WorldWideScience

Sample records for pv solar electricity

  1. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  2. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  3. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Winfried [RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-23

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  4. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  5. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  6. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we examine some of the limits to large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems. Specifically, we evaluate the ability of PV to provide a large fraction (up to 50%) of a utility system's energy by comparing hourly output of a simulated large PV system to the amount of electricity actually usable. The simulations use hourly recorded solar insolation and load data for Texas in the year 2000 and consider the constraints of traditional electricity generation plants to reduce output and accommodate intermittent PV generation. We find that under high penetration levels and existing grid-operation procedures and rules, the system will have excess PV generation during certain periods of the year. Several metrics are developed to examine this excess PV generation and resulting costs as a function of PV penetration at different levels of system flexibility. The limited flexibility of base load generators produces increasingly large amounts of unusable PV generation when PV provides perhaps 10-20% of a system's energy. Measures to increase PV penetration beyond this range will be discussed and quantified in a follow-up analysis

  7. Sensitivity of portuguese electricity market prices to solar PV penetration : an analysis of 2016 prices

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro De Sousa, João

    2017-01-01

    The reduction in price of solar PV technology led, in the recent years, multiple investors to apply for installing new solar PV power plants in Portugal which would operate without subsidies or feed-in-tari s. In 2016 it was reported the approval of construction of such power plants and given the low variable cost of this technology it is expected that their penetration would reduce the electricity market prices. Hence, before doing the economic assessment of potential new sola...

  8. PV Solar Electricity: From a Niche Market to One of the Most Important Mainstream Markets for Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, W.; Waldmann, L.

    PV solar electricity is seen as one of the few booming markets, today and in the coming decades. This market has grown globally at a rate of about 40% per year over the past 10 years. Related industries have realized a two-digit, billion-dollar (U.S.) turnover worldwide. PV solar electricity is a high-tech industry with high performance potential in the coming decades, leaving even the electronics industries behind and approaching the automotive industry.

  9. Solar PV electricity and market characteristics: two Canadian case-studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether solar electricity (that is, electricity generated by photovoltaics) is, on an average, more valuable - in market terms - than the electricity generated in power systems as a whole, this article investigates the extent to which solar resource availability in two Canadian locations is associated with peak electricity market demand and peak electricity market price. More specifically, solar radiation and electricity market data for the period 1 May 2002 to 30 April 2004 are examined for Calgary, Alta. and Guelph, Ont. A variety of visual and statistical investigations reveal that solar radiation values coincide closely with peak electricity market demand and, though to a somewhat lesser extent, peak electricity market prices during the summertime in each location. While more detailed investigation is needed in order to determine the specific impact of different levels of PV penetration upon provincial electricity markets, the article provides ample encouragement for further research. The article also shows how different techniques can be used-in any location-to investigate the relationship among solar electricity potential, system-wide demand and market prices. With electricity industries being restructured around the world, it continues to be important for solar energy proponents to participate in discussions regarding economic costs and benefits. Techniques used in this article can help them advance the solar electricity case more effectively and thus catalyse the deployment of photovoltaics in markets around the world. (author)

  10. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoumah, Y; Yamegueu, D; Py, X

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy energy' concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  11. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  12. The Private Net Benefits of Residential Solar PV: The Role of Electricity Tariffs, Tax Incentives and Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein

    2015-01-01

    With dramatic declines in the cost of solar PV technology over the last 5 years, the electricity industry is in the midst of discussions about whether to use this low-polluting renewable energy source in grid-scale generation or in distributed generation (DG), mostly with rooftop solar PV. California has led the growth in DG solar in the U.S. I use 2007 to early 2014 residential data from Pacific Gas & Electric – the utility with largest number of residential solar customers in the U.S. – to ...

  13. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  14. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  15. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  16. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  17. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; SHI MingHeng

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermsl(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T sir system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed.The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m~2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency,exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  18. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T air system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed. The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m 2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency, exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  19. Data monitoring system for PV solar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, M.; Katerski, A.; Williams, A.

    2000-01-01

    The two 1.5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar generators are installed and the new PC data monitoring system is developed by applying EC standards for European Solar Test Installation (ESTI). The schematic system diagram of PV generator is presented. The recording parameters for analytical and global monitoring are discussed. The meteorological data from ESTI sensors, temperature sensor and electrical data from inverter and calibrated shunt are stored via analog digital converters (ADC) on a hard disk of data storage PC. Data Logger and Monitor software for automatic data acquisition, treatment and visual distance control of all output PV data from PV solar generator has been created

  20. Numerical investigation of the thermal and electrical performances for combined solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) modules based on internally extruded fin flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. C.; Li, Q. P.; Wang, G. J.

    2017-11-01

    A solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) module based on internally extruded fin flow channel was investigated numerically in this paper. First of all, the structures of the thin plate heat exchanger and the PV/T module were presented. Then, a numerical model of the PV/T module considering solar irradiation, fluid flow and heat transfer was developed to analyze the performance of the module. Finally, the steady electrical and thermal efficiencies of the PV/T module at different inlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were achieved. These numerical results supply theory basis for practical application of the PV/T module.

  1. Comparison and assessment of electricity generation capacity for different types of PV solar plants of 1MW in Soko banja, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Tomislav M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of the electricity generated by the fixed, one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant of 1 MW with flat PV panels made of monocrystalline silicon which is to be built in the area of Soko banja (spa in Serbia. Further on follows a description of the functioning of the fixed and one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant. For the calculation of the electricity generated by these plants PVGIS program from the Internet was used. Calculations have shown that fixed PV solar plant power of 1 MW, solar modules of monocrystalline silicon yield 1130000 kWh power output, one-axis tracking PV solar plant yields 1420000 kWh, and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant yields 1450000 kWh of electricity. Electricity generated by the fixed PV solar plant could satisfy 86% of the annual needs for the electricity of the „Zdravljak“ hotel and the special „Novi stacionar“ hospital in Soko banja.

  2. The Green Electricity: The Potential of Using Solar Pv Panel for The Royal Malaysian Police (RMP Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yasin Md Hafiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the year 2020 approaches, Malaysia aims to be self-sufficient and independence in finding resources to fuel its development, especially in energy sector. To achieve this aims, Malaysia need to strengthen its energy sustainability aspect and have a clear foresight in handling energy security issue. In coming decades, energy crisis due the existence of the significant energy threat may cause power interruptions and lead to many interrelated problems, especially safety and security issues. Issues such as unstable political and economic situation in Middle East country, Spratly issue, South China Sea territorial issue, war and terrorist may lead to unstable safety and security environment for Malaysia. The most significant organization to keep the safety and security of Malaysia is The Royal Malaysian Police (RMP. However, at the moment, this organization is fully-reliant on centralized electricity supply that may interrupt due to the future energy threat. Therefore, it is important for this organization to have an independence and self-sufficient electricity supply in order to remain their operation in any circumstances .The solar energy, through Photovoltaic (PV panel, has been identified as the significant resources to achieve this purposes. With constant solar irradiance, Malaysia has great potential in solar energy harvesting. The energy is clean, environmental-friendly, reliable and readily-accessible throughout the year. This paper will review the potential of green electricity through solar PV in being the power supply for RMP in order to maintain the security and safety of Malaysia

  3. Comparison and assessment of electricity generation capacity for different types of PV solar plants of 1MW in Soko banja, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Tomislav M.; Milosavljević Dragana D.; Radivojević Aleksandar R.; Pavlović Mila A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives the results of the electricity generated by the fixed, one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant of 1 MW with flat PV panels made of monocrystalline silicon which is to be built in the area of Soko banja (spa in Serbia). Further on follows a description of the functioning of the fixed and one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant. For the calculation of the electricity generated by these plants PVGIS program from the Internet was used. Calculations have shown ...

  4. Development of an economical model to determine an appropriate feed-in tariff for grid-connected solar PV electricity in all states of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Australia is a country with a vast amount of natural resources including sun and wind. Australia lies between latitude of 10-45 S and longitude of 112-152 E, with a daily solar exposure of between less than 3 MJ/(m 2 day) in winter and more than 30 MJ/(m 2 day) in summer. Global solar radiation in Australia varies between minimum of 3285 MJ/(m 2 year) in Hobart to 8760 MJ/(m 2 year) in Northern Territory. As a result of this wide range of radiation level there will be a big difference between costs of solar PV electricity in different locations. A study we have recently conducted on the solar PV electricity price in all states of Australia. For this purpose we have developed an economical model and a computer simulation to determine the accurate unit price of grid-connected roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity in A$/kWh for all state of Australia. The benefit of this computer simulation is that we can accurately determine the most appropriate feed-in tariff of grid-connected solar PV energy system. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of this study. A further objective of this paper is to present the details of the unit price of solar PV electricity in the state of Victoria in each month and then to compare with electricity price from conventional power systems, which is currently applied to this state. The state Victoria is located south of Australia and in terms of sun radiation is second lowest compared with the other Australian states. The computer simulation developed for this study makes it possible to determine the cost of grid-connected solar PV electricity at any location in any country based on availability of average daily solar exposure of each month as well as economical factors of the country. (author)

  5. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  6. The potential of solar PV in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    Canada has lagged behind other industrialized nations in the growth of solar energy markets. Currently, over 78 per cent of the global market for solar energy is for grid-connected applications where power is fed into the electrical distribution network. Less than 3.5 per cent of the Canadian solar market is grid-connected. This report investigated the potential size of the photovoltaic (PV) market in Ontario given adequate support from both governments and utilities. The forecast was based on sustainable growth levels that the solar industry as a whole might maintain over an extended period of time. It was suggested that it is technically feasible to install over 3000 MW of PV in single, detached homes in the province, which could generate over 3200 GWh each year. If the right policy conditions were put in place, the technical potential for PV on all buildings in Ontario is over 14,000 MW by 2025, which would generate over 13,000 GWh annually. Support mechanisms such as the Advanced Renewable Tariff (ART) or Standard Offer Contracts (SOC) will enable the PV industry to build capacity. Future markets for PV include new homes, commercial buildings and the existing housing stock. With a properly designed system, it is forecasted that the deployment of PV by 2025 could result in the involvement of 400,000 homes with over 1200 MW of installed capacity and over 290 MW installed annually by 2025. Recommendations to Ontario Power Authority's (OPA) report supply mix report focused on the use of SOCs as the appropriate support mechanism to start building solar capacity in Ontario, as projections using SOCs would see Ontario following the growth patterns of other nations. It was concluded that the OPA report does not acknowledge the current growth rates of PV globally, nor does it fully consider the potential of PV in Ontario. 9 refs., 8 figs

  7. The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, Cherrelle; Reneses Guillén, Javier; Frías Marín, Pablo; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering is commonly known as a practice by which owners of distributed generation (DG) units may offset their electricity consumption from the grid with local generation. The increasing number of prosumers (consumers that both produce and consume electricity) with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation combined with net-metering results in reduced incomes for many network utilities worldwide. Consequently, this pushes utilities to increase charges per kW h in order to recover costs. For non-PV owners, this could result into inequality issues due to the fact that also non-PV owners have to pay higher chargers for their electricity consumed to make up for netted costs of PV-owners. In order to provide insight in those inequality issues caused by net-metering, this study presents the effects on cross-subsidies, cost recovery and policy objectives evolving from different applied netmetering and tariff designs for a residential consumer. Eventually this paper provides recommendations regarding tariffs and metering that will result in more explicit incentives for PV, instead of the current implicit incentives which are present to PV owners due to net-metering. - Highlights: • Network users are frequently charged by energy charging and fixed charging. • Net-metering with energy charging causes potential problems for DSO cost recovery. • Increasing rolling credit timeframes amplify net-metering impacts on cost recovery. • Observed capacity charging can incentivize local storage and self-consumption. • PV owners should receive direct incentives in order to avoid cross subsidization

  8. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  9. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  10. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-08

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  11. On-Grid Solar PV versus Diesel Electricity Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Economics and GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Baurzhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many power utilities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have inadequate generation capacity, unreliable services, and high costs. They also face capital constraints that restrict them from making the investments necessary for capacity expansion. Capacity shortages have compelled power utilities to use leased emergency power-generating units, mainly oil-fired diesel generators, as a short-term solution. An economic analysis is carried out to compare the economic net present value (ENPV of fuel savings, as well as the greenhouse gas (GHG savings, from investing capital in a solar PV power-generation plant with those from investing the same amount of funds into a diesel power plant. The results show that ENPV is negative for the solar PV plant, whereas it has a large positive value for the diesel plant. In addition, the diesel plant would be almost three times as effective in reducing GHG emissions as the same value of investment in the solar PV plant. Even with solar investment costs falling, it will take 12 to 24 years of continuous decline before solar PV becomes cost-effective for SSA. The capital cost of solar PV would need to drop to US$1058.4 per kW to yield the same level of ENPV as the diesel plant.

  12. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  13. Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of cooling on solar PV performance have been experimentally investigated. • As a solar panel is cooled down, the electric output can have significant increase. • A cooled solar PV system has been proposed for resident application. • Life cycle assessment suggests the cost payback time of cooled PV can be reduced. - Abstract: As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.

  14. Economic perspective of PV electricity in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Badi, A.H.; Albadi, M.H.; Al-Lawati, A.M.; Malik, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Solar and wind energies are likely to play an important role in the future energy generation in Oman. This paper utilizes average daily global solar radiation and sunshine duration data of 25 locations in Oman to study the economic prospects of solar energy. The study considers a solar PV power plant of 5-MW at each of the 25 locations. The global solar radiation varies between slightly greater than 4 kWh/m 2 /day at Sur to about 6 kWh/m 2 /day at Marmul while the average value in the 25 locations is more than 5 kWh/m 2 /day. The results show that the renewable energy produced each year from the PV power plant varies between 9000 MWh at Marmul and 6200 MWh at Sur while the mean value is 7700 MWh of all the 25 locations. The capacity factor of PV plant varies between 20% and 14% and the cost of electricity varies between 210 US$/MWh and 304 US$/MWh for the best location to the least attractive location, respectively. The study has also found that the PV energy at the best location is competitive with diesel generation without including the externality costs of diesel. Renewable energy support policies that can be implemented in Oman are also discussed. -- Research highlights: → The global solar radiation values for 25 locations in Oman are obtained using satellite data that are corrected by data from ground stations. → The study considers a solar PV power plant of 5-MW to calculate the capacity factor (CF) and the cost of energy (COE) at each of the 25 locations. → The study has found that the CF of PV plant varies between 20% and 14% and the corresponding COE varies between 210 US$/MWh and 304 US$/MWh for the best location to the least attractive location, respectively. → The study has found that the PV energy at the best location is competitive with diesel generation without including the externality costs of diesel. → Since PV energy is not competitive with fossil fuel-based generation in most locations renewable energy support mechanisms have been

  15. Is rooftop solar PV at socket parity without subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerman, Shelly; Jaramillo, Paulina; Morgan, M. Granger

    2016-01-01

    Installations of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, in large part because of state and federal subsidies. In the future, such subsidies may be reduced or eliminated. From the homeowner's perspective, solar PV is competitive when it can produce electricity at a cost equivalent to the retail electricity rate, a condition sometimes referred to as “socket parity”. In assessing the economic viability of residential solar PV, most existing literature considers only a few locations and fails to consider the differences in PV system cost and electricity prices that exist across the U.S. We combined insolation data from more than 1000 locations, installation costs by region, and county-level utility rates to provide a more complete economic assessment of rooftop solar PV across the U.S. We calculated the break-even electricity prices and evaluated the reductions in installed costs needed to reach socket parity. Among the scenarios considered, we estimate that only Hawaii has achieved socket parity without the use of subsidies. With subsidies, six states reach socket parity, yet widespread parity is still not achieved. We find that high installation costs and financing rates are two of the largest barriers to socket parity. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic viability of residential rooftop solar PV across the U.S. • Widespread socket parity has not been achieved in the U.S. without subsidies. • Net metering may be critical for the economic viability of rooftop solar PV.

  16. Interrogating protective space : shielding, nurturing and empowering Dutch solar PV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, B.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Veraart, F.C.A.; Smith, A.G.; Kern, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments of solar photovoltaic technology in the Netherlands. Despite the recent boom in PV industries and deployment around the globe, the Dutch have until now not experienced major growth in the diffusion of PV electricity generation. But this is only part of the story.

  17. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  18. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  19. Peak shifting and cross-class subsidization: The impacts of solar PV on changes in electricity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Erik; Beppler, Ross; Blackburn, Chris; Staver, Benjamin; Brown, Marilyn; Matisoff, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of distributed solar necessitates additional research into the impacts on both utilities and their customers. In this paper we use New Jersey solar data, PJM market data, and demand profiles from a PJM utility to investigate rate and bill impacts of large-scale solar penetration. In addition to the subsidization of solar adopters by non-participants, we highlight the channels through which cross-subsidization of rate classes can arise in practice. The results of our study indicate that the fear of a utility “death spiral” may be exaggerated. Significant solar can be incorporated with only a 2% increase in non-participant bills. At high levels of penetration, distributed solar has the potential to alter the system peak hour which affects the allocation of costs across rate-classes. As the peak hour shifts to the evening when solar production diminishes, residential customers face higher distribution costs. Policy makers and utilities need to be aware of these challenges in designing the next generation of rates that are better aligned with cost causality. - Highlights: • We develop a model of electricity costs with large amounts of solar adoption. • Solar adoption leads to cost redistribution across customer classes. • Costs are redistributed partially because peak utility load shifts later in the day. • Residential distributed solar generation affects electricity bills the most. • We confirm the subsidy of participants by non-participants in net metering programs.

  20. Heritage plaza parking lots improvement project- Solar PV installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Palm Springs, CA (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI or the “Tribe”) installed a 79.95 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system to offset the energy usage costs of the Tribal Education and Family Services offices located at the Tribe's Heritage Plaza office building, 90I Tahquitz Way, Palm Springs, CA, 92262 (the "Project"). The installation of the Solar PV system was part of the larger Heritage Plaza Parking Lot Improvements Project and mounted on the two southern carport shade structures. The solar PV system will offset 99% of the approximately 115,000 kWh in electricity delivered annually by Southern California Edison (SCE) to the Tribal Education and Family Services offices at Heritage Plaza, reducing their annual energy costs from approximately $22,000 annually to approximately $200. The total cost of the proposed solar PV system is $240,000.

  1. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Desmond W.H.; Adlakha, Sachin; Low, Steven H.; De Martini, Paul; Mani Chandy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. -- Highlights: •Households who install PV reduce their electricity consumption from the grid. •Electricity rates must increase for utility companies to recover its fixed costs. •However, higher electricity rates give households more incentives to adopt PV. •We find that this feedback has significant impact on PV uptake only in later years. •Utility companies could lose a significant fraction of high consumption customers

  2. The prospects for cost competitive solar PV power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Yorston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations have grown globally at a rapid pace in recent years. We provide a comprehensive assessment of the cost competitiveness of this electric power source. Based on data available for the second half of 2011, we conclude that utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. In contrast, commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in the sense that the generating cost of power from solar PV is comparable to the retail electricity prices that commercial users pay, at least in certain parts of the U.S. This conclusion is shown to depend crucially on both the current federal tax subsidies for solar power and an ideal geographic location for the solar installation. Projecting recent industry trends into the future, we estimate that utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade. Furthermore, commercial-scale installations could reach “grid parity” in about ten years, if the current federal tax incentives for solar power were to expire at that point. - Highlights: ► Assessment of the cost competitiveness of new solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations. ► Utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. ► Commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in certain parts of the U.S. ► Utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade

  3. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  4. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    relative to DA forecasts, but still imperfect. Finally, we represent decisions within the operating hour by schedulers and transmission system operators as real-time (RT) balancing. We simulate the DA and HA scheduling processes with a detailed unit-commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) optimization model. This model creates a least-cost dispatch and commitment plan for the conventional generating units using forecasts and reserve requirements as inputs. We consider only the generation units and load of the utility in this analysis; we do not consider opportunities to trade power with neighboring utilities. We also do not consider provision of reserves from renewables or from demand-side options. We estimate dynamic reserve requirements in order to meet reliability requirements in the RT operations, considering the uncertainty and variability in load, solar PV, and wind resources. Balancing reserve requirements are based on the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of 1-min deviations from the HA schedule in a previous year. We then simulate RT deployment of balancing reserves using a separate minute-by-minute simulation of deviations from the HA schedules in the operating year. In the simulations we assume that balancing reserves can be fully deployed in 10 min. The minute-by-minute deviations account for HA forecasting errors and the actual variability of the load, wind, and solar generation. Using these minute-by-minute deviations and deployment of balancing reserves, we evaluate the impact of PV on system reliability through the calculation of the standard reliability metric called Control Performance Standard 2 (CPS2). Broadly speaking, the CPS2 score measures the percentage of 10-min periods in which a balancing area is able to balance supply and demand within a specific threshold. Compliance with the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) reliability standards requires that the CPS2 score must exceed 90% (i.e., the balancing area must maintain adequate

  5. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  6. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  7. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  8. The value of electric energy storage in electricity systems with high shares of wind and solar PV: the case of France in the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of ambitious targets for variable renewable energies (VRE) such as wind and solar has important effects on the technical and economic operation of power systems. Increasing shares of VRE will in particular require the deployment of more flexible and responsive technologies. Key flexibility providers in the scope are demand side management (DSM) and different forms of electric energy storage (EES) such as pumped hydroelectric (PHS), Li-ion batteries (Li-ion), and compressed air (CAES), among others. It have been previously showed how the value and the deployment of such new flexibility providers depended on the shares of VRE shares introduced into the system (Brijs et al., 2016; Van Stiphout et al., 2015; Villavicencio, 2017). Building on this works, this paper explores the value of storage in the context of a realistic Brownfield model calibrated on the existing French electricity system. In particular, this paper compares the value of storage (a) in a system corresponding to the target of 27% VRE production formulated by the French government in its 2015 Energy Transition Act by 2020 and (b) in a system corresponding to the target of 40% VRE production formulated in the same Act by 2030. The latter case will necessarily reflect the additional target which by 2025 limits the share of nuclear power to 50% of electricity production. In 2020, 4.7 GW of DSM are sufficient to provide the required flexibility and no EES investments will be needed. By 2030, however, in addition to a comparable level of DSM, 3.2 GW of additional EES investments are required. These storage solutions will generate an economic value of euro 350 million per year and will increases overall welfare by euro 670 million per year by 2030. The modeling yields a number of additional policy relevant results. First, limiting nuclear production will open opportunities for alternative base and mid-load providers, mainly gas, implying a threefold increase of CO_2 emissions compared to 2020

  9. Review of Solar PV Market Development in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    to understanding these effects by reviewing the development of markets for solar PV in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, focusing on how the differences in market development have been explained in the literature. The paper finds that, although Tanzania and Uganda are rapidly catching up, Kenya is still leading......While the diffusion of solar home systems in Kenya has been market-based for some years, the diffusion of PV in most other Sub-Saharan African countries has been driven by government and donor-supported projects aimed at serving specific needs for electricity while at the same time creating...

  10. A reduced-form approach for representing the impacts of wind and solar PV deployment on the structure and operation of the electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; McPherson, Madeleine; Parkinson, Simon C.; Krey, Volker; Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    In many climate change mitigation scenarios, integrated assessment models of the energy and climate systems rely heavily on renewable energy technologies with variable and uncertain generation, such as wind and solar PV, to achieve substantial decarbonization of the electricity sector. However, these models often include very little temporal resolution and thus have difficulty in representing the integration costs that arise from mismatches between electricity supply and demand. The global integrated assessment model, MESSAGE, has been updated to explicitly model the trade-offs between variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment and its impacts on the electricity system, including the implications for electricity curtailment, backup capacity, and system flexibility. These impacts have been parameterized using a reduced-form approach, which allows VRE integration impacts to be quantified on a regional basis. In addition, thermoelectric technologies were updated to include two modes of operation, baseload and flexible, to better account for the cost, efficiency, and availability penalties associated with flexible operation. In this paper, the modeling approach used in MESSAGE is explained and the implications for VRE deployment in mitigation scenarios are assessed. Three important stylized facts associated with integrating high VRE shares are successfully reproduced by our modeling approach: (1) the significant reduction in the utilization of non-VRE power plants; (2) the diminishing role for traditional baseload generators, such as nuclear and coal, and the transition to more flexible technologies; and (3) the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen electrolysis in facilitating the deployment of VRE.

  11. Concentrated solar power plants impact on PV penetration level and grid flexibility under Egyptian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Ibrahim; Elbaset, Adel A.; El Dein, Adel Z.; Qudaih, Yaser; Mitani, Yasunori

    2018-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system integration in the electric grid has been increasing over the past decades. However, the impact of PV penetration on the electric grid, especially during the periods of higher and lower generation for the solar system at the middle of the day and during cloudy weather or at night respectively, limit the high penetration of solar PV system. In this research, a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been aggregated with PV system in order to accommodate the required electrical power during the higher and lower solar energy at all timescales. This paper analyzes the impacts of CSP on the grid-connected PV considering high penetration of PV system, particularly when no energy storages in the form of batteries are used. Two cases have been studied, the first when only PV system is integrated into the electric grid and the second when two types of solar energy (PV and CSP) are integrated. The System Advisor Model (SAM) software is used to simulate the output power of renewable energy. Simulation results show that the performance of CSP has a great impact on the penetration level of PV system and on the flexibility of the electric grid. The overall grid flexibility increases due to the ability of CSP to store and dispatch the generated power. In addition, CSP/TES itself has inherent flexibility. Therefore, CSP reduces the minimum generation constraint of the conventional generators that allows more penetration of the PV system.

  12. Industrial application of PV/T solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, S.A.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems consist of PV modules and heat extraction units mounted together. These systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than plain photovoltaics. Industries show high demand of energy for both heat and electricity and the hybrid PV/T systems could be used in order to meet this requirement. In this paper the application aspects in the industry of PV/T systems with water heat extraction is presented. The systems are analyzed with TRNSYS program for three locations Nicosia, Athens and Madison that are located at different latitudes. The system comprises 300 m 2 of hybrid PV/T collectors producing both electricity and thermal energy and a 10 m 3 water storage tank. The work includes the study of an industrial process heat system operated at two load supply temperatures of 60 deg. C and 80 deg. C. The results show that the electrical production of the system, employing polycrystalline solar cells, is more than the amorphous ones but the solar thermal contribution is slightly lower. A non-hybrid PV system produces about 25% more electrical energy but the present system covers also, depending on the location, a large percentage of the thermal energy requirement of the industry considered. The economic viability of the systems is proven, as positive life cycle savings are obtained in the case of hybrid systems and the savings are increased for higher load temperature applications. Additionally, although amorphous silicon panels are much less efficient than the polycrystalline ones, better economic figures are obtained due to their lower initial cost, i.e., they have better cost/benefit ratio

  13. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  14. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  15. The impact of attribute preferences on adoption timing: The case of photo-voltaic (PV) solar cells for household electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Towhidul; Meade, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    We are concerned with micro-generation, individual households generating electricity using a renewable technology. We focus on modeling the adoption probability of photo-voltaic solar panels by households. Using data from Ontario, Canada where a generous feed-in-tariff is available to households generating electricity from solar panels, we measure household level preferences for panels and use these preferences along with household characteristics to predict adoption time intentions. We use discrete choice experiments to measure household level preferences and establish a causal link between the attributes of the technology and adoption time intentions using discrete time survival mixture analysis. Significant preferences included lower cost, greater energy savings and lower fossil fuel inflation. The conditional (hazard) probability of adoption at a particular time given no previous adoption showed that the attribute preferences had intuitively reasonable effects. The hazard probabilities allow us to compute the cumulative probability of adoption over a 10-year period per household. Technology awareness has a significant effect on the adoption probability, reinforcing the need for effective education. Our approach indicates the level of heterogeneity in preferences, particularly high for investment criteria and CO 2 emissions. These findings suggest that education campaigns should explain more about investment criteria, feed-in tariffs and environmental effects. - Highlights: ► To model the adoption probability of PV solar panels by households. ► Data from Ontario, province of Canada, with generous feed-in tariff for solar households. ► Estimation of adoption probability using attribute preferences and social covariates. ► Wide range of household adoption probability within 10 years median value 52%. ► Promotions should explain investment criteria, tariffs and environmental effects

  16. Factors responsible for solar PV adoption at household level : A case of Lahore, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qureshi, Tahir Masood; Ullah, Kafait; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    The crisis in electricity generation sector of Pakistan is causing load shedding. All sectors including household-domestic, commercial and industrial activities get severely affected by such power outages which could be minimized by adopting modern technologies such as solar PV. The use of solar PV

  17. Developing solar: PV solar system markets in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asali, Karim

    2002-01-01

    Governments, NGO's and UN organisations are increasingly convinced that renewable energies not only help to solve energy problems in Africa but are indispensable in alleviating regional disparities, social problems and bridging the digital gap. Still, many years after introducing high efficiency solar PV systems the necessary breakthrough of implementing them on a mass scale is still not a reality. The author provides perspectives on developing solar PV in Africa. (Author)

  18. High Penetration Solar PV Deployment Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeker, Rick [Nhu Energy, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Steurer, Mischa [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Faruque, MD Omar [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Langston, James [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Schoder, Karl [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Ravindra, Harsha [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hariri, Ali [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Moaveni, Houtan [New York Power Authority (NYPA), New York (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (Unitied States); Click, Dave [ESA Renewables, LLC, Sanford, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Reedy, Bob [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The report provides results from the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) high penetration solar PV deployment project led by Florida State University’s (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS). FSU CAPS and industry and university partners have completed a five-year effort aimed at enabling effective integration of high penetration levels of grid-connected solar PV generation. SUNGRIN has made significant contributions in the development of simulation-assisted techniques, tools, insight and understanding associated with solar PV effects on electric power system (EPS) operation and the evaluation of mitigation options for maintaining reliable operation. An important element of the project was the partnership and participation of six major Florida utilities and the Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC). Utilities provided details and data associated with actual distribution circuits having high-penetration PV to use as case studies. The project also conducted foundational work supporting future investigations of effects at the transmission / bulk power system level. In the final phase of the project, four open-use models with built-in case studies were developed and released, along with synthetic solar PV data sets, and tools and techniques for model reduction and in-depth parametric studies of solar PV impact on distribution circuits. Along with models and data, at least 70 supporting MATLAB functions have been developed and made available, with complete documentation.

  19. A Study Examining Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Power as an Alternative for the Rebuilding of the Iraqi Electrical Power Generation Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Curtis; Borja, Ralph; Phillips, Jeffery

    2005-01-01

    .... engineers' actions upon entering Iraq, the increased need for electrical power in Iraq, the costs of insurgent attacks on the electrical system, and security issues that need to be dealt with for the...

  20. Smart PV grid to reinforce the electrical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Hamad, Mohamed Y.; Qamber, Isa S.

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) became the new competitive energy resources of the planet and needs to be engaged in grid to break up the congestion in both Distribution and Transmission systems. The objective of this research is to reduce the load flow through the distribution and transmission equipment by 20%. This reduction will help in relief networks loaded equipment's in all networks. Many projects are starting to develop in the GCC countries and need to be organized to achieve maximum benefits from involving the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the network. The GCC countries have a good location for solar energy with high intensity of the solar radiation and clear sky along the year. The opportunities of the solar energy is to utilize and create a sustainable energy resource for this region. Moreover, the target of this research is to engage the PV technology in such a way to lower the over loaded equipment and increases the electricity demand at the consumer's side.

  1. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Yang, P.E.; Lin, Y.P.; Lin, B.Y.; Chen, H.J.; Lai, R.C.; Cheng, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well

  2. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated...

  3. Building integrated multi PV/T/A solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ami Elazari

    2000-01-01

    Previous development in solar energy for residential applications proved that there is merit in further development and improvement of combined electricity and hot water and hot air collectors. The justification stems from the fact that waste heat is generated when PV cells are producing electricity but it decrease its efficiency dramatically, and any effective way to cool the cells can improve their efficiency and long while the heat that generated from this cooling process could be stored and used as standard solar hot water/air system. The core unit comprises of integrated PV cells mounted on a flat-plate collector for water and air, hot water storage tank hot air inlet pips to the house electric battery bank, inverter, connecting cables and controller. Double-glazing serving as solar trap to triple the amount of sun ray reaching the PV cells and other technical innovation make the system more cost effective and cost benefit for stand alone and grid connected domestic application. Two way interconnection with the electric grid like in all the roof top program may bring it to economic viability by selling excess electricity during the costly peak hours while buying low cost electricity during the night off-peak hours, and free electricity from the sun plus free hot water and hot air for domestic use as by-product. A basic domestic two-collector system may deliver up to 4 kWh of electricity and 12000 kcal of hot water and air daily. Some 22 systems are currently operating at various locations in Israel, some for 8 years with very good results. (Author)

  4. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  5. Optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeedi, F.; Sarhaddi, F.; Behzadmehr, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still is carried out. Analytical expressions for glass cover temperature, basin temperature, brackish water temperature and fresh water productivity are obtained by writing energy balance for different components of PV/T active solar still. The output electrical power of PV/T active solar still is calculated by four-parameter I–V (current–voltage) model. Objective function in present study is the energy efficiency of PV/T active solar still. A computer simulation program has been developed in order to obtain thermal and electrical parameters, respectively. The simulation results of the present study are in fair agreement with the experimental data of previous literatures. Finally, the optimization of PV/T active solar still has been carried out and the optimized value of mass flow rate, number of PV/T collector and the objective function have been obtained. Furthermore, the effect of various operating parameters on energy efficiency have been investigated. - Highlights: • The comprehensive optimization of a PV/T active solar still is carried out. • Present study is based on numerical simulation. • A modified energy efficiency for PV/T active solar still is obtained. • The effect of design and operating parameters is investigated on energy efficiency

  6. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  7. Productivity Enhancement of Solar Still with PV Powered Heating Coil and Chamber Step-Wise Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdallah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need to improve the productivity of single slope solar still. PV generator powered electrical heater and chamber step-wise design were introduced to the conventional solar still. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of adding the above mentioned modifications on the output parameters of the modified solar still. The inclusion of PV-powered heating coil and chamber step-wise design enhanced the productivity of distiller by up to 1098%.

  8. Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels’ surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.

  9. Development of solar energy for efficient PV application systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Aziz

    2006-01-01

    It is essential to increase research, development, awareness for the application of solar energy as an important source of life. The cost of PV systems has decreased due to the improvement in techniques of manufacturing and performance. In reality, photovoltaic is one technology that allows the production of electricity with only two components: technological, which is the PV module and environmental, which is the sun. The knowledge of the components market represents a critical parameters in establishing sustainable industrial applications on different activity sectors. This paper illustrates the advantages of using photovoltaic in rural area and their economic and environmental impact. In regions where petroleum or other fossil fuels are not available, and where these remote area are not connected to the electrical grid, there is a strong and increasing demand for the technologies related to photovoltaic application systems. Water extracting and pumping, telecommunication and lighting, irrigation systems, electrical driven cars and trucks represent some of these important applications. The paper also develops critical skills for the most useful PV application in Egypt and provide to the industry a development forecast for the new technology. Then an initiation contacts and cooperation on PV application between industries specially in North Africa Middle East in order to improve the reliability and to get cheaper systems.(Author)

  10. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, N.; Hernandez, J.; Gordillo, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well

  11. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forero, N. [Licenciatura en Fisica, Universidad Distrital, Bogota (Colombia); Hernandez, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Gordillo, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well. (author)

  12. User-oriented training of social, technical, financial and business management skills in the field of PV solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopp, G.; Golz, S.; Holz, F.; Roth, W.; Vogt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Education, training and awareness raising is recognised to be a main task for the development of markets and technologies. One reason for the failure of many projects and programs of rural electrification attributes to the lack of knowledge, training and competence of participating people at all levels. (International Energy Agency IEA, 2003). All these alerting experiences advise that different accompanying measures have to be considered in line with designing and implementing solar power systems. Both in grid connected and off-grid markets cultural, social, economical, organisational, and financial aspects have to be incorporated (Will and Vogt, 2003). Various competencies and skills are required to plan, implement, commission, and promote solar power systems. Therefore the substantial objective of this article is to illustrate the spectrum of relevant training topics, to report from current state of knowledge in two exemplary markets and to describe the profit of customized training programs. (authors)

  13. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  14. Solar PV-based rooftop power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar, B.; Kumar, Chaitanya; Patel, C.B.; Pattanaik, B.R.; Panda, P.K.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Technical Services Division (TSD) is responsible for providing reliable power supply to various operating reactors, laboratories and facilities of BARC. The power supply to BARC is derived from TATA Power at 110 KV and 22 KV at an average HT tariff of Rs.8.49 per unit at present. Peak power demand of BARC in summer season goes up to 23 MW. TSD has implemented several energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption and as well taken initiatives to install solar PV based rooftop power plants to reduce the cost of energy consumption in BARC

  15. An Emulated PV Source Based on an Unilluminated Solar Panel and DC Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review on various PV simulator technologies as well as presents a novel equivalent photovoltaic (PV source that was constructed by using un-illuminated solar panels and a DC power supply that operates in current source mode. The constructed PV source was used for testing photovoltaic converters and various maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms required for capturing the maximum possible output power. The mathematical model and electrical characteristics of the constructed PV source were defined and analyzed in detail in the paper. The constructed PV source has the advantages of high bandwidth over the switching circuit based PV simulators. The constructed PV source has been used for testing various power electronics converters and various control techniques effectively in laboratory environments for researchers and university students.

  16. A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabisky, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price

  17. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV | Solar Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    customer economics. Illustration titled "The Solar Plus Home," showing depicting the relationship rate structures that affect the customer value of PV generation. At the same time, increasing PV . These issues have prompted the PV industry to consider new ways to optimize the customer value of

  18. Impact of Rooftop Solar PV on Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    Increased environmental awareness in recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind. Among them, small scale solar PV has been gaining more momentum especially at residential level. Even today moderate penetration of grid tied rooftop solar PV has...... become reality in many countries. In spite of various benefits, higher penetration of rooftop PVs might come up with number of detrimental effects, with power quality and overcurrent protection being the major ones. Therefore, it is reasonable to quantify both drawback and benefits of rooftop PV...

  19. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  20. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...

  1. A new design for luminescent solar concentrating PV roof tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doudart de la Gree, G.C.H.; Papadopoulos, A.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Krumer, Z.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    In our paper we explore the opportunity of combining luminescent solar concentrating (LSC) materials and crystalline PV solar cells in a new design for a roof tile by design-driven research on the energy performance of various configurations of the LSC PV device and on the aesthetic appeal in a roof

  2. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  3. A detailed thermal-electrical model of three photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid air collectors and photovoltaic (PV) module: Comparative study under Algiers climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Kurucz, Ildikó; Bahria, Sofiane; Hamidat, Abderrahmane; Chaouch, Wafa Braham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal and electrical model for PV and PV/T systems has been presented. • The developed numerical model was validated successfully with previously published experimental results. • A comparative study between four solar devices (PV and PV/T systems) was carried out. • The experimental weather conditions of Algiers site are used in the numerical model. • The glazed double-pass photovoltaic/thermal air collector shows the best overall energy efficiency. - Abstract: The thermal photovoltaic hybrid collector is a genuine cogeneration technology; it can produce electricity and heat simultaneously. In this paper, a comparative study is presented between four solar device configurations: photovoltaic module (PV-I), conventional hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-II), glazed hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-III) and glazed double-pass hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-IV). A numerical model is developed and validated through experimental results indicated in the previous literature. The numerical model takes the heat balance equations and different thermal and electrical parameters into account for each configuration included in this study, the energy performances are evaluated with a sample weather data of Algiers site. The numerical results show that the daily average of overall energy efficiency reaches: 29.63%, 51.02%, 69.47% and 74% for the first (PV-I), the second (PV/T-II), the third (PV/T-III) and the fourth (PV/T-IV) configurations respectively. These values are obtained with an air flow of 0.023 kg/s and introducing a sample of experimental weather data collected in Algiers site for a sunny day in summer.

  4. Concentrating PV/T Hybrid System for Simultaneous Electricity and Usable Heat Generation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhou Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is one of the attractive choices for efficient utilization of solar energy. Considering that the efficiency and cost of PV cells cannot be significantly improved in near future, a relatively cheap concentrator to replace part of the expensive solar cells could be used. The photovoltaic thermal hybrid system (PV/T, combining active cooling with thermal electricity and providing both electricity and usable heat, can enhance the total efficiency of the system with reduced cell area. The effect of nonuniform light distribution and the heat dissipation on the performance of concentrating PV/T was discussed. Total utilization of solar light by spectral beam splitting technology was also introduced. In the last part, we proposed an integrated compound parabolic collector (CPC plate with low precision solar tracking, ensuring effective collection of solar light with a significantly lowered cost. With the combination of beam splitting of solar spectrum, use of film solar cell, and active liquid cooling, efficient and full spectrum conversion of solar light to electricity and heat, in a low cost way, might be realized. The paper may offer a general guide to those who are interested in the development of low cost concentrating PV/T hybrid system.

  5. Economic impacts of the solar PV sector in Ontario 2008-2018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    Over the next 20 years most of the electricity generating facilities in Ontario will need to be replaced or refurbished and the electricity demand will rise by 15%. The province has adopted a long term energy plan (LTEP) to prepare for these changes; its objectives are to reduce demand and to produce electricity from nuclear power and renewable energy sources by 2030. The LTEP foresees the installation of 3,000 MW solar photovoltaic (PV) energy by 2018 in Ontario and the aim of this report is to determine the economic effects of this development on investments, job creation and cost to customers. Over 150 interviews and 100 surveys were carried out with solar PV stakeholders. It was found that the solar PV market in Ontario will drive $13 billion of private investment, create 74,000 jobs at a cost of $5 per month to electricity customers by 2018.

  6. SolarChill - a solar PV refrigerator without battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.H.; Poulsen, S.; Katic, I. [Danish Technological Inst., Taastrup (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    A solar powered refrigerator (SolarChill) has been developed in an international project involving Greenpeace International, GTZ, UNICEF, UNEP, WHO, industrial partners and Danish Technological Institute. The refrigerator is able to operate directly on solar PV panels, without battery or additional electronics, and is therefore suitable for locations where little maintenance and reliable operation is mandatory. The main objective of the SolarChill Project is to help deliver vaccines and refrigeration to the rural poor. To achieve this objective, the SolarChill Project developed - and plans to make freely available a versatile refrigeration technology that is environmentally sound, technologically reliable, and affordable. SolarChill does not use any fluorocarbons in its cooling system or in the insulation. For domestic and small business applications, another type of solar refrigerator is under development. This is an upright type, suitable for cool storage of food and beverages in areas where grid power is non-existent or unstable. The market potential for this type is thus present in industrialised countries as well as in countries under development. The unique feature of SolarChill is that energy is stored in ice instead of in batteries. An ice compartment keeps the cabinet at desired temperatures during the night. The paper describes the product development, possible SolarChill applications and experience with the two types of solar refrigerators, as well as results from the laboratory and field test. (orig.)

  7. The Development of Monitoring and Control System of the Low PV/T Solar System

    OpenAIRE

    Okhorzina Alena; Bikbulatov Alexander; Yurchenko Alexey; Bernhard Norbert; Aldoshina Oksana

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an autonomous PV/T solar installation. Installing converts solar energy into electricity and heat. The description of its components and elements that enhance its effectiveness shows. The description of the control program and control of the installation is given. The control system provides for tracking the sun and cooling the photovoltaic module.

  8. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) markets are relatively non-transparent: PV price and product information is not readily available, searching for this information is costly (in terms of time and effort), and customers are mostly unfamiliar with the new technology. Quote aggregation, where third-party companies collect PV quotes on behalf of customers, may be one way to increase PV market transparency. In this paper, quote aggregation data are analyzed to study the value of transparency for distributed solar PV markets. The results suggest that easier access to more quotes results in lower prices. We find that installers tend to offer lower prices in more competitive market environments. We supplement the empirical analysis with key findings from interviews of residential PV installers.

  9. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  10. Recent advances in flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Mat, Sohif; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R and D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned. (author)

  11. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  12. Accelerating residential PV expansion: demand analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Richard; Williams, Robert; Payne, Adam

    2005-01-01

    This article quantifies the potential market for grid-connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) electricity integrated into new homes built in the US. It complements an earlier supply-side analysis by the authors that demonstrates the potential to reduce PV module prices below $1.5/W p by scaling up existing thin-film technology in 100 MW p /yr manufacturing facilities. The present article demonstrates that, at that price, PV modules may be cost effective in 125,000 new home installations per year (0.5 GW p /yr). While this market is large enough to support multiple scaled up thin-film PV factories, inefficient energy pricing and demand-side market failures will inhibit prospective PV consumers without strong public policy support. Net metering rules, already implemented in many states to encourage PV market launch, represent a crude but reasonable surrogate for efficient electricity pricing mechanisms that may ultimately emerge to internalize the externality benefits of PV. These public benefits include reduced air pollution damages (estimated costs of damage to human health from fossil fuel power plants are presented in Appendix A), deferral of transmission and distribution capital expenditures, reduced exposure to fossil fuel price risks, and increased electricity system reliability for end users. Thus, net metering for PV ought to be implemented as broadly as possible and sustained until efficient pricing is in place. Complementary PV 'buydowns' (e.g., a renewable portfolio standard with a specific PV requirement) are needed to jumpstart regional PV markets

  13. GIS methodology and case study regarding assessment of the solar potential at territorial level: PV or thermal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Quiquerez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based methodology for assessing solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal potentials in urban environment. The consideration of spatial and temporal dimensions of energy resource and demand allows, for two different territories of the Geneva region, to determine the suitable building roof areas for solar installations, the solar irradiance on these areas and, finally, the electrical and/or thermal energy potentials related to the demand. Results show that the choice of combining PV and solar thermal for domestic hot water (DHW is relevant in both territories. Actually, the installation of properly sized solar thermal collectors doesn’t decrease much the solar PV potential, while allowing significant thermal production. However, solar collectors for combined DHW and space heating (SH require a much larger surface and, therefore, have a more important influence on the PV potential.

  14. Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar collectors: Features and performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza-Márquez, Antonio; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto; Korolija, Ivan; Greenough, Richard; Wright, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells ranges between 5–25%. One of the most important parameters that affects the electrical efficiency of a PV collector is the temperature of its cells: the higher temperature, the lower is the efficiency. Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) technology is a potential solution to ensure an acceptable solar energy conversion. The PV/T technology produces both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. It is suitable for low temperature applications (25–40 o C) and overall efficiency increases compared to individual collectors. This paper describes an installation in a single-family house where PV/T collectors are coupled with a ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for domestic hot water and space heating purposes. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the features of the PV/T technology are analyzed. Second, a model of a flat-plate PV/T water collector was developed in TRNSYS in order to analyze collectors performance. (author)

  15. Comparative analysis of different supporting measures for the production of electrical energy by solar PV and Wind systems. Four representative European cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoccia, A.; Dusonchet, L.; Telaretti, E.; Zizzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the 9th of March 2007, the European Council decided a fixing goal of 20% contribution of the renewable energy sources (RES) on the total European electric energy production in 2020. In order to reach such an ambitious goal, all the European countries are adopting different support policies for encouraging the installations of RES-based generation systems. In this paper, after a brief review on the main support policies for RES in Europe, the specific situations of four representative countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain) are examined, with the purpose of putting into evidence the main differences in the support policies adopted for Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind systems. In particular, a comparison based on the calculation of the pay-back-period (PBP), the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR), for different sized PV and Wind systems, shows that in some situations a support policy can be not convenient for the owner of the RES-based generation system and that, in many cases, the differences between the way of implementation of the same support policy in different countries, can give place to significantly different results. (author)

  16. Thermal performance of a linear Fresnel reflector solar concentrator PV/T energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Mohamed R. [State Engineering University of Armenia (Armenia)], E-Mail: Dmoh_elbehary@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    This is a report on an investigation of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. Solar energy conversion efficiency was increased by taking advantage of PV/T collectors and low solar concentration technologies, combined into a PV/T system operated at elevated temperature. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel mirror reflecting concentrator with a channel PV/T collector. Concentrator PV/T collectors can function at temperatures over 100 degrees celsius, and thus thermal energy can be made to drive processes such as refrigeration, desalination and steam production. Solar system analytical thermal performance gives efficiency values over 60%. Combined electric and thermal (CET) efficiency is high. A combined electric and heat power for the linear fresnel reflector approach that employs high performance CPV technology to produce both electricity and thermal energy at low to medium temperatures is presented. A well-functioning PV/T system can be designed and constructed with low concentration and a total efficiency of nearly 80% can be attained.

  17. Solar electricity for Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naehr, Catrin [SMA Corporate Communication, Niestetal (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Eight off-grid PV power plants that supply households, schools and smaller businesses in southern Mali villages with electricity not only boost the rural electrification but also the local economy in the crisis-ridden country. (orig.)

  18. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-12-05

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Solar air conditioning system directly driven by stand-alone solar PV is studied. The air conditioning system will suffer from loss of power if the solar PV power generation is not high enough. It requires a proper system design to match the power consumption of air conditioning system with a proper PV size. Six solar air conditioners with different sizes of PV panel and air conditioners were built and tested outdoors to experimentally investigate the running probabilities of air conditioning at various solar irradiations. It is shown that the instantaneous operation probability (OPB) and the runtime fraction (RF) of the air conditioner are mainly affected by the design parameter rpL (ratio of maximum PV power to load power). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  19. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Li, Xueping [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  20. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  1. Double-pass photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) solar collector with advanced heat transfer features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Baharudin Yatim; Mohd Yusof Othman; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    The use of PV/T in combination with concentrating reflectors has a potential to significantly increase power production from a given solar cell area. A prototype double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPR and fins has been designed and fabricated and its performance over a range of operating conditions was studied. The absorber of the hybrid photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector under investigation consists of an array of solar cells for generating electricity, compound parabolic concentrator (CPR) to increase the radiation intensity falling on the solar cells and fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air. The thermal, electrical and combined electrical and thermal efficiencies of the collector are presented and discussed

  2. Design, fabrication and performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Two solar stills (single slope passive and single slope photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still) were fabricated and tested at solar energy park, IIT New Delhi (India) for composite climate. Photovoltaic operated DC water pump was used between solar still and photovoltaic (PV) integrated flat plate collector to re-circulate the water through the collectors and transfer it to the solar still. The newly designed hybrid (PV/T) active solar still is self-sustainable and can be used in remote areas, need to transport distilled water from a distance and not connected to grid, but blessed with ample solar energy. Experiments were performed for 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m water depth, round the year 2006-2007 for both the stills. It has been observed that maximum daily yield of 2.26 kg and 7.22 kg were obtained from passive and hybrid active solar still, respectively at 0.05 m water depth. The daily yield from hybrid active solar still is around 3.2 and 5.5 times higher than the passive solar still in summer and winter month, respectively. The study has shown that this design of the hybrid active solar still also provides higher electrical and overall thermal efficiency, which is about 20% higher than the passive solar still.

  3. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, I. [Arise Technologies Corp., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market

  4. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market, followed by Europe

  5. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  6. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  7. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Accelerating residential PV expansion: supply analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam; Williams, Robert H.; Duke, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is now sufficiently advanced that market support mechanisms such as net metering plus a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) could induce rapid PV market growth in grid-connected applications. With such support mechanisms, markets would be sufficiently large that manufacturers could profitably build and operate 100 MW p /yr PV module factories, and electricity costs for residential rooftop PV systems would compare favorably with residential electricity prices in certain areas (e.g., California and the greater New York region in the US). This prospect is illustrated by economic and market analyses for one promising technology (amorphous silicon thin-film PV) from the perspectives of both module manufacturers and buyers of new homes with rooftop PV systems. With public policies that reflect the distributed and environmental benefits offered by PV-and that can sustain domestic PV market demand growth at three times the historical growth rate for a period of the order of two decades - PV could provide 3% of total US electricity supply by 2025. (Author)

  9. Analysis of grid connected solar PV system in the Southeastern Part of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariful Islam; Fatema Akther Shima; Akhera Khanam

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a potential site of implementing renewable energy system to reduce the severe power crisis throughout the year. According to this, Chittagong is the southeastern part of Bangladesh is also a potential site for implementing renewable energy system such as grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. Financial viability and green-house gas emission reduction of solar PV as an electricity generation source are assessed for 500 kW grid connected solar PV system at University of Chittagong, Chittagong. Homer simulation soft-ware and monthly average solar radiation data from NASA is used for this task. In the proposed system monthly electricity generation varies between 82.65 MW h and 60.3 MW h throughout the year with a mean value of 68.25 MW h depending on the monthly highest and lowest solar radiation data. It is found that per unit electricity production cost is US$ 0.20 based on project lifetime 25 years. The IRR, equity payback and benefit-cost ratio shows favorable condition for development of the proposed solar PV system in this site. A minimum 664 tones of green-house gas emissions can be reduced annually utilizing the proposed system. (authors)

  10. Impacts of Solar PV Arrays on Physicochemical Properties of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, A.; Choi, C. S.; Macknick, J.; Ravi, S.; Bickhart, R.

    2017-12-01

    The deployment of renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is rapidly escalating. While PV can provide clean, renewable energy, there is uncertainty regarding its potential positive and/or negative impacts on the local environment. Specifically, its effects on the physicochemical properties of the underlying soil have not been systematically quantified. This study facilitates the discussion on the effects of PV installations related to the following questions: i. How do soil moisture, infiltration rates, total organic carbon, and nitrogen contents vary spatially under a PV array? ii. How do these physicochemical properties compare to undisturbed and adjacent land covered in native vegetation? iii. Are these variations statistically significant to provide insight on whether PV installations have beneficial or detrimental impacts on soil? We address these questions through field measurements of soil moisture, infiltration, grain particle size distribution, total organic carbon, and nitrogen content at a 1-MW solar PV array located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. We collect data via multiple transects underneath the PV array as as well as in an adjacent plot of undisturbed native vegetation. Measurements are taken at four positions under the solar panels; the east-facing edge, center area under the panel, west-facing edge, and interspace between panel rows to capture differences in sun exposure as well as precipitation runoff of panels. Measurements are collected before and after a precipitation event to capture differences in soil moisture and infiltration rates. Results of this work can provide insights for research fields associated with the co-location of agriculture and PV installations as well as the long term ecological impacts of solar energy development. Trends in physicochemical properties under and between solar panels can affect the viability of co-location of commercial crops in PV arrays, the

  11. Explore the performance limit of a solar PV – thermochemical power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Theoretical net solar-to-electric efficiency of 51.5% is attainable. •Design of efficient PVT systems is governed by at least 5 key considerations. •Concentration ratio has the most pronounced influence on PVT system efficiency. •Efficient PV, low emissivity and high concentration deliver the best performance. -- Abstract: Performance limit of a solar hybrid power generation system integrating efficient photovoltaic (PV) cells and methanol thermal (T) decomposition is explored from a thermodynamic perspective within the capability of state-of-the-art technologies. This type of PVT system features potentially high “net solar-to-electric efficiency” in general, primarily resulting from a key difference in the design of the thermal part compared with conventional PVT systems, i.e. replacing heat engines by a thermochemical power generation module for thermal energy utilization. Key design parameters of the system, including PV cell type, emissivity, solar concentration ratio and solar concentrator type, are individually studied. A system combining all such optimized aspects is projected to achieve net solar-to-electric efficiencies up to 51.5%, after taking all major (e.g. optical, radiative) losses into consideration. This study reveals important insights and enriches understanding on design principles of efficient PVT systems aimed at comprehensive and effective utilization of solar energy.

  12. Vestas Power Plant Solutions Integrating Wind, Solar PV and Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Hesselbæk, Bo; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses a value proposition and feasible system topologies for hybrid power plant solutions integrating wind, solar PV and energy storage and moreover provides insights into Vestas hybrid power plant projects. Seen from the perspective of a wind power plant developer, these hybrid...... solutions provide a number of benefits that could potentially reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy and enable entrance to new markets for wind power and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable energy mix. First, various system topologies are described in order to distinguish the generic concepts...... for the electrical infrastructure of hybrid power plants. Subsequently, the benefits of combining wind and solar PV power as well as the advantages of combining variable renewable energy sources with energy storage are elaborated. Finally, the world’s first utility-scale hybrid power plant combining wind, solar PV...

  13. Development of an Advanced Grid-Connected PV-ECS System Considering Solar Energy Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Habibur; Yamashiro, Susumu; Nakamura, Koichi

    In this paper, the development and the performance of a viable distributed grid-connected power generation system of Photovoltaic-Energy Capacitor System (PV-ECS) considering solar energy estimation have been described. Instead of conventional battery Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) are used as storage device and Photovoltaic (PV) panel to generate power from solar energy. The system can generate power by PV, store energy when the demand of load is low and finally supply the stored energy to load during the period of peak demand. To realize the load leveling function properly the system will also buy power from grid line when load demand is high. Since, the power taken from grid line depends on the PV output power, a procedure has been suggested to estimate the PV output power by calculating solar radiation. In order to set the optimum value of the buy power, a simulation program has also been developed. Performance of the system has been studied for different load patterns in different weather conditions by using the estimated PV output power with the help of the simulation program.

  14. Market prices for solar electricity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ontario electricity supply is facing considerable challenges while demand is increasing due to a growing population and increased economic growth needs. In response to these challenges, the government of Ontario established the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) in 2004 to ensure adequate, reliable and secure electricity supply and resources in Ontario. The OPA has also engaged in activities to facilitate the diversification of sources of electricity supply by promoting the use of cleaner energy sources and technologies, including alternative energy sources and renewable energy. The purpose of this paper was to advance discussions regarding the contribution that solar PV can make to Ontario's supply mix. In particular, it determined the value of the electricity that would have been produced by a PV system located in Waterloo, Ontario under the following 4 pricing regimes: (1) the conventional small user tariff system currently in place in Ontario, (2) the time-of-use pricing system that is voluntarily available to those who have smart meters installed in their facilities, (3) the spot market, hourly prices, to which some of Ontario's largest electricity users are exposed, and (4) the recently-proposed rate for standard offer contracts for PV systems. The study showed that a solar PV system that produces 3,000 kWh of electricity over the course of a year would generate different revenue amounts, ranging from the smallest amount of approximately $174.00 to $1,260.00, depending on the pricing regime. The pricing regime that reflects real, time-of-day electricity prices appears to be most advantageous to solar PV systems. It was recommended that additional work is needed regarding the other benefits of solar PV, such as avoided capacity/generation needs, avoided transmission and distribution cost and losses, environmental benefits, and job creation. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-09-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand-alone solar-powered LED lighting systems. The field test in the particular days shows that the 1A-3P tracking PV can generate 35.8% more electricity than the fixed PV in a partly-cloudy weather with daily-total solar irradiation HT=11.7MJ/m2day, or 35.6% in clear weather with HT=18.5MJ/m2day. This indicates that the present 1A-3P tracking PV can perform very close to a dual-axis continuous tracking PV (Kacira et al., 2004). The long-term outdoor test results have shown that the increase of daily power generation of 1A-3P tracking PV increases with increasing daily-total solar irradiation. The increase of monthly-total power generation for 1A-3P sun tracking PV is between 18.5-28.0%. The total power generation increase in the test period from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011, is 23.6% in Taipei (an area of low solar energy resource). The long-term performance of the present 1X-3P tracking PV is shown very close to the 1-axis continuous tracking PV in Taiwan (Chang, 2009). If the 1A-3P tracking PV is used in the area of high solar energy resource with yearly-average HT>17MJ/m2day, the increase of total long-term power generation with respect to fixed PV will be higher than 37.5%. This is very close to that of dual-axis continuous tracking PV. The 1A-3P tracker can be easily mounted on the wall of a building. The cost of the whole tracker is about the same as the regular mounting cost of a conventional rooftop PV system. This means that there is no extra cost for 1A-3P PV mounted on buildings. The 1A-3P PV is quite suitable for building-integrated applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugent, Daniel; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...... profiles can be determined. When viewed in a holistic manner, including initial materials extraction, manufacturing, use and disposal/decommissioning, these 41 studies show that both wind and solar systems are directly tied to and responsible for GHG emissions. They are thus not actually emissions free......, this article uncovers best practices in wind and solar design and deployment that can better inform climate change mitigation efforts in the electricity sector...

  17. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  18. Assessing the influence of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on self-consumption and sizing of PV-battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.; Kondziella, H.; Huard, G.; Bruckner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP optimization model for operation and investment of PV-battery systems. • Use of high resolution (10 s) electrical household load and PV generation profiles. • Analysis of influence of temporal resolution on self-consumption and optimal sizing. • Electrical load profile characteristics influence required temporal resolution. - Abstract: The interest in self-consumption of electricity generated by rooftop photovoltaic systems has grown in recent years, fueled by decreasing levelized costs of electricity and feed-in tariffs as well as increasing end customer electricity prices in the residential sector. This also fostered research on grid-connected PV-battery storage systems, which are a promising technology to increase self-consumption. In this paper a mixed-integer linear optimization model of a PV-battery system that minimizes the total discounted operating and investment costs is developed. The model is employed to study the effect of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on the rate of self-consumption and the optimal sizing of PV and PV-battery systems. In contrast to previous studies high resolution (10 s) measured input data for both PV generation and electrical load profiles is used for the analysis. The data was obtained by smart meter measurements in 25 different households in Germany. It is shown that the temporal resolution of load profiles is more critical for the accuracy of the determination of self-consumption rates than the resolution of the PV generation. For PV-systems without additional storage accurate results can be obtained by using 15 min solar irradiation data. The required accuracy for the electrical load profiles depends strongly on the load profile characteristics. While good results can be obtained with 60 s for all electrical load profiles, 15 min data can still be sufficient for load profiles that do not exhibit most of their electricity consumption at power levels above 2 k

  19. Key technical and non-technical challenges for mass deployment of photovoltaic solar energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2001-12-01

    Photovoltaic solar energy (PV) is used for direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. It is not to be confused with low-temperature thermal solar energy (e.g. solar domestic hot water systems) and with solar electricity production using a conventional high-temperature steam cycle (using parabolic troughs or 'power towers'). Important features of PV are: inherently renewable; sustainable if well designed, manufactured, used, and disposed; no moving parts, quiet; reliable if well designed and engineered; modular (from milliwatts to multi-megawatts); suitable for a wide variety of applications (stand-alone and grid-connected); large potential (regionally and globally); intermittent; capacity factor (ratio of average system power to installed (=peak) power) =0.08-0.24. PV is among the major renewable energy technologies in all well known energy scenarios, although a substantial role in % of the total energy production can only be achieved on the long term (typically 40-60 years years). Fortunately, long before that the PV market may be a rapidly growing, multi-billion euro business, providing enormous economic opportunities and many jobs

  20. Solar PV leasing in Singapore: enhancing return on investments with options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Poh, K. L.

    2017-05-01

    Renewable energy is getting more important nowadays as an alternative to traditional energies. Solar energy, according to Energy Market Authority, is the most viable in the context of Singapore compared to other renewable energy sources due to land constraints. In light of the increasing adoption of solar power in Singapore, this paper focuses on solar PV leasing using a case study. This paper assesses the prospect for solar PV leasing companies in Singapore through the lens of embedded real options. The recent news that solar power is becoming the cheapest form of new electricity presents the leasing company an option to expand the scale of solar PV system. Taking into account this option, the Net Present Value (NPV) of the investment increased significantly compared to the case without real options. Technological developments result in a continuously changing environment with uncertainties. Thus, decision makers need to be aware of the inherent risk associated and identify options to maximize NPV. This upside potential is realized by exercising the managerial flexibility and exploiting the uncertainty. The paper enables solar energy planners to consider possible managerial flexibilities under uncertainties, showing how option thinking can be incorporated in the valuation of solar energy.

  1. Operation of TUT Solar PV Power Station Research Plant under Partial Shading Caused by Snow and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Torres Lobera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV research facility equipped with comprehensive climatic and electric measuring systems has been designed and built in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT. The climatic measuring system is composed of an accurate weather station, solar radiation measurements, and a mesh of irradiance and PV module temperature measurements located throughout the solar PV facility. Furthermore, electrical measurements can be taken from single PV modules and strings of modules synchronized with the climatic data. All measured parameters are sampled continuously at 10 Hz with a data-acquisition system based on swappable I/O card technology and stored in a database for later analysis. The used sampling frequency was defined by thorough analyses of the PV system time dependence. Climatic and electrical measurements of the first operation year of the research facility are analyzed in this paper. Moreover, operation of PV systems under partial shading conditions caused by snow and building structures is studied by means of the measured current and power characteristics of PV modules and strings.

  2. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weng, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  3. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Weng, Dean [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  4. PSA Solar furnace: A facility for testing PV cells under concentrated solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Reche, J.; Canadas, I.; Sanchez, M.; Ballestrin, J.; Yebra, L.; Monterreal, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Garcia, G. [Concentration Solar Technologies, Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT P.O. Box 22, Tabernas, E-04200 (Almeria) (Spain); Alonso, M.; Chenlo, F. [Photovoltaic Components and Systems, Renewable Energies Department-CIEMAT Avda. Complutense, 22, Madrid, E-28040 (Spain)

    2006-09-22

    The Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), the largest centre for research, development and testing of concentration solar thermal technologies in Europe, has started to apply its knowledge, facilities and resources to development of the Concentration PV technology in an EU-funded project HiConPV. A facility for testing PV cells under solar radiation concentrated up to 2000x has recently been completed. The advantages of this facility are that, since it is illuminated by solar radiation, it is possible to obtain the appropriate cell spectral response directly, and the flash tests can be combined with prolonged PV-cell irradiation on large surfaces (up to 150cm{sup 2}), so the thermal response of the PV cell can be evaluated simultaneously. (author)

  5. Solar electricity and solar fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, David J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of solar radiation and its variation with location is described. The distribution of energy in the solar spectrum places immediate limits on the theoretical efficiency of conversion processes, since practical absorbers cannot convert all wavelengths received to useful energy. The principles of solar energy conversion methods are described. Absorption of solar energy can give rise to direct electrical generation, heating, or chemical change. Electrical generation from sunlight can be achieved by photovoltaic systems directly or by thermal systems which use solar heat to drive a heat engine and generator. The technology used and under research for promising ways of producing electricity or fuel from solar energy is described. Photovoltaic technology is established today for remote area, small power applications, and photovoltaic module sales alone are over 100 million dollars per year at present. The photovoltaic market has grown steadily since the mid-1970's, as prices have fallen continuously. Future energy options are briefly described. The merits of a sustainable energy economy, based on renewable energy resources, including solar energy, are emphasized, as this seems to provide the only hope of eliminating the problems caused by the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, acid rain pollution and nuclear waste disposal. There is no doubt that clean fuels which were derived from solar energy and either did not involve carbon dioxide and used atmospheric carbon dioxide as the source dioxide as the source of carbon would be a worthy ideal. Methods described could one day achieve this.

  6. Leaf Roof – designing luminescent solar concentrating PV roof tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Doudart de la Grée, G.C.H.; Papadopoulos, A.; Rosemann, A.L.P.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Krumer, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The Leaf Roof project on the design features of PV roof tiles using Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) technology has resulted in a functional prototype . The results are presented in the context of industrial product design with a focus on the aesthetic aspects of LSCs. This paper outlines the

  7. Leaf Roof - Designing Luminescent Solar Concentrating PV Roof Tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Doudart de la Gree, G.; Papadopoulos, A..; Rosemann, A.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.; Krumer, Zachar

    2016-01-01

    The Leaf Roof project on the design features of PV roof tiles using Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) technology [1] has resulted in a functional prototype. The results are presented in the context of industrial product design with a focus on the aesthetic aspects of LSCs [2]. This paper outlines

  8. Microgrid-Ready Solar PV - Planning for Resiliency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Samuel S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    This fact sheet provides background information on microgrids with suggested language for several up-front considerations that can be added to a solar project procurement or request for proposal (RFP) that will help ensure that PV systems are built for future microgrid connection.

  9. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  10. Potential of Securitization in Solar PV Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mendelsohn, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report aims to demonstrate, hypothetically and at a high level, what volumes of solar deployment could be supported given solar industry access to the capital markets in the form of security issuance. Securitization is not anticipated to replace tax equity in the near- to mid-term, but it could provide an additional source of funds that would be comparatively inexpensive and could reduce the weighted average cost of capital for a given solar project or portfolio. Thus, the potential to securitize solar assets and seek financing in the capital markets could help to sustain the solar industry when the investment tax credit (ITC) -- one of the federal incentives that has leveraged billions of dollars of private capital in the solar industry -- drops from 30% to 10% at the close of 2016. The report offers analysis on the size of the U.S. third-party financed solar market, as well as on the volumes (in MW) of solar asset origination possible through a $100 million securitization fund (assuming no overcollateralization). It also provides data on the size of the relevant securities markets and how the solar asset class may fit into these markets.

  11. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  12. Solar generation: a blueprint for growing the PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, M.; Stierstorfer, J.; Teske, S.; Aubrey, C.

    2001-01-01

    The rapid growth of the solar electricity market is discussed. The European Photovoltaic Industry Association and Greenpeace have recently collaborated on a long-term forecast of the global solar electricity market up to 2020 with predictions up to 2040; the conclusions from their joint study are the subject of this article. The paper is presented under the main sub-headings of (i) background to the collaboration; (ii) the Greenpeace perspective; (iii) the impact of solar electricity in the lives of consumers and job-seekers born today; (iv) solar generation-methods and assumptions (v) market growth rates; (vi) electricity generation; (vii) carbon dioxide emissions; (viii) projection to 2040; (ix) key results of the EPIA/Greenpeace analysis; (x) solar electricity as a vehicle for job creation and (xi) creating the conditions for optimizing the impact of solar electricity on future generations. A chart shows solar electricity job creation potential 2000-2020

  13. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhehan

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive control, power management, and fault detection strategy for solar photovoltaic (PV) distribution generations. Battery storages are typically employed in PV systems to mitigate the power fluctuation caused by unstable solar irradiance. With AC and DC loads, a PV-battery system can be treated as a hybrid microgrid which contains both DC and AC power resources and buses. In this thesis, a control power and management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery hybrid microgrid is proposed, which provides 1) the DC and AC bus voltage and AC frequency regulating scheme and controllers designed to track set points; 2) a power flow management strategy in the hybrid microgrid to achieve system generation and demand balance in both grid-connected and islanded modes; 3) smooth transition control during grid reconnection by frequency and phase synchronization control between the main grid and microgrid. Due to the increasing demands for PV power, scales of PV systems are getting larger and fault detection in PV arrays becomes challenging. High-impedance faults, low-mismatch faults, and faults occurred in low irradiance conditions tend to be hidden due to low fault currents, particularly, when a PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is in-service. If remain undetected, these faults can considerably lower the output energy of solar systems, damage the panels, and potentially cause fire hazards. In this dissertation, fault detection challenges in PV arrays are analyzed in depth, considering the crossing relations among the characteristics of PV, interactions with MPPT algorithms, and the nature of solar irradiance. Two fault detection schemes are then designed as attempts to address these technical issues, which detect faults inside PV arrays accurately even under challenging circumstances, e.g., faults in low irradiance conditions or high-impedance faults. Taking advantage of multi-resolution signal decomposition (MSD), a powerful signal

  14. The role of PV electricity generation in fully renewable energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Peter, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy supply will be based on renewable energies and it must use available resources efficiently. Earlier or later the energy supply will rely completely on renewable sources. A solar energy system that provides a reliable energy supply throughout the year includes the consistent use of local renewable energy sources (e.g. PV) wherever possible. Using Japan as a example it was shown that the vision of a full renewable energy supply, even with high shares of domestic sources is possible. Detailed simulations of such a system show that the PV systems play an important role delivering electricity at peak demand times. (authors)

  15. National solar technology roadmap: Organic PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses all forms of solar cells that use organic molecules—including polymers, dendrimers, small molecules, and dyes—as absorbers or transporters, either in fully organic devices or in devices that also contain inorganic nanostructures.

  16. Monitoring and evaluation of Solar Home Systems. Experiences with applications of solar PV for households in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Van Dijk, A.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Hirsch, D.; Lasschuit, P.E.; Van Roekel, G.; Arriaza, H.; Hankins, M.; Sharma, B.D.; Wade, H.

    2000-09-01

    Solar energy is a promising solution to meet demand for electricity services of rural households in remote locations in developing countries. After some early successes, more and more doubts have arisen about the effectiveness and suitability of small PV systems for rural development. Many organisational, financial and technical problems appear difficult to tackle. A literature survey has been conducted to make an inventory of experiences with solar photovoltaic applications for households in developing countries. The major conclusion from the extensive literature research performed during this study is that there is not enough information available about the performance of solar home systems and projects. This slows down further development and successful dissemination. refs

  17. Solar Energy Technology Office Portfolio Review: Promotion of PV Soft Cost Reductions in the Southeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    From 2016-2021, the installed solar capacity in South Carolina will mushroom from less than 20 megawatts to more than 300 megawatts. Concurrently, the number of customer-sited, load-centered solar generation is expected to grow from less than 500 statewide to as many as 10,000 by 2021. This growth is anticipated to be the direct result of a landmark state policy initiative, Act 236, passed by the South Carolina General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor in June of 2014. Local policy makers in South Carolina are ill-equipped to handle the onslaught of solar permitting and zoning requests expected over the next five years. Similarly, the state’s building inspectors, first responders, and tax assessors know little about photovoltaic (PV) technology and best practices. Finally, South Carolina’s workforce and workforce trainers are underprepared to benefit from the tremendous opportunity created by the passage of Act 236. Each of these deficits in knowledge of and preparedness for solar PV translates into higher “soft costs” of installed solar PV in South Carolina. Currently, we estimate that the installed costs of residential rooftop solar are as much as 25 percent higher than the national average. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), together with almost a dozen electricity stakeholders in the Southeast, proposes to create a replicable model for solar PV soft cost reduction in South Carolina through human capacity-building at the local level and direct efforts to harmonize policy at the inter-county or regional level. The primary goal of this effort is to close the gap between South Carolina installed costs of residential rooftop solar and national averages. The secondary goal is to develop a portable and replicable model that can be applied to other jurisdictions in the Southeastern US.

  18. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  19. New York Solar Smart DG Hub-Resilient Solar Project: Economic and Resiliency Impact of PV and Storage on New York Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Kate; Burman, Kari; Simpkins, Travis; Helson, Erica; Lisell, Lars, Case, Tria

    2016-06-01

    Resilient PV, which is solar paired with storage ('solar-plus-storage'), provides value both during normal grid operation and power outages as opposed to traditional solar PV, which functions only when the electric grid is operating. During normal grid operations, resilient PV systems help host sites generate revenue and/or reduce electricity bill charges. During grid outages, resilient PV provides critical emergency power that can help people in need and ease demand on emergency fuel supplies. The combination of grid interruptions during recent storms, the proliferation of solar PV, and the growing deployment of battery storage technologies has generated significant interest in using these assets for both economic and resiliency benefits. This report analyzes the technical and economic viability for resilient PV on three critical infrastructure sites in New York City (NYC): a school that is part of a coastal storm shelter system, a fire station, and a NYCHA senior center that serves as a cooling center during heat emergencies. This analysis differs from previous solar-plus-storage studies by placing a monetary value on resiliency and thus, in essence, modeling a new revenue stream for the avoided cost of a power outage. Analysis results show that resilient PV is economically viable for NYC's critical infrastructure and that it may be similarly beneficial to other commercial buildings across the city. This report will help city building owners, managers, and policymakers better understand the economic and resiliency benefits of resilient PV. As NYC fortifies its building stock against future storms of increasing severity, resilient PV can play an important role in disaster response and recovery while also supporting city greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and relieving stress to the electric grid from growing power demands.

  20. Uses Of Innovative Project Management Tools In The Establishment Of E-Centers Solar PV System Installation Project Without Electricity In Bangladesh A Case Study On Ingen Technology Limited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mohiuddin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Todays world is shaped by availability of Information and Communication Technology ICT. Government of Bangladesh declared a vision of Digital Bangladesh by 2021 to ensure services at peoples doorsteps. A total number of 4501 UISCs Union Information and Service Centers have been established at all Union Parishads of Bangladesh. UISCs are the e-Service delivery outlets which initiated a new era in information and service delivery for rural and marginalized people. With the aim to ensure services at citizens doorsteps UISCs are offering various government services like public examination results online university admission birth-death registration agricultural amp law consultancy telemedicine life insurance private services like mobile banking English learning computer training email internet browsing and so on. Now-a-days UISC is a local knowledge Centre. But there is no electricity in each Union Parishad of Bangladesh. in that case for establishment of e-Centre in Seven Divisions of Bangladesh at Unions without Electricity project needed to provide electricity in everywhere. Without Electricity we cant imagine it. Thats why Bangladesh Government decided to install the Solar PV system in different unions of Bangladesh division wise. This research aims to focus on the implementation of project management concepts in Establishment of e-Centre in Seven Divisions of Bangladesh at Unions without Electricity under Bangladesh Computer Council BCC. Around 1000 unions e-Centre has been brought under solar power which is total 1800 KW for Rural infrastructure development under digital Bangladesh program. The purpose of the study is to identify and explore the processes of the InGen Technology Limited to show how the company accomplishes a Successful Project by formulating it through project management tools. The study investigates measures and evaluates the total processes or activities of InGen Technology Limited in accomplishing and delivering successful

  1. Distributed solar radiation fast dynamic measurement for PV cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Yang, Yi; Cui, Jian; Du, Xingjing; Zheng, Tao; Sardar, Muhammad Sohail

    2017-10-01

    To study the operating characteristics about PV cells, attention must be given to the dynamic behavior of the solar radiation. The dynamic behaviors of annual, monthly, daily and hourly averages of solar radiation have been studied in detail. But faster dynamic behaviors of solar radiation need more researches. The solar radiation random fluctuations in minute-long or second-long range, which lead to alternating radiation and cool down/warm up PV cell frequently, decrease conversion efficiency. Fast dynamic processes of solar radiation are mainly relevant to stochastic moving of clouds. Even in clear sky condition, the solar irradiations show a certain degree of fast variation. To evaluate operating characteristics of PV cells under fast dynamic irradiation, a solar radiation measuring array (SRMA) based on large active area photodiode, LoRa spread spectrum communication and nanoWatt MCU is proposed. This cross photodiodes structure tracks fast stochastic moving of clouds. To compensate response time of pyranometer and reduce system cost, the terminal nodes with low-cost fast-responded large active area photodiode are placed besides positions of tested PV cells. A central node, consists with pyranometer, large active area photodiode, wind detector and host computer, is placed in the center of the central topologies coordinate to scale temporal envelope of solar irradiation and get calibration information between pyranometer and large active area photodiodes. In our SRMA system, the terminal nodes are designed based on Microchip's nanoWatt XLP PIC16F1947. FDS-100 is adopted for large active area photodiode in terminal nodes and host computer. The output current and voltage of each PV cell are monitored by I/V measurement. AS62-T27/SX1278 LoRa communication modules are used for communicating between terminal nodes and host computer. Because the LoRa LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) specification provides seamless interoperability among Smart Things without the

  2. Electrification of rural areas by solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1992-01-01

    More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

  3. An experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV)-solar thermal hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdil, Erzat; Ilkan, Mustafa; Egelioglu, Fuat

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid system, composed of a photovoltaic (PV) module and a solar thermal collector is constructed and tested for energy collection at a geographic location of Cyprus. Normally, it is required to install a PV system occupying an area of about 10 m 2 in order to produce electrical energy; 7 kWh/day, required by a typical household. In this experimental study, we used only two PV modules of area approximately 0.6 m 2 (i.e., 1.3x0.47 m 2 ) each. PV modules absorb a considerable amount of solar radiation that generate undesirable heat. This thermal energy, however, may be utilized in water pre-heating applications. The proposed hybrid system produces about 2.8 kWh thermal energy daily. Various attachments that are placed over the hybrid modules lead to a total of 11.5% loss in electrical energy generation. This loss, however, represents only 1% of the 7 kWh energy that is consumed by a typical household in northern Cyprus. The pay-back period for the modification is less than 2 years. The low investment cost and the relatively short pay-back period make this hybrid system economically attractive

  4. Stress corrosion cracking prevention using solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Uqaaili, M.A; Mirani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Metallic structures exposed to soil and water naturally experience corrosion due to electrolytic action. These structures are also subjected to sustained tensile stresses. The combined effects of corrosion and stress results stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Removal of either of these i.e. stress or corrosion prevents SCC. The cathodic protection (CP) prevents corrosion, and hence prevents stress corrosion. Solar Photo voltaic (PV) generated electricity can be best external power source for CP systems especially in remote areas. This paper presents CP system using solar PV generated electricity as an external power source for prevention of SCC of metallic structures. The paper also compares CP systems using solar electricity with those of CP systems using conventional electricity. The paper concludes that a solar electricity power system provides a reliable solution for powering CP stations especially in remote areas, enables the placing of CP units in any location, and thus ensures optimal current distribution for the exact protection requirements. The paper also concludes that solar electricity CP systems are well suited for SCC protection of metallic structures especially in remote areas of an energy deficit country like Pakistan. (author)

  5. Artificial Neural Network based control for PV/T panel to track optimum thermal and electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Majed; Chaabene, Maher; Chtourou, Zied

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We establish a state model of PV/T panel. ► We study the effect of mass flow rate on PV/T efficiency. ► A real time PV/T control algorithm is proposed. ► A model based optimal thermal and electrical power operation point is tracked. - Abstract: As solar energy is intermittent, many algorithms and electronics have been developed to track the maximum power generation from photovoltaic and thermal panels. Following technological advances, these panels are gathered into one unit: PV/T system. PV/T delivers simultaneously two kinds of power: electrical power and thermal power. Nevertheless, no control systems have been developed in order to track maximum power generation from PV/T system. This paper suggests a PV/T control algorithm based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to detect the optimal power operating point (OPOP) by considering PV/T model behavior. The OPOP computes the optimum mass flow rate of PV/T for a considered irradiation and ambient temperature. Simulation results demonstrate great concordance between OPOP model based calculation and ANN outputs.

  6. The future prospect of PV and CSP solar technologies: An expert elicitation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Catenacci, Michela; Fiorese, Giulia; Verdolini, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the results of an expert elicitation survey on solar technologies. Sixteen leading European experts from the academic world, the private sector and international institutions took part in this expert elicitation survey on Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies. The survey collected probabilistic information on (1) how Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) investments will impact the future costs of solar technologies and (2) the potential for solar technology deployment both in OECD and non-OECD countries. Understanding the technological progress and the potential of solar PV and CPS technologies is crucial to draft appropriate energy policies. The results presented in this paper are thus relevant for the policy making process and can be used as better input data in integrated assessment and energy models. - Highlights: ► With constant public support at least one solar technology will become cost-competitive with fossil fuels. ► Demonstration should become a key area of funding. ► Without climate policy (carbon price), by 2030 solar technologies will not be cost-competitive. ► The EU will first achieve a breakthrough in production costs. ► The share of electricity production from solar will never exceed 30%.

  7. Sizing energy storage systems to make PV tradable in the Iberian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltram, H.; Perez, E.; Aparicio, N.; Vidal, R.; Belenguer, E. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Castello de la Plana (Spain). Electrical Engineering Area; Piqueres, T. [Energia Solar Aplicada (ESA), Valencia (Spain). Technical Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is intended to provide some reference values for the ratings required by an energy storage system, to be integrated in a large-scale PV power plant placed at any location of the Iberian Peninsula, to operate it according to an energy management strategy (EMS) whic allowed its participation in the Iberian electricity market while minimizing the economic penalties. The proposed EMS produces a constant-by-hours power reference to be tracked by the PV plant with storage and, in that way, mitigate the stochastic nature of the PV production. This operation mode will enable PV power plants to take part reliably in the different electricity markets, profiting the intraday market sessions to continuously refine the power production commitment. Different configurations of the EMS are analysed, introducing on each of them different meteorologically-based adjustments which allow minimizing the energy capacity required by the storage system. The proposals are analysed through one-year long simulations which use real-world data and PV power forecasting models extracted from solar databases. (orig.)

  8. Investigations on the performance of a double pass, hybrid - type (PV/T) solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, M.; Jayaraj, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2013-07-01

    A solar hybrid energy system having photovoltaic and thermal (PV/T) devices, which produces both thermal and electrical energies simultaneously is considered for analysis. A double pass hybrid solar air (PV/T) heater with slats is designed and fabricated to study its thermal and electrical performance. Air as a heat removing fluid is made to flow through upper and lower channels of the collector. The collector is designed in such a way that the absorber plate is partially covered by solar cells. The raise in temperature of the solar cell is expected to decrease its electrical performance. Thin metallic strips called slats are attached longitudinally at the bottom side of the absorber plate to improve the system performance by increasing the cooling rate of the absorber plate. Thermal and electrical performances of the whole system at varying cooling conditions are presented. An artificial neural network model is used for forecasting the system performance at any desired conditions. The proposed model can be successfully used for evaluating the effect of different operating parameters under different ambient conditions for predicting the overall performance of the system.

  9. World record of PV solar competitiveness: 2.6 cent per KWh in Dubai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier; Thouverez, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    A proposition of 2.99 cent per KWh of solar photovoltaic power has been made to the local electric power operator (DEWA) by a Saudi and Spanish venture, and DEWA is now to examine technical and commercial aspects to choose between this proposition and those made by a Chinese company (JinkoSolar), a Saudi and American venture, Engie and EDF. The author of this article outlines that such a competitive trend can be noticed in other countries (in the Emirates, in Mexico, in Peru, in the USA). The competitiveness record in Dubai is due to a low labour cost and to an optimal sunning. The author then discusses the fact that solar PV in France is now nearly as cheap as nuclear, and the main consequence of this trend: nuclear will never be competitive with respect to solar energy any longer. He finally evokes Wattway, the project of a solar road in France, and quotes various reactions and opinions about it

  10. Data acquisition and PV module power production in upgraded TEP/AzRISE solar test yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Whit E.; Fishgold, Asher D.; Lai, Teh; Potter, Barrett G.; Simmons-Potter, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    The Tucson Electric Power (TEP)/University of Arizona AzRISE (Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy) solar test yard is continuing efforts to improve standardization and data acquisition reliability throughout the facility. Data reliability is ensured through temperature-insensitive data acquisition devices with battery backups in the upgraded test yard. Software improvements allow for real-time analysis of collected data, while uploading to a web server. Sample data illustrates high fidelity monitoring of the burn-in period of a polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module test string with no data failures over 365 days of data collection. In addition to improved DAQ systems, precision temperature monitoring has been implemented so that PV module backside temperatures are routinely obtained. Weather station data acquired at the test yard provides local ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed, and irradiance measurements that have been utilized to enable characterization of PV module performance over an extended test period

  11. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper. PMID:26230694

  12. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Molina-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors. Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  13. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C

    2015-07-29

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  14. Solar and the future of Ontario's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The potential contribution of solar energy to Ontario's electricity supply was evaluated in this PowerPoint presentation. Only 3.5 per cent of Canada's photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to the electricity grid. However, 47 per cent of all homes in Ontario have the potential to install 3 kW PV arrays, and the solar industry has the potential to achieve growth rates of between 50 to 75 per cent, with medium term sustainable growth estimated at 30 to 40 per cent annually. The benefits of grid-connected solar energy include employment and wealth creation in Ontario; reductions in peak demand; and improved grid efficiency. It was noted that the price of solar PV is declining. Various market niches for solar energy technologies were outlined, and the targeting of early adopters was recommended as a first market for PV growth. An overview of the value of PV build-ups in California was presented, as well details of international tariffs and rates. A 10 year program leading to the installation of 15,000 PV systems or 40 MWp of installed capacity in Ontario by 2015 was outlined, as well as a plan for solar financing. It was concluded that priming the market now will mean that solar will be prepared to contribute to Ontario's supply during the 2015-2025 period, when its price will be competitive. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Effect of Different Solar Radiation Data Sources on the Variation of Techno-Economic Feasibility of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Aljaafar, A. A.; Kadhim, Mohammed; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation in techno-economic feasibility of PV power system under different data sources of solar radiation. HOMER simulation tool is used to predict the techno-economic feasibility parameters of PV power system in Baghdad city, Iraq located at (33.3128° N, 44.3615° E) as a case study. Four data sources of solar radiation, different annual capacity shortages percentage (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5), and wide range of daily load profile (10-100 kWh/day) are implemented. The analyzed parameters of the techno-economic feasibility are COE (/kWh), PV array power capacity (kW), PV electrical production (kWh/year), No. of batteries and battery lifetime (year). The main results of the study revealed the followings: (1) solar radiation from different data sources caused observed to significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters; therefore, careful attention must be paid to ensure the use of an accurate solar input data; (2) Average solar radiation from different data sources can be recommended as a reasonable input data; (3) it is observed that as the size and of PV power system increases, the effect of different data sources of solar radiation increases and causes significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters.

  16. Solar Electricity for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  17. Lighting rural and peri-urban homes of the Gambia using solar photovoltaics (PV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanneh, E.S.; Hu, A.H. [National Taipei Univ. of Technology, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Environmental Engineering Technology

    2009-07-01

    The main fuel supplies of Gambia are fuel woods, petroleum products, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This study considered the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) as a principal source of power for rural and peri-urban communities in Gambia. The country currently has high rates of poverty and malnutrition, and it is expected that the provision of electricity to communities will encourage economic growth. Gambia is also heavily dependent on foreign imports of oil. To date, PV systems have been used for water pumping, refrigeration, and telecommunications projects. The study showed that better access to sustainable energy services is needed at the micro-level to stimulate businesses and income-generating activities, as well as at the macro level to foster economic growth. Financing methods for developing solar energy in Gambia include credit financing; PV market transformative initiatives; revolving loan funds; and government-granted renewable energy concessions for institutionally-owned and maintained systems. A pilot program has been established to investigate the acceptability of PV lighting systems for rural populations. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Quasi-static time-series simulation using OpenDSS in IEEE distribution feeder model with high PV penetration and its impact on solar forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Touseef Ahmed Faisal

    Since 2000, renewable electricity installations in the United States (excluding hydropower) have more than tripled. Renewable electricity has grown at a compounded annual average of nearly 14% per year from 2000-2010. Wind, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) and solar Photo Voltaic (PV) are the fastest growing renewable energy sectors. In 2010 in the U.S., solar PV grew over 71% and CSP grew by 18% from the previous year. Globally renewable electricity installations have more than quadrupled from 2000-2010. Solar PV generation grew by a factor of more than 28 between 2000 and 2010. The amount of CSP and solar PV installations are increasing on the distribution grid. These PV installations transmit electrical current from the load centers to the generating stations. But the transmission and distribution grid have been designed for uni-directional flow of electrical energy from generating stations to load centers. This causes imbalances in voltage and switchgear of the electrical circuitry. With the continuous rise in PV installations, analysis of voltage profile and penetration levels remain an active area of research. Standard distributed photovoltaic (PV) generators represented in simulation studies do not reflect the exact location and variability properties such as distance between interconnection points to substations, voltage regulators, solar irradiance and other environmental factors. Quasi-Static simulations assist in peak load planning hour and day ahead as it gives a time sequence analysis to help in generation allocation. Simulation models can be daily, hourly or yearly depending on duty cycle and dynamics of the system. High penetration of PV into the power grid changes the voltage profile and power flow dynamically in the distribution circuits due to the inherent variability of PV. There are a number of modeling and simulations tools available for the study of such high penetration PV scenarios. This thesis will specifically utilize OpenDSS, a open source

  19. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  20. How to stimulate the South African rooftop PV market without putting electricity distributors’ financial stability at risk [Conference presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, Sebastian T

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available in three important ways: • Embedded Solar PV can be deployed very quickly • Favourable lifetime costs (at 5.7–6.4 €/kWh) compared to other new build options • Large amounts of capacity can be deployed. This value cannot be unlocked because...Wh Electricity bill 8,000 kWh/yr *0.09 €/kWh – ~ Residential load 12,000 kWh/yr 8,000 kWh/yr 10,000 kWh/yr 12,000 kWh/yr 4 ,0 0 0 Self-consumption Gross PV generation PV inverter PV panels 6 kWp Source: CSIR analysis Grid energy Solar energy Payments...

  1. The PV LED Engine - a new generation of intelligent solar powered LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    parameters are ltered mathematical by the optical properties of the materials in front of the solar panel and assumptions about the soiling parameters. Lab measurements of solar cells/panels underdierent lighting conditions (spectrally and intensity) makes it possible to simulate performance of realsolar...... projectat design and simulation tool for small PV applications for the urban environment is developed. The tool is advanced in its calculations on the solar irradiation parameters being very dierent in the urban environment compared to roof top applications both spectrally and in intensity variations...... panels of different technologies in the addressed environment since detailed electrical characteristicsis known by the measurements. Optical parameters for the protection layer (in front of the solar panel)are put into a material library so the optimal choice can be made for a given application...

  2. The Moroccan solar plan. A comparative analysis of CSP and PV utilization until 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richts, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The present master thesis conducts technical and economic simulations of large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants for the Moroccan Solar Plan. It provides a database of performance indicators such as energy yields, capacity factors, typical efficiencies and losses of technical components, LCOE, and difference costs (DC: LCOE minus avoided costs of the conventional power system) for fixed tilted, 1-axis horizontal, 1-axis vertical and 2-axis tracking PV and CSP with no, 6, 12 and 18 full load hours of thermal storage. HelioClim irradiation data of 2005 for the sites in Ouarzazate, Ain Ben Mathar, Boujdour, Laayoune and Tarfaya is used ranging between 1,927 - 2,428 kWh/m 2 /y (DNI) and 1,968 - 2,154 kWh/m 2 /y (GHI). In the base scenario minimum LCOE are 9.6 - 5.4 EURct/kWh for PV (2012 - 2020) varying between 0.90 - 1.55 EURct/kWh among sites and technologies. CSP reaches 12.8 - 9.2 EURct/kWh and a bandwidth of 2.3 - 1.6 EURct/kWh. Average DC are lowest for horizontal 1-axis tracking (0.4 and -7.7 EURct/kWh for plants built in 2012 and 2020 respectively) and CSP with 6 hours of storage (1.3 and -3.5 EURct/kWh). PV is cheaper for all sites and technologies due to higher learning curves and less initial investment, but cannot contribute to coverage of the daily evening peak in Morocco. Four different MSP-scenarios with 2000 MW of solar energy require total investments of 3.7 - 7.5 billion EUR and yield 7.9% - 12.8% of the electricity demand in 2020 (given a growth 7%/y) depending on the ratio of PV and CSP utilization. The average LCOE are 8.3 - 11.7 EURct/kWh and the total discounted DC (10%/y) are -254 - 391 million EUR. Thus, solar energy is partly less expensive than a business-as-usual scenario. An extensive sensitivity analysis for WACC and price escalation of conventional energy shows that for only PV and only CSP scenarios in 55 and 22 out of 72 cases the DC are negative - although no environmental costs for conventional

  3. The Moroccan solar plan. A comparative analysis of CSP and PV utilization until 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richts, Christoph

    2012-02-15

    The present master thesis conducts technical and economic simulations of large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants for the Moroccan Solar Plan. It provides a database of performance indicators such as energy yields, capacity factors, typical efficiencies and losses of technical components, LCOE, and difference costs (DC: LCOE minus avoided costs of the conventional power system) for fixed tilted, 1-axis horizontal, 1-axis vertical and 2-axis tracking PV and CSP with no, 6, 12 and 18 full load hours of thermal storage. HelioClim irradiation data of 2005 for the sites in Ouarzazate, Ain Ben Mathar, Boujdour, Laayoune and Tarfaya is used ranging between 1,927 - 2,428 kWh/m{sup 2}/y (DNI) and 1,968 - 2,154 kWh/m{sup 2}/y (GHI). In the base scenario minimum LCOE are 9.6 - 5.4 EURct/kWh for PV (2012 - 2020) varying between 0.90 - 1.55 EURct/kWh among sites and technologies. CSP reaches 12.8 - 9.2 EURct/kWh and a bandwidth of 2.3 - 1.6 EURct/kWh. Average DC are lowest for horizontal 1-axis tracking (0.4 and -7.7 EURct/kWh for plants built in 2012 and 2020 respectively) and CSP with 6 hours of storage (1.3 and -3.5 EURct/kWh). PV is cheaper for all sites and technologies due to higher learning curves and less initial investment, but cannot contribute to coverage of the daily evening peak in Morocco. Four different MSP-scenarios with 2000 MW of solar energy require total investments of 3.7 - 7.5 billion EUR and yield 7.9% - 12.8% of the electricity demand in 2020 (given a growth 7%/y) depending on the ratio of PV and CSP utilization. The average LCOE are 8.3 - 11.7 EURct/kWh and the total discounted DC (10%/y) are -254 - 391 million EUR. Thus, solar energy is partly less expensive than a business-as-usual scenario. An extensive sensitivity analysis for WACC and price escalation of conventional energy shows that for only PV and only CSP scenarios in 55 and 22 out of 72 cases the DC are negative - although no environmental costs for conventional

  4. Performance of PV panels for solar energy conversion at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeran, Syed M.

    Expanding research facilities at the Amundson-Scott South pole station require increased electric power generation. Presently, electric power generation is by diesel generators using the JP8 fuel. As the station is accessible only for a short supply period during the austral summer, there are limitations upon the supply of fuel for power generation. This makes it necessary to seriously consider the use of the renewable energy sources. Although there is no sunlight for six months in the year, abundant solar energy is available during the remaining 6 months because of the clear skies, the clarity of air and the low humidity at the south pole. As the buildings at the south pole are built either without windows or with only porthole type windows, large areas on the walls and the roof are available for mounting the photovoltaic (PV) panels. In addition there is unlimited space around the station for constructing a PV panel 'farm'. In this paper four types of PV panels are evaluated; the 2-axis tracking panels, vertical 1-axis tracking panels, fixed vertical panels on the walls of buildings and mounted outdoors, and fixed horizontal panels on the roofs of the buildings. Equations are developed for the power output in KW/sq. ft and annual energy in kWh/sq. ft for each type of panel. The equations include the effects of the inclination of the sun above the horizon, the movement of the sun around the horizon, the direct, reflected and diffused components of the solar radiation, the characteristics of the solar cells and the types of dc/ac inverters used to interface the output of the cells with the existing ac power. A conceptual design of a 150-kW PV generation system suitable for the south pole is also discussed in this paper.

  5. Simulation of transcontinental wind and solar PV generation time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2018-01-01

    to the technical characteristics of individual installations spread across large regions. The proposed methodology is validated using actual power data in Europe and can be applied to represent intermittent generation in network development plans, reliability and market studies, as well as operational guidelines.......The deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is driving modern power systems towards a fundamental green transition. In this regard, there is a need to develop models to accurately capture the variability of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power, at different geographical and temporal scales...

  6. City and County Solar PV Training Program, Module 2: Screening and Identifying PV Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-09

    When screening and identifying PV projects, cities and counties should understand the different factors that impact the technical and economic potential of a PV project, the steps of the PV screening process, and how to use REopt Lite to screen a site for PV and storage project potential.

  7. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  8. Multilevel governance and deployment of solar PV panels in U.S. cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Yi, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) installations have been growing rapidly in the United States over the last few years, incentivized by policies from federal, state and local governments. The complex relationships between solar policies at multiple levels of government and solar deployment are questions of importance to policy makers and scholars. Extant literature on solar policies pays less attention to the role of local governments and policies than to their federal and state counterparts. Local governments and policies play indispensable roles in the deployment of solar PVs. This paper studies the multilevel governance of solar development in the U.S. by evaluating the relative effectiveness of state and local policy tools in stimulating solar PV installations, with an emphasis on local solar policies. With a regression analysis on a national sample of 186 U.S. cities, we find that cities with local financial incentives deploy 69% more solar PV capacities than cities without such policies. We also find that cities subject to RPS requirements have 295% more solar PV capacity, compared with cities not regulated by state RPS. - Highlights: • This study evaluates state and local solar PV policies. • State RPS has positive impacts on local solar PV capacity. • Local financial incentives matter for solar PV deployment

  9. Design and assessment of solar PV plant for girls hostel (GARGI of MNIT University, Jaipur city: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khatri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper designing and assessment of a solar PV plant for meeting the energy demand of girl’s hostel at MNIT University Jaipur city was analyzed. A solar PV plant was designed with its financial and environmental assessment considering recent market prices. All the aspects related to a solar PV plant were considered for financial feasibility of PV plant near this location. The different financial parameters which affect the financial feasibility of PV plant were considered i.e. discount rate, effective discount rate, rate of escalation of electricity cost, salvage value of the plant etc. The environmental aspect related with the energy generated with PV plant i.e. reduction in carbon emission and carbon credits earned was also considered. Result obtained with the assessment of the proposed plant with different discount rate and current rate of inflation shows that the max IRR 6.85% and NPV of $1,430,834 was obtained with a discount rate of 8% and an inflation rate of 7.23% when no land cost considered and if land cost was considered the maximum IRR was 1.96% and NPV of $630,833. Minimum discounted payback of the plant will be 13.4 years if inflation was considered.

  10. Identification of PV solar cells and modules parameters using the genetic algorithms: Application to maximum power extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrouba, M.; Sellami, A.; Bouaicha, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semi-conducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, Tunis, B.P. 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Ksouri, M. [Unite de Recherche RME-Groupe AIA, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie (Tunisia)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we propose to perform a numerical technique based on genetic algorithms (GAs) to identify the electrical parameters (I{sub s}, I{sub ph}, R{sub s}, R{sub sh}, and n) of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and modules. These parameters were used to determine the corresponding maximum power point (MPP) from the illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. The one diode type approach is used to model the AM1.5 I-V characteristic of the solar cell. To extract electrical parameters, the approach is formulated as a non convex optimization problem. The GAs approach was used as a numerical technique in order to overcome problems involved in the local minima in the case of non convex optimization criteria. Compared to other methods, we find that the GAs is a very efficient technique to estimate the electrical parameters of PV solar cells and modules. Indeed, the race of the algorithm stopped after five generations in the case of PV solar cells and seven generations in the case of PV modules. The identified parameters are then used to extract the maximum power working points for both cell and module. (author)

  11. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  12. Copenhagen's solar co-op. Denmark promotes a new model of PV financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, E. [PV Cooperative, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-01-15

    Denmark is widely recognized as a world leader in the wind industry, but has so far not achieved the same success in the use of solar power. The author reports that a new system of co-operative ownership seems to he getting the nation's capital on board. reports. Currently only around 1% of Danish electricity production is based on solar power, compared to around 18.5% generated from wind. In order to encourage the use of other types of renewable energy, and particularly solar, a new way of organizing and promoting PV-Installations is being introduced in Copenhagen. The City of Copenhagen is member of the European Solar Cities Initiative (ESCI). The aim of this programme is to support European energy and climate policy by stimulating the interest of 'high performance' European cities and their surrounding regions (prospective 'Solar Cities'), as well as the European research community and the European sustainable energy industry, in investing in solar power. One of the strategies of the initiative is to find efficient and rapid ways to implement Renewable Energy Systems (RES) and the Rational Use of Energy (RUE) in European cities through research, development, demonstration and information dissemination activities, and through stakeholder participation (citizen and others).The goal is to transform European cities into green and efficient places. A working definition of a Solar City is a city that aims to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to a climate-stable and thus sustainable level by 2050, through a holistic strategy for the introduction of RES and RUE. The success of the Copenhagen PV Co-operative is helping to increase the interest of local people in the Solar Stock Exchange, which in turn - it is hoped - will encourage the development of more PV installations. The experience gained from the first co-operatively owned PV-installation has shown that once people are informed of possibilities to improve their quality of life by

  13. Energy Management Strategy for Micro-Grids with PV-Battery Systems and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Torres-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of photovoltaic (PV systems on storage and electric vehicles in micro-grids. As these kinds of systems are becoming increasingly popular in the residential sector, the development of a new generation of equipment, such as more efficient batteries or solar panels, makes further study necessary. These systems are especially interesting in commercial or office buildings, since they have a more repetitive daily pattern of electricity consumption, which usually occurs within the maximum solar radiation hours. Based on this need, a novel control strategy aimed at efficiently managing this kind of micro-grid is proposed. The core of this strategy is a rule-based controller managing the power flows between the grid and the batteries of both the PV system and the electric vehicle. Through experimental data and simulations, this strategy was tested under different scenarios. The selected testbed consisted of the laboratory of a research center, which could be easily scalable to the entire building. Results showed the benefits of using an electric vehicle as an active agent in energy balance, leading to a reduction of the energetic costs of a micro-grid.

  14. Solar Electricity: The Power of Choice, Third Quarter 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnelten, K.; Moon, S.; Miller, J.

    2001-12-01

    Solar Electricity: The Power of Choice (formerly NREL PV Working With Industry) is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the photovoltaics (PV) research and development activities performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. This issue is devoted to coverage of the Program Review Meeting of the National Center for Photovoltaics, held in October, 2001. The editorialist for this issue is Kannan Ramanathan, chair of the Program Review and a research scientist with the National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL.

  15. Solar PV resource for higher penetration through a combined spatial aggregation with wind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, ST

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available between wind and solar PV and how these would be reflected in the power system. The benefits of spatial distribution of renewables are well understood, but the impact of the combined spatial aggregation of wind and solar PV is central to the design...

  16. What Factors Affect the Prices of Low-Priced U.S. Solar PV Systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mercator Research Inst. on Global Commons and Climate Change, Berlin (Germany); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gillingham, Ken [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The price of solar PV systems has declined rapidly, yet there are some much lower-priced systems than others. This study explores the factors leading some systems to be so much lower priced than others. Using a data set of 42,611 residential-scale PV systems installed in the U.S. in 2013, we use quantile regressions to estimate the importance of factors affecting the installed prices for low-priced (LP) systems (those at the 10th percentile) in comparison to median-priced systems. We find that the value of solar to consumers–a variable that accounts for subsidies, electric rates, and PV generation levels–is associated with lower prices for LP systems but higher prices for median priced systems. Conversely, systems installed in new home construction are associated with lower prices at the median but higher prices for LP. Other variables have larger cost-reducing effects on LP than on median priced systems: systems installed in Arizona and Florida, as well as commercial and thin film systems. In contrast, the following have a smaller effect on prices for LP systems than median priced systems: tracking systems, self-installations, systems installed in Massachusetts, the system size, and installer experience. These results highlight the complex factors at play that lead to LP systems and shed light into how such LP systems can come about.

  17. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  18. Combined Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plus Solar PV Proposal for Rio Rancho High School, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-25

    This is a proposal to locate a combined Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) Energy Storage plus PV solar facility at Rio Rancho High School, NM. The facility will functionally provide electricity at night derived from renewable solar energy. Additionally the facility will provide STEM related educational opportunities for students and staff of the school, public community outreach, and validation of an energy storage approach applicable for the Nation (up to 1,000,000 kWh per installation). The proposal will summarize the nature of electricity, why energy storage is useful, present the combined MPH and solar PV production design, present how the actual design will be built and operated in a sustainable manner, how the project could be funded, and how the project could be used in STEM related activities.

  19. Final Report: Towards an Emergent Model of Technology Adoption for Accelerating the Diffusion of Residential Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-15

    This project sought to enable electric utilities in Texas to accelerate diffusion of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by systematically identifying and targeting existing barriers to PV adoption. A core goal of the project was to develop an integrated research framework that combines survey research, econometric modeling, financial modeling, and implementation and evaluation of pilot projects to study the PV diffusion system. This project considered PV diffusion as an emergent system, with attention to the interactions between the constituent parts of the PV socio-technical system including: economics of individual decision-making; peer and social influences; behavioral responses; and information and transaction costs. We also conducted two pilot projects, which have yielded new insights into behavioral and informational aspects of PV adoption. Finally, this project has produced robust and generalizable results that will provide deeper insights into the technology-diffusion process that will be applicable for the design of utility programs for other technologies such as home-energy management systems and plug-in electric vehicles. When we started this project in 2013 there was little systematic research on characterizing the decision-making process of households interested in adopting PV. This project was designed to fill that research gap by analyzing the PV adoption process from the consumers' decision-making perspective and with the objective to systematically identifying and addressing the barriers that consumers face in the adoption of PV. The two key components of that decision-making process are consumers' evaluation of: (i) uncertainties and non-monetary costs associated with the technology and (ii) the direct monetary cost-benefit. This project used an integrated approach to study both the non-monetary and the monetary components of the consumer decision-making process.

  20. PV Status Report 2008. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-09-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report is to combine international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact-finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last five years were on average more than 40%, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict that the market volume will increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  1. PV Status Report 2010. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2010-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate Electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report combines international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were on average more than 40 %, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  2. Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy for Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security and Equitability of Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates on how Malaysia’s development landscapes has been poweredby cheap oil and gas making it dependent and addicted on using large amounts of fossil fuels. As acountry that is primarily depended on fossil fuels for generating power supply, Malaysia needs tocogitate of long-term energy security due to fossil fuel depletion and peak oil issues. Loss of theseresources could leadto thereduction of power generation capacitywhich will threaten the stabilityof the electricity supply in Malaysia. This could potentially influence in an increase in electricitycosts which lead to a phase of power scarcity and load shedding for the country. With the risk ofinterrupted power supplies, rural households, especially those of low-income groups areparticularly vulnerable to the post-effects of a power outage and an inequitable distribution to thepeople. Distributed generation of electricity by solar PVs diminishes the vulnerability of thesehouseholds and can also offer an income to them by feeding the power supply to the national gridthrough Feed-in Tariff scheme. At the moment, the deployment of solar PV installations is still inthe introductory stage in Malaysia, where roof-mounted PV panels are only available to commercialand urban residential buildings. This is due to the lack of a suitable renewable energy policy forrural households and the high cost of the solar PV technology. This paper will put forward ananalysis for incorporating solar photovoltaic on roofs of rural houses by identifying the energyconsumption of these households and the extent to which PVs can alleviate electricity insecurity.The results present significant potential for distributed PV power generation in rural areas inMalaysia which shown a considerable amount of electricity needed to be harvested from roofmountedsolar PV for rural people in Malaysia.

  3. The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing the historical evolution of South Korea's solar PV policies from the 1970's until today. An in-depth analysis of different policy instruments has been conducted to understand the PV policy context and the consequences of public policies in the PV sector in terms of patents, manufacturing capacity, PV installations, and impacts on the national economy and energy transition. Also, the key success factors and barriers in South Korea's past PV policies have been identified to make recommendations for future development

  4. Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a PV-diesel hybrid power system with battery backup for a village being fed with diesel generated electricity to displace part of the diesel by solar. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the site along with PV modules mounted on fixed foundations, four generators of different rated powers, diesel prices of 0.2-1.2US$/l, different sizes of batteries and converters were used to find an optimal power system for the village. It was found that a PV array of 2000 kW and four generators of 1250, 750, 2250 and 250 kW; operating at a load factor of 70% required to run for 3317 h/yr, 4242 h/yr, 2820 h/yr and 3150 h/yr, respectively; to produce a mix of 17,640 MWh of electricity annually and 48.33 MWh per day. The cost of energy (COE) of diesel only and PV/diesel/battery power system with 21% solar penetration was found to be 0.190$/kWh and 0.219$/kWh respectively for a diesel price of 0.2$/l. The sensitivity analysis showed that at a diesel price of 0.6$/l the COE from hybrid system become almost the same as that of the diesel only system and above it, the hybrid system become more economical than the diesel only system. (author)

  5. The energy roof - Photovoltaics and solar collectors combined; PV und Kollektoren schoen kombiniert. Das Energiedach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-07-01

    In this Interview with Giorgio Hefti, CEO of the Swiss Tritec group, the company's aims and the products offered are discussed. These include mains-connected and island-operated photovoltaic (PV) systems. The history of the company is briefly discussed, as is co-operation with local installers and the company's function as a general contractor for large installations. These include, amongst others, the PV-installation on the 'Stade de Suisse' football stadium in Berne. PV systems for single-family homes and their costs are examined. Also, mounting systems for combining PV and solar collectors (combined power and heat generation) are discussed, as are combinations of PV and heat-pumps. Hybrid PV-solar-collectors and their disadvantages are discussed as is the future of the Tritec group, which has grown continuously over the years and is active in several European countries.

  6. When PV modules are becoming real building elements: White solar module, a revolution for BIPV (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Escarré, Jordi; Li, Heng-Yu; Sansonnens, Laurent; Galliano, Federico; Cattaneo, Gianluca; Heinstein, Patrick; Nicolay, Sylvain; Bailat, Julien; Eberhard, Sébastien; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) is not anymore an option but a real need in the construction of nearly zero energy buildings. To date, the lack of PV products specifically designed for building integration, considering aesthetics and architectural aspects, is one important limiting factor allowing a massive deployment of PV in the built environment. Architects are continuously asking for new solutions to customize the colour of PV elements to better integrate them into the building skin. Among these colours, white is especially attractive as it is widely used in architecture for its elegance, versatility and fresh look. Until now, white solar modules were not considered to be an option and even never been though to be a technological possibility. Nonetheless, CSEM recently developed a new technology to make white solar modules a reality. Furthermore, the new Swiss company called Solaxess is now working on the industrialisation of this very innovative technology and the first products are expecting to be on the market at the end of 2015. The technology is based on the combination of two different elements: a solar cell able to convert solar infrared light into electricity and a selective filter which reflects and diffuse the whole visible spectrum. Any PV technology based on crystalline silicon can be used as they have a good response in the infrared. Approximately 55% of the current generated under standard test conditions comes from the infrared leading to conversion efficiencies above 11%. We will demonstrate, that thanks to this very innovative technology PV modules can become attractive and real active building elements and therefore meets the requirements of any future energy management through advanced building skins.

  7. Using Residential Solar PV Quote Data to Analyze the Relationship Between Installer Pricing and Firm Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-19

    We use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the role of firm size in PV installer pricing. We find that large installers (those that installed more than 1,000 PV systems in any year from 2013 to 2015) quote higher prices for customer-owned systems, on average, than do other installers. The results suggest that low prices are not the primary value proposition of large installers.

  8. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Ding, W.L.; Huang, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand

  9. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society.

  10. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A. [TERI, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kandpal, T.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society. (author)

  11. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a 1 MW Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV System for Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Hosain, Rubayet; Rahman, Toufiqur; Rabbi, Ahmead Fazle

    This paper evaluates the potentiality of a 1 MW grid connected rooftop solar PV system for an Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh, which was estimated by utilizing NASA SSE solar radiation data, PVsyst simulation software and RETScreen simulation software. Economic and environmental viability for a ten-storied building with roof area of 6,500 m2 in the Capital City of Bangladesh, Dhaka was assessed by using the RETScreen simulation software. The yearly electricity production of the proposed system was 1,581 MWh estimated by PVsyst where the technical prospective of gird-connected solar PV in Bangladesh was calculated as about 50,174 MW. The economic assessments were determined the simple payback in such a way that the generated electricity first fulfills the demand of the building, and then the rest of the energy is supplied to the grid. The result indicates that the roof top solar PV system for an Energy efficient building in Dhaka city has a favorable condition for development both in economic and environmental point of view.

  12. Measured efficiency of a luminescent solar concentrator PV module called Leaf Roof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angèle H.M.E; Debije, Michael G.; Rosemann, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A functional prototype of a luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic (LSC PV) module, called Leaf Roof, aims at demonstrating the design features of LSC PV technologies such as coloring, transparency, and flexibility in physical shape. In this paper, the prototype is presented and the first

  13. A strategic research agenda for photovoltaic solar energy technology : report of the EU PV technology platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Ballif, C.; Bett, A.; Dimmler, B.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Fath, P.; Ferrazza, F.; Gabler, H.-J.; Hall, M.; Marti, A.; Mason, N.; Mellikov, E.; Milner, A.; Mogensen, P.; Panhuber, C.; Pearsall, N.; Poortmans, J.; Protogeropoulos, C.; Sarre, G.; Sarti, D.; Strauss, P.; Topic, M.; Zdanowicz, T.

    2007-01-01

    The EU PV Technology Platform [1] aims at joining forces on a European level to contribute to the further development of photovoltaic solar energy into a competitive technology that can be applied on a large scale and to the strengthening of the position of the European PV industry on the global

  14. Use of Super-Capacitor to Enhance Charging Performance of Stand-Alone Solar PV System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Ho, P. Y

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The battery charging performance in a stand-alone solar PV system affects the PV system efficiency and the load operating time. The New Energy Center of National Taiwan University has been devoted to the development of a PWM charging

  15. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  16. A semi-distributed electric demand-side management system with PV generation for self-consumption enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Cagigal, M.; Gutierrez, A.; Monasterio-Huelin, F.; Caamano-Martin, E.; Masa, D.; Jimenez-Leube, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We have developed a DSM system with PV electricity and battery storage. → To implement the DSM system, we have developed a modular architecture. → Simulations and real experiments have been executed for different weather conditions. → The use of theses technologies increase the self-consumed energy. -- Abstract: This paper presents the operation of an Electrical Demand-Side Management (EDSM) system in a real solar house. The use of EDSM is one of the most important action lines to improve the grid electrical efficiency. The combination between the EDSM and the PV generation performs a new control level in the local electric behavior and allows new energy possibilities. The solar house used as test-bed for the EDSM system owns a PV generator, a lead-acid battery storage system and a grid connection. The electrical appliances are controllable from an embedded computer. The EDSM is implemented by a control system which schedules the tasks commanded by the user. By using the control system, we define the house energy policy and improve the energy behavior with regard to a selected energy criterion, self-consumption. The EDSM system favors self-consumption with regard to a standard user behavior and reduces the energy load from the grid.

  17. Heterogeneous Collaborative Sensor Network for Electrical Management of an Automated House with PV Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Jiménez-Leube

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management in the residential sector. Improving demand-side management is very important in distributed energy generation applications. Sensing and control are the foundations of the “Smart Grid” which is the future of large-scale energy management. The system presented in this paper has been developed on a self-sufficient solar house called “MagicBox” equipped with grid connection, PV generation, lead-acid batteries, controllable appliances and smart metering. Therefore, there is a large number of energy variables to be monitored that allow us to precisely manage the energy performance of the house by means of collaborative sensors. The experimental results, performed on a real house, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed collaborative system to reduce the consumption of electrical power and to increase energy efficiency.

  18. Heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management of an automated house with PV energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Gutiérrez, Alvaro; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Caamaño-Martín, Estefaná; Masa-Bote, Daniel; Jiménez-Leube, Javier

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management in the residential sector. Improving demand-side management is very important in distributed energy generation applications. Sensing and control are the foundations of the "Smart Grid" which is the future of large-scale energy management. The system presented in this paper has been developed on a self-sufficient solar house called "MagicBox" equipped with grid connection, PV generation, lead-acid batteries, controllable appliances and smart metering. Therefore, there is a large number of energy variables to be monitored that allow us to precisely manage the energy performance of the house by means of collaborative sensors. The experimental results, performed on a real house, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed collaborative system to reduce the consumption of electrical power and to increase energy efficiency.

  19. Heterogeneous Collaborative Sensor Network for Electrical Management of an Automated House with PV Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Caamaño-Martín, Estefaná; Masa-Bote, Daniel; Jiménez-Leube, Javier

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management in the residential sector. Improving demand-side management is very important in distributed energy generation applications. Sensing and control are the foundations of the “Smart Grid” which is the future of large-scale energy management. The system presented in this paper has been developed on a self-sufficient solar house called “MagicBox” equipped with grid connection, PV generation, lead-acid batteries, controllable appliances and smart metering. Therefore, there is a large number of energy variables to be monitored that allow us to precisely manage the energy performance of the house by means of collaborative sensors. The experimental results, performed on a real house, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed collaborative system to reduce the consumption of electrical power and to increase energy efficiency. PMID:22247680

  20. Review of solar PV policies, interventions and diffusion in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    from donor and government-based support to market-driven diffusion of solar PV; and (ii) a transition from small-scale, off-grid systems towards mini-grids and large-scale, grid-connected solar power plants. The paper points out three generic factors that have contributed to encouraging SHS diffusion......Previous research on the diffusion of solar PV in Africa has mainly focused on solar home systems (SHS) in individual countries and thus overlooked developments in other PV market segments that have recently emerged. In contrast this paper adopts a regional perspective by reviewing developments...... in supportive policies, donor programs and diffusion status in all PV market segments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, as well as identifying the key factors put forward in the literature to explain differences in the diffusion of SHS in these three countries. The paper finds two emerging trends: (i) a movement...

  1. Are Feed-in Tariffs suitable for promoting solar PV in New Zealand cities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lee V.; Lloyd, Bob; Wakes, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) implemented by city councils in the USA have proven an effective means of stimulating installation of renewable-electricity generation capacity at a local level, and may also be effective for New Zealand cities. Though New Zealand has a high proportion of electricity generated renewably, this is mostly from centralized hydroelectricity plants. The suitability of city-level FITs for promoting solar photovoltaic panels in New Zealand is examined. Findings suggest that FITs, with rates obtained using the cost-of-generation method, could be implemented in New Zealand cities at rates comparable to those in successful FIT schemes internationally. The unique structure of New Zealand's liberalized electricity market, however, is likely to make financing FIT schemes at city-level more complex than the equivalent situation in the USA. Benefits of introducing such schemes will include the possibility for purchasers of solar PV systems to calculate returns on investment over the long term, and the streamlining of the grid connection process by reducing the number of authorities involved. - Highlights: • Results pertain to New Zealand city councils implementing FITs. • FIT rates similar to those in other countries provide sufficient investor incentive. • FITs could greatly increase investor security and ease grid connection. • Electricity market structure precludes financing through burden-sharing

  2. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  3. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T. [Cascade Engineering, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  4. Solar PV Power Forecasting Using Extreme Learning Machine and Information Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cadre , Hélène; Aravena , Ignacio; Papavasiliou , Anthony

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We provide a learning algorithm combining distributed Extreme Learning Machine and an information fusion rule based on the ag-gregation of experts advice, to build day ahead probabilistic solar PV power production forecasts. These forecasts use, apart from the current day solar PV power production, local meteorological inputs, the most valuable of which is shown to be precipitation. Experiments are then run in one French region, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, to evaluate ...

  5. Solar PV power forecasting using extreme machine learning and experts advice fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cadre, Hélène; Aravena Solís, Ignacio Andrés; Papavasiliou, Anthony; European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning

    2015-01-01

    We provide a learning algorithm combining distributed Extreme Learning Machine and an information fusion rule based on the aggregation of experts advice, to build day ahead probabilistic solar PV power production forecasts. These forecasts use, apart from the current day solar PV power production, local meteorological inputs, the most valuable of which is shown to be precipitation. Experiments are then run in one French region, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, to evaluate the algorithm performance...

  6. Experimental study of the effect of fully shading on the Solar PV module performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-chaderchi, Monadhil; Sopain, K.; Alghoul, M. A.; Salameh, T.

    2017-11-01

    Experimental tests were performed to study the effects of shading for different string inside the photovoltaic (PV) panels, power equipped with different number of diodes from the same manufacturer as of solar panel. The IV curve for all cases were recorded to see how the bypass diodes will reduce the effects of shading .The case for 3 by pass diode show the best performance of solar PV module under shading phenomena.

  7. Solar Energy: Incentives to Promote PV in EU27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del P. Pablo-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the use of renewable energies in the EU has been remarkable. Among these energies is PV. The average annual growth rate for the EU-27 countries in installed PV capacity in the period 2005-2012 was 41.2%. While the installed capacity of PV has reached almost 82 % of National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP targets for the EU-27 countries for 2020, it is still far from being used at its full potential. Over recent years, several measures have been adopted in the EU to enhance and promote PV. This paper undertakes a complete review of the state of PV power in Europe and the measures taken to date to promote it in EU-27. 25 countries have adopted measures to promote PV. The most widespread measure to promote PV use is Feed- in Tariffs. Tariffs are normally adjusted, in a decreasing manner, annually. Nevertheless, currently, seven countries have decided to accelerate this decrease rate in view of cost reduction of the installations and of higher efficiencies. The second instrument used to promote PV in the EU-27 countries is the concession of subsidies. Nevertheless, subsidies have the disadvantage of being closely linked to budgetary resources and therefore to budgetary constraints. In most EU countries, subsidies for renewable energy for PV are being lowered. Twelve EU-27 countries adopted tax measures. Low-interest loans and green certificate systems were only sparingly used.

  8. Building brighter PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current status and future prospects of the UK market for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity are briefly discussed. Through the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the UK Government has supported research and development (R and D) into PV for a number of years. This programme has now been extended to demonstrating PV systems on houses. Phase 2 - the domestic field trial programme - aims to monitor the performance of individual systems and the impact on a cluster of systems on the electricity network. New funding had allowed a trebling of the size of this programme, which involves both private developers and housing associations. The DTI is also working to promote PV on commercial buildings, eg the installation of BP Solar PV systems at BP petrol stations. The PV industry in the UK is technically strong and is working to overcome the barriers in the UK to greater uptake of the technology (including cost, conservatism, legal requirements and metering practices). Improvements are expected in a number of recent initiatives in the electricity industry to boost PV use and the PV industry is lobbying for PV to be included in the Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA) scheme

  9. Evolution of consumer information preferences with market maturity in solar PV adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale Reeves, D.; Rai, Varun; Margolis, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Residential adoption of solar photovoltaics (PV) is spreading rapidly, supported by policy initiatives at the federal, state, and local levels. Potential adopters navigate increasingly complex decision-making landscapes in their path to adoption. Much is known about the individual-level drivers of solar PV diffusion that steer adopters through this process, but relatively little is known about the evolution of these drivers as solar PV markets mature. By understanding the evolution of emerging solar PV markets over time, stakeholders in the diffusion of solar PV can increase policy effectiveness and reduce costs. This analysis uses survey data to compare two adjacent markets across a range of relevant characteristics, then models changes in the importance of local vs cosmopolitan information sources by combining theory relating market maturity to adopter behavior with event-history techniques. In younger markets, earlier, innovative adoptions that are tied to a preference for cosmopolitan information sources are more prevalent than expected, suggesting a frustrated demand for solar PV that segues into adoptions fueled by local information preferences contemporary with similar adoptions in older markets. The analysis concludes with policy recommendations to leverage changing consumer information preferences as markets mature.

  10. Study on reduction of consumption and peak demand of electric power used in residential houses with solar heating and PV systems; Solar house no fuka heijunka to energy sakugen koka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, M.; Endo, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    A model house was simulated to reduce the consumption and peak demand for the photovoltaic power generation system, and solar heat air heating and hot water supply system in the solar house. As a type of construction, both wooden construction and reinforced concrete (RC) construction were selected with a total floor area of 125m{sup 2}. All the rooms were equipped with an air conditioner by heat pump from the air thermal source. A solar heat floor heater was simultaneously installed on the first floor. The hot water supply load was 4.8MWh per year. A commercial grid-connected on-site system was applied to the photovoltaic power generation with a 20m{sup 2} wide monocrystalline Si solar cell panel. As for the fluctuation in power load, the peak at the time of rising is more reduced in the RC house than in the wooden house, because the former is smaller in temperature fluctuation than the latter during the intermittence of air conditioning (as per the specified operational schedule). Therefore, the power is more leveled off in the former than in the latter. Between both, difference was hardly made in energy consumption per year. The ratio of dependency was 47% upon the photovoltaic power generation system, while it was 50% and 77%, under the air heating power load and hot water supply power load, respectively, upon the solar heat air heating and hot water supply system, so that both systems were considerably effective in saving the energy. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Under the 10 th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels

  12. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  13. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A., E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Sivapalan, Subarna, E-mail: subarna-sivapalan@petronas.com.my [Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  14. A Non-Modeling Exploration of Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Adoption and Non-Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Although U.S. deployment of residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has accelerated in recent years, PV is still installed on less than 1 percent of single-family homes. Most research on household PV adoption focuses on scaling initial markets and modeling predicted growth rather than considering more broadly why adoption occurs. Among the studies that have investigated the characteristics of PV adoption, most collected data from adopters, sometimes with additional non-adopter data, and rarely from people who considered but did not adopt PV. Yet the vast majority of Americans are non-adopters, and they are a diverse group - understanding their ways of evaluating PV adoption is important. Similarly, PV is a unique consumer product, which makes it difficult to apply findings from studies of other technologies to PV. In addition, little research addresses the experience of households after they install PV. This report helps fill some of these gaps in the existing literature. The results inform a more detailed understanding of residential PV adoption, while helping ensure that adoption is sufficiently beneficial to adopters and even non-adopters.

  15. A novel solar multifunctional PV/T/D system for green building roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chaoqing; Zheng, Hongfei; Wang, Rui; Yu, Xu; Su, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel transparent roof combines the solar PV/T/D system with green building design. • Novel photovoltaic-thermal roofing design can achieve excellent light control at noon. • The roof has no obvious influence on indoor light intensity in morning and afternoon. • Higher efficiency of solar energy utilization could be achieved with new roofing. - Abstract: A novel transparent roof which is made of solid CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) PV/T/D (Photovoltaic/Thermal/Day lighting) system is presented. It combines the solar PV/T/D system with green building design. The PV/T/D system can achieve excellent light control at noon and adjust the thermal environment in the building, such that high efficiency utilization of solar energy could be achieved in modern architecture. This kind of roof can increase the visual comfort for building occupants; it can also avoid the building interior from overheating and dazzling at noon which is caused by direct sunlight through transparent roof. Optical simulation software is used to track the light path in different incidence angles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and steady state experiment have been taken to investigate the thermal characteristic of PV/T/D device. Finally, the PV/T/D experimental system was built; and the PV efficiency, light transmittance and air heating power of the system are tested under real sky conditions

  16. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office (SETO) residential 2030 photovoltaics (PV) cost target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour by identifying could influence system costs in key market segments. This report examines two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof

  17. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  18. Comparison of the Energy Conversion Efficiency of a Solar Chimney and a Solar PV-Powered Fan for Ventilation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Klimeš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A study into the performance of a solar chimney and a solar photovoltaic (PV-powered fan for ventilation applications was carried out using numerical simulations. The performance of the solar chimney was compared with that of a direct current (DC fan powered by a solar PV panel. The comparison was carried out using the same area of the irradiated surface—the area of the solar absorber plate in the case of the solar chimney and the area of the solar panel in the case of the photovoltaic-powered fan. The two studied cases were compared under various solar radiation intensities of incident solar radiation. The results indicate that the PV-powered fans significantly outperform solar chimneys in terms of converting solar energy into the kinetic energy of air motion. Moreover, ventilation with PV-powered fans offers more flexibility in the arrangement of the ventilation system and also better control of the air flow rates in the case of battery storage.

  19. Power Generation Potential and Cost of a Roof Top Solar PV System in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjel, N.; Zhand, A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a comparative study of the 3 most used solar PV module technologies in Nepal, which are Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous. The aim of the paper is to present and discuss the recorded Global Solar Radiation, received in the Kathmandu valley by three different, Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous calibrated solar cell pyranometers and to propose the best-suited solar PV module technology for roof top solar PV systems inside the Kathmandu valley. Data recorded over the course of seven months, thus covering most of the seasonal meteorological conditions determining Kathmandu valley's global solar radiation reception are presented. The results indicate that the Si-amorphous pyranometer captured 1.56% more global solar radiation than the Si-mono-crystalline and 18.4% more than Si-poly-crystalline pyranometer over the course of seven months. Among the three pyranometer technologies the maximum and minimum cell temperature was measured by the Si-mono-crystalline pyranometer. Following the technical data and discussion, an economical analysis, using the versatile software tool PVSYST V5.01is used to calculate the life cycle costs of a 1kW roof top solar PV RAPS system, with battery storage, and a 1kW roof top solar PV grid connected system with no energy storage facility, through simulations, using average recorded global solar radiation data for the KTM valley and investigated market values for each solar PV module and peripheral equipment costs.

  20. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid concentrating photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector is developed. • Thermal component achieves 60× concentration using nonimaging optics. • GaAs solar cells used as spectrally selective mirrors for low energy photons. • Thermal efficiencies of 37% at 365 °C and electrical efficiencies of 8% achieved. • Combined electric efficiency reaches 25% of DNI for system cost of $283.10/m"2". - Abstract: A novel double stage high-concentration hybrid solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record thin film single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells has been developed. We present a detailed design and simulation of the system, experimental setup, prototype, system performance, and economic analysis. The system uses a parabolic trough (primary concentrator) to focus sunlight towards a secondary nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to simultaneously generate electricity from single junction GaAs solar cells, as well as high temperature dispatchable heat. This study is novel in that (a) the solar cells inside the vacuum tube act as spectrally selective mirrors for lower energy photons to maximize the system exergy, and (b) secondary concentrator allows the thermal component to reach a concentration ratio ∼60×, which is significantly higher than conventional PV/T concentration ratios. The maximum outlet temperature reached was 365 °C, and on average the thermal efficiency of the experiment was around 37%. The maximum electrical efficiency was around 8%. The total system electricity generation is around 25% of incoming DNI, by assuming the high temperature stream is used to power a steam turbine. The installed system cost per unit of parabolic trough aperture area is $283.10 per m"2.

  1. Performance Study of Photovoltaic-Thermal (Pv/T) Solar Collector with ·-Grooved Absorber Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Othman; Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jin, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar collector has been designed, built and its performance has been studied. The advantage of the collector is that it can generate electricity and heat simultaneously. Photovoltaic module SHARP NE-80E2EA with maximum output power of 80 W was used to generate electricity. The module also acts as heat absorber of the collector. Single pass ·-groove collector made of aluminium sheet with 0.7 mm thickness has been used to collect heat generated. Study was conducted under a designed halogen lamps solar simulator with intensities set at 386 ± 8 Wm -2 and 817 ± 8 Wm -2 . The speed of air passing through the collector was set between (69.6 ± 2.2) x 10 -4 kg/s to (695.8 ± 2.2) x 10 -4 kg/s. The objective of the study is to compare the performance of PV/T collector with and without ·-groove absorber. The study found that the PV/T collector with ·-groove absorber plate has higher efficiency than the PV/T without ·-groove absorber. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are also increased when radiation intensity and speed of air increase. (author)

  2. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  3. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices - Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John R. [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Keating, T. J. [SunSpec Alliance, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  4. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John R. [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Keating, T. J. [SunSpec Alliance, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  5. The impact of high PV penetration levels on electrical distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinson, A; Beddoes, A; Thornycroft, J [Halcrow (United Kingdom); Strbac, G; Jenkins, N [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Verhoeven, B [KEMA (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the results of a collaborative study by EA Technology, UMIST and Halcrow into the effects of large-scale connection of dispersed photovoltaic (PV) power systems on the national electricity supply network. The report is intended to help manufacturers and installers of PV systems and electricity companies to understand the issues associated with grid connection of PV power systems. The increased use of PV systems is expected to have a significant impact on the design, operation and management of electricity supply networks. The study examined three main areas: probability and risk analysis of islanding; PV and network voltage control (including analysis of voltage control in a commercial, domestic retrofit and domestic new build scenarios); and future low voltage network design and operational policies.

  6. Study Of Solar Charging Facility For Electric Vehicles In Edinburgh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Nassar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The solar power system decreases carbon dioxide CO2 emissions which are the lead cause of global warming. This paper presented a novel way to design a commercial solar photovoltaic PV farm to provide electricity for 10 of the Edinburgh domestic car fleet. The design is used for sizing of the solar system based on an excel spreadsheets. The results show that the proposed solar system reduces the CO2 emissions with around 95 less than the conventional energy system. Around 0.5TWh of electrical energy is required to meet Edinburgh domestic car fleet whenever converted to electrical vehicles. The PV solar panels at the investigated site has a capacity factor of around 12. The dynamic tilt angle is estimated for the investigated site while the fixed tilt angle is determined to be 49. Depending on dynamic solar panels leads to harvesting more solar energy than depending on fixed tilt angle around 14 higher energy. The meter square of land in Edinburgh receive some 950KWh per year based on the dynamic tilt angle. Around 218000 of solar panels are required to meet 10 of Edinburgh domestic car fleet.

  7. Residential consumers’ experiences in the adoption and use of solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, Jeff; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2017-01-01

    Public policy in many nations is seeking to transition energy generation towards renewable sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV). Reviews of past policy aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of renewable energy sources have identified that policy implementation may not align with policy objectives of energy professionals. The research and analysis of consumers and their interaction with solar PV policy is important in assessing policy outcomes and how these can be better delivered or adapted. This paper reports on an in depth qualitative analysis of 22 persons under different feed-in tariff (FiT) policy settings to explore consumer experiences in acquiring solar PV and their energy use behaviour. The responses of participants indicate there were different motivations and energy use behaviour that were based on the policy in which solar PV was acquired and these may provide insight into policy development or follow up studies. - Highlights: • Consumer acceptance of renewable energy sources (RES) are vital to GHG mitigation. • Different policy settings have encouraged consumer uptake of solar PV. • Qualitative study examines two cohorts of consumers under different solar feed-in tariff (FiT) settings. • Level of FiT identified as linked to behaviours that can alter policy outcomes.

  8. Integrating solar PV (photovoltaics) in utility system operations: Analytical framework and Arizona case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Botterud, Audun; Mills, Andrew; Zhou, Zhi; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Heaney, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed to estimate the impact on operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources. The framework quantifies the integration costs associated with sub-hourly variability and uncertainty as well as day-ahead forecasting errors in solar PV (photovoltaics) power. A case study illustrates how changes in system operations may affect these costs for a utility in the southwestern United States (Arizona Public Service Company). We conduct an extensive sensitivity analysis under different assumptions about balancing reserves, system flexibility, fuel prices, and forecasting errors. We find that high solar PV penetrations may lead to operational challenges, particularly during low-load and high solar periods. Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing integration costs and maintaining reliability. In a set of sensitivity cases where such flexibility is provided, in part, by flexible operations of nuclear power plants, the estimated integration costs vary between $1.0 and $4.4/MWh-PV for a PV penetration level of 17%. The integration costs are primarily due to higher needs for hour-ahead balancing reserves to address the increased sub-hourly variability and uncertainty in the PV resource. - Highlights: • We propose an analytical framework to estimate grid integration costs for solar PV. • Increased operating costs from variability and uncertainty in solar PV are computed. • A case study of a utility in Arizona is conducted. • Grid integration costs are found in the $1.0–4.4/MWh range for a 17% PV penetration. • Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing grid integration costs

  9. Regional PV power estimation and forecast to mitigate the impact of high photovoltaic penetration on electric grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Marco; De Felice, Matteo; Maggioni, Enrico; Moser, David; Perotto, Alessandro; Spada, Francesco; Cornaro, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The growing photovoltaic generation results in a stochastic variability of the electric demand that could compromise the stability of the grid and increase the amount of energy reserve and the energy imbalance cost. On regional scale, solar power estimation and forecast is becoming essential for Distribution System Operators, Transmission System Operator, energy traders, and aggregators of generation. Indeed the estimation of regional PV power can be used for PV power supervision and real time control of residual load. Mid-term PV power forecast can be employed for transmission scheduling to reduce energy imbalance and related cost of penalties, residual load tracking, trading optimization, secondary energy reserve assessment. In this context, a new upscaling method was developed and used for estimation and mid-term forecast of the photovoltaic distributed generation in a small area in the north of Italy under the control of a local DSO. The method was based on spatial clustering of the PV fleet and neural networks models that input satellite or numerical weather prediction data (centered on cluster centroids) to estimate or predict the regional solar generation. It requires a low computational effort and very few input information should be provided by users. The power estimation model achieved a RMSE of 3% of installed capacity. Intra-day forecast (from 1 to 4 hours) obtained a RMSE of 5% - 7% while the one and two days forecast achieve to a RMSE of 7% and 7.5%. A model to estimate the forecast error and the prediction intervals was also developed. The photovoltaic production in the considered region provided the 6.9% of the electric consumption in 2015. Since the PV penetration is very similar to the one observed at national level (7.9%), this is a good case study to analyse the impact of PV generation on the electric grid and the effects of PV power forecast on transmission scheduling and on secondary reserve estimation. It appears that, already with 7% of PV

  10. Grid Connected Solar PV System with SEPIC Converter Compared with Parallel Boost Converter Based MPPT

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco Raj, T. Ajith; Ramesh, R.; Maglin, J. R.; Vaigundamoorthi, M.; William Christopher, I.; Gopinath, C.; Yaashuwanth, C.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the behaviour of the solar PV systems and model the efficient Grid-connected solar power system. The DC-DC MPPT circuit using chaotic pulse width modulation has been designed to track maximum power from solar PV module. The conversion efficiency of the proposed MPPT system is increased when CPWM is used as a control scheme. This paper also proposes a simplified multilevel (seven level) inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The primary g...

  11. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Wu, M. S.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system

  12. Market Transformation Pathways for Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar PV in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, Ross [Fresh Energy, St. Paul, MN (United States); Ross, Brian [CR Planning, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-06-03

    This report presents the market and policy findings of the Minnesota Solar Challenge program. The report draws on information collected from state agencies, local government units, solar industry participants, rooftop photovoltaic (PV) adopters (sometimes called customer-generators), state and national experts, the Commerce distributed generation stakeholder process, and the numerous reports and data sets referenced herein.

  13. The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system is examined using an analytical model for four different types of commercial PVs and a commercial bismuth telluride TEG. The TEG is applied directly on the back of the PV, so that the two devices have...... the same temperature. The PVs considered are crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous Si (a-Si), copper indium gallium (di) selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cells. The degradation of PV performance with temperature is shown to dominate the increase in power produced by the TEG, due to the low...... efficiency of the TEG. For c-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV cells the combined system produces a lower power and has a lower efficiency than the PV alone, whereas for an a-Si cell the total system performance may be slightly increased by the TEG....

  14. Why did the price of solar PV Si feedstock fluctuate so wildly in 2004–2009?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yang; Song Yuhua; Bao Haibo

    2012-01-01

    Great attention has been paid to the origin of observed wild price fluctuations of solar PV Si feedstock in both contract and spot markets during 2004–2009. This paper sheds light on this issue and tries to resolve it by addressing the following questions: what kind of structural shock is underlying the price fluctuations of PV Si feedstock? How can we quantify the magnitude, timing and relative importance of these shocks? What are their dynamic effects on the real price of PV Si feedstock? By carefully studying development conditions, the structural decomposition of the real price of PV Si feedstock is proposed: exchange rate shocks, production cost shocks, aggregate demand shocks and demand shocks specific to feedstock markets. With a Structural Vector Autoregression model, the paper quantifies and verifies the impact of structural shocks on PV Si feedstock real price changes. Based on national data, an analysis is further taken to confirm the essential role of demand shocks specific to feedstock markets in determining sharper price fluctuations during 2004–2009. The results of this study have important implications for national solar PV development, which can be better promoted and administrated if structural shocks in feedstock markets can be carefully evaluated and understood. - Highlights: ► The determination of solar PV Si feedstock price fluctuation is identified and quantified. ► Systematic structural shocks well explain 2004–2009 price fluctuations of PV Si feedstock. ► Production cost and aggregated demand shocks take longer effects on feedstock price. ► Exchange rate and feedstock specific demand shocks explain sharper price fluctuations. ► Development of national PV power should consider effects of structure shocks.

  15. Workplace Electric Vehicle Solar Smart Charging based on Solar Irradiance Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Almquist, Isabelle; Lindblom, Ellen; Birging, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to investigate different outcomes of the usage of photovoltaic (PV) power for electric vehicle (EV) charging adjacent to workplaces. In the investigated case, EV charging stations are assumed to be connected to photovoltaic systems as well as the electricity grid. The model used to simulate different scenarios is based on a goal of achieving constant power exchange with the grid by adjusting EV charging to a solar irradiance forecast. The model is implem...

  16. Optical and mechanical tolerances in hybrid concentrated thermal-PV solar trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Liliana Ruiz; Cocilovo, Byron; Miles, Alexander; Pan, Wei; Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Norwood, Robert A

    2018-05-14

    Hybrid thermal-PV solar trough collectors combine concentrated photovoltaics and concentrated solar power technology to harvest and store solar energy. In this work, the optical and mechanical requirements for optimal efficiency are analyzed using non-sequential ray tracing techniques. The results are used to generate opto-mechanical tolerances that can be compared to those of traditional solar collectors. We also explore ideas on how to relieve tracking tolerances for single-axis solar collectors. The objective is to establish a basis for tolerances required for the fabrication and manufacturing of hybrid solar trough collectors.

  17. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  18. Global solar PV installations grew in 2015 and will continue this trend over the coming years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    According to preliminary numbers from GTM Research, 59 GW of solar PV were installed globally in 2015, representing a 34% increase over 2014 total. The fourth quarter of 2015 showed that global PV demand is very much at the mercy of government support, which can often be unpredictable and idiosyncratic, frequently leading to negative, although occasionally positive, outcomes. By the end of 2016, cumulative installations will reach 321 GW. (Author)

  19. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-06-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  20. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for Photovoltaic (PV) System in Solar Car

    OpenAIRE

    Aji, Seno; Ajiatmo, Dwi; Robandi, Imam; Suryoatmojo, Heri

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC) is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cy...

  1. A Simple PV Inverter Power Factor Control Method Based on Solar Irradiance Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gökmen, Nuri; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant rise in photovoltaic (PV) system installations throughout the last decade. This has posed some technical challenges to the distribution grid operators. Unfamiliar impacts of these relatively new energy sources now should be handled more comprehensively. The rigidity...... of these impacts mostly depends on PV penetration level, grid and weather characteristics as well as the interaction of load and generation. In this study, a reactive power control method is proposed benefitting from solar irradiance measurements in weather stations. Accordingly, power factors of PV inverters...

  2. Self-advertising: PV systems on solar factories; Werbung in eigener Sache. PV-Anlagen an Solarfabriken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojek, S.

    2007-10-02

    The contribution investigates if producers of solar systems are also users of solar systems; it looks into the systems installed by German and Japanese companies on their own buildings, into the uses made of the electric power generated, and the experience gained with their own systems. (orig.)

  3. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Bhavesh; Tamboli, Adish; Wubhayavedantapuram, Nandan

    2017-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP) recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology) while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  4. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  5. Modeling and simulation of a micro grid-connected solar PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameen AbdelHady

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy (MERE; began promoting the system of ‘Feed-in Tariff’ in billing. The introduced system allows the user to generate electricity through solar panels mounted on the roofs of residential buildings and governmental organizations and tied to the grid. To benefit from MERE’s approach, the National Water Research Center (NWRC (Qanatir, Egypt set up a pilot rooftop 91 kW PV system. All the generated electricity is fed into the 220 V, 50 Hz low voltage grid serving NWRC premises. In this manuscript a MATLAB Simulink model is constructed mimicking a detailed representation of the system tied either to the local low voltage grid or to the national high voltage grid. The aim of such modeling effort is to provide early evaluation of the system performance. The economical savings of both scenarios are compared based on the new billing system. Results show that the current system saves 100 thousand L.E./year, while tying the system to the national grid will save 235.8 thousand L.E./year.

  6. Using Residential Solar PV Quote Data to Analyze the Relationship Between Installer Pricing and Firm Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of U.S. residential solar PV installers are small local-scale companies, however the industry is relatively concentrated in a few large national-scale installers. We develop a novel approach using solar PV quote data to study the price behavior of large solar PV installers in the United States. Through a paired differences approach, we find that large installer quotes are about higher, on average, than non-large installer quotes made to the same customer. The difference is statistically significant and robust after controlling for factors such as system size, equipment quality, and time effects. The results suggest that low prices are not the primary value proposition of large installer systems. We explore several hypotheses for this finding, including that large installers are able to exercise some market power and/or earn returns from reputations.

  7. Electricity demand savings from distributed solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmire, John; Komor, Paul; Lilienthal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.

  8. A new hybrid bee pollinator flower pollination algorithm for solar PV parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, J. Prasanth; Babu, T. Sudhakar; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Rajasekar, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new Bee Pollinator Flower Pollination Algorithm (BPFPA) is proposed for Solar PV Parameter extraction. • Standard RTC France data is used for the experimentation of BPFPA algorithm. • Four different PV modules are successfully tested via double diode model. • The BPFPA method is highly convincing in accuracy to convergence at faster rate. • The proposed BPFPA provides the best performance among the other recent techniques. - Abstract: The inaccurate I-V curve generation in solar PV modeling introduces less efficiency and on the other hand, accurate simulation of PV characteristics becomes a mandatory obligation before experimental validation. Although many optimization methods in literature have attempted to extract accurate PV parameters, all of these methods do not guarantee their convergence to the global optimum. Hence, the authors of this paper have proposed a new hybrid Bee pollinator Flower Pollination Algorithm (BPFPA) for the PV parameter extraction problem. The PV parameters for both single diode and double diode are extracted and tested under different environmental conditions. For brevity, the I_0_1, I_0_2, I_p_v for double diode and I_0_,I_p_v for single diode models are calculated analytically where the remaining parameters ‘R_s, R_p, a_1, a_2’ are optimized using BPFPA method. It is found that, the proposed Bee Pollinator method has all the scope to create exploration and exploitation in the control variable to yield a less RMSE value even under lower irradiated conditions. Further for performance validation, the parameters arrived via BPFPA method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Pattern Search (PS), Harmony Search (HS), Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) and Artificial Bee Swarm Optimization (ABSO). In addition, various outcomes of PV modeling and different parameters influencing the accurate PV modeling are critically analyzed.

  9. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The installed cost of solar photovoltaics (PV) has fallen rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue declining in the future. In this report, we focus on the potential for continued PV cost reductions in the residential market. From 2010 to 2017, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for residential PV declined from 52 cents per kilowatt-hour (cents/kWh) to 16 cents/kWh (Fu et al. 2017). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) recently set new LCOE targets for 2030, including a target of 5 cents/kWh for residential PV. We present a roadmap for achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV target. Because the 2030 target likely will not be achieved under business-as-usual trends (NREL 2017), we examine two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof replacement and installing PV as part of the new home construction process. Within both market segments, we identify four key cost-reduction opportunities: market maturation, business model integration, product innovation, and economies of scale. To assess the potential impact of these cost reductions, we compare modeled residential PV system prices in 2030 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) quarter one 2017 (Q1 2017) residential PV system price benchmark (Fu et al. 2017). We use a bottom-up accounting framework to model all component and project-development costs incurred when installing a PV system. The result is a granular accounting for 11 direct and indirect costs associated with installing a residential PV system in 2030. All four modeled pathways demonstrate significant installed-system price savings over the Q1 2017 benchmark, with the visionary pathways yielding the greatest price benefits. The largest modeled cost savings are in the supply chain, sales and marketing, overhead, and installation labor cost categories. When we translate these

  10. Modeling and Control of DC/DC Boost Converter using K-Factor Control for MPPT of Solar PV System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangari, Adithya; Haribabu, Divyanagalakshmi; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the design of a controller for the DC/DC boost converter using K factor control, which is based on modified PI control method, for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of solar PV system. A mathematical model for boost converter based on small signal averaging approach...... is presented. Design of the passive elements of the boost converter as per the system specifications is also illustrated. The performance of the proposed K factor control method is verified with the simulations for MPPT on solar PV system at different atmospheric conditions. A new circuit based model for solar...... PV array, which includes the effect of solar insolation and temperature on PV array output, for the application in power system transient simulations, is also presented. The performance of the PV array model is verified with simulations at different atmospheric conditions. A 160W PV module from BP...

  11. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets | Solar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes. Context Prospective PV customers are relatively non-transparent; customers are largely unaware of market prices and may not obtain the lowest available price. PV customers that use quote aggregators-third-party companies that collect quotes

  12. An Integrated Decision-Making Model for the Location of a PV Solar Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. I. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for electricity, the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase in environmental consciousness, generating power from renewable energy resources has become necessary. How to select the most appropriate site is a critical and foremost decision that must be made when setting up a renewable energy plant. This research proposes a two-stage framework for evaluating the suitability of renewable energy plant site alternatives. In the first stage, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is adopted to set the assurance region (AR of the quantitative factors, and the AR is incorporated into data envelopment analysis (DEA to assess the efficiencies of plant site candidates. A few sites are selected for further analysis. In the second stage, experts are invited to evaluate the qualitative characteristics of the selected sites, and FAHP is used to calculate the priorities of these sites. Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources, because of its abundance, inexhaustibility, safety and cleanliness. Based on the proposed integrated decision-making model, a case study for selecting the most appropriate photovoltaic (PV solar plant site is examined.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Solar PV Power Frequency Spectrum for Optimal Employment of Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Sharma, Isha [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical analysis of the frequency spectrum of solar photovoltaic (PV) power output is conducted. This analysis quantifies the frequency content that can be used for purposes such as developing optimal employment of building loads and distributed energy resources. One year of solar PV power output data was collected and analyzed using one-second resolution to find ideal bounds and levels for the different frequency components. The annual, seasonal, and monthly statistics of the PV frequency content are computed and illustrated in boxplot format. To examine the compatibility of building loads for PV consumption, a spectral analysis of building loads such as Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units and water heaters was performed. This defined the bandwidth over which these devices can operate. Results show that nearly all of the PV output (about 98%) is contained within frequencies lower than 1 mHz (equivalent to ~15 min), which is compatible for consumption with local building loads such as HVAC units and water heaters. Medium frequencies in the range of ~15 min to ~1 min are likely to be suitable for consumption by fan equipment of variable air volume HVAC systems that have time constants in the range of few seconds to few minutes. This study indicates that most of the PV generation can be consumed by building loads with the help of proper control strategies, thereby reducing impact on the grid and the size of storage systems.

  14. Model validation of solar PV plant with hybrid data dynamic simulation based on fast-responding generator method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a significant number of large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV plants have been put into operation or been under planning around the world. The model accuracy of solar PV plant is the key factor to investigate the mutual influences between solar PV plants and a power grid. However, this problem has not been well solved, especially in how to apply the real measurements to validate the models of the solar PV plants. Taking fast-responding generator method as an example, this paper presents a model validation methodology for solar PV plant via the hybrid data dynamic simulation. First, the implementation scheme of hybrid data dynamic simulation suitable for DIgSILENT PowerFactory software is proposed, and then an analysis model of solar PV plant integration based on IEEE 9 system is established. At last, model validation of solar PV plant is achieved by employing hybrid data dynamic simulation. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in solar PV plant model validation.

  15. Towards a greener tomorrow: the future for solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, John

    1998-01-01

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) system consisting of an array of photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into DC electricity silently and without pollution is simple and reliable, easy to install and requires little maintenance and no refuelling. However, there are a number of technical, economic and structural problems to be overcome before photovoltaics achieve significant penetration in the energy market. The main technical barrier is the low energy density of sunlight and its uneven distribution. Furthermore, photovoltaics cannot produce electricity at night and although battery storage can be provided or PV systems can be connected to the grid, this adds to the cost. Cost is the major barrier to penetration of the market but this is continually being cut. Advances in solar cell design are discussed which are bringing down the cost of fabrication and this added to economics of scale as market share develops will eventually make PV systems more competitive. So far, PV systems have found their largest market in powering isolated devices and in the infrastructure of remote rural communities in developing countries but grid connected systems, both centralised power generation plants and building integrated systems, are expected to take over the largest share of the PV market by 2010. (UK)

  16. Basic study on dynamic reactive-power control method with PV output prediction for solar inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Miyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To effectively utilize a photovoltaic (PV system, reactive-power control methods for solar inverters have been considered. Among the various methods, the constant-voltage control outputs less reactive power compared with the other methods. We have developed a constant-voltage control to reduce the reactive-power output. However, the developed constant-voltage control still outputs unnecessary reactive power because the control parameter is constant in every waveform of the PV output. To reduce the reactive-power output, we propose a dynamic reactive-power control method with a PV output prediction. In the proposed method, the control parameter is varied according to the properties of the predicted PV waveform. In this study, we performed numerical simulations using a distribution system model, and we confirmed that the proposed method reduces the reactive-power output within the voltage constraint.

  17. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC for Photovoltaic (PV System in Solar Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Aji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT for photovoltaic (PV system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cycle value is used to adjust the angle of ignition switch (MOSFET gate on the Boost converter. The proposed method was shown through simulation performed using PSIM and MATLAB software. Simulation results show that the system is able to improve the PV power extraction efficiency significantly by approximately 98% of PV’s power.

  18. Lower electricity prices and greenhouse gas emissions due to rooftop solar: empirical results for Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Vaid, Devina

    2016-01-01

    Monthly and hourly correlations among photovoltaic (PV) capacity utilization, electricity prices, electricity consumption, and the thermal efficiency of power plants in Massachusetts reduce electricity prices and carbon emissions beyond average calculations. PV utilization rates are highest when the thermal efficiencies of natural gas fired power plants are lowest, which reduces emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 by 0.3% relative to the annual average emission rate. There is a positive correlation between PV utilization rates and electricity prices, which raises the implied price of PV electricity by up to 10% relative to the annual average price, such that the average MWh reduces electricity prices by $0.26–$1.86 per MWh. These price reductions save Massachusetts rate-payers $184 million between 2010 and 2012. The current and net present values of these savings are greater than the cost of solar renewable energy credits which is the policy instrument that is used to accelerate the installation of PV capacity. Together, these results suggest that rooftop PV is an economically viable source of power in Massachusetts even though it has not reached socket parity. - Highlights: •Implied price of PV up to 10% greater than the annual average price. •PV saves Massachusetts rate-payers $184 million in 2010–2012. •Annual savings are greater than the cost of solar renewable energy credits. •Savings rise longer lifetime of PV systems and pay period for SREC's shortened. •PV reduces emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 by 0.3% relative to the annual average.

  19. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hou, Tung-Fu; Hsu, Po-Chien; Lin, Tse-Han; Chen, Yan-Tze; Chen, Chi-Wen; Li, Kang; Lee, K.Y.

    2015-01-01

    ). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  20. Design of Solar PV Cell Based Inverter for Unbalanced and Distorted Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Ananth D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PV cell is getting importance in low and medium power generation due to easy installation, low maintenance and subsidies in price from respective nation. Most of the loads in distribution system are unbalanced and distorted, due to which there will be unbalanced voltage and current occur at load and may disturb its overall performance. Due to these loads voltage unbalance, distorted voltage and current and variable power factors in each phase can be observed. An efficient algorithm to mitigate unbalanced and distorted load and source voltage and current in solar photo voltaic (PV inverter for isolated load system was considered. This solar PV system can be applicable to remote located industrial loads like heating, welding and small arc furnace type distorted loads and also for unbalanced loads. The PV inverter is designed such that it will maintain nearly constant voltage magnitude and can mitigate harmonics in voltage and current near the load terminals. A MATLAB/ SIMULINK based solar PV inverter was simulated and results are compared with standard AC three phase grid connected system. The proposed shows that the inverter is having very less voltage and current harmonic content and can maintain nearly constant voltage profile for highly unbalanced system.

  1. The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy-active building envelope material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, H.; Milko, J.; Danielewicz, J.; Sayegh, M.A.; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M.; Ramos, J.B.; Lester, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel flat heat pipe design has been developed and utilised as a building envelope and thermal solar collector with and without (PV) bonded directly to its surface. The design of the new solar collector has been validated through full scale testing in Cardiff, UK where solar/thermal, uncooled PV and PV/T tests were carried out on three identical systems, simultaneously. The tests showed a solar/thermal energy conversion efficiency of around 64% for the collector with no PV and 50% for the system with the PV layer on it. The effect of cooling on the solar/electrical energy conversion efficiency was also investigated and an efficiency increase of about 15% was recorded for the cooled PV system due to the provided homogenous cooling. The new flat heat pipe solar collector is given the name “heat mat” and, in addition to being an efficient solar collector type, it is also designed to convert a building envelope materials to become energy-active. A full size roof that utilise this new building envelope material is reported in this paper to demonstrate the way this new collector is integrated as a building envelope material to form a roof. A thermal absorption test, in a controlled environment, from the ambient to the heat mat with no solar radiation is also reported. The test has proved the heat mat as an efficient thermal absorber from the ambient to the intermediate fluid that deliver the heat energy to the heat pump system. - Highlights: • A new flat heat pipe PV/T system that can be used as building materials is reported. • The new solar collector enhanced the performance of the PV by about 15%. • The new solar collector is capable of absorbing heat from ambient efficiently. • The new system is efficient from the solar/thermal conversion point of view.

  2. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Evaluation of the potential of PV noise barrier technology for electricity production and market share. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Kleiss, G.; Castello, S.; Hille, G.; Reise, C.; Wiemken, E.; Betcke, J.W.H.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Pearsall, N.; Hynes, K.; Gaidddon, B.; Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.

    1999-06-01

    The analysis of existing and planned noise barriers along rails and roads has been carried out by the national partners together with national authorities, which are experts and responsible for the required data. The methodical approach of this study includes the set-up of a grid along longitude and latitudes with 1 by 1 degrees for Germany, Italy, France, United Kingdom and 0.5 by 0.5 degrees for the Netherlands and Switzerland. For each degree the length and orientation of rails and roads, the existing and planned noise barriers are registered and grouped according to their orientations. The solar radiation is based on data of a METEONORM data set. This includes the solar radiation on horizontal orientation as well as various inclination angles for all possible orientations. Moreover, possible shading has been considered. The technical specifications of noise barriers (PVNB) are based on the comprehensive knowledge of TNC GmbH and TNC AG with various plants realised. Technologies have been considered for both state-of-the-art and innovative concepts such as bifacial PVNB. In bifacial PVNB the PV-module is mounted vertically on both sides and is used at the same time as noise reflecting material. Installed PV power and produced electricity have been calculated for: 1. theoretical potential 2. technical potential 3. short-term resp. European extrapolated potential 4. anticipated potential 5. EU-member assessment The result of this study confirms the current activities to implement PV on noise barriers as an important share in the PV market.The report is subdivided into two volumes: Volume 1 contains the main topics and results, and Volume 2 contains additional information on the solar radiation, typical concepts as an excerpt of the various potentials and all country maps with the required explanations. 95 refs

  4. Annual analysis of heat pipe PV/T systems for domestic hot water and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Gang; Fu Huide; Ji Jie; Chow Tintai; Zhang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal system with freeze protection was proposed. ► A detailed annual simulation model for the HP-PV/T system was presented. ► Annual performance of HP-PV/T was predicted and analyzed under different condition. - Abstract: Heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (HP-PV/T) systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy. Compared with traditional water-type photovoltaic/thermal systems, HP-PV/T systems can be used in cold regions without being frozen with the aid of a carefully selected heat-pipe working fluid. The current research presents a detailed simulation model of the HP-PV/T system. Using this model, the annual electrical and thermal behavior of the HP-PV/T system used in three typical climate areas of China, namely, Hong Kong, Lhasa, and Beijing, are predicted and analyzed. Two HP-PV/T systems, with and without auxiliary heating equipment, are studied annually under four different kinds of hot-water load per unit collecting area (64.5, 77.4, 90.3, and 103.2 kg/m 2 ).

  5. Feasibility study of one axis three positions tracking solar PV with low concentration ratio reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.J.; Sun, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    A new PV design, called 'one axis three position sun tracking PV module', with low concentration ratio reflector was proposed in the present study. Every PV module is designed with a low concentration ratio reflector and is mounted on an individual sun tracking frame. The one axis tracking mechanism adjusts the PV position only at three fixed angles (three position tracking): morning, noon and afternoon. This 'one axis three position sun tracking PV module' can be designed in a simple structure with low cost. A design analysis was performed in the present study. The analytical results show that the optimal stopping angle β in the morning or afternoon is about 50 o from the solar noon position and the optimal switching angle that controls the best time for changing the attitude of the PV module is half of the stopping angle, i.e. θ H = β/2, and both are independent of the latitude. The power generation increases by approximately 24.5% as compared to a fixed PV module for latitude φ o . The analysis also shows that the effect of installation misalignment away from the true south direction is negligible ( o . An experiment performed in the present study indicates that the PV power generation can increase by about 23% using low concentration (2X) reflectors. Hence, combining with the power output increase of 24.5%, by using one axis three position tracking, the total increase in power generation is about 56%. The economic analysis shows that the price reduction is between 20% and 30% for the various market prices of flat plate PV modules

  6. Optimized design and control of an off grid solar PV/hydrogen fuel cell power system for green buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenai, C.; Bettayeb, M.

    2017-11-01

    Modelling, simulation, optimization and control strategies are used in this study to design a stand-alone solar PV/Fuel Cell/Battery/Generator hybrid power system to serve the electrical load of a commercial building. The main objective is to design an off grid energy system to meet the desired electric load of the commercial building with high renewable fraction, low emissions and low cost of energy. The goal is to manage the energy consumption of the building, reduce the associate cost and to switch from grid-tied fossil fuel power system to an off grid renewable and cleaner power system. Energy audit was performed in this study to determine the energy consumption of the building. Hourly simulations, modelling and optimization were performed to determine the performance and cost of the hybrid power configurations using different control strategies. The results show that the hybrid off grid solar PV/Fuel Cell/Generator/Battery/Inverter power system offers the best performance for the tested system architectures. From the total energy generated from the off grid hybrid power system, 73% is produced from the solar PV, 24% from the fuel cell and 3% from the backup Diesel generator. The produced power is used to meet all the AC load of the building without power shortage (system produces 18.2% excess power that can be used to serve the thermal load of the building. The proposed hybrid power system is sustainable, economically viable and environmentally friendly: High renewable fraction (66.1%), low levelized cost of energy (92 /MWh), and low carbon dioxide emissions (24 kg CO2/MWh) are achieved.

  7. Solar PV powered mobile cellular base station: Models and use cases in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderemi, BA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The huge costs of operating a mobile cellular base station, and the negative impact of greenhouse gasses on the environment have made the solar PV renewable energy source a sought after. In addition to cost and environmental factor, abundant supply...

  8. City and County Solar PV Training Program, Module 1: Goal Setting and Clarification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-12

    This module will help attendees understand nuances between different types of renewable energy goals, the importance of terminology when setting and announcing goals, the value of formally clarifying priorities, and how priorities may impact procurement options. It is the first training in a series intended to help municipal staff procure solar PV for their land and buildings.

  9. A stochastic simulation model for reliable PV system sizing providing for solar radiation fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplani, E.; Kaplanis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar radiation data for European cities follow the Extreme Value or Weibull distribution. ► Simulation model for the sizing of SAPV systems based on energy balance and stochastic analysis. ► Simulation of PV Generator-Loads-Battery Storage System performance for all months. ► Minimum peak power and battery capacity required for reliable SAPV sizing for various European cities. ► Peak power and battery capacity reduced by more than 30% for operation 95% success rate. -- Abstract: The large fluctuations observed in the daily solar radiation profiles affect highly the reliability of the PV system sizing. Increasing the reliability of the PV system requires higher installed peak power (P m ) and larger battery storage capacity (C L ). This leads to increased costs, and makes PV technology less competitive. This research paper presents a new stochastic simulation model for stand-alone PV systems, developed to determine the minimum installed P m and C L for the PV system to be energy independent. The stochastic simulation model developed, makes use of knowledge acquired from an in-depth statistical analysis of the solar radiation data for the site, and simulates the energy delivered, the excess energy burnt, the load profiles and the state of charge of the battery system for the month the sizing is applied, and the PV system performance for the entire year. The simulation model provides the user with values for the autonomy factor d, simulating PV performance in order to determine the minimum P m and C L depending on the requirements of the application, i.e. operation with critical or non-critical loads. The model makes use of NASA’s Surface meteorology and Solar Energy database for the years 1990–2004 for various cities in Europe with a different climate. The results obtained with this new methodology indicate a substantial reduction in installed peak power and battery capacity, both for critical and non-critical operation, when compared to

  10. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  11. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willer, B.

    1993-01-01

    An electrical drive is an alternative to the present internal combustion engines. The electric car produces no exhaust gas where it is used and drives practically noiselessly. The energy required for driving is usually taken from an electro-chemical battery. The necessary electricity generation generates emission and CO 2 , depending on the primary energy used. An alternative is provided by electricity generation with the aid of regenerative energy. Apart from hydroelectric and wind energy, solar energy can make a considerable contribution in the future. (orig.) [de

  12. International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen: Book of Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.; Hayden, H.

    2005-05-01

    The International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen provides an opportunity to learn about current significant research on solar concentrators for generating electricity or hydrogen. The conference will emphasize in-depth technical discussions of recent achievements in technologies that convert concentrated solar radiation to electricity or hydrogen, with primary emphasis on photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Very high-efficiency solar cells--above 37%--were recently developed, and are now widely used for powering satellites. This development demands that we take a fresh look at the potential of solar concentrators for generating low-cost electricity or hydrogen. Solar electric concentrators could dramatically overtake other PV technologies in the electric utility marketplace because of the low capital cost of concentrator manufacturing facilities and the larger module size of concentrators. Concentrating solar energy also has advantages for th e solar generation of hydrogen. Around the world, researchers and engineers are developing solar concentrator technologies for entry into the electricity generation market and several have explored the use of concentrators for hydrogen production. The last conference on the subject of solar electric concentrators was held in November of 2003 and proved to be an important opportunity for researchers and developers to share new and crucial information that is helping to stimulate projects in their countries.

  13. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    This study uses data on over 900,000 solar PV installations to summarize the evolving market structure of the U.S. residential solar PV installation industry. Over 8,000 companies have installed residential PV systems in the United States. The vast majority of these installers are small local companies. At the same time, a subset of national-scale high-volume PV installation companies hold high market shares. This study examines the factors behind these trends in market concentration, including the role of customer financing options.

  14. IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 16: PV in Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, A.J.N.; Van der Weiden, T.C.J.

    1993-10-01

    In the title program (SHCP), initiated in 1977, twenty countries, including the European Union, participate in a broad spectrum of subjects in the field of thermal, photovoltaic (PV) and passive solar energy. Nineteen Tasks were started so far, of which eleven Tasks are finished. Task 16 deals with the architectural and electrotechnical integration of PV in buildings, aiming at a maximal contribution of solar energy to the energy supply of a building, knowledge increase and transfer with respect to the relation of PV with other components of the energy system of a building, and economic optimization. Task 16 is planned for the period 1990-1995 and is divided in Sub-Tasks A: System Design and Development; B: Building Integration; C: PV-Demonstration Buildings; and D: Technology Communication. In this report the Dutch activities of Task 16, coordinated by Ecofys, are discussed. Reports of 4 Expert Meetings and 3 Workshops are presented. A description (in English) of the first Dutch IEA Demonstration Building, the energy autonomous house in Woubrugge, is given. Finally attention is paid to the activities regarding the Ideas Competition for the design of buildings or urban areas with integrated PV systems. 6 appendices

  15. Operation of Grid-tied 5 kWDC solar array to develop Laboratory Experiments for Solar PV Energy System courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jaime [Univ. of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States)

    2012-12-14

    To unlock the potential of micro grids we plan to build, commission and operate a 5 kWDC PV array and integrate it to the UTPA Engineering building low voltage network, as a micro grid; and promote community awareness. Assisted by a solar radiation tracker providing on-line information of its measurements and performing analysis for the use by the scientific and engineering community, we will write, perform and operate a set of Laboratory experiments and computer simulations supporting Electrical Engineering (graduate and undergraduate) courses on Renewable Energy, as well as Senior Design projects.

  16. Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.

  17. Integration between electric vehicle charging and PV system to increase self-consumption of an office application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction between a PV plant and office including EV charging is investigated. • An energy analysis on daily driving distance basis of the EV is performed. • An environmental analysis on daily driving distance basis of the EV is considered. - Abstract: The paper analyzes the introduction of a photovoltaic system satisfying electric, space heating and cooling demand of an office building located in southern Italy. The electric load is due to an electric heat pump, used to satisfy space heating and cooling load, a pure electric demand (personal computers, printers, lighting, etc.) and an electric vehicle charged during working hours. Dynamic simulations to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of the analyzed system considering different photovoltaic peak powers (4.5–9.0 kW), electric vehicle distance per day (40–120 km) and charging mode is carried out. The solar based system shows primary energy saving and equivalent carbon dioxide emission reduction higher than 40% in comparison to the reference conventional system based on a natural gas fired boiler, an electric chiller and a diesel car. The results highlight that the solar energy system is more competitive when DC charging system is provided.

  18. Solar eclipse. The rise and 'dusk' of the Dutch PV innovation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, S.O.; Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Vasseur, V. [International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development, University Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy technology in the Netherlands. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build-up of innovation systems. We show that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to guidance of the search and market formation. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the implications for policy making.

  19. Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji

    Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.

  20. Grid Connected Solar PV System with SEPIC Converter Compared with Parallel Boost Converter Based MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ajith Bosco Raj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to study the behaviour of the solar PV systems and model the efficient Grid-connected solar power system. The DC-DC MPPT circuit using chaotic pulse width modulation has been designed to track maximum power from solar PV module. The conversion efficiency of the proposed MPPT system is increased when CPWM is used as a control scheme. This paper also proposes a simplified multilevel (seven level inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The primary goal of these systems is to increase the energy injected to the grid by keeping track of the maximum power point of the panel, by reducing the switching frequency, and by providing high reliability. The maximum power has been tracked experimentally. It is compared with parallel boost converter. Also this model is based on mathematical equations and is described through an equivalent circuit including a PV source with MPPT, a diode, a series resistor, a shunt resistor, and dual boost converter with active snubber circuit. This model can extract PV power and boost by using dual boost converter with active snubber. By using this method the overall system efficiency is improved thereby reducing the switching losses and cost.

  1. Optimal policy of energy innovation in developing countries: Development of solar PV in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Ehsan; Saboohi, Yadollah; Ghofrani, Mohammad B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply managerial economics and methods of decision analysis to study the optimal pattern of innovation activities for development of new energy technologies in developing countries. For this purpose, a model of energy research and development (R and D) planning is developed and it is then linked to a bottom-up energy-systems model. The set of interlinked models provide a comprehensive analytical tool for assessment of energy technologies and innovation planning taking into account the specific conditions of developing countries. An energy-system model is used as a tool for the assessment and prioritization of new energy technologies. Based on the results of the technology assessment model, the optimal R and D resources allocation for new energy technologies is estimated with the help of the R and D planning model. The R and D planning model is based on maximization of the total net present value of resulting R and D benefits taking into account the dynamics of technological progress, knowledge and experience spillovers from advanced economies, technology adoption and R and D constraints. Application of the set of interlinked models is explained through the analysis of the development of solar PV in Iranian electricity supply system and then some important policy insights are concluded

  2. Feasibility Study of a Building-Integrated PV Manager to Power a Last-Mile Electric Vehicle Sharing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the largest single sources of air pollution in urban areas. This paper analyzes a model of solar-powered vehicle sharing system using building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV, resulting in a zero-emission and zero-energy mobility system for last-mile employee transportation. As a case study, an electric bicycle sharing system between a public transportation hub and a work center is modeled mathematically and optimized in order to minimize the number of pickup trips to satisfy the demand, while minimizing the total energy consumption of the system. The whole mobility system is fully powered with BIPV-generated energy. Results show a positive energy balance in e-bike batteries and pickup vehicle batteries in the worst day of the year regarding solar radiation. Even in this worst-case scenario, we achieve reuse rates of 3.8 people per bike, using actual data. The proposed system manages PV energy using only the batteries from the electric vehicles, without requiring supportive energy storage devices. Energy requirements and PV generation have been analyzed in detail to ensure the feasibility of this approach.

  3. Evaluation of solar PV-projects of housing corporations; Evaluatie zon PV-projecten bij woningcorporaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstjens, M.J.H. [W/E Adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    A study has been carried out to determine the failure and success factors with regard to the use of solar panels in the housing sector. Lessons learned from this evaluation form the basis for targeted communication and development of a guide for corporations. In the spring of 2013, stakeholders in eight representative initiatives in the Netherlands were interviewed. The failure and success factors are translated into recommendations to further develop tools for corporations [Dutch] Er is gezocht naar de faal- en succesfactoren rondom de toepassing van zonnepanelen in de woningbouwsector. Leerpunten uit deze evaluatie vormen de basis voor gerichte communicatie en ontwikkeling van (een) handreiking(en) voor corporaties. In het voorjaar van 2013 zijn betrokkenen bij acht representatieve initiatieven in Nederland geinterviewd. De faal- en succesfactoren zijn omgezet in aanbevelingen voor nader uit te werken hulpmiddelen voor corporaties.

  4. Design of a Net-Metering and PV Exhibit for the 2005 Solar Decathlon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassmer, M.; Warner, C.

    2005-01-01

    In the 2005 Solar Decathlon competition, 19 collegiate teams will design, build, and operate grid-independent homes powered by photovoltaic (PV) arrays on the National Mall. The prominence of grid-interconnected systems in the marketplace has provided the impetus for the development of a net-metering exhibit to be installed and operated during the competition. The exhibit will inform the visiting public about PV basics and appropriate alternatives to grid-independent systems. It will consist of four interactive components. One will be designed to educate people about the principles of net metering using a small PV array, a grid-interactive inverter, and a variable load. Additional components of the exhibit will demonstrate the effects of orientation, cloud cover, and nighttime on performance. The nighttime component will discuss appropriate storage options for different applications.

  5. Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buckner, David [ESCO Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Construction activities at most large-scale ground installations of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are preceded by land clearing and re-grading to uniform slope and smooth surface conditions to facilitate convenient construction access and facility operations. The impact to original vegetation is usually total eradication followed by installation of a gravel cover kept clear of vegetation by use of herbicides. The degree to which that total loss can be mitigated by some form of revegetation is a subject in its infancy, and most vegetation studies at PV development sites only address weed control and the impact of tall plants on the efficiency of the solar collectors from shading.This study seeks to address this void, advancing the state of knowledge of how constructed PV arrays affect ground-level environments, and to what degree plant cover, having acceptable characteristics within engineering constraints, can be re-established.

  6. Solar electric power for instruments at remote sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChesney, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Small photovoltaic (PV) systems are the preferred method to power instruments operating at permanent locations away from the electric power grid. The low-power PV power system consists of a solar panel or small array of panels, lead-acid batteries, and a charge controller. Even though the small PV power system is simple, the job of supplying power at a remote site can be very demanding. The equipment is often exposed to harsh conditions. The site may be inaccessible part of the year or difficult and expensive to reach at any time. Yet the system must provide uninterrupted power with minimum maintenance at low cost. This requires good design. Successful small PV systems often require modifications by a knowledgeable fieldworker to adapt to conditions at the site. Much information is available in many places about solar panels, lead-acid batteries, and charging systems but very little of it applies directly to low power instrument sites. The discussion here aims to close some of the gap. Each of the major components is described in terms of this application with particular attention paid to batteries. Site problems are investigated. Finally, maintenance and test procedures are given. This document assumes that the reader is engaged in planning or maintaining low-power PV sites and has basic electrical and electronic knowledge. The area covered by the discussion is broad. To help the reader with the many terms and acronyms used, they are shown in bold when first used and a glossary is provided at the end of the paper.

  7. Grid parity. Holy Grail or hype? Photovoltaic solar electricity on its way to competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2009-05-01

    Solar energy has a huge global and European potential for sustainable generation of electricity, heat and fuels. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) are the two options for electricity generation. In the longer term they may also be used to generate sustainable fuel, especially hydrogen, if that would turn out to be useful in the total energy mix. Because of the different nature of the PV and CSP conversion processes and the related distinctive features, they can be considered largely complementary Clearly, the combination of the two absolutely makes a winning team and may form (or even has to form) the basis of our future sustainable energy system. Grid parity is a rather simplified indicator of the competitiveness of PV. It is nevertheless very useful since it assumes the viewpoint of a potential investor in a PV system and has thus helped to define potential markets. Moreover the concept does roughly illustrate how long it takes PV to reach competitiveness in different segments of the electricity market. It may not be the Holy Grail but it is certainly no hype either. When used with care it is one key to the success of PV.

  8. Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid Tied Solar PV System with Active Power Filtering Using Power Balance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashi; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, power quality features such as harmonics mitigation, power factor correction with active power filtering are addressed in a single-stage, single-phase solar photovoltaic (PV) grid tied system. The Power Balance Theory (PBT) with perturb and observe based maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed for the mitigation of power quality problems in a solar PV grid tied system. The solar PV array is interfaced to a single phase AC grid through a Voltage Source Converter (VSC), which provides active power flow from a solar PV array to the grid as well as to the load and it performs harmonics mitigation using PBT based control. The solar PV array power varies with sunlight and due to this, the solar PV grid tied VSC works only 8-10 h per day. At night, when PV power is zero, the VSC works as an active power filter for power quality improvement, and the load active power is delivered by the grid to the load connected at the point of common coupling. This increases the effective utilization of a VSC. The system is modelled and simulated using MATLAB and simulated responses of the system at nonlinear loads and varying environmental conditions are also validated experimentally on a prototype developed in the laboratory.

  9. Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest of power is expanding step by step all through the world. Because of constrained measure of fossil fuel, it is vital to outline some new non-renewable energy frameworks that can diminish the reliance on ordinary energy asset. A hybrid off-grid renewable energy framework might be utilized to reduction reliance on the traditional energy assets. Advancement of crossover framework is a procedure to choose the best mix of part and there cost that can give shabby, solid and successful option energy resource. In this paper sun oriented photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass gasifier generator set, battery backup and power conditioning unit have been simulated and optimized for educational institute, energy centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The area of the study range on the guide situated of 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitude. In this framework, the essential wellspring of power is sun based solar photovoltaic system and biomass gasifier generator set while fuel cell and batteries are utilized as reinforcement supply. HOMER simulator has been utilized to recreate off the grid and it checks the specialized and financial criteria of this hybrid energy system. The execution of every segment of this framework is dissected lastly delicate examination has been performing to enhance the mixture framework at various conditions. In view of the recreation result, it is found that the cost of energy (COE of a biomass gasifier generator set, solar PV and fuel cell crossover energy system has been found to be 15.064 Rs/kWh and complete net present cost Rs.51,89003. The abundance power in the proposed framework is observed to be 36 kWh/year with zero rates unmet electrical burden.

  10. Countermeasure for Surplus Electricity of PV using Replacement Battery of EVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

    In the power sector, the national government has set the goal that the introduction of PV reaches 53 million kW by 2030. However, large-scale introduction of PV will cause several problems in power systems such as surplus electricity. We need large capacity of pumped storages or batteries for the surplus electricity, but the construction costs of these plants are very high. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Electric Vehicle (EV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. To promote the diffusion of EV, it is necessary to build infrastructures that can charge EV in a short time; a battery switch station is one of the solutions to this problem. At a station, the automated switch platform will replace the depleted battery with a fully-charged battery. The depleted battery is placed in a storage room and recharged to be available to other drivers. In this study, we propose the use of station's battery as a countermeasure for surplus electricity of PV and evaluate the economic value of the proposed system. We assumed that 53 million kW of PV is introduced in the nationwide power system and considered two countermeasures for surplus electricity: (1) Pumped storage; (2) Battery of station. The difference in total annual cost between Pumped case and Battery case results in 792.6 billion yen. Hence, if a utility leases the batteries from stations fewer than 792.6 billion yen, the utility will have the cost advantage in Battery case.

  11. Life cycle cost analysis of single slope hybrid (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the life cycle cost analysis of the single slope passive and hybrid photovoltaic (PV/T) active solar stills, based on the annual performance at 0.05 m water depth. Effects of various parameters, namely interest rate, life of the system and the maintenance cost have been taken into account. The comparative cost of distilled water produced from passive solar still (Rs. 0.70/kg) is found to be less than hybrid (PV/T) active solar still (Rs. 1.93/kg) for 30 years life time of the systems. The payback periods of the passive and hybrid (PV/T) active solar still are estimated to be in the range of 1.1-6.2 years and 3.3-23.9 years, respectively, based on selling price of distilled water in the range of Rs. 10/kg to Rs. 2/kg. The energy payback time (EPBT) has been estimated as 2.9 and 4.7 years, respectively. (author)

  12. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  13. Assessing the economic and environmental feasibility of utility scaled PV electricity production in the state of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruthie; Critttenden, John

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology, an increasingly popular source for renewable energy, is being deployed in places with solar insolation that is comparable to that in state of Georgia. This study assesses the feasibility and environmental impact of utility scale photovoltaic (PV) electricity production in Georgia by assessing the economic costs, avoided costs, health benefits, and environmental benefits. The cost of PV used in this study is 3.52 $/kW. The RETScreen model was employed to analyze the impact of incentives on the economic viability of the plants that produce 93 GWh, 371 GWh, and 1,484 GWh, respectively. 57% of the capital cost is required in the form of incentives or subsidies to make the projects economically feasible. The high estimated cost of cleaning the equivalent amount of emissions from a coal-fired power plant is $14.5 million, $58 million, and $232 million for a 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plant, respectively Avoided costs in health damages are estimated to be $28 million, $112 million, and $449 million and the numbers of jobs to be created are 2,500, 10,000, and 40,000 for 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plants, respectively. And, the cumulative value of renewable energy credits from a 50 MW, 200 MW, and a 800 MW plant are $59 million, $237 million, and $789 million, respectively.

  14. A simple tracking system to monitor solar PV panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaher, H.; Kaich, H.; Ayadi, N.; Ben Hmouda, M.; Maalej, A.; Lemmer, U.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We designed and constructed a solar tracking system based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs). • A study was made to determine the optimal angle of LDRs inducing the best precision of the device. • An experimental system was built to test different values of the angle between LDRs. • Results showed a good agreement between the experience and the predicted values. • The obtained results are useful for the design of new trackers based on the use of LDRs. - Abstract: The solar tracking systems are a center of interest of a big number of researchers from the fifties. The deflection of sun rays on a solar photovoltaic panel can reduce its power output until 50%. For concentrators solar trackers are master parts of the systems. A simple tracking system based on light dependent resistors was locally constructed, tested and optimized. Good agreement was recorded between numerical optimization results and experimental ones. These results are useful for the design and construction of new sun trackers

  15. Design development and testing of a solar PV pump based drip system for orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.C.; Singh, A.K.; Ansari, S.; Vyas, S.K.; Dave, B.K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    A Solar Photovoltaic (PV) pump operated drip irrigation system has been designed and developed for growing orchards in arid region considering different design parameters like pumps size, water requirements, the diurnal variation in the pressure of the pump due to change in irradiance and pressure compensation in the drippers. The system comprising a PV pump with 900 W{sub p} PV array and 800 W dc motor-pump mono-block, microfilter, main and sub-mains and three open-able low-pressure compensating drippers on each plant was field tested. The emission uniformity was observed to be 92-94% with discharge of 3.8 l/h in the pressure range of 70-100 kPa provided by the pump and thus the system could irrigate some 1 ha area within 2 h. Based on the performance of the PV pump and the drip system, it was inferred that about 5 ha area of orchard could be covered. The projected benefit-cost ratio for growing pomegranate orchards with such a system was evaluated to be above 2 even with the costly PV pump and therefore the system was considered to be an appropriate technology for the development of arid region. (Author)

  16. Hybrid PV and solar-thermal systems for domestic heat and power provision in the UK: Techno-economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrando, María; Markides, Christos N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable heat and power generation in UK homes with PVT systems studied. • PVT/w generation: 2.3 MW_e h/yr (51% of demand) and 1.0 MW_t_h h/yr (36% hot water). • Optimised PVT/w system has 9–11 year payback periods (PV-only: 6.8 years). • Same system allows 16.0-t CO_2 reduction and 14-t primary fossil-fuel saving. • With a ∼2:1 support (£/W_e h:£/W_t_h h), PVT and PV have similar payback periods. - Abstract: A techno-economic analysis is undertaken to assess hybrid PV/solar-thermal (PVT) systems for distributed electricity and hot-water provision in a typical house in London, UK. In earlier work (Herrando et al., 2014), a system model based on a PVT collector with water as the cooling medium (PVT/w) was used to estimate average year-long system performance. The results showed that for low solar irradiance levels and low ambient temperatures, such as those associated with the UK climate, a higher coverage of total household energy demands and higher CO_2 emission savings can be achieved by the complete coverage of the solar collector with PV and a relatively low collector cooling flow-rate. Such a PVT/w system demonstrated an annual electricity generation of 2.3 MW h, or a 51% coverage of the household’s electrical demand (compared to an equivalent PV-only value of 49%), plus a significant annual water heating potential of to 1.0 MW h, or a 36% coverage of the hot-water demand. In addition, this system allowed for a reduction in CO_2 emissions amounting to 16.0 tonnes over a life-time of 20 years due to the reduction in electrical power drawn from the grid and gas taken from the mains for water heating, and a 14-tonne corresponding displacement of primary fossil-fuel consumption. Both the emissions and fossil-fuel consumption reductions are significantly larger (by 36% and 18%, respectively) than those achieved by an equivalent PV-only system with the same peak rating/installed capacity. The present paper proceeds further, by

  17. Rating of roofs’ surfaces regarding their solar potential and suitability for PV systems, based on LiDAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukač, Niko; Žlaus, Danijel; Seme, Sebastijan; Žalik, Borut; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new method for estimating and rating buildings roofs’ solar potential is presented. ► Considering LiDAR geospatial data together with pyranometer measurements. ► Use of multi-resolution shadowing model with new heuristic vegetation shadowing. ► High correlation between estimated solar potential and onsite measurements. -- Abstract: The roof surfaces within urban areas are constantly attracting interest regarding the installation of photovoltaic systems. These systems can improve self-sufficiency of electricity supply, and can help to decrease the emissions of greenhouse gases throughout urban areas. Unfortunately, some roof surfaces are unsuitable for installing photovoltaic systems. This presented work deals with the rating of roof surfaces within urban areas regarding their solar potential and suitability for the installation of photovoltaic systems. The solar potential of a roof’s surface is determined by a new method that combines extracted urban topography from LiDAR data with the pyranometer measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiances. Heuristic annual vegetation shadowing and a multi-resolution shadowing model, complete the proposed method. The significance of different influential factors (e.g. shadowing) was analysed extensively. A comparison between the results obtained by the proposed method and measurements performed on an actual PV power plant showed a correlation agreement of 97.4%.

  18. You're a What? Solar Photovoltaic Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about solar photovoltaic (PV) installer and features Rebekah Hren, a solar PV installer who puts solar panels on roofs and in other sunny places to turn the sun's power into electricity. Hren enjoys promoting renewable energy, in part because it's an emerging field. In solar PV systems, solar cells--devices that convert sunlight…

  19. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  20. Studying the Impact of Distributed Solar PV on Power Systems using Integrated Transmission and Distribution Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Himanshu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krad, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-24

    This paper presents the results of a distributed solar PV impact assessment study that was performed using a synthetic integrated transmission (T) and distribution (D) model. The primary objective of the study was to present a new approach for distributed solar PV impact assessment, where along with detailed models of transmission and distribution networks, consumer loads were modeled using the physics of end-use equipment, and distributed solar PV was geographically dispersed and connected to the secondary distribution networks. The highlights of the study results were (i) increase in the Area Control Error (ACE) at high penetration levels of distributed solar PV; and (ii) differences in distribution voltages profiles and voltage regulator operations between integrated T&D and distribution only simulations.

  1. The choice of primary energy source including PV installation for providing electric energy to a public utility building - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Bartosz; Ćwiek, Barbara; Mróz, Tomasz M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents multicriteria decision aid analysis of the choice of PV installation providing electric energy to a public utility building. From the energy management point of view electricity obtained by solar radiation has become crucial renewable energy source. Application of PV installations may occur a profitable solution from energy, economic and ecologic point of view for both existing and newly erected buildings. Featured variants of PV installations have been assessed by multicriteria analysis based on ANP (Analytic Network Process) method. Technical, economical, energy and environmental criteria have been identified as main decision criteria. Defined set of decision criteria has an open character and can be modified in the dialog process between the decision-maker and the expert - in the present case, an expert in planning of development of energy supply systems. The proposed approach has been used to evaluate three variants of PV installation acceptable for existing educational building located in Poznań, Poland - the building of Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology. Multi-criteria analysis based on ANP method and the calculation software Super Decisions has proven to be an effective tool for energy planning, leading to the indication of the recommended variant of PV installation in existing and newly erected public buildings. Achieved results show prospects and possibilities of rational renewable energy usage as complex solution to public utility buildings.

  2. CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF EMBEDDED Z-SOURCE INVERTER WITH FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR SOLAR PV APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Midde Mahesh*, K. Leleedhar Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Embedded Z –source inverter system with fuzzy controller for Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) applications with adjustable speed drives. Closed loop operation FUZZY control strategies of EZSI system are proposed. EZSI produces the same voltage gain as Z-source inverter (ZSI) but due to the DC sources embedded within the X- shaped impedance network, it has the added advantage of inherent source filtering capability and also reduced capacitor sizing. This can be achiev...

  3. Identifying Potential Area and Financial Prospects of Rooftop Solar Photovoltaics (PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Ninsawat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In an urban area, the roof is the only available surface that can be utilized for installing solar photovoltaics (PV, and the active surface area depends on the type of roof. Shadows on a solar panel can be caused by nearby tall buildings, construction materials such as water tanks, or the roof configuration itself. The azimuth angle of the sun varies, based on the season and the time of day. Therefore, the simulation of shadow for one or two days or using the rule of thumb may not be sufficient to evaluate shadow effects on solar panels throughout the year. In this paper, a methodology for estimating the solar potential of solar PV on rooftops is presented, which is particularly applicable to urban areas. The objective of this method is to assess how roof type and shadow play a role in potentiality and financial benefit. The method starts with roof type extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery, using Object Base Image Analysis (OBIA, the generation of a 3D structure from height data and roof type, the simulation of shadow throughout the year, and the identification of potential and financial prospects. Based on the results obtained, the system seems to be adequate for calculating the financial benefits of solar PV to a very fine scale. The payback period varied from 7–13 years depending on the roof type, direction, and shadow impact. Based on the potentiality, a homeowner can make a profit of up to 200%. This method could help homeowners to identify potential roof area and economic interest.

  4. The power of PV: one US company shows the potential of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.

    2005-01-01

    A California-based company, PowerLight, has grown from a one-man shop in 1991 to a company with 100 employees, an annual turnover of $100 million and an impressive client list. The company is one of the USA's fastest growing companies and a leader in large-scale, grid-connected solar systems. Its patented PowerGuard offers a lightweight solar rooftop assembly, while its PowerTracker product is a ground-mounted PV system. Details of some of the company's large projects are given and its plans for new markets highlighted

  5. A Combined Optical, Thermal and Electrical Performance Study of a V-Trough PV System—Experimental and Analytical Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham M. Bahaidarah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to achieve higher efficiency of a PV system while reducing of the cost of energy generation. Concentration photovoltaics was employed in the present case as it uses low cost reflectors to enhance the efficiency of the PV system and simultaneously reduces the cost of electricity generation. For this purpose a V-trough integrated with the PV system was employed for low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV. Since the electrical output of the concentrating PV system is significantly affected by the temperature of the PV cells, the motivation of the research also included studying the ability to actively cool PV cells to achieve the maximum benefit. The optical, thermal and electrical performance of the V-trough PV system was theoretically modeled and validated with experimental results. Optical modeling of V-trough was carried out to estimate the amount of enhanced absorbed radiation. Due to increase in the absorbed radiation the module temperature was also increased which was predicted by thermal model. Active cooling techniques were studied and the effect of cooling was analyzed on the performance of V-trough PV system. With absorbed radiation and module temperature as input parameters, electrical modeling was carried out and the maximum power was estimated. For the V-trough PV system, experiments were performed for validating the numerical models and very good agreement was found between the two.

  6. Comparative Study on KNN and SVM Based Weather Classification Models for Day Ahead Short Term Solar PV Power Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV power forecasting is an essential tool for mitigating the negative effects caused by the uncertainty of PV output power in systems with high penetration levels of solar PV generation. Weather classification based modeling is an effective way to increase the accuracy of day-ahead short-term (DAST solar PV power forecasting because PV output power is strongly dependent on the specific weather conditions in a given time period. However, the accuracy of daily weather classification relies on both the applied classifiers and the training data. This paper aims to reveal how these two factors impact the classification performance and to delineate the relation between classification accuracy and sample dataset scale. Two commonly used classification methods, K-nearest neighbors (KNN and support vector machines (SVM are applied to classify the daily local weather types for DAST solar PV power forecasting using the operation data from a grid-connected PV plant in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. We assessed the performance of SVM and KNN approaches, and then investigated the influences of sample scale, the number of categories, and the data distribution in different categories on the daily weather classification results. The simulation results illustrate that SVM performs well with small sample scale, while KNN is more sensitive to the length of the training dataset and can achieve higher accuracy than SVM with sufficient samples.

  7. Solar Community Organizations and active peer effects in the adoption of residential PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, Daniel; Dawes, Colleen; Rai, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) are formal or informal organizations and citizen groups that help to reduce the barriers to the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by (1) providing access to credible and transparent information about the localized benefits of residential PV and (2) actively campaigning to encourage adoption within their operational boundaries. We study the peer effect, or social interaction, process catalyzed by SCOs to understand the impact of these organizations on the residential PV market. Using a standardized search methodology across spatial scales (state; city; neighborhoods), we identify and characterize the operations of 228 SCOs formed in the U.S. between 1970 and 2012. We also present case studies of four successful SCOs and find that a common thread of why these SCOs are successful involves effectively leveraging trusted community networks combined with putting together a complete information and financial-tools package for use by interested communities. Finally, our findings suggest that empirical studies that attempt statistical identification and estimation of peer effects should pay close attention to the role of SCOs, as the social interactions engendered by SCOs may be correlated both with the level of social learning and the socio-demographic characteristics of the communities of interest. - Highlights: • New dataset on Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) in the U.S. during 1970–2012. • Shock events catalyze formation of SCOs. • SCOs-driven peer effects found to positively impact PV adoption. • Leveraging trust networks is crucial for the success of SCOs. • In addition to information provision, financing options also key for SCOs' success

  8. PV Solar energy, A comparison of The Netherlands and Germany on PV solar energy from 2000 till 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerda, Douwe

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands used only a very small percentage (6.5%) of self generated renewable electricity in 2006. Depending on fossil fuels on a large scale has numerous disadvantages on strategic, health, environment and climate grounds. A solution can be found

  9. Better or worse? The role of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in sustainable development. Case studies of remote atoll communities in Kiribati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mala, Kirti; Schlaepfer, August; Pryor, Trevor [School of Electrical, Energy and Process Engineering, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    The Republic of Kiribati, formerly known as the Gilbert Islands, is a Micronesian (One of the three groups of islands in the Pacific. The eight territories that make up Micronesia are Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Nauru, Republic of Palau, Territory of Guam and Territory of Wake Island. The other two groups of islands in the Pacific are Melanesia and Polynesia) country in the Pacific. The energy sources utilised in Kiribati include petroleum products, biomass, solar energy and wind power. Solar energy was introduced in Kiribati in the early 1980s (Wade H. Survey of RESCO projects - prepared for OPRET, Fiji Department of Energy, 2003; p. 36). Currently, it makes a very insignificant (less than 1%) contribution to the total annual primary energy supply (South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP) - Pacific Regional Energy Assessment (PREA) 2004. Kiribati national report, Vol. 5, 2005). Solar energy in Kiribati is used mostly in the form of solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies for the provision of lighting and electricity. This study examines the role of PV technologies in the sustainable development process in Kiribati, with particular reference to remote atoll communities. Initial results from on-site surveys carried out are reported in this paper. These surveys have sought to identify the reasons why people use or do not use PV systems. (author)

  10. System design for a solar powered electric vehicle charging station for workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.; Bauer, P.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of charging battery electric vehicles at workplace in Netherlands using solar energy. Data from the Dutch Meteorological Institute is used to determine the optimal orientation of PV panels for maximum energy yield in the Netherlands. The seasonal and diurnal

  11. Streamline, Organizational, Legislative and Administrative Response to Permitting, PV Market Share, and Solar Energy Costs (Broward Go SOLAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, Jeffery D. [Broward County, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)

    2013-08-28

    Broward County and its partners (the Go SOLAR Team), operating under a Department of Energy Rooftop Solar Challenge Agreement, designed, developed and implemented an online permitting system for rooftop solar PV systems. This is a single web based system with a single permit fee that will issue a permit, with a set of design plans preapproved by partner building officials, within one hour. The system is currently available at gosolar.broward.org for use within any of the partner Authorities Having [permitting] Jurisdiction (AHJ). Additionally, the Go SOLAR Team researched, developed and to the extent feasible, implemented three best management practices to make a fertile environment for the new online permit system. These included Net Metering and Interconnection Standards, Solar-Friendly Financing, and Planning and Zoning Ordinances. Finally, the team implemented a substantial outreach effort to advocate for the development of solar in Broward County, with an emphasis on Solar Rights, concluding with a Go SOLAR Fest day and a half conference with over 1,200 attendees and 50 exhibitors. The Go SOLAR project was completed on time, under DOE’s budgeted amount, and all project objectives were met or exceeded.

  12. Effects of Platform Design on the Customer Experience in an Online Solar PV Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leibowicz, Benjamin [The University of Texas at Austin; Punjabi, Kunal [The University of Texas at Austin

    2018-05-09

    We analyze a unique dataset of residential solar PV quotes offered in an online marketplace to understand how platform design changes affect customer outcomes. Three of the four design changes are associated with statistically significant and robust reductions in offer prices, though none of the policies were designed explicitly to reduce prices. The results suggest that even small changes in how prospective solar PV customers interact with installers can affect customer outcomes such as prices. Specifically, the four changes we evaluate are: 1) a customer map that shows potential new EnergySage registrants the locations of nearby customers; 2) a quote cap that precludes more than seven installers from bidding on any one customer; 3) a price guidance feature that informs installers about competitive prices in the customer's market before they submit quotes; and 4) no pre-quote messaging to prohibit installers from contacting customers prior to offering quotes. We calculate descriptive statistics to investigate whether each design change accomplished its specific objectives. Then, we econometrically evaluate the impacts of the design changes on PV quote prices and purchase prices using a regression discontinuity approach.

  13. Use of Super-Capacitor to Enhance Charging Performance of Stand-Alone Solar PV System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The battery charging performance in a stand-alone solar PV system affects the PV system efficiency and the load operating time. The New Energy Center of National Taiwan University has been devoted to the development of a PWM charging technique to continue charging the lead-acid battery after the overcharge point to increase the battery storage capacity by more than 10%. The present study intends to use the super-capacitor to further increase the charge capacity before the overcharge point of the battery. The super-capacitor is connected in parallel to the lead-acid battery. This will reduce the overall charging impedance during the charge and increase the charging current, especially in sunny weather. A system dynamics model of the lead-acid battery and super-capacitor was derived and the control system simulation was carried out to predict the charging performance for various weathers. It shows that the overall battery impedance decreases and charging power increases with increasing solar radiation. An outdoor comparative test for two identical PV systems with and without supercapacitor was carried out. The use of super-capacitor is shown to be able to increase the lead-acid charging capacity by more than 25% at sunny weather and 10% in cloudy weather. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  14. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplanis, S., E-mail: kaplanis@teipat.gr; Kaplani, E., E-mail: kaplanis@teipat.gr [Renewable Energy Systems Lab., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece, Koukouli 26 334, Patra (Greece)

    2014-10-06

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, β, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m{sup 2°}C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v{sub W}>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m{sup 2°}C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  15. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2014-10-01

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, β, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m2°C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, vW>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m2°C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  16. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2014-01-01

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, β, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m 2° C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v W >7m/s, up to around 0.05 m 2° C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system

  17. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  18. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkse, Jonatan; Buuse, Daniel van den

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a comparative analysis of oil and gas firms’ strategies regarding solar PV technology investments, a renewable energy technology that has seen explosive growth of late. The main aim is to examine the strategic approach of incumbent firms in the oil and gas industry towards the development and commercialization of solar PV technology. To investigate this, a multiple case study has been conducted within the European oil industry, focusing on the three largest oil and gas firms: BP, Royal Dutch/Shell, and Total. Findings show that oil and gas firms have difficulties with integrating solar PV technology in their supply chain. The analysis suggests that it is uncertain whether all oil and gas firms will abandon solar completely, as this depends to what extent they are able to generate profits. Nevertheless, there is currently a trend in the oil industry of leaving solar and positioning towards a ‘recarbonization’ of business activities. - Research Highlights: ► Oil and gas incumbents have experienced difficulties in integrating solar technology in their supply chain and therefore established fairly independent business units, serving niche markets outside mainstream markets for oil and gas. ► It is uncertain whether all oil and gas firms will abandon solar completely, as it depends to what extent they are able to generate profits with these activities. ► The competitive strain and increased turbulence in the oil industry have led to erratic investment behavior of oil firms and, as a consequence, renewable energy projects in which incumbents are engaged are often cancelled for reasons which have nothing to do with the market viability of renewable

  19. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2010-06-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique was developed for battery charging control which can increase the charging capacity by 78%. For high-efficiency lighting, the LED is directly driven by battery using a PWM discharge control to eliminate a DC/DC converter. Two solar-powered LED lighting systems (50W and 100W LED) were built. The long-term outdoor tests have shown that the loss of load probability for full-night lighting requirement is zero for 50W LED and 3.6% for 100W LED. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. The case for a single-axis tracking solar PV array system to mitigate against the time-of-use tariff

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available peak tariff is from 6:00pm to 8:00pm. A fixed-axis PV system generates peak electricity when the sun is overhead of the PV array. A single-axis PV tracking system allows for maximum production of electricity by tracking the sun soon after it appears...

  1. Role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of regional solar PV energy markets : Contrasting developments in Gujarat and West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolly, Suyash

    2017-01-01

    With political initiatives, such as the National Solar Mission by Government of India, rapid development of grid connected solar PV energy in India has occurred in the recent times. However, an interesting puzzle is with respect to significant regional differences in Indian states despite similar

  2. Measures for the Diffusion of Solar PV are Aligned in Technology Action Plans for Six Countries in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2014-01-01

    African countries from 2010 to 2013, dedicated government committees have prioritized climate change mitigation technologies and developed action plans for the diffusion of the selected technologies. The project results show that solar PV is high on the agenda in Africa. Six out of ten countries...... in the region prioritized solar PV, and action plans for the diffusion of solar home systems were put forward in Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Mali and Senegal, while the implementation of grid-connected systems was proposed in Rwanda, Mali and Senegal. The project reports and technology action plans prepared...... in these six countries are used as the basis for comparing how solar PV is perceived in these countries and how policy measures enabling environmental adjustments and investment programmes are being planned to promote diffusion of the technology in these different contexts....

  3. Prospect of solar-PV/biogas/diesel generator hybrid energy system of an off-grid area in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Soumya; Yasmin, Hosna; Sarker, M. R. I.; Beg, M. R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The study presents an analysis and suggests about how renewable sources of energy can be an alternative option to produce electricity in an off-grid area. A case study is done by surveying 235 households in an off-grid area. Techno-economic analysis of the hybrid energy system is employed by using Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software. Four solar-PV modules (each of 1kW), two biogas generators (each of 3kW), three diesel generators (each of 5kW), five batteries (each of 160 Ah) and 5kW converter is found to be the best configuration in terms of Cost of Energy (COE), environmental conditions and Renewable Fraction (RF). The Cost of Energy (COE), Net Present Cost (NPC), capital cost of this configuration is found BDT15.382, BDT10007224, and BDT2582433 respectively. The renewable fraction of this system is found 75% which indicates a lower emission compared with thegrid based system and stand-alone diesel system. Although the COE is higher than grid electricity, this system offers a cheaper option than using kerosene oil and solar home systems (SHSs).

  4. Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-04

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables is already ongoing, but it will be a long and difficult process because the energy system is a gigantic and complex machine. Key renewable energy production data show the remarkable growth of solar electricity technologies and indicate that crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines are the workhorses of the first wave of renewable energy deployment on the TW scale around the globe. The other PV alternatives (e.g., copper/indium/gallium/selenide (CIGS) or CdTe), along with other less mature options, are critically analyzed. As far as fuels are concerned, the situation is significantly more complex because making chemicals with sunshine is far more complicated than generating electric current. The prime solar artificial fuel is molecular hydrogen, which is characterized by an excellent combination of chemical and physical properties. The routes to make it from solar energy (photoelectrochemical cells (PEC), dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPEC), PV electrolyzers) and then synthetic liquid fuels are presented, with discussion on economic aspects. The interconversion between electricity and hydrogen, two energy carriers directly produced by sunlight, will be a key tool to distribute renewable energies with the highest flexibility. The discussion takes into account two concepts that are often overlooked: the energy return on investment (EROI) and the limited availability of natural resources-particularly minerals-which are needed to manufacture energy converters and storage devices on a multi-TW scale. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Market structure refers to the number of firms and the distribution of market shares among firms within an industry. In The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016, we examine market structure in the context of residential solar PV. We find that over 8,000 companies have installed at least one residential PV system, with about 2,900 companies active in 2016. The majority of residential PV installers are relatively small companies, with about half of installers installing fewer than five systems. At the same time, a subset of high-volume installers accumulated market share, especially beginning around 2010 with the emergence of alternative customer financing options.

  6. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    OpenAIRE

    Mya Su Kyi; Lu Maw; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area fall...

  7. Calculating electrical and thermal characteristics of multiple PV array configurations installed in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effendy Ya’acob, M.; Hizam, Hashim; Htay, Myo Than; Radzi, M. Amran M.; Khatib, Tamer; Bakri A, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrical and temperature characteristics of multiple PV array configurations. • Ten months tropical field analysis implying SNL model for array parameter. • Review on T c equations and GEV analysis for rapid fluctuating environmental data. • CPV array projects the highest ΔT of 2.72 °C with G e of 0.36 W/m 2 . • Fixed flat array produces highest parameter values of I sc , V oc , I mp , V mp and P mp . - Abstract: This study intends to define the electrical characteristics and temperature equations of PV array installed in the tropics based on Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) model. Ten units of 1 kW rated PV array namely Fixed Flat (FF), Tracking Flat (TF) and Concentrating (CPV) have been installed at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang District, Malaysia at the coordinate of 2°59′20′′N:101°43′30′′E with tropical-based ground conditions. Electrical characteristics are the main elements of contributions where five operating conditions for CEEG PV Module are applied based on the SNL model to produce array parameter values. It is found that FF array projects the highest operating value of 12.06 A (I sc ), 11.55 A (I mp ), 524.78 V (V oc ), 89.5 V (V mp ), and 1033.7 W (P mp ) with good regression fit and strong correlation R 2 of more than 0.5. The versatility and accuracy of this work have been validated and applied for three different types of PV array system installed in the equatorial doldrum spot of uniform temperature–irradiance, high in humidity–rainfall and generally light wind field conditions. The parameters are calculated using filtered field data sampled at STC of 5% tolerance. Focal point of calculating array temperature (T array ) as means of thermal effect on multiple PV array configurations is highlighted based on recent study on T c equations and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) analysis using field data at site

  8. Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Based Direct-Current Vector Control Strategy for Solar PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAMMALVAR, P.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PIPSO based direct current vector control technology for the integration of photovoltaic array in an AC micro-grid to enhance the system performance and stability. A photovoltaic system incorporated with AC micro-grid is taken as the pursuit of research study. The test system features two power converters namely, PV side converter which consists of DC-DC boost converter with Perturbation and Observe (P&O MPPT control to reap most extreme power from the PV array, and grid side converter which consists of Grid Side-Voltage Source Converter (GS-VSC with proposed direct current vector control strategy. The gain of the proposed controller is chosen from a set of three values obtained using apriori test and tuned through the PIPSO algorithm so that the Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE between the actual and the desired DC link capacitor voltage reaches a minimum and allows the system to extract maximum power from PV system, whereas the existing d-q control strategy is found to perform slowly to control the DC link voltage under varying solar insolation and load fluctuations. From simulation results, it is evident that the proposed optimal control technique provides robust control and improved efficiency.

  9. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  10. Impact of high penetration of wind and solar PV generation on the country power system load: The case study of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komušanac, Ivan; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 69 scenarios of wind and solar PV as a base technology are analysed with EnergyPLAN model. • Pareto analysis is used for selection of the optimal scenario. • Multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. • Results shows optimal mix of 1.65 GW of wind and 1.6 GW of solar PV. - Abstract: Even though the Republic of Croatia is on track of achieving goals set in the Europe 2020 strategy, to achieve the goals set in the 2030 European framework for climate and energy policies will require more effort. The new 2030 framework calls for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% compared to the 1990 level, yet the Republic of Croatia does not have such an ambitious plan. In times when wind plants and photovoltaic systems have reached grid parity in the majority of European countries, this paper analysed the influence of construction of wind and photovoltaic power plants in order to present the optimal constructing ratio of such systems on the Croatian power system load. Simulations have been conducted in the EnergyPLAN model for the year 2012. After the simulation presented promising scenarios, applying the Pareto analysis showed the optimal scenario for generating electricity from renewables, scenario with the lowest import of electricity, scenario with the lowest CO 2 emissions and with the lowest critical excess electricity production. In addition, all of the scenarios were subjected to a multiple criteria decision analysis in order to find the best overall scenario. After showing that the best overall scenario was 1.65 GW of wind power plants and 1.6 GW of installed PV capacity, a multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. Indeed, all of the simulations proved that PV will have a bigger role in the Republic of Croatia than expected.

  11. Numerical investigation of dust pollution on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on an isolated building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of dust pollution on PV panels mounted on building roofs were investigated by CFD. • The dust deposition rates first increased and then decreased with the increase of dust size. • The gravity has different influences on dust deposition rates of large and small dusts. • The influence of released dust number on dust deposition rate is less than 8%. • A simple model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratio by dust pollution. - Abstract: Dust deposition on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on the windward roof of an isolated building was investigated by CFD simulation. The SST k-ω turbulence model with UDF inlet profiles and the discrete particle model (DPM) were adopted to simulate the wind flow fields and the dust deposition behavior, respectively. The CFD wind flow velocity profiles around the building were in good agreement with experimental results reported in the literature. The effects of various dust particle sizes, differing quantities of released dust particles, and the force of gravity on the rates of dust deposition upon the PV panels were investigated in detail. It was found that the dust deposition rate first rose and then declined with the increase of dust particle size. The maximum deposition rate was about 0.28% for 10 μm dust, and the minimum deposition rate was about 0.13% for 50 μm dust. Gravity also had a significant effect on the rate of dust deposition for large-particle dust (d_p > 5 μm), and the rate could reach 75% for 50 μm dust. However, the effect of gravity on dust deposition was less than 5% for small-particle dust (d_p < 5 μm). The effect of releasing differing quantities of dust particles on the dust deposition rate was less than 8%. Moreover, the mechanisms by which dust was deposited on the PV roof were analyzed and discussed. Finally, a simple empirical model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratios in relation to exposure time, as based on this

  12. Multifunctional a-Si PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K; Lund, P; Vartiainen, E [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The optimal use of the various forms of solar energy (passive, active, daylighting, photovoltaics) in buildings calls for an optimal integration of the technologies. As energy conservation potential in space heating may soon be exhausted, electricity efficiency and on-site generation will play an increasing role in energy-conscious building design. There, dispersed PV systems integrated into buildings show a significant market potential, due to a number of benefits: no extra land area is required, PV-array may replace conventional cladding materials and become a building element. Moreover, the produced PV-electricity is more valuable for the building owner than for an electric utility

  13. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.

    2011-09-01

    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  14. Nighttime radiative cooling potential of unglazed and PV/T solar collectors: parametric and experimental analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Nighttime radiative cooling technology has been studied both by means of simulations and experiments, to evaluate its potential and to validate the existing theoretical models used to describe it. Photovoltaic/thermal panels (PV/T) and unglazed solar collectors have been chosen as case studies....... The obtained values showed a good agreement with the ones found in the literature about solar panels or other kinds of heat sinks used for radiative cooling applications. The panels provided a cooling performance per night ranging between 0.2 and 0.9 kWh/m2 of panel. The COP values (defined as the ratio....... An experimental setup has been constructed and tested during summer of 2014, at the Technical University of Denmark. The cooling performance (heat loss) has been measured simultaneously for both types of panels, installed side-by-side. The experimental results have been compared with the results from a commercial...

  15. Solar island electricity supply at Flanitzhuette. Solare Inselstromversorgung Flanitzhuette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, U. (Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this research project is the planning, erection and operation of a permanent electricity supply independent of the grid based on photo-electrics for an isolated hamlet in the Bavarian Forest. Criteria for the development and optimisation of solar electricity supply concepts are to be obtained from practical experience. The investigation and exploitation of energ saving potential and an harmonious integration of the solar plant in the landscape are also important aspects. (orig.)

  16. Comparative Health Risk Assessment of CdTe Solar PV System and Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    In terms of national energy policy decision-making process, several key factors, including low production cost, negligible risk or impact to environment and population around the facility, must be considered. The purpose of this paper is to assess the public health risk in case of postulated nuclear power plant and CdTe solar PV system accident and compare the estimated public health risk. Both systems release toxic materials to the environment which adversely affect nearby population by exposure from the inhalation and ingestion of the toxic material transported via air. By simulating the airborne transport of released toxic material using Gaussian plume model and modeling exposure pathways to nearby population, average individual health risk is assessed and public health risk per power capacity of each system is compared. The result shows that the average public health risk per power capacity of NPP is less than the case of solar PV system. This implies that NPP has lower risk in terms of public health risk in case of severe accident while it can be used as more reliable energy source than renewable energy source so that NPP would take priority over other renewable energy sources in terms of national energy policy

  17. The Geography of Solar Photovoltaics (PV and a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early phases of a 21st century energy transition that involves distributed generation technologies employing low or zero carbon emission power sources and their take-up within Australia, with particular reference to the major cities and solar photovoltaics (PV. This transition is occurring in a nation with significant path dependency to overcome in relation to fossil fuel use. Tracking the diffusion of solar PV technology within Australia over the past decade provides a basis for assessing those factors underpinning its exponential growth and its associated geography of diffusion. Positive evidence that there are pathways for cities to decarbonise is apparent but there appear to be different pathways for different city forms with lower density suburban areas showing the biggest take-up of household-based energy technologies. This suggests a model for the low carbon urban transition involving combinations of simple technological changes and harder structural changes, depending upon which parts of the urban fabric are in focus. This is being called a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory.

  18. Inter-provincial clean development mechanism in China: A case study of the solar PV sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, David A.; Guan, Dabo; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    With ever growing urgency, climate change mitigation is fast becoming a priority for China. A successful policy of implementing and expanding sustainable development and the use of renewable energy is therefore vital. As well as long-term and near-term targets for installed capacity of renewable energy, in its 12th five-year plan, China has created strict and ambitious carbon intensity targets for each province. This study proposes an inter-provincial clean development mechanism to assist in meeting these targets. This mechanism will create potential co-benefits of assisting in sustainable development in lesser developed provinces, increasing local air quality and supporting the growth of China's renewable energy sector. This paper also highlights the potential that this inter-provincial clean development mechanism has in accelerating the growth of the domestic solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, for which the market in China is still in its infancy. - Highlights: ► We recognise the necessity for each province in China to reduce its GHG emissions. ► We assess the potential of a national scale a CDM style mechanism for China. ► We consider the effect that the national CDM could have on solar PV in China

  19. Performance optimization of solar PV systems to meet school's power requirements. A case study of Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Karnataka State - India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsundar, S.; Kayungilo, Shaaban S.

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar PV systems to provide power for lighting and other applications in India's rural areas has became popular due to the well established promotion and subsidies system adopted by the government to popularize the PV technology. However, there are limited mechanisms put to monitor the performance of the various PV systems once they are installed to ensure that designed output is delivered by the systems. This is important in giving confidence and trust of the technology to end-users and hence further popularization of the PV technology among larger population, increasing the penetration rate and tapping the real benefits of the technology itself like reduced dependence on fossil fuels (kerosene, diesel or electricity generated from coal power plants) and thus saving the environment. This paper describes the results of the study made at Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Mysore District of Karnataka State-India. The study was carried out to investigate the possibility for the school to become energy-self sufficient based on renewable energy technologies, thus becoming a role model in the use and promotion of renewable energy sources within Mysore District and Karnataka State at large. (orig.)

  20. Grid tied PV/battery system architecture and power management for fast electric vehicle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed O.

    The prospective spread of Electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) arises the need for fast charging rates. Higher charging rates requirements lead to high power demands, which cant be always supported by the grid. Thus, the use of on-site sources alongside the electrical grid for EVs charging is a rising area of interest. In this dissertation, a photovoltaic (PV) source is used to support the high power EVs charging. However, the PV output power has an intermittent nature that is dependable on the weather conditions. Thus, battery storage are combined with the PV in a grid tied system, providing a steady source for on-site EVs use in a renewable energy based fast charging station. Verily, renewable energy based fast charging stations should be cost effective, efficient, and reliable to increase the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. Thus, this Dissertation proposes a novel power flow management topology that aims on decreasing the running cost along with innovative hardware solutions and control structures for the developed architecture. The developed power flow management topology operates the hybrid system at the minimum operating cost while extending the battery lifetime. An optimization problem is formulated and two stages of optimization, i.e online and offline stages, are adopted to optimize the batteries state of charge (SOC) scheduling and continuously compensate for the forecasting errors. The proposed power flow management topology is validated and tested with two metering systems, i.e unified and dual metering systems. The results suggested that minimal power flow is anticipated from the battery storage to the grid in the dual metering system. Thus, the power electronic interfacing system is designed accordingly. Interconnecting bi-directional DC/DC converters are analyzed, and a cascaded buck boost (CBB) converter is chosen and tested under 80 kW power flow rates. The need to perform power factor correction (PFC) on

  1. 基于模拟太阳辐射强度对自然循环式PV/T系统的实验研究%Simulation Experiment Study of the Effect of Solar Radiation Intensity on PV/T System with Natural Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红岩; 杨洪兴; 吕建; 李宪莉

    2015-01-01

    为提高太阳能的利用率同时得到可资利用的电能和热能,对辐射强度对光伏光热建筑热电联供系统的影响进行实验研究。在太阳能模拟实验室进行了自然循环模式下,太阳辐射强度对系统的发电效率、热效率以及综合效率和一次能源节约率的影响进行分析,结果表明:太阳辐射强度是影响PV/T系统的主要因素。%For the improvement of the availability of solar energy and the obtaining of the available electrical and thermal energy,an experimental study of the effect of radiation intensity on solar hybrid photovoltaic and thermal system(PV/T)is conducted. An analysis of the effect of solar radiation intensity on the power generation efficiency and the thermal effi-ciency,overall efficiency and primary energy saving ratio of the PV/T system is carried out under the circulation pattern at different radiation intensity in the photovoltaic solar simulation laboratory. The result shows that the solar radiation intensity is the major influence factor of PV/T system.

  2. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  3. GIS-based approach for potential analysis of solar PV generation at the regional scale: A case study of Fujian Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yan-wei; Hof, Angela; Wang, Run; Liu, Jian; Lin, Yan-jie; Yang, De-wei

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation of solar energy is crucial for the estimation of the regional potential and selection of construction location. This paper presents a case study of using high resolution grid map of solar radiation combined with the other restriction factors to evaluate the comprehensive potential analysis of solar PV generation at the regional scale, in order to present a framework of decision support tool for solar energy management in a regional area. The cost of PV generation is calculated based on the geographical distribution of technical potential. Moreover, geospatial supply curve (GSC) is employed to portray the evolution of available potential of photovoltaics (PV) generation with the increase of the generation cost. By integrating the economic evaluation variables of net present value and simple payback period, grid-based economic feasibility of PV generation project is then carried out under two feed-in-tariff scenarios. Finally, total CO 2 reduction potential and its spatial distribution in the study area are calculated. The results confirm that PV technology provides high potential for roof-top application and large-scale PV stations. Additionally, determining a reasonable feed-in tariff is essential for expanding the application of solar PV energy. The findings improve understanding of regional renewable energy strategies and the supply/demand assessment. - Highlights: • We developed a grid-based comprehensive potential analysis framework of solar energy at the regional scale. • We evaluated the technical potential of solar PV generation. • We calculated the cost of PV generation and got the geospatial supply curve (GSC) of Fujian Province. • PV technology provides high potential for roof-top application and large-scale PV stations. • Determining a reasonable feed-in tariff is essential for expanding the application of solar PV energy

  4. Preliminary investigation into the use of solar PV systems for residential application in Bandar Sri Iskandar, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimas, F.A.; Gillani, S.I.; Ans, M.S. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    In the near future, Malaysia is expected to be a net importer of oil, and the nation will have to face issues related to the security of supply and economic consequences. It is also anticipated that the energy demand for the country will increase with the increase in population and GDP. Realizing the situation, it is important that further emphasis is given into the diversification of energy resources. One method is the exploitation of renewable energy to minimize the effects of global warming. Photovoltaic technology is widely used around the world in locations with scarce power generation options. It is used for various applications and Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system is one of them. However, photovoltaic is still expensive compared to conventional methods of generating electricity. So a careful design of the system is required to ensure economic viability. This study describes a preliminary investigation of a solar PV system for residential applications in Bandar Sri Iskandar. Sizing procedures based on the peak sun hour concept is described for a Malaysian typical terraced house. Current and voltage measurements of the solar panel were carried out to predict the output under actual conditions at the site.

  5. Impact of roof integrated PV orientation on the residential electricity peak demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadineni, Suresh B.; Atallah, Fady; Boehm, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A study to demonstrate peak load reductions at the substation. ► A new residential energy efficient community named Villa Trieste is being developed. ► The peak demand from the homes has decreased by 38% through energy efficiency. ► Orientation of roof integrated PV has less influence on the summer peak demand. ► Increasing thermostat temperature during peak by 1 °C can significantly reduce peaks. -- Abstract: Peak electricity demand has been an issue in the Desert Southwest region of the US, due to extreme summer temperatures. To address this issue, a consortium was formed between the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Pulte Homes, and NV Energy. An energy efficient residential community was developed by the team in Las Vegas with approximately 200 homes to study substation-level peak reduction strategies. A summer peak reduction of more than 65%, between 1:00 PM and 7:00 PM, compared to code standard housing developments is the targeted goal of the project. Approximately 50 homes are already built and some are occupied. The energy performances of the homes have been monitored and are presented in this paper. Several peak electric load reduction strategies such as energy efficiency in buildings, roof integrated photovoltaics (PV) and direct load control have been applied. Though all the homes in the developed community are installed with 1.8 kW p PV systems, the orientation of the PV system depends on the building orientation. Focus of this paper is to find the impact of PV orientation on the peak load from a building. In addition, different time-of-use (TOU) energy pricing options are offered by the local electrical utility company. Hence it is important to find an optimal pricing option for each building. A computer model has been developed for one of the homes in the new development using building energy simulation code, ENERGY-10. Calculations on the PV orientations have shown that a south and 220° (i.e. 40° west of due south

  6. Power Enhancement of Partial Shaded PV Array by Optimizing the Electrical Connection of Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mengyao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maximum output power (Pmax generated from photovoltaic (PV array will be apparently reduced if the array is partially shaded. In order to enhance Pmax generated from partial shaded PV array, several interconnection schemes of array are proposed. Among these schemes, the totally cross tied (TCT scheme and the recently proposed static scheme are widely discussed. It was reported that Pmax produced with static scheme is equal to the TCT scheme even under worst conditions. However, in these simulations the illumination of every single module is assumed to be uniform, but in urban environments the illumination of modules on the edge of shadow is more likely to be non-uniform. In this paper, first, a comprehensive circuit-level simulation, which is implemented in PSpice, has been done to investigate performance of PV array with both TCT scheme and static scheme under different partial shading conditions. And the results show that Pmax generated from static scheme is higher than that form TCT scheme if the illumination of every single module is uniform, however if some modules are partially shaded, the Pmax with static scheme is more likely less than that with TCT scheme. Then, the electrical connection of a module is improved for the purpose of enhancing Pmax under partial shading conditions in which some modules in the array are partially shaded. And the simulation results show that Pmax is apparently increased by employing the improved modules.

  7. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumaraguru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company

    2017-10-03

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods, which combine the fidelity of hardware tests with the flexibility of computer simulation. This paper summarizes a study wherein two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models using an OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters based on characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders using physical inverters. Selected results are presented in this paper, and complete results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  8. CISBAT 2007 - Solar collectors (heat and electricity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This is the third part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Building and urban integration of renewables the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Facade integration of solar thermal collectors: present and future', 'Long term experiences with a versatile PV in roof system', 'Development of a design and performance prediction tool for the ground source heat pump and underground thermal storage system', 'Hygrothermal performance of earth-to-air heat exchanger: long-term data evaluation and short-term simulation' as well as 'The real cost of heating your home: a comparative assessment of home energy systems with external costs'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage', 'Analysis of forced convection for evaporative air flow and heat transfer in PV cooling channels', 'Renewable energy technology in Mali: constraints and options for a sustainable development', 'Effect of duct width in ducted photovoltaic facades', 'Design and actual measurement of a ground source heat pump system using steel foundation piles as ground heat exchangers', 'Development of an integrated water-water heat pump unit for low energy house and its application', 'PV effect in multilayer cells and blending of fullerene/poly (3-hexylthiophene) and phthalocyanine having NIR charge transfer absorption band', 'CdTe photovoltaic systems - an alternative energetic', 'Integration of renewable energy sources in a town, examples in Grenoble', 'A prospective analysis method for the conception of solar integration solutions in buildings' and 'Energy and aesthetic improvements for building integration of cost effective solar energy systems'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar PV at the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of solar renewable energy generation at the Atlas Industrial Park. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV configurations. In addition, the study evaluates financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  11. Solar radiation - to - power generation models for one-axis tracking PV system with on-site measurements from Eskisehir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Tansu; Başaran Filik, Ümmühan; Nezih Gerek, Ömer

    2017-11-01

    In this study, new analytic models are proposed for mapping on-site global solar radiation values to electrical power output values in solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. The model extraction is achieved by simultaneously recording solar radiation and generated power from fixed and tracking panels, each with capacity of 3 kW, in Eskisehir (Turkey) region. It is shown that the relation between the solar radiation and the corresponding electric power is not only nonlinear, but it also exhibits an interesting time-varying characteristic in the form of a hysteresis function. This observed radiation-to-power relation is, then, analytically modelled with three piece-wise function parts (corresponding to morning, noon and evening times), which is another novel contribution of this work. The model is determined for both fixed panels and panels with a tracking system. Especially the panel system with a dynamic tracker produces a harmonically richer (with higher values in general) characteristic, so higher order polynomial models are necessary for the construction of analytical solar radiation models. The presented models, characteristics of the hysteresis functions, and differences in the fixed versus solar-tracking panels are expected to provide valuable insight for further model based researches.

  12. Electric motorcycle charging station powered by solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwattanapong, Akarawat; Chantharasenawong, Chawin

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a design and verification of an off-grid photovoltaic system (PVS) for electric motorcycle charging station to be located in King’s Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand. The system is designed to work independently (off-grid) and it must be able to fully charge the batteries of a typical passenger electric motorcycle every evening. A 1,000W Toyotron electric motorcycle is chosen for this study. It carries five units of 12.8V 20Ah batteries in series; hence its maximum energy requirement per day is 1,200Wh. An assessment of solar irradiation data and the Generation Factor in Bangkok, Thailand suggests that the charging system consists of one 500W PV panel, an MPPT charge controller, 48V 150Ah battery, a 1,000W DC to AC inverter and other safety devices such as fuses and breakers. An experiment is conducted to verify the viability of the off-grid PVS charging station by collecting the total daily energy generation data in the raining season and winter. The data suggests that the designed off-grid solar power charging station for electric motorcycle is able to supply sufficient energy for daily charging requirements.

  13. Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of analyses of large-scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic (PV) and wave power into a Danish reference energy system. The possibility of integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into the electricity supply is expressed in terms of the ability to avoid...... ancillary services are needed in order to secure the electricity supply system. The idea is to benefit from the different patterns in the fluctuations of different renewable sources. And the purpose is to identify optimal mixtures from a technical point of view. The optimal mixture seems to be when onshore...... wind power produces approximately 50% of the total electricity production from RES. Meanwhile, the mixture between PV and wave power seems to depend on the total amount of electricity production from RES. When the total RES input is below 20% of demand, PV should cover 40% and wave power only 10%. When...

  14. Techno-economic analysis of stand alone solar pv systems for remote base stations in Ghana. (a case study at Abofrem vodafone cell site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkyira, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) have become an important part of today’s global economy. ICT infrastructural development is developing at a very fast pace in Ghana. Growth is above the 1.1% average for Sub-Saharan Africa. The growth in the sector has meant a massive investment in telecommunication infrastructure such as base stations from telecom companies such as Vodafone, Millicom, Glo, Espresso, MTN etc. Hundreds of base stations have been installed all over the country. Currently base stations depend mainly on the national grid, with diesel generators as backups, for its power requirement. In some remote or hilly areas where there are no grid supplied electricity, base stations are usually powered with diesel fuelled generators since lengthy grid extensions may not be cost effective. In addition to high fuel delivery and consumption costs, maintenance of the generators can also be expensive in terms of parts and labour time working on the unit. There are also concerns about environmental pollution using diesel generators. Photovoltaic technology has the ability to convert solar energy into electricity consuming no fossil fuels, using no moving parts, creating no pollution and noise, and lasting for years with little maintenance. The environmental, noise, reliability and power availability benefits of the PV system make it an attractive option. Ghana, being a few degrees north of the equator, is endowed with enormous solar energy resource spread across the entire country. Daily solar radiation level ranges from 4 kWh/m 2 to 6 kWh/m 2 . The annual sunshine duration ranges between 1800 to 3000 hours offering very high potential for grid connected and off grid applications. In this thesis work, the use of solar PV technology as a cost effective source of power for cellular base stations in remote or hilly areas, far off the national grid, is reviewed. RETScreen software is used to determine the technical and financial viability of the PV system

  15. PV Status Report 2009. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2009-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a key technology option to realise the shift to a decarbonised energy supply. The solar resources in Europe and world wide are abundant and cannot be monopolised by one country. Regardless for what reasons and how fast the oil price and energy prices increase in the future, Photovoltaics and other renewable energies are the only ones to offer a reduction of prices rather than an increase in the future. As a response to the economic crisis, most of the G20 countries have designed economic recovery packages which include 'green stimulus' measures. However, compared to the new Chinese Energy Revitalisation Plan under discussion, the pledged investments in green energy are marginal. If no changes are made, China which now strongly supports its renewable energy industry, will emerge even stronger after the current financial crisis. In 2008, the Photovoltaic industry production almost doubled and reached a world-wide production volume of 7.3 GWp of Photovoltaic modules. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were in average more than 40%, which makes Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect lower prices for consumers. The trend that thin-film Photovoltaics grew faster than the overall PV market continued in 2008. The Eighth Edition of the 'PV Status Report' tries to give an overview about the current activities regarding Research, Manufacturing and Market Implementation.

  16. Innovative business models and financing mechanisms for distributed solar PV (DSPV) deployment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese government has in recent years put in place a large number of incentive policies for distributed solar PV (DSPV). However, some of these policies have not been well performed due to many constraints, particularly the lack of innovative business models and financing mechanisms. This paper looks into this issue through the approach of combining literature review and interactive research, including interactions with managers from China's policy and commercial banks and PV projects. A comprehensive literature review on DSPV business models and financing mechanisms are firstly reviewed. Then the rapid evolving business models and financing mechanisms in the United States are examined, which provides some insights for China. Subsequent to this, the existing innovative business models and financing mechanisms for DSPV deployment in China and challenges facing them are discussed. Built on this discussion, policy recommendations are provided at the end of the paper. This study provides some insights for renewable energy policy makers in China as well as in other countries. - Highlights: •Reviewed literature on DSPV business models and financing mechanisms. •Presented the US DSPV business models and financing mechanisms. •Examined China's DSPV business models and financing mechanisms. •Made policy recommendations for DSPV deployment in China.

  17. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  18. Homo-Tandem Polymer Solar Cells withVOC>1.8 V for Efficient PV-Driven Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2016-03-06

    Efficient homo-tandem and triple-junction polymer solar cells are constructed by stacking identical subcells composed of the wide-bandgap polymer PBDTTPD, achieving power conversion efficiencies >8% paralleled by open-circuit voltages >1.8 V. The high-voltage homo-tandem is used to demonstrate PV-driven electrochemical water splitting with an estimated solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ≈6%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  19. Energy performance of water hybrid PV/T collectors applied to combisystems of Direct Solar Floor type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, G.; Johannes, K. [Laboratoire Optimisation de la Conception et Ingenierie de l' Environnement, Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Chambery, Campus Scientifique Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Menezo, C. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Bat. Freyssinet, 20, Avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-11-15

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) modules in buildings allows one to consider a multifunctional frame and then to reduce the cost by substitution of components. In order to limit the rise of the cell operating temperature, a photovoltaics/thermal (PV/T) collector combines a solar water heating collector and PV cells. The recovered heat energy can be used for heating systems and domestic hot water. A combination with a Direct Solar Floor is studied. Its low operating temperature level is appropriate for the operating conditions of the mono- or poly-crystalline photovoltaic modules which are selected in that study. However, for a system including a glass covered collector and localised in Macon area in France, we show that the annual photovoltaic cell efficiency is 6.8% which represents a decrease of 28% in comparison with a conventional non-integrated PV module of 9.4% annual efficiency. This is obviously due to a temperature increase related to the cover. On the other hand, we show that without a glass cover, the efficiency is 10% which is 6% better than a standard module due to the cooling effect. Moreover, in the case of a glazed PV/T collector with a conventional control system for Direct Solar Floor, the maximum temperature reached at the level of the PV modules is higher than 100{sup o}C. This is due to the oversize of the collectors during the summer when the heating needs are null, i.e. without a heated swimming pool for example. This temperature level does not allow the use of EVA resin (ethylene vinyl acetate) in PV modules due to strong risks of degradation. The current solution consists of using amorphous cells or, if we do not enhance the thermal production, uncovered PV/T collector. Further research led to water hybrid PV/T solar collectors as a one-piece component, both reliable and efficient, and including the thermal absorber, the heat exchanger and the photovoltaic functions. (author)

  20. Simulation model of ANN based maximum power point tracking controller for solar PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Anil K.; Singh, Bhupal [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad 201009 (India); Kaushika, N.D.; Agarwal, Niti [School of Research and Development, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Engineering, A-4 Paschim Vihar, New Delhi 110063 (India)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper the simulation model of an artificial neural network (ANN) based maximum power point tracking controller has been developed. The controller consists of an ANN tracker and the optimal control unit. The ANN tracker estimates the voltages and currents corresponding to a maximum power delivered by solar PV (photovoltaic) array for variable cell temperature and solar radiation. The cell temperature is considered as a function of ambient air temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. The tracker is trained employing a set of 124 patterns using the back propagation algorithm. The mean square error of tracker output and target values is set to be of the order of 10{sup -5} and the successful convergent of learning process takes 1281 epochs. The accuracy of the ANN tracker has been validated by employing different test data sets. The control unit uses the estimates of the ANN tracker to adjust the duty cycle of the chopper to optimum value needed for maximum power transfer to the specified load. (author)

  1. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd.Ikram Mohd. Rashid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the amount of sunlight captured by the photovoltaic modules/arrays. This paper describes a simple electro-mechanical dual axis solar tracking system designed and developed in a study. The control of the two axes was achieved by the pulses generated from the data acquisition (DAQ card fed into four relays. This approach was so chosen to effectively avoid the error that usually arises in sensor-based methods. The programming of the mathematical models of the solar elevation and azimuth angles was done using Borland C++ Builder. The performance and accuracy of the developed system was evaluated with a PV panel at latitude 3.53o N and longitude 103.5o W in Malaysia. The results obtained reflect the effectiveness of the developed tracking system in terms of the energy yield when compared with that generated from a fixed panel. Overall, 20%, 23% and 21% additional energy were produced for the months of March, April and May respectively using the tracker developed in this study.

  2. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  3. The limits to solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power

  4. Annual technical report. PV domestic field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report describes progress at the first five sites of the UK photovoltaic (PV) domestic field trial. All five sites are generating electricity, but one has not yet been commissioned and two sites are not yet monitoring performance. The BedZED development has roof-mounted PV modules and PV cells installed in sealed double-glazing. Solar slates/tiles have been installed at the Laing Homes development in Montagu Road, where the designer has sought to minimise the visual impact of the PV system on the roofs. At Hunters Moon, PV modules have been retrofitted and some unforeseen difficulties have arisen. PV is an integral part of the roof design at the state-of-the-art low energy development by Integer Houses at Greenfields. Corn Croft uses a British mounting system to facilitate integration of the modules flush with the roof. Installation issues and the progress of the trial are discussed.

  5. An innovation management approach for renewable energy deployment. The case of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Kwok L.; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    In the discussion of renewable energy deployment, one key concern is the various types of barriers that renewable energy needs to overcome before it can make its way into the mainstream. These barriers increasingly shift from the technical to the economic and institutional. The most general types of barriers are due to technological 'lock-out' or to carbon 'lock-in' [. Understanding carbon lock-in. Energy Policy 28(12), 817-830 (Elsevier)]. These barriers necessitate the development of a strategic approach to deploy or introduce renewable energy technology. Existing energy policy has mostly relied upon financial subsidies, market-based instruments such as renewable portfolio standards, and production tax credits to stimulate the installation and use of equipment to generate electricity from renewable sources. These strategies target mostly system-level decisions of end users. The purpose of this paper is to present an innovation perspective on the renewable energy deployment process by introducing the innovation value-added chain (IVC) framework. The analytical objective of IVC is to evaluate the impact of a new innovation on the various stakeholders and players in the development and deployment processes. A deployment or innovation strategy that causes minimal disruption, enhances existing competencies, or expedites new learning by the players has a higher chance to succeed. We draw upon two sets of system integration costs data for grid-connected distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in Japan and the United States and demonstrate conspicuously different dynamic learning behaviors. These two deployment models can be understood in terms of how the IVCs are organized and how PV system integration projects are performed in the field. In addition, IVC-based findings can inform the targeted application of conventional financial subsidies for learning investment not only at the PV system level, but also at the (localized) system integration level. This would involve

  6. Solar electric propulsion for Mars transport vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. M.; Curtis, H. B.; Alexander, S. W.; Gilland, J. H.; Hack, K. J.; Lawrence, C.; Swartz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is an alternative to chemical and nuclear powered propulsion systems for both piloted and unpiloted Mars transport vehicles. Photovoltaic solar cell and array technologies were evaluated as components of SEP power systems. Of the systems considered, the SEP power system composed of multijunction solar cells in an ENTECH domed fresnel concentrator array had the least array mass and area. Trip times to Mars optimized for minimum propellant mass were calculated. Additionally, a preliminary vehicle concept was designed.

  7. Improving the Energy Management of a Solar Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUNESER, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A solar electric vehicle (SEV is an electric vehicle (EV with onboard photovoltaic cells charging a set of batteries for extended driving range. This study aimed to improve the energy management system of a SEV, called YILDIZ, using a fuzzy logic control system (FLC. A MATLAB based simulation model of three basic components of a solar car: solar cell modules, batteries and motor drive system was performed. An original FLC was developed. For proving its applicability, the performances of the SEV were tested by simulation, in accordance with the standard test drive cycle ECE-15. The characteristics obtained with the original Proportional Integral Fuzzy Logic Control (PI-FLC were compared with those obtained with a classical Proportional Integral (PI controller. Using the designed model, we calculated the range of YILDIZ with and without PV feeding which gave us an opportunity to study and compare both SEV and EV models on real race-track situation. Then the optimum speed, at any time, which enabled the vehicle to reach a chosen destination as quickly as possible, while fully using the available energy, was calculated. Proposed solutions tested on YILDIZ. Results of simulations were compared with YILDIZ run on the Formula-G race track in Izmit, Turkey.

  8. Progress commercializing solar-electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracker, R.; De Laquil, P. III

    1996-01-01

    The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies -- photovoltaic and solar thermal -- is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed

  9. Design and preliminary operation of a hybrid syngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohsri, Sompol; Meechai, Apichart; Prapainainar, Chaiwat

    2018-01-01

    , in this study a customized hybrid power system integrating solar, biomass (syngas) power and battery storage system is evaluated a pilot scale for micro off-grid application. This paper shows that for a reliability of a hybrid syngas/solar PV system along with rechargeable batteries, the syngas generator can......Due to the irregular nature of solar resource, solar photovoltaic (PV) system alone cannot satisfy load on a 24/7 demand basis, especially with increasing regional population in developing countries such as Thailand. A hybrid solar PV/biomass based along with battery storage system has been drawing....... Furthermore, the generator has to be always synchronized during the commissioning time. Battery state of charge (SOC) in percent (%) connecting with syngas is greater than solar PV and the charging time appears significantly shorter than that one. All possible combinations between an innovation and existing...

  10. Electricity and heat from solar panels. What is the perspective for solar heat and power?; Stroom en warmte uit zonnepanelen. Wat is het perspectief voor zonnewarmtekracht?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebregt, R.

    2012-10-15

    PV thermal solar panels can get the maximum amount of energy from the available roof area. The electrical efficiency improves because panels are cooled by collector fluid. When the demand for warm water is permanently high and roof area is scarce, this technique can offer a solution. In California, a Stirling engine converts bundled sunlight in electricity [Dutch] Met pv-thermische zonnepanelen haal je een maximale hoeveelheid energie van het beschikbare dakoppervlak. Het elektrische rendement verbetert doordat de panelen worden gekoeld door de collectorvloeistof. Wanneer de vraag naar warm water continu hoog is en het dakoppervlak schaars, is deze techniek een uitkomst. In California zet een stirlingmotor gebundeld zonlicht om in elektriciteit.

  11. Deconstructing the dichotomies of solar photovoltaic (PV) dissemination trajectories in Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe from the 1960s to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawakyillenuo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The profuse dissemination and utilisation of solar PV technology in the world is indispensable, especially in this era of climate change. However, in the African continent, between 1960 and 2007 Kenya and Zimbabwe were among countries with the highest PV dissemination, while Ghana was among countries with the least disseminations. Analysing empirical data through the lens of the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory, the article aims to uncover the drivers underpinning the disparate dissemination trends of PV in the three countries within the stated period and to tease out lessons apropos replicating the successes within Kenya and Zimbabwe in Ghana. SCOT theory is chosen because it provides an excellent framework for analysing the social shaping of PV's development and diffusion processes in these countries. This theory posits that the shape and meanings of a technology do not reside in it, but are acquired through the heterogeneity of social interactions. Findings in the paper reveal that a gamut of socio-economic and political antecedents informed the varied dissemination outcomes of the technology in these countries. Premised on these findings, the paper recommends critical steps, which Ghana needs to undertake to enhance the replication of the Kenyan and Zimbabwean PV success stories. - Highlights: ► I examined the disparate disseminations of PV in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Ghana. ► Kenya's PV market successes not down to private sector alone. ► Varied antecedents underpin the dissimilar disseminations of PV in these countries. ► Replication of Kenya and Zimbabwe success stories in Ghana demands certain factors.

  12. Optimal design of orientation of PV/T collector with reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Lj.T.; Pavlovic, T.M.; Pavlovic, Z.T.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid conversion of solar radiation implies simultaneous solar radiation conversion into thermal and electrical energy in the PV/Thermal collector. In order to get more thermal and electrical energy, flat solar radiation reflectors have been mounted on PV/T collector. To obtain higher solar radiation intensity on PV/T collector, position of reflectors has been changed and optimal position of reflectors has been determined by both experimental measurements and numerical calculation so as to obtain maximal concentration of solar radiation intensity. The calculated values have been found to be in good agreement with the measured ones, both yielding the optimal position of the flat reflector to be the lowest (5 o ) in December and the highest (38 o ) in June. In this paper, the thermal and electrical efficiency of PV/T collector without reflectors and with reflectors in optimal position have been calculated. Using these results, the total efficiency and energy-saving efficiency of PV/T collector have been determined. Energy-saving efficiency for PV/T collector without reflectors is 60.1%, which is above the conventional solar thermal collector, whereas the energy-saving efficiency for PV/T collector with reflectors in optimal position is 46.7%, which is almost equal to the values for conventional solar thermal collector. Though the energy-saving efficiency of PV/T collector decreases slightly with the solar radiation intensity concentration factor, i.e. the thermal and electrical efficiency of PV/T collector with reflectors are lower than those of PV/T collector without reflectors, the total thermal and electrical energy generated by PV/T collector with reflectors in optimal position are significantly higher than total thermal and electrical energy generated by PV/T collector without reflectors.

  13. Cheap electricity with autonomous solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouwens, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the costs of an autonomous solar cell system and a centralized electricity supply system. In both cases investment costs are the main issue. It is shown that for households in densely populated sunny areas, the use of autonomous solar cell systems is - even with today's market prices - only as expensive or even cheaper than a grid connection, as long as efficient electric appliances are used. The modular nature of solar cell systems makes it possible to start with any number of appliances, depending on the amount of money available to be spent. (author)

  14. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  15. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  16. Numerical study of PV/T-SAHP system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang PEI; Jie JI; Ke-liang LIU; Han-feng HE; Ai-guo JIANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy effectively and to achieve a higher electrical efficiency by limiting the operating temperature of the photovoltaic (PV) panel, a novel photovoltaic/thermal solar-assisted heat pump (PV/T-SAHP) system was proposed and constructed. The hybrid solar system generates electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. A distributed parameters model of the PV/T-SAHP system was developed and applied to analyze the system dynamic performance in terms of PV action, photothermal action and Rankine cycle processes. The simulation results indicated that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed PV/T-SAHP can be much better than that of the conventional heat pump. Both PV-efficiency and photothermic efficiency have been improved considerably. The results also showed that the performance of this PV/T-SAHP system was strongly influenced by the evaporator area, tube pitch and tilt angle of the PV/T evaporator, which are the key factors in PV/T-SAHP system optimization and PV/T evaporator design.

  17. Large Scale Solar Power Integration in Distribution Grids : PV Modelling, Voltage Support and Aggregation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Long term supporting schemes for photovoltaic (PV) system installation have led to accommodating large numbers of PV systems within load pockets in distribution grids. High penetrations of PV systems can cause new technical challenges, such as voltage rise due to reverse power flow during light load

  18. Environmental and exergy benefit of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassani, Samir; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, Saad; Taylor, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental and ExPBT analysis of different PV/T configurations is presented. • The exergy payback time of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is about 2 years. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is a reliable solution for pollution prevention. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is highly recommended at high solar concentration. - Abstract: Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems, which produce both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously, represent a method to achieve very high conversion rates of sunlight into useful energy. In recent years, nanofluids have been proposed as efficient coolants and optical filter for PV/T systems. Aim of this paper is to theoretically analyze the life cycle exergy of three different configurations of nanofluids-based PV/T hybrid systems, and compare their performance to a standard PV and PV/T system. Electrical and thermal performance of the analyzed solar collectors was investigated numerically. The life cycle exergy analysis revealed that the nanofluids-based PV/T system showed the best performance compared to a standard PV and PV/T systems. At the optimum value of solar concentration C, nanofluid-based PV/T configuration with optimized optical and thermal properties produces ∼1.3 MW h/m 2 of high-grade exergy annually with the lowest exergy payback time of 2 years, whereas these are ∼0.36, ∼0.79 MW h/m 2 and 3.48, 2.55 years for standard PV and PV/T systems, respectively. In addition, the nanofluids-based PV/T system can prevent the emissions of about 448 kg CO 2 eq m −2 yr −1 . Overall, it was found that the nanofluids-based PV/T with optimized optical and thermal properties has potential for further development in a high-concentration solar system.

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, Andre; Jacquin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The overall power of installed PV systems in France in 2007 was 31,3 MW which represents a significant growth compared to 2006. This increase is mainly due to the national fiscal measures (new feed-in tariff and tax credit) launched in 2006. The implemented feed-in tariff model application supports building integration of photovoltaic generators with a much higher financial incentive than other type of photovoltaic installations. In the same way, local authorities like regional councils and departmental councils developed new policies to promote photovoltaics through specific grants. As the building integration of photovoltaic generators is encouraged by a feed-in tariff bonus, innovative products are appearing on the market or are under development. In parallel, actors like architects, designers, engineers are now paying attention to building integration of photovoltaic components (BIPV). New actors such as financial institutions, energy operators, and private investors have developed ambitious projects. With the increase of the market, new firms have been created including engineering, consultancies, electricity producers, PV products distributors and retailers, installation and maintenance companies. Photovoltaic industrial sector is getting stronger and large investments have been undertaken in order to develop a vertical integration of the photovoltaic value chain, from feedstock silicon production to final photovoltaic products. A new private-public consortium called 'PV Alliance Lab Fab' has been set up and an important R and D project under the name of 'Solar Nano Crystal' should start by the end of 2008. At the same time, R and D activities focus on photovoltaic silicon cells/modules conversion efficiency and long term reliability, production costs, new materials and device design, yield, environmental impact of industrial processes and optimisation of control and monitoring of photovoltaic systems. In addition to the ADEME and ANR

  20. Can hybrid solar-fossil power plants mitigate CO2 at lower cost than PV or CSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2013-03-19

    Fifteen of the United States and several nations require a portion of their electricity come from solar energy. We perform an engineering-economic analysis of hybridizing concentrating solar thermal power with fossil fuel in an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) generator. We construct a thermodynamic model of an ISCC plant in order to examine how much solar and fossil electricity is produced and how such a power plant would operate, given hourly solar resource data and hourly electricity prices. We find that the solar portion of an ISCC power plant has a lower levelized cost of electricity than stand-alone solar power plants given strong solar resource in the US southwest and market conditions that allow the capacity factor of the solar portion of the power plant to be above 21%. From a local government perspective, current federal subsidies distort the levelized cost of electricity such that photovoltaic electricity is slightly less expensive than the solar electricity produced by the ISCC. However, if the cost of variability and additional transmission lines needed for stand-alone solar power plants are taken into account, the solar portion of an ISCC power plant may be more cost-effective.

  1. On the Path to SunShot. Emerging Issues and Challenges in Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Electrical Generation and Transmission System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report examines how the bulk power system may need to evolve to accommodate the increased photovoltaic (PV) penetration resulting from achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot cost targets. The variable and uncertain nature of PV-generated electricity presents grid-integration challenges. For example, the changing net load associated with high midday PV generation and low electricity demand can create 'overgeneration' that requires curtailment of PV output and reduces PV's value and cost-competitiveness. Accommodating the changes in net load resulting from increased variable generation requires enhancements to a power system's 'flexibility,' or ability to balance supply and demand over multiple time scales through options including changes in system operation, flexible generation, reserves from solar, demand response, energy storage, and enhanced transmission and regional coordination. For utility-scale PV with a baseline SunShot levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh, increasing the annual energy demand met by solar energy from 10% to 20% would increase the marginal LCOE of PV from 6 cents/kWh to almost 11 cents/kWh in a California grid system with limited flexibility. However, increasing system flexibility could minimize solar curtailment and keep PV cost-competitive at penetrations at least as high as 25%. In the longer term, energy storage technologies--such as concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage--could facilitate the cost-effective integration of even higher PV penetration. Efficient deployment of the grid-flexibility options needed to maintain solar's value will require various innovations, from the development of communication, control, and energy storage technologies to the implementation of new market rules and operating procedures.

  2. Household level innovation diffusion model of photo-voltaic (PV) solar cells from stated preference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Towhidul

    2014-01-01

    We focus on predicting the adoption time probabilities of photo-voltaic solar panels by households using discrete choice experiments and an innovation diffusion model. The primary objective of this research is cohesively mapping the theory of disruptive innovation into diffusion of innovations to aid policy makers by linking two critical uncertainties of new technology: (1) whether households prefer the new attributes of the new technology and how these preferences vary by market segments? and (2) when are they going to adopt (if at all)? Our study uses recent developments of discrete choice experiments and establishes a causal link between the attributes of the technology, attitudinal constructs and socio-demographics, and adoption time probabilities using the Bass diffusion model. The data was collected from Ontario, a province of Canada. The innovation diffusion model allows us to compute the cumulative probability of adoption over time per household. Technology awareness and energy cost saving have a significant effect on the adoption probability, reinforcing the need for effective education. These findings also suggest that campaigns should explain more about investment criteria, feed-in tariffs and environmental attributes. This study findings call for a need to use seeding strategies to accelerate exogenous Word-of-Mouth (WOM) for this new technology. - Highlights: • Adoption of renewable energy (i.e. solar PV panels) and theory of disruptive innovations. • Household level innovation diffusion model from discrete choice experiments with time intent questions. • Variation in adoption probabilities by market segments. • Promotions should explain new attributes and lack of consistency of households especially on market develop policies. • Data from Ontario, province of Canada, with generous feed-in tariff for solar households

  3. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  4. Photovoltaics: sunny spells ahead for solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastow, James

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies presents an overview of the photovoltaic (PV) sector in the UK covering PV technology, the manufacture of monocrystalline silicon and thin-film PV cells, and PV applications in stand-alone systems and grid-connected systems. The steady growth in the UK PV industry, the building integrated market, and the government's concern over the UK's slow progress are discussed. The announcement of the Department of Trade and Industry's market stimulation programme, reduced value added tax (VAT) on PV systems, and showcase PV installations such as the Sydney 2000 Olympics project are listed as recent highlights

  5. Solar Pumping : The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2018-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic water pumping (SWP) uses energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to power an electric water pump. The entire process, from sunlight to stored energy, is elegant and simple. Over last seven years, the technology and price of solar pumping have evolved dramatically and hence the opportunities it presents. Solar pumping is most competitive in regions with high solar inso...

  6. Realistic generation cost of solar photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parm Pal; Singh, Sukhmeet

    2010-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants have long working life with zero fuel cost and negligible maintenance cost but requires huge initial investment. The generation cost of the solar electricity is mainly the cost of financing the initial investment. Therefore, the generation cost of solar electricity in different years depends on the method of returning the loan. Currently levelized cost based on equated payment loan is being used. The static levelized generation cost of solar electricity is compared with the current value of variable generation cost of grid electricity. This improper cost comparison is inhibiting the growth of SPV electricity by creating wrong perception that solar electricity is very expensive. In this paper a new method of loan repayment has been developed resulting in generation cost of SPV electricity that increases with time like that of grid electricity. A generalized capital recovery factor has been developed for graduated payment loan in which capital and interest payment in each installment are calculated by treating each loan installment as an independent loan for the relevant years. Generalized results have been calculated which can be used to determine the cost of SPV electricity for a given system at different places. Results show that for SPV system with specific initial investment of 5.00 cents /kWh/year, loan period of 30 years and loan interest rate of 4% the levelized generation cost of SPV electricity with equated payment loan turns out to be 28.92 cents /kWh, while the corresponding generation cost with graduated payment loan with escalation in annual installment of 8% varies from 9.51 cents /kWh in base year to 88.63 cents /kWh in 30th year. So, in this case, the realistic current generation cost of SPV electricity is 9.51 cents /kWh and not 28.92 cents /kWh. Further, with graduated payment loan, extension in loan period results in sharp decline in cost of SPV electricity in base year. Hence, a policy change is required

  7. Solar energy for electricity and fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Ingan?s, Olle; Sundstr?m, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorga...

  8. Sustained orderly development of the solar electric technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the need of electric utilities to support the commercialization of solar electric technologies now in order to have the technology available for future energy resources. The topics of the article include deteriorating opportunities, sustained orderly development of solar electric technologies, historical aspects, and market forces in the solar electric industry

  9. Solar electricity in Africa: a reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas van der, R.J.; Hankins, M.

    1998-01-01

    This work is based on a random sample survey of 410 solar electricity systems in eight districts in Kenya. Actual technical performance and the perception of the users were analyzed with a view to determine how real the option of solar electricity is, and what needs to be done to facilitate it further. The survey was carried out by Energy Alternatives Africa, a Kenyan NGO, and financed under the ESMAP 1 program of the World Bank. The article expresses the opinions of the authors and not of their institutions; The authors are solely responsible for the contents. (Author)

  10. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  11. Is Germany's energy transition a case of successful green industrial policy? Contrasting wind and solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegels, Anna; Lütkenhorst, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the challenge of Germany's energy transition (Energiewende) as the centrepiece of the country's green industrial policy. In addition to contributing to global climate change objectives, the Energiewende is intended to create a leading position for German industry in renewable energy technologies, boost innovative capabilities and create employment opportunities in future growth markets at the least possible cost. The success in reaching these aims, and indeed the future of the entire concept, is hotly debated. The paper aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of what has become a fierce controversy by comparing solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy along five policy objectives: (1) competitiveness, (2) innovation, (3) job creation, (4) climate change mitigation, and (5) cost. We find mixed evidence that Germany reaches its green industrial policy aims at reasonable costs. Wind energy seems to perform better against all policy objectives, while the solar PV sector has come under intense pressure from international competition. However, this is only a snapshot of current performance, and the long term and systemic perspective required for the energy sector transformation suggests a need for a balanced mix of a variety of clean energy sources. - Highlights: • We give an up-to-date assessment of costs and benefits of Germany's Energiewende. • We compare solar PV and wind to show key elements of policy success. • Considered policy objectives: competitiveness, innovation, jobs, emissions, costs. • Wind energy seems to perform better than solar PV against all policy objectives. • The results are a snapshot: a deep transformation requires energy diversification

  12. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheim, R.

    1993-01-01

    Electric cars must have the same safety standards as those which are now state of the art for the compact class of car. Electric vehicles should substitute for conventional vehicles and should not lead to an increase in the stock of vehicles. The current subject of 'side impact protection' shows that design measures are necessary for this, which cannot be achieved in the smallest vehicles. (orig.) [de

  13. Analysis of output power and capacity reduction in electrical storage facilities by peak shift control of PV system with bifacial modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin’ya; Konno, Daisuke; Utsugi, Yuta; Morel, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of a large-scale power plant using bifacial solar cell is described. • Conversion efficiency of bifacial photovoltaics obtained using 3D-CAD modeling. • Power supply of bifacial PV can be matched with demand by adjusting the orientation. - Abstract: Bifacial photovoltaics are widely investigated with the aim of reducing the amount of silicon used and increasing conversion efficiencies. The output power of bifacial photovoltaics depends on the quantity of solar radiation incident on the reverse face. Furthermore, controlling the orientation can distribute the times of peak power output in the morning and afternoon to better match the demand. In this study, the demand patterns of individual houses or the whole Hokkaido region were analyzed assuming the substitution of a conventional large-scale electric power system with one using bifacial photovoltaics. The supply–demand balances and electrical storage capacities were investigated. When comparing a large scale solar power plant (mega-solar power plant) using monofacial photovoltaics or vertical bifacial photovoltaics (in which the orientation could be adjusted), the supply–demand could be better balanced for individual houses in the latter case, thereby allowing the storage capacity to be reduced. A bifacial solar module was modeled by 3D-CAD (three dimensional computer aided design) and thermal fluid analysis. The module temperature distribution of bifacial photovoltaics was calculated with respect to the environmental conditions (wind flow, direct and diffuse solar radiation, etc.) and internal heat generation, as well as the orientation of the solar panels. Furthermore, the output power of bifacial photovoltaics can be easily obtained from the analysis result of modular temperature distribution and the relation between temperature and output power

  14. PV status report 2004. Research, Solar cell production and market implementation of photovoltaic s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager-Waldau, A.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing demand for photovoltaic devices leads to the search for new developments with respect to material use and consumption, device design and production technologies, as well as new concepts to increase the overall efficiency. At present solar cell manufacturing is based on single junction device silicon wafer technology with close to 90% market share. Consistent with the time needed for any major change in the energy infrastructure, another 20 to 30 years of sustained and aggressive growth will be required for photovoltaic to substitute a significant share of the conventional energy sources. This growth will be possible if a continuous introduction of new technologies takes place, made possible by sound fundamental research. In October 2004 the Russian Duma ratified the Kyoto Protocol and it can be expected that the Protocol will now be set into force by the beginning of 2005. This recent development will definitively have an impact on the further implementation of renewable energies and photovoltaic is a prime source to deliver it. The Third Edition of the PV Status Report will widen its view to the enlarged European Union as well as the new player China and tries to give an overview about the current activities regarding Research, Manufacturing and Market Implementation. The opinion given in this report is based on the current information available to the author, and does not reflect the opinion of the European Commission. (author)

  15. Push-pull with recovery stage high-voltage DC converter for PV solar generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The Vinh; Aillerie, Michel; Petit, Pierre; Pham, Hong Thang; Vo, Thành Vinh

    2017-02-01

    A lot of systems are basically developed on DC-DC or DC-AC converters including electronic switches such as MOS or bipolar transistors. The limits of efficiency are quickly reached when high output voltages and high input currents are needed. This work presents a new high-efficiency-high-step-up based on push-pull DC-DC converter integrating recovery stages dedicated to smart HVDC distributed architecture in PV solar energy production systems. Appropriate duty cycle ratio assumes that the recovery stage work with parallel charge and discharge to achieve high step-up voltage gain. Besides, the voltage stress on the main switch is reduced with a passive clamp circuit and thus, low on-state resistance Rdson of the main switch can be adopted to reduce conduction losses. Thus, the efficiency of a basic DC-HVDC converter dedicated to renewable energy production can be further improved with such topology. A prototype converter is developed, and experimentally tested for validation.

  16. A New Remote Communications Link to Reduce Residential PV Solar Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Randy [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States); Sugiyama, Rod [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Monitoring of PV/DER site production is expensive to install and unreliable. Among third party systems providers, lost communications links are a growing concern. Nearly 20% of links are failing, provisioning is complex, recovery is expensive, production data is lost, and access is fragmented. FleetLink is a new concept in DER system communications, purpose built for lowering the cost of maintaining active contact with residential end user sites and ensuring that production data is reliably available to third party systems providers. Systems providers require accurate, secure system monitoring and reporting of production data and system faults while driving down overall costs to compete effectively. This plug and play, independently operating communications solution lowers the cost of fleet contact from typically .08 dollars-$.12/W down to .02 dollars -.03/W including installation and maintenance expenses. FleetLink establishes a breakthrough in simplicity that facilitates rapid expansion of residential solar by reducing initial capital outlay and lowering installation labor time and skill levels. The solution also facilitates higher DER installation growth rates by driving down maintenance costs and eliminating communications trouble calls. This is accomplished by the FleetLink’s unique network technology that enables dynamic network configuration for fast changes, and active, self-healing DER site contact for uptime assurance. Using an open source network framework with proprietary, application specific enhancements, FleetLink independently manages connectivity, security, recovery, grid control communications, and fleet expansion while presenting a compliant SunSpec interface to the third party operations centers. The net system cost savings of at least .05 dollars/W supports the SunShot cost goals and the flexibility and scalability of the solution accelerates the velocity and ubiquitous adoption of solar.

  17. PV-CAD: an integrated tool for designing PV facades; PV-CAD - Ein integriertes Werkzeug zur Auslegung von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, H.; Viotto, M. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany); Esser, M.; Pukrop, D. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Abt. Energie- und Halbleiterforschung; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    PV-CAD provides PV system planners with a practice-oriented tool for an efficient design of PV facades. Being compatible with the standard programmes of the architects` and electrical engineering sectors it can be used on already existing systems and allows the user to draw on previously acquired knowedge. Its open interfaces permit the integration of further design tools. PV CAD works under Microsoft Windows for which it has the necessary graphic user interface. Its compliance to PC standards opens up a wide range of applications and permits its use also on inexpensive computers. Thanks to its promotion by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology under the research project ``Computer programmes for the design of photovoltaic facades`` PV-CAD is available at a moderate price. PV-CAD permits an efficient planning of solar facades and therefore has the potential to stimulate the use of PV on buildings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit PV-CAD steht dem Anlagenplaner ein anwendungsorientiertes Werkzeug zur Verfuegung, das eine rationelle Auslegung von PV-Fassaden ermoeglicht. Die Kompatibilitaet zu Standardprogrammen aus dem Architektur- und Elektrosektor erlaubt die Nutzung bereits vorhandener Systeme und damit erworbener Kenntnisse. Offene Schnittstellen gestatten die Einbindung weiterer Entwurfswerkzeuge. PV-CAD arbeitet unter Microsoft-Windows und verfuegt ueber die entsprechende grafische Benutzerschnittstelle. Die Kompatibilitaet zum PC-Standard eroeffnet eine sehr breite Anwenderbasis und ermoeglicht den Einsatz des Programms auch auf preiswerten Rechnern. Aufgrund der Foerderung durch das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts `Rechnerprogramm zur Auslegung von Photovoltaik-Fassaden` steht PV-CAD preiswert zur Verfuegung. PV-CAD ermoeglicht eine effiziente Planung von Solarfassaden und kann daher dem PV-Einsatz in Gebaeuden weitere Impulse geben. (orig.)

  18. The bright side of snow cover effects on PV production - How to lower the seasonal mismatch between electricity supply and demand in a fully renewable Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Annelen; Dujardin, Jérôme; Dupuis, Sonia; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    One of the major problems with solar PV in the context of a fully renewable electricity production at mid-latitudes is the trend of higher production in summer and lower production in winter. This trend is most often exactly opposite to demand patterns, causing a seasonal mismatch that requires extensive balancing power from other production sources or large storage capacities. Which possibilities do we have to bring PV production into closer correlation with demand? This question motivated our research and in response we investigated the effects of placing PV panels at different tilt angles in regions with extensive snow cover to increase winter production from ground reflected short wave radiation. The aim of this project is therefore to quantify the effect of varying snow cover duration (SCD) and of panel tilt angle on the annual total production and on production during winter months when electricity is most needed. We chose Switzerland as ideal test site, because it has a wide range of snow cover conditions and a high potential for renewable electricity production. But methods can be applied to other regions of comparable conditions for snow cover and irradiance. Our analysis can be separated into two steps: 1. A systematic, GIS and satellite-based analysis for all of Switzerland: We use time series of satellite-derived irradiance, and snow cover characteristics together with land surface cover types and elevation information to quantify the environmental conditions and to estimate potential production and ideal tilt angles. 2. A scenario-based analysis that contrasts the production patterns of different placement scenarios for PV panels in urban, rural and mountainous areas. We invoke a model of a fully renewable electricity system (including Switzerland's large hydropower system) at national level to compute the electricity import and storage capacity that will be required to balance the remaining mismatch between production and demand to further illuminate

  19. Grid-connected solar electricity in France : the example of Martinique, a French overseas department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melle, Y. [Tenesol (France)

    2006-07-01

    Tenesol has specialized in photovoltaic (PV) solar energy since 1983 with experience in grid connections, professional applications, decentralized rural electrification and solar pumping. The company's operations include the manufacture of solar panels, system design and turnkey installations backed by a comprehensive after sales service through a global network of subsidiaries. Half of Tenesol's group shareholdings belong to Electricite de France and half belong to Total. The 2 specialized subsidiaries of Tenesol are Tenesa Manufacturing and Tenesol Technologies. This presentation focused Tenesol's operations in Martinique and its financial environment of grid-connected photovoltaics. It presented Tenesol's approach for technical and economic validation of roof suitability in terms of the disc orientation of PV panels. The key figures of installing a 300 square metre 40 kWp PV system were presented along with photographs of installations in Martinique. The installations have a total installed capacity of 2.5 MWp and an annual solar electricity production of 3,375,000 kWhs, resulting in a reduction of 3,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually. figs.

  20. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Nepal, Shaili; Hoke, Anderson; Asano, Marc; Ueda, Reid; Ifuku, Earle

    2017-05-08

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods. Two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models in the OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters that were modeled from characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders. The results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  1. Snow melting system with electric heating using photovoltaic power generation; Solar yusetsuko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M; Fujita, S; Kaga, T; Koyama, N [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper clarifies the solar characteristics in Hachinohe district, to investigate a possibility of the snow melting system with electric heating using solar energy. Power demand for snow melting, power generated by the photovoltaic (PV) array, area of PV array, and working conditions of the system, as to temperature, precipitation and snowfall, were investigated. The percentage of sunshine is 44% in Hachinohe district, which has more fortunate natural condition for utilizing solar radiation compared with that of 20% in Aomori prefecture. The intensity of solar radiation in winter from December to March is around 500 W/m{sup 2} in average, which is equivalent to the quantity of solar radiation, around 2 kWh/m{sup 2} a day. When assuming that snow on the road surface is frozen at the snowfall under the air temperature below -3{degree}C, the occurrence frequency is 50% during January and February in Hachinohe district, which means one frozen day for two days and is equivalent to the occurrence frequency of frozen days, 34% in average during winter. The electric application ratio is 0.34 at the maximum in winter. That is, days of 34% for one month are required for snow melting. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. PV installations, protection and the code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silecky, L. [Mersen, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    This article discussed the need for improved standards in Ontario's solar industry to ensure safety for the systems and also safety for the workers. Photovoltaic cells used in solar arrays can now deliver between 50 vDC to 600 vDC. The workings of such a high voltage photocell must be understood in order to understand its protection needs. Since PVs are semiconductors and susceptible to damage from short circuits and overloads, a fast-acting overcurrent protective device (OCPD) should be used. Combiner boxes are also needed to provide a clean method of safely connecting all the wires that are needed in the system, including surge protection and a means of isolation between the PV array and the inverter. Section 50 of the Canadian Electrical Code outlines the requirements for solar PV systems, but it does not mention the protection of DC circuits, including DC fuse protectors which are manufactured to provide a high degree of protection for the PV array. As the photovoltaic (PV) market continues to grow in Ontario, the PV industry also has a responsibility to ensure it is in compliance with codes and standards related to photovoltaic systems. This author suggested that Article 690 of the National Electric Code (NEC) is a good document to use when determining the requirements for PV systems. 3 figs.

  3. NREL Achieves Solar-Electric Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar-Electric Record New Technology Could Spur Growth in Photovoltaic Panels For more information thin-film panels made from cadmium telluride. Benner said these and other plants may adopt all or part panels. Of the several materials that can be used for thin-film panels, cadmium telluride yields higher

  4. A hybrid PV-battery/diesel electricity supply on Peucang island: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Günther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies are currently under a dynamic cost development. This case holds especially for solar technology that has reached price levels that were unimaginable until a short time ago. It also holds for battery technologies the application of which is related to the increasing usage of photovoltaic energy converters and the growing interest in electric vehicles. With the decreasing prices more and more possible application cases of renewable energy technologies become economically viable. A case study was done for a location on a small island located on the west tip of Java. The levelized electricity cost of a hybrid electricity supply system composed of a solar generator and battery in combination with the existing diesel generators was compared to the electricity generation cost of the existing system. Two different battery options were taken into account, lead-acid batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The results of this study can give a rough orientation also for other locations with similar characteristics.

  5. Net metering and net feed-in tariff for embedded solar PV in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available the business case for the PV owner is de-risked at the same time. The concept differs from the also widely known “net metering” approach in the sense that it stimulates embedded PV as part of the overall power-generation fleet, regardless of what the specific...

  6. How China became a leader in solar PV : An innovation system analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Ping; Negro, Simona O.; Hekkert, Marko P.; Bi, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we focus on understanding the rapid rise of the Chinese PV industry and its profound impact on the global PV industry. We investigate how it is possible that a nation that is still focusing on catching up in terms of industry, innovation and technology has been able to bring

  7. NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companies | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian Electric Companies NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian performance and impacts of today's advanced solar inverters, as well as proprietary feedback to the inverter

  8. Experimentally Investigating the Effect of Temperature Differences in the Particle Deposition Process on Solar Photovoltaic (PV Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental investigation of the dust particle deposition process on solar photovoltaic (PV modules with different surface temperatures by a heating plate to illustrate the effect of the temperature difference (thermophoresis between the module surface and the surrounding air on the dust accumulation process under different operating temperatures. In general, if the temperature of PV modules is increased, the energy conversion efficiency of the modules is decreased. However, in this study, it is firstly found that higher PV module surface temperature differences result in a higher energy output compared with those modules with lower temperature differences because of a reduced accumulation of dust particles. The measured deposition densities of dust particles were found to range from 0.54 g/m2 to 0.85 g/m2 under the range of experimental conditions and the output power ratios were found to increase from 0.861 to 0.965 with the increase in the temperature difference from 0 to 50 °C. The PV module with a higher temperature difference experiences a lower dust density because of the effect of the thermophoresis force arising from the temperature gradient between the module surface and its surrounding air. In addition, dust particles have a significant impact on the short circuit current, as well as the output power. However, the influence of particles on open circuit voltage can be negligible.

  9. Optimal electricity development by increasing solar resources in diesel-based micro grid of island society in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachuab Peerapong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated grid diesel-based systems have been a basic electricity system in islands in developing countries. Nevertheless, the increasing diesel price and the higher cost of diesel transport to a long distance to the remote islands make the diesel-based systems unsustainable. This study analyzes the viability to increase solar photovoltaic (PV resources in the existing diesel-based systems. The hybrid PV/diesel system is not only reducing the cost of electricity generation but also decreasing the harmful emissions from fossil fuels. This study uses net present cost (NPC to evaluate the optimum PV/diesel system configurations for installation in isolated island in Thailand. The results of analyses show that the optimal case PV/diesel system can decrease COE from $0.429/kWh to $0.374/kWh when compared to the existing diesel-based system and can decrease emissions both carbon dioxide of 796.61 tons/yr and other gases of 21.47 tons/yr. The hybrid PV/diesel system also reduces diesel fuel consumption of 302,510 liters per year as a result from an optimal of 41% PV resource shares in this system.

  10. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  11. Does solar PV actually generate more jobs than the new EPR nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier; Thouverez, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The author comments and discusses statistics and various statements, notably those made by lobbyists or political parties, on the relationship between employment and energy. These statements address the distribution of jobs among different segments of the chain value in the nuclear, photovoltaic or, more generally, renewable sector. Some even say that the cost of solar electricity will keep on decreasing and will be almost zero in about ten years. The remaining technological issue concerns solar sensor lifetime. This implies that the consequences in terms of jobs will be very bad in the energy sector but very positive for all the other sectors and for the environment as well. Some experts outline that there is a contradiction in saying that nuclear electricity is very cheap and that, at the same time, the nuclear industry provides many jobs. Some assessments do not take into account the fact that renewable energies are now evolving very quickly. In other words a cost-benefit approach is not actually adopted when considering the job aspect only. Finally, the author addresses the issue of wind energy, and more particularly that of small wind turbines, and outlines that France, due to its nuclear commitment, is late in the development and competitiveness in the field of renewable energies

  12. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  13. Dual-purpose self-deliverable lunar surface PV electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jack H.; Harris, David W.; Cross, Eldon R.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    A safe haven and work supported PV power systems on the lunar surface will likely be required by NASA in support of the manned outpost scheduled for the post-2000 lunar/Mars exploration and colonization initiative. Initial system modeling and computer analysis shows that the concept is workable and contains no major high risk technology issues which cannot be resolved in the circa 2000 to 2025 timeframe. A specific selection of the best suited type of electric thruster has not been done; the initial modeling was done using an ion thruster, but Rocketdyne must also evaluate arc and resisto-jets before a final design can be formulated. As a general observation, it appears that such a system can deliver itself to the Moon using many system elements that must be transported as dead payload mass in more conventional delivery modes. It further appears that a larger power system providing a much higher safe haven power level is feasible if this delivery system is implemented, perhaps even sufficient to permit resource prospecting and/or lab experimentation. The concept permits growth and can be expanded to include cargo transport such as habitat and working modules. In short, the combined payload could be manned soon after landing and checkout. NASA has expended substantial resources in the development of electric propulsion concepts and hardware that can be applied to a lunar transport system such as described herein. In short, the paper may represent a viable mission on which previous investments play an invaluable role. A more comprehensive technical paper which embodies second generation analysis and system size will be prepared for near-term presentation.

  14. Research and development of CdTe based thin film PV solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diso, Dahiru Garba

    The motivation behind this research is to bring cheap, low-cost and clean energy technologies to the society. Colossal use of fossil fuel has created noticeable pollution problems contributing to climate change and health hazards. Silicon based solar cells have dominated the market but it is cost is high due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, the way forward is to develop thin films solar cells using low-cost attractive materials, grown by cheaper, scalable and manufacturable techniques.The aim and objectives of this work is to develop low-cost, high efficiency solar cell using electrodeposition (ED) technique. The material layers include CdS and ZnTe as the window materials, while the absorber material is CdTe. Fabricating a suitable devices for solar energy conversion (i.e. glass/conducting glass/window material/absorber material/metal) structure. Traditional way of fabricating this structure is to grow window material (CdS) using chemical bath deposition (CBD) and absorber material (CdTe) using electrodeposition. However, CBD is a batch process and therefore creates large volumes of Cd-containing waste solutions each time adding high cost in manufacturing process. This research programme is therefore on development of an "All ED-solar cells" structure.Material studies were carried out using photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, the electrical characterisation of fully fabricated devices was performed using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements.This research programme has demonstrated that CdS and ZnTe window materials can be electrodeposited and used in thin film solar cell devices. The CdS electrolytic bath can be used for a period of 7 months without discarding it like in the CBD process which usually has life

  15. Influence of reflectance from flat aluminum concentrators on energy efficiency of PV/Thermal collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Ljiljana T.; Pavlovic, Tomislav M.; Pavlovic, Zoran T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the results of the influence of reflectance from flat plate solar radiation concentrators made of Al sheet and Al foil on energy efficiency of PV/Thermal collector are presented. The total reflectance from concentrators made of Al sheet and Al foil is almost the same, but specular reflectance which is bigger in concentrators made of Al foil results in increase of solar radiation intensity concentration factor. With the increase of solar radiation intensity concentration factor, total daily thermal and electrical energy generated by PV/Thermal collector with concentrators increase. In this work also optimal position of solar radiation concentrators made of Al sheet and Al foil and appropriate thermal and electrical efficiency of PV/Thermal collector have been determined. Total energy generated by PV/Thermal collector with concentrators made of Al foil in optimal position is higher than total energy generated by PV/Thermal collector with concentrators made of Al sheet.

  16. Assessment of global solar radiation to examine the best locations to install a PV system in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkilani, Kaouther; Ben Othman, Afef; Besbes, Mongi

    2018-02-01

    The study of the solar radiation is the starting point of any investigation for a new energy, to study and search the best location to install a PV system. A very important factor in the assessment of solar potential is the availability of data for global solar radiation that must be coherent and of high quality. In this paper, we analyze the estimation result of the monthly global solar radiation for three different locations, Bizerte in Northern Tunisia, Kairouan in Middle Eastern Tunisia, and Tozeur in Southern Tunisia, measured on the surface by the National Institute of Meteorology and the meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery result PVGIS radiation databases. To get the right measurements with minimum error, we propose a numerical model used to calculate the global solar radiation in the indicated three sites. The results show that the model can estimate the global solar radiation (kWh/m²) at a specific station and over most area of Tunisia. The model gives a good estimation for solar radiation where error between the measured values and those calculated are negligible.

  17. On the Path to SunShot - Emerging Issues and Challenges in Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Electrical Generation and Transmission System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the use of grid-flexibility options (improved grid management, demand response, and energy storage) could enable 25% or higher penetration of PV at low costs (see Denholm et al. 2016). Considering the large-scale integration of solar into electric-power systems complicates the calculation of the value of solar. In fact a comprehensive examination reveals that the value of solar technologies—or any other power-system technology or operating strategy—can only be understood in the context of the generation system as a whole. This is well illustrated by analysis of curtailment at high PV penetrations within the bulk power and transmission systems. As the deployment of PV increases, it is possible that during some sunny midday periods due to limited flexibility of conventional generators, system operators would need to reduce (curtail) PV output in order to maintain the crucial balance between electric supply and demand. As a result, PV’s value and cost competitiveness would degrade. For example, for utility-scale PV with a baseline SunShot LCOE of 6¢/kWh, increasing the annual energy demand met by solar energy from 10% to 20% would increase the marginal LCOE of PV from 6¢/kWh to almost 11¢/kWh in a California grid system with limited flexibility. However, this loss of value could be stemmed by increasing system flexibility via enhanced control of variable-generation resources, added energy storage, and the ability to motivate more electricity consumers to shift consumption to lower-demand periods. The combination of these measures would minimize solar curtailment and keep PV cost-competitive at penetrations at least as high as 25%. Efficient deployment of the grid-flexibility options needed to maintain solar’s value will require various innovations, from the development of communication, control, and energy storage technologies to the implementation of new market rules and operating procedures.

  18. Electric solar wind sail mass budget model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The electric solar wind sail (E-sail is a new type of propellantless propulsion system for Solar System transportation, which uses the natural solar wind to produce spacecraft propulsion. The E-sail consists of thin centrifugally stretched tethers that are kept charged by an onboard electron gun and, as such, experience Coulomb drag through the high-speed solar wind plasma stream. This paper discusses a mass breakdown and a performance model for an E-sail spacecraft that hosts a mission-specific payload of prescribed mass. In particular, the model is able to estimate the total spacecraft mass and its propulsive acceleration as a function of various design parameters such as the number of tethers and their length. A number of subsystem masses are calculated assuming existing or near-term E-sail technology. In light of the obtained performance estimates, an E-sail represents a promising propulsion system for a variety of transportation needs in the Solar System.

  19. Techno-economic feasibility of hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery electricity generation systems for non-residential large electricity consumers under southern Iran climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baneshi, Mehdi; Hadianfard, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid electricity generation system for a large electricity consumer was studied. • The PV and wind electricity potentials under given climate conditions were evaluated. • Technical, economical, and environmental issues of different systems were discussed. • The optimum configuration of components was obtained. • The impacts of governmental incentives on economic viability of systems were examined. - Abstract: This paper aims to study the techno-economical parameters of a hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery power generation system for a non-residential large electricity consumer in the south of Iran. As a case study, the feasibility of running a hybrid system to meet a non-residential community’s load demand of 9911 kWh daily average and 725 kW peak load demand was investigated. HOMER Pro software was used to model the operation of the system and to identify the appropriate configuration of it based on comparative technical, economical, and environmental analysis. Both stand alone and grid connected systems were modeled. The impacts of annual load growth and governmental energy policies such as providing low interest loan to renewable energy projects, carbon tax, and modifying the grid electricity price on viability of the system were discussed. Results show that for off-grid systems the cost of electricity (COE) and the renewable fraction of 9.3–12.6 ₵/kWh and 0–43.9%, respectively, are achieved with photovoltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine, and battery sizes of 0–1000 kW, 0–600 kW, and 1300 kWh, respectively. For on grid systems without battery storage the range of COE and renewable fraction are 5.7–8.4 ₵/kWh and 0–53%, respectively, for the same sizes of PV panel and wind turbine.

  20. Multivariate Statistics and Supervised Learning for Predictive Detection of Unintentional Islanding in Grid-Tied Solar PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of accidental islands. The resulting voltage and current data underwent dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA which formed the basis for the application of Q statistic control charts for detecting the anomalous currents that could island the system. For reducing the false alarm rate of anomaly detection, Kullback-Leibler (K-L divergence was applied on the principal component projections which concluded that Q statistic based approach alone is not reliable for detection of the symptoms liable to cause unintentional islanding. The obtained data was labeled and a K-nearest neighbor (K-NN binomial classifier was then trained for identification and classification of potential islanding precursors from other power system transients. The three-phase short-circuit fault case was successfully identified as statistically different from islanding symptoms.

  1. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  2. Opportunities for co-location of solar PV with agriculture for cost reductions and carbon, water, and energy footprint mitigation in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C. S.; Macknick, J.; Ravi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, co-locating the production of agricultural crops or biofuels with solar photovoltaics (PV) installations has been studied as a possible strategy to mitigate the environmental impacts and the high cost of solar PV in arid and semi-arid regions. Co-located PV and agricultural systems can provide multiple benefits in these areas related to water savings, erosion control, energy access, and rural economic development. However, such studies have been rare for water-rich, land-limited tropical countries, where ideal agricultural growing conditions can be substantially different from those in arid regions. We consider a case study in Indonesia to address this research gap. As the fourth most populous nation with an ever-growing energy demand and high vulnerability to the effects of climate change, Indonesia is being prompted to develop means to electrify approximately one-fifth of its population that still lacks access to the grid without incurring increases in its carbon footprint. We address the following questions to explore the feasibility and the benefits of co-location of solar PV with patchouli cultivation and essential oil production: i) How do the lifetime carbon, water, and energy footprints per unit land area of co-located solar PV/patchouli compare to those of standalone diesel microgrid, solar PV or patchouli cultivation? ii) Does energy production from standalone solar PV, diesel/solar PV microgrid, or co-located solar PV/patchouli systems satisfy energy demands of a typical rural Indonesian village? iii) How does the net economic return of the co-located system compare to each standalone land use? iv) How can surplus energy from the co-located system benefit rural socioeconomics? To answer these questions, life cycle assessment and economic analysis are performed for each of the standalone and the co-located land uses utilizing known values and data collected from a field visit to the island of Java in Indonesia. Then, sensitivity analyses and

  3. Integration between electric heat pump and PV system to increase self-consumption of an office application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselli Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a solar electric driven heat pump serving an office building located in southern Italy. To satisfy space heating and cooling demand a heat pump activated by electric energy available from solar photovoltaic plant is here considered. In order to improve the self-consumption of electricity available from photovoltaic system different configurations were considered introducing an electric storage and an electric vehicle. Dynamic simulations to evaluate energy performance of the system varying photovoltaic peak power (4.5–7.5 kW have been carried out. The proposed system achieves a fossil fuel primary energy saving up to about 96% in comparison to the reference conventional system based on a natural gas fired boiler, an electric chiller and the national electric grid. The results show that fossil fuel primary energy saving is higher when there are no storage battery and electric vehicle.

  4. Solar Electric Propulsion Concepts for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Barrett, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in solar array and electric thruster technologies now offer the promise of new, very capable space transportation systems that will allow us to cost effectively explore the solar system. NASA has developed numerous solar electric propulsion spacecraft concepts with power levels ranging from tens to hundreds of kilowatts for robotic and piloted missions to asteroids and Mars. This paper describes nine electric and hybrid solar electric/chemical propulsion concepts developed over the last 5 years and discusses how they might be used for human exploration of the inner solar system.

  5. Passive cooling of standalone flat PV module with cotton wick structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S.; Senthilkumar, T.; Ganesh karthikeyan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple passive cooling system is developed for standalone flat PV modules. • 30% Reduction in module temperature is observed with developed cooling system. • 15.61% Increase in output power of PV module is found with developed cooling system. • Module efficiency is increased by 1.4% with cooling arrangement. • Lower thermal degradation due to narrow range of temperature characteristics. - Abstract: In common, PV module converts only 4–17% of the incoming solar radiation into electricity. Thus more than 50% of the incident solar energy is converted as heat and the temperature of PV module is increased. The increase in module temperature in turn decreases the electrical yield and efficiency of the module with a permanent structural damage of the module due to prolonged period of thermal stress (also known as thermal degradation of the module). An effective way of improving efficiency and reducing the rate of thermal degradation of a PV module is to reduce the operating temperature of PV module. This can be achieved by cooling the PV module during operation. Hence in the present work, a simple passive cooling system with cotton wick structures is developed for standalone flat PV modules. The thermal and electrical performance of flat PV module with cooling system consisting of cotton wick structures in combination with water, Al 2 O 3 /water nanofluid and CuO/water nanofluid are investigated experimentally. The experimental results are also compared with the thermal and electrical performance of flat PV module without cooling system

  6. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdoulaye, D; Koalaga, Z; Zougmore, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  7. The implantation of a PV electric energy generation system at the Saint Peter and Saint Paul islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco Antonio; Silva, Patricia de Castro da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcoag@cepel.br; Souza, Marco Antonio Carvalho [Secretaria da Comissao Interministerial para os Recursos do Mar (SECIRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Islands are located at 0 degree 55.00' N and 29 degree 20.76'' W, at a distance of circa 550 M (nautical miles) NE from the City of Natal, RN (Northeast Region of Brazil), and comprises of many small islands and rocks of igneous plutonic origin. In 1998, a first Scientific Station was built in order to receive researchers involved in several projects. The CEPEL, as responsible by the electrical energy supply to the Scientific Station; designed and installed a PV electric energy generation system which had a power of 3.6 kWp. This system operated successfully for the last 10 years, suffering frequent maintenance. In 2006, a new design for the Scientific Station has been started aiming to improve its resources and safety. The new PV system has a maximum power of 7.8 kWp, and employs an updated technology (SMA, Germany). The equipment was integrated and submitted to intensive testing at facilities of CEPEL, and was installed and commissioned at the Islands in June 2008. Since the installation, the equipment has been operating as required, meeting the energy and water demand of the Station. The present paper describes the many steps involved in the implantation of the PV system at the Scientific Station. (author)

  8. The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Half the world's population lives without access to electricity in the rural areas and villages of developing countries. In 1987, world population reached 5 billion and, according to World Bank projections, will increase to over 6 billion in the year 2000 and to over 8 billion in 2025. Such population growth is not uniformly distributed: developed countries have small or negative growth and account for a declining proportion of the world's population. Inasmuch as 95 per cent of the extra inhabitants added each year are in developing countries, rapid population growth in those countries raises serious questions about energy availability for basic human needs and, of course, more broadly about the environment's capacity to support that growth. The present report makes reference to one of the most comprehensively documented conservative scenarios for world energy demand in the year 2020, namely, Energy for a Sustainable World, which assumed that long-term world sustainability must entail constraints on (a) use of natural resources and (b) combustion of fossil fuels resulting in the greenhouse effect. Solar energy is abundant and could become a major source of electricity. Photovoltaics has three particular advantages. It accomplishes sunlight-to-electricity conversion entirely with solid-state electronic components, and with no moving parts required, thereby promising high equipment availability and very low operating and maintenance costs. PV also appears to have very limited environmental impact, with no emissions of the gaseous pollutants associated with fossil-fuel burning and few of the possible local problems associated with some other renewable energy technologies. Finally, the products of photovoltaic technology are modular in construction and can be built up on site in a flexible way, thus minimizing front-end financial risk and investment costs. Figs and tabs

  9. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem i...

  10. Solar photovoltaic markets, economics, technology, and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, J.M.J.; Molinski, T.S. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Emerging Energy Systems, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Solar Photovoltaics (PV) are solid state semiconductor electronic devices that transform infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light energy from the sun directly into electrical energy. Selenium was used to create the first solar cell in 1883. In 1954, Bell Laboratories developed the modern day silicon solar cell, whereby impurities were added to silicon through a process called doping. Silicon doped with boron results in a positive electrical charge, while silicon doped with phosphorous results in a negative electrical charge. The atom collision from photons in sunlight provides the necessary energy to free a trapped electron in the doped silicon, which then may flow through a wire creating an electric current. Many different materials besides silicon are used to create solar cells, such as plastics, organic compounds, and theoretically even special paints, while other doping agents besides boron and phosphorous are also used, such as arsenic and gallium. This paper provided an introduction to solar PV and world solar PV growth and markets. A review of solar PV economics was also included. In 2008, the total installed costs of solar photovoltaic cells were in the range of 7 to 10 Canadian dollars. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of solar PV were presented. Solar technologies under research and development were also discussed and assessed. It was concluded that although solar PV was one of the most expensive forms of renewable generation, there is great potential for solar PV to gain broader based application as costs continue to drop. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  11. Indoor simulation and testing of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solanki, S.C.; Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, A.

    2009-01-01

    An indoor standard test procedure has been developed for thermal and electrical testing of PV/T collectors connected in series. For this, a PV/T solar air heater has been designed, fabricated and its performance over different operating parameters were studied. Based on the energy balance equations,

  12. Experimental study of pistachio drying behavior in a mixed-mode PV operated forced convection solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangiabadi, B [Univ. of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Ameri, M; Mahmoudabadi, M M [Shahid Bahonar Univ., Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    According to FAO statistics, Iran is the largest exporter of pistachios. Kerman province -south east of Iran- has approximately 200000 hectares of pistachio orchards, which provides practically 80% of whole country production of pistachios. After harvesting the pistachio, nuts must be washed to prevent staining. Therefore the nuts have almost 40% moisture content and it must be decreased to storage moisture of 6% or below. Simply decreasing in the moisture content of the products is called drying. In some areas where the environment conditions meet the minimum standard, solar drying can be an alternative approach for drying agricultural products. This work deals with the design, construction and testing a mixed-mode forced convection PV operated solar dryer. (orig.)

  13. Development of an operation strategy for hydrogen production using solar PV energy based on fluid dynamic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amores Ernesto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline water electrolysis powered by renewable energy sources is one of the most promising strategies for environmentally friendly hydrogen production. However, wind and solar energy sources are highly dependent on weather conditions. As a result, power fluctuations affect the electrolyzer and cause several negative effects. Considering these limiting effects which reduce the water electrolysis efficiency, a novel operation strategy is proposed in this study. It is based on pumping the electrolyte according to the current density supplied by a solar PV module, in order to achieve the suitable fluid dynamics conditions in an electrolysis cell. To this aim, a mathematical model including the influence of electrode-membrane distance, temperature and electrolyte flow rate has been developed and used as optimization tool. The obtained results confirm the convenience of the selected strategy, especially when the electrolyzer is powered by renewable energies.

  14. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherring, Chris (Sherring Energy Associates)

    1999-08-30

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented.

  15. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherring, Chris

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented

  16. Electric measurements of PV heterojunction structures a-SiC/c-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Janíček, František; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Váry, Michal; Huran, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Due to the particular advantages of amorphous silicon or its alloys with carbon in comparison to conventional crystalline materials makes such a material still interesting for study. The amorphous silicon carbide may be used in a number of micro-mechanical and micro-electronics applications and also for photovoltaic energy conversion devices. Boron doped thin layers of amorphous silicon carbide, presented in this paper, were prepared due to the optimization process for preparation of heterojunction solar cell structure. DC and AC measurement and subsequent evaluation were carried out in order to comprehensively assess the electrical transport processes in the prepared a-SiC/c-Si structures. We have investigated the influence of methane content in deposition gas mixture and different electrode configuration.

  17. PV supply chain growing pains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, A. [Matrix Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  18. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  19. Droop Control of Solar PV, Grid and Critical Load using Suppressing DC Current Injection Technique without Battery Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama Mr., Jayachandra; (Mrs. , Lini Mathew, Dr.; Srikanth Mr., G.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents design of a sustainable solar Photo voltaic system for an Indian cities based residential/community house, integrated with grid, supporting it as supplementary sources, to meet energy demand of domestic loads. The role of renewable energy sources in Distributed Generation (DG) is increasingly being recognized as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power supply. Though centralized economic system that solely depends on cities is hampered due to energy deficiency, the use of solar energy in cities is never been tried widely due to technical inconvenience and high installation cost. To mitigate these problems, this paper proposes an optimized design of grid-tied PV system without storage which is suitable for Indian origin as it requires less installallation cost and supplies residential loads when the grid power is unavailable. The energy requirement is mainly fulfilled from PV energy module for critical load of a city located residential house and supplemented by grid/DG for base and peak load. The system has been developed for maximum daily household demand of 50kWp and can be scaled to any higher value as per requirement of individual/community building ranging from 50kWp to 60kWp as per the requirement. A simplified control system model has been developed to optimize and control flow of power from these sources. The simulation work, using MATLAB Simulink software for proposed energy management, has resulted in an optimal yield leading efficient power flow control of proposed system.

  20. Solar charge regulator and operation management for PV island systems with modern memory-programmable control (SPS); Solarladeregler und Betriebsmanagement fuer PV-Inselsysteme mit moderner Speicherprogrammierbarer Steuerung (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlen, K. v.; Nussberger, B. [ENNOS Gesellschaft fuer Innovative Energiesysteme mbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Modern memory programmable controls (SPS) are good value for money, powerful and have such a low power consumption that they are suitable for control and regulation purposes in PV island systems. The development of the solar charge regulators and operation management on the basis of an SPS shown in the article was carried out with the super-imposed target of increasing the use of proven standard industrial products in their construction and simplifying their operation and raising their reliability. [Deutsch] Moderne Speicherprogrammierbare Steuerungen (SPS) sind preiswert, leistungsfaehig und besitzen inzwischen eine so niedrige Leistungsaufnahme, dass sie zu Steuer- und Regelzwecken in PV-Inselsystemen geeignet sind. Die Entwicklung des im Beitrag vorgestellten Solarladereglers und Betriebsmanagement auf der Basis einer SPS stand unter der uebergeordneten Zielsetzung, PV-Anlagen durch den Einsatz von bewaehrten Standard-Industrieprodukten in ihrem Aufbau und der Bedienung zu vereinfachen und in ihrer Zuverlaessigkeit zu steigern. (orig.)

  1. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  2. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. McHenry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the network characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.

  3. Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) Model: Documentation and Sample Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Margolis, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model is a bottom-up, market penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of photovoltaics (PV) on residential and commercial rooftops in the continental United States through 2030. NREL developed SolarDS to examine the market competitiveness of PV based on regional solar resources, capital costs, electricity prices, utility rate structures, and federal and local incentives. The model uses the projected financial performance of PV systems to simulate PV adoption for building types and regions then aggregates adoption to state and national levels. The main components of SolarDS include a PV performance simulator, a PV annual revenue calculator, a PV financial performance calculator, a PV market share calculator, and a regional aggregator. The model simulates a variety of installed PV capacity for a range of user-specified input parameters. PV market penetration levels from 15 to 193 GW by 2030 were simulated in preliminary model runs. SolarDS results are primarily driven by three model assumptions: (1) future PV cost reductions, (2) the maximum PV market share assumed for systems with given financial performance, and (3) PV financing parameters and policy-driven assumptions, such as the possible future cost of carbon emissions.

  4. Fiscal 1994 research report. Demonstration test for establishing technology for peakload shaving with dispersed small residential PV systems (Evaluation of weatherability of house-use solar light electric power generating system equipment); 1994 nendo jutakuyo taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu nado kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka no uchi jutakuyo taiyoko hatsuden system kiki no taikosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Weatherability tests such as exposure to the atmosphere are conducted to collect and accumulate information on the degradation of house-use photovoltaic equipment expected to come into use in areas where weather conditions are hostile. Based on the thus collected data, analysis and evaluation are conducted about the mechanisms of corrosion and degradation for the establishment of designing and evaluating methods for maintaining weatherability. Since fiscal 1994 is the first year of the project, preparations are made for tests to be conducted. In carrying out research activities, a Weatherability Evaluation Committee for House-Use Solar Light Electric Power Generating System Equipment is organized, who discuss implementation of the project. Discussion is made on the shape and structural materials of the exposure rack. An aluminum alloy coated with a clear coating of alumite sulfate is selected, and a rack is built. Specifications of a sea salt particle collector are discussed, and preparations are made for arresting and quantifying sea salt particles under the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) dry gauze method and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) wet candle method. Solar cell module initial characteristics are measured. (NEDO)

  5. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  6. Performance and costs of a roof-sized PV/thermal array combined with a ground coupled heat pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Zondag, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. Hence, PVT panels are an alternative for a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. A promising system concept,

  7. Financial mechanism for PV solar home systems market development. An Indian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painuly, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Rural electrification through grid extension has not made electricity available to the rural households in India, where still approximately seventy percent of them have no access to electricity. These households continue to rely on less efficient and polluting energy sources, typically biomass for cooking and heating and kerosene for lighting. Even though some of them are connected to grid, problems of capacity shortages and inconsistent quality plague the power supply, especially in rural and semi urban areas in most parts of India. Despite high initial costs, Solar Home Systems (SHS) emerge as an attractive option in the context of costly or unreliable alternatives and escalating grid power tariffs. Barrier to the growth of SHS market include a lack of access to financing, awareness, and risk perception associated with the technology, new to the customers of SHS and financing community. To address these barriers, consultations with stakeholders were held, that included manufacturers, financing institutions, and others. An intervention was designed based on the discussions and a credit facility created in partnership with two banks having wide reach to the potential customers in Karnataka State of India. The facility provides loan to the customers and a small subsidy to buy down high cost of the credit, which is designed to reduce over the three-year operation of the facility, with a target to reach market rates of interest at the end of the project. Technical support, awareness raising strategies and training were included as a part of the overall strategy. The credit facility was launched between April and June 2003 by the two partner banks. Early indications on sales have been very encouraging and the facility has already surpassed the target of 5000 SHS sales in two years within a year. Feedback mechanisms such as customer surveys, new initiatives to reach the poor households, and ongoing consultations with stakeholders etc. are also part of the market

  8. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  9. Impact of fuel-dependent electricity retail charges on the value of net-metered PV applications in vertically integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Alexandros I.; Milidonis, Andreas; Charalambous, Charalambos A.

    2015-01-01

    Retail electricity charges inevitably influence the financial rationale of using net-metered photovoltaic (PV) applications since their structure as well as their level may vary significantly over the life-cycle of a customer-sited PV generation system. This subsequently introduces a further uncertainty for a ratepayer considering a net-metered PV investment. To thoroughly comprehend this uncertainty, the paper employs a top-down approach – in vertically integrated environments – to model the volatility of partially hedged electricity charges and its subsequent impact on the value of bill savings from net-metered PV systems. Besides the utility's pricing strategy and rate structures, particular emphasis is given in modeling the fossil fuel mix component that introduces a significant source of uncertainty on electricity charges and thus on the value of bill savings of net-metered, customer-sited, PV applications. - Highlights: • A top-down approach of developing traditional electricity charges is provided. • The combined effect of pricing strategies, rate structures and fuels is examined. • Fossil fuel prices can substantially affect the net metering compensation. • A financial risk assessment for net-metered PV systems is performed

  10. On the influence of the European trade barrier on the chinese pv industry: Is the solution to the solar-dispute “successful”?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Killian J.

    2016-01-01

    In July 2013 the European Union (EU) imposed restrictions on Chinese solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers, looking to exporting to the EU. In this paper, we consider the impact of this trade barrier, using a sample of 454 stock-listed PV producing firms. We find that the trade barrier erased US$ 8,19 million off the value of the average European PV manufacturers and US$ 247.03 million off the value of the average Chinese PV manufacturers. We also find that while the trade barrier reduced the willingness of the industry to reorganise, it stimulates Chinese manufacturers to reorganise both their domestic and their international operations. The latter, we warn, is likely an attempt by Chinese manufacturers to ‘tariff jump’. We conclude, therefore, that the trade barrier was both inefficient, in that it both hurt the companies it aimed to protect, and ineffective, as those it sought to punish may have circumvented it. - Highlights: • Consider the impact of EU trade restrictions on 454 PV producing firms. • Show that the regulation wiped $8 m off the average European PV manufacturer. • Show that the regulation wiped US$247 m off the value of the average Chinese PV manufacturers. • Show that the regulation stimulated Chinese firms to circumvent the barrier. • Conclude that the trade barrier was inefficient and ineffective.

  11. Displacement damage analysis and modified electrical equivalent circuit for electron and photon-irradiated silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjhangmehr, Afshin; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-10-01

    Solar modules and arrays are the conventional energy resources of space satellites. Outside the earth's atmosphere, solar panels experience abnormal radiation environments and because of incident particles, photovoltaic (PV) parameters degrade. This article tries to analyze the electrical performance of electron and photon-irradiated mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. PV cells are irradiated by mono-energetic electrons and poly-energetic photons and immediately characterized after the irradiation. The mean degradation of the maximum power (Pmax) of silicon solar cells is presented and correlated using the displacement damage dose (Dd) methodology. This method simplifies evaluation of cell performance in space radiation environments and produces a single characteristic curve for Pmax degradation. Furthermore, complete analysis of the results revealed that the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the filling factor of mono-Si cells did not significantly change during the irradiation and were independent of the radiation type and fluence. Moreover, a new technique is developed that adapts the irradiation-induced effects in a single-cell equivalent electrical circuit and adjusts its elements. The "modified circuit" is capable of modeling the "radiation damage" in the electrical behavior of mono-Si solar cells and simplifies the designing of the compensation circuits.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar System with Different Cooling Methods and a Bi-Reflector PV System (BRPVS: An Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the price of solar photovoltaic (PV systems has been a constant challenge. Despite recent advances, solar PV systems are still more costly than conventional energy resources. For the first time, this study examines the effectiveness of three different structures/materials: (i silvered glass plane mirror; (ii convex spherical mirrors; and (iii aluminum (Al foil as reflector. Comparative analysis of four different cooling techniques, i.e., water sprinkling system, passive heat sink method, active air fan method, and closed loop method, for enhancement of output power was performed. A novel Bi reflector solar PV system (BRPVS was suggested to control the working of the reflectors. The Al foil enhanced the power output compared to the others. In addition, the effect of using a reflector on the temperature of a solar PV system was studied. High operating temperatures resulted in a decrease in the maximum output power under the same solar radiation conditions. The combined enhancement of the output power by both Al foil BRPVS system and cooling system was almost 22.75–38.55%. An optimal control algorithm to use cooling and BRPVS in an efficient manner is described.

  13. Growth and characterization of CdTe absorbers on GaAs by MBE for high concentration PV solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari, Ozan; Polat, Mustafa; Selamet, Yusuf [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir 35430 (Turkey); Karakaya, Merve [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir 35430 (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    CdTe based II-VI absorbers are promising candidates for high concentration PV solar cells with an ideal band gap for AM1.5 solar radiation. In this study, we propose single crystal CdTe absorbers grown on GaAs substrates with a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) which is a clean deposition technology. We show that high quality CdTe absorber layers can be grown with full width half maximum of X-ray diffraction rocking curves (XRD RC) as low as 227 arc-seconds with 0.5% thickness uniformity that a 2 μm layer is capable of absorbing 99% of AM1.5 solar radiation. Bandgap of the CdTe absorber is found as 1.483 eV from spetroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. Also, high absorption coefficient is calculated from the results, which is ∝5 x 10{sup 5}cm{sup -1} in solar radiation spectrum. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Detection of Potential Induced Degradation in c-Si PV Panels Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2016-01-01

    This work, for the first time, investigates an Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) based method for detecting potential-induced degradation (PID) in crystalline silicon photovoltaic (c-Si PV) panels. The method has been experimentally tested on a set of panels that were confirmed to be affected by PID...

  15. Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, L.; Sawyer, A.; Grove, J.

    2011-02-01

    This handbook is intended as a road map for project planners and solar advocates who want to convert interest into action, to break through market barriers and permanently transform the market for residential solar installations in their communities. It describes the key elements of the Solarize campaigns in Portland, and offers several program refinements from projects beyond Portland. The handbook provides lessons, considerations, and step-by-step plans for project organizers to replicate the success of Solarize Portland.

  16. Solar flares through electric current interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, C.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental hypothesis by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) that solar flares are related to electrical currents in the solar chromosphere and low corona is investigated in the light of modern observations. The authors confirm the important role of currents in solar flares. There must be tens of such current loops (flux threads) in any flare, and this explains the hierarchy of bursts in flares. The authors summarize quantitative data on energies, numbers of particles involved and characteristic times. A special case is the high-energy flare: this one may originate in the same way as less energetic ones, but it occurs in regions with higher magnetic field strength. Because of the high particle energies involved their emission seats live only very briefly; hence the area of emission coincides virtually with the seat of the instability. These flares are therefore the best examples for studying the primary instability leading to the flare. Finally, the authors compare the merits of the original Alfven-Carlqvist idea (that flares originate by current interruption) with the one that they are due to interaction (reconnection) between two or more fluxthreads. The authors conclude that a final decision cannot yet by made, although the observed extremely short time constants of flare bursts seem to demand a reconnection-type instability rather than interruption of a circuit

  17. Solar fuel production by using PV/PEC junctions based on earth-abundant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Mangel Raventos, A.; Falkenberg, M.; Vasudevan, R.A.; Zeman, M.; Smith, W.A.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of renewable energies is storage of the energy carrier. For long-term storage, solar fuels seem to be a good option. Direct solar water splitting could play an important role in the production of these solar fuels. One of the main challenges of this process is the charge

  18. Measurements on a PV solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.T.; Ten Thije O.G. Boonkkamp, J.; Borg, van der N.J.C.M.; Beek, van M.

    1997-01-01

    The work on a simple high efficient solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve, reported at the Solar World Congress in Budapest, has been continued. Quasi-static and dynamic models of the solar pump have been derived with which the operation of the system is simulated. A test rig

  19. The Effects of Solar Irradience and Ambient Temperature on Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is abundant. It is however low grade energy and cannot be easily used in the form it occurs for work. Converting solar energy directly to electricity, using solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is however a low efficiency process. Optimizing this conversion, especially in the face of the high cost of solar panels, is thus ...

  20. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    development from the perspective of technological innovation. By incorporating a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach, the analysis performed here complements the previous literature, which has not provided agrounded itself in a theoretical framework for associated analyses. In addition......China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV industry......, to determine the current market dynamics, we closely examine the market concentration trends as well as the vertical and horizontal integration of upstream and downstream actors and calculate the market concentration of the upstream and downstream integration (74.8% and 36.3%). The results of applying the TIS...

  1. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-04-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  2. Energy and Cost Saving of a Photovoltaic-Phase Change Materials (PV-PCM System through Temperature Regulation and Performance Enhancement of Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research seeks to maintain high photovoltaic (PV efficiency and increased operating PV life by maintaining them at a lower temperature. Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM are integrated into PV panels to absorb excess heat by latent heat absorption mechanism and regulate PV temperature. Electrical and thermal energy efficiency analysis of PV-PCM systems is conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in two different climates. Finally costs incurred due to inclusion of PCM into PV system and the resulting benefits are discussed in this paper. The results show that such systems are financially viable in higher temperature and higher solar radiation environment.

  3. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  4. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  5. Lightning Surge Analysis on a Large Scale Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hazirah Zaini; Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab. Kadir; Mohd Amran Mohd Radzi; Mahdi Izadi; Norhafiz Azis; Nor Izzati Ahmad; Mohd Solehin Mohd Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) farms currently play a vital role in the generation of electrical power in different countries, such as Malaysia, which is moving toward the use of renewable energy. Malaysia is one of the countries with abundant sunlight and thus can use solar PV farms as alternative sources for electricity generation. However, lightning strikes frequently occur in the country. Being installed in open and flat areas, solar PV farms, especially their electronic components, are at great...

  6. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand

  7. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  8. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  9. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  10. Financing PV solar home systems; A market intervention model from a case study in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Risoe National Laboratory (Denmark); Usher, E. [Energy and Ozon Action Unit - Division of Technology, Industry and Economics - United Nations Environment Programme, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Renewable Energy is expected to contribute significantly in future to World Energy Supply. It holds tremendous potential for countries like India where approximately seventy percent of the rural households are still without access to electricity. These households continue to rely on less efficient and polluting energy sources, typically biomass for cooking and heating and kerosene for lighting. Even when connected to grid, problems of capacity shortages and inconsistent quality plague the power supply, especially in rural and semi urban areas in most parts of India. Despite high initial costs, Solar Home Systems (SHS) emerge as an attractive option in the context of costly or unreliable alternatives and escalating grid power tariffs. Barrier to the growth of SHS market include a lack of access to financing, awareness, and risk perception associated with the technology, new to the customers of SHS and financing community. Consultations with stakeholders were held and an intervention was designed to address these barriers through creation of a credit facility in partnership with two banks having wide reach to the potential customers. The facility provides loan to the customers and a small subsidy to buy down high cost of the credit, which is designed to reduce over the three-year operation of the facility, with a target to reach market rates of interest at the end of the project. Technical support, awareness raising strategies and training were included as a part of the overall strategy. The credit facility was launched between April and June 2003 by the two banks. Early indications on sales have been very encouraging and the facility is expected to surpass the target of 5000 SHS sales in two years well in advance. Feedback mechanisms such as customer surveys, new initiatives to reach the poor households, and ongoing consultations with stakeholders etc. are also part of the market development strategy. (orig.)

  11. National Energy with Weather System Simultator (NEWS) Sets Bounds on Cost Effective Wind and Solar PV Deployment in the USA without the Use of Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. In 2009, we began a large-scale investigation into the characteristics of weather-driven renewables. The project utilized the best available weather data assimilation model to compute high spatial and temporal resolution power datasets for the renewable resources of wind and solar PV. The weather model used is the Rapid Update Cycle for the years of 2006-2008. The team also collated a detailed electrical load dataset for the contiguous USA from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for the same three-year period. The coincident time series of electrical load and weather data allows the possibility of temporally correlated computations for optimal design over large geographic areas. The past two years have seen the development of a cost optimization mathematic model that designs electric power systems. The model plans the system and dispatches it on an hourly timescale. The system is designed to be reliable, reduce carbon, reduce variability of renewable resources and move the electricity about the whole domain. The system built would create the infrastructure needed to reduce carbon emissions to 0 by 2050. The advantages of the system is reduced water demain, dual incomes for farmers, jobs for construction of the infrastructure, and price stability for energy. One important simplified test that was run included existing US carbon free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an

  12. A new method for estimating insolation based on PV-module currents in a cluster of stand-alone solar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhout, F; van der Borg, N; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of solar home systems (SHSs), data on local insolation is a prerequisite. We present a new method to estimate insolation if direct measurements are unavailable. This method comprises estimation of daily irradiation by correlating photovoltaic (PV) module currents

  13. Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    This guidebook is intended as a road map for project planners and solar advocates who want to convert 'interest' into 'action,' to break through market barriers and permanently transform the market for residential solar installations in their communities. It describes the key elements of the Solarize campaigns in Portland, and offers several program refinements from projects beyond Portland. The guidebook provides lessons, considerations, and step-by-step plans for project organizers to replicate the success of Solarize Portland.

  14. Less CO2 by means of photovoltaic energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsema, E.A.; Van Brummelen, M.

    1992-11-01

    Regarding the title subject special attention is paid to the technical limitations of a fast introduction of the use of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion. After a brief introduction on PV systems and the operation of a solar cell in chapter two, a state of the art is given of PV technology and possible price developments for PV modules and Balance-Of-System (BOS) components up to the year 2000 in chapters three and four. In chapter five the potential of installing grid-connected PV systems in the Netherlands is determined, taking into account the options of using existing buildings (PV systems on the roof), unexplored ground, in the verge of highways or railroads, industrial areas and airports. In chapter six non-economical bottlenecks for a large-scale introduction of grid-connected PV systems are discussed: the industrial production capacity for PV modules and other components, the fitting-in into the public electricity supply, and institutional aspects of installing PV systems on roofs. In chapter seven it is determined how much costs can be saved and CO 2 emission can be reduced when PV capacity is fitted-in into the Dutch electric power supply. The calculations are based on the Global Shift scenario. In chapter eight two scenarios (an optimistic scenario and a more realistic scenario) for the introduction of PV systems are outlined. For both scenarios the financial consequences and the contribution to the electric power supply are indicated. In chapter nine the net energy yield, being the result of the previously discussed introduction scenarios, is calculated, followed by a calculation of the avoided CO 2 emission, as well as the costs to avoid such emission. 25 figs., 15 tabs., 116 refs., 1 annex

  15. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  16. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  17. Bifacial PV cell with reflector for stand-alone mast for sensor powering purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Michael L.; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter B.; Riedel, N.; Rødder, Peter M.; Rødder, Kristin

    2017-09-01

    Reflectors to bifacial PV-cells are simulated and prototyped in this work. The aim is to optimize the reflector to specific latitudes, and particularly northern latitudes. Specifically, by using minimum semiconductor area the reflector must be able to deliver the electrical power required at the condition of minimum solar travel above the horizon, worst weather condition etc. We will test a bifacial PV-module with a retroreflector, and compare the output with simulations combined with local solar data.

  18. 新型PV/T太阳能利用复合系统的实验研究%Experimental Study on A Novel Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光明; 刘祖明; 李景天; 廖华; 朱勋梦; 张卫东

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid photovoltaic /thermal solar system,which combining flat stainless steel box as solar heat collectors with aluminum alloy backplane monocrystalline silicon PV components,and using the thermally conductive silica-gel for adhesion,was designed to improve the energy efficiency and to supply hot water and electricity.The system performed good adhesion,insulation and heat conduction between the collector and PV module.The electrical and thermal efficiency of the system are tested through experiments conducted in Kunming area with different water mass and under different conditions.The results show that the total efficiency and general energy efficiency of novel PV/T system is higher in 75kg water mass sunny weather.Its electrical efficiency,thermal efficiency,total efficiency and general energy efficiency are 14%,37%,51%,and 70.72%,respectively.Compared with in 50kg water mass sunny or 75kg water mass cloudy weather,the general efficiency has been enhanced by 11.86% or 2.09%.Compared with pure PV system or the nature circulation of the solar water collector,The novel PV/T systems has several advantages,including smaller occupied area,higher utilization of solar energy and lower expenditure.%为提高PV/T系统太阳能利用率,同时获得可利用的热水和电力,将铝合金背板型单晶硅光伏组件和自行设计制作的不锈钢扁盒式集热板相结合,用导热硅胶加以粘接制成新型光伏光热一体化(PV/T)复合系统,该系统实现了光伏组件与集热板之间良好的粘接性、绝缘性和热传导,并在昆明地区对系统进行测试,分析了系统在不同水箱水容量及不同天气工况下运行的光电光热性能.结果表明,系统在75kg水箱水容量(m)晴天工况下运行效率更高,系统的平均电效率、热效率、综合效率及综合性能效率分别在14%、37%、51%、70.72%左右,与系统在50kg水箱水容量晴天或75kg水箱水容量多云工况下运行相比,

  19. Performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic hybrid system for electricity generation and simultaneous water disinfection of wild bacteria strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichel, N.; Vivar, M.; Fuentes, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid solar water disinfection and energy generation system was designed and tested. • SOLWAT comprises a water disinfection reactor and a PV module fully integrated into a single unit. • Natural water with wild strains of E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and C. perfringens were studied. • The water disinfection reactor located above the PV module did not affect the final energy output. • The SOLWAT disinfection results were always higher than conventional PET bottles. - Abstract: A hybrid solar water disinfection and energy generation system for meeting the needs of safe drinking water and electricity was designed and tested in Alcalá de Henares (Spain) under summer climatic conditions to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. Natural water sources with wild strains of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens (including spores) were studied. Results showed that SOLWAT disinfection efficiency was higher than conventional PET bottles and that the water disinfection reactor located above the PV module did not affect the total energy output produced by the hybrid system in comparison to the single PV module, achieving the same power losses over the 6 h of sun exposure in relation to their power at standard test conditions (STC).

  20. Design And Simulation Of A PV System With Battery Storage Using Bidirectional DC-DC Converter Using Matlab Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Mursalin Iqbal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PV Photovoltaic systems are one of the most renowned renewable green and clean sources of energy where power is generated from sunlight converting into electricity by the use of PV solar cells. Unlike fossil fuels solar energy has great environmental advantages as they have no harmfu