.74 and 0.85. Furthermore, the minimum monthly energy yield of the PV systems was about 104 kW h/kW p . The annual average daily final yields of the PV systems in this study were 4.5 kW h/kW p /day. The results provided insight into the performance of CIGS grid-connected PV systems in Kuwait, and those data will be beneficial to the PV research community worldwide. School buildings, particularly for the rooftops, are a unique and important asset for urban PV system

  14. Multi-objective design of PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, a triple multi-objective design of isolated hybrid systems minimizing, simultaneously, the total cost throughout the useful life of the installation, pollutant emissions (CO{sub 2}) and unmet load. For this task, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) and a genetic algorithm (GA) have been used in order to find the best combination of components of the hybrid system and control strategies. As an example of application, a complex PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery system has been designed, obtaining a set of possible solutions (Pareto Set). The results achieved demonstrate the practical utility of the developed design method. (author)

  15. Economic analysis of hybrid power systems (PV/diesel) in different climatic zones of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, U.; Manoharan, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation on economic feasibility of PV/diesel system in various climatic zones. • HOMER is used to solve economic feasibility analysis. • By the sensitivity analysis, the net present cost is reduced. • Optimum climatic zone in Tamil Nadu, India is recommended. - Abstract: With the increasing threat to environment and the fast depleting fossil fuel resources, hybrid power systems consisting of two or more renewable energy sources such as solar PV, wind, biomass, ocean thermal-with or without the back up of diesel generator have come to the forefront. These hybrid systems are normally integrated with battery banks for total reliability; such systems have brought about better quality of life in remote areas of developing economics. The remote areas in the state of Tamil Nadu in India possess excellent renewable energy sources. These areas fall under different climatic zones, are sparsely populated and are in the process of development. Though these areas are connected to the grid, Tamil Nadu grid is not stable; it is currently experiencing 40% short fall in generation. Thus grid power is available to these remote areas only for 10 h a day and even when available, there are voltage frequency problems. This paper analyses the economic feasibility of installing and operating hybrid systems in these areas. The areas are divided into different climatic zones and the hybrid system economy is analyzed for each climatic zone on the basis of NPC (net present cost), consumption of diesel and renewable fraction for all climate zones. The analysis indicates that the interior climatic zone – the area would be the optimum climatic zone to install HPS PV/diesel. The sensitivity analysis proves that the NPC of such a system can be reduced. It is suggested that due to high initial cost, government subsidy is necessary to adopt the system on a large scale. Such a profit will encourage development of renewable energy utilization and bring about rapid

  16. 60 kW{sub p} PV-system school centre Spalterhals Barsinghausen. Synergies in energetical retrofit of school building; 60-kW{sub p}-PV-Anlage Schulzentrum Spalterhals Barsinghausen. Synergien bei der energetischen Sanierung eines Schulgebaeudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenscheit, R.; Hettwer, C. [Stadt Barsinghausen (Germany); Diestelmeier, C.; Wiegmann, A. [Raumplan, Hannover (Germany); Decker, B.; Hennig, C.; Mack, M. [Solar Engineering Decker and Mack GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The completely building-integrated PV plant with a nominal power of 60.54 kW{sub p} uses synergies with constructional and energetical retrofit of a school building. The PV plant is operated by the town of Barsinghausen (30 km southwest of Hannover). The federal state of Lower Saxony gave a grant of 36,61%, the Hannover region of 12,39% to the total investment of 824.190 Euro (incl. building construction). The PV plant is divided into five units. PV modules serve as the curtain wall of heat-insulated building core (blue PV cold facade: 12.67 kW{sub p}, grey PV breastwork: 8,38 kW{sub p}). Semitransparent PV modules substitute the insulating glass shed lights of a music room (4,28 kW{sub p}) and the glass roofing of an inner court (12,17 kW{sub p} - all modules: Solarnova) giving an optimum of sun-shading and daylighting. Thin-film PV modules on plastic foils (23,04 kW{sub p} - Alwitra EVALON Solar, Unisolar amorphous Si cells) are tested as flat roof standard retrofit. The PV system has 29 string inverters mostly of SMA Sunny Boy family mounted near to the PV modules in operational rooms or in crawling cellars. The PV operator gets a reimbursement of 0,481 Euro per kWh PV energy according to EEG. The PV system is monitored in detail within 'Solaroffensive' of Lower Saxony. Visualization tableaus inform the public about actual irradiance, actual power and annual energy. (orig.) [German] Schulgebaeude und insbesondere grosse Schulzentren aus den 70er Jahren haben geeignete Dachflaechen zur Errichtung von grossen PV-Anlagen (typisch >1.000 m{sup 2}). Zugleich sind Schulen ein idealer Ort, um vor breitem Publikum (Schueler, Lehrer, Eltern) Planung, Installation und Betrieb einer PV-Anlage zu demonstrieren. In Barsinghausen, am Fusse des Deisters etwa 30 km suedwestlich von Hannover, entstand zwischen August 2001 und Maerz 2003 eine innovative PV-Modellanlage am Schulzentrum 'Am Spalterhals', die verschiedene Arten der PV-Gebaeudeintegration erprobt

  17. Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest of power is expanding step by step all through the world. Because of constrained measure of fossil fuel, it is vital to outline some new non-renewable energy frameworks that can diminish the reliance on ordinary energy asset. A hybrid off-grid renewable energy framework might be utilized to reduction reliance on the traditional energy assets. Advancement of crossover framework is a procedure to choose the best mix of part and there cost that can give shabby, solid and successful option energy resource. In this paper sun oriented photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass gasifier generator set, battery backup and power conditioning unit have been simulated and optimized for educational institute, energy centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The area of the study range on the guide situated of 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitude. In this framework, the essential wellspring of power is sun based solar photovoltaic system and biomass gasifier generator set while fuel cell and batteries are utilized as reinforcement supply. HOMER simulator has been utilized to recreate off the grid and it checks the specialized and financial criteria of this hybrid energy system. The execution of every segment of this framework is dissected lastly delicate examination has been performing to enhance the mixture framework at various conditions. In view of the recreation result, it is found that the cost of energy (COE of a biomass gasifier generator set, solar PV and fuel cell crossover energy system has been found to be 15.064 Rs/kWh and complete net present cost Rs.51,89003. The abundance power in the proposed framework is observed to be 36 kWh/year with zero rates unmet electrical burden.

  18. LCP- LIFETIME COST AND PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Lifetime Cost and Performance (LCP) Model was developed to assist in the assessment of Photovoltaic (PV) system design options. LCP is a simulation of the performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with distributed PV power systems. LCP provides the user with substantial flexibility in specifying the technical and economic environment of the PV application. User-specified input parameters are available to describe PV system characteristics, site climatic conditions, utility purchase and sellback rate structures, discount and escalation rates, construction timing, and lifetime of the system. Such details as PV array orientation and tilt angle, PV module and balance-of-system performance attributes, and the mode of utility interconnection are user-specified. LCP assumes that the distributed PV system is utility grid interactive without dedicated electrical storage. In combination with a suitable economic model, LCP can provide an estimate of the expected net present worth of a PV system to the owner, as compared to electricity purchased from a utility grid. Similarly, LCP might be used to perform sensitivity analyses to identify those PV system parameters having significant impact on net worth. The user describes the PV system configuration to LCP via the basic electrical components. The module is the smallest entity in the PV system which is modeled. A PV module is defined in the simulation by its short circuit current, which varies over the system lifetime due to degradation and failure. Modules are wired in series to form a branch circuit. Bypass diodes are allowed between modules in the branch circuits. Branch circuits are then connected in parallel to form a bus. A collection of buses is connected in parallel to form an increment to capacity of the system. By choosing the appropriate series-parallel wiring design, the user can specify the current, voltage, and reliability characteristics of the system. LCP simulation of system performance is site

  19. Study on an optimum ratio of PV output energy to WG output energy in PV/WG hybrid system; Taiyoko/furyoku hybrid hatsuden system no saiteki yoryohi ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S [Kandenko Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A photovoltaic power (PV) and wind generated power (WG) are an unlimited clean energy source, yet their output is unstable depending on the fluctuation of weather conditions such as solar radiation and wind velocity. Consequently, a large-scale power storage equipment is necessitated leading to a high cost especially in an independent system. As a solution, a method is available in which PV and WG are combined so that the effect may be utilized for stabilizing the output of a system as a whole, at a site where a fluctuation pattern is different between photovoltaic energy and wind energy. In building a hybrid system by PV and WG, sites with such supplementary effect existing were selected from the viewpoint of stabilizing the fluctuation of the power generation in the long run; and then, an examination was made on the optimum PV capacity ratio (%Ppo) in each site. As a result, it revealed that the %Ppo had great bearing on a ratio of PV energy fluctuation to WG, which was converted to a numerical formula. A comparatively simple examination by means of meteorological data also indicated that the share ratio was possibly optimized between the quantities of PV and WG energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Modeling and optimization of batteryless hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems for off-grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuanyo, David; Azoumah, Yao; Aussel, Didier; Neveu, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model and optimization procedure for off-grid hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems operating without battery storage. The proposed technico-economic model takes into account the variability of both the solar irradiation and the electrical loads. It allows optimizing the design and the operation of the hybrid systems by searching their lowest LCOE (Levelized Cost of Electricity). Two cases have been investigated: identical Diesel generators and Diesel generators with different sizes, and both are compared to conventional standalone Diesel generator systems. For the same load profile, the optimization results show that the LCOE of the optimized batteryless hybrid solar PV/Diesel (0.289 €/kWh for the hybrid system with identical Diesel generators and 0.284 €/kWh for the hybrid system with different sizes of Diesel generators) is lower than the LCOE obtained with standalone Diesel generators (0.32 €/kWh for the both cases). The obtained results are then confirmed by HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) software. - Highlights: • A technico-economic model for optimal design and operation management of batteryless hybrid systems is developed. • The model allows optimizing design and operation of hybrid systems by ensuring their lowest LCOE. • The model was validated by HOMER. • Batteryless hybrid system are suitable for off-grid applications

  1. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, R.

    2008-04-01

    Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

  2. New Multiphase Hybrid Boost Converter with Wide Conversion Ratio for PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Monica Pop-Calimanu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multiphase hybrid boost converter, with wide conversion ratio as a solution for photovoltaic energy system, is presented in this paper. To ensure that all the phases of the converter operate at the same switching frequency we use interleaving topology. The proposed converter can be used as an interface between the PV system and the DC load/inverter. This multiphase converter has the advantage of reduced value and physical size of the input and output capacitor as well as the effort for the inductors. To validate the operation of the converter we provide the analyses and the simulation results of the converter.

  3. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    OpenAIRE

    Mya Su Kyi; Lu Maw; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area fall...

  4. Studying the Impact of Distributed Solar PV on Power Systems using Integrated Transmission and Distribution Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Himanshu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krad, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-24

    This paper presents the results of a distributed solar PV impact assessment study that was performed using a synthetic integrated transmission (T) and distribution (D) model. The primary objective of the study was to present a new approach for distributed solar PV impact assessment, where along with detailed models of transmission and distribution networks, consumer loads were modeled using the physics of end-use equipment, and distributed solar PV was geographically dispersed and connected to the secondary distribution networks. The highlights of the study results were (i) increase in the Area Control Error (ACE) at high penetration levels of distributed solar PV; and (ii) differences in distribution voltages profiles and voltage regulator operations between integrated T&D and distribution only simulations.

  5. Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Phase I Annual Technical Report, 4 November 2004 - 3 November 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, J.

    2006-07-01

    During Phase I of this PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, PowerLight Corporation has made significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems. PowerLight has worked to reduce operating costs by improving long-term reliability and performance through the development of more sophisticated tools used in system design and monitoring. Additionally, PowerLight has implemented design improvements with the goal of reducing cost while maintaining and/or improving product quality. As part of this effort, PowerLight also modified manufacturing and shipping processes to accommodate these design changes, streamline material flow, reduce cost, and decrease waste streams. During Phase II of this project, PowerLight plans to continue this work with the goal of reducing system cost and improving system performance.

  6. PV/T slates - Laboratory measurements; PV/T-Schiefer. Labormessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with an experimental outdoor set-up and reviews in-situ measurements made on a prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). The report describes the configuration and construction of the experimental PV-tiled roof and the measurement system used to measure its electrical and thermal performance. The results of the measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form. The influence of various factors such as air-s