WorldWideScience

Sample records for pv power applications

  1. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesser, P.; Hostettler, T.

    2007-01-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  2. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need

  3. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesser, P. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aarau (Switzerland); Hostettler, T. [Ingenieurbuero Hostettler, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  4. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in France 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, Paul; Durand, Yvonnick

    2015-06-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program is to promote and facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of PV power systems. Task 1 activities support the broader PVPS objectives: to contribute to cost reduction of PV power applications, to increase awareness of the potential and value of PV power systems, to foster the removal of both technical and non-technical barriers and to enhance technology co-operation. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. The PVPS web site www.iea-pvps.org also plays an important role in disseminating information arising from the program, including national information. This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaics for the year 2014

  5. PV power system using hybrid converter for LED indictor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Hung-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a LED indictor driving circuit with a PV arrays as its power source. • The perturb-and-observe method is adopted to extract the maximum power of PV arrays. • The proposed circuit structure has a less component counts and higher conversion efficiency. • A prototype of LED indictor driving circuit has been implemented to verify its feasibility. • The proposed hybrid converter is suitable for LED inductor applications. - Abstract: This paper presents a LED indictor driving circuit with a PV arrays as its power source. The LED indictor driving circuit includes battery charger and discharger (LED driving circuit). In this research, buck converter is used as a charger, and forward converter with active clamp circuit is adopted as a discharger to drive the LED indictor. Their circuit structures use switch integration technique to simplify them and to form the proposed hybrid converter, which has a less component counts, lighter weight, smaller size, and higher conversion efficiency. Moreover, the proposed hybrid converter uses a perturb-and-observe method to extract the maximum power from PV arrays. Finally, a prototype of an LED indictor driving circuit with output voltage of 10 V and output power of 20 W has been implemented to verify its feasibility. It is suitable for the LED inductor applications

  6. Characterization of high performance silicon-based VMJ PV cells for laser power transmission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsien; Zahuranec, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Continuing improvements in the cost and power of laser diodes have been critical in launching the emerging fields of power over fiber (PoF), and laser power beaming. Laser power is transmitted either over fiber (for PoF), or through free space (power beaming), and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells designed to efficiently convert the laser light. MH GoPower's vertical multi-junction (VMJ) PV cell, designed for high intensity photovoltaic applications, is fueling the emergence of this market, by enabling unparalleled photovoltaic receiver flexibility in voltage, cell size, and power output. Our research examined the use of the VMJ PV cell for laser power transmission applications. We fully characterized the performance of the VMJ PV cell under various laser conditions, including multiple near IR wavelengths and light intensities up to tens of watts per cm2. Results indicated VMJ PV cell efficiency over 40% for 9xx nm wavelengths, at laser power densities near 30 W/cm2. We also investigated the impact of the physical dimensions (length, width, and height) of the VMJ PV cell on its performance, showing similarly high performance across a wide range of cell dimensions. We then evaluated the VMJ PV cell performance within the power over fiber application, examining the cell's effectiveness in receiver packages that deliver target voltage, intensity, and power levels. By designing and characterizing multiple receivers, we illustrated techniques for packaging the VMJ PV cell for achieving high performance (> 30%), high power (> 185 W), and target voltages for power over fiber applications.

  7. Energy harvesting using TEG and PV cell for low power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawil, Siti Nooraya Mohd; Zainal, Mohd Zulkarnain

    2018-02-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) module and photovoltaic cell (PV) were utilized to harvest energy from temperature gradients of heat sources from ambient heat and light of sun. The output of TEG and PV were connected to a power management circuit consist of step-up dc-dc converter in order to increase the output voltage to supply a low power application such as wireless communication module and the photovoltaic cell for charging an energy storage element in order to switch on a fan for cooling system of the thermoelectric generator. A switch is used as a selector to choose the input of source either from photovoltaic cell or thermoelectric generator to switch on DC-DC step-up converter. In order to turn on the DC-DC step-up converter, the input must be greater than 3V. The energy harvesting was designed so that it can be used continuously and portable anywhere. Multiple sources used in this energy harvesting system is to ensure the system can work in whatever condition either in good weather or not good condition of weather. This energy harvesting system has the potential to be used in military operation and environment that require sustainability of energy resources.

  8. Performance evaluation of a high power DC-DC boost converter for PV applications using SiC power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasoudi, Fahad M.; Alatawi, Khaled S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    The development of Wide band gap (WBG) power devices has been attracted by many commercial companies to be available in the market because of their enormous advantages over the traditional Si power devices. An example of WBG material is SiC, which offers a number of advantages over Si material. For example, SiC has the ability of blocking higher voltages, reducing switching and conduction losses and supports high switching frequency. Consequently, SiC power devices have become the affordable choice for high frequency and power application. The goal of this paper is to study the performance of 4.5 kW, 200 kHz, 600V DC-DC boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) for PV applications. The switching behavior and turn on and turn off losses of different switching power devices such as SiC MOSFET, SiC normally ON JFET and Si MOSFET are investigated and analyzed. Moreover, a detailed comparison is provided to show the overall efficiency of the DC-DC boost converter with different switching power devices. It is found that the efficiency of SiC power switching devices are higher than the efficiency of Si-based switching devices due to low switching and conduction losses when operating at high frequencies. According to the result, the performance of SiC switching power devices dominate the conventional Si power devices in terms of low losses, high efficiency and high power density. Accordingly, SiC power switching devices are more appropriate for PV applications where a converter of smaller size with high efficiency, and cost effective is required.

  9. An MPC Based ESS Control Method for PV Power Smoothing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Mingyu; Yang, Zilong; Wang, Yibo

    2018-01-01

    Random fluctuation in photovoltaic (PV) power plants is becoming a serious problem affecting the power quality and stability of the grid along with the increasing penetration of PVs. In order to solve this problem, by the adding of energy storage systems (ESS), a grid-connected microgrid system c...

  10. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  11. Grid-Forming-Mode Operation of Boost-Power-Stage Converter in PV-Generator-Interfacing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Viinamäki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of constant power control and inclusion of energy storage in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV energy systems may increase the use of two-stage system structures composed of DC–DC-converter-interfaced PV generator and grid-connected inverter connected in cascade. A typical PV-generator-interfacing DC–DC converter is a boost-power-stage converter. The renewable energy system may operate in three different operation modes—grid-forming, grid-feeding, and grid-supporting modes. In the last two operation modes, the outmost feedback loops are taken from the input terminal of the associated power electronic converters, which usually does not pose stability problems in terms of their input sources. In the grid-forming operation mode, the outmost feedback loops have to be connected to the output terminal of the associated power electronic converters, and hence the input terminal will behave as a negative incremental resistor at low frequencies. This property will limit the operation of the PV interfacing converter in either the constant voltage or constant current region of the PV generator for ensuring stable operation. The boost-power-stage converter can be applied as a voltage or current-fed converter limiting the stable operation region accordingly. The investigations of this paper show explicitly that only the voltage-fed mode would provide feasible dynamic and stability properties as a viable interfacing converter.

  12. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results.

  13. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohini, G; Jamuna, V

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results.

  14. PV Power-Generation System with a Phase-Shift PWM Technique for High Step-Up Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A PV power-generation system with a phase-shift pulse-width modulation (PWM technique for high step-up voltage applications is proposed. The proposed power-generation system consists of two stages. In the input stage, all power switches of the full-bridge converter with phase-shift technique can be operated with zero-current switching (ZCS at turn-on or turn-off transition. Hence, the switching losses of the power switches can be reduced. Then, in the DC output stage, a voltage-doubler circuit is used to boost a high dc-link bus voltage. To supply a utility power, a dc/ac inverter is connected to induce a sinusoidal source. In order to draw a maximum power from PV arrays source, a microcontroller is incorporated with the perturbation and observation method to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In this study, a full load power of 300 W prototype has been built. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power-generation system.

  15. Comparison of the Energy Conversion Efficiency of a Solar Chimney and a Solar PV-Powered Fan for Ventilation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Klimeš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A study into the performance of a solar chimney and a solar photovoltaic (PV-powered fan for ventilation applications was carried out using numerical simulations. The performance of the solar chimney was compared with that of a direct current (DC fan powered by a solar PV panel. The comparison was carried out using the same area of the irradiated surface—the area of the solar absorber plate in the case of the solar chimney and the area of the solar panel in the case of the photovoltaic-powered fan. The two studied cases were compared under various solar radiation intensities of incident solar radiation. The results indicate that the PV-powered fans significantly outperform solar chimneys in terms of converting solar energy into the kinetic energy of air motion. Moreover, ventilation with PV-powered fans offers more flexibility in the arrangement of the ventilation system and also better control of the air flow rates in the case of battery storage.

  16. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Simulation of Distributed PV Power Output in Oahu Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation in Oahu has grown rapidly since 2008. For applications such as determining the value of energy storage, it is important to have PV power output timeseries. Since these timeseries of not typically measured, here we produce simulated distributed PV power output for Oahu. Simulated power output is based on (a) satellite-derived solar irradiance, (b) PV permit data by neighborhood, and (c) population data by census block. Permit and population data was used to model locations of distributed PV, and irradiance data was then used to simulate power output. PV power output simulations are presented by sub-neighborhood polygons, neighborhoods, and for the whole island of Oahu. Summary plots of annual PV energy and a sample week timeseries of power output are shown, and a the files containing the entire timeseries are described.

  18. Two-Stage Chaos Optimization Search Application in Maximum Power Point Tracking of PV Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to deliver the maximum available power to the load under the condition of varying solar irradiation and environment temperature, maximum power point tracking (MPPT technologies have been used widely in PV systems. Among all the MPPT schemes, the chaos method is one of the hot topics in recent years. In this paper, a novel two-stage chaos optimization method is presented which can make search faster and more effective. In the process of proposed chaos search, the improved logistic mapping with the better ergodic is used as the first carrier process. After finding the current optimal solution in a certain guarantee, the power function carrier as the secondary carrier process is used to reduce the search space of optimized variables and eventually find the maximum power point. Comparing with the traditional chaos search method, the proposed method can track the change quickly and accurately and also has better optimization results. The proposed method provides a new efficient way to track the maximum power point of PV array.

  19. Integrated application of combined cooling, heating and power poly-generation PV radiant panel system of zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan

    2018-02-01

    A new type of combined cooling, heating and power of photovoltaic radiant panel (PV/R) module was proposed, and applied in the zero energy buildings in this paper. The energy system of this building is composed of PV/R module, low temperature difference terminal, energy storage, multi-source heat pump, energy balance control system. Radiant panel is attached on the backside of the PV module for cooling the PV, which is called PV/R module. During the daytime, the PV module was cooled down with the radiant panel, as the temperature coefficient influence, the power efficiency was increased by 8% to 14%, the radiant panel solar heat collecting efficiency was about 45%. Through the nocturnal radiant cooling, the PV/R cooling capacity could be 50 W/m2. For the multifunction energy device, the system shows the versatility during the heating, cooling and power used of building utilization all year round.

  20. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in France 2012. Photovoltaic Power Applications in France - National Survey Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick

    2013-05-01

    The PV power of all grid-connected photovoltaic systems installed in 2012 stood at 1 079 MW. This represented a 38 % fall compared with 2011. New grid-connected distributed systems, the majority of which were building-integrated, represented a total power of 756 MW, while grid-connected centralised ground-based power plants accounted for 323 MW. New PV installations in mainland France accounted for 35 % of total new electricity production capacity commissioned in 2012. The off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic system sector remains marginal with around 0,2 MW installed. The cumulative power capacity of all photovoltaic systems in operation at the end of 2012 stood at 4 003 MW (281 724 systems) representing an increase of 37% compared with 2011. Residential systems less than or equal to 3 kW accounted for 86% of all installations and 16 % of total power capacity, while systems exceeding 250 kW accounted for 0,3% of all installations and 44% of total capacity. In 2012, photovoltaic electricity production accounted for 0,7% of France's total electricity production. In France, the estimated average price of European-manufactured photovoltaic modules stood at 0,72 EUR/W in 2012. The fall in prices observed over the last two years has led to substantial growth in the medium-power and high-power systems sector. The turnkey price stood at around 3,7 EUR/W in 2012 for building-integrated residential systems (IAB) using European modules. The price of simplified building-integrated systems (ISB) on commercial and industrial buildings stood at 2,0 EUR/W, and at 1,6 EUR/W for high-power grid-connected ground-mounted systems (all prices mentioned are exclusive of VAT). The French photovoltaic component industry faced stiff international competition in 2012. The industrial value chain has, on the whole, remained relatively unscathed, but small installation companies have been the worst affected. Upstream of the PV sector, photovoltaic-grade silicon manufacturing is currently at

  1. Use of appliances in stand-alone PV power supply systems: problems and solutions. Task 3 use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallve, X.; Gafas, G. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Spain); Villoz, M. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Switzerland); Wilshaw, A. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (United Kingdom); Jacquin, P. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (France)

    2002-09-15

    In Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems (SAPV systems), special attention must be paid to the used appliances and loads. Inappropriate loads are very often the origin of PV system malfunction or failure. Start-up power peaks, or reactive power and harmonic distortion can cause system signal instability and protective devices will close the system down. A well-matched load together with a carefully selected choice of appliances can lead to significant savings in terms of reduced need for PV and electricity storage capacity. Conversely, inefficient appliances and processes, standby loads and inappropriate loads will increase the requirement for expensive PV and storage capacity. This paper presents a survey of real cases with load related problems in worldwide applications, their effect on quality and cost of the service and the solutions that were adopted and suggested alternative solutions. One of the main conclusions of the work is the importance to integrate the choice of the appliance while designing the SAPV system. (author)

  2. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in The Netherlands 2009. Task 1. Exchange and dissemination of information on PV power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of photovoltaic power systems. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. This document is the Dutch National Survey Report for the year 2009. Information from this document will be used as input to the annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report.

  3. Design and preliminary operation of a hybrid syngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohsri, Sompol; Meechai, Apichart; Prapainainar, Chaiwat

    2018-01-01

    , in this study a customized hybrid power system integrating solar, biomass (syngas) power and battery storage system is evaluated a pilot scale for micro off-grid application. This paper shows that for a reliability of a hybrid syngas/solar PV system along with rechargeable batteries, the syngas generator can......Due to the irregular nature of solar resource, solar photovoltaic (PV) system alone cannot satisfy load on a 24/7 demand basis, especially with increasing regional population in developing countries such as Thailand. A hybrid solar PV/biomass based along with battery storage system has been drawing....... Furthermore, the generator has to be always synchronized during the commissioning time. Battery state of charge (SOC) in percent (%) connecting with syngas is greater than solar PV and the charging time appears significantly shorter than that one. All possible combinations between an innovation and existing...

  4. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  5. Identification of PV solar cells and modules parameters using the genetic algorithms: Application to maximum power extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrouba, M.; Sellami, A.; Bouaicha, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semi-conducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, Tunis, B.P. 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Ksouri, M. [Unite de Recherche RME-Groupe AIA, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie (Tunisia)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we propose to perform a numerical technique based on genetic algorithms (GAs) to identify the electrical parameters (I{sub s}, I{sub ph}, R{sub s}, R{sub sh}, and n) of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and modules. These parameters were used to determine the corresponding maximum power point (MPP) from the illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. The one diode type approach is used to model the AM1.5 I-V characteristic of the solar cell. To extract electrical parameters, the approach is formulated as a non convex optimization problem. The GAs approach was used as a numerical technique in order to overcome problems involved in the local minima in the case of non convex optimization criteria. Compared to other methods, we find that the GAs is a very efficient technique to estimate the electrical parameters of PV solar cells and modules. Indeed, the race of the algorithm stopped after five generations in the case of PV solar cells and seven generations in the case of PV modules. The identified parameters are then used to extract the maximum power working points for both cell and module. (author)

  6. POWERED LED LIGHTING SUPPLIED FROM PV CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with practical realization of efficient lighting system based on LED’s of 80W total power mounted on corridor ceiling total length of which is 120m and substitutes existing traditional lighting system consisting of 29 lighting blocks with 4 fluorescent lamps each of them and summary power 2088W. Realized lighting system is supplied from two photovoltaic panels of power 170W. Generated energy by PV cells is accumulated in two accumulators of 75Ah capacity and from battery by means of specialized convertor is applied to lighting system. Additionally, paper present data measured by digital weather station (solar radiation and UV index, which is mounted near of PV cells and comparative analyze of solar energy with real energy generated by PV cells is done. Measured parameters by digital weather station are stored by computer in on-line mode.

  7. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  8. Simulation of regional day-ahead PV power forecast scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuno, Edgar; Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty associated with Photovoltaic (PV) generation can have a significant impact on real-time planning and operation of power systems. This obstacle is commonly handled using multiple forecast realizations, obtained using for example forecast ensembles and/or probabilistic forecasts, often...... at the expense of a high computational burden. Alternatively, some power system applications may require realistic forecasts rather than actual estimates; able to capture the uncertainty of weatherdriven generation. To this end, we propose a novel methodology to generate day-ahead forecast scenarios of regional...... PV production matching the spatio-temporal characteristics while preserving the statistical properties of actual records....

  9. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  10. Solar PV-based rooftop power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar, B.; Kumar, Chaitanya; Patel, C.B.; Pattanaik, B.R.; Panda, P.K.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Technical Services Division (TSD) is responsible for providing reliable power supply to various operating reactors, laboratories and facilities of BARC. The power supply to BARC is derived from TATA Power at 110 KV and 22 KV at an average HT tariff of Rs.8.49 per unit at present. Peak power demand of BARC in summer season goes up to 23 MW. TSD has implemented several energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption and as well taken initiatives to install solar PV based rooftop power plants to reduce the cost of energy consumption in BARC

  11. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for PV Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to bring down the cost of produced photovoltaic (PV) power had a major impact on the PV market and in consequence the grid operators experienced higher and higher PV power penetration. The growing share of this decentralized generation plants started to affect the grid stability...

  12. A Transformer-less Partial Power Boost Converter for PV Applications Using a Three-Level Switching Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Essakiappan, Somasundaram

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic architectures with distributed power electronics provide many advantages in terms of energy yield as well as system level optimization. As the power level of the solar farm increases it becomes more beneficial to increase the dc collection network voltage, which requires the use of power devices with higher voltage ratings, and thus making the design of efficient, low cost, distributed power converters more challenging. In this paper a simple partial power converter topology is proposed. The topology is implemented using a three-level switching cell, which allows the use of semiconductor devices with lower voltage rating; thus improving design and performance and reducing converter cost. This makes the converters suitable for use for medium to high power applications where dc-link voltages of 600V~1kV may be needed without the need for high voltage devices. Converter operation and experimental results are presented for two partial power circuit variants using three-level switching cells.

  13. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherring, Chris (Sherring Energy Associates)

    1999-08-30

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented.

  14. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherring, Chris

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented

  15. Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-02-01

    Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on 1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and 2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems.

  16. Battery storage for PV power systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A; Deambi, S [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1992-06-01

    Batteries used in photovoltaic applications are required to have particular properties in order to minimize the system cost, in addition to meeting stringent reliability requirements associated with PV system installations. The battery sizing, installations, operation and maintenance, thus, are fundamentally different from those used in several other energy storage applications. The current paper gives an overview of battery systems commonly used in PV installation, as well as several new options which are found suitable or have been modified suitably to meet PV energy storage requirements. The systems are discussed briefly with respect to their construction, performance characteristics and compatibility with PV systems. The battery sizing procedures are also reviewed. (Author).

  17. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  18. Computer Drawing Method for Operating Characteristic Curve of PV Power Plant Array Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianbin

    2018-02-01

    According to the engineering design of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power stations and the research and development of many simulation and analysis systems, it is necessary to draw a good computer graphics of the operating characteristic curves of photovoltaic array elements and to propose a good segmentation non-linear interpolation algorithm. In the calculation method, Component performance parameters as the main design basis, the computer can get 5 PV module performances. At the same time, combined with the PV array series and parallel connection, the computer drawing of the performance curve of the PV array unit can be realized. At the same time, the specific data onto the module of PV development software can be calculated, and the good operation of PV array unit can be improved on practical application.

  19. The Photovoltaic Sector in France. National survey report Year 2010. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in France 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick; Jacquin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The cumulative photovoltaic power installed in France (mainland and overseas territories) was 180 MW at the end of 2008, and was in excess of 1 000 MW at the end of 2010; in other words, it has grown by a factor of 5 in 2 years. The procedures for the acceptance of requests for connection to the national grid have been simplified and the waiting times have been reduced. Thus, nearly 150 000 facilities have been connected to the national grid over the course of the year. However, at the end of December 2010, approximately 75 000 systems were awaiting connection over the entire country (metropolitan France and overseas territories) adding up to a total power of 4 150 MW. This increase marks an advance on the Grenelle Environment Forum targets defined at the end of 2007 (1 100 MW installed by the end of 2012 and 5 400 MW by 2020). In order to avoid windfall profits, the Government has, following gains in productivity and reduction in the costs of modules in the market, proceeded over the course of the year to revise the feed-in tariffs of photovoltaic electricity in order to adapt the support measures to the explosive growth in the number of facilities. Furthermore, a decree was promulgated on 9 December suspending the obligation to purchase photovoltaic electricity for three months. This suspension affects photovoltaic systems with a power of greater than 3 kW, where the producer has not notified the grid operator of their acceptance of the technical and financial proposal (PTF) for connection to the grid before 2 December 2010. By means of this moratorium, the government wished to start a forum to discuss the lowering of feed-in tariffs and the implementation of a system of quotas. Discussions brought together players in the photovoltaic segment, elected representatives, and representatives of consumer groups and environmental associations, who started the talks on 20 December in order to come up with a new regulatory framework during March 2011, thus ensuring

  20. Adaptive Reactive Power Control of PV Power Plants for Improved Power Transfer Capability under Ultra-Weak Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Liu, Fangcheng

    2018-01-01

    with the unity power factor. Then, considering the reactive power compensation from PV inverters, the minimum SCR in respect to Power Factor (PF) is derived, and the optimized coordination of the active and reactive power is exploited. It is revealed that the power transfer capability of PV power plant under...... of a 200 MW PV power plant demonstrate that the proposed method can ensure the rated power transfer of PV power plant with the SCR of 1.25, provided that the PV inverters are operated with the minimal PF=0.9.......This paper analyzes the power transfer limitation of the PV power plant under the ultra-weak grid condition, i.e., when the Short-Circuit Ratio (SCR) is close to 1. It explicitly identifies that a minimum SCR of 2 is required for the PV power plant to deliver the rated active power when operating...

  1. The prospects for cost competitive solar PV power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Yorston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations have grown globally at a rapid pace in recent years. We provide a comprehensive assessment of the cost competitiveness of this electric power source. Based on data available for the second half of 2011, we conclude that utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. In contrast, commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in the sense that the generating cost of power from solar PV is comparable to the retail electricity prices that commercial users pay, at least in certain parts of the U.S. This conclusion is shown to depend crucially on both the current federal tax subsidies for solar power and an ideal geographic location for the solar installation. Projecting recent industry trends into the future, we estimate that utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade. Furthermore, commercial-scale installations could reach “grid parity” in about ten years, if the current federal tax incentives for solar power were to expire at that point. - Highlights: ► Assessment of the cost competitiveness of new solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations. ► Utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. ► Commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in certain parts of the U.S. ► Utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade

  2. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  3. Design of a hybrid power PV – Genset – Battery storage system for a remote off-grid application in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Pierre-Francois

    2016-01-01

    The thesis project presented in this report focuses on an analysis of the electrification prospects for a remote village in the Malaysian state of Sabah, where a micro grid is planned to be built. The main goal is to define the best sizing for a hybrid power plant to serve the micro grid, coupling a solar PV array with a storage system and a diesel genset. The first step of the study case consists of defining the energy needs of the village in order to draw its consumption curve and assume it...

  4. Ancillary services provided by PV power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PIERNO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are widely utilized in distributed generation systems, and, recently, they are also considered for providing ancillary services. The paper is focused on PV plants, a survey of the most interesting papers published in the literature in the last decade is reported and the main characteristics of the technical proposals, with their advantages and limits, are evidenced. The results are schematically shown in a table that immediately gives the opportunity to be aware of what was already done, representing a reference tool.

  5. Power optimization in body sensor networks: the case of an autonomous wireless EMG sensor powered by PV-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, J; Pop, V; Caballero, L; van de Molengraft, J; van Schaijk, R; Vullers, R; Van Hoof, C

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in ultra-low-power circuits and energy harvesters are making self-powered body sensor nodes a reality. Power optimization at the system and application level is crucial in achieving ultra-low-power consumption for the entire system. This paper reviews system-level power optimization techniques, and illustrates their impact on the case of autonomous wireless EMG monitoring. The resulting prototype, an Autonomous wireless EMG sensor power by PV-cells, is presented.

  6. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-09-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand-alone solar-powered LED lighting systems. The field test in the particular days shows that the 1A-3P tracking PV can generate 35.8% more electricity than the fixed PV in a partly-cloudy weather with daily-total solar irradiation HT=11.7MJ/m2day, or 35.6% in clear weather with HT=18.5MJ/m2day. This indicates that the present 1A-3P tracking PV can perform very close to a dual-axis continuous tracking PV (Kacira et al., 2004). The long-term outdoor test results have shown that the increase of daily power generation of 1A-3P tracking PV increases with increasing daily-total solar irradiation. The increase of monthly-total power generation for 1A-3P sun tracking PV is between 18.5-28.0%. The total power generation increase in the test period from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011, is 23.6% in Taipei (an area of low solar energy resource). The long-term performance of the present 1X-3P tracking PV is shown very close to the 1-axis continuous tracking PV in Taiwan (Chang, 2009). If the 1A-3P tracking PV is used in the area of high solar energy resource with yearly-average HT>17MJ/m2day, the increase of total long-term power generation with respect to fixed PV will be higher than 37.5%. This is very close to that of dual-axis continuous tracking PV. The 1A-3P tracker can be easily mounted on the wall of a building. The cost of the whole tracker is about the same as the regular mounting cost of a conventional rooftop PV system. This means that there is no extra cost for 1A-3P PV mounted on buildings. The 1A-3P PV is quite suitable for building-integrated applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  8. Modeling of a VMJ PV array under Gaussian high intensity laser power beam condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeongsook; Kim, Gunzung; Park, Yongwan

    2018-02-01

    The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system is one of the most promising systems in the long-rang wireless power transfer field. The vertical multi-junction photovoltaic (VMJ PV) array converts the HILPB into electricity to power the load or charges a battery. The output power of a VMJ PV array depends mainly on irradiance values of each VMJ PV cells. For simulating an entire VMJ PV array, the irradiance profile of the Gaussian HILPB and the irradiance level of the VMJ PV cell are mathematically modeled first. The VMJ PV array is modeled as a network with dimension m*n, where m represents the number of VMJ PV cells in a column, and n represents the number of VMJ PV cells in a row. In order to validate the results obtained in modeling and simulation, a laboratory setup was developed using 55 VMJ PV array. By using the output power model of VMJ PV array, we can establish an optimal power transmission path by the receiver based on the received signal strength. When the laser beam from multiple transmitters aimed at a VMJ PV array at the same time, the received power is the sum of all energy at a VMJ PV array. The transmitter sends its power characteristics as optically coded laser pulses and powers as HILPB. Using the attenuated power model and output power model of VMJ PV array, the receiver can estimate the maximum receivable powers from the transmitters and select optimal transmitters.

  9. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  10. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slouma, S; Baccar, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system

  11. Robust PV Degradation Methodology and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deline, Christopher A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kimball, Greg [SunPower; Anderson, Mike [SunPower

    2017-11-15

    The degradation rate plays an important role in predicting and assessing the long-term energy generation of PV systems. Many methods have been proposed for extracting the degradation rate from operational data of PV systems, but most of the published approaches are susceptible to bias due to inverter clipping, module soiling, temporary outages, seasonality, and sensor degradation. In this manuscript, we propose a methodology for determining PV degradation leveraging available modeled clear-sky irradiance data rather than site sensor data, and a robust year-over-year (YOY) rate calculation. We show the method to provide reliable degradation rate estimates even in the case of sensor drift, data shifts, and soiling. Compared with alternate methods, we demonstrate that the proposed method delivers the lowest uncertainty in degradation rate estimates for a fleet of 486 PV systems.

  12. Grid Integration of PV Power based on PHIL testing using different Interface Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    to be more active in grid support. Therefore, a better understanding and detailed analysis of the PV systems interaction with the grid is needed; hence power hardware in the loop (PHIL) testing involving PV power became an interesting subject to look into. To test PV systems for grid code (GC) compliance......Photovoltaic (PV) power among all renewable energies had the most accelerated growth rate in terms of installed capacity in recent years. Transmission System Operators (TSOs) changed their perspective about PV power and started to include it into their planning and operation, imposing PV systems...

  13. Application of MV/LV Transformers with OLTC for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity Of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Heckmann, Wolfram; Geibel, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in low voltage (LV) grids also raises concern regarding the effects of these new generation units on the grid operation. Overvoltage in LV grids during high PV generation periods is one of the well-known effects caused by PV systems......) and the reactive power absorption by PV inverters, are investigated using field test results and simulations performed on the mentioned LV grid. The results show that the application of OLTC can effectively increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid......., which potentially can decrease the PV hosting capacity of electric grids. This paper presents the applications of medium voltage to low voltage (MV/LV) transformers with on-load tap changers (OLTCs) to prevent overvoltage in high PV penetration conditions. Autonomous methods for controlling...

  14. Best practices for mitigating soiling risk on PV power plants

    KAUST Repository

    AlDowsari, A.

    2015-09-24

    Solar power generates proven, predictable and economical energy and new innovations have made solar PV power plants easy to deploy, integrate and maintain. Areas with large solar energy potential are among the dustiest in the world. At first glance, solar would be a natural fit in many of these environments but humidity, airborne dust, and wind of these regions often bring high soiling rates that can accumulate to reduce performance by up to 10% per month on average, where soiling can be a major loss factor that affects the energy yield for PV plants especially in humid and dusty climates. Therefore, to achieve the desired performance ratio and obtain stable generation, mitigation solutions are proposed to overcome dust issues that affect the performance of PV plants. This makes PV module cleaning a key component for long-term plant performance and sustainable profitability. In this paper, a review of the mechanisms and mitigation solutions to overcome soiling on solar installations using real-world testing and verification is investigated with emphasis on dry type cleaning methods. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. Economics of PV power supply for Libyan remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La-azebi, I.F.; Kagilik, A.S.; Bara, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical power supplies of remote and isolated areas has been and is still an issue for electric power companies worldwide. Usually there are three ways of supplying these remote areas mainly, the general grid, the Diesel generators, and photovoltaic power supply. The use of one of these systems instead of the other depend, on the availability, reliability, and cost. There are some isolated areas, which can t be supplied from the general grid as they are far away from it and economically not visible, so the electric power is needed of such isolated areas will be supplied either by Diesel generators or photovoltaics. The use of diesel generator demands a constant fuel supply, and maintenance staff, which also may not be available in small villages. Therefore the PV generators in such cases are considered an ideal solution of supplying these areas. In Libya, a national program has been started to supply small villages and other loads in remote and isolated areas, with electricity using PV power supply. This paper presents an economical comparison between the two different alternatives of electric supply systems to be used in remote areas: Diesel generators and PV systems. (Author)

  16. Power Ramp Limitation capabilities of Large PV Power Plants with Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdan, Craciun; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    Power Ramp Limitation (PRL) is likely to become a requirement for large scale photovoltaic power plants (LPVPPs) in order to allow the increase of PV penetration levels. Especially in islands with reduced inertia capability, this problem is more stringent: high power ramp can be caused by either...... fast irradiance changes or other participant generators for example wind power, or loads. In order to compensate for the power mismatch, LPVPPs must use Active Power Reserve (APR), by either curtailment or auxiliary storage. The paper proposes a PRL control structure for dynamic APR sizing...... and deployment. The selected test case is the power system of Puerto Rico (PREPA), modeled using the modified IEEE 12 bus benchmark system, with different levels of PV penetration. It is shown that LPVPP with PRL can effectively reduce the ramping rate of the participating generators. Considering that the large...

  17. Adaptive reactive power control of PV power plants for improved power transfer capability under ultra-weak grid conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Liu, Fangcheng

    2017-01-01

    The Photovoltaic (PV) power plants are usually deployed in remote areas with the high solar irradiance, and their power transfer capabilities can be greatly limited by the large impedance of long-distance transmission lines. This paper investigates first the power transfer limit of the PV power p...

  18. Delta Power Control Strategy for Multistring Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    , is required for grid support (e.g., during frequency deviation). In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize delta power control (DPC) for grid-connected PV systems is presented, where the multistring PV inverter configuration is adopted. This control strategy is a combination of maximum power point...... tracking (MPPT) and constant power generation (CPG) modes. In this control scheme, one PV string operating in the MPPT mode estimates the available power, whereas the other PV strings regulate the total PV power by the CPG control strategy in such a way that the delta power constraint for the entire PV...... system is achieved. Simulations and experiments have been performed on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. The results have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed DPC strategy, where the power reserve according to the delta power constraint is achieved under several operating conditions....

  19. Distributed power generation: A case study of small scale PV power plant in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakos, G.C. [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Energy Economics, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In recent years, energy systems have been undergoing a development trend characterised by privatisation of the most important energy sectors (electricity and natural gas) that has turned former monopolies into free-market competitors. Furthermore, community awareness of environmental impact caused by large conventional power plants is growing, together with a greater interest in distributed-generation (DG) technologies based upon renewable energy sources (RES) and cogeneration. In this context, renewable energy technologies are emerging as potentially strong competitors for more widespread use. Despite the remarkable progress attained over the past decades, RES have not yet been fully integrated into the power sector. Some RES-technologies have already achieved a significant market share. The industry is now quite mature, although far from having developed its global potential. This paper deals with the current status of DG in Greece and the presentation of a 60 kWp PV power station, developed under Law 3468/06 ''Production of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources, High Efficiency Cogeneration of Heat and Power and Other De{nu}ices''. This application is the first DG installation with fixed PV modules implemented in the country after the approval of Law 3468/06. Cash flow economic analysis of the developed DG installation is performed and the experiences related to the potential of DG in Greek electricity market is presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Distributed power generation: A case study of small scale PV power plant in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, energy systems have been undergoing a development trend characterised by privatisation of the most important energy sectors (electricity and natural gas) that has turned former monopolies into free-market competitors. Furthermore, community awareness of environmental impact caused by large conventional power plants is growing, together with a greater interest in distributed-generation (DG) technologies based upon renewable energy sources (RES) and cogeneration. In this context, renewable energy technologies are emerging as potentially strong competitors for more widespread use. Despite the remarkable progress attained over the past decades, RES have not yet been fully integrated into the power sector. Some RES-technologies have already achieved a significant market share. The industry is now quite mature, although far from having developed its global potential. This paper deals with the current status of DG in Greece and the presentation of a 60 kWp PV power station, developed under Law 3468/06 ''Production of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources, High Efficiency Cogeneration of Heat and Power and Other Deνices''. This application is the first DG installation with fixed PV modules implemented in the country after the approval of Law 3468/06. Cash flow economic analysis of the developed DG installation is performed and the experiences related to the potential of DG in Greek electricity market is presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Grid Support in Large Scale PV Power Plants using Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut

    to validate the performance of the frequency support functions, a flexible grid model with IEEE 12 bus system characteristics has been developed and implemented in RTDS. A power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) system composed by 20 kW plant (2 x 10 kW inverters and PV linear simulator) and grid simulator (RTDS......Photovoltaic (PV) systems are in the 3rd place in the renewable energy market, after hydro and wind power. The increased penetration of PV within the electrical power system has led to stability issues of the entire grid in terms of its reliability, availability and security of the supply....... As a consequence, Large scale PV Power Plants (LPVPPs) operating in Maximum Power Point (MPP) are not supporting the electrical network, since several grid triggering events or the increased number of downward regulation procedures have forced European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity...

  2. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Cinzia

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported

  3. The feasibility of a batteryless PV powered vaccine fridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwillim, J.; Polack, P.; Marks, K.

    2002-07-01

    An investigation into the feasibility of a batteryless PV-powered refrigerator for storing vaccines was undertaken by Dulas Ltd, Lec plc. Such a device would be valuable in places with no mains supply of electric power. Four criteria to be satisfied were listed. The work was undertaken as three phases: (i) consideration of materials and design; (ii) practical evaluation of the theoretical models; (iii) development of a test bed; and (iv) testing the system. A feature of the system was the use of phase change material rather than lead acid batteries for energy storage.

  4. A Sensorless Power Reserve Control Strategy for Two-Stage Grid-Connected PV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the still increasing penetration of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in grid regulations. A power reserve control, where namely the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required for grid support. In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize the power reserve for two-stage grid-connected PV systems is proposed. The proposed solution routinely employs a Maximum Power Point Track...

  5. Estimation of PV output power in moving and rocking hybrid energy marine ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongda; Zhang, Qing; Qi, Xiaoxia; Han, Yang; Lu, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A mathematical model for characterizing the ship PV output power is developed. •The impacts of the sea condition and ship type on the PV output power are analyzed. •The hybrid energy storage system is used to stabilize the PV fluctuation powers. •A SC configuration method based on maximum half period is applied. -- Abstract: In recent years, the application of solar energy and energy storage to ship power systems has shown promise as a method for both reducing annual carbon and nitrogen oxide emissions and improving ship energy efficiency in the maritime shipping industry. When a ship navigates at sea, it encounters a constant rocking motion that is affected by both the surrounding sea conditions and the ship’s navigation parameters. This motion increases the uncertainty involved in using solar energy and accelerates the aging of the ship’s energy storage battery to some extent. In this study, a universal mathematical model is established for the power generation by photovoltaic (PV) modules in which both the sea conditions and the ship’s integrated motion, including its basic movement along with the motion caused by rocking, are taken into account. Based on this model, the fluctuation characteristics of a ship’s PV output power are studied and determined using three different simulation scenarios. A binary energy storage scheme based on a decoupled PV output power is proposed in order to both stabilize the small-period PV power fluctuations and slow the aging of the actual battery caused by rocking. In addition, a super-capacitor (SC) configuration is constructed based on a maximum half cycle. Finally, the optimal energy storage capacities for this green ship are compared under both rocking and moving motion. In the case of rocking motion, the SCs are able to achieve an approximately 24.8–35.0% reduction in battery replacement. A shipping route between Shanghai, China and Sydney, Australia is considered to validate the practicality

  6. A study on economic power dispatch grid connected PV power plant in educational institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldip; Kumar, M. Narendra; Mishra, Satyasis

    2018-04-01

    India has main concerns on environment and escalation of fuel prices with respect to diminution of fossil fuel reserves and the major focus on renewable Energy sources for power generation to fulfill the present and future energy demand. Installation of PV power plants in the Educational Institutions has grown up drastically throughout India. More PV power plant are integrated with load and grid through net metering. Therefore, this paper is an analysis of the 75kWp PV plant at chosen buses, considering the need of minimum demand from the grid. The case study is carried out for different generation level throughout the day and year w.r.t load and climate changes, load sharing on grid. The economic dispatch model developed for PV plant integrated with Grid.

  7. PV-diesel hybrid powers island nature reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkish, R. [University of New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering

    2001-03-01

    A short paper reports how by replacing a diesel-electric power supply with a PV-diesel-battery hybrid system, the diesel generator running time has been cut by 87%. The system provides all the power needs (including for the lighthouse, the lighthouse keeper's family, and a few visitors) on Montague Island nature reserve off Australia. The old system consisted of a pair of diesel-fuelled generator sets rated at 10 and 20 kVA. The main purposes for the changes were environmental, safety (in terms of transporting diesel fuel), and financial. Liquefied petroleum gas is now used for water heating and cooking. The reasons for not going for wind power are given. A diagram shows load and array power profiles for a May day in 1999.

  8. A novel maximum power point tracking method for PV systems using fuzzy cognitive networks (FCN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlis, A.D. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical & amp; Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, V. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kottas, T.L.; Boutalis, Y.S. [Automatic Control Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical & amp; Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, V. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2007-03-15

    Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play an important role in photovoltaic (PV) power systems because they maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency. This paper presents a novel MPPT method based on fuzzy cognitive networks (FCN). The new method gives a good maximum power operation of any PV array under different conditions such as changing insolation and temperature. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  9. Large Scale Solar Power Integration in Distribution Grids : PV Modelling, Voltage Support and Aggregation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Long term supporting schemes for photovoltaic (PV) system installation have led to accommodating large numbers of PV systems within load pockets in distribution grids. High penetrations of PV systems can cause new technical challenges, such as voltage rise due to reverse power flow during light load

  10. An Emulated PV Source Based on an Unilluminated Solar Panel and DC Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review on various PV simulator technologies as well as presents a novel equivalent photovoltaic (PV source that was constructed by using un-illuminated solar panels and a DC power supply that operates in current source mode. The constructed PV source was used for testing photovoltaic converters and various maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms required for capturing the maximum possible output power. The mathematical model and electrical characteristics of the constructed PV source were defined and analyzed in detail in the paper. The constructed PV source has the advantages of high bandwidth over the switching circuit based PV simulators. The constructed PV source has been used for testing various power electronics converters and various control techniques effectively in laboratory environments for researchers and university students.

  11. Delta Power Control Strategy for Multi-String Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    With a still increasing penetration level of grid-connected PV systems, more advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in certain grid regulations. A delta power constraint, where a portion of the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required...... for grid support (e.g., during frequency deviation). In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize delta power control for grid-connected PV systems is presented, where the residential/commercial multi-string PV inverter configuration is adopted. This control strategy is a combination of Maximum...... for the entire PV system is achieved. Simulations and experiments have been performed on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. The results have confirmed the effectiveness of the delta power control strategy, where the power reserve according to the delta power constraint is achieved under several...

  12. Intelligent PV Power Smoothing Control Using Probabilistic Fuzzy Neural Network with Asymmetric Membership Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faa-Jeng Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent PV power smoothing control using probabilistic fuzzy neural network with asymmetric membership function (PFNN-AMF is proposed in this study. First, a photovoltaic (PV power plant with a battery energy storage system (BESS is introduced. The BESS consisted of a bidirectional DC/AC 3-phase inverter and LiFePO4 batteries. Then, the difference of the actual PV power and smoothed power is supplied by the BESS. Moreover, the network structure of the PFNN-AMF and its online learning algorithms are described in detail. Furthermore, the three-phase output currents of the PV power plant are converted to the dq-axis current components. The resulted q-axis current is the input of the PFNN-AMF power smoothing control, and the output is a smoothing PV power curve to achieve the effect of PV power smoothing. Comparing to the other smoothing methods, a minimum energy capacity of the BESS with a small fluctuation of the grid power can be achieved by the PV power smoothing control using PFNN-AMF. In addition, a personal computer- (PC- based PV power plant emulator and BESS are built for the experimentation. From the experimental results of various irradiance variation conditions, the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent PV power smoothing control can be verified.

  13. Development of solar energy for efficient PV application systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Aziz

    2006-01-01

    It is essential to increase research, development, awareness for the application of solar energy as an important source of life. The cost of PV systems has decreased due to the improvement in techniques of manufacturing and performance. In reality, photovoltaic is one technology that allows the production of electricity with only two components: technological, which is the PV module and environmental, which is the sun. The knowledge of the components market represents a critical parameters in establishing sustainable industrial applications on different activity sectors. This paper illustrates the advantages of using photovoltaic in rural area and their economic and environmental impact. In regions where petroleum or other fossil fuels are not available, and where these remote area are not connected to the electrical grid, there is a strong and increasing demand for the technologies related to photovoltaic application systems. Water extracting and pumping, telecommunication and lighting, irrigation systems, electrical driven cars and trucks represent some of these important applications. The paper also develops critical skills for the most useful PV application in Egypt and provide to the industry a development forecast for the new technology. Then an initiation contacts and cooperation on PV application between industries specially in North Africa Middle East in order to improve the reliability and to get cheaper systems.(Author)

  14. Interactive smart battery storage for a PV and wind hybrid energy management control based on conservative power theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy Simões, Marcelo; Davi Curi Busarello, Tiago; Saad Bubshait, Abdullah; Harirchi, Farnaz; Antenor Pomilio, José; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents interactive smart battery-based storage (BBS) for wind generator (WG) and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The BBS is composed of an asymmetric cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (ACMI) with staircase modulation. The structure is parallel to the WG and PV systems, allowing the ACMI to have a reduction in power losses compared to the usual solution for storage connected at the DC-link of the converter for WG or PV systems. Moreover, the BBS is embedded with a decision algorithm running real-time energy costs, plus a battery state-of-charge manager and power quality capabilities, making the described system in this paper very interactive, smart and multifunctional. The paper describes how BBS interacts with the WG and PV and how its performance is improved. Experimental results are presented showing the efficacy of this BBS for renewable energy applications.

  15. On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Baghzouz, Yahia

    2008-01-01

    clarifies the mechanism of partial PV shading on a number of PV cells connected in series and/or parallel with and without bypass diodes. The analysis is presented in simple terms and can be useful to someone who wishes to determine the impact of some shading geometry on a PV system. The analysis...... is illustrated by measurements on a commercial 70 W panel, and a 14.4 kW PV array....

  16. Remote and Centralized Monitoring of PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopacz, Csaba; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2014-01-01

    the inverters within each PV plant. The monitoring software stores the PV measurements in a data warehouse optimized for managing and data mining large amounts of data, from where it can be later visualized, analyzed and exported. By combining PV production measurements data with I-V curve measurements...

  17. A Sensorless Power Reserve Control Strategy for Two-Stage Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the still increasing penetration of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in grid regulations. A power reserve control, where namely the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required for grid...... support. In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize the power reserve for two-stage grid-connected PV systems is proposed. The proposed solution routinely employs a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control to estimate the available PV power and a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control...... performed on a 3-kW two-stage single-phase grid-connected PV system, where the power reserve control is achieved upon demands....

  18. Industrial application of PV/T solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, S.A.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems consist of PV modules and heat extraction units mounted together. These systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than plain photovoltaics. Industries show high demand of energy for both heat and electricity and the hybrid PV/T systems could be used in order to meet this requirement. In this paper the application aspects in the industry of PV/T systems with water heat extraction is presented. The systems are analyzed with TRNSYS program for three locations Nicosia, Athens and Madison that are located at different latitudes. The system comprises 300 m 2 of hybrid PV/T collectors producing both electricity and thermal energy and a 10 m 3 water storage tank. The work includes the study of an industrial process heat system operated at two load supply temperatures of 60 deg. C and 80 deg. C. The results show that the electrical production of the system, employing polycrystalline solar cells, is more than the amorphous ones but the solar thermal contribution is slightly lower. A non-hybrid PV system produces about 25% more electrical energy but the present system covers also, depending on the location, a large percentage of the thermal energy requirement of the industry considered. The economic viability of the systems is proven, as positive life cycle savings are obtained in the case of hybrid systems and the savings are increased for higher load temperature applications. Additionally, although amorphous silicon panels are much less efficient than the polycrystalline ones, better economic figures are obtained due to their lower initial cost, i.e., they have better cost/benefit ratio

  19. Generation of large-scale PV scenarios using aggregated power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of solar photovoltaic (PV) power to the generation is becoming more relevant in modern power system. Therefore, there is a need to model the variability large-scale PV generation accurately. This paper presents a novel methodology to generate regional PV scenarios based...... on aggregated power curves rather than traditional physical PV conversion models. Our approach is based on hourly mesoscale reanalysis irradiation data and power measurements and do not require additional variables such as ambient temperature or wind speed. It was used to simulate the PV generation...... on the German system between 2012 and 2015 showing high levels of correlation with actual measurements (93.02–97.60%) and small deviations from the expected capacity factors (0.02–1.80%). Therefore, we are confident about the ability of the proposed model to accurately generate realistic large-scale PV...

  20. Concentrated solar power plants impact on PV penetration level and grid flexibility under Egyptian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Ibrahim; Elbaset, Adel A.; El Dein, Adel Z.; Qudaih, Yaser; Mitani, Yasunori

    2018-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system integration in the electric grid has been increasing over the past decades. However, the impact of PV penetration on the electric grid, especially during the periods of higher and lower generation for the solar system at the middle of the day and during cloudy weather or at night respectively, limit the high penetration of solar PV system. In this research, a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been aggregated with PV system in order to accommodate the required electrical power during the higher and lower solar energy at all timescales. This paper analyzes the impacts of CSP on the grid-connected PV considering high penetration of PV system, particularly when no energy storages in the form of batteries are used. Two cases have been studied, the first when only PV system is integrated into the electric grid and the second when two types of solar energy (PV and CSP) are integrated. The System Advisor Model (SAM) software is used to simulate the output power of renewable energy. Simulation results show that the performance of CSP has a great impact on the penetration level of PV system and on the flexibility of the electric grid. The overall grid flexibility increases due to the ability of CSP to store and dispatch the generated power. In addition, CSP/TES itself has inherent flexibility. Therefore, CSP reduces the minimum generation constraint of the conventional generators that allows more penetration of the PV system.

  1. A Hybrid Power Control Concept for PV Inverters with Reduced Thermal Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    on a single-phase PV inverter under yearly operation is presented with analyses of the thermal loading, lifetime, and annual energy yield. It has revealed the trade-off factors to select the power limit and also verified the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed control concept.......This letter proposes a hybrid power control concept for grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters. The control strategy is based on either a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control or a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control depending on the instantaneous available power from the PV panels....... The essence of the proposed concept lies in the selection of an appropriate power limit for the CPG control to achieve an improved thermal performance and an increased utilization factor of PV inverters,and thus to cater for a higher penetration level of PV systems with intermittent nature. A case study...

  2. High-Performance Constant Power Generation in Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    An advanced power control strategy by limiting the maximum feed-in power of PV systems has been proposed, which can ensure a fast and smooth transition between maximum power point tracking and Constant Power Generation (CPG). Regardless of the solar irradiance levels, high-performance and stable...... operation are always achieved by the proposed control strategy. It can regulate the PV output power according to any set-point, and force the PV systems to operate at the left side of the maximum power point without stability problems. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed CPG...

  3. Design of Energy Storage Control Strategy to Improve the PV System Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Mingyu; Yang, Zilong; Wang, Yibo

    2016-01-01

    Random fluctuation of PV power is becoming a more and more serious problem affecting the power quality and stability of grid as the PV penetration keeps increasing recent years. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposed a control strategy of energy storage system based on Model Predictive Contr...

  4. Multi-level cascaded DC/DC converters for PV applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.A. Hafez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A robust multi-level cascaded DC/DC system for Photovoltaic (PV application is advised in this article. There are three PV generators, each is coupled to a half-bridge buck cell. Each PV-generator–buck-converter channel is controlled such that maximum power is captured independently under different irradiation and temperature levels. The system operation under normal and abnormal conditions was comprehensively investigated. Internal Model Control (IMC technique was adopted for tuning the controllers. An elaborate switching modulation strategy was used to reduce the current ripple and inductor size, while maintaining high efficiency. Annotative, simple and robust remedial strategies were proposed to mitigate different anticipated faults. Comprehensive simulation results in Matlab environment were illustrated for corroborating the performance of the advised cascaded DC/DC system under normal/abnormal conditions. The proposed system enjoys the merits of independency, reduced volumetric dimensions and improved efficiency. Furthermore, the system is inherently fault-tolerant.

  5. Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...... potential of geographic area due to power network limitations even though all rooftops are fully occupied with PV modules. Therefore, it becomes more of an issue to know what exactly limits higher PV penetration level and which solutions should be engaged efficiently such as over sizing distribution...

  6. Buck Converter with Soft-Switching Cells for PV Panel Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In power conversion of photovoltaic (PV energy, a hard-switching buck converter always generates some disadvantages. For example, serious electromagnetic interference (EMI, high switching losses, and stresses on an active switch (metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor, MOSFET, and high reverse-recovery losses of a freewheeling diode result in low conversion efficiency. To release these disadvantages, a buck converter with soft-switching cells for PV panel applications is proposed. To create zero-voltage-switching (ZVS features of the active switches, a simple active soft-switching cell with an inductor, a capacitor, and a MOSFET is incorporated into the proposed buck converter. Therefore, the switching losses and stresses of the active switches and EMI can be reduced significantly. To reduce reverse-recovery losses of a freewheeling diode, a simple passive soft-switching cell with a capacitor and two diodes is implemented. To verify the performance and the feasibility of the proposed buck converter with soft-switching cells for PV panel applications, a prototype soft-switching buck converter is built and implemented by using a maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT method. Simulated and experimental results are presented from a 100 W soft-switching buck converter for PV panel applications.

  7. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Ding, W.L.; Huang, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand

  8. PV-Battery Sizing for Stand-Alone Lighting Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert; Cappelle, Jan; Appels, Reinhart; Lefevre, Buvana; Driesen, Johan; Catthoor, Francky

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a follow-up and addition to a system sizing spreadsheet, detailed in [An autonomous photovoltaic system sizing program for office applications in Africa], with a focus on sizing or verifying the employability of an off-grid PV-battery system for night lighting. A dimensionless criterion, the Battery Usable Fraction UF_batt is defined, which aids both the calculations of systems and allows an approximate comparison of batteries, regardless of the employed battery chemistry....

  9. Designing PV powered LED products - Integration of PV technology in innovative products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; de Boer, Andries; de Winter, Arjan; Haverlag, Marco; Ossenbrink Sinke, W.; Helm, P.

    2009-01-01

    This study covers the design of innovative product concepts based on a combination of PV and LED technology. The products were developed in a project that took place in 2008 and 2009 during a cooperation of the University of Twente with Philips Lighting. It is shown that surprisingly unpredictable -

  10. Maximum power point tracking controller for PV systems using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, A.B.G. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering; Helwa, N.H.; Ahmad, G.E.; El Shenawy, E.T. [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt). Solar Energy Dept.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a development and implementation of a PC-based maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for PV system using neural networks (NN). The system consists of a PV module via a MPPT supplying a dc motor that drives an air fan. The control algorithm is developed to use the artificial NN for detecting the optimal operating point under different operating conditions, then the control action gives the driving signals to the MPPT. A PC is used for data acquisition, running the control algorithm, data storage, as well as data display and analysis. The system has been implemented and tested under various operating conditions. The experimental results showed that the PV system with MPPT always tracks the peak power point of the PV module under various operating conditions. The MPPT transmits about 97% of the actual maximum power generated by the PV module. The MPPT not only increases the power from the PV module to the load, but also maintains longer operating periods for the PV system. The air velocity and the air mass flow rate of the mechanical load are increased considerably, due to the increase of the PV system power. It is also found that the increase in the output energy due to using the MPPT is about 45.2% for a clear sunny day. (Author)

  11. Basic study on dynamic reactive-power control method with PV output prediction for solar inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Miyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To effectively utilize a photovoltaic (PV system, reactive-power control methods for solar inverters have been considered. Among the various methods, the constant-voltage control outputs less reactive power compared with the other methods. We have developed a constant-voltage control to reduce the reactive-power output. However, the developed constant-voltage control still outputs unnecessary reactive power because the control parameter is constant in every waveform of the PV output. To reduce the reactive-power output, we propose a dynamic reactive-power control method with a PV output prediction. In the proposed method, the control parameter is varied according to the properties of the predicted PV waveform. In this study, we performed numerical simulations using a distribution system model, and we confirmed that the proposed method reduces the reactive-power output within the voltage constraint.

  12. A peaking-regulation-balance-based method for wind & PV power integrated accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Nan; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Rapid development of China’s new energy in current and future should be focused on cooperation of wind and PV power. Based on the analysis of system peaking balance, combined with the statistical features of wind and PV power output characteristics, a method of comprehensive integrated accommodation analysis of wind and PV power is put forward. By the electric power balance during night peaking load period in typical day, wind power installed capacity is determined firstly; then PV power installed capacity could be figured out by midday peak load hours, which effectively solves the problem of uncertainty when traditional method hard determines the combination of the wind and solar power simultaneously. The simulation results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Prioritized rule based load management technique for residential building powered by PV/battery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Ayodele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Solar Photovoltaic (PV system has presented itself as one of the main solutions to the electricity poverty plaguing the majority of buildings in rural communities with solar energy potential. However, the stochasticity associated with solar PV power output owing to vagaries in weather conditions is a major challenge in the deployment of the systems. This study investigates approach for maximizing the benefits of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-Battery (SAPVB system via techniques that provide for optimum energy gleaning and management. A rule-based load management scheme is developed and tested for a residential building. The approach allows load prioritizing and shifting based on certain rules. To achieve this, the residential loads are classified into Critical Loads (CLs and Uncritical Loads (ULs. The CLs are given higher priority and therefore are allowed to operate at their scheduled time while the ULs are of less priority, hence can be shifted to a time where there is enough electric power generation from the PV arrays rather than the loads being operated at the time period set by the user. Four scenarios were created to give insight into the applicability of the proposed rule based load management scheme. The result revealed that when the load management technique is not utilized as in the case of scenario 1 (Base case, the percentage satisfaction of the critical and uncritical loads by the PV system are 49.8% and 23.7%. However with the implementation of the load management scheme in scenarios 2, 3 and 4, the percentage satisfaction of the loads (CLs, ULs are (93.8%, 74.2%, (90.9%, 70.1% and (87.2%, 65.4% for scenarios 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  14. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we examine some of the limits to large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems. Specifically, we evaluate the ability of PV to provide a large fraction (up to 50%) of a utility system's energy by comparing hourly output of a simulated large PV system to the amount of electricity actually usable. The simulations use hourly recorded solar insolation and load data for Texas in the year 2000 and consider the constraints of traditional electricity generation plants to reduce output and accommodate intermittent PV generation. We find that under high penetration levels and existing grid-operation procedures and rules, the system will have excess PV generation during certain periods of the year. Several metrics are developed to examine this excess PV generation and resulting costs as a function of PV penetration at different levels of system flexibility. The limited flexibility of base load generators produces increasingly large amounts of unusable PV generation when PV provides perhaps 10-20% of a system's energy. Measures to increase PV penetration beyond this range will be discussed and quantified in a follow-up analysis

  15. Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid Tied Solar PV System with Active Power Filtering Using Power Balance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashi; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, power quality features such as harmonics mitigation, power factor correction with active power filtering are addressed in a single-stage, single-phase solar photovoltaic (PV) grid tied system. The Power Balance Theory (PBT) with perturb and observe based maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed for the mitigation of power quality problems in a solar PV grid tied system. The solar PV array is interfaced to a single phase AC grid through a Voltage Source Converter (VSC), which provides active power flow from a solar PV array to the grid as well as to the load and it performs harmonics mitigation using PBT based control. The solar PV array power varies with sunlight and due to this, the solar PV grid tied VSC works only 8-10 h per day. At night, when PV power is zero, the VSC works as an active power filter for power quality improvement, and the load active power is delivered by the grid to the load connected at the point of common coupling. This increases the effective utilization of a VSC. The system is modelled and simulated using MATLAB and simulated responses of the system at nonlinear loads and varying environmental conditions are also validated experimentally on a prototype developed in the laboratory.

  16. A Direct Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Single-Phase Grid Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EL Aamri, Faicel; Maker, Hattab; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    in dynamic conditions, especially in low irradiance when the measurement of signals becomes more sensitive to noise. The proposed MPPT is designed for single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverters, and is based on estimating the instantaneous PV power and voltage ripples, using second...

  17. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterlin, Ian F [Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-22

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  18. A comparative study of the maximum power point tracking methods for PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Luo, Xi; Wang, Meidi; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved maximum power point tracking method for PV system was proposed. • Theoretical derivation procedure of the proposed method was provided. • Simulation models of MPPT trackers were established based on MATLAB/Simulink. • Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT method. - Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms play an important role in the optimization of the power and efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) generation system. According to the contradiction of the classical Perturb and Observe (P and Oa) method between the corresponding speed and the tracking accuracy on steady-state, an improved P and O (P and Ob) method has been put forward in this paper by using the Atken interpolation algorithm. To validate the correctness and performance of the proposed method, simulation and experimental study have been implemented. Simulation models of classical P and Oa method and improved P and Ob method have been established by MATLAB/Simulink to analyze each technique under varying solar irradiation and temperature. The experimental results show that the tracking efficiency of P and Ob method is an average of 93% compared to 72% for P and Oa method, this conclusion basically agree with the simulation study. Finally, we proposed the applicable conditions and scope of these MPPT methods in the practical application

  19. Comparison of PV system design software packages for urban applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharakhani Siraki, Arbi; Pillay, Pragasen

    2010-09-15

    A large number of software packages are available for solar resource evaluation and PV system design. However, few of them are suitable for urban applications. In this paper a comparison has been made between two specifically designed solar tools known as the Ecotect 2010 and the PVsyst 5.05. Conclusions have been made for proper use of these packages based on their specifications and privileges. Moreover, the calculations have been repeated with HOMER software package (which is a generic tool) for the same location. The results suggest that a generic solar software tool should not be used for an urban application.

  20. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  1. Multi-Input Converter with MPPT Feature for Wind-PV Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-input converter (MIC to process wind-PV power is proposed, designed, analyzed, simulated, and implemented. The MIC cannot only process solar energy but deal with wind power, of which structure is derived from forward-type DC/DC converter to step-down/up voltage for charger systems, DC distribution applications, or grid connection. The MIC comprises an upper modified double-ended forward, a lower modified double-ended forward, a common output inductor, and a DSP-based system controller. The two modified double-ended forwards can operate individually or simultaneously so as to accommodate the variation of the hybrid renewable energy under different atmospheric conditions. While the MIC operates at interleaving mode, better performance can be achieved and volume also is reduced. The proposed MIC is capable of recycling the energy stored in the leakage inductance and obtaining high step-up output voltage. In order to draw maximum power from wind turbine and PV panel, perturb-and-observe method is adopted to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT feature. The MIC is constructed, analyzed, simulated, and tested. Simulations and hardware measurements have demonstrated the feasibility and functionality of the proposed multi-input converter.

  2. Quantification, challenges and outlook of PV integration in the power system: a review by the European PV Technology Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Baccaro, Federica; De Felice, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Integration in the power system has become a limiting factor to the further development of photovoltaics. Proper quantification is needed to evaluate both issues and solutions; the share of annual electricity demand is widely used but we found that some of the metrics which are related to power...... rather than energy better reflect the impact on networks. Barriers to wider deployment of PV into power grids can be split between local technical issues (voltage levels, harmonics distortion, reverse power flows and transformer loading) and system-wide issues (intermittency, reduction of system...... resilience). Many of the technical solutions to these issues rely on the inverters as actuators (e.g., for control of active and reactive power) or as interfaces (e.g., for local storage). This role requires further technical standardisation and needs to be taken into account in the planning of power...

  3. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed M.; El-arini, Mahdi M. M.; Ghitas, Ahmed; Fathy, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  4. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Othman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC. The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  5. Research on comprehensive decision-making of PV power station connecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Erxiong; Xin, Chaoshan; Ma, Botao; Cheng, Kai

    2018-04-01

    In allusion to the incomplete indexes system and not making decision on the subjectivity and objectivity of PV power station connecting system, based on the combination of improved Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation (CRITIC) as well as grey correlation degree analysis (GCDA) is comprehensively proposed to select the appropriate system connecting scheme of PV power station. Firstly, indexes of PV power station connecting system are divided the recursion order hierarchy and calculated subjective weight by the improved AHP. Then, CRITIC is adopted to determine the objective weight of each index through the comparison intensity and conflict between indexes. The last the improved GCDA is applied to screen the optimal scheme, so as to, from the subjective and objective angle, select the connecting system. Comprehensive decision of Xinjiang PV power station is conducted and reasonable analysis results are attained. The research results might provide scientific basis for investment decision.

  6. Energy Storage Requirements for PV Power Ramp Rate Control in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Schnabel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV generators suffer from fluctuating output power due to the highly fluctuating primary energy source. With significant PV penetration, these fluctuations can lead to power system instability and power quality problems. The use of energy storage systems as fluctuation compensators has been proposed as means to mitigate these problems. In this paper, the behavior of PV power fluctuations in Northern European climatic conditions and requirements for sizing the energy storage systems to compensate them have been investigated and compared to similar studies done in Southern European climate. These investigations have been performed through simulations that utilize measurements from the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant in Finland. An enhanced energy storage charging control strategy has been developed and tested. Energy storage capacity, power, and cycling requirements have been derived for different PV generator sizes and power ramp rate requirements. The developed control strategy leads to lesser performance requirements for the energy storage systems compared to the methods presented earlier. Further, some differences on the operation of PV generators in Northern and Southern European climates have been detected.

  7. A Simple PV Inverter Power Factor Control Method Based on Solar Irradiance Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gökmen, Nuri; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant rise in photovoltaic (PV) system installations throughout the last decade. This has posed some technical challenges to the distribution grid operators. Unfamiliar impacts of these relatively new energy sources now should be handled more comprehensively. The rigidity...... of these impacts mostly depends on PV penetration level, grid and weather characteristics as well as the interaction of load and generation. In this study, a reactive power control method is proposed benefitting from solar irradiance measurements in weather stations. Accordingly, power factors of PV inverters...

  8. Lithium Ion Batteries Ageing Analysis when used in a PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Aparicio, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the integration of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries into large scale grid-connected PV plants. It performs a systematic analysis on both the operation improvement obtained by a PV+ES power plant and the ageing experienced by the Li-ion batteries used as Energy Storage (ES) system...... when operating under different energy management strategies (EMS). In this paper, the PV+ES power plant structure is presented and the selection of Li-on batteries as ES system (ESS) is justified. Moreover, the simulation model used for studying the Li-ion battery ageing is explained and tested...

  9. Fault Transient Analysis and Protection Performance Evaluation within a Large-scale PV Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a short-circuit test within a large-scale PV power plant with a total capacity of 850MWp is discussed. The fault currents supplied by the PV generation units are presented and analysed. According to the fault behaviour, the existing protection coordination principles with the plant are considered and their performances are evaluated. Moreover, these protections are examined in simulation platform under different operating situations. A simple measure with communication system is proposed to deal with the foreseeable problem about the current protection scheme in the PV power plant.

  10. Solar PV Power Forecasting Using Extreme Learning Machine and Information Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cadre , Hélène; Aravena , Ignacio; Papavasiliou , Anthony

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We provide a learning algorithm combining distributed Extreme Learning Machine and an information fusion rule based on the ag-gregation of experts advice, to build day ahead probabilistic solar PV power production forecasts. These forecasts use, apart from the current day solar PV power production, local meteorological inputs, the most valuable of which is shown to be precipitation. Experiments are then run in one French region, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, to evaluate ...

  11. Solar PV power forecasting using extreme machine learning and experts advice fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cadre, Hélène; Aravena Solís, Ignacio Andrés; Papavasiliou, Anthony; European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning

    2015-01-01

    We provide a learning algorithm combining distributed Extreme Learning Machine and an information fusion rule based on the aggregation of experts advice, to build day ahead probabilistic solar PV power production forecasts. These forecasts use, apart from the current day solar PV power production, local meteorological inputs, the most valuable of which is shown to be precipitation. Experiments are then run in one French region, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, to evaluate the algorithm performance...

  12. Productivity Enhancement of Solar Still with PV Powered Heating Coil and Chamber Step-Wise Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdallah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need to improve the productivity of single slope solar still. PV generator powered electrical heater and chamber step-wise design were introduced to the conventional solar still. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of adding the above mentioned modifications on the output parameters of the modified solar still. The inclusion of PV-powered heating coil and chamber step-wise design enhanced the productivity of distiller by up to 1098%.

  13. Grid-Connection Half-Bridge PV Inverter System for Power Flow Controlling and Active Power Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A half-bridge photovoltaic (PV system is proposed, which can not only deal with bidirectional power flowing but also improve power quality. According to varying insolation, the system conditions real power for dc and ac loads to accommodate different amounts of PV power. Furthermore, the system eliminates current harmonics and improves power factor simultaneously. As compared with conventional PV inverter, the total number of active switches and current sensors can be reduced so that its cost is lower significantly. For current command determination, a linear-approximation method (LAM is applied to avoid the complicated calculation and achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT feature. For current controlling, a direct-source-current-shaping (DSCS algorithm is presented to shape the waveform of line current. Simulation results and practical measurements also demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed half-bridge PV system.

  14. Environmental aspects of PV power systems. Report on the IEA PVPS Task 1 Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwlaar, E.; Alsema, E.

    1997-12-01

    During normal operation, photovoltaic (PV) power systems do not emit substances that may threaten human health or the environment. In fact, through the savings in conventional electricity production they can lead to significant emission reductions. There are, however, several indirect environmental impacts related to PV power systems that require further consideration. The production of present generation PV power systems is relatively energy intensive, involves the use of large quantities of bulk materials and (smaller) quantities of substances that are scarce and/or toxic. During operation, damaged modules or a fire may lead to the release of hazardous substances. Finally, at the end of their useful life time PV power systems have to be decommissioned, and resulting waste flows have to be managed. An expert workshop was held as part of the International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems Implementing Agreement Programme, to address these environmental aspects of PV power systems. The objectives of the workshop were: (a) review/overview of issues and approaches regarding environmental aspects of PV power systems; (b) enhanced clarity and consensus regarding e.g. Energy Pay-Back Time; (c) identification of issues of environmental importance regarding PV power systems ('hot spots'); (d) identification of issues requiring further attention ('white spots'); and (e) establish a network of researchers working on PV environmental issues. 25 participants from Europe, the United States, Japan, and Australia attended the workshop, representing the researchers in the field of environmental aspects of PV systems, R ampersand D managers, industry and utilities. The environmental issues that are considered most relevant for PV power systems were identified in the workshop as well as the approaches that may be used to investigate them. The main environmental issues discussed at the workshop were: energy use; resource depletion (e.g. the resource availability for indium

  15. A Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter With Charge Pump Circuit Concept for Grid-Tied PV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardashir, Jaber Fallah; Sabahi, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverter for grid-tied PV systems. The topology is derived from the concept of a charge pump circuit in order to eliminate the leakage current. It is composed of four power switches, two diodes, two capacitors, and an LCL...... resonant control strategy is used to control the injected current. The main benefits of the proposed inverter are: the neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative terminal of the PV panel, so the leakage current is eliminated; its compact size; low cost; the used dc voltage of the proposed...... are presented. Experimental results are presented to confirm both the theoretical analysis and the concept of the proposed inverter. The obtained results clearly validate the performance of the proposed inverter and its practical application in grid-tied PV systems....

  16. Vestas Power Plant Solutions Integrating Wind, Solar PV and Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Hesselbæk, Bo; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses a value proposition and feasible system topologies for hybrid power plant solutions integrating wind, solar PV and energy storage and moreover provides insights into Vestas hybrid power plant projects. Seen from the perspective of a wind power plant developer, these hybrid...... solutions provide a number of benefits that could potentially reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy and enable entrance to new markets for wind power and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable energy mix. First, various system topologies are described in order to distinguish the generic concepts...... for the electrical infrastructure of hybrid power plants. Subsequently, the benefits of combining wind and solar PV power as well as the advantages of combining variable renewable energy sources with energy storage are elaborated. Finally, the world’s first utility-scale hybrid power plant combining wind, solar PV...

  17. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2016-01-21

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of

  18. Improved Reliability of Single-Phase PV Inverters by Limiting the Maximum Feed-in Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Grid operation experiences have revealed the necessity to limit the maximum feed-in power from PV inverter systems under a high penetration scenario in order to avoid voltage and frequency instability issues. A Constant Power Generation (CPG) control method has been proposed at the inverter level...... devices, allowing a quantitative prediction of the power device lifetime. A study case on a 3 kW single-phase PV inverter has demonstrated the advantages of the CPG control in terms of improved reliability.......Grid operation experiences have revealed the necessity to limit the maximum feed-in power from PV inverter systems under a high penetration scenario in order to avoid voltage and frequency instability issues. A Constant Power Generation (CPG) control method has been proposed at the inverter level....... The CPG control strategy is activated only when the DC input power from PV panels exceeds a specific power limit. It enables to limit the maximum feed-in power to the electric grids and also to improve the utilization of PV inverters. As a further study, this paper investigates the reliability performance...

  19. High efficiency H6 single-phase transformerless grid-tied PV inverter with proposed modulation for reactive power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasoudi, Fahad M.; Alatawi, Khaled S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    Implementation of transformerless inverters in PV grid-tied system offer great benefits such as high efficiency, light weight, low cost, etc. Most of the proposed transformerless inverters in literature are verified for only real power application. Currently, international standards such as VDE-AR-N 4105 has demanded that PV grid-tied inverters should have the ability of controlling a specific amount of reactive power. Generation of reactive power cannot be accomplished in single phase transformerless inverter topologies because the existing modulation techniques are not adopted for a freewheeling path in the negative power region. This paper enhances a previous high efficiency proposed H6 trnasformerless inverter with SiC MOSFETs and demonstrates new operating modes for the generation of reactive power. A proposed pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is applied to achieve bidirectional current flow through freewheeling state. A comparison of the proposed H6 transformerless inverter using SiC MOSFETs and Si MOSFTEs is presented in terms of power losses and efficiency. The results show that reactive power control is attained without adding any additional active devices or modification to the inverter structure. Also, the proposed modulation maintains a constant common mode voltage (CM) during every operating mode and has low leakage current. The performance of the proposed system verifies its effectiveness in the next generation PV system.

  20. Maximum photovoltaic power tracking for the PV array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Huang, Cong-Hui; Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jian-Liung

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The FOICM can shorten the tracking time less than traditional methods. → The proposed method can work under lower solar radiation including thin and heavy clouds. → The FOICM algorithm can achieve MPPT for radiation and temperature changes. → It is easy to implement in a single-chip microcontroller or embedded system. -- Abstract: This paper proposes maximum photovoltaic power tracking (MPPT) for the photovoltaic (PV) array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method (FOICM). Since the PV array has low conversion efficiency, and the output power of PV array depends on the operation environments, such as various solar radiation, environment temperature, and weather conditions. Maximum charging power can be increased to a battery using a MPPT algorithm. The energy conversion of the absorbed solar light and cell temperature is directly transferred to the semiconductor, but electricity conduction has anomalous diffusion phenomena in inhomogeneous material. FOICM can provide a dynamic mathematical model to describe non-linear characteristics. The fractional-order incremental change as dynamic variable is used to adjust the PV array voltage toward the maximum power point. For a small-scale PV conversion system, the proposed method is validated by simulation with different operation environments. Compared with traditional methods, experimental results demonstrate the short tracking time and the practicality in MPPT of PV array.

  1. Efficiency improvement of the maximum power point tracking for PV systems using support vector machine technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareim, Ameer A; Mansor, Muhamad Bin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve efficiency of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for PV systems. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) was proposed to achieve the MPPT controller. The theoretical, the perturbation and observation (P and O), and incremental conductance (IC) algorithms were used to compare with proposed SVM algorithm. MATLAB models for PV module, theoretical, SVM, P and O, and IC algorithms are implemented. The improved MPPT uses the SVM method to predict the optimum voltage of the PV system in order to extract the maximum power point (MPP). The SVM technique used two inputs which are solar radiation and ambient temperature of the modeled PV module. The results show that the proposed SVM technique has less Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and higher efficiency than P and O and IC methods.

  2. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  3. Bifacial PV cell with reflector for stand-alone mast for sensor powering purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Michael L.; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter B.; Riedel, N.; Rødder, Peter M.; Rødder, Kristin

    2017-09-01

    Reflectors to bifacial PV-cells are simulated and prototyped in this work. The aim is to optimize the reflector to specific latitudes, and particularly northern latitudes. Specifically, by using minimum semiconductor area the reflector must be able to deliver the electrical power required at the condition of minimum solar travel above the horizon, worst weather condition etc. We will test a bifacial PV-module with a retroreflector, and compare the output with simulations combined with local solar data.

  4. Output Control Technologies for a Large-scale PV System Considering Impacts on a Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Akira

    The mega-solar demonstration project named “Verification of Grid Stabilization with Large-scale PV Power Generation systems” had been completed in March 2011 at Wakkanai, the northernmost city of Japan. The major objectives of this project were to evaluate adverse impacts of large-scale PV power generation systems connected to the power grid and develop output control technologies with integrated battery storage system. This paper describes the outline and results of this project. These results show the effectiveness of battery storage system and also proposed output control methods for a large-scale PV system to ensure stable operation of power grids. NEDO, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan conducted this project and HEPCO, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc managed the overall project.

  5. Power Electronic System for Multi-MW PV sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    in Sønderborg (DK) was implemented. A total of 17 PV-inverters have been monitored during a period exceeding one year and the recorded data constitutes the basis of this investigation. A part of the 2.1 MW PV plant was reconfigured to emulate the behavior of a central-inverter and solar panels distributed over...... a distance of 160 m. In parallel a string based inverter configuration was established with solar panels at the same locations. An analysis of irradiation data recorded during the test period showed that non-uniform irradiance due to moving clouds is expected to influence the PV plants for less than 4.......4%. A portable IV-scanning instrument for the fast long term characterization of solar panels was developed as part of the project. Each second a sweep of the IV-characteristics of a solar panel is performed and the result stored for later analysis. The instrument is based on an active load, is optimized...

  6. Design and Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Plant at Different Locations in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    Power generation from sun oriented vitality through a photovoltaic (PV) system is ended up prevalent over the world due to clean innovation. Geographical location of Malaysia is very favorable for PV power generation system. The Malaysian government has also taken different steps to increase the use of solar energy especially by emphasizing on building integrated PV (BIPV) system. Comparative study on the feasibility of BIPV installation at the different location of Malaysia is rarely found. On the other hand, solar cell temperature has a negative impact on the electricity generation. So in this study cost effectiveness and initial investment cost of building integrated grid connected solar PV power plant in different regions of Malaysia have been carried. The effect of PV solar cell temperature on the payback period (PBP) is also investigated. Highest PBP is 12.38 years at Selangor and lowest PBP is 9.70 years at Sabah (Kota Kinabalu). Solar cell temperature significantly increases the PBP of PV plant and highest 14.64% and lowest 13.20% raise of PBP are encountered at Penang and Sarawak respectively.

  7. Performance power evaluation of DC fan cooling system for PV panel by using ANSYS CFX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiqah, Z.; Amin, N. A. M.; Irwan, Y. M.; Irwanto, M.; Leow, W. Z.; Amelia, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    A research has been conducted to find the optimum combination for DC fan air cooling system of photovoltaic (PV) panel. During normal operation of PV panel, it is estimated that only 15 % of solar radiation is converted into electrical energy. Meanwhile, the rest of the solar radiation is converted into heat energy which affects the performance of the PV panel. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the performance power evaluation of DC fan cooling system for PV panel by using ANSYS CFX. The effect of airflow configuration of DC fan has been investigated. This is to analyze whether the airflow circulation of DC fan cause a change towards the maximum temperature of PV panel. Besides, the impact of varying number of DC fans attached at the back of PV panel is evaluated. The result of airflow circulation of DC fan has been discussed. Meanwhile, with the increment number of DC fans, the PV panel temperature drops significantly. As a conclusion, the optimum number of DC fans is two with the combination of inlet airflow.

  8. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  9. Power control strategy of a photovoltaic power plant for microgrid applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Cite Scientifique, Villeneuve d' Ascq (FR). Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique de Puissance de Lille (L2EP); Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers, Lille (FR). Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique de Puissance de Lille (L2EP); Francois, Bruno [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Cite Scientifique, Villeneuve d' Ascq (FR). Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique de Puissance de Lille (L2EP); Degobert, Philippe [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers, Lille (FR). Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique de Puissance de Lille (L2EP); Robyns, Benoit [Hautes Etudes d' Ingenieur, Lille (FR). Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique de Puissance de Lille (L2EP)

    2008-07-01

    Photovoltaic power plants operates currently maximal power point tracking (MPPT). For microgrid applications, however, a PV power plant can not operate in the MPPT mode in all conditions. When a microgrid is islanded from the grid with few loads, a limitation of the produced power by PV plants is required and prescribed by the Distribution System Operator. This paper proposes a power control technique integrated into a dynamic model of a PV power plant by using equivalent continuous models of power electronic converters. The power limitation mode of the PV is performed by applying the correct PV terminal voltage, which corresponds to the prescribed power reference. The proposed global model is validated by simulations with the help of Matlab-Simulink trademark. (orig.)

  10. An Optimized Prediction Intervals Approach for Short Term PV Power Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Ni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High quality photovoltaic (PV power prediction intervals (PIs are essential to power system operation and planning. To improve the reliability and sharpness of PIs, in this paper, a new method is proposed, which involves the model uncertainties and noise uncertainties, and PIs are constructed with a two-step formulation. In the first step, the variance of model uncertainties is obtained by using extreme learning machine to make deterministic forecasts of PV power. In the second stage, innovative PI-based cost function is developed to optimize the parameters of ELM and noise uncertainties are quantization in terms of variance. The performance of the proposed approach is examined by using the PV power and meteorological data measured from 1kW rooftop DC micro-grid system. The validity of the proposed method is verified by comparing the experimental analysis with other benchmarking methods, and the results exhibit a superior performance.

  11. Novel concept of a PV power generation system adding the function of shunt active filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.G.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K. [Changwon National Univ., Changwon City (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A new photovoltaics (PV) power generation system that used an active filter (AF) function was proposed. The AF was installed to condition reactive power and harmonic compensation as well as flicker and voltage regulation. A maximum point power tracking (MPPT) control system was used to stabilize the voltage source inverter (VSI) output current. A general dq transformation was used to compensate the negative components and the harmonics component. The output terminal of the PV array was connected to a smoothing capacitor interfacing the PV-AF inverter. A voltage source PWM converter was controlled with feedback loops of the output current of the inverter. Optimal values of the power inverter gains and filter constants were tuned to obtain responses. The PV system was simulated using real weather conditions. Results of the study demonstrated the stability and effectiveness of the proposed system. It was concluded that the PV-AF can also be used to provide harmonic damping throughout power distribution systems. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Buck-Boost/Forward Hybrid Converter for PV Energy Conversion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yu Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a charger and LED lighting (discharger hybrid system with a PV array as its power source for electronic sign indicator applications. The charger adopts buck-boost converter which is operated in constant current mode to charge lead-acid battery and with the perturb and observe method to extract maximum power of PV arrays. Their control algorithms are implemented by microcontroller. Moreover, forward converter with active clamp circuit is operated in voltage regulation condition to drive LED for electronic sign applications. To simplify the circuit structure of the proposed hybrid converter, switches of two converters are integrated with the switch integration technique. With this approach, the proposed hybrid converter has several merits, which are less component counts, lighter weight, smaller size, and higher conversion efficiency. Finally, a prototype of LED driving system under output voltage of 10 V and output power of 20 W has been implemented to verify its feasibility. It is suitable for the electronic sign indicator applications.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Solar PV Power Frequency Spectrum for Optimal Employment of Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Sharma, Isha [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical analysis of the frequency spectrum of solar photovoltaic (PV) power output is conducted. This analysis quantifies the frequency content that can be used for purposes such as developing optimal employment of building loads and distributed energy resources. One year of solar PV power output data was collected and analyzed using one-second resolution to find ideal bounds and levels for the different frequency components. The annual, seasonal, and monthly statistics of the PV frequency content are computed and illustrated in boxplot format. To examine the compatibility of building loads for PV consumption, a spectral analysis of building loads such as Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units and water heaters was performed. This defined the bandwidth over which these devices can operate. Results show that nearly all of the PV output (about 98%) is contained within frequencies lower than 1 mHz (equivalent to ~15 min), which is compatible for consumption with local building loads such as HVAC units and water heaters. Medium frequencies in the range of ~15 min to ~1 min are likely to be suitable for consumption by fan equipment of variable air volume HVAC systems that have time constants in the range of few seconds to few minutes. This study indicates that most of the PV generation can be consumed by building loads with the help of proper control strategies, thereby reducing impact on the grid and the size of storage systems.

  14. PV power and profit? Electrifying rural South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karottki, R.; Banks, D.

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the background to the implementation of a programme of sustainable off-grid energy services delivered to rural areas through private-public partnership. The implementation of the school photovoltaic (PV) electrification programme, electrification of rural clinics, the solar electrification of rural households on a large scale through a joint venture between Shell Renewables and the national utility ESKOM, and the electrification of widely scattered homesteads are discussed. Details are given of the financial support from the government and the National Electricity Regulator, the development of a national standard for Solar Home Systems, identification of target regions, the regulatory framework, and the opportunities for business and for real improvement. (UK)

  15. Application of two-phase flow for cooling of hybrid microchannel PV cells: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeh-e-Sheyda, Peyvand; Rahimi, Masoud; Karimi, Ebrahim; Asadi, Masomeh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Showing cooling potential of gas–liquid two-phase flow in microchannels for PV cell. ► Introducing the concept of using slug flow in microchannels for cooling of PV cells. ► In single-phase flow, increasing the liquid flow rate enhances the PV power. ► Showing that in two-phase flow the output power related the fluid flow regime. ► By coupling PV and microchannel an increase up to 38% in output power was observed. - Abstract: This paper reports the experimental data from performance of two-phase flows in a small hybrid microchannel solar cell. Using air and water as two-phase fluid, the experiments were conducted at indoor condition in an array of rectangular microchannels with a hydraulic diameter of 0.667 mm. The gas superficial velocity ranges were between 0 and 3.27 m s −1 while liquid flow rate was 0.04 m s −1 . The performance analysis of the PV cell at slug and transitional slug/annular flow regimes are the focus of this study. The influence of two-phase working fluid on PV cell cooling was compared with single-phase. In addition, the great potential of slug flow for heat removal enhancement in PV/T panel was investigated. The obtained data showed the proposed hybrid system could substantially increases the output power of PV solar cells

  16. S4 Grid-Connected Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for PV Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardashir, Jaber Fallah; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Sabahi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new single-phase transformerless inverter for grid-connected photovoltaic systems with low leakage current. It consists of four power switches, two diodes, two capacitors and a filter at the output stage. The neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative terminal...... size, low cost, flexible grounding configuration and higher efficiency. The operating principle and analysis of the proposed circuit are presented in details. Experimental results of a 500 W prototype are demonstrated to validate the proposed topology and the overall concept. The results obtained...... clearly verify the performance of the proposed inverter and its practical application for grid-connected PV systems....

  17. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Wu, M. S.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system

  18. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...

  19. Technical model for optimising PV/diesel/battery hybrid power systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available A solar-based power supply system, such as a photovoltaic (PV)-diesel-battery system, is a particularly attractive option for decentralised power supply in southern Africa where solar radiation is ubiquitous in most countries. Such systems can make...

  20. Analysis of the influences of grid-connected PV power system on distribution grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Popandron

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of producing an electric power of 2.8 MW using a solar photovoltaic plant. The PV will be grid connected to the distribution network. The study is focused on the influences of connecting to the grid of a photovoltaic system, using modern software for analysis, modeling and simulation in power systems.

  1. Automatic supervision and fault detection of PV systems based on power losses analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouder, A.; Silvestre, S. [Electronic Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord UPC, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, we present a new automatic supervision and fault detection procedure for PV systems, based on the power losses analysis. This automatic supervision system has been developed in Matlab and Simulink environment. It includes parameter extraction techniques to calculate main PV system parameters from monitoring data in real conditions of work, taking into account the environmental irradiance and module temperature evolution, allowing simulation of the PV system behaviour in real time. The automatic supervision method analyses the output power losses, presents in the DC side of the PV generator, capture losses. Two new power losses indicators are defined: thermal capture losses (L{sub ct}) and miscellaneous capture losses (L{sub cm}). The processing of these indicators allows the supervision system to generate a faulty signal as indicator of fault detection in the PV system operation. Two new indicators of the deviation of the DC variables respect to the simulated ones have been also defined. These indicators are the current and voltage ratios: R{sub C} and R{sub V}. Analysing both, the faulty signal and the current/voltage ratios, the type of fault can be identified. The automatic supervision system has been successfully tested experimentally. (author)

  2. Automatic supervision and fault detection of PV systems based on power losses analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouder, A.; Silvestre, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a new automatic supervision and fault detection procedure for PV systems, based on the power losses analysis. This automatic supervision system has been developed in Matlab and Simulink environment. It includes parameter extraction techniques to calculate main PV system parameters from monitoring data in real conditions of work, taking into account the environmental irradiance and module temperature evolution, allowing simulation of the PV system behaviour in real time. The automatic supervision method analyses the output power losses, presents in the DC side of the PV generator, capture losses. Two new power losses indicators are defined: thermal capture losses (L ct ) and miscellaneous capture losses (L cm ). The processing of these indicators allows the supervision system to generate a faulty signal as indicator of fault detection in the PV system operation. Two new indicators of the deviation of the DC variables respect to the simulated ones have been also defined. These indicators are the current and voltage ratios: R C and R V . Analysing both, the faulty signal and the current/voltage ratios, the type of fault can be identified. The automatic supervision system has been successfully tested experimentally.

  3. Artificial Neural Network based control for PV/T panel to track optimum thermal and electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Majed; Chaabene, Maher; Chtourou, Zied

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We establish a state model of PV/T panel. ► We study the effect of mass flow rate on PV/T efficiency. ► A real time PV/T control algorithm is proposed. ► A model based optimal thermal and electrical power operation point is tracked. - Abstract: As solar energy is intermittent, many algorithms and electronics have been developed to track the maximum power generation from photovoltaic and thermal panels. Following technological advances, these panels are gathered into one unit: PV/T system. PV/T delivers simultaneously two kinds of power: electrical power and thermal power. Nevertheless, no control systems have been developed in order to track maximum power generation from PV/T system. This paper suggests a PV/T control algorithm based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to detect the optimal power operating point (OPOP) by considering PV/T model behavior. The OPOP computes the optimum mass flow rate of PV/T for a considered irradiation and ambient temperature. Simulation results demonstrate great concordance between OPOP model based calculation and ANN outputs.

  4. System engineering and design of LSC-PV for outdoor lighting applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viswanathan, B.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; De Boer, D.K.G.; Ras, A.; Zahn, H.; Desmet, L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic outdoor lighting applications usually comprise flat plate PV modules mounted on top of a light pole. In our paper instead, it is thought of to design the light pole as a luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic (LSC-PV) module with solar cell strips and hence reduce costs of

  5. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  6. Concept of large scale PV-WT-PSH energy sources coupled with the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent/non-dispatchable energy sources are characterized by a significant variation of their energy yield over time. In majority of cases their role in energy systems is marginalized. However, even in Poland which is strongly dedicated to its hard and brown coal fired power plants, the wind generation in terms of installed capacity starts to play a significant role. This paper briefly introduces a concept of wind (WT and solar (PV powered pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH which seems to be a viable option for solving the problem of the variable nature of PV and WT generation. Additionally we summarize the results of our so far conducted research on the integration of variable renewable energy sources (VRES to the energy systems and present conclusions which strictly refer to the prospects of large scale PV-WT-PSH operating as a part of the polish energy system.

  7. Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji

    Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.

  8. How do users interact with photovoltaic-powered products? Investigating 100 'lead-users' and 6 PV products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand how 'lead-users' interact with PV-powered products, the behaviour of 100 people interacting with six different PV-powered products in their daily life was analysed. The sample of respondents to be observed consisted of 20 groups, each one formed by five students of

  9. A New Technique for Tracking the Global Maximum Power Point of PV Arrays Operating Under Partial-Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The power-voltage characteristic of photovoltaic (PV) arrays operating under partial-shading conditions exhibits multiple local maximum power points (MPPs). In this paper, a new method to track the global MPP is presented, which is based on controlling a dc/dc converter connected at the PV array...

  10. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Installations of photovoltaic (PV) power generation; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Taiyoko hatsuden jireishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The present survey places particular emphasis on the field of PV power generation systems, and intends to collect data on solar cell application products and PV power generation system installation cases, to classify them according to their usage and to compile a collection of case records including photographs. For the data collection, two formats have been adopted. A format for the solar cell-based products includes a picture of the product, and information on solar cell output and commercialization status. Another format for the installation of PV power systems includes a picture of the installation, and information on location, output level, system type, PV module type, owner, and date of installation. The application of solar cells was classified into 14 fields, i.e., consumer appliances, road and traffic, railroad, general industries, housing related, automobiles, agriculture, ocean development, disaster prevention and safety, amenity, developing countries, buildings, public facilities, and environment. A total of 241 valid cases have been collected. Overseas products and installation cases are often characterized by new applications and innovative design, and contain a lot of useful suggestions for promoting the spread of PV technology in Japan

  11. A Novel Hybrid Model for Short-Term Forecasting in PV Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Kang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of solar power as a source of electricity has led to increased interest in forecasting its power output over short-time horizons. Short-term forecasts are needed for operational planning, switching sources, programming backup, reserve usage, and peak load matching. However, the output of a photovoltaic (PV system is influenced by irradiation, cloud cover, and other weather conditions. These factors make it difficult to conduct short-term PV output forecasting. In this paper, an experimental database of solar power output, solar irradiance, air, and module temperature data has been utilized. It includes data from the Green Energy Office Building in Malaysia, the Taichung Thermal Plant of Taipower, and National Penghu University. Based on the historical PV power and weather data provided in the experiment, all factors that influence photovoltaic-generated energy are discussed. Moreover, five types of forecasting modules were developed and utilized to predict the one-hour-ahead PV output. They include the ARIMA, SVM, ANN, ANFIS, and the combination models using GA algorithm. Forecasting results show the high precision and efficiency of this combination model. Therefore, the proposed model is suitable for ensuring the stable operation of a photovoltaic generation system.

  12. Modified Grid-Connected CSI for Hybrid PV/Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amorndechaphon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a power conditioning unit for hybrid PV/wind power generation system is proposed. The proposed power conditioner is based on the current source inverter (CSI topology. All energy sources are connected in parallel with a DC-bus through the modified wave-shaping circuits. To achieve the unity power factor at the utility grid, the DC-link current can be controlled via the wave-shaping circuits with the sinusoidal PWM scheme. In this work, the carrier-based PWM scheme is also proposed to minimize the utility current THD. The power rating of the proposed system can be increased by connecting more PV/wind modules through their wave-shaping circuits in parallel with the other modules. The details of the operating principles, the system configurations, and the design considerations are described. The effectiveness of the proposed CSI is demonstrated by simulation results.

  13. A High Performance PSO-Based Global MPP Tracker for a PV Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hsiang Chao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present an improved version of a typical particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, such that the global maximum power point (MPP on a P-V characteristic curve with multiple peaks can be located in an efficient and precise manner for a photovoltaic module array. A series of instrumental measurements are conducted on variously configured arrays built with SANYO HIP2717 PV modules, either unshaded, partially shaded, or malfunctioning, as the building blocks. There appear two, triple and quadruple peaks on the corresponding P-V characteristic curves. Subsequently, the tracking performance comparisons, made by some practical experiments, indicate the superiority of this improved MPP tracking algorithm over the typical one.

  14. Tracking the global maximum power point of PV arrays under partial shading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennich, Meryem

    This thesis presents the theoretical and simulation studies of the global maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems under partial shading. The main goal is to track the maximum power point of the photovoltaic module so that the maximum possible power can be extracted from the photovoltaic panels. When several panels are connected in series with some of them shaded partially either due to clouds or shadows from neighboring buildings, several local maxima appear in the power vs. voltage curve. A power increment based MPPT algorithm is effective in identifying the global maximum from the several local maxima. Several existing MPPT algorithms are explored and the state-of-the-art power increment method is simulated and tested for various partial shading conditions. The current-voltage and power-voltage characteristics of the PV model are studied under different partial shading conditions, along with five different cases demonstrating how the MPPT algorithm performs when shading switches from one state to another. Each case is supplemented with simulation results. The method of tracking the Global MPP is based on controlling the DC-DC converter connected to the output of the PV array. A complete system simulation including the PV array, the direct current to direct current (DC-DC) converter and the MPPT is presented and tested using MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the MPPT algorithm works very well with the buck converter, while the boost converter needs further changes and implementation.

  15. An Enhanced Inverter Controller for PV Applications Using the dSPACE Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the simulation modeling and prototype development of an inverter controller for photovoltaic (PV applications using the dSPACE DS1104 controller platform. The controller platform can link the simulation model developed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment to its prototype hardware. In the dSPACE controller, the voltage regulator controls the inverter by employing a proportional integral (PI controller and the Park transformation method to generate sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM signals. The SPWM signals switch the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT to stabilize the 50-Hz sinusoidal AC output voltages of the inverter. The simulation was performed with a DC power supply that acts as the PV generator to supply the power to the inverter. The simulation model was then translated into the inverter prototype using the dSPACE platform and tested in the laboratory to prove the efficacy of the proposed controller. The experimental results for the inverter system demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed control strategy by maintaining the THD of the output voltage at 4.6%.

  16. A Novel Generation Method for the PV Power Time Series Combining the Decomposition Technique and Markov Chain Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shenzhi; Ai, Xiaomeng; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation has made considerable developments in recent years. But its intermittent and volatility of its output has seriously affected the security operation of the power system. In order to better understand the PV generation and provide sufficient data support...... for analysis the impacts, a novel generation method for PV power time series combining decomposition technique and Markov chain theory is presented in this paper. It digs important factors from historical data from existing PV plants and then reproduce new data with similar patterns. In detail, the proposed...... method first decomposes the PV power time series into ideal output curve, amplitude parameter series and random fluctuating component three parts. Then generating daily ideal output curve by the extraction of typical daily data, amplitude parameter series based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC...

  17. Grid tied PV/battery system architecture and power management for fast electric vehicle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed O.

    The prospective spread of Electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) arises the need for fast charging rates. Higher charging rates requirements lead to high power demands, which cant be always supported by the grid. Thus, the use of on-site sources alongside the electrical grid for EVs charging is a rising area of interest. In this dissertation, a photovoltaic (PV) source is used to support the high power EVs charging. However, the PV output power has an intermittent nature that is dependable on the weather conditions. Thus, battery storage are combined with the PV in a grid tied system, providing a steady source for on-site EVs use in a renewable energy based fast charging station. Verily, renewable energy based fast charging stations should be cost effective, efficient, and reliable to increase the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. Thus, this Dissertation proposes a novel power flow management topology that aims on decreasing the running cost along with innovative hardware solutions and control structures for the developed architecture. The developed power flow management topology operates the hybrid system at the minimum operating cost while extending the battery lifetime. An optimization problem is formulated and two stages of optimization, i.e online and offline stages, are adopted to optimize the batteries state of charge (SOC) scheduling and continuously compensate for the forecasting errors. The proposed power flow management topology is validated and tested with two metering systems, i.e unified and dual metering systems. The results suggested that minimal power flow is anticipated from the battery storage to the grid in the dual metering system. Thus, the power electronic interfacing system is designed accordingly. Interconnecting bi-directional DC/DC converters are analyzed, and a cascaded buck boost (CBB) converter is chosen and tested under 80 kW power flow rates. The need to perform power factor correction (PFC) on

  18. Optimal Placement and Sizing of PV-STATCOM in Power Systems Using Empirical Data and Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sirjani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a source of free, clean energy which avoids the destructive effects on the environment that have long been caused by power generation. Solar energy technology rivals fossil fuels, and its development has increased recently. Photovoltaic (PV solar farms can only produce active power during the day, while at night, they are completely idle. At the same time, though, active power should be supported by reactive power. Reactive power compensation in power systems improves power quality and stability. The use during the night of a PV solar farm inverter as a static synchronous compensator (or PV-STATCOM device has recently been proposed which can improve system performance and increase the utility of a PV solar farm. In this paper, a method for optimal PV-STATCOM placement and sizing is proposed using empirical data. Considering the objectives of power loss and cost minimization as well as voltage improvement, two sub-problems of placement and sizing, respectively, are solved by a power loss index and adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO. Test results show that APSO not only performs better in finding optimal solutions but also converges faster compared with bee colony optimization (BCO and lightening search algorithm (LSA. Installation of a PV solar farm, STATCOM, and PV-STATCOM in a system are each evaluated in terms of efficiency and cost.

  19. Linearised model for PV panel power output variation with changes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PALLAVI BHARADWAJ

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... change in system input, namely: irradiance and temperature, with its output, namely: array current and power. ... of a solar cell as shown in figure 1, with appropriate scaling according to ... measurement-based methods [8–13].

  20. A wide-gap a-SiC:H PV-powered electrochromic window coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, W.; Lee, S.H.; Xu, Y.; Benson, D.K.; Deb, S.K.; Branz, H.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors report on the first monolithic, amorphous-silicon-based, photovoltaic-powered electrochromic window coating. The coating employs a wide bandgap a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H n-i-p photovoltaic (PV) cell as a semitransparent power supply, and a Li{sub y}WO{sub 3}/LiAlF{sub 4}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrochromic (EC) device as an optical-transmittance modulator. The EC device is deposited directly on top of a PV cell that coats a glass substrate. The a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H PV cell has a Tauc gap of 2.2 eV and a transmittance of 60--80% over a large portion of the visible light spectrum. The authors reduced the thickness of the device to about 600 {angstrom} while maintaining a 1-sun open-circuit voltage of 0.9 V and short-circuit current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. The prototype 16 cm{sup 2} PV/EC device modulates the transmittance by more than 60% over a large portion of the visible spectrum. The coloring and bleaching times of the EC device are approximately 1 minute under normal operating conditions ({+-} 1 volt). A brief description of photoelectrochromic windows study is also given.

  1. Building Integrated PV and PV/Hybrid Products - The PV:BONUS Experience: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H.; Pierce, L. K.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Successes and lessons learned from PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the United States in PV). This program has funded the development of PV or PV/hybrid products for building applications.

  2. Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulpule, Pinak J.; Marano, Vincenzo; Yurkovich, Stephen; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging station located in a workplace parking garage. • Emissions from the power grid. • Economic analysis. • Parametric analysis for parking rates, installed capacities to show benefits to vehicle and garage owner. - Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) have high potential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and for providing a way to utilize renewable energy sources for the transportation sector. On the other hand, charging millions of PEVs could overload the power grid, increase emissions and significantly alter economic characteristics. A day-time photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle charging station located in a workplace parking garage is considered in this research. The results show the impact of PV based workplace charging on the economics and emissions from the power grid. An optimal charge scheduling strategy is compared with an uncontrolled charging case to perform the economics and emissions analysis. Two locations (Columbus, OH and Los Angeles, CA) are selected such that the analysis includes different scenarios of yearly variation of solar radiation and finance structure. A high fidelity hourly simulation model for energy economic analysis is developed considering different types of vehicles, statistical data for driving distances, parking time, installation cost, tax rebates and incentives. An incremental parking rate for accessing the charging facility is considered for economic analysis for the garage owner and the vehicle owner. The analysis is extended to consider the impact of carbon tax implementation on the driver economics and shows the feasibility of such PV based charging stations. Parametric analysis for different parking rates and installed capacities show (i) the feasibility of a PV based workplace charging facility, (ii) benefits to the vehicle owner and the garage owner, and (iii) the need for

  3. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a PV/Battery Hybrid Source Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Golsorkhi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. Unlike the previous methods in the literature, there is no need to communication among the units......, the operation of each unit is divided into five states and modified active power-frequency droop functions are used according to operating states. The frequency level is used as trigger for switching between the states. Efficacy of the proposed method in different load, PV generation and battery conditions...... and the proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV and battery units or systems with only one hybrid unit. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them. To cover all possible conditions of the microgrid...

  4. Design of fibre reinforced PV concepts for building integrated applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; de Wit, H.; de Boer, Andries; Ossenbrink Sinke, W.; Helm, P.

    2009-01-01

    Fibre reinforced polymers present an interesting encapsulation medium for PV-modules. Glass fibres can provide increased strength and stiffness to thin polymer layers overcoming the brittleness and limited deformability of glass-panes. Glass fibre reinforced polymers allows for transparency over a

  5. Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection at Night Considering Mission Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    loading, considering the operation outside active feed-in hours. An analytical lifetime model is then employed for lifetime quantization based on the Palgrem Miner rule. Thereafter, considering the lifetime reduction of the PV inverter under different mission profiles with reactive power injection......The widespread adoption of mixed renewables urgently require reactive power exchange at various feed-in points of the utility grid. Photovoltaic (PV) inverters are able to provide reactive power in a decentralized manner at the grid-connection points even outside active power feed-in operation......, especially at night when there is no solar irradiance. This serves as a motivation for utilizing the PV inverters at night for reactive power compensation. Thus, an analysis on the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance and the reliability has...

  6. Energy performance of semi-transparent PV modules for applications in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Yu Yan

    well-insulated calorimeter box and an adjustable steady-state type solar simulator which can provide up to 1600 W/m2 have been used in the tests. Energy that transmitted through the semi-transparent BIPV modules and entered the calorimeter box was evaluated. It was found that the experimental results and the simulated results support each other. The SPVHG model is validated and can be used for further studies. Other than heat transfer, power production and the daylight utilization are also the vital parts in the energy performance assessment of the semi-transparent BIPV module for applications in building facades. Power generation models of both opaque and semi-transparent BIPV modules are investigated in this study. In order to test the validity of the power generation model, measurements on a BIPV system of an existing building are carried out. The measurement results reveal a good validity of the power generation model. Only a minor modification to the model is required. The daylight utilization is evaluated by using an indoor illuminance model. The model estimates the mean internal illuminance on the working plane of a room when there is both sunlight and skylight. Consequently, the power saving due to the daylight utilization can be determined. By using the SPVHG model together with the power generation model and the indoor illuminance model, the energy performance, in terms of electricity benefit, of building facades that incorporated with semi-transparent BIPV modules is evaluated. Different scenarios are studied by changing various parameters such as the window to wall ratios, thickness and efficiency of the solar cells. The results show that the solar cells within the semi-transparent BIPV modules significantly reduce the solar heat gain and thus reduce the power consumption of air-conditioning systems. Taking into account the impacts of PV electricity generation and daylight utilization, the optimum solar cell area ratio in the PV modules varies from 0.7 to 0

  7. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Eltamaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT and PV module types. The proposed computer program changes the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain increments and calculates the required size of all components and the optimum battery size to get the predefined lowest acceptable probability. This computer program has been designed in flexible fashion that is not available in market available software like HOMER and RETScreen. Actual data for Saudi sites have been used with this computer program. The data obtained have been compared with these market available software. The comparison shows the superiority of this computer program in the optimal design of the autonomous PV/wind/battery hybrid system. The proposed computer program performed the optimal design steps in very short time and with accurate results. Many valuable results can be extracted from this computer program that can help researchers and decision makers.

  8. Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.

  9. The power of PV: one US company shows the potential of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.

    2005-01-01

    A California-based company, PowerLight, has grown from a one-man shop in 1991 to a company with 100 employees, an annual turnover of $100 million and an impressive client list. The company is one of the USA's fastest growing companies and a leader in large-scale, grid-connected solar systems. Its patented PowerGuard offers a lightweight solar rooftop assembly, while its PowerTracker product is a ground-mounted PV system. Details of some of the company's large projects are given and its plans for new markets highlighted

  10. Optimal LFC SMC for three – area power system with high penetration of PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Klimontowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical power systems are subjected to new trends appearing in grid structuring, electrical power sources, new control strategies, etc. The introduction of inverterbased distributed energy resources to replace conventional synchronous machines depletes the mechanical inertia, and causing the system to become more sensitive to disturbances. This paper proposed a simple and reliable solution to assure sufficient frequency stability of electrical power systems when subjected to high penetration of decoupled distributed generation. To achieve this, a decentralized sliding mode control was designed to operate as a compensator for conventional load frequency controllers. Subsequently, PV farms and battery energy storage systems were interconnected. Simulated network under different configurations were conducted using MATLAB.

  11. Comparative Study on KNN and SVM Based Weather Classification Models for Day Ahead Short Term Solar PV Power Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV power forecasting is an essential tool for mitigating the negative effects caused by the uncertainty of PV output power in systems with high penetration levels of solar PV generation. Weather classification based modeling is an effective way to increase the accuracy of day-ahead short-term (DAST solar PV power forecasting because PV output power is strongly dependent on the specific weather conditions in a given time period. However, the accuracy of daily weather classification relies on both the applied classifiers and the training data. This paper aims to reveal how these two factors impact the classification performance and to delineate the relation between classification accuracy and sample dataset scale. Two commonly used classification methods, K-nearest neighbors (KNN and support vector machines (SVM are applied to classify the daily local weather types for DAST solar PV power forecasting using the operation data from a grid-connected PV plant in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. We assessed the performance of SVM and KNN approaches, and then investigated the influences of sample scale, the number of categories, and the data distribution in different categories on the daily weather classification results. The simulation results illustrate that SVM performs well with small sample scale, while KNN is more sensitive to the length of the training dataset and can achieve higher accuracy than SVM with sufficient samples.

  12. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: power value and capacity value of PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppi, F.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the power value and capacity value of photovoltaic power systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and dispersed PV power systems. This report summarises the results of a study aimed to assess the benefits that may be obtained when distributed PV production systems are present in a low-voltage grid. The basic aspects concerning the power-value and those related to the capacity-value are discussed. Data obtained from simulations are presented and discussed. A simple concept shows that great variation occurs if varying load patterns are taken into account. The power-value of PV generation in the grid varies instant by instant depending on the current level of power production and on the surrounding load conditions. Although the three case-studies considered do not cover all the possibilities of coupling between PV and loads, the results obtained show a good differentiation among users with PV production which leads to interesting conclusions.

  13. Life-cycle air emissions from PV power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, M.E.; Johnson, A.J.; Outhred, H.R.; Ellis, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the air emission of grid supply versus grid-connected and off-grid photovoltaic power generation, using the framework of life-cycle assessment, in the contents of rural household energy supply in Australia. Emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxde and nitrous oxides are calculated for the three life-cycle stages of manufacture, use and disposal. Sensitivities to materials and data inputs, as well as to component efficiencies, lifetimes and sizing are discussed. For each supply option, demand management options, including insulation and appliance choice, and the substitution of solar heating or bottled gas for electricity are considered. The best option in all cases, in terms of life-cycle air emissions, is a grid-connected photovoltaic system used to supply an energy-efficient household with a mix of solar, gas and electric appliances. However, in financial terms, with current Australian energy prices, this option represents a high capital and life-cycle costs. Additionally, for the grid options, electricity costs do not significantly disadvantage the high demand scenarios. Both results provide a clear illustration of current Australian energy-pricing policies being in conflict with long-term environmental sustainability. (Author)

  14. Techno-economy optimization of PV-diesel hybrid / stand-alone systems for remote area power supply based on empirical analysis for Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budiono, Chayun [Komplek BPP Teknologi, Jl. Teknologi VII, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2007-07-01

    The techno-economy assessment of photovoltaic (PV) system applications for remote area power supply (RAPS) in combination with operation of diesel generating set (DGS) in Indonesia based on an empirical model is formulated. This model has shown that it helps the project owner to easily optimise the sub-system size (i.e. PV array, auxiliary generator and battery sizes) based on the financial constraints needed for the investment and operation of the system. Two major markets of RAPS in Indonesia are currently for rural electrification and telecommunication systems (orig.)

  15. Simulation of Power Produced by a Building Added PV System in Indonesia using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a PV system will be simulated using virtual reality software for PV system simulations -called VR4PV - to show the effectiveness of the modelling of PV systems on buildings which are placed in the tropics. The PV system used for this study has been installed in Papua, Indonesia and

  16. Design, Fabrication, and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyard, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the overall accomplishments and benefits of Solar Electric Specialties Co. (SES) under this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. SES addressed design issues related to their modular autonomous PV power supply (MAPPS) and a mobile photogenset. MAPPS investigations included gel-cell batteries mounted horizontally; redisgn of the SES power supply; modified battery enclosure for increased safety and reduced cost; programmable, interactive battery charge controllers; and UL and FM listings. The photogenset systems incorporate generators, battery storage, and PV panels for a mobile power supply. The unit includes automatic oil-change systems for the propane generators, collapsible array mounts for the PV enclosure, and internal stowage of the arrays. Standardizing the products resulted in product lines of MAPPS and Photogensets that can be produced more economically and with shorter lead times, while increasing product quality and reliability. Product assembly and quality control have also been improved and streamlined with the development of standardized assembly processes and QC testing procedures. SES offers the UL-listed MAPPS at about the same price as its previous non-standardized, unlisted products

  17. Design, production and materials of PV powered consumer products - the case of mass production (cd-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Akkerman, Remko; Palz, W.; Ossenbrink, H.; Helm, P.

    2005-01-01

    Though many options exist, the application of integrated PV systems in mass produced consumer products is still unusual and rare [1]. Therefore, to date, design and manufacturing aspects of product-integrated PV systems have been explored only to a very limited extent. The requirements for the

  18. Maximum Power Point Tracking for Cascaded PV-Converter Modules Using Two-Stage Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mingxuan; Duan, Qichang; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hao; Hu, Bei; Duan, Pan

    2017-08-24

    The paper presents a novel two-stage particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of a PV system consisting of cascaded PV-converter modules, under partial shading conditions (PSCs). In this scheme, the grouping method of the shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) is incorporated with the basic PSO algorithm, ensuring fast and accurate searching of the global extremum. An adaptive speed factor is also introduced to improve its convergence speed. A PWM algorithm enabling permuted switching of the PV sources is applied. The method enables this PV system to achieve the maximum power generation for any number of PV and converter modules. Simulation studies of the proposed MPPT scheme are performed on a system having two chained PV buck-converter modules and a dc-ac H-bridge connected at its terminals for supplying an AC load. The results show that this type of PV system allows each module to achieve the maximum power generation according its illumination level without affecting the others, and the proposed new control method gives significantly higher power output compared with the conventional P&O and PSO methods.

  19. Assessment of Air-Pollution Control Policy’s Impact on China’s PV Power: A System Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, China has brought out several air-pollution control policies, which indicate the prominent position that PV power hold in improving atmosphere environment. Under this policy environment, the development of China’s PV power will be greatly affected. Firstly, after analyzing the influencing path of air-pollution control policies on PV power, this paper built a system dynamics model, which can be used as a platform for predicting China’s PV power development in every policy scenario during 2015–2025. Secondly, different model parameters are put into the SD model to simulate three scenarios of air-pollution control policies. Comparisons between the simulated results of different policy scenarios measure the air-pollution control policy’s impact on China’s PV power in the aspect of generation, installed capacity, power curtailment and so on. This paper points out the long-term development pattern of China’s PV power under latest incentive policies, and provides reference for the policymakers to increase the effect and efficiency of air-pollution control policies.

  20. Decentralized control of a scalable photovoltaic (PV)-battery hybrid power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myungchin; Bae, Sungwoo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design and control of a PV-battery hybrid power system. • Reliable and scalable operation of hybrid power systems is achieved. • System and power control are performed without a centralized controller. • Reliability and scalability characteristics are studied in a quantitative manner. • The system control performance is verified using realistic solar irradiation data. - Abstract: This paper presents the design and control of a sustainable standalone photovoltaic (PV)-battery hybrid power system (HPS). The research aims to develop an approach that contributes to increased level of reliability and scalability for an HPS. To achieve such objectives, a PV-battery HPS with a passively connected battery was studied. A quantitative hardware reliability analysis was performed to assess the effect of energy storage configuration to the overall system reliability. Instead of requiring the feedback control information of load power through a centralized supervisory controller, the power flow in the proposed HPS is managed by a decentralized control approach that takes advantage of the system architecture. Reliable system operation of an HPS is achieved through the proposed control approach by not requiring a separate supervisory controller. Furthermore, performance degradation of energy storage can be prevented by selecting the controller gains such that the charge rate does not exceed operational requirements. The performance of the proposed system architecture with the control strategy was verified by simulation results using realistic irradiance data and a battery model in which its temperature effect was considered. With an objective to support scalable operation, details on how the proposed design could be applied were also studied so that the HPS could satisfy potential system growth requirements. Such scalability was verified by simulating various cases that involve connection and disconnection of sources and loads. The

  1. Explore the performance limit of a solar PV – thermochemical power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Theoretical net solar-to-electric efficiency of 51.5% is attainable. •Design of efficient PVT systems is governed by at least 5 key considerations. •Concentration ratio has the most pronounced influence on PVT system efficiency. •Efficient PV, low emissivity and high concentration deliver the best performance. -- Abstract: Performance limit of a solar hybrid power generation system integrating efficient photovoltaic (PV) cells and methanol thermal (T) decomposition is explored from a thermodynamic perspective within the capability of state-of-the-art technologies. This type of PVT system features potentially high “net solar-to-electric efficiency” in general, primarily resulting from a key difference in the design of the thermal part compared with conventional PVT systems, i.e. replacing heat engines by a thermochemical power generation module for thermal energy utilization. Key design parameters of the system, including PV cell type, emissivity, solar concentration ratio and solar concentrator type, are individually studied. A system combining all such optimized aspects is projected to achieve net solar-to-electric efficiencies up to 51.5%, after taking all major (e.g. optical, radiative) losses into consideration. This study reveals important insights and enriches understanding on design principles of efficient PVT systems aimed at comprehensive and effective utilization of solar energy.

  2. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumaraguru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company

    2017-10-03

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods, which combine the fidelity of hardware tests with the flexibility of computer simulation. This paper summarizes a study wherein two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models using an OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters based on characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders using physical inverters. Selected results are presented in this paper, and complete results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  3. Comparison of fuzzy logic and neural network in maximum power point tracker for PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salah, Chokri; Ouali, Mohamed [Research Unit on Intelligent Control, Optimization, Design and Optimization of Complex Systems (ICOS), Department of Electrical Engineering, National School of Engineers of Sfax, BP. W, 3038, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper proposes two methods of maximum power point tracking using a fuzzy logic and a neural network controllers for photovoltaic systems. The two maximum power point tracking controllers receive solar radiation and photovoltaic cell temperature as inputs, and estimated the optimum duty cycle corresponding to maximum power as output. The approach is validated on a 100 Wp PVP (two parallels SM50-H panel) connected to a 24 V dc load. The new method gives a good maximum power operation of any photovoltaic array under different conditions such as changing solar radiation and PV cell temperature. From the simulation and experimental results, the fuzzy logic controller can deliver more power than the neural network controller and can give more power than other different methods in literature. (author)

  4. Streamlining and Standardizing Due Diligence to Ensure Quality of PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-28

    Those investing in PV power plants would like to have confidence that the plants will provide the anticipated return on investment. While due diligence is capably performed by independent engineers today, as PV systems mature, there will be benefit in standardization and streamlining of this process. The IECRE has defined technical information that is needed as a basis for each transaction step such as approving a design to begin construction, documenting readiness to operate, quantifying performance after a year of operation, and assessing the health of the plant in preparation for sale of the plant. The technical requirements have been defined by IEC Technical Committee 82 and have been designed to be both effective and efficient in completing the assessments. This workshop will describe these new tools that are now available to the community and will include a panel/audience discussion about how and when they can be most effectively used.

  5. Data acquisition and PV module power production in upgraded TEP/AzRISE solar test yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Whit E.; Fishgold, Asher D.; Lai, Teh; Potter, Barrett G.; Simmons-Potter, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    The Tucson Electric Power (TEP)/University of Arizona AzRISE (Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy) solar test yard is continuing efforts to improve standardization and data acquisition reliability throughout the facility. Data reliability is ensured through temperature-insensitive data acquisition devices with battery backups in the upgraded test yard. Software improvements allow for real-time analysis of collected data, while uploading to a web server. Sample data illustrates high fidelity monitoring of the burn-in period of a polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module test string with no data failures over 365 days of data collection. In addition to improved DAQ systems, precision temperature monitoring has been implemented so that PV module backside temperatures are routinely obtained. Weather station data acquired at the test yard provides local ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed, and irradiance measurements that have been utilized to enable characterization of PV module performance over an extended test period

  6. Artificial Neural Networks to Predict the Power Output of a PV Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Lo Brano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates an adaptive approach based on different topologies of artificial neural networks (ANNs for the power energy output forecasting of photovoltaic (PV modules. The analysis of the PV module’s power output needed detailed local climate data, which was collected by a dedicated weather monitoring system. The Department of Energy, Information Engineering, and Mathematical Models of the University of Palermo (Italy has built up a weather monitoring system that worked together with a data acquisition system. The power output forecast is obtained using three different types of ANNs: a one hidden layer Multilayer perceptron (MLP, a recursive neural network (RNN, and a gamma memory (GM trained with the back propagation. In order to investigate the influence of climate variability on the electricity production, the ANNs were trained using weather data (air temperature, solar irradiance, and wind speed along with historical power output data available for the two test modules. The model validation was performed by comparing model predictions with power output data that were not used for the network's training. The results obtained bear out the suitability of the adopted methodology for the short-term power output forecasting problem and identified the best topology.

  7. Spectrally-Selective Photonic Structures for PV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Bläsi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We review several examples of how spectrally-selective photonic structures may be used to improve solar cell systems. Firstly, we introduce different spectrally-selective structures that are based on interference effects. Examples shown include Rugate filter, edge filter and 3D photonic crystals such as artificial opals. In the second part, we discuss several examples of photovoltaic (PV concepts that utilize spectral selectivity such as fluorescence collectors, upconversion systems, spectrum splitting concepts and the intermediate reflector concept. The potential of spectrally selective filters in the context of solar cells is discussed.

  8. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  9. New topology of multiple-input single-output PV system for DC load applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. ELhagry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving PV system structure and maximizing the output power of a PV system has drawn many researchers attention nowadays. A proposed multi-input single-output PV system is proposed in this paper. The system consists of multiple PV modules; each module feeds a DC–DC converter. The outputs of the converters are tied together to form a DC voltage source. In order to minimize the output ripples of the converters, the control signal of each converter is time shifted from each other by a certain time interval depending on the number of converters used in the topology. In this study a battery is used as the main load, the load current used as the control variable. A fuzzy logic controller designed to modulate the operating point of the system to get the maximum power. The results show that the proposed system has very good response for various operating conditions of the PV system. In addition the output filter is minimized with excellent quality of the DC output voltage.

  10. Maximum power point tracking for PV systems under partial shading conditions using current sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach for tracking the maximum power point of photovoltaic systems. • Able to handle both the uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. • Maximum power point tracking based on current sweeping. - Abstract: Partial shading on photovoltaic (PV) arrays causes multiple peaks on the output power–voltage characteristic curve and local searching technique such as perturb and observe (P&O) method could easily fail in searching for the global maximum. Moreover, existing global searching techniques are still not very satisfactory in terms of speed and implementation complexity. In this paper, a fast global maximum power point (MPPT) tracking method which is using current sweeping for photovoltaic arrays under partial shading conditions is proposed. Unlike conventional approach, the proposed method is current based rather than voltage based. The initial maximum power point will be derived based on a current sweeping test and the maximum power point can be enhanced by a finer local search. The speed of the global search is mainly governed by the apparent time constant of the PV array and the generation of a fast current sweeping test. The fast current sweeping test can easily be realized by a DC/DC boost converter with a very fast current control loop. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global searching scheme

  11. Three-Phase PV CHB Inverter for a Distributed Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Guerriero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design of a three-phase grid-tied photovoltaic (PV cascade H-bridge inverter for distributed power conversion. The power balancing among the phases must be properly addressed. In fact, an intra-phase power imbalance—arising from uneven irradiance and temperature conditions—generates a per-phase power imbalance. This latter can be compensated by the injection of a proper zero-sequence voltage, while the intra-phase balance is ensured by means of a hybrid modulation method which is able to guarantee the handling of unequal DC (Direct Current sources, stable circuit operation, and maximization of PV power production. The digital controller is developed and tested in Matlab/Simulink environment integrated with XSG (Xilinx System Generator, thus allowing an easy transfer on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA platform and accurately describing the behavior of a real hardware implementation. Thus, numerical results have been considered to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  13. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-07-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  14. Power Enhancement of Partial Shaded PV Array by Optimizing the Electrical Connection of Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mengyao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maximum output power (Pmax generated from photovoltaic (PV array will be apparently reduced if the array is partially shaded. In order to enhance Pmax generated from partial shaded PV array, several interconnection schemes of array are proposed. Among these schemes, the totally cross tied (TCT scheme and the recently proposed static scheme are widely discussed. It was reported that Pmax produced with static scheme is equal to the TCT scheme even under worst conditions. However, in these simulations the illumination of every single module is assumed to be uniform, but in urban environments the illumination of modules on the edge of shadow is more likely to be non-uniform. In this paper, first, a comprehensive circuit-level simulation, which is implemented in PSpice, has been done to investigate performance of PV array with both TCT scheme and static scheme under different partial shading conditions. And the results show that Pmax generated from static scheme is higher than that form TCT scheme if the illumination of every single module is uniform, however if some modules are partially shaded, the Pmax with static scheme is more likely less than that with TCT scheme. Then, the electrical connection of a module is improved for the purpose of enhancing Pmax under partial shading conditions in which some modules in the array are partially shaded. And the simulation results show that Pmax is apparently increased by employing the improved modules.

  15. A High Power Boost Converter for PV Systems Operating up to 300 kHz using SiC Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a 3kW boost converter for PV applications using SiC devices is introduced. Main focus is to operate the converter over a wide range of switching frequency and to analyze the main loss distributors as well as the efficiency. The switching element is a recently introduced normally...... be operated at full power for a switching frequency of 100 kHz using natural cooling. At 200 kHz the boost converter is capable of operating at full power when forced air cooling is applied having a JFET case temperature of less than 90 C. The case temperature of the JFET increases up to 110 C at a switching...

  16. Performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power a split air conditioner system in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, E.

    2017-11-01

    Air conditioner for cooling air is one of the major needs for those who live in hot climate area such as Indonesia. This work presents the performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power air conditioner under a hot tropical climate in Surabaya, Indonesia. A 800 WP grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system was used, and its performance was tested to power a 0.5 pk of split air conditioner system. It was found that about 3.5 kWh daily energy was consumed by the tested air conditioner system, and about 80% it could be supplied from the PV system. While the other 20% was supplied by the grid during periods of low solar irradiation, 440 Wh of energy was fed into the grid during operation out of office hours. By using the grid-tied PV system, the energy production by PV system did not need to match the consumption of the air conditioner. However, a larger capacity of PV system would mean that a higher percentage of the load would be covered by PV system.

  17. Comparative analysis of fixed and sun tracking low power PV systems considering energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Longo, Michela; Roscia, Mariacristina; Pagano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic system prototype with sun tracking. • Energy analysis of fixed and sun tracking built prototypes. • Experimental tests in different environmental conditions. • Theoretical and experimental validation of the prototype. - Abstract: Photovoltaic technology allows to directly convert solar energy into electrical energy with clear advantages: no environmental impact during operation, reliability and durability of the systems, reduced operating costs and maintenance, ability to both supply remote customers and simply connect to the electrical network. This paper evaluates the performance of two photovoltaic systems: one fixed and one equipped with a sun tracker. The objective of this research is to analyze the increase of daily produced energy by using the sun tracking system. The analysis accounts also the energy consumption of the sun tracker. An analytical approach is proposed. To validate the results through experimental tests, two alternative low power PV systems were built. Each system consists of a PV source, a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) power converter and a 12 V–40 A h electrochemical battery, which is used as electric load. The sun tracker system evidenced an important growth of power production during morning and evening

  18. Index-Based Assessment of Voltage Rise and Reverse Power Flow Phenomena in a Distribution Feeder Under High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios G.; Salehi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    -based methodology for assessing the impact of high solar PV generation, considering the reverse power flow and voltage rise phenomena. Indices are defined that link these two phenomena and their impact on the voltage profile across the feeder. This assessment relies on detailed modeling of the network and the solar......The proliferation of photovoltaic (PV) generation in low- and medium-voltage distribution networks is expected to continue. Qualified studies can quantify adverse impacts of high PV penetration on distribution networks and assist utilities in decision making. This paper proposes an index...

  19. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  20. A Fuzzy-Based PI Controller for Power Management of a Grid-Connected PV-SOFC Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankar Sukumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar power generation is intermittent in nature. It is nearly impossible for a photovoltaic (PV system to supply power continuously and consistently to a varying load. Operating a controllable source like a fuel cell in parallel with PV can be a solution to supply power to variable loads. In order to coordinate the power supply from fuel cells and PVs, a power management system needs to be designed for the microgrid system. This paper presents a power management system for a grid-connected PV and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, considering variation in the load and solar radiation. The objective of the proposed system is to minimize the power drawn from the grid and operate the SOFC within a specific power range. Since the PV is operated at the maximum power point, the power management involves the control of SOFC active power where a proportional and integral (PI controller is used. The control parameters of the PI controller Kp (proportional constant and Ti (integral time constant are determined by the genetic algorithm (GA and simplex method. In addition, a fuzzy logic controller is also developed to generate appropriate control parameters for the PI controller. The performance of the controllers is evaluated by minimizing the integral of time multiplied by absolute error (ITAE criterion. Simulation results showed that the fuzzy-based PI controller outperforms the PI controller tuned by the GA and simplex method in managing the power from the hybrid source effectively under variations of load and solar radiation.

  1. Harmonic Injection-Based Power Fluctuation Control of Three-Phase PV Systems under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Cheng Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced voltage will inevitably cause power and DC voltage fluctuations in a three-phase PV system. The deterioration of power quality will do great harm to the PV panels and the loads, so it is necessary to suppress the power fluctuations. This paper further explores the coefficients control strategy of PV converters under unbalanced voltage conditions, aiming to suppress power fluctuations by controlling the injection of some specific orders of current harmonics into the grid. In order to achieve this, the current reference of the PV inverter has been changed by bringing in two control coefficients, and the expression of each order of the current harmonics has been deduced. Based on the standards of PV systems, the regions from which the coefficients can be selected are determined. Then, by tuning these coefficients in the feasible regions, the output parameters (power fluctuation, current THD and odd harmonics can be controlled precisely. The model of this method is built and simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC, and as a result, it is shown that the power fluctuations can be restricted according to different power quality requirements.

  2. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  3. A Consensus-Based Cooperative Control of PEV Battery and PV Active Power Curtailment for Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraati, Mehdi; Golshan, Mohamad Esmail Hamedani; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays installed in residential houses leads to serious voltage quality problems in low voltage distribution networks (LVDNs). In this paper, a combined method using the battery energy management of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the active power....... The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is investigated on a typical three-phase four-wire LVDN in presence of PV resources and PEVs....

  4. Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of analyses of large-scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic (PV) and wave power into a Danish reference energy system. The possibility of integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into the electricity supply is expressed in terms of the ability to avoid...... ancillary services are needed in order to secure the electricity supply system. The idea is to benefit from the different patterns in the fluctuations of different renewable sources. And the purpose is to identify optimal mixtures from a technical point of view. The optimal mixture seems to be when onshore...... wind power produces approximately 50% of the total electricity production from RES. Meanwhile, the mixture between PV and wave power seems to depend on the total amount of electricity production from RES. When the total RES input is below 20% of demand, PV should cover 40% and wave power only 10%. When...

  5. Comparative Health Risk Assessment of CdTe Solar PV System and Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    In terms of national energy policy decision-making process, several key factors, including low production cost, negligible risk or impact to environment and population around the facility, must be considered. The purpose of this paper is to assess the public health risk in case of postulated nuclear power plant and CdTe solar PV system accident and compare the estimated public health risk. Both systems release toxic materials to the environment which adversely affect nearby population by exposure from the inhalation and ingestion of the toxic material transported via air. By simulating the airborne transport of released toxic material using Gaussian plume model and modeling exposure pathways to nearby population, average individual health risk is assessed and public health risk per power capacity of each system is compared. The result shows that the average public health risk per power capacity of NPP is less than the case of solar PV system. This implies that NPP has lower risk in terms of public health risk in case of severe accident while it can be used as more reliable energy source than renewable energy source so that NPP would take priority over other renewable energy sources in terms of national energy policy

  6. Simulation and Modeling of a Five -Level (NPC Inverter Fed by a Photovoltaic Generator and Integrated in a Hybrid Wind-PV Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezki,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A distributed hybrid coordinated wind photovoltaic (PV power system was proposed in this paper. As oil and coal reserves are being depleted whilst at the same time the energy demand is growing, it is important to consider alternative energy generating techniques. Today, the five-level (NPC inverter represents a good alternative for several industrial applications. To take advantage of the five-level inverter topology and the benefits of renewable energy represented by a photovoltaic generator, a new scheme of these controllers is proposed in this work. This paper outlines the design of a hybrid power system consisting of a solar photovoltaic (PV and a wind power system. The system is modeled in Matlab Simulink and tested for various conditions. The model and results are discussed in this paper.

  7. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase-Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV...... in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  8. Operation of TUT Solar PV Power Station Research Plant under Partial Shading Caused by Snow and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Torres Lobera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV research facility equipped with comprehensive climatic and electric measuring systems has been designed and built in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT. The climatic measuring system is composed of an accurate weather station, solar radiation measurements, and a mesh of irradiance and PV module temperature measurements located throughout the solar PV facility. Furthermore, electrical measurements can be taken from single PV modules and strings of modules synchronized with the climatic data. All measured parameters are sampled continuously at 10 Hz with a data-acquisition system based on swappable I/O card technology and stored in a database for later analysis. The used sampling frequency was defined by thorough analyses of the PV system time dependence. Climatic and electrical measurements of the first operation year of the research facility are analyzed in this paper. Moreover, operation of PV systems under partial shading conditions caused by snow and building structures is studied by means of the measured current and power characteristics of PV modules and strings.

  9. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2010-06-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique was developed for battery charging control which can increase the charging capacity by 78%. For high-efficiency lighting, the LED is directly driven by battery using a PWM discharge control to eliminate a DC/DC converter. Two solar-powered LED lighting systems (50W and 100W LED) were built. The long-term outdoor tests have shown that the loss of load probability for full-night lighting requirement is zero for 50W LED and 3.6% for 100W LED. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Economic analysis of hybrid power systems (PV/diesel) in different climatic zones of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, U.; Manoharan, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation on economic feasibility of PV/diesel system in various climatic zones. • HOMER is used to solve economic feasibility analysis. • By the sensitivity analysis, the net present cost is reduced. • Optimum climatic zone in Tamil Nadu, India is recommended. - Abstract: With the increasing threat to environment and the fast depleting fossil fuel resources, hybrid power systems consisting of two or more renewable energy sources such as solar PV, wind, biomass, ocean thermal-with or without the back up of diesel generator have come to the forefront. These hybrid systems are normally integrated with battery banks for total reliability; such systems have brought about better quality of life in remote areas of developing economics. The remote areas in the state of Tamil Nadu in India possess excellent renewable energy sources. These areas fall under different climatic zones, are sparsely populated and are in the process of development. Though these areas are connected to the grid, Tamil Nadu grid is not stable; it is currently experiencing 40% short fall in generation. Thus grid power is available to these remote areas only for 10 h a day and even when available, there are voltage frequency problems. This paper analyses the economic feasibility of installing and operating hybrid systems in these areas. The areas are divided into different climatic zones and the hybrid system economy is analyzed for each climatic zone on the basis of NPC (net present cost), consumption of diesel and renewable fraction for all climate zones. The analysis indicates that the interior climatic zone – the area would be the optimum climatic zone to install HPS PV/diesel. The sensitivity analysis proves that the NPC of such a system can be reduced. It is suggested that due to high initial cost, government subsidy is necessary to adopt the system on a large scale. Such a profit will encourage development of renewable energy utilization and bring about rapid

  11. Real field mission profile oriented design of a SiC-based PV-inverter application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a real field mission profile oriented design tool for the new generation of grid connected PV-inverters applications based on SiC-devices. The proposed design tool consists of a grid connected PV-inverter model, an ElectroThermal model, a converter safe operating area (SOA...... Zth_H in order to perform in a safe mode for the whole operating range. Furthermore, the proposed design tool considers the mission profile (the measured solar irradiance and ambient temperature) from the real field where the converter will operate. Thus, a realistic loading of the converter devices......) model, a mission profile model and an the evaluation block. The PV-system model involves a three level bipolar switch neutral point clamped (3L-BS NPC) inverter connected to the three phase grid through a LCL-filter. Moreover, the SOA model calculates the required converter heatsink thermal impedance...

  12. Mapping the value of commercial PV applications in the US -- Accounting for externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.; Kmiecik, M.; Herig, C.; Wenger, H.

    1999-01-01

    In previous publications, the authors reported on the geographical distribution of the economic feasibility of customer-owned commercial PV systems in the US. The results showed that several regions in the country were near or above economic breakeven. However, the authors noted that these results only reflected business as usual assumptions. They did not account for existing or prospective external value elements that could, depending on the application, considerably increase PV's feasibility threshold. In this paper, the authors look at the individual and combined impact of the following value elements: (1) Replacement Value, (2) enhanced load management value, (3) emergency value and (4) environmental value. They show that accounting for these elements could significantly increase the size of cost-effective niche markets for customer-owned commercial PV installation

  13. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  14. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Photovoltaic (PV) power generation; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Taiyoko hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of understanding the present status of photovoltaic power system (PVPS) and supporting its promotion, various data were collected. The significance of adopting PV power technology was specified for customers of various levels, such as nation, local communities, industries and individual households, to clarify the CO2 reduction effect and energy pay-back time. Data illustrate the solar cell production according to region, cell types, industries, applications, production value, and market price. Policies for PVPS in industrial countries were compared with those in Japan. Distribution of PVPS in various countries was compared with that in Japan in respect to installations and purposes of the introduction of PVPS. Financial aid programs such as subsidies, tax benefits and loans for the installation of PVPS in Japan were listed. The trend of PV-related budget of MITI was shown with every project`s description. Steps of introducing PVPS from plan to installation were depicted in the form of flow chart. Were shown measures sponsored by the government or local organizations to promote PVPS. Domestic and foreign firms related to PVPS including PV module suppliers, and PV installation contractors were listed

  15. Performance optimization of solar PV systems to meet school's power requirements. A case study of Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Karnataka State - India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsundar, S.; Kayungilo, Shaaban S.

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar PV systems to provide power for lighting and other applications in India's rural areas has became popular due to the well established promotion and subsidies system adopted by the government to popularize the PV technology. However, there are limited mechanisms put to monitor the performance of the various PV systems once they are installed to ensure that designed output is delivered by the systems. This is important in giving confidence and trust of the technology to end-users and hence further popularization of the PV technology among larger population, increasing the penetration rate and tapping the real benefits of the technology itself like reduced dependence on fossil fuels (kerosene, diesel or electricity generated from coal power plants) and thus saving the environment. This paper describes the results of the study made at Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Mysore District of Karnataka State-India. The study was carried out to investigate the possibility for the school to become energy-self sufficient based on renewable energy technologies, thus becoming a role model in the use and promotion of renewable energy sources within Mysore District and Karnataka State at large. (orig.)

  16. An improved power flow method based on extended chain-table storage structure for distribution network with PV nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Su, Chi

    2014-01-01

    with a reduced memory size. The voltage error of each PV node is adjusted by a reactive power adjusting strategy. The adjusting strategy is based on a multi-variable linear function with an accelerating factor. Finally, this new improved power flow method is realized by the software system developed in VC......Based on an extended chain-table storage structure, an improved power flow method is presented, which can be applied to a distribution network with multi PV nodes. The extended chain-table storage structure is designed on the basis of address-pointer technology describing the radial topology...... and the corresponding case study has been done. The experimental data and the further analysis have proved that this method can calculate the power flow of a distribution network with multi PV nodes precisely and fast. © 2014 IEEE....

  17. Particle swarm optimization based solar PV array reconfiguration of the maximum power extraction under partial shading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babu, Thanikanti Sudhakar; Ram, J. Prasanth; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2018-01-01

    For large photovoltaic power generation plants, number of panels are interconnected in series and parallel to form a photovoltaic (PV) array. In this configuration, partial shade will result in decrease in power output and introduce multiple peaks in the P–V curve. As a consequence, the modules...... in the array will deliver different row currents. Therefore, to maximize the power extraction from PV array, the panels need to be reconfigured for row current difference minimization. Row current minimization via Su Do Ku game theory do physical relocation of panels may cause laborious work and lengthy...

  18. PV-Powered CoMP-Based Green Cellular Networks with a Standby Grid Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Jahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel framework for PV-powered cellular networks with a standby grid supply and an essential energy management technique for achieving envisaged green networks. The proposal considers an emerging cellular network architecture employing two types of coordinated multipoint (CoMP transmission techniques for serving the subscribers. Under the proposed framework, each base station (BS is powered by an individual PV solar energy module having an independent storage device. BSs are also connected to the conventional grid supply for meeting additional energy demand. We also propose a dynamic inter-BS solar energy sharing policy through a transmission line for further greening the proposed network by minimizing the consumption from the grid supply. An extensive simulation-based study in the downlink of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE cellular system is carried out for evaluating the energy efficiency performance of the proposed framework. System performance is also investigated for identifying the impact of various system parameters including storage factor, storage capacity, solar generation capacity, transmission line loss, and different CoMP techniques.

  19. A GUI Based Software for Sizing Stand Alone AC Coupled Hybrid PV-Diesel Power System under Malaysia Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiqah Syahirah Mohamed, Nor; Amalina Banu Mohamat Adek, Noor; Hamid, Nurul Farhana Abd

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of Graphical User Interface (GUI) software for sizing main component in AC coupled photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power system based on Malaysia climate. This software provides guideline for PV system integrator to design effectively the size of components and system configuration to match the system and load requirement with geographical condition. The concept of the proposed software is balancing the annual average renewable energy generation and load demand. In this study, the PV to diesel generator (DG) ratio is introduced by considering the hybrid system energy contribution. The GUI software is able to size the main components in the PV hybrid system to meet with the set target of energy contribution ratio. The rated powers of the components to be defined are PV array, grid-tie inverter, bi-directional inverter, battery storage and DG. GUI is used to perform all the system sizing procedures to make it user friendly interface as a sizing tool for AC coupled PV hybrid system. The GUI will be done by using Visual Studio 2015 based on the real data under Malaysia Climate.

  20. Comparison of a three-phase single-stage PV system in PSCAD and PowerFactory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Afshin; Eriksson, Robert; Della, Jose; Mahmood, Farhan; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Soeder, Lennart [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Systems

    2012-07-01

    Accommodating more and more distributed PhotoVoltaic (PV) systems within load pockets has changed the shape of distribution grids. It is not, therefore, accurate anymore to address distribution grids just only as a lumped load. So it will be crucial in the near future to have an aggregate model of PV systems in distribution grids. By doing so, it is important to develop models for PV systems in different simulation platforms to study their behavior in order to derive an aggregate model of them. Although, there have been several detailed-switching model of a PV system in EMTDC/PSCAD simulation platform in literature, these non-proprietary switching models are slow in simulation, particularly when the number of the PV systems increases on the grounds that in PSCAD the simulation is based on time domain instantaneous values and requires more mathematical details of components. Therefore, in this paper a model of the PV system in DIgSILENT/Power Factory is developed, which is a proper environment to run rms simulation and works based on the phasors, and, moreover, from mathematical perspective is more simplified. The performance of the stemming model is compared with the switching model in PSCAD. Comparing the simulation results of the proposed model in PowerFactory with the model in PSCAD shows the credibility and accuracy of the proposed model. (orig.)

  1. National Survey Report of Photovoltaic Power Applications in France 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, Paul; Mehl, Celine; Carrere, Tristan

    2017-06-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program is to promote and facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of PV power systems. Task 1 activities support the broader PVPS objectives: to contribute to cost reduction of PV power applications, to increase awareness of the potential and value of PV power systems, to foster the removal of both technical and non-technical barriers and to enhance technology co-operation. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual 'Trends in photovoltaic applications' report. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. This document is France National Survey Report for the year 2016. Information from this document will be used as input to IEA's annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report

  2. Comparison of Different MPPT Algorithms with a Proposed One Using a Power Estimator for Grid Connected PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hlaili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV energy is one of the most important energy sources since it is clean and inexhaustible. It is important to operate PV energy conversion systems in the maximum power point (MPP to maximize the output energy of PV arrays. An MPPT control is necessary to extract maximum power from the PV arrays. In recent years, a large number of techniques have been proposed for tracking the maximum power point. This paper presents a comparison of different MPPT methods and proposes one which used a power estimator and also analyses their suitability for systems which experience a wide range of operating conditions. The classic analysed methods, the incremental conductance (IncCond, perturbation and observation (P&O, ripple correlation (RC algorithms, are suitable and practical. Simulation results of a single phase NPC grid connected PV system operating with the aforementioned methods are presented to confirm effectiveness of the scheme and algorithms. Simulation results verify the correct operation of the different MPPT and the proposed algorithm.

  3. Effect of Different Solar Radiation Data Sources on the Variation of Techno-Economic Feasibility of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Aljaafar, A. A.; Kadhim, Mohammed; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation in techno-economic feasibility of PV power system under different data sources of solar radiation. HOMER simulation tool is used to predict the techno-economic feasibility parameters of PV power system in Baghdad city, Iraq located at (33.3128° N, 44.3615° E) as a case study. Four data sources of solar radiation, different annual capacity shortages percentage (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5), and wide range of daily load profile (10-100 kWh/day) are implemented. The analyzed parameters of the techno-economic feasibility are COE (/kWh), PV array power capacity (kW), PV electrical production (kWh/year), No. of batteries and battery lifetime (year). The main results of the study revealed the followings: (1) solar radiation from different data sources caused observed to significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters; therefore, careful attention must be paid to ensure the use of an accurate solar input data; (2) Average solar radiation from different data sources can be recommended as a reasonable input data; (3) it is observed that as the size and of PV power system increases, the effect of different data sources of solar radiation increases and causes significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters.

  4. Discrete Model Predictive Control-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking for PV Systems: Overview and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashab, Abderezak; Sera, Dezso; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to provide an overview and evaluation of discrete model predictive controlbased maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for PV systems. A large number of MPC based MPPT methods have been recently introduced in the literature with very promising performance, however......, an in-depth investigation and comparison of these methods have not been carried out yet. Therefore, this paper has set out to provide an in-depth analysis and evaluation of MPC based MPPT methods applied to various common power converter topologies. The performance of MPC based MPPT is directly linked...... with the converter topology, and it is also affected by the accurate determination of the converter parameters, sensitivity to converter parameter variations is also investigated. The static and dynamic performance of the trackers are assessed according to the EN 50530 standard, using detailed simulation models...

  5. The PV LED Engine - a new generation of intelligent solar powered LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    parameters are ltered mathematical by the optical properties of the materials in front of the solar panel and assumptions about the soiling parameters. Lab measurements of solar cells/panels underdierent lighting conditions (spectrally and intensity) makes it possible to simulate performance of realsolar...... projectat design and simulation tool for small PV applications for the urban environment is developed. The tool is advanced in its calculations on the solar irradiation parameters being very dierent in the urban environment compared to roof top applications both spectrally and in intensity variations...... panels of different technologies in the addressed environment since detailed electrical characteristicsis known by the measurements. Optical parameters for the protection layer (in front of the solar panel)are put into a material library so the optimal choice can be made for a given application...

  6. Evaluating the Technical and Economic Performance of PV Plus Storage Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The decreasing costs of both PV and energy storage technologies have raised interest in the creation of combined PV plus storage systems to provide dispatchable energy and reliable capacity. In this study, we examine the tradeoffs among various PV plus storage configurations and quantify the impact of configuration on system net value.

  7. Evaluating the Technical and Economic Performance of PV Plus Storage Power Plants: Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-28

    The decreasing costs of both PV and energy storage technologies have raised interest in the creation of combined PV plus storage systems to provide dispatchable energy and reliable capacity. In this study, we examine the tradeoffs among various PV plus storage configurations and quantify the impact of configuration on system net value.

  8. Investigating Theoretical PV Energy Generation Patterns with Their Relation to the Power Load Curve in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Jurasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish energy sector is (almost from its origin dominated by fossil fuel feed power. This situation results from an abundance of relatively cheap coal (hard and lignite. Brown coal due to its nature is the cheapest energy source in Poland. However, hard coal which fuels 60% of polish power plants is picking up on prices and is susceptible to the coal imported from neighboring countries. Forced by the European Union (EU regulations, Poland is struggling at achieving its goal of reaching 15% of energy consumption from renewable energy sources (RES by 2020. Over the year 2015, RES covered 11.3% of gross energy consumption but this generation was dominated by solid biomass (over 80%. The aim of this paper was to answer the following research questions: What is the relation of irradiation values to the power load on a yearly and daily basis? and how should photovoltaics (PV be integrated in the polish power system? Conducted analysis allowed us to state that there exists a negative correlation between power demand and irradiation values on a yearly basis, but this is likely to change in the future. Secondly, on average, daily values of irradiation tend to follow power load curve over the first hours of the day.

  9. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  10. Concise Approach for Determining the Optimal Annual Capacity Shortage Percentage using Techno-Economic Feasibility Parameters of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    PV power systems have been commercially available and widely used for decades. The performance of a reliable PV system that fulfils the expectations requires correct input data and careful design. Inaccurate input data of the techno-economic feasibility would affect the size, cost aspects, stability and performance of PV power system on the long run. The annual capacity shortage is one of the main input data that should be selected with careful attention. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of different annual capacity shortages on the techno-economic feasibility parameters and determining the optimal value for Baghdad city location using HOMER simulation tool. Six values of annual capacity shortage percentages (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%), and wide daily load profile range (10 kWh - 100 kWh) are implemented. The optimal annual capacity shortage is the value that always "wins" when each techno-economic feasibility parameter is at its optimal/ reasonable criteria. The results showed that the optimal annual capacity shortage that reduces significantly the cost of PV power system while keeping the PV system with reasonable technical feasibility is 3%. This capacity shortage value can be carried as a reference value in future works for Baghdad city location. Using this approach of analysis at other locations, annual capacity shortage can be always offered as a reference value for those locations.

  11. Evaluation of a proper controller performance for maximum-power point tracking of a stand-alone PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafeh, A.E.-S.A.; Fahmy, F.H. [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt); El-Zahab, E.M.A. [Cairo University, Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2003-02-01

    In this paper the implementation of a suggested stand-alone PV system, for maximum-power point tracking (MPPT), is carried out. Also, this paper presents a comparative study, through experimental work, between the conventional PI controller and the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) under different atmospheric conditions. The implemented system with both the PI controller and the FLC gives a good maximum-power operation of the PV array, but the tracking capability for different optimum operating points is better and faster for the case of using the FLC compared to the case of using the PI controller. (author)

  12. National Survey Report of Photovoltaic Power Applications in France 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, Paul; Durand, Yvonnick

    2016-06-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program is to promote and facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of PV power systems. Task 1 activities support the broader PVPS objectives: to contribute to cost reduction of PV power applications, to increase awareness of the potential and value of PV power systems, to foster the removal of both technical and non-technical barriers and to enhance technology co-operation. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual report Trends in Photovoltaic Applications. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. The PVPS web site www.iea-pvps.org also plays an important role in disseminating information arising from the program, including national information. This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaics for the year 2015

  13. DC-based smart PV-powered home energy management system based on voltage matching and RF module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, W. Z. W.

    2017-01-01

    The main tool for measuring system efficiency in homes and offices is the energy monitoring of the household appliances’ consumption. With the help of GUI through a PC or smart phone, there are various applications that can be developed for energy saving. This work describes the design and prototype implementation of a wireless PV-powered home energy management system under a DC-distribution environment, which allows remote monitoring of appliances’ energy consumptions and power rate quality. The system can be managed by a central computer, which obtains the energy data based on XBee RF modules that access the sensor measurements of system components. The proposed integrated prototype framework is characterized by low power consumption due to the lack of components and consists of three layers: XBee-based circuit for processing and communication architecture, solar charge controller, and solar-battery-load matching layers. Six precise analogue channels for data monitoring are considered to cover the energy measurements. Voltage, current and temperature analogue signals were accessed directly from the remote XBee node to be sent in real time with a sampling frequency of 11–123 Hz to capture the possible surge power. The performance shows that the developed prototype proves the DC voltage matching concept and is able to provide accurate and precise results. PMID:28934271

  14. DC-based smart PV-powered home energy management system based on voltage matching and RF module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H Sabry

    Full Text Available The main tool for measuring system efficiency in homes and offices is the energy monitoring of the household appliances' consumption. With the help of GUI through a PC or smart phone, there are various applications that can be developed for energy saving. This work describes the design and prototype implementation of a wireless PV-powered home energy management system under a DC-distribution environment, which allows remote monitoring of appliances' energy consumptions and power rate quality. The system can be managed by a central computer, which obtains the energy data based on XBee RF modules that access the sensor measurements of system components. The proposed integrated prototype framework is characterized by low power consumption due to the lack of components and consists of three layers: XBee-based circuit for processing and communication architecture, solar charge controller, and solar-battery-load matching layers. Six precise analogue channels for data monitoring are considered to cover the energy measurements. Voltage, current and temperature analogue signals were accessed directly from the remote XBee node to be sent in real time with a sampling frequency of 11-123 Hz to capture the possible surge power. The performance shows that the developed prototype proves the DC voltage matching concept and is able to provide accurate and precise results.

  15. DC-based smart PV-powered home energy management system based on voltage matching and RF module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Ahmad H; Hasan, W Z W; Ab Kadir, Mza; Radzi, M A M; Shafie, S

    2017-01-01

    The main tool for measuring system efficiency in homes and offices is the energy monitoring of the household appliances' consumption. With the help of GUI through a PC or smart phone, there are various applications that can be developed for energy saving. This work describes the design and prototype implementation of a wireless PV-powered home energy management system under a DC-distribution environment, which allows remote monitoring of appliances' energy consumptions and power rate quality. The system can be managed by a central computer, which obtains the energy data based on XBee RF modules that access the sensor measurements of system components. The proposed integrated prototype framework is characterized by low power consumption due to the lack of components and consists of three layers: XBee-based circuit for processing and communication architecture, solar charge controller, and solar-battery-load matching layers. Six precise analogue channels for data monitoring are considered to cover the energy measurements. Voltage, current and temperature analogue signals were accessed directly from the remote XBee node to be sent in real time with a sampling frequency of 11-123 Hz to capture the possible surge power. The performance shows that the developed prototype proves the DC voltage matching concept and is able to provide accurate and precise results.

  16. EFFECT OF REFLECTOR APPLICATION ON PV PANEL PERFORMANCE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas HELMY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed approach in the present study is to employ a mirror augmented PV solar panel to track the sun and reflect rays on to the PV panel. Its performance was compared with same PV module without reflector under the same environmental conditions. The mirror augmented solar PV panel tracked sun from East to West along the daytime in Winter 2011 with tilt angle0.523 rad (30 deg for panel and 0.122 rad (7deg for mirror which are estimated by experiment. The average energy output values of 1.11 and 0.95 kWh/day were recorded for panel with and without mirror, respectively. The average daily .panel values of 12.6 and 11.02 % were recorded for panel with and without mirror, respectively. The increase percentages in the output of panel and discharge differs with the solar radiation along daytime. The application of mirror is an efficient and an effective way to enhance the performance of solar photovoltaic pumping system with the same panel area.

  17. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Nepal, Shaili; Hoke, Anderson; Asano, Marc; Ueda, Reid; Ifuku, Earle

    2017-05-08

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods. Two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models in the OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters that were modeled from characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders. The results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  18. Effect of Neutral Grounding Protection Methods for Compensated Wind/PV Grid-Connected Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Çetinkaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the wind/PV grid-connected system (GCS can be categorized as technical, environmental, and economic impacts. It has a vital impact for improving the voltage in the power systems; however, it has some negative effects such as interfacing and fault clearing. This paper discusses different grounding methods for fault protection of High-voltage (HV power systems. Influences of these grounding methods for various fault characteristics on wind/PV GCSs are discussed. Simulation models are implemented in the Alternative Transient Program (ATP version of the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP. The models allow for different fault factors and grounding methods. Results are obtained to evaluate the impact of each grounding method on the 3-phase short-circuit fault (SCF, double-line-to-ground (DLG fault, and single-line-to-ground (SLG fault features. Solid, resistance, and Petersen coil grounding are compared for different faults on wind/PV GCSs. Transient overcurrent and overvoltage waveforms are used to describe the fault case. This paper is intended as a guide to engineers in selecting adequate grounding and ground fault protection schemes for HV, for evaluating existing wind/PV GCSs to minimize the damage of the system components from faults. This research presents the contribution of wind/PV generators and their comparison with the conventional system alone.

  19. Application of PSpice in simulation of a photovoltaic (PV) system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two approaches in computer simulation of any system- developing custom software from the scratch or application of one of the commercially available software packages. In the later approach, either dedicated simulating software can be used or general-purpose software can be adapted to suit particular needs.

  20. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  1. Power Quality Experimental Analysis on Rural Home Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Jorge Cerqueira Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgeneration is the small-scale generation of heat or electric power or both, by individuals or buildings to meet their own needs. Recently, microgeneration is being regarded as a means to decentralize the power production of renewable energies, reducing the impacts on the grid caused by unexpected energy demands. Given the increase in microgeneration facilities, determining the quantity of energy produced and the power quality assumes growing importance in low, medium, or high voltage facilities. This paper presents a power quality analysis of two different facilities with photovoltaic generation localized in a rural area of Portugal, describing the voltage and frequency behaviour, the harmonic contents, and the total harmonic distortion. Statistical data are presented regarding the number of voltage events and occurrence of dips and swells in both facilities as a percentage of rated voltage. We conclude that some PV systems can severely affect voltage quality, forcing the grid to work at and even above the maximum voltage standard limit.

  2. Sizing modelling and simulation of PV generation system feeding a 6 MW induction motor dedicated to pumping applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir HADJERI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an autonomous photovoltaic (PV pumping system for rural/remote applications especially in the large desert in northern Africa where the sun radiation is abundant. Since PV generators exhibit nonlinear I-V characteristics and their maximum power point varies with solar radiation. For this reason, the MPPT controller is used to optimize the solar energy conversion by guaranteeing fast maximum power point tracking (MPPT. This feature has an essential role in dynamic response and efficiency of the photovoltaic system, thus it maximizes the amount of extracted natural gas to be conveyed to another site for an ulterior utilization. Here a robust maximum power point tracker (MPPT using incremental conductance algorithm is applied to the duty cycle value of the DC-DC converter which acts directly on the drive speed. A DC/DC boost is used to enhance voltage up to the favourite level and the SVPWM inverter connects it to a powerful induction motor for a pumping of natural gas application, these systems are at the heart of many industrial sectors such as the oil industry, the production of thermal and nuclear energy etc. An understanding of how these systems operate is essential to increase their performance and reduce their operating costs. Furthermore, three phase voltage-fed PWM inverters are recently showing growing popularity for multi-megawatt industrial drive applications, the main purpose of these topologies is to provide a three-phase voltage source, where the amplitude, phase, and frequency of the voltages should always be controllable. The model of a three-phase voltage source inverter is modelled and discussed based on space vector modulation theory. Simulation results are obtained using MATLAB/Simulink environment for effectiveness of the proposed system.

  3. Regional PV power estimation and forecast to mitigate the impact of high photovoltaic penetration on electric grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Marco; De Felice, Matteo; Maggioni, Enrico; Moser, David; Perotto, Alessandro; Spada, Francesco; Cornaro, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The growing photovoltaic generation results in a stochastic variability of the electric demand that could compromise the stability of the grid and increase the amount of energy reserve and the energy imbalance cost. On regional scale, solar power estimation and forecast is becoming essential for Distribution System Operators, Transmission System Operator, energy traders, and aggregators of generation. Indeed the estimation of regional PV power can be used for PV power supervision and real time control of residual load. Mid-term PV power forecast can be employed for transmission scheduling to reduce energy imbalance and related cost of penalties, residual load tracking, trading optimization, secondary energy reserve assessment. In this context, a new upscaling method was developed and used for estimation and mid-term forecast of the photovoltaic distributed generation in a small area in the north of Italy under the control of a local DSO. The method was based on spatial clustering of the PV fleet and neural networks models that input satellite or numerical weather prediction data (centered on cluster centroids) to estimate or predict the regional solar generation. It requires a low computational effort and very few input information should be provided by users. The power estimation model achieved a RMSE of 3% of installed capacity. Intra-day forecast (from 1 to 4 hours) obtained a RMSE of 5% - 7% while the one and two days forecast achieve to a RMSE of 7% and 7.5%. A model to estimate the forecast error and the prediction intervals was also developed. The photovoltaic production in the considered region provided the 6.9% of the electric consumption in 2015. Since the PV penetration is very similar to the one observed at national level (7.9%), this is a good case study to analyse the impact of PV generation on the electric grid and the effects of PV power forecast on transmission scheduling and on secondary reserve estimation. It appears that, already with 7% of PV

  4. CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF EMBEDDED Z-SOURCE INVERTER WITH FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR SOLAR PV APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Midde Mahesh*, K. Leleedhar Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Embedded Z –source inverter system with fuzzy controller for Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) applications with adjustable speed drives. Closed loop operation FUZZY control strategies of EZSI system are proposed. EZSI produces the same voltage gain as Z-source inverter (ZSI) but due to the DC sources embedded within the X- shaped impedance network, it has the added advantage of inherent source filtering capability and also reduced capacitor sizing. This can be achiev...

  5. A Case Study of Wind-PV-Thermal-Bundled AC/DC Power Transmission from a Weak AC Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H. W.; Du, W. J.; Wang, H. F.; Song, Y. T.; Wang, Q.; Ding, J.; Chen, D. Z.; Wei, W.

    2017-05-01

    Wind power generation and photovoltaic (PV) power generation bundled with the support by conventional thermal generation enables the generation controllable and more suitable for being sent over to remote load centre which are beneficial for the stability of weak sending end systems. Meanwhile, HVDC for long-distance power transmission is of many significant technique advantages. Hence the effects of wind-PV-thermal-bundled power transmission by AC/DC on power system have become an actively pursued research subject recently. Firstly, this paper introduces the technical merits and difficulties of wind-photovoltaic-thermal bundled power transmission by AC/DC systems in terms of meeting the requirement of large-scale renewable power transmission. Secondly, a system model which contains a weak wind-PV-thermal-bundled sending end system and a receiving end system in together with a parallel AC/DC interconnection transmission system is established. Finally, the significant impacts of several factors which includes the power transmission ratio between the DC and AC line, the distance between the sending end system and receiving end system, the penetration rate of wind power and the sending end system structure on system stability are studied.

  6. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  7. Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a PV-diesel hybrid power system with battery backup for a village being fed with diesel generated electricity to displace part of the diesel by solar. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the site along with PV modules mounted on fixed foundations, four generators of different rated powers, diesel prices of 0.2-1.2US$/l, different sizes of batteries and converters were used to find an optimal power system for the village. It was found that a PV array of 2000 kW and four generators of 1250, 750, 2250 and 250 kW; operating at a load factor of 70% required to run for 3317 h/yr, 4242 h/yr, 2820 h/yr and 3150 h/yr, respectively; to produce a mix of 17,640 MWh of electricity annually and 48.33 MWh per day. The cost of energy (COE) of diesel only and PV/diesel/battery power system with 21% solar penetration was found to be 0.190$/kWh and 0.219$/kWh respectively for a diesel price of 0.2$/l. The sensitivity analysis showed that at a diesel price of 0.6$/l the COE from hybrid system become almost the same as that of the diesel only system and above it, the hybrid system become more economical than the diesel only system. (author)

  8. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, Bart; Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Toxopeus, Marten E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  9. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  10. Design and comparison of a 10-kW interleaved boost converter for PV application using Si and SiC devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.; Schijffelen, Jos H.; Bauer, P.; Zeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters have a dc/dc converter connected to the PV for executing the maximum power point tracking. The design of an interleaved boost converter (IBC) with three switching legs for a 10-kW PV inverter is presented in this paper. This paper shows how the use of

  11. Simulation model of ANN based maximum power point tracking controller for solar PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Anil K.; Singh, Bhupal [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad 201009 (India); Kaushika, N.D.; Agarwal, Niti [School of Research and Development, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Engineering, A-4 Paschim Vihar, New Delhi 110063 (India)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper the simulation model of an artificial neural network (ANN) based maximum power point tracking controller has been developed. The controller consists of an ANN tracker and the optimal control unit. The ANN tracker estimates the voltages and currents corresponding to a maximum power delivered by solar PV (photovoltaic) array for variable cell temperature and solar radiation. The cell temperature is considered as a function of ambient air temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. The tracker is trained employing a set of 124 patterns using the back propagation algorithm. The mean square error of tracker output and target values is set to be of the order of 10{sup -5} and the successful convergent of learning process takes 1281 epochs. The accuracy of the ANN tracker has been validated by employing different test data sets. The control unit uses the estimates of the ANN tracker to adjust the duty cycle of the chopper to optimum value needed for maximum power transfer to the specified load. (author)

  12. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedded steel plates. The lateral cyclic loading test is executed to investigate the seismic behavior and the electric and thermal performance with different drift angles. The seismic behavior, including failure pattern, lateral force-top displacement relationship, and deformation capacity, was investigated. The power generation and temperature variation on the back of the PV module and both sides of the shear wall were also tested. Two main results are demonstrated through the experiment: (1 the U-shaped steel connectors provide enough deformation capacity for the compatibility of the PV module to the shear wall during the whole cyclic test; (2 the electricity generation capacity is effective and stable during this seismic simulation test.

  13. Economic viability of photovoltaic power for development assistance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifano, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the development assistance market and examines a number of specific photovoltaic (PV) development assistance field tests, including water pumping/grain grinding (Tangaye, Upper Volta), vaccine refrigerators slated for deployment in 24 countries, rural medical centers to be installed in Ecuador, Guyana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, and remote earth stations to be deployed in the near future. A comparison of levelized energy cost for diesel generators and PV systems covering a range of annual energy consumptions is also included. The analysis does not consider potential societal, environmental or political benefits associated with PV power. PV systems are shown to be competitive with diesel generators, based on life cycle cost considerations, assuming a system price of $20/W(peak), for applications having an annual energy demand of up to 6000 kilowatt-hours per year.

  14. Toward a drone-based EL and PL inspection tool for PV power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Nicholas; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2017-01-01

    of image detail and qualitative insight compared to IR thermography. Furthermore, detection and identification of incipient or severe faults in PV panels is more straightforward.This project proposes for the first time a fast and accurate automatic drone-based inspection method for large PV plants...

  15. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  16. Investigation and improvement of high step- up converters for pv module applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed moradmand jazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available sun is of the clean and cheapest sources of energy. Charging slight energy to electricity is carried out by PV modules. Since most electric consumers need Ac input voltage, the PV modules output voltage should be changed into Ac form. But, the voltage level of PV modules is much lower than the voltage needed in input stage of inverters. Because of large voltage level. Difference it is not possible to use the basic boost and buck-boost converters. The basic boost and buck-boost converters definitely can not be used in this applications, for, they will face extreme drop in efficiency in duty cycles closer to unity. In this paper The proposed converter is presented in order to decrease the voltage stress of coupled inductors based high step-up converters. The voltage stress in the proposed converter is lower than the high step-up boost converter with coupled inductors in identical condition. Also, soft switching condition for switches and diodes is realized by active clamp circuit, and with this technique and proper selection of duty cycle, large gain and high efficiency could be achieved ultimately. . In this paper theoretical analysis is used for analyzing the performance of the proposed converters, and in order to verify the theoretical analysis, simulated results from pspice software is provides.

  17. Power Prediction and Technoeconomic Analysis of a Solar PV Power Plant by MLP-ABC and COMFAR III, considering Cloudy Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of power generated by photovoltaic (PV panels in different climates is of great importance. The aim of this paper is to predict the output power of a 3.2 kW PV power plant using the MLP-ABC (multilayer perceptron-artificial bee colony algorithm. Experimental data (ambient temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity was gathered at five-minute intervals from Tehran University’s PV Power Plant from September 22nd, 2012, to January 14th, 2013. Following data validation, 10665 data sets, equivalent to 35 days, were used in the analysis. The output power was predicted using the MLP-ABC algorithm with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, the mean bias error (MBE, and correlation coefficient (R2, of 3.7, 3.1, and 94.7%, respectively. The optimized configuration of the network consisted of two hidden layers. The first layer had four neurons and the second had two neurons. A detailed economic analysis is also presented for sunny and cloudy weather conditions using COMFAR III software. A detailed cost analysis indicated that the total investment’s payback period would be 3.83 years in sunny periods and 4.08 years in cloudy periods. The results showed that the solar PV power plant is feasible from an economic point of view in both cloudy and sunny weather conditions.

  18. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    adopted by other material systems as well. Based on these understandings, we have also developed colored perovskite PV by integrating an optical cavity with the perovskite semiconductors [4]. The principle and experimental results will be presented. 1. J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S.Y. Seo, L. J. Guo, "Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors," Sci. Rep. 4, 4192, 2014. 2. K. T. Lee, J.Y. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, and L. J. Guo, "Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency," Light: Science and Applications, 3, e215, 2014. 3. K. T. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, J.Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, "Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112, (2014); and "Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters," Adv. Mater, 26, 6324-6328, 2014. 4. K. T. Lee, M. Fukuda, L. J. Guo, "Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity," Submitted, 2015

  19. Dual-purpose self-deliverable lunar surface PV electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jack H.; Harris, David W.; Cross, Eldon R.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    A safe haven and work supported PV power systems on the lunar surface will likely be required by NASA in support of the manned outpost scheduled for the post-2000 lunar/Mars exploration and colonization initiative. Initial system modeling and computer analysis shows that the concept is workable and contains no major high risk technology issues which cannot be resolved in the circa 2000 to 2025 timeframe. A specific selection of the best suited type of electric thruster has not been done; the initial modeling was done using an ion thruster, but Rocketdyne must also evaluate arc and resisto-jets before a final design can be formulated. As a general observation, it appears that such a system can deliver itself to the Moon using many system elements that must be transported as dead payload mass in more conventional delivery modes. It further appears that a larger power system providing a much higher safe haven power level is feasible if this delivery system is implemented, perhaps even sufficient to permit resource prospecting and/or lab experimentation. The concept permits growth and can be expanded to include cargo transport such as habitat and working modules. In short, the combined payload could be manned soon after landing and checkout. NASA has expended substantial resources in the development of electric propulsion concepts and hardware that can be applied to a lunar transport system such as described herein. In short, the paper may represent a viable mission on which previous investments play an invaluable role. A more comprehensive technical paper which embodies second generation analysis and system size will be prepared for near-term presentation.

  20. Mounting and performance measurements of a PV array addition to an existing small wind-power installation for greenhouse electric supply in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A small wind-power system intended for electric supply of a research greenhouse at the local University facilities in San Julian region incorporates a photovoltaic (PV array and regulator, which is described in this report together with its data-acquisition system. The main application is control and lighting. The Alternative Energy Group at the University seeks through this project to acquire knowledge and practical experience in the combination of renewable energy sources for optimal electrical supply of isolated systems, their associated measurements and processing of resulting data

  1. A wind-PV-battery hybrid power system at Sitakunda in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Sanjoy Kumar; Ghosh, Himangshu Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    The measured wind data of Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) for 2006 at 30 m height shows a good prospect for wind energy extraction at the site. For a few months and hours the speed is below the cut in speeds of the available turbines in the market. The predicted solar radiation data from directly related measured cloud cover and sunshine duration data of Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) for 1992-2003 indicates that a reliable power system can be developed over the year if the solar energy technology is merged with the wind energy technologies for this site. This research work has studied on optimization of a wind-photovoltaic-battery hybrid system and its performance for a typical community load. The assessment shows that least cost of energy (COE) is about USD 0.363/kWh for a community using 169 kWh/day with 61 kW peak and having minimum amount of access or unused energy. Moreover, compared to the existing fossil fuel-based electricity supply, such an environment friendly system can mitigate about 25 t CO 2 /yr. The analysis also indicates that wind-PV-battery is economically viable as a replacement for conventional grid energy supply for a community at a minimum distance of about 17 km from grid.

  2. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd.Ikram Mohd. Rashid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the amount of sunlight captured by the photovoltaic modules/arrays. This paper describes a simple electro-mechanical dual axis solar tracking system designed and developed in a study. The control of the two axes was achieved by the pulses generated from the data acquisition (DAQ card fed into four relays. This approach was so chosen to effectively avoid the error that usually arises in sensor-based methods. The programming of the mathematical models of the solar elevation and azimuth angles was done using Borland C++ Builder. The performance and accuracy of the developed system was evaluated with a PV panel at latitude 3.53o N and longitude 103.5o W in Malaysia. The results obtained reflect the effectiveness of the developed tracking system in terms of the energy yield when compared with that generated from a fixed panel. Overall, 20%, 23% and 21% additional energy were produced for the months of March, April and May respectively using the tracker developed in this study.

  3. Polysun. PV, wind and power-heat-cogeneration in one design tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, Baptiste; Wolf, Andreas; Witzig, Andreas [Vela Solaris AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Maerklin, Adrian [Envergate GmbH, Horn (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    In this article, the simulation software Polysun is presented, which by its fundamental concept favors the combination of several energy sources (e.g. PV, Solarthermal, oil/gas boiler) and consumers (heating, sanitary hot water, swimming pool) in one simulation setup. It is discussed how the state-of-the-art small wind turbines and power-heat-cogeneration shall be integrated into the simulation tool Polysun. A close collaboration between Vela Solaris and the manufacturer is important for model validation as well as for the building up of the Polysun component database. Wind measurement results are presented from the manufacturer Envergate, which is a typical partner of choice for such collaboration. The modular concept of Polysun provides the ideal basis for communicating the advantages of new hybrid systems in de-centralized electicity production both for educational purposes as well as in renewable energy system marketing and sales. Physics-based simulation and prediction of system performance helps in the decision phase and supports the implementation of modern energy efficient and/or renewable energy systems. (orig.)

  4. Optimized design and control of an off grid solar PV/hydrogen fuel cell power system for green buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenai, C.; Bettayeb, M.

    2017-11-01

    Modelling, simulation, optimization and control strategies are used in this study to design a stand-alone solar PV/Fuel Cell/Battery/Generator hybrid power system to serve the electrical load of a commercial building. The main objective is to design an off grid energy system to meet the desired electric load of the commercial building with high renewable fraction, low emissions and low cost of energy. The goal is to manage the energy consumption of the building, reduce the associate cost and to switch from grid-tied fossil fuel power system to an off grid renewable and cleaner power system. Energy audit was performed in this study to determine the energy consumption of the building. Hourly simulations, modelling and optimization were performed to determine the performance and cost of the hybrid power configurations using different control strategies. The results show that the hybrid off grid solar PV/Fuel Cell/Generator/Battery/Inverter power system offers the best performance for the tested system architectures. From the total energy generated from the off grid hybrid power system, 73% is produced from the solar PV, 24% from the fuel cell and 3% from the backup Diesel generator. The produced power is used to meet all the AC load of the building without power shortage (system produces 18.2% excess power that can be used to serve the thermal load of the building. The proposed hybrid power system is sustainable, economically viable and environmentally friendly: High renewable fraction (66.1%), low levelized cost of energy (92 /MWh), and low carbon dioxide emissions (24 kg CO2/MWh) are achieved.

  5. Impact of size and distribution of installed PV power in E-W direction on the level in which selected consumers’ energy needs were met

    OpenAIRE

    Necka Krzysztof; Latala Hubert; Kurpaska Sławomir; Knaga Jarosław; Karbowniczakʼ Anna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the energy needs of selected consumers and to select the PV installed capacity in the east and west panels orientation (E-W). The analysis was carried out for two variants. The first concerned the impact of the installation power of a PV source on the contracted power in its symmetric east and west position. The second variant was the result of previous observations and studies of the authors of this paper. Thus, in this variant, the unbalanced power of PV ...

  6. Allocation of ESS by interval optimization method considering impact of ship swinging on hybrid PV/diesel ship power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shuli; Lan, Hai; Hong, Ying-Yi; Yu, David C.; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An uncertainty model of PV generation on board is developed based on the experiments. • The moving and swinging of the ship are considered in the optimal ESS sizing problem. • Optimal sizing of ESS in a hybrid PV/diesel/ESS ship power system is gained by the interval optimization method. • Different cases were studied to show the significance of the proposed method considering the swinging effects on the cost. - Abstract: Owing to low efficiency of traditional ships and the serious environmental pollution that they cause, the use of solar energy and an energy storage system (ESS) in a ship’s power system is increasingly attracting attention. However, the swinging of a ship raises crucial challenges in designing an optimal system for a large oil tanker ship, which are associated with uncertainties in solar energy. In this study, a series of experiments are performed to investigate the characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) system on a moving ship. Based on the experimental results, an interval uncertainty model of on-board PV generation is established, which considers the effect of the swinging of the ship. Due to the power balance equations, the outputs of the diesel generator and the ESS on a large oil tanker are also modeled using interval variables. An interval optimization method is developed to determine the optimal size of the ESS in this hybrid ship power system to reduce the fuel cost, capital cost of the ESS, and emissions of greenhouse gases. Variations of the ship load are analyzed using a new method, taking five operating conditions into account. Several cases are compared in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Effect of PV module output power on module temperature; Taiyo denchi no shutsuryoku henka ga module hyomen ondo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Kitamura, A [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Igaki, K; Mizumoto, T [Kanden Kako Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Effect of the photovoltaic (PV) module output power variation on the module surface temperature has been investigated by field measurements. PV modules with capacity of 54 W were used for the temperature measurements. Three 2 kW-class PV systems were operated. T-type thermocouples were used for measuring temperatures. Measurement time intervals were 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours. Measurement period was between May 25, 1995 and June 25, 1996. The surface temperature increased during non-loaded PV output, and decreased during load-carrying PV output. Difference of the surface temperature between non-loaded PV output and load-carrying PV output was 3.5{degree}C at maximum through a year. The surface temperature was saturated within 30 minutes. When PV output was changed in 30 or 60 minutes interval, the variation of surface temperature was distinctly observed. When PV output was changed in 15 minutes interval, it was not observed distinctly. There was no difference of the surface temperatures during the time zones with less solar radiation, such as in the morning and evening, and at night. Except these time zones, difference of the surface temperatures was 3.5{degree}C at maximum. 4 figs.

  8. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. McHenry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the network characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.

  9. Thermoacoustic power systems for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, S.N.; Tward, E.; Pedach, M.

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (W/kg). Thermoacoustic engines can convert high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, these engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thermoacoustic engine to a low-mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Data will be presented on the first tests of a demonstration thermoacoustic engine designed for the 100-Watt power range.

  10. A Novel Supervisory Control Algorithm to Improve the Performance of a Real-Time PV Power-Hardware-In-Loop Simulator with Non-RTDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Jin Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A programmable direct current (DC power supply with Real-time Digital Simulator (RTDS-based photovoltaic (PV Power Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL simulators has been used to improve the control algorithm and reliability of a PV inverter. This paper proposes a supervisory control algorithm for a PV PHIL simulator with a non-RTDS device that is an alternative solution to a high-cost PHIL simulator. However, when such a simulator with the conventional algorithm which is used in an RTDS is connected to a PV inverter, the output is in the transient state and it makes it impossible to evaluate the performance of the PV inverter. Therefore, the proposed algorithm controls the voltage and current target values according to constant voltage (CV and constant current (CC modes to overcome the limitation of the Computing Unit and DC power supply, and it also uses a multi-rate system to account for the characteristics of each component of the simulator. A mathematical model of a PV system, programmable DC power supply, isolated DC measurement device, and Computing Unit are integrated to form a real-time processing simulator. Performance tests are carried out with a commercial PV inverter and prove the superiority of this proposed algorithm against the conventional algorithm.

  11. Decentralized method for load sharing and power management in a hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of hybrid source PV/battery units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Guerrero, Josep M.; Oraee, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power...... and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them and power flow among different phases is performed automatically through three-phase units. Modified active power-frequency droop functions are used according to operating states of each unit and the frequency level is used as trigger...... for switching between the states. Efficacy of the proposed method in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  12. Optimization of self-consumption and techno-economic analysis of PV-battery systems in commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merei, Ghada; Moshövel, Janina; Magnor, Dirk; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of self-consumption and the degree of self-sufficiency in commercial applications. • Technical and economic analyses for a PV-battery system. • Sensitivity analysis considering different sizes and prices of PV and battery systems. • Investigation of batteries to increase self-consumption today is not economic in the considered applications. - Abstract: Increasing costs of electricity supply from the local grid, the decreasing photovoltaic (PV) technology costs and the decreasing PV feed-in-tariff according to the current German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) will in the future raise the monetary incentives to increase the self-consumption of PV energy. This is of great interest in commercial buildings as there mostly is sufficient place to install high capacities of photovoltaic panels on their own roofs. Furthermore, the electricity purchase price from the local grid for commercial consumers nowadays is about 20 €ct/kW h, which is higher than the cost of generation of electricity from solar panels (about 8–12 €ct/kW h). Additionally, the load profiles in commercial applications have a high correlation with the generated solar energy. Hence, there is a great opportunity for economic savings. This paper presents optimization results with respect to self-consumption and degree of self-sufficiency for a supermarket in Aachen, Germany. The optimization is achieved using real measurement data of load profile and solar radiation. Besides, techno-economic analyses and sensitivity analyses have been carried out to demonstrate the influence of different PV system sizes, PV system costs and interest rates. Moreover, to raise self-consumption different battery sizes with different battery system costs have been investigated and analysed for 2015 and 2025 scenarios as well. The results show that the installation of a PV system can reduce the electricity costs through self-consumption of self-generated PV energy. Also, applying

  13. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Wind-PV-ES and Transmission Hybrid Power System Consideration of System Functionality and Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizheng Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background of decreasing fossil fuels and increasing environmental pollution, the wind-photovoltaic energy storage and transmission hybrid power system (or called the wind-PV-ES and transmission hybrid system has become a strategic choice to achieve energy sustainability. However, the comprehensive benefit evaluation of such a combined power system is in a relatively blank state in China, which will hinder the reasonable and orderly development of this station. Four parts, the technical performance, economic benefit, ecological impact and social benefit, are considered in this paper, and a multi-angle evaluation index system of the wind-PV-ES and transmission system is designed. The projection pursuit model is used to evaluated system functionality conventionally; relative entropy theory is used to evaluate the system functionality simultaneously; and a comprehensive benefit evaluation model of the technique for order preference by similar to ideal solution (TOPSIS considering both system functionality and proportionality is constructed. Finally, the national demonstration station of the wind-PV-ES-transmission system is taken as an example to testify to the practicability and validity of the evaluation index system and model.

  14. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  15. Analytical Investigation and Control System Set-up of Medium Scale PV Plants for Power Flow Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Miceli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of photovoltaic (PV plants and energy conversion from renewable sources, a large part of the technical literature is more devoted to practical aspects (new solar cells, electrically driven PV panels, safety, reduction of parasitic currents, etc. than to theoretical investigations. Despite this tendency, this paper presents a mathematical analysis of a medium scale photovoltaic power generation system connected to the distribution network and of its control system. In such a system, the conversion stage is unique due to the absence of a boost chopper. The conducted analysis leads to the interesting conclusion that the inverter used in the plant presents two degrees of freedom, easy to exploit in a control system in which the inverter simultaneously realizes the interconnection to the grid and the MPPT control. The structure of the control system is then presented, discussed and validated by means of numerical simulations.

  16. Power Generation Potential and Cost of a Roof Top Solar PV System in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjel, N.; Zhand, A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a comparative study of the 3 most used solar PV module technologies in Nepal, which are Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous. The aim of the paper is to present and discuss the recorded Global Solar Radiation, received in the Kathmandu valley by three different, Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous calibrated solar cell pyranometers and to propose the best-suited solar PV module technology for roof top solar PV systems inside the Kathmandu valley. Data recorded over the course of seven months, thus covering most of the seasonal meteorological conditions determining Kathmandu valley's global solar radiation reception are presented. The results indicate that the Si-amorphous pyranometer captured 1.56% more global solar radiation than the Si-mono-crystalline and 18.4% more than Si-poly-crystalline pyranometer over the course of seven months. Among the three pyranometer technologies the maximum and minimum cell temperature was measured by the Si-mono-crystalline pyranometer. Following the technical data and discussion, an economical analysis, using the versatile software tool PVSYST V5.01is used to calculate the life cycle costs of a 1kW roof top solar PV RAPS system, with battery storage, and a 1kW roof top solar PV grid connected system with no energy storage facility, through simulations, using average recorded global solar radiation data for the KTM valley and investigated market values for each solar PV module and peripheral equipment costs.

  17. Accelerated GaAs growth through MOVPE for low-cost PV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Akinori; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Koseki, Shuichi; Yano, Yoshiki; Tabuchi, Toshiya; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Matsumoto, Koh; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Masakazu

    2018-05-01

    The high growth rate of epitaxial GaAs was investigated using a novel horizontal metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor, from the point of view of realizing low-cost photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. The GaAs growth rate exhibited an approximately linear relationship with the amount of trimethylgalium (TMGa) supplied, up to a rate of 90 μm/h. The distribution of growth rate was observed for a two-inch wafer, along the flow direction, and the normalized profile of the distribution was found to be independent of the precursor input, from 20 to 70 μm/h. These tendencies indicated that significant parasitic prereaction did not occur in the gaseous phase, for this range of growth rate. GaAs p-n single-junction solar cells were successfully fabricated at growth rates of 20, 60, and 80 μm/h. The conversion efficiency of the cell grown at 80 μm/h was comparable to that of the 20 μm/h cell, indicating the good quality and properties of GaAs. The epitaxial growth exhibited good uniformity, as evidenced by the uniformity of the cell performance across the wafer, from the center to the edge. The result indicated the potential of high-throughput MOVPE for low-cost production, not only for PV devices but also for other semiconductor applications.

  18. Modeling and optimization of batteryless hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems for off-grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuanyo, David; Azoumah, Yao; Aussel, Didier; Neveu, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model and optimization procedure for off-grid hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems operating without battery storage. The proposed technico-economic model takes into account the variability of both the solar irradiation and the electrical loads. It allows optimizing the design and the operation of the hybrid systems by searching their lowest LCOE (Levelized Cost of Electricity). Two cases have been investigated: identical Diesel generators and Diesel generators with different sizes, and both are compared to conventional standalone Diesel generator systems. For the same load profile, the optimization results show that the LCOE of the optimized batteryless hybrid solar PV/Diesel (0.289 €/kWh for the hybrid system with identical Diesel generators and 0.284 €/kWh for the hybrid system with different sizes of Diesel generators) is lower than the LCOE obtained with standalone Diesel generators (0.32 €/kWh for the both cases). The obtained results are then confirmed by HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) software. - Highlights: • A technico-economic model for optimal design and operation management of batteryless hybrid systems is developed. • The model allows optimizing design and operation of hybrid systems by ensuring their lowest LCOE. • The model was validated by HOMER. • Batteryless hybrid system are suitable for off-grid applications

  19. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  20. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-04-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  1. Thermal Performance and Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection Outside Feed-In Operating Hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Reactive power support by photovoltaic (PV) systems is of increasingly interest, when compared to the conventional reactive power compensation devices. PV inverters can exchange reactive power with the utility grid in a decentralized manner even outside feed-in operation, especially at nights when...... there is no solar irradiance. However, reactive power injection causes additional power losses in the switching components leading to a temperature rise in the devices. Thus, this paper analyses the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance...... of their power switching components. A thermal analysis based on the mission profile (i.e., solar irradiance and ambient temperature) has been incorporated, so as to determine the additional temperature rise in the components induced by the operation outside feed-in hours. An analytical lifetime model has been...

  2. Single-point reactive power control method on voltage rise mitigation in residential networks with high PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios; Ahmadi, Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise by ...... system with high r/x ratio. Efficacy, effectiveness and cost study of SPRPC is compared to droop control to evaluate its advantages.......Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise...... by absorbing adequate reactive power from one selected point. The proposed index utilizes short circuit analysis to select the best point to apply this Volt/Var control method. SPRPC is supported technically and financially by distribution network operator that makes it cost effective, simple and efficient...

  3. Droop Control with Improved Disturbance Adaption for PV System with Two Power Conversion Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    with no or insufficient storage for cushioning climatic changes. In addition, most droop-controlled literatures have assumed a single dc-ac inverter with its input dc source fixed. Front-end dc-dc converter added to a two-stage photovoltaic (PV) system has therefore usually been ignored. To address these unresolved...

  4. Solar PV powered mobile cellular base station: Models and use cases in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderemi, BA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The huge costs of operating a mobile cellular base station, and the negative impact of greenhouse gasses on the environment have made the solar PV renewable energy source a sought after. In addition to cost and environmental factor, abundant supply...

  5. Break-even analysis for the storage of PV in power distribution grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems poses major challenges on distribution grid operators. Because of the strong growth rates of the installation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind generators, huge needs for reinforcements in grids are expected. Next to conventional reinforcements (with

  6. Optimal sizing study of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfkira, Rachid; Zhang, Lu; Barakat, Georges [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Automatique du Havre, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 1123, 76063 Le Havre (France)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a methodology of sizing optimization of a stand-alone hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system is presented. This approach makes use of a deterministic algorithm to suggest, among a list of commercially available system devices, the optimal number and type of units ensuring that the total cost of the system is minimized while guaranteeing the availability of the energy. The collection of 6 months of data of wind speed, solar radiation and ambient temperature recorded for every hour of the day were used. The mathematical modeling of the main elements of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel system is exposed showing the more relevant sizing variables. A deterministic algorithm is used to minimize the total cost of the system while guaranteeing the satisfaction of the load demand. A comparison between the total cost of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system with batteries and the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system without batteries is presented. The reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the used sizing methodology and show the influence of the battery storage on the total cost of the hybrid system. (author)

  7. Coordination of International Standards with Implementation of the IECRE Conformity Assessment System to Provide Multiple Certification Offerings for PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, George; Haring, Adrian; Spooner, Ted; Ball, Greg; Kurtz, Sarah; Heinze, Matthias; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Eguchi, Yoshihito; Ramu, Govind

    2016-11-21

    To help address the industry's needs for assuring the value and reducing the risk of investments in PV power plants; the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a new conformity assessment system for renewable energy (IECRE). There are presently important efforts underway to define the requirements for various types of PV system certificates, and publication of the international standards upon which these certifications will be based. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the interrelationship of these activities and the timing for initiation of IECRE PV system certifications.

  8. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed

  9. Coordinated control of active and reactive power of distribution network with distributed PV cluster via model predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu; Sheng, Wanxing; Jin, Wei; Wu, Ming; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Feng

    2018-02-01

    A coordinated optimal control method of active and reactive power of distribution network with distributed PV cluster based on model predictive control is proposed in this paper. The method divides the control process into long-time scale optimal control and short-time scale optimal control with multi-step optimization. The models are transformed into a second-order cone programming problem due to the non-convex and nonlinear of the optimal models which are hard to be solved. An improved IEEE 33-bus distribution network system is used to analyse the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed control method

  10. Photovoltaic Power System with an Interleaving Boost Converter for Battery Charger Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yu Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a photovoltaic (PV power system for battery charger applications. The charger uses an interleaving boost converter with a single-capacitor turn-off snubber to reduce voltage stresses of active switches at turn-off transition. Therefore, active switches of the charger can be operated with zero-voltage transition (ZVT to decrease switching losses and increase conversion efficiency. In order to draw the maximum power from PV arrays and obtain the optimal power control of the battery charger, a perturbation-and-observation method and microchip are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power management. Finally, a prototype battery charger is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power system for battery charger applications.

  11. Co-ordinated experimental research into PV power interaction with the supply network - Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, R.; Thornycroft, J.; Knight, J.

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the development of a procedure for type testing photovoltaic inverters that are suitable for connecting to the UK public distribution system based on experimental research and consultation within the industry. Phase 1 of the project investigated the performance of the inverters and the cumulative effect of multiple installation on a section of distributed network, and Phase 2 concentrated on the requirements for PV inverters that would allow them to be connected to the grid without further investigation and to develop a type test procedure. The production of the 'UK Technical Guidelines for Inverter Connected Single Phase Photovoltaic (PV) Generators up to 5kVA' based on the project results and its adoption by the Electricity Association as draft Engineering Recommendations G77 are reported.

  12. Preliminary investigation into the use of solar PV systems for residential application in Bandar Sri Iskandar, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimas, F.A.; Gillani, S.I.; Ans, M.S. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    In the near future, Malaysia is expected to be a net importer of oil, and the nation will have to face issues related to the security of supply and economic consequences. It is also anticipated that the energy demand for the country will increase with the increase in population and GDP. Realizing the situation, it is important that further emphasis is given into the diversification of energy resources. One method is the exploitation of renewable energy to minimize the effects of global warming. Photovoltaic technology is widely used around the world in locations with scarce power generation options. It is used for various applications and Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system is one of them. However, photovoltaic is still expensive compared to conventional methods of generating electricity. So a careful design of the system is required to ensure economic viability. This study describes a preliminary investigation of a solar PV system for residential applications in Bandar Sri Iskandar. Sizing procedures based on the peak sun hour concept is described for a Malaysian typical terraced house. Current and voltage measurements of the solar panel were carried out to predict the output under actual conditions at the site.

  13. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume II. PV-T state-of-the-art survey and site/application pair selection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    As part of a project to develop feasibility assessments, design procedures, and reference designs for total energy systems that could use actively cooled concentrating photovoltaic collectors, a survey was conducted to provide an overview of available photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) technology. General issues associated with the design and installation of a PV-T system are identified. Electrical and thermal efficiencies for the line-focus Fresnel, the linear parabolic trough, and the point-focus Fresnel collectors are specified as a function of operating temperature, ambient temperature, and insolation. For current PV-T technologies, the line-focus Fresnel collector proved to have the highest thermal and electrical efficiencies, lowest array cost, and lowest land area requirement. But a separate feasibility analysis involving 11 site/application pairs showed that for most applications, the cost of the photovoltaic portion of a PV-T system is not recovered through the displacement of an electrical load, and use of a thermal-only system to displace the thermal load would be a more economical alternative. PV-T systems are not feasible for applications that have a small thermal load, a large steam requirement, or a high load return temperature. SAND82-7157/3 identifies the technical issues involved in designing a photovoltaic-thermal system and provides guidance for resolving such issues. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  14. Storage Application in Smart Grid with High PV and EV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Yang, Guangya; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    grids with residential PVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The effect of EV home charging on EESS capacity in high PV penetration is also addressed. The results indicate that increasing the EV penetration in the network can decrease the EESS capacity need. This decrease is highest in situations with low PV...

  15. Power flow modeling of Back-to-Back STATCOM: Comprehensive simulation studies including PV curves and PQ circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Vural

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Power flow study in a power network embedded with FACTS device requires effort in program coding. Moreover, Newton-Raphson method should be modified by embedding injected power components into the algorithm. In this study, we have proposed a method for modeling of one of the newest FACTS concepts in power flow study without program coding or modification of existing Newton-Raphson algorithm. Real and reactive power injections for each voltage source converter of Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator (BtB-STATCOM are PI regulated to their desired steady-state values. With this respect, reactive power injection of each voltage source converter as well as real power transfer among them can be assigned as control constraint. Operating losses are also taken into account in the proposed modeling approach. Furthermore, proposed model can be easily modified for the modeling of conventional STATCOM having only one voltage source converter or two STATCOMs operating independently. The proposed modeling approach is verified in PSCAD through a number of simulation scenarios in BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM embedded power systems, namely 1-Machine 4-Bus system and 3-Machine 7-Bus system. PV curves of local buses compensated by BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM are presented and compared. Steady-state performance of BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM is also compared in power flow handling.

  16. Intra-Minute Cloud Passing Forecasting Based on a Low Cost IoT Sensor—A Solution for Smoothing the Output Power of PV Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukič, Primož; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2017-01-01

    Clouds moving at a high speed in front of the Sun can cause step changes in the output power of photovoltaic (PV) power plants, which can lead to voltage fluctuations and stability problems in the connected electricity networks. These effects can be reduced effectively by proper short-term cloud passing forecasting and suitable PV power plant output power control. This paper proposes a low-cost Internet of Things (IoT)-based solution for intra-minute cloud passing forecasting. The hardware consists of a Raspberry PI Model B 3 with a WiFi connection and an OmniVision OV5647 sensor with a mounted wide-angle lens, a circular polarizing (CPL) filter and a natural density (ND) filter. The completely new algorithm for cloud passing forecasting uses the green and blue colors in the photo to determine the position of the Sun, to recognize the clouds, and to predict their movement. The image processing is performed in several stages, considering selectively only a small part of the photo relevant to the movement of the clouds in the vicinity of the Sun in the next minute. The proposed algorithm is compact, fast and suitable for implementation on low cost processors with low computation power. The speed of the cloud parts closest to the Sun is used to predict when the clouds will cover the Sun. WiFi communication is used to transmit this data to the PV power plant control system in order to decrease the output power slowly and smoothly. PMID:28505078

  17. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    ) Optimization of a wind/diesel hybrid configuration in a remote grid with battery implementation: Case study of Melinka Island; (23) Provisional acceptance of installations and online data submission of PV and hybrid kits in remote areas of Latin-America under the EC's EURO-SOLAR programme; (24) Experience of the Canary Islands in the development of insular 100 % RES systems and micro-grids; (25) Assessment of photovoltaic hybrid power systems in the United States; (26) Solar hybrid school project in East Malaysia; (27) Eigg Island - Electrification of a British Island by a unique PV wind hydro diesel hybrid system; (28) A pragmatic performance reporting approach for describing PV hybrid systems within mini-grids: Work in progress from IEA's PVPS Task 11 Act. 31; (29) Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of Mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - The case study of the hybrid system - Micro grid in Egypt. Beside these lectures, the following poster contributions were presented: (1) Performance of conventional MPPT techniques in the presence of partial shielding; (2) Photovoltaic and thermal collector (PV/T) hybrid system's performance analysis under the mild climate conditions of Izmir City; (3) Influential parameters on a building integrated hybrid PVT concentrator; (4) The solution to combine and manage renewable energies in hybrid applications and mini-grids; (5) Stabilization of distribution networks with PV and vanadium redox-battery backup systems - Simulation and first experiences; (6) Control, monitoring and data acquisition architecture design for clean production of hydrogen from mini-wind energy; (7) Remote Telecom System including photovoltaic energy and H{sub 2} production by electrolysis; (8) Effective combination of solar and wind energy systems; (9) Standardisation of distributed grid support - An analogous approach for the smart grid; (10) Optimizing energy management of decentralized

  18. Feasibility Study of a Building-Integrated PV Manager to Power a Last-Mile Electric Vehicle Sharing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the largest single sources of air pollution in urban areas. This paper analyzes a model of solar-powered vehicle sharing system using building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV, resulting in a zero-emission and zero-energy mobility system for last-mile employee transportation. As a case study, an electric bicycle sharing system between a public transportation hub and a work center is modeled mathematically and optimized in order to minimize the number of pickup trips to satisfy the demand, while minimizing the total energy consumption of the system. The whole mobility system is fully powered with BIPV-generated energy. Results show a positive energy balance in e-bike batteries and pickup vehicle batteries in the worst day of the year regarding solar radiation. Even in this worst-case scenario, we achieve reuse rates of 3.8 people per bike, using actual data. The proposed system manages PV energy using only the batteries from the electric vehicles, without requiring supportive energy storage devices. Energy requirements and PV generation have been analyzed in detail to ensure the feasibility of this approach.

  19. Analysis of the maximal possible grid relief from PV-peak-power impacts by using storage systems for increased self-consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshövel, Janina; Kairies, Kai-Philipp; Magnor, Dirk; Leuthold, Matthias; Bost, Mark; Gährs, Swantje; Szczechowicz, Eva; Cramer, Moritz; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of a MATLAB battery storage model. • Development of a controlled persistence forecast management strategy. • Perfect forecast in comparison to an easy feasible persistence forecast. • More grid relief with forecast than with strategies to maximize self-consumption. - Abstract: For future energy supply systems the effects and benefits of battery storage systems in households with photovoltaic (PV) generators and the effects on distribution and transmission grids need to be identified and analyzed. The development of grid relieving management strategies for the storage system in due consideration of self-consumption is a necessary step forward in order to analyze the potential of private home battery storage systems to reduce stress on the power supply system. A MATLAB-based model of a lithium-ion storage system has been developed. The model is applicable for a wide range of PV generator sizes, different battery storage systems and diverse management strategies. In order to identify the potential of grid relieving forecast strategies, without discharging the storage into the grid, a management strategy based on persistence forecasts of solar radiation and household load demand has been implemented and analyzed. To minimize forecast uncertainties a proportional plus integral controller has been developed. The persistence forecast management strategy is applicable in real-life PV-battery-systems and due to the simple forecast it is easy to equip existing systems with such a management system with only low effort. As a result it will be shown that a storage system management based on forecasts has a significantly higher potential to relieve the grid than a system that only maximizes self-consumption as it is usually used nowadays. Besides, such a management strategy is able to unload the grid more than a static power reduction to 70% of the nominal power rating according to the current German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). At the

  20. Impact of size and distribution of installed PV power in E-W direction on the level in which selected consumers’ energy needs were met

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necka Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the energy needs of selected consumers and to select the PV installed capacity in the east and west panels orientation (E-W. The analysis was carried out for two variants. The first concerned the impact of the installation power of a PV source on the contracted power in its symmetric east and west position. The second variant was the result of previous observations and studies of the authors of this paper. Thus, in this variant, the unbalanced power of PV E-W in relation to the S azimuth has been analyzed, taking into account the characteristics of the recipients' needs and the variation of the PV power installed. The analyses show that an increase in meeting the energy demand for two of the tested plants at symmetrical power distribution to the east and west occurred only when the installed power was increased to the level of approx. 1.4-1.6 of the contracted power. However, the power distribution in the E-W direction has a very strong effect on the energy amount that is generated in the power plant and cannot be used due to the lack of demand in the plant.

  1. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.; Cole, A.

    1996-01-01

    The status and prospects of photovoltaic (PV) power systems are reviewed. The market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems by utilities is described, and the mission, objectives and thoughts of the collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries under the framework of the International Energy Agency are highly with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. Future sales of PV systems are expected to grow in the short and medium term mainly in the sector of isolated systems. (R.P.)

  2. Investigating the Impact of Shading Effect on the Characteristics of a Large-Scale Grid-Connected PV Power Plant in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest China is an ideal region for large-scale grid-connected PV system installation due to its abundant solar radiation and vast areas. For grid-connected PV systems in this region, one of the key issues is how to reduce the shading effect as much as possible to maximize their power generation. In this paper, a shading simulation model for PV modules is established and its reliability is verified under the standard testing condition (STC in laboratory. Based on the investigation result of a 20 MWp grid-connected PV plant in northwest China, the typical shading phenomena are classified and analyzed individually, such as power distribution buildings shading and wire poles shading, plants and birds droppings shading, and front-row PV arrays shading. A series of experiments is also conducted on-site to evaluate and compare the impacts of different typical shading forms. Finally, some feasible solutions are proposed to avoid or reduce the shading effect of PV system during operation in such region.

  3. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ryberg, David Severin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a variety of system designs and locations. Many independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort verifying these models beyond the system designs and locations on which they were based. Moreover, major PV modeling software products have not yet incorporated any of these models into their workflows. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. (2013) into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work, we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and we discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for three PV arrays. Next, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical data set to estimate average snow losses across the United States for two typical PV system designs. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nationwide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  4. Hybrid PV and solar-thermal systems for domestic heat and power provision in the UK: Techno-economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrando, María; Markides, Christos N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable heat and power generation in UK homes with PVT systems studied. • PVT/w generation: 2.3 MW_e h/yr (51% of demand) and 1.0 MW_t_h h/yr (36% hot water). • Optimised PVT/w system has 9–11 year payback periods (PV-only: 6.8 years). • Same system allows 16.0-t CO_2 reduction and 14-t primary fossil-fuel saving. • With a ∼2:1 support (£/W_e h:£/W_t_h h), PVT and PV have similar payback periods. - Abstract: A techno-economic analysis is undertaken to assess hybrid PV/solar-thermal (PVT) systems for distributed electricity and hot-water provision in a typical house in London, UK. In earlier work (Herrando et al., 2014), a system model based on a PVT collector with water as the cooling medium (PVT/w) was used to estimate average year-long system performance. The results showed that for low solar irradiance levels and low ambient temperatures, such as those associated with the UK climate, a higher coverage of total household energy demands and higher CO_2 emission savings can be achieved by the complete coverage of the solar collector with PV and a relatively low collector cooling flow-rate. Such a PVT/w system demonstrated an annual electricity generation of 2.3 MW h, or a 51% coverage of the household’s electrical demand (compared to an equivalent PV-only value of 49%), plus a significant annual water heating potential of to 1.0 MW h, or a 36% coverage of the hot-water demand. In addition, this system allowed for a reduction in CO_2 emissions amounting to 16.0 tonnes over a life-time of 20 years due to the reduction in electrical power drawn from the grid and gas taken from the mains for water heating, and a 14-tonne corresponding displacement of primary fossil-fuel consumption. Both the emissions and fossil-fuel consumption reductions are significantly larger (by 36% and 18%, respectively) than those achieved by an equivalent PV-only system with the same peak rating/installed capacity. The present paper proceeds further, by

  5. Mission Profile Based Sizing of IGBT Chip Area for PV Inverter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing the total energy generation is of importance for Photovoltaic (PV) plants. This paper proposes a method to optimize the IGBT chip area for PV inverters to minimize the annual energy loss of the active switches based on long-term operation conditions (i.e., mission profile). The design...... yearly mission profile. Simulation results are given to verify the thermal characteristics. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo based lifetime evaluation is presented to check the IGBT reliability. The proposed design method enables a reliability-oriented energy optimized sizing of active switches for PV inverter...

  6. Automatic Power-Sharing Modification of P/V Droop Controllers in Low-Voltage Resistive Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Vandoorn, Tine; D. M. De Kooning, Jeroen; Meersman, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Microgrids are receiving an increasing interest to integrate the growing share of distributed-generation (DG) units in the electrical network. For the islanded operation of themicrogrid, several control strategies for the primary control have been developed to ensure stable microgrid operation....... In low-voltage (LV) microgrids, active power/voltage ( P/V ) droop controllers are gaining attention as they take the resistive nature of the network lines and the lack of directly coupled rotating inertia into account. However, a problem often cited with these droop controllers is that the grid voltage...... is not a global parameter. This can influence the power sharing between different units. In this paper, it is investigated whether this is actually a disadvantage of the control strategy. It is shown that with / droop control, the DG units that are located electrically far from the load centers automatically...

  7. The potential of solar PV in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    Canada has lagged behind other industrialized nations in the growth of solar energy markets. Currently, over 78 per cent of the global market for solar energy is for grid-connected applications where power is fed into the electrical distribution network. Less than 3.5 per cent of the Canadian solar market is grid-connected. This report investigated the potential size of the photovoltaic (PV) market in Ontario given adequate support from both governments and utilities. The forecast was based on sustainable growth levels that the solar industry as a whole might maintain over an extended period of time. It was suggested that it is technically feasible to install over 3000 MW of PV in single, detached homes in the province, which could generate over 3200 GWh each year. If the right policy conditions were put in place, the technical potential for PV on all buildings in Ontario is over 14,000 MW by 2025, which would generate over 13,000 GWh annually. Support mechanisms such as the Advanced Renewable Tariff (ART) or Standard Offer Contracts (SOC) will enable the PV industry to build capacity. Future markets for PV include new homes, commercial buildings and the existing housing stock. With a properly designed system, it is forecasted that the deployment of PV by 2025 could result in the involvement of 400,000 homes with over 1200 MW of installed capacity and over 290 MW installed annually by 2025. Recommendations to Ontario Power Authority's (OPA) report supply mix report focused on the use of SOCs as the appropriate support mechanism to start building solar capacity in Ontario, as projections using SOCs would see Ontario following the growth patterns of other nations. It was concluded that the OPA report does not acknowledge the current growth rates of PV globally, nor does it fully consider the potential of PV in Ontario. 9 refs., 8 figs

  8. Feasibility Study of Standalone PV-Wind-Diesel Energy Systems for Coastal Residential Application in Pekan, Pahang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan Roziah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Techno economic study is feasible to optimize the usage of renewable energy components that targeting low cost of electricity generation system. The selected case study area is coastal area in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The autonomous system designed in this study is hybrid standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system to fulfil a basic power demand of 20.1 kWh/day. Such power system was designed and optimized further to meet the power demand at a minimum cost of energy using energy optimization software, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER. The analysis focused on the operational characteristics and economics. The standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system has total net present cost about $61, 911 with cost of energy $0.66/kWh. Apparently, the generation of electricity from both wind turbine and PV can be inflated with the diesel generator. In comparison, return of investment (ROI value turned out lower for Feed in Tariff (FIT as compared to self-sustained house. Payback period also longer for FIT program that makes the selling back of electricity generated to Tenaga National Berhad (TNB is considered not favourable.

  9. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics; PV-Obelisk Orientierungssystem mit Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed.

  10. Development of a GIS Tool for High Precision PV Degradation Monitoring and Supervision: Feasibility Analysis in Large and Small PV Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de Simón-Martín

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that working photovoltaic (PV plants show several maintenance needs due to wiring and module degradation, mismatches, dust, and PV cell defects and faults. There are a wide range of theoretical studies as well as some laboratory tests that show how these circumstances may affect the PV production. Thus, it is mandatory to evaluate the whole PV plant performance and, then, its payback time, profitability, and environmental impact or carbon footprint. However, very few studies include a systematic procedure to quantify and supervise the real degradation effects and fault impacts on the field. In this paper, the authors first conducted a brief review of the most frequent PV faults and the degradation that can be found under real conditions of operation of PV plants. Then, they proposed and developed an innovative Geographic Information System (GIS application to locate and supervise them. The designed tool was applied to both a large PV plant of 108 kWp and a small PV plant of 9 kWp installed on a home rooftop. For the large PV plant, 24 strings of PV modules were modelized and introduced into the GIS application and every module in the power plant was studied including voltage, current, power, series and parallel resistances, fill factor, normalized PV curve to standard test conditions (STC, thermography and visual analysis. For the small PV installation three strings of PV panels were studied identically. It must be noted that PV modules in this case included power optimizers. The precision of the study enabled the researchers to locate and supervise up to a third part of every PV cell in the system, which can be adequately georeferenced. The developed tool allows both the researchers and the investors to increase control of the PV plant performance, to lead to better planning of maintenance actuations, and to evaluate several PV module replacement strategies in a preventive maintenance program. The PV faults found include hot

  11. On application of a new hybrid maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based photovoltaic system to the closed plant factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Joe-Air; Su, Yu-Li; Shieh, Jyh-Cherng; Kuo, Kun-Chang; Lin, Tzu-Shiang; Lin, Ta-Te; Fang, Wei; Chou, Jui-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    obtained in an outdoor environment over a period of one year, the hybrid MPPT method not only decreases energy loss but also increases power utilization. These results demonstrate the applicability of the PV system to a closed plant factory for saving energy consumption and reducing CO 2 emissions

  12. Optimum sizing of PV-attached electricity storage according to power market signals – A case study for Germany and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, Andreas; Hinchliffe, Timothée

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PV-attached battery unprofitable from German wholesale aggregator point of view. • PV-attached battery profitability below utility costs of capital in Italy. • Profitability can be reached if energy CAPEX reaches 100–150 EUR/kW h. • Optimum sizing depends on usage. • Maximum 5 h of storage and power rating exceeding 40% of PV power required. - Abstract: This paper investigates the business case of power storage attached to PV generation from the perspective of an aggregator trading power on wholesale markets and possibly supplying household customers. The profitability and an optimum storage configuration are determined for two European regions: Baden-Wuerttemberg in Germany and Puglia in Italy based on wholesale price data and solar irradiation data for the years 2007–2011. During this period of time and under the assumptions made, adding storage to a portfolio of PV generators would not have constituted a business case for Baden-Wuerttemberg while profitability could have been reached for Puglia. However, the return of PV-attached storage that could have been achieved in Puglia during the years 2007–2011 is below levels typically required by companies operating on wholesale markets (deregulated power generators or traders) as those market participants’ capital costs are usually significantly higher than borrowing costs of the state. Storage proved to be financially more attractive in cases where severe grid constraints lead to significant levels of curtailment provided that the associated losses would not be financially compensated. This could pose a risk to any investor as grid upgrades would eventually erode the revenues. Restricting the storage to PV energy only (i.e. without the possibility to do arbitrage on markets) depresses the business case and is generally unprofitable, except but for situations of severe grid bottlenecks. The picture does not change significantly if a consumption portfolio is added. In order to reach

  13. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  14. Power and Energy Management with Battery Storage for a Hybrid Residential PV-Wind System – A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Zaharof, Andreea; Iov, Florin

    2018-01-01

    The energy generation paradigm is shifting from centralized fossil-fuel-based generation to distributed-based renewable generation. Thus, hybrid residential energy systems based on wind turbines, PV panels and/or micro-turbines are gaining more and more terrain. Nevertheless, such a system needs...... to be coupled with an energy storage solution, most often a battery, in order to mitigate its power generation variability and to ensure a stable and reliable operation. In this work, two power and energy management strategies for a hybrid residential PV-wind system with battery energy storage were evaluated....... Simple but customized performance models for PV modules and a small wind turbine have been developed; furthermore the models have been parameterized based on real-life time-series for irradiance and wind speed, characteristic for a site in Denmark. The stress to which the battery was subjected, while...

  15. Space Solar Power Technology for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Mark W.; Howell, Joe T.

    2004-01-01

    The technology for Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transistor (Laser-PV WPT) is being developed for lunar polar applications by Boeing and NASA Marshall Space Center. A lunar polar mission could demonstrate and validate Laser-PV WPT and other SSP technologies, while enabling access to cold, permanently shadowed craters that are believed to contain ice. Crater may hold frozen water and other volatiles deposited over billion of years, recording prior impact event on the moon (and Earth). A photo-voltaic-powered rover could use sunlight, when available, and laser light, when required, to explore a wide range of lunar terrain. The National Research Council recently found that a mission to the moon's south pole-Aitkir basin has priority for space science

  16. Brushless DC motor drives supplied by PV power system based on Z-source inverter and FL-IC MPPT controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari Niapour, S.A.KH.; Danyali, S.; Sharifian, M.B.B.; Feyzi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Employing the BLDC motor in water pumping systems. → Utilizing the ZSI as a single-stage power converter in the PV water pumping systems based on BLDC motor. → Improvement of the conventional IC MPPT method with the fuzzy logic control scheme to save more energy from the PV array. → Taking the advantages of the DTC drive of the BLDC motor. → Optimizing the water pumping system speed response characteristic by PSO. - Abstract: This paper discusses operation performance of a water pumping system consist of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor coupled a centrifugal pump and accompanying a Z-source inverter (ZSI) fed by a photovoltaic (PV) array, to be improved. Despite conventional double-stage power converters, this paper proposes utilizing a single-stage ZSI to extract the maximum power of the PV array and supply the BLDC motor simultaneously. Utilizing the ZSI provides some inherent advantages such as high efficiency and low cost, which is very promising for PV systems due to its novel voltage buck/boost capability. In addition, in order to precisely perform the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV array the fuzzy logic-incremental conductance (FL-IC) MPPT scheme is proposed. The proposed FL-IC MPPT scheme provides enough modification to the conventional IC method to enjoy an appropriate variable step size MPPT control signal for the ZSI. Moreover, direct torque control (DTC) is found more effective in comparison with hysteresis current control with current shaping to drive the BLDC motor, because it benefits from faster torque response, reduced torque ripple, less sensitivity to parameters variations, and simple implementation. In the mean time, due to the frequently variations of the PV power generation; delivered mechanical power to the centrifugal pump is variable. Thus, the BLDC motor should be driven with variable reference speed. In order to improve the speed transient response of the BLDC motor and enhance the energy saving aspect of

  17. One-Year Monitoring PV Power Plant Installed on Rooftop of Mineirão Fifa World Cup/Olympics Football Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís G. Monteiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of one-year monitoring of AC side electrical parameters and the characterization of local solar radiation at the biggest rooftop PV Power Plant, with an installed capacity of 1.42 MWp, mounted at Mineirão Football Stadium in Brazil. This stadium is one of the sport facilities that hosted 2014 FIFA World Cup and Rio 2016 Summer Olympics Games in the country. Results showed how it is important to study and characterize the solar resource in the region of interest, based on historic data, to provide the understanding of solar radiation and thus project PV power plants with better performance. Furthermore, AC electrical data show the behavior of active, reactive and apparent powers and the influence of the PV system on the power factor at the local grid utility connection point. Finally, PV power plant performance data (as annual final yield, performance ratio and capacity factor are also presented and compared with data from PVsyst software simulations. The results over the monitoring period were good considering the specificities of the stadium

  18. Research of PV Power Generation MPPT based on GABP Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Lin, Xianfu

    2018-05-01

    Photovoltaic power generation has become the main research direction of new energy power generation. But high investment and low efficiency of photovoltaic industry arouse concern in some extent. So maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic power generation has been a popular study point. Due to slow response, oscillation at maximum power point and low precision, the algorithm based on genetic algorithm combined with BP neural network are designed detailedly in this paper. And the modeling and simulation are completed by use of MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results show that the algorithm is effective and the maximum power point can be tracked accurately and quickly.

  19. The PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1990s. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market however is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy the cost of PV systems utility acceptance of PV and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, and OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer stand-alone and utility markets

  20. A new DC/AC boost transformerless converter in application of photovoltaic power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new DC/AC boost transformerless converter in the applications of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. A new circuit topology of single phase full bridge power inverter with additional DC/DC boost stage is proposed. The proposed topology overcomes two commonly existing......, and then converts the DC into AC to supply the load. A special modulation technique is proposed to eliminate the leakage current which is commonly presents in PV transformerless power generation, helps to increase the system efficiency and output performance....

  1. Boost Converter Fed High Performance BLDC Drive for Solar PV Array Powered Air Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Rani Depuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the utilization of a DC-DC boost converter as a mediator between a Solar Photovoltaic (SPV array and the Voltage Source Inverters (VSI in an SPV array powered air cooling system to attain maximum efficiency. The boost converter, over the various common DC-DC converters, offers many advantages in SPV based applications. Further, two Brushless DC (BLDC motors are employed in the proposed air cooling system: one to run the centrifugal water pump and the other to run a fan-blower. Employing a BLDC motor is found to be the best option because of its top efficiency, supreme reliability and better performance over a wide range of speeds. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink environment considering the steady state variation in the solar irradiance. Further, the efficiency of BLDC drive system is compared with a conventional Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC motor drive system and from the simulated results it is found that the proposed system performs better.

  2. Maximum power point tracking in PV systems based on adaptive control and sliding mode control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Ortiz-Valencia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas fotovoltaicos (PV son comúnmente controlados utilizando estructuras PI o PID, las cuales no pueden asegurar estabilidad global y un tiempo de establecimiento constante. Por esto, los algoritmos de optimización, e.g. Perturbar y Observar (P&O, son diseñados utilizando el tiempo de establecimiento más alto en el rango de operación, lo cual produce una búsqueda lenta del punto de máxima potencia (MPP para gran parte del rango de operación, introduciendo pérdidas dinámicas de potencia al sistema. Este artículo propone combinar un controlador adaptativo y un controlador de corriente por modos deslizantes (SMCC para garantizar estabilidad global y un tiempo de establecimiento constante para cualquier condición de operación, lo que permite incrementar la potencia generada en comparación con controladores PI y PID. El SMCC permite mitigar las perturbaciones del sistema y garantizar estabilidad global, mientras que el controlador adaptativo define la referencia del SMCC para asegurar un tiempo de estabilización constante. El diseño de la nueva estructura de control se soporta con análisis matemáticos y simulaciones realizadas en Matlab® para validar la robustez del sistema.

  3. Maximum Power Point tracking algorithm based on I-V characteristic of PV array under uniform and non-uniform conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Iman-Eini, H.; Asaei, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm based on characteristic equation of solar cells to determine the Maximum Power Point (MPP) of PV modules under partially shaded conditions (PSC). To achieve this goal, an analytic condition is introduced to determine uniform or non-uniform atmospheric condition...

  4. The active control strategy on the output power for photovoltaic-storage systems based on extended PQ-QV-PV Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhou, Bao-Rong; Zhai, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Yi, Ying-Qi

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the problem of voltage exceeding specified limits and improve the penetration of photovoltaic in distribution network, we can make full use of the active power regulation ability of energy storage(ES) and the reactive power regulation ability of grid-connected photovoltaic inverter to provide support of active power and reactive power for distribution network. A strategy of actively controlling the output power for photovoltaic-storage system based on extended PQ-QV-PV node by analyzing the voltage regulating mechanism of point of commom coupling(PCC) of photovoltaic with energy storage(PVES) by controlling photovoltaic inverter and energy storage. The strategy set a small wave range of voltage to every photovoltaic by making the type of PCC convert among PQ, PV and QV. The simulation results indicate that the active control method can provide a better solution to the problem of voltage exceeding specified limits when photovoltaic is connectted to electric distribution network.

  5. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Jinzhi; Duan, Yuanfeng; Lu, Xilin; Peng, Jinqing

    2014-01-01

    BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV) modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedd...

  6. Techno Economical Study of PV-Diesel Power System for a Remote Island in Indonesia : A Case Study of Miangas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbayan, M.; Nagasaka, K.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct the techno economical study of PC-Diesel power system based on renewable energy available locally in a remote island. This research is a case study for Miangas island which is the border island between Indonesia and Philipines. It is located in Talaud Island regency of North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. The monthly average daily radiation in Miangas island is 5.52 kWh/m2.The research methods used are data collection and data analysis using software HOMER. Based on the simulation result, the techno economic study of PV-Diesel power plant system based on energy demand in Miangas island can be obtained. The Cost of Energy (COE), Net Present Cost (NPC) and operating cost for proposed hybrid PV-Diesel power generation can be assessed for the design power systems uses Canadian solar Max Power C56x-325P of 150 KW PV, 18 string of Surette 6CS25P, Diesel Generator 50 kW and converter Magnum MS4448PAE 25 kW. The annual electricity production from the PV Diesel system for Miangas island is 309.589 kWh in which 80.7% electricity comes from PV, 19.3% electricity comes from diesel with the 109.063 kWh excess electricity. The cost of generating electrical energy in the term of cost of energy (COE), Net Present Cost (NPC) and operating cost are 0.318 US/kWh, 719.673 US and 36.857 US respectively.

  7. A methodology based on dynamic artificial neural network for short-term forecasting of the power output of a PV generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almonacid, F.; Pérez-Higueras, P.J.; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Hontoria, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The output of the majority of renewables energies depends on the variability of the weather conditions. • The short-term forecast is going to be essential for effectively integrating solar energy sources. • A new method based on artificial neural network to predict the power output of a PV generator one hour ahead is proposed. • This new method is based on dynamic artificial neural network to predict global solar irradiance and the air temperature. • The methodology developed can be used to estimate the power output of a PV generator with a satisfactory margin of error. - Abstract: One of the problems of some renewables energies is that the output of these kinds of systems is non-dispatchable depending on variability of weather conditions that cannot be predicted and controlled. From this point of view, the short-term forecast is going to be essential for effectively integrating solar energy sources, being a very useful tool for the reliability and stability of the grid ensuring that an adequate supply is present. In this paper a new methodology for forecasting the output of a PV generator one hour ahead based on dynamic artificial neural network is presented. The results of this study show that the proposed methodology could be used to forecast the power output of PV systems one hour ahead with an acceptable degree of accuracy

  8. Development of an Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracker Using an Advanced PV System Test Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Amoiridis, Anastasios; Beres, Remus Narcis

    2013-01-01

    The performance of photovoltaic systems is often reduced by the presence of partial shadows. The system efficiency and availability can be improved by a maximum power point tracking algorithm that is able to detect partial shadow conditions and to optimize the power output. This work proposes...... an intelligent maximum power point tracking method that monitors the maximum power point voltage and triggers a current-voltage sweep only when a partial shadow is detected, therefore minimizing power loss due to repeated current-voltage sweeps. The proposed system is validated on an advanced, flexible...... photovoltaic inverter system test platform that is able to reproduce realistic partial shadow conditions, both in simulation and on hardware test system....

  9. Methods and Strategies for Overvoltage Prevention in Low Voltage Distribution Systems with PV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    to handle a high share of PV power. This paper provides an in-depth review of methods and strategies proposed to prevent overvoltage in LV grids with PV, and discusses the effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages of them in detail. Based on the mathematical framework presented in the paper......, the overvoltage caused by high PV penetration is described, solutions to facilitate higher PV penetration are classified, and their effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages are illustrated. The investigated solutions include the grid reinforcement, electrical energy storage application, reactive power...... absorption by PV inverters, application of active medium voltage to low voltage (MV/LV) transformers, active power curtailment, and demand response (DR). Coordination between voltage control units by localized, distributed, and centralized voltage control methods is compared using the voltage sensitivity...

  10. Comparison of P&O and INC Methods in Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hesheng; Cui, Yuanhui; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhisen

    2018-03-01

    In the context of renewable energy, the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is often used to increase the solar power efficiency, taking into account the randomness and volatility of solar energy due to changes in temperature and photovoltaic. In all MPPT techniques, perturb & observe and incremental conductance are widely used in MPPT controllers, because of their simplicity and ease of operation. According to the internal structure of the photovoltaic cell and the output volt-ampere characteristic, this paper established the circuit model and establishes the dynamic simulation model in Matlab/Simulink with the preparation of the s function. The perturb & observe MPPT method and the incremental conductance MPPT method were analyzed and compared by the theoretical analysis and digital simulation. The simulation results have shown that the system with INC MPPT method has better dynamic performance and improves the output power of photovoltaic power generation.

  11. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  12. An application of on-line battery monitoring to the Vulcano PV plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonarota, A.; Menga, P.; Ostano, P.; Scarioni, V.

    1988-05-01

    The reliable knowledge of the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery of a photovoltaic (PV) plant can contribute to improve system management. Unfortunately, the technologies currently adopted to determine the battery SOC are not fully satisfactory. The experience obtained by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) on traction lead-acid batteries, operating under cyclic conditions, led to the formulation of a simple model capable of describing the relationships among the operating conditions (profile of current, temperature, etc.) and the internal SOC of the battery. This model was extended to the stationary accumulators to the Vulcano PV plant of ENEL, and checked by means of laboratory tests at the CESI (Italy) laboratories. Relevant to this work, an automatic system for the on-line evaluation of the SOC of the battery has recently been set up and installed at Vulcano. This paper presents the basis of the methodology, the layout of the system, and the preliminary results.

  13. Optimization of hybrid PV/wind power system for remote telecom station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, S.; Shrestha, J.N.; Neto, F.J.; Ferreira, J.A.F.; Adhikari, M.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns has given awareness on generation of renewable energy resources. Among the various renewable resources, hybrid solar and wind energy seems to be promising solutions to provide reliable power supply with improved system

  14. New control approach for a PV-diesel autonomous power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashed, Mohamed; Elmitwally, A.; Kaddah, Sahar [Electrical Engineering Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    A new control scheme for the hybrid photovoltaic-diesel single-phase autonomous power system is proposed. The main advantage of this scheme is that the voltage control is accomplished by the interface inverter without need to the automatic voltage regulator of the diesel-driven generator. Unlike three-phase systems, frequency and voltage control in single-phase autonomous power systems imposes additional complexity. This is due to the pulsating nature of the single-phase loads instantaneous power at twice the rated frequency that may degrade the control efficacy. This obstacle is addressed in this paper and a new scheme is presented. The approach includes three control loops for maximum power tracking, voltage control and frequency control. The generator field current is held constant at its nominal value avoiding the saturation in the field circuit. A robust fuzzy logic controller is adopted for the speed control loop of the diesel engine. The dynamic performance of the system is investigated under different operating conditions. (author)

  15. Monitoring and evaluation of Solar Home Systems. Experiences with applications of solar PV for households in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Van Dijk, A.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Hirsch, D.; Lasschuit, P.E.; Van Roekel, G.; Arriaza, H.; Hankins, M.; Sharma, B.D.; Wade, H.

    2000-09-01

    Solar energy is a promising solution to meet demand for electricity services of rural households in remote locations in developing countries. After some early successes, more and more doubts have arisen about the effectiveness and suitability of small PV systems for rural development. Many organisational, financial and technical problems appear difficult to tackle. A literature survey has been conducted to make an inventory of experiences with solar photovoltaic applications for households in developing countries. The major conclusion from the extensive literature research performed during this study is that there is not enough information available about the performance of solar home systems and projects. This slows down further development and successful dissemination. refs

  16. Prospects for PV: a learning curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabi, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the current state-of-the-art of photovoltaic electricity technology, and addresses its potential for cost reductions over the first few decades of the 21st century. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, both in terms of capacity installation and electricity generation, of single crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon and other thin film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected according to the learning-curve methodology. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. Our conclusions are that, (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating learning curves observed in the past, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly over the coming years, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and their internalisation would improve the competitiveness of PV, although probably not enough to close the current cost gap. (author)

  17. Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of cooling on solar PV performance have been experimentally investigated. • As a solar panel is cooled down, the electric output can have significant increase. • A cooled solar PV system has been proposed for resident application. • Life cycle assessment suggests the cost payback time of cooled PV can be reduced. - Abstract: As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.

  18. Solar pv fed stand-alone excitation system of a synchronous machine for reactive power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N.; Jain, Siddhartha; Jyotheeswara Reddy, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a stand-alone solar energy conversion system based on synchronous machine working as a synchronous condenser in overexcited state. The proposed model consists of a Synchronous Condenser, a DC/DC boost converter whose output is fed to the field of the SC. The boost converter is supplied by the modelled solar panel and a day time variable irradiance is fed to the panel during the simulation time. The model also has one alternate source of rechargeable batteries for the time when irradiance falls below a threshold value. Also the excess power produced when there is ample irradiance is divided in two parts and one is fed to the boost converter while other is utilized to recharge the batteries. A simulation is done in MATLAB-SIMULINK and the obtained results show the utility of such modelling for supplying reactive power is feasible.

  19. A novel power converter for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvarajan, S.; Yu, Dachuan; Xu, Shanguang

    A simple and economical power conditioner to convert the power available from solar panels into 60 Hz ac voltage is described. The raw dc voltage from the solar panels is converted to a regulated dc voltage using a boost converter and a large capacitor and the dc output is then converted to 60 Hz ac using a bridge inverter. The ratio between the load current and the short-circuit current of a PV panel at maximum power point is nearly constant for different insolation (light) levels and this property is utilized in designing a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. The controller includes a novel arrangement for sensing the short-circuit current without disturbing the operation of the PV panel and implementing MPPT. The switching losses in the inverter are reduced by using snubbers. The results obtained on an experimental converter are presented.

  20. Co-ordinated experimental research into PV power interaction with the supply network - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, R.; Thornycroft, J.; Munro, D.; Rudkin, E.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining the integration of photovoltaic systems into the UK electricity supply network. Details of research and development in the UK, and the participants in the research project are given. Information on photovoltaics as embedded generators, power conditioner design and performance, and the effects of photovoltaics on the network are outlined, and AC modules, standards, testing and approval schemes are considered. (UK)

  1. Applications of high power microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, J.; Swegle, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors address a number of applications for HPM technology. There is a strong symbiotic relationship between a developing technology and its emerging applications. New technologies can generate new applications. Conversely, applications can demand development of new technological capability. High-power microwave generating systems come with size and weight penalties and problems associated with the x-radiation and collection of the electron beam. Acceptance of these difficulties requires the identification of a set of applications for which high-power operation is either demanded or results in significant improvements in peRFormance. The authors identify the following applications, and discuss their requirements and operational issues: (1) High-energy RF acceleration; (2) Atmospheric modification (both to produce artificial ionospheric mirrors for radio waves and to save the ozone layer); (3) Radar; (4) Electronic warfare; and (5) Laser pumping. In addition, they discuss several applications requiring high average power than border on HPM, power beaming and plasma heating

  2. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat

    2015-08-05

    Accurate solar power forecasting allows utilities to get the most out of the solar resources on their systems. To truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods can provide, it is important to first develop (or determine) baseline and target solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims to develop baseline and target values for solar forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output. forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output.

  3. Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic System for Traffic Light Application

    OpenAIRE

    Muhida, Riza; Mohamad, Nor Hilmi; Legowo, Ari; Irawan, Rudi; Astuti, Winda

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic traffic light system is a significant application of renewable energy source. The development of the system is an alternative effort of local authority to reduce expenditure for paying fees to power supplier which the power comes from conventional energy source. Since photovoltaic (PV) modules still have relatively low conversion efficiency, an alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied to the traffic light system. MPPT is intended to catch up th...

  4. Impact of fuel-dependent electricity retail charges on the value of net-metered PV applications in vertically integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Alexandros I.; Milidonis, Andreas; Charalambous, Charalambos A.

    2015-01-01

    Retail electricity charges inevitably influence the financial rationale of using net-metered photovoltaic (PV) applications since their structure as well as their level may vary significantly over the life-cycle of a customer-sited PV generation system. This subsequently introduces a further uncertainty for a ratepayer considering a net-metered PV investment. To thoroughly comprehend this uncertainty, the paper employs a top-down approach – in vertically integrated environments – to model the volatility of partially hedged electricity charges and its subsequent impact on the value of bill savings from net-metered PV systems. Besides the utility's pricing strategy and rate structures, particular emphasis is given in modeling the fossil fuel mix component that introduces a significant source of uncertainty on electricity charges and thus on the value of bill savings of net-metered, customer-sited, PV applications. - Highlights: • A top-down approach of developing traditional electricity charges is provided. • The combined effect of pricing strategies, rate structures and fuels is examined. • Fossil fuel prices can substantially affect the net metering compensation. • A financial risk assessment for net-metered PV systems is performed

  5. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    In this paper, we offer a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of wind and photovoltaic power generation on decentralized hybrid systems. In particular, we focus on three performance measures of the energy system, namely reliability, costs, and efficiency. Most of the current studies focus...... level. Therefore, we appropriately assess the inherent uncertainty and design options. First, we use linear and quantile regression models to estimate the wind speed and solar insolation. Then, we use different quantiles as an input for the hybrid system design to assess market policies (e.g., net...

  6. Control of single-phase islanded PV/battery minigrids based on power-line signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Pablo; Guerrero, Josep M.; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    should be utilized as efficiently as possible. This paper proposes a coordinated control strategy based on power-line signaling (PLS), instead of common communications, for a single-phase minigrid in which each unit can operate in different operation modes taking into account the resource limitation...... types of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage systems (ESS). Specifically, the recharging process of secondary battery, the most prominent ESS, should be done in a specific manner to preserve its life-time, microgrid line voltage must be kept within the bounds and the energy offered by RES...

  7. The Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm and the Quadratic Boost Converter for Pv System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Necmi

    2018-05-01

    An interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller-based maximum power point tracking algorithm and direct current-direct current (DC-DC) converter topology are proposed for photovoltaic (PV) systems. The proposed maximum power point tracking algorithm is designed based on an interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller that has an ability to handle uncertainties. The change in PV power and the change in PV voltage are determined as inputs of the proposed controller, while the change in duty cycle is determined as the output of the controller. Seven interval type-2 fuzzy sets are determined and used as membership functions for input and output variables. The quadratic boost converter provides high voltage step-up ability without any reduction in performance and stability of the system. The performance of the proposed system is validated through MATLAB/Simulink simulations. It is seen that the proposed system provides high maximum power point tracking speed and accuracy even for fast changing atmospheric conditions and high voltage step-up requirements.

  8. A cell-level power management IC in BCD-SOI for partial power processing in Concentrating-PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, M.S.; Wen, Y.; Fernandes, R.; Buter, B.; Doorn, T.S.; Dijkstra, M.; Bergveld, H.J.; Trescases, O.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a power management IC used to mitigate the effects of mismatch in Concentrating-Photovoltaic (CPV) systems. The IC contains a bi-directional dc-dc converter, an auxiliary boost converter to generate the internal 10 V power supply, as well as protection and monitoring circuits. The

  9. A New Study of Maximum Power Point Tracker Techniques and Comparison for PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Atallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The maximum power point tracker techniques vary in many aspects as simplicity, digital or analogical implementation, sensor required, convergence speed, range of effectiveness, implementation hardware,popularity, cost and in other aspects. This paper presents in details comparative study between two most popular  algorithm  technique  which  is  incremental  conductance  algorithm  and  perturb  and  observe algorithm.  Two  different  converters  buck  and  cuk  converter  use  for  comparative  in  this  study. Few comparisons such as efficiency, voltage, current and power output for each different combination have been recorded. Multi changes in irradiance, temperature by keeping voltage and current as main sensed parameter been done in the simulation. Matlab simulink tools have been used for performance evaluation on energy point. Simulation will consider different solar irradiance and temperature variations.

  10. Studying the Impact of Distributed Solar PV on Power Systems using Integrated Transmission and Distribution Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Himanshu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krad, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-24

    This paper presents the results of a distributed solar PV impact assessment study that was performed using a synthetic integrated transmission (T) and distribution (D) model. The primary objective of the study was to present a new approach for distributed solar PV impact assessment, where along with detailed models of transmission and distribution networks, consumer loads were modeled using the physics of end-use equipment, and distributed solar PV was geographically dispersed and connected to the secondary distribution networks. The highlights of the study results were (i) increase in the Area Control Error (ACE) at high penetration levels of distributed solar PV; and (ii) differences in distribution voltages profiles and voltage regulator operations between integrated T&D and distribution only simulations.

  11. SMART_PV: A SOFTWARE APPLICATION FOR MANAGING ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS SMART_PV: UNA APLICACIÓN DE SOFTWARE PARA LA GESTIÓN DE VERBOS FRASALES EN INGLÉS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Manrique Losada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phrasal verbs (PVs are lexical units consisting of a verb and one or two particles. In this paper we present a characterization of English PVs. This characterization serves as the backbone for our web application called Smart_PV. The purpose of Smart_PV is twofold: i to allow the input of PVs and ii to detect PVs in texts. We designed web interfaces to register the PVs with their features and to detect PVs in the texts as follows: the user enters the text and starts the PVs detection process by splitting the text into words. Smart_PV was validated inserting 80 PVs (including the 25 most common PVs in documents of the European Union and detecting PVs in texts from different domains. Our results show the expediency of this kind of applications for teachers, students, translators, and common users, as a tool to support translation and text mining tasks. Although a database with more PVs and the analysis of more documents are required, our results demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of our application.Los verbos frasales (VF son unidades léxicas conformadas por un verbo y una o dos partículas. En este artículo se presenta una caracterización para los VF en inglés, la cual es usada como eje principal de una aplicación web para VF llamada Smart_PV. El objetivo de Smart_PV es doble: i permitir el ingreso de VF, y ii detectar VF en textos. Se diseñaron interfaces web para ingresar los VF con sus características y para detectarlos en textos así: el usuario ingresa un texto y comienza el proceso de detección de VF dividiendo el texto en palabras. Smart_PV fue validada insertando 80 VF (incluyendo los 25 VF más comunes en documentos de la Unión Europea, y detectando VF en textos de diferentes dominios. Los resultados muestran la conveniencia de este tipo de aplicaciones para profesores, estudiantes, traductores y usuarios comunes como apoyo en tareas de traducción y minería de textos. Aunque es deseable una base de datos con más VF y

  12. Stand alone power system coupling a PV field and a fuel cell: first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, S.; Labbe, J.; Leroux, P.; Metkemeijer, R.; Mayer, D. [ENSMP-CENERG, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the work, through the PVFC-SYS project, is to optimise the operation of a system coupling a photovoltaic field, an electrolyser, a gas storage, a fuel cell and a power management unit. A test bench is at present finalised in the Laboratory. All components have been selected for an optimal, automatic, safe and reliable operation of the complete system. Fully instrumented, this test bench furnishes new data concerning each component and the complete system behaviour for variable real weather conditions and different load demands. The paper describes the test bench, the simulation tool based on empirical model fitted to the component experimental data and the complete system performance for different load profiles along a year of operation. (orig.)

  13. Computational Intelligence Techniques Applied to the Day Ahead PV Output Power Forecast: PHANN, SNO and Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ogliari

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An accurate forecast of the exploitable energy from Renewable Energy Sources is extremely important for the stability issues of the electric grid and the reliability of the bidding markets. This paper presents a comparison among different forecasting methods of the photovoltaic output power introducing a new method that mixes some peculiarities of the others: the Physical Hybrid Artificial Neural Network and the five parameters model estimated by the Social Network Optimization. In particular, the day-ahead forecasts evaluated against real data measured for two years in an existing photovoltaic plant located in Milan, Italy, are compared by means both new and the most common error indicators. Results reported in this work show the best forecasting capability of the new “mixed method” which scored the best forecast skill and Enveloped Mean Absolute Error on a yearly basis (47% and 24.67%, respectively.

  14. RMS Current of a Photovoltaic Generator in Grid-Connected PV Systems: Definition and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a definition of a new and original concept in the photovoltaic field, RMS current of a photovoltaic generator for grid-connected systems. The RMS current is very useful for calculating energy losses in cables used in a PV generator. As well, a current factor has been defined in order to simplify RMS current calculation. This factor provides an immediate (quick and easy calculation method for the RMS current that does not depend on the case particular conditions (orientation, location, etc.. RMS current and current factor values have been calculated for different locations and modules.

  15. A Study Examining Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Power as an Alternative for the Rebuilding of the Iraqi Electrical Power Generation Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Curtis; Borja, Ralph; Phillips, Jeffery

    2005-01-01

    .... engineers' actions upon entering Iraq, the increased need for electrical power in Iraq, the costs of insurgent attacks on the electrical system, and security issues that need to be dealt with for the...

  16. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  17. New MPPT algorithm for PV applications based on hybrid dynamical approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2016-10-24

    This paper proposes a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic applications using the multicellular converter as a stage of power adaptation. The proposed MPPT technique has been designed using a hybrid dynamical approach to model the photovoltaic generator. The hybrid dynamical theory has been applied taking advantage of the particular topology of the multicellular converter. Then, a hybrid automata has been established to optimize the power production. The maximization of the produced solar energy is achieved by switching between the different operative modes of the hybrid automata, which is conditioned by some invariance and transition conditions. These conditions have been validated by simulation tests under different conditions of temperature and irradiance. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been then evaluated by comparison with standard MPPT techniques numerically and by experimental tests under varying external working conditions. The results have shown the interesting features that the hybrid MPPT technique presents in terms of performance and simplicity for real time implementation.

  18. New MPPT algorithm for PV applications based on hybrid dynamical approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Djemai, M.; Tadjine, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic applications using the multicellular converter as a stage of power adaptation. The proposed MPPT technique has been designed using a hybrid dynamical approach to model the photovoltaic generator. The hybrid dynamical theory has been applied taking advantage of the particular topology of the multicellular converter. Then, a hybrid automata has been established to optimize the power production. The maximization of the produced solar energy is achieved by switching between the different operative modes of the hybrid automata, which is conditioned by some invariance and transition conditions. These conditions have been validated by simulation tests under different conditions of temperature and irradiance. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been then evaluated by comparison with standard MPPT techniques numerically and by experimental tests under varying external working conditions. The results have shown the interesting features that the hybrid MPPT technique presents in terms of performance and simplicity for real time implementation.

  19. Photovoltaic-STATCOM with Low Voltage Ride through Strategy and Power Quality Enhancement in a Grid Integrated Wind-PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshman Naik Popavath

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional configurations of power systems are changing due to the greater penetration of renewable energy sources (solar and wind, resulting in reliability issues. At present, the most severe power quality problems in distribution systems are current harmonics, reactive power demands, and the islanding of renewables caused by severe voltage variations (voltage sag and swell. Current harmonics and voltage sag strongly affect the performance of renewable-based power systems. Various conventional methods (passive filters, capacitor bank, and UPS are not able to mitigate harmonics and voltage sag completely. Based on several studies, custom power devices can mitigate harmonics completely and slightly mitigate voltage sags with reactive power supplies. To ensure the generating units remain grid-connected during voltage sags and to improve system operation during abnormal conditions, efficient and reliable utilization of PV solar farm inverter as STATCOMs is needed. This paper elaborates the dynamic performance of a VSC-based PV-STATCOM for power quality enhancement in a grid integrated system and low voltage ride through (LVRT capability. LVRT requirements suggest that the injection of real and reactive power supports grid voltage during abnormal grid conditions. The proposed strategy was demonstrated with MATLAB simulations.

  20. Field Experiments of PV-Thermal Collectors for Residential Application in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental results on Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT solar systems, the commercial photovoltaic (PV panels used as solar absorbers in PVT collectors, which are amorphous and multi-crystalline silicon. Testing was done with outdoor experiments in the climate of Bangkok corresponding to energy consumption behavior of medium size Thai families. The experimental results show that the thermal recovery of amorphous silicon PVT collector is almost the same as that of multi-crystalline silicon PVT collectors while electricity generation of multi crystalline silicon PVT is 1.2 times as much as that of amorphous silicon PVT. The maximum of heat gain from the PVT systems were obtained in March in summer. It was found that PVT collectors of unit area annually produced 1.1 × 103 kWh/m2 .year of heat and 55–83 kWh/m2.year of electricity, respectively. The results show that annual average solar factor of hot water supply is 0.45 for unit collector area. Economical evaluation based on energy costs in Thailand was conducted, which estimated the payback time would be 7 and 14 years for a-Si PVT and mc-Si PV, respectively.

  1. Impact of high penetration of wind and solar PV generation on the country power system load: The case study of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komušanac, Ivan; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 69 scenarios of wind and solar PV as a base technology are analysed with EnergyPLAN model. • Pareto analysis is used for selection of the optimal scenario. • Multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. • Results shows optimal mix of 1.65 GW of wind and 1.6 GW of solar PV. - Abstract: Even though the Republic of Croatia is on track of achieving goals set in the Europe 2020 strategy, to achieve the goals set in the 2030 European framework for climate and energy policies will require more effort. The new 2030 framework calls for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% compared to the 1990 level, yet the Republic of Croatia does not have such an ambitious plan. In times when wind plants and photovoltaic systems have reached grid parity in the majority of European countries, this paper analysed the influence of construction of wind and photovoltaic power plants in order to present the optimal constructing ratio of such systems on the Croatian power system load. Simulations have been conducted in the EnergyPLAN model for the year 2012. After the simulation presented promising scenarios, applying the Pareto analysis showed the optimal scenario for generating electricity from renewables, scenario with the lowest import of electricity, scenario with the lowest CO 2 emissions and with the lowest critical excess electricity production. In addition, all of the scenarios were subjected to a multiple criteria decision analysis in order to find the best overall scenario. After showing that the best overall scenario was 1.65 GW of wind power plants and 1.6 GW of installed PV capacity, a multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. Indeed, all of the simulations proved that PV will have a bigger role in the Republic of Croatia than expected.

  2. Fields of nuclear power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper deals with nuclear power application in fields different from electricity generation, i.e. district heating, sea water desalination, coal gasification and nuclear splitting of water. (RW) [de

  3. Income Trends of Residential PV Adopters: An analysis of household-level income estimates [PowerPoint presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Darghouth, Naim R.; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2018-04-09

    The residential photovoltaic (PV) market has expanded rapidly over the past decade, but questions exist about how equitably that growth has occurred across income groups. Prior studies have investigated this question but are often limited by narrow geographic study regions, now-dated analysis timeframes, or coarse estimates of PV-adopter incomes. At the same time, a spate of new programs and initiatives, as well as innovations in business models and product design, have emerged in recent years with the aim of making solar more accessible and affordable to broader segments of the population. Yet, many of those efforts are proceeding without robust underlying information about the income characteristics of recent residential PV adopters. This work aims to establish basic factual information about income trends among U.S. residential solar adopters, with some emphasis on low- and moderate-income (LMI) households. The analysis is unique in its relatively extensive coverage of the U.S. solar market, relying on Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun dataset, which contains project-level data for the vast majority of all residential PV systems in the country (a subset of which are ultimately included in the analysis sample). This analysis is also unique in its use of household-level income estimates that provide a more-precise characterization of PV-adopter incomes than in most prior studies.

  4. Design of a Reliable Hybrid (PV/Diesel Power System with Energy Storage in Batteries for Remote Residential Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experience acquired with a photovoltaic (PV hybrid system simulated as an alternative to diesel system for a residential home located in Southern Nigeria. The hybrid system was designed to overcome the problem of climate change, to ensure a reliable supply without interruption, and to improve the overall system efficiency (by the integration of the battery bank. The system design philosophy was to maximize simplicity; hence, the system was sized using conventional simulation tool and representative insolation data. The system includes a 15 kW PV array, 21.6 kWh (3600 Ah worth of battery storage, and a 5.4 kW (6.8 kVA generator. The paper features a detailed analysis of the energy flows through the system and quantifies all losses caused by PV charge controller, battery storage round-trip, rectifier, and inverter conversions. In addition, simulation was run to compare PV/diesel/battery with diesel/battery and the results show that the capital cost of a PV/diesel hybrid solution with batteries is nearly three times higher than that of a generator and battery combination, but the net present cost, representing cost over the lifetime of the system, is less than one-half of the generator and battery combination.

  5. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and coal fired power

  6. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  7. Modeling and Control of DC/DC Boost Converter using K-Factor Control for MPPT of Solar PV System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangari, Adithya; Haribabu, Divyanagalakshmi; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the design of a controller for the DC/DC boost converter using K factor control, which is based on modified PI control method, for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of solar PV system. A mathematical model for boost converter based on small signal averaging approach...... is presented. Design of the passive elements of the boost converter as per the system specifications is also illustrated. The performance of the proposed K factor control method is verified with the simulations for MPPT on solar PV system at different atmospheric conditions. A new circuit based model for solar...... PV array, which includes the effect of solar insolation and temperature on PV array output, for the application in power system transient simulations, is also presented. The performance of the PV array model is verified with simulations at different atmospheric conditions. A 160W PV module from BP...

  8. Scheduling of Domestic Water Heater Power Demand for Maximizing PV Self-Consumption Using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for maximizing photo-voltaic (PV) selfconsumption in a household context exploiting the flexible demand of an electric water heater. The predictive controller uses a water heater model and forecast of the hot Water consumption in order...... to predict the future temperature of the water and it manages its state (on and off) according to the forecasted PV production, which are computed starting from forecast of the solar irradiance. Simulations for the proof of concept and for validating the proposed control strategy are proposed. Results...... of the control approach are compared with a traditional thermostatic controller using historical measurements of a 10 kW PV installation. Economic results based on the Italian self consumption tariffs are also reported. The model of the water heater complex is a mixed grey and white box and its parameters have...

  9. Synchronized Pulsed dc - dc Converter as Maximum Power Position Tracker with Wide Load and Insolation Variation for Stand Alone PV System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardik, P. Desai; Ranjan Maheshwari

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the interest focused on employing parallel connected dc-dc converter with high tracking effectiveness under wide variation in environmental conditions (Insolation) and wide load variation. dc-dc converter is an essential part of the stand alone PV system. Paper also presents an approach on how duty cycle for maximum power position (MPP) is adjusted by taking care of varying load conditions and without iterative steps. Synchronized PWM pulses are employed for the converter. High tracking efficiency is achieved with continuous input and inductor current. In this approach, the converter can he utilized in buck as well in boost mode. The PV system simulation was verified and experimental results were in agreement to the presented scheme. (authors)

  10. Optimal Parameter Selection for Support Vector Machine Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm: A Case Study of Grid-Connected PV System Power Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-ming Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the output power of photovoltaic system with nonstationarity and randomness, an output power prediction model for grid-connected PV systems is proposed based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD and support vector machine (SVM optimized with an artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm. First, according to the weather forecast data sets on the prediction date, the time series data of output power on a similar day with 15-minute intervals are built. Second, the time series data of the output power are decomposed into a series of components, including some intrinsic mode components IMFn and a trend component Res, at different scales using EMD. The corresponding SVM prediction model is established for each IMF component and trend component, and the SVM model parameters are optimized with the artificial bee colony algorithm. Finally, the prediction results of each model are reconstructed, and the predicted values of the output power of the grid-connected PV system can be obtained. The prediction model is tested with actual data, and the results show that the power prediction model based on the EMD and ABC-SVM has a faster calculation speed and higher prediction accuracy than do the single SVM prediction model and the EMD-SVM prediction model without optimization.

  11. Optimal Parameter Selection for Support Vector Machine Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm: A Case Study of Grid-Connected PV System Power Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang-Ming; Yang, Shi-Feng; Pan, San-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the output power of photovoltaic system with nonstationarity and randomness, an output power prediction model for grid-connected PV systems is proposed based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and support vector machine (SVM) optimized with an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. First, according to the weather forecast data sets on the prediction date, the time series data of output power on a similar day with 15-minute intervals are built. Second, the time series data of the output power are decomposed into a series of components, including some intrinsic mode components IMFn and a trend component Res, at different scales using EMD. The corresponding SVM prediction model is established for each IMF component and trend component, and the SVM model parameters are optimized with the artificial bee colony algorithm. Finally, the prediction results of each model are reconstructed, and the predicted values of the output power of the grid-connected PV system can be obtained. The prediction model is tested with actual data, and the results show that the power prediction model based on the EMD and ABC-SVM has a faster calculation speed and higher prediction accuracy than do the single SVM prediction model and the EMD-SVM prediction model without optimization.

  12. Methodology for assessment of characteristics of PV water pumping systems using a DC power supply; Metodologia de levantamento de caracteristicas de sistemas fotovoltaicos de bombeamento d'agua utilizando fonte de alimentacao CC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Olga de Castro; Fraidenraich, Naum [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (FAE/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Grupo de Fontes Alternativas de Energia. Dept. de Energia Nuclear], Emails: ocv@ufpe.br, nf@ufpe.br; Galdino, Marco Antonio [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcoag@cepel.br

    2010-07-01

    This article describes a methodology which was used to reduce the time required to perform experimental assessment of characteristic curves (flowrate vs. solar irradiance) of PV water pumping systems showing different configurations. The characteristic curves are proposed to be obtained from two other types of curves: flowrate vs. DC power - measured using a DC power supply adjusted to simulate the operation of the PV panel in the system, and DC power vs. solar irradiance - obtained through outdoors measurements using PV panels. It is demonstrated how is possible to reduce the number of days of outdoor measurements necessary for obtaining these curves when the systems under test show configurations using the same pumping heights or the same PV panels. The flowrates, thus also the daily pumped volumes, calculated using the curves obtained through this methodology are considered the upper limits of system performance. (author)

  13. Numerical analysis on effect of annealing mc-Si ingot grown by DS process for PV application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindan, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Aravinth, K.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-10-01

    Silicon solar cells play a crucial role in Photo voltaic (PV) application. We have numerically investigated thermal stress and normal stress components (Sigma 11, Sigma 22, Sigma 33 and sigma 12) by using finite volume method. The maximum thermal stress has low value at the centre region for 900 K and 700 K annealing temperatures comparing all the cases. The maximum thermal stress at peripheral region is low for 700 K annealing compared to 900 K annealing. The annealing effect of mc-Si ingot normal stress components is discussed. At 700 K annealing temperature the normal stress in 11 and 33 direction has lower maximum and at the 900 K annealing temperature the normal stress in 22 and 12 direction has lower maximum.

  14. Performance Analysis of FLC Controlled PV-Wind Hybrid Power System for dc Load with Real-Time Data in Matlab, Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavan Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power system is a combination of different but complementary energy generation systems based on renewable energies. The Hybrid power system harnesses most of the power from the environmental conditions, reduces the losses and repetitive maintenance, thus improving efficiency and reliability of the system. This is achieved by proper coordination control between the Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper focuses on the implementation of Photovoltaic - Wind hybrid power system with real-time data of environmental conditions. The continuous real-time values of the solar irradiation and wind speed are obtained from the weather monitoring system at the location. The PV will be the primary source of generation during the day and wind generation can act as power conditioning. The Hybrid model is implemented in Matlab Simulink and its performance is examined under variable environmental conditions with a variable resistive load. A scale down experiment set-up of PV-Wind hybrid system is utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed control logic. It has emerged from the simulation and experimental study that the hybrid system implemented with the real-time data maintains the output voltage constant irrespective of environmental conditions and load condition.

  15. Photovoltaics for Buildings Cutting-Edge PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology development for building-integrated applications (commonly called PV for Buildings) is one of the fastest growing areas in the PV industry. Buildings represent a huge potential market for photovoltaics because they consume approximately two-thirds of the electricity consumed in the US. The PV and buildings industries are beginning to work together to address issues including building codes and standards, integration, after-market servicing, education, and building energy efficiency. One of the most notable programs to encourage development of new PV-for-buildings products is the PV:BONUS program, supported by the US Department of Energy. Demand for these products from building designers has escalated since the program was initiated in 1993. This paper presents a range of PV-for-buildings issues and products that are currently influencing today's PV and buildings markets

  16. A case study of utility PV economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.; Hoff, T.; Osborn, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from a detailed study of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) applications within the service area of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. The intent is to better understand the economics and markets for grid-connected PV systems in a utility setting. Research results include: Benefits calculations for utility-owned PV systems at transmission and distribution voltages; How the QuickScreen software package can help utilities investigate the viability of distributed PV; Energy production and capacity credit estimates for fixed and tracking PV systems; Economics and rate impacts of net metering residential PV systems; Market potential estimates for residential rooftop PV systems; and Viability and timing of grid-connected PV commercialization paths

  17. High-Voltage DC-DC Converter Topology for PV Energy Utilization - Investigation and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper exploited the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) energy system with high-voltage (HV) output DC-DC converter. Classical boost converters are used for both renewable energy integration and HV applications, but limited by reducing output/efficiency in performance. Moreover, as parasitic...... elements suppress the power transfer ratio, converter needs to maximize the PV energy utilization. This investigation study focused to include additional parasitic elements (voltage-lift technique) to a standard DC-DC buck converter and to overcome all the above drawbacks to maximize the PV power...

  18. 5bv.3.21 PV led engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    PV-powered lighting systems, light to light systems (L2L), offer outdoor lighting where it is elsewhere cumbersome to enable lighting. Application of these systems at high latitudes, where the difference in day length between summer and winter is large and the solar energy is less requires smart ...

  19. Chaos Quantum-Behaved Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in the PV MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm was put forward in 2006. Despite a faster convergence speed compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, the application of CSO is greatly limited by the drawback of “premature convergence,” that is, the possibility of trapping in local optimum when dealing with nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of local extreme values. In order to surmount the shortcomings of CSO, Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (QCSO algorithm improves the accuracy of the CSO algorithm, because it is easy to fall into the local optimum in the later stage. Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO algorithm is proposed by introducing tent map for jumping out of local optimum in this paper. Secondly, CQCSO has been applied in the simulation of five different test functions, showing higher accuracy and less time consumption than CSO and QCSO. Finally, photovoltaic MPPT model and experimental platform are established and global maximum power point tracking control strategy is achieved by CQCSO algorithm, the effectiveness and efficiency of which have been verified by both simulation and experiment.

  20. Chaos Quantum-Behaved Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in the PV MPPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Wang, Wei; Nie, Haoyao

    2017-01-01

    Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) algorithm was put forward in 2006. Despite a faster convergence speed compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, the application of CSO is greatly limited by the drawback of "premature convergence," that is, the possibility of trapping in local optimum when dealing with nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of local extreme values. In order to surmount the shortcomings of CSO, Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (QCSO) algorithm improves the accuracy of the CSO algorithm, because it is easy to fall into the local optimum in the later stage. Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed by introducing tent map for jumping out of local optimum in this paper. Secondly, CQCSO has been applied in the simulation of five different test functions, showing higher accuracy and less time consumption than CSO and QCSO. Finally, photovoltaic MPPT model and experimental platform are established and global maximum power point tracking control strategy is achieved by CQCSO algorithm, the effectiveness and efficiency of which have been verified by both simulation and experiment.

  1. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  2. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, Chris; DiOrio, Nick; Jordan, Dirk; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-12

    PowerPoint slides for a presentation given at Solar Power International 2016. Presentation includes System Advisor Model (SAM) introduction and battery modeling, bifacial PV modules and modeling, shade modeling and module level power electronics (MLPE), degradation rates, and PVWatts updates and validation.

  4. Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic System for Traffic Light Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic traffic light system is a significant application of renewable energy source. The development of the system is an alternative effort of local authority to reduce expenditure for paying fees to power supplier which the power comes from conventional energy source. Since photovoltaic (PV modules still have relatively low conversion efficiency, an alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT method is applied to the traffic light system. MPPT is intended to catch up the maximum power at daytime in order to charge the battery at the maximum rate in which the power from the battery is intended to be used at night time or cloudy day. MPPT is actually a DC-DC converter that can step up or down voltage in order to achieve the maximum power using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM control. From experiment, we obtained the voltage of operation using MPPT is at 16.454 V, this value has error of 2.6%, if we compared with maximum power point voltage of PV module that is 16.9 V. Based on this result it can be said that this MPPT control works successfully to deliver the power from PV module to battery maximally.

  5. Application of clustering analysis in the prediction of photovoltaic power generation based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    In order to select effective samples in the large number of data of PV power generation years and improve the accuracy of PV power generation forecasting model, this paper studies the application of clustering analysis in this field and establishes forecasting model based on neural network. Based on three different types of weather on sunny, cloudy and rainy days, this research screens samples of historical data by the clustering analysis method. After screening, it establishes BP neural network prediction models using screened data as training data. Then, compare the six types of photovoltaic power generation prediction models before and after the data screening. Results show that the prediction model combining with clustering analysis and BP neural networks is an effective method to improve the precision of photovoltaic power generation.

  6. Comparative performance of PV panels of different technologies over one year of exposure: Application to a coastal Mediterranean region of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenounou, A.; Malek, A.; Aillerie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances of four PV panels of various technologies are compared during one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions. • An original platform and methodology of test allow a real-time scan of several PV panel parameters. • The technologies compared are micromorph silicon, monocrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon. • The performance ratio point out a difference of behavior between the four technologies over one year. • Results are directly exploitable in costal regions of Mediterranean countries. - Abstract: The aim of this contribution is to compare the performance of four PV panels of different technologies for one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions of a coastal region in the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. An original platform of test, especially dedicated for this study is presented describing operations and techniques used for measurements of the pertinent experimental data and for their exploitation. The four panel technologies studied are micromorph silicon (μ-Si), monocrystalline silicon (M-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polycrystalline silicon (Poli-Si). Two types of results are analyzed and presented. The first type is straight forwardly linked to the PV panels standard data calculated experimentally from measurements recorded during one year of exposure and compared with the values provided by the manufacturers in their datasheets. The second type is related to the energy yield in which the corresponding monthly and annual performance ratios of the four PV panels is calculated in two ways, using 1 – the datasheet’s value of Power Max, and 2 – the data providing from experimental campaign. In addition to the general conclusions concerning the fundamental role of the experimental study at a natural site for a good sizing of a renewable energy production system, we extend the analysis and discussion for the specific localization case of southern coastal region of

  7. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  8. FY 1998 report on the results of the New Sunshine Project - Development of the commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. Verification study of the photovoltaic power system - Research on engineering methods for cost effective PV installation (Data book. Survey of examples of PV systems in the world); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system no jissho kenkyu (tashu secchi koho no kenkyu kaihatsu (bessatsu data shu sekai no taiyoko hatsuden system jirei chosa))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting installations of PV system and making use of the unused space for which a rise in the PV demand equal to that in houses, building roofs, etc. is expected, examination/research for much newer forms of land installation are proceeded with, and evaluation/verification of reliability/durability are conducted of new installation processes using thin film solar cells, adhesives, etc. In this fiscal year, for the purpose of contributing to the study to be widely made on various installation processes, the actual survey was conducted of various applications of the system which are being planned and introduced in Japan and abroad. Emphasis was placed on making new forms of installation applicable to Japan clear. Concretely, in addition to the study of new examples, the following were conducted: renewal of existing details of the survey, and electronic filing of system block charts/pictures as a key to the information supply by electronic media such as CD-ROM. Also conducted was a study for translating the contents into English or writing them both in Japanese and English. Further, the database was made newer using these results of the most up-to-date survey, and at the same time, the results were indicated of the statistical analysis of the usage, system form, power generation scale and element equipment of various systems. (NEDO)

  9. Design and performance test of CPC-PV/TE hybrid power generation system in greenhouse.%温室聚光光伏/温差联合发电系统的设计与性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立舒; 李琳; 梁秋艳; 丁修增; 王博林

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of agricultural science and technology, various types of environmental testing equipments and production facilities consume a lot of energy in greenhouse. Therefore, it is important to design a high-efficiency greenhouse power supply device. At the same time, the energy crisis in the 21st century and the air pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels become serious. It can not wait to solve the environmental pollution. Therefore, increasing the development and utilization of solar energy is imminent. Solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable energy, and the study of solar energy development and utilization has become a hot issue nowadays, but in general, its efficiency is low. In order to solve the problem of large fossil energy consumption in the greenhouse and the current inefficient use of solar energy, compound parabolic concentrator-photovoltaic / thermoelectric hybrid power generation system (CPC-PV/TE) based on the characteristics of greenhouse in Northeast China is proposed in the present paper. A system contains CPC, PV/TE hybrid system and flat heat pipe. CPC converges light to the surface of photovoltaic cells. It enhances light irradiation intensity. Photovoltaic cells use the photovoltaic effect principle to generate electricity. Attached to photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric power generator modules convert the excess heat generated by photovoltaic cells power generation to electricity power simultaneously. Flat heat pipe is used as heat transfer element, and then a certain amount of water is used to effectively transfer the rest of the heat. In order to express the performance of CPC-PV/TE hybrid power generation system accurately, a comprehensive energy transfer model has been established, and the efficiency of CPC-PV/TE hybrid system and PV or TE module alone under different levels of irradiation and various water flows has been discussed. The results show that the faster the cooling water flows, the higher the

  10. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores....... In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  11. Integration between electric vehicle charging and PV system to increase self-consumption of an office application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction between a PV plant and office including EV charging is investigated. • An energy analysis on daily driving distance basis of the EV is performed. • An environmental analysis on daily driving distance basis of the EV is considered. - Abstract: The paper analyzes the introduction of a photovoltaic system satisfying electric, space heating and cooling demand of an office building located in southern Italy. The electric load is due to an electric heat pump, used to satisfy space heating and cooling load, a pure electric demand (personal computers, printers, lighting, etc.) and an electric vehicle charged during working hours. Dynamic simulations to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of the analyzed system considering different photovoltaic peak powers (4.5–9.0 kW), electric vehicle distance per day (40–120 km) and charging mode is carried out. The solar based system shows primary energy saving and equivalent carbon dioxide emission reduction higher than 40% in comparison to the reference conventional system based on a natural gas fired boiler, an electric chiller and a diesel car. The results highlight that the solar energy system is more competitive when DC charging system is provided.

  12. Method for estimation of the spectral distribution that influence electric power of PV module; Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku ni eikyo wo ataeru bunko nissha bunpu no suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A method was proposed for estimating the spectral distribution using air mass, precipitable water, and clear indexes which are generally obtainable, and a comparative study was made between the spectral distribution obtained by this method and the measured data using output power of PV modules, etc. as indexes. When solar light comes into the atmosphere, it dissipates receiving scattering/absorption by various gases and aerosols. Direct light component and scattered light component which arrive at the earth surface become functions of air mass and precipitable water. The wavelength distribution of scattered light in cloudy sky is not dependent upon air mass, but affected strongly by absorption band by steam of clouds. By relational equations considered of these, output power and short-circuit current of PV modules are obtained to make a comparison with the measured data. As a result, it was found that this method estimated the spectral distribution with accuracy. Further, seasonal changes in the spectral distribution were well reproduced. The simulation of the module output in Sapporo and Okinawa brought a result that the output in Okinawa is 1.93% larger than in Okinawa. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. PowerLight Corporation Lean Manufacturing, PV Manufacturing R&D Phase I Report: 6 December 2001--31 March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, L; Botkin, J.

    2005-06-01

    PowerLight Corporation (PowerLight) has completed Phase I of its PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, ''PowerGuard Lean Manufacturing,'' Subcontract No. NDO-1-30628-04. The overall technical goal of this project was to reduce the cost of PowerGuard manufacturing while simultaneously improving product quality. This will enable PowerLight to scale up production capacity as the market for PowerGuard continues to grow. Through the introduction of world-class lean manufacturing techniques, PowerLight was to cut out waste in the manufacturing process of PowerGuard. The manufacturing process was to be overhauled with an objective of removing as much as possible those steps that do not add value to the product. Quality of finished goods was also to be improved through the use of statistical process control and error-proofing in the manufacturing process. Factory operations were also to be addressed to streamline those factory activities that support the manufacturing process. This report de tails the progress made toward the above listed goals during the first phase of this subcontract.

  14. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research on engineering methods for cost effective PV installation; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Tashu secchi koho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of engineering methods for photovoltaic power system installation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the survey on applicable fields, various application aspects, applicability, and problems on location and legal regulation were continuously studied for railway, river reservation, lake surface and public facility as promising locations after highway in the last fiscal year. The result pointed out relatively easy possibility of PV power generation of nearly 11,700MW except residence and building fields. (2) On installation technology of solar cell arrays, several models based on various installation conditions, construction methods and system configurations were studied, and various application aspects were proposed by combination of simple design conditions. (3) On test and evaluation of the structural design of array racks, wind tunnel experiments were conducted for structure wall, platform shed and highway sound insulation wall. (4) On basic design of various promising systems, the conceptual design of interconnection systems was carried out assuming applications to highway and railway. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. PV-HYBRID and MINI-GRID. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    design and validation of PV-hybrid sysem technology for rural electrification programmes in remote areas of Europe (Xavier Valive); (17) Analysis of inverter-controlled Island grids - transient simulations with ATP-EMTP and PowerFactory (Martin Braun); (18) Design of a PV-diesel hybrid energy system (William Lawrance); (19) Hybrid storage systems in PV stand alone applications impact on sizing and performance (Julien Labbe); (20) Sizing and analysis of a small hydro PV hybrid system for the rural electrification in developing countries (Joseph Kenfack); (21) Identification of dynamic equivalents for microgrids with high penetration of solar energy using ANNs (F.O. Resende); (22) Constructing village PV hybrid power systems on a wide-scale in Western China: Experience gained (Henrik Bindner); (23) Experiences with large-scale construction of PH hybrid village power systems in Western China (Winfried Klinghammer); (24) A detailed data based analysis of the behaviour of a 10+5+20 KW wind-PV-diesel hybrid sysem (Luis M. Arribas); (25) PV hybrid village electrification in French Guyana (Christian Dumbs); (26) Energy consumption patterns in village PV-diesel-hybrid systems (Javier Munoz); (27) From Subag to Ponelo hybrid photovoltaic-diesel system in Indonesia, lessons learned (Adjat Sudradjat); (28) PV diesel hybrid system in rural Africa - an inter-disciplinary approach (Markus Landau); (29) Making PV-diesel hybrids and PV or wind mini-grids sustainable in remote developing country sites: the Nabouwalu case (Philippe Veyan); (30) Mini-grid for an isolated island sandwip in Bangladesh (B.K. Bala).

  16. Photovoltaic Power Applications in France. National Survey Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick

    2012-01-01

    According to the French observation and statistics office (SOeS, 2012-02), the grid-connected installed photovoltaic (PV) power in France during 2011 was 1 634 MW compared with 817 MW in 2010. The installed grid-connected PV power doubled but the total number of systems decreased by 26 %. The 100 % annual power increase comes mainly from medium power systems (36 kW to 250 kW) contributing to 36 % and large power systems (> 250 kW) representing 46 % of annual installed power. Ground-mounted centralised systems connected to the electricity grid during 2011 are estimated at 402 MW and distributed systems (mainly building applications) reached 1 232 MW. Grid-connected cumulative PV power capacity at the end of 2011 was 2 802 MW (242 295 systems), compared with the 1 168 MW (163 004 systems) at the end of 2010. Building integrated residential systems of less than 3 kW represented 89 % of the total number of installations and 20 % of total cumulative power while systems of power greater than 36 kW represented 3 % of the number of installations and 69 % of total cumulative power capacity. By a decree dated 4 March 2011, a new support system was proposed with a target of 500 MW per year of new projects over the next few years. The government's policy confirmed its priority to focus on building-integrated photovoltaic applications. The new support system introduces two separate mechanisms, based on the power of the installations. Under the first mechanism, for installations on buildings of less than 100 kW, feed-in tariffs are adjusted each quarter based on the total volume of projects submitted during the previous quarter. The second support mechanism involves a bidding system for large roof installations and photovoltaic ground-mounted power plants greater than 100 kW. Market incentives and budget There are three kinds of market incentive: enhanced feed-in tariffs, income tax credits and direct financial subsidies from local authorities. The cost of promotion through

  17. Simulation Tool for Designing off-Grid PV Applications for the Urban Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A barrier for exploiting use of standalone solar lighting for the urban environment seem to be lack of knowledge and lack of available tools for proper dimensioning. In this work, the first part of the development of powerful dimensioning tool is described and initial measurements are presented....

  18. PV based converter with integrated charger for DC micro-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Rima

    This thesis presents a converter topology for photovoltaic panels. This topology minimizes the number of switching devices used thereby reducing power losses that arise from high frequency switching operations. The control strategy is implemented using a simple microcontroller that implements the proportional plus integral control. All the control loops are closed feedback loops hence minimizing error instantaneously and adjusting efficiently to system variations. The energy management between three components, namely, the photovoltaic panel, a battery and a DC link for a microgrid is shown distributed over three modes. These modes are dependent on the irradiance from the sunlight. All three modes are simulated. The maximum power point tracking of the system plays a crutial role in this configuration as it is one of the main challenge tackled by the control system. Various methods of MPPT are discussed and the Perturb and Observe method is employed and is described in detail. Experimental results are shown for the maximum power point tracking of this system with a scaled down version of the panel's actual capability.

  19. Analysis of a Hybrid PV/Thermal Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System for Sports Center Water Heating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the TRNSYS 16 computation environment and the energy performance was evaluated based on year round simulation results. The results show that the system COP can reach 4.1 under the subtropical climate of Hong Kong, and as compared to the conventional heating system, a high fractional factor of energy saving at 67% can be obtained. The energy performances of the same system under different climatic conditions, that include three other cities in France, were analyzed and compared. Economic implications were also considered in this study.

  20. A stochastic method for battery sizing with uninterruptible-power and demand shift capabilities in PV (photovoltaic) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Chee Wei; Green, Tim C.; Hernandez-Aramburo, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic simulation using Monte Carlo technique to size a battery to meet dual objectives of demand shift at peak electricity cost times and outage protection in BIPV (building integrated photovoltaic) systems. Both functions require battery storage and the sizing of battery using numerical optimization is popularly used. However, the weather conditions, outage events and demand peaks are not deterministic in nature. Therefore, the sizing of battery storage capacity should also be based on a probabilistic approach. The Monte Carlo simulation is a rigorous method to sizing BIPV system as it takes into account a real building load profiles, the weather information and the local historical outage distribution. The simulation is split into seasonal basis for the analysis of demand shifting and outage events in order to match the seasonal weather conditions and load profiles. Five configurations of PV (photovoltaic) are assessed that cover different areas and orientations. The simulation output includes the predicted PV energy yield, the amount of energy required for demand management and outage event. Therefore, consumers can base sizing decisions on the historical data and local risk of outage statistics and the success rate of meeting the demand shift required. Finally, the economic evaluations together with the sensitivity analysis and the assessment of customers' outage cost are discussed.

  1. Modified Transformerless Dual Buck Inverter with Improved Lifetime for PV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    (CM) operation. The analyses are verified on a 3 kW system. The results indicated that a capacitor of 30 μF is adequate to achieve a ripple free DC-Bus voltage for a 3 kW inverter. The size of this capacitor is 50 times smaller compared to the original capacitor required by the system. Also, unlike...... the non-neutral point clamped topologies that eliminate the ground leakage current (e.g. HERIC and H5), the proposed system can attain grid-codes under non-unity power-factor and low solar irradiance level conditions....

  2. Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Study on large-scale PV power supply system; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyo energy kyokyu system no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on large-scale PV power supply systems in fiscal 1994. (1) On optimization of large-scale systems, the conceptual design of the model system was carried out which supposes a large-scale integrated PV power generation system in desert area. As a result, a pair of 250kW generation system was designed as minimum one consisting power unit. Its frame and construction method were designed considering weather conditions in the inland of China. (2) On optimization of large-scale transmission systems, as large-scale power transmission systems for PV power generation, the following were studied: AC aerial transmission, DC aerial transmission, superconducting transmission, hydrogen gas pipeline, and LH2 tanker transport. (3) On the influence of large-scale systems, it was estimated that emission control is expected by substituting PV power generation for coal fired power generation, the negative influence on natural environment cannot be supposed, and the favorable economic effect is expected as influence on social environment. 4 tabs.

  3. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Mumtaz

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG. A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  4. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  5. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms. PMID:28877191

  6. Optimized controllers for enhancing dynamic performance of PV interface system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Attia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic performance of PV interface system can be improved by optimizing the gains of the Proportional–Integral (PI controller. In this work, gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm are utilized to optimal tuning of PI controller gains. Performance comparison between the PV system with optimized PI gains utilizing different techniques are carried out. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the system is studied under hypothetical sudden variations in irradiance. The examination of the proposed techniques for optimal tuning of PI gains is conducted using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. The main contribution of this work is investigating the dynamic performance of PV interfacing system with application of gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm for optimal PI parameters tuning. Keywords: Photovoltaic power systems, Gravitational search algorithm, Harmony search algorithm, Genetic algorithm, Artificial intelligence

  7. Optimal Sizing and Control Strategy of renewable hybrid systems PV-Diesel Generator-Battery: application to the case of Djanet city of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Yahiaoui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for optimal sizing of hybrid system consisting of a Photovoltaic (PV panel, diesel generator, Battery banks and load is considered in this paper. To this end a novel approach is proposed. More precisely a methodology for the design and simulation of the behavior of Hybrid system PV-Diesel-Battery banks to electrify an isolated rural site in southern Algeria Illizi (Djanet. This methodology is based on the concept of the loss power supply probability. Sizing and simulation are performed using MATLAB. The technique developed in this study is to determine the number of photovoltaic panels, diesel generators and batteries needed to cover the energy deficit and respond to the growing rural resident energy demand. The obtained results demonstrate the superior capabilities of this proposed method.

  8. Preliminary Feasibility Study on Application of Very Large Scale-Photovoltaic Power Generation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xuehao; Zhou Xiaoxin; Bai Xiaomin; Zhang Wentao

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy photovoltaic power generation is hopeful to be applied in a large amount and possesses a certain proportion in the structure of energy in the future. In this paper, based on the forecasting of electric load demand and energy structure of power generation in the middle of 21century, the pictures of VLS-PV power generation is composed, the operation characteristic of VLS-PV power generation and the adaptability of electric power grid for it is analyzed, the ways for transmitting large amount of PV power and the economic and technical bottlenecks for applying VLS-PV power generation are discussed. Finally, the steps and suggestions for developing VLS-PV power generation and its electric power system in China are proposed.

  9. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  10. A practical multi-objective design approach for optimum exhaust heat recovery from hybrid stand-alone PV-diesel power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Moslem; Kim, Joong Hoon; Hooshyar, Danial; Yousefi, Milad; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Ahmad, Rodina Binti

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat recovery exchanger is designed based on practical conditions of a hybrid power system. • Off-the-grid electricity system modeling and analysis using micro-grid analysis software HOMER. • NSGA-II is used for the multi-objective design optimization task. • A new local search is proposed to incorporate the engineering knowledge in NSGA-II. • The proposed approach outperforms the existing ones. - Abstract: Integration of solar power and diesel generators (DGs) together with battery storage has proven to be an efficient choice for stand-alone power systems (SAPS). For higher energy efficiency, heat recovery from exhaust gas of the DG can also be employed to supply all or a portion of the thermal energy demand. Although the design of such heat recovery systems (HRSs) has been studied, the effect of solar power integration has not been taken into account. In this paper, a new approach for practical design of these systems based on varying engine loads is presented. Fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) equipped with a novel local search was used for the design process, considering conflicting objectives of annual energy recovery and total cost of the system, and six design variables. An integrated power system, designed for a remote SAPS, was used to evaluate the design approach. The optimum power supply system was first designed using the commercial software Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER), based on power demand and global solar energy in the region. Heat recovery design was based on the outcome of HOMER for DG hourly load, considering different power scenarios. The proposed approach improves the annual heat recovery of the PV/DG/battery system by 4%, PV/battery by 1.7%, and stand-alone DG by 1.8% when compared with a conventional design based on nominal DG load. The results prove that the proposed approach is effective and that load calculations should be taken into account prior to

  11. Industrial Applications of Pulsed Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Koichi; Katsuki, Sunao

    Recent progress of the industrial applications of pulsed power is reviewed in this paper. Repetitively operated pulsed power generators with a moderate peak power have been developed for industrial applications. These generators are reliable and low maintenance. Development of the pulsed power generators helps promote industrial applications of pulsed power for such things as food processing, medical treatment, water treatment, exhaust gas treatment, ozone generation, engine ignition, ion implantation and others. Here, industrial applications of pulsed power are classified by application for biological effects, for pulsed streamer discharges in gases, for pulsed discharges in liquid or liquid-mixture, and for bright radiation sources.

  12. Photovoltaics: PV takes off the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Ray; Gregory, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Despite historical ups and downs, there is still ambition to bring increasingly efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems to the market. PV for major remote telecommunications systems is now an established part of the market, many mobile phone systems are powered by PV and there is potential for increased use of home solar systems, especially in developing countries. Over the past few years, building-integrated PV (BIPV) has been on the increase. In 1999, global production from PV exceeded 200 MW and the UK installed capacity was greater than 1 MW. BIPV is a fast growing market and its characteristics and advantages are discussed. PV installations at Nottingham University, Greenwich Pavilion, BP Amoco Sunbury, Baglan Bay, BP filling stations, and Sainsbury's are described

  13. PV monitoring at Jubilee Campus - Nottingham University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffat, S.B.; Gan, G.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project monitoring the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) modules integrated in the roofs of atria to meet the energy consumption needs of ventilation fans in the academic buildings at the Jubilee Campus of the University of Nottingham. Details are given of the instrumentation of one atrium to allow the monitoring the effectiveness of the ventilation in cooling the PV arrays integrated in the atrium roof, the economic analysis of the benefit of cooling the PV system, and the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to predict the performance of the atrium. The design of the PV system, the calculated system efficiency, the high cost of atrium integrated PV power supplies, the periodic failure of the inverters, and the overheating of the PV array and the atrium space in the summer are discussed.

  14. Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Management Performance of MEPCM Modules for PV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yang Huang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of photovoltaic modules decreases as the cell temperature increases. It is necessary to have an adequate thermal management mechanism for a photovoltaic module, especially when combined with a building construction system. This study aims to investigate via computational fluid dynamics simulations the heat transfer characteristics and thermal management performance of microencapsulated phase change material modules for photovoltaic applications under temporal variations of daily solar irradiation. The results show that the aspect ratio of the microencapsulated phase change material layer has significant effects on the heat transfer characteristics and the overall thermal performance of the two cases examined with different melting points (26 °C and 34 °C are approximately the same.

  15. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  16. PV Module Reliability Workshop | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Cara Fagerholm, David M. Burns, Timothy J. Peshek, Laura S. Bruckman, Roger H. French Backsheet Chen, C. H. Hsueh, W. J. Hsieh Accurately Measuring PV Power Loss Due to Soiling-Michael Gostein and Walters, Stephen Barkaszi Tracking PV Changes: Bridging Between Thin-Film Cells and Modules-Russell

  17. Experimental Implementation of a Low-Cost Single Phase Five-Level Inverter for Autonomous PV System Applications Without Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Nouaiti, Ayoub; Saad, Abdallah; Mesbahi, Abdelouahed; Khafallah, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the design and the implementation of a low-cost single phase five-level inverter for photovoltaic applications. The proposed multilevel inverter is composed of a simple boost converter, a switched-capacitor converter, and an H-bridge converter. An efficient control method which associates a closed-loop regulation method with a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied in order to allow the proposed multilevel inverter to transfer power energy from solar ...

  18. Analysis of output power and capacity reduction in electrical storage facilities by peak shift control of PV system with bifacial modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin’ya; Konno, Daisuke; Utsugi, Yuta; Morel, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of a large-scale power plant using bifacial solar cell is described. • Conversion efficiency of bifacial photovoltaics obtained using 3D-CAD modeling. • Power supply of bifacial PV can be matched with demand by adjusting the orientation. - Abstract: Bifacial photovoltaics are widely investigated with the aim of reducing the amount of silicon used and increasing conversion efficiencies. The output power of bifacial photovoltaics depends on the quantity of solar radiation incident on the reverse face. Furthermore, controlling the orientation can distribute the times of peak power output in the morning and afternoon to better match the demand. In this study, the demand patterns of individual houses or the whole Hokkaido region were analyzed assuming the substitution of a conventional large-scale electric power system with one using bifacial photovoltaics. The supply–demand balances and electrical storage capacities were investigated. When comparing a large scale solar power plant (mega-solar power plant) using monofacial photovoltaics or vertical bifacial photovoltaics (in which the orientation could be adjusted), the supply–demand could be better balanced for individual houses in the latter case, thereby allowing the storage capacity to be reduced. A bifacial solar module was modeled by 3D-CAD (three dimensional computer aided design) and thermal fluid analysis. The module temperature distribution of bifacial photovoltaics was calculated with respect to the environmental conditions (wind flow, direct and diffuse solar radiation, etc.) and internal heat generation, as well as the orientation of the solar panels. Furthermore, the output power of bifacial photovoltaics can be easily obtained from the analysis result of modular temperature distribution and the relation between temperature and output power

  19. The sunstone – an intelligent platform for pv led lighting in the urban environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Harboe, Rene Kirstein

    and maintenance. Such markets are interesting for solar energy powered LED applications since the additional price due to the PV and LEDs are hugely offset by the savings of avoiding digging up and repaving the road when laying a cable to the grid and avoid the investment and man-power cost of replacing light...

  20. Optimization of SiC-based H5 and conergy-NPC transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saridakis, Stefanos; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The transformerless dc/ac inverters are critical components in the rapidly growing market of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) applications. They are synthesized by combining available solutions in terms of the power-section topology, power-semiconductors manufacturing technology, and structure...

  1. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  2. Large scale PV plants - also in Denmark. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, P [PA Energy, Malling (Denmark); Vedde, J [SiCon. Silicon and PV consulting, Birkeroed (Denmark)

    2011-04-15

    Large scale PV (LPV) plants, plants with a capacity of more than 200 kW, has since 2007 constituted an increasing share of the global PV installations. In 2009 large scale PV plants with cumulative power more that 1,3 GWp were connected to the grid. The necessary design data for LPV plants in Denmark are available or can be found, although irradiance data could be improved. There seems to be very few institutional barriers for LPV projects, but as so far no real LPV projects have been processed, these findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The fast growing number of very large scale solar thermal plants for district heating applications supports these findings. It has further been investigated, how to optimize the lay-out of LPV plants. Under the Danish irradiance conditions with several winter months with very low solar height PV installations on flat surfaces will have to balance the requirements of physical space - and cost, and the loss of electricity production due to shadowing effects. The potential for LPV plants in Denmark are found in three main categories: PV installations on flat roof of large commercial buildings, PV installations on other large scale infrastructure such as noise barriers and ground mounted PV installations. The technical potential for all three categories is found to be significant and in the range of 50 - 250 km2. In terms of energy harvest PV plants will under Danish conditions exhibit an overall efficiency of about 10 % in conversion of the energy content of the light compared to about 0,3 % for biomass. The theoretical ground area needed to produce the present annual electricity consumption of Denmark at 33-35 TWh is about 300 km2 The Danish grid codes and the electricity safety regulations mention very little about PV and nothing about LPV plants. It is expected that LPV plants will be treated similarly to big wind turbines. A number of LPV plant scenarios have been investigated in detail based on real commercial offers and

  3. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1PV Deployment Analysis for New York City we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2. A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3. Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New York City summarizes common concerns of utility engineers and network experts about interconnecting PV systems to secondary networks. This section also contains detailed descriptions of nine solutions, including advantages and disadvantages, potential impacts, and road maps for deployment. Section 4. Utility Application Process Reviewlooks at utility interconnection application processes across the country and identifies administrative best practices for efficient PV interconnection.

  4. Handbook of power systems engineering with power electronics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hase, Yoshihide

    2012-01-01

    Formerly known as Handbook of Power System Engineering, this second edition provides rigorous revisions to the original treatment of systems analysis together with a substantial new four-chapter section on power electronics applications. Encompassing a whole range of equipment, phenomena, and analytical approaches, this handbook offers a complete overview of power systems and their power electronics applications, and presents a thorough examination of the fundamental principles, combining theories and technologies that are usually treated in separate specialised fields, in a single u

  5. Voltage Gain Derivation Based on Energy-Balanced Criterion for a Novel Hybrid-Input PV-Wind Power Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies energy-balanced criterion to a novel hybrid-input PV-wind power conversion system (HPWPCS for voltage gain derivation. With the energy-balanced concept, complicated mathematical problems related to voltage gain derivation can be readily resolved. Based on the derived results, it is proven that the proposed HPWPCS is able to process two different kinds of renewable energy resources simultaneously. Even though the HPWPCS includes seven capacitors and three magnetic components, its voltage gain still can be found by the mathematical analysis. In the theoretical derivation, only the energy status of output inductor is dealt with such that complicated derivation procedure is avoided. This analysis method can also be applied to other hybrid green-energy conversion systems. In this paper, a 200 W 50 kHz prototype of HPWPCS is built and examined to verify the mathematical results.

  6. High index glass thin film processing for photonics and photovoltaic (PV) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuu, Okechukwu Anthony

    To favorably compete with fossil-fuel technology, the greatest challenge for thin film solar-cells is to improve efficiency and reduce material cost. Thickness scaling to thin film reduces material cost but affects the light absorption in the cells; therefore a concept that traps incident photons and increases its optical path length is needed to boost absorption in thin film solar cells. One approach is the integration of low symmetric gratings (LSG), using high index material, on either the front-side or backside of 30 um thin c-Si cells. In this study, Multicomponent TeO2--Bi2O 3--ZnO (TBZ) glass thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering under different oxygen flow rates. The influences of oxygen flow rate on the structural and optical properties of the resulting thin films were investigated. The structural origin of the optical property variation was studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that TBZ glass thin film is a suitable material for front side LSG material photovoltaic and photonics applications due to their amorphous nature, high refractive index (n > 2), broad band optical transparency window, low processing temperature. We developed a simple maskless method to pattern sputtered tellurite based glass thin films using unconventional agarose hydrogel mediated wet etching. Conventional wet etching process, while claiming low cost and high throughput, suffers from reproducibility and pattern fidelity issues due to the isotropic nature of wet chemical etching when applied to glasses and polymers. This method overcomes these challenges by using an agarose hydrogel stamp to mediate a conformal etching process. In our maskless method, agarose hydrogel stamps are patterned following a standard soft lithography and replica molding process from micropatterned masters and soaked in a chemical etchant. The micro-scale features on the stamp are

  7. PV-CAD: an integrated tool for designing PV facades; PV-CAD - Ein integriertes Werkzeug zur Auslegung von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, H.; Viotto, M. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany); Esser, M.; Pukrop, D. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Abt. Energie- und Halbleiterforschung; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    PV-CAD provides PV system planners with a practice-oriented tool for an efficient design of PV facades. Being compatible with the standard programmes of the architects` and electrical engineering sectors it can be used on already existing systems and allows the user to draw on previously acquired knowedge. Its open interfaces permit the integration of further design tools. PV CAD works under Microsoft Windows for which it has the necessary graphic user interface. Its compliance to PC standards opens up a wide range of applications and permits its use also on inexpensive computers. Thanks to its promotion by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology under the research project ``Computer programmes for the design of photovoltaic facades`` PV-CAD is available at a moderate price. PV-CAD permits an efficient planning of solar facades and therefore has the potential to stimulate the use of PV on buildings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit PV-CAD steht dem Anlagenplaner ein anwendungsorientiertes Werkzeug zur Verfuegung, das eine rationelle Auslegung von PV-Fassaden ermoeglicht. Die Kompatibilitaet zu Standardprogrammen aus dem Architektur- und Elektrosektor erlaubt die Nutzung bereits vorhandener Systeme und damit erworbener Kenntnisse. Offene Schnittstellen gestatten die Einbindung weiterer Entwurfswerkzeuge. PV-CAD arbeitet unter Microsoft-Windows und verfuegt ueber die entsprechende grafische Benutzerschnittstelle. Die Kompatibilitaet zum PC-Standard eroeffnet eine sehr breite Anwenderbasis und ermoeglicht den Einsatz des Programms auch auf preiswerten Rechnern. Aufgrund der Foerderung durch das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts `Rechnerprogramm zur Auslegung von Photovoltaik-Fassaden` steht PV-CAD preiswert zur Verfuegung. PV-CAD ermoeglicht eine effiziente Planung von Solarfassaden und kann daher dem PV-Einsatz in Gebaeuden weitere Impulse geben. (orig.)

  8. A solar PV augmented hybrid scheme for enhanced wind power generation through improved control strategy for grid connected doubly fed induction generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adikanda Parida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wind power generation scheme using a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG augmented with solar PV has been proposed. A reactive power-based rotor speed and position estimation technique with reduced machine parameter sensitivity is also proposed to improve the performance of the DFIG controller. The estimation algorithm is based on model reference adaptive system (MRAS, which uses the air gap reactive power as the adjustable variable. The overall generation reliability of the wind energy conversion system can be considerably improved as both solar and wind energy can supplement each other during lean periods of either of the sources. The rotor-side DC-link voltage and active power generation at the stator terminals of the DFIG are maintained constant with minimum storage battery capacity using single converter arrangement without grid-side converter (GSC. The proposed scheme has been simulated and experimentally validated with a practical 2.5 kW DFIG using dSPACE CP1104 module which produced satisfactory results.

  9. Solar radiation - to - power generation models for one-axis tracking PV system with on-site measurements from Eskisehir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Tansu; Başaran Filik, Ümmühan; Nezih Gerek, Ömer

    2017-11-01

    In this study, new analytic models are proposed for mapping on-site global solar radiation values to electrical power output values in solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. The model extraction is achieved by simultaneously recording solar radiation and generated power from fixed and tracking panels, each with capacity of 3 kW, in Eskisehir (Turkey) region. It is shown that the relation between the solar radiation and the corresponding electric power is not only nonlinear, but it also exhibits an interesting time-varying characteristic in the form of a hysteresis function. This observed radiation-to-power relation is, then, analytically modelled with three piece-wise function parts (corresponding to morning, noon and evening times), which is another novel contribution of this work. The model is determined for both fixed panels and panels with a tracking system. Especially the panel system with a dynamic tracker produces a harmonically richer (with higher values in general) characteristic, so higher order polynomial models are necessary for the construction of analytical solar radiation models. The presented models, characteristics of the hysteresis functions, and differences in the fixed versus solar-tracking panels are expected to provide valuable insight for further model based researches.

  10. Double-layer capacitors as dynamic stores for PV applications. Final report; Doppelschichtkondensatoren als dynamische Speicher fuer PV-Anwendungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willer, B.; Knorr, R.; Broeker, C.; Burger, B.; Wollny, M.

    1999-07-01

    Double layer capacitors are the system of choice whenever a large number of cycles and high capacity are required. They have the advantages of high cyclic strength, high capacity, freedom of servicing, insensitivity to high temperatures and long life. Drawbacks are low energy density, high self-discharge and high cost.Applications in water pumps, pathfinders and roller blind control systems were investigated. [German] Mit den Ergebnissen steht ein detailliertes Wissen ueber den weltweiten Entwicklungsstand und die physikalischen Eigenschaften von Doppelschichtkondensatoren zur Verfuegung. Ihre Eigenschaften wurden in Bezug auf moegliche photovoltaische Anwendungen hin analysiert. Anwendungsfehlder ergeben sich vorzugsweise dann, wenn hohe Zyklenzahl und Leistungsfaehigkeit gefordert werden. Die Vorteile des neuen Energiespeichers sind seine hohe Zyklenfestigkeit und Leistungsfaehigkeit, seine Wartungsfreiheit, Temperaturunempfindlichkeit und lange Lebensdauer. Ihnen stehen die Nachteile einer geringen Energiedichte, hohen Selbstentladung und hoher Kosten gegenueber. Eine deutliche Steigerung der Gesamteffizienz von photovoltaischen Versorgungseinheiten beim Einsatz von Doppelschichtkondensatoren ergeben energetische Simulationen unterschiedlicher Systeme. Fuer ausgewaehlte photovoltaisch versorgte Anwendungen konnte die Einsatzfaehigkeit von Doppelschichtkondensatoren in Feldtests erprobt und nachgewiesen werden. Wasserpumpensysteme, Pathfinders und eine Rolladensteuerung fuer ein Fenster wurden getestet. Der Einsatz von Doppelschichtkondensatoren zur weiteren Verbreitung photovoltaischer Anwendungen ist bereits heute fuer spezielle Anwendungen sinnvoll und wirtschaftlich. Mit weiter fallenden Preisen fuer die Kondensatoren und der Entwicklung von Kondensatorsystemen mit hoeheren Spannungen werden weitere Anwendungsfelder hinzukommen. Die Basis zur Entwicklung der notwendigen Systemtechnik und ihrer Demonstration in Feldversuchen ist durch die Ergebnisse des

  11. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  12. Prospect of wind-PV-battery hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Sanjoy Kumar; Ghosh, Himangshu Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    A pre-feasibility of wind-PV-battery hybrid system has been performed for a small community in the east-southern part of Bangladesh. Solar radiation resources have been assessed from other meteorological parameters like sunshine duration and cloud cover as measured radiation data were not available at the site. The predicted monthly averaged daily global radiation over Chittagong is 4.36 kWh/m 2 /day. Measured wind speed at the site varies from 3 m/s to 5 m/s. For few months and hours the speed is below the cut in speeds of the available turbines in market. The hybrid system analysis has showed that for a small community consuming 53,317 kWh/year the cost energy is 0.47USD/kWh with 10% annual capacity of shortage and produces 89,151 kWh/year in which 53% electricity comes from wind and the remaining from solar energy. The sensitivity analysis showed that the hybrid system for the community is compatible with the 8 km-12 km grid extension depending on small variation of solar radiation and wind speed over the district whereas the proposed site is more away from the upper limit. Such a hybrid system will reduce about 25 tCO 2 /yr green house gases (GHG) emission in the local atmosphere.

  13. An Optimal Current Controller Design for a Grid Connected Inverter to Improve Power Quality and Test Commercial PV Inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algaddafi, Ali; Altuwayjiri, Saud A; Ahmed, Oday A; Daho, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Grid connected inverters play a crucial role in generating energy to be fed to the grid. A filter is commonly used to suppress the switching frequency harmonics produced by the inverter, this being passive, and either an L- or LCL-filter. The latter is smaller in size compared to the L-filter. But choosing the optimal values of the LCL-filter is challenging due to resonance, which can affect stability. This paper presents a simple inverter controller design with an L-filter. The control topology is simple and applied easily using traditional control theory. Fast Fourier Transform analysis is used to compare different grid connected inverter control topologies. The modelled grid connected inverter with the proposed controller complies with the IEEE-1547 standard, and total harmonic distortion of the output current of the modelled inverter has been just 0.25% with an improved output waveform. Experimental work on a commercial PV inverter is then presented, including the effect of strong and weak grid connection. Inverter effects on the resistive load connected at the point of common coupling are presented. Results show that the voltage and current of resistive load, when the grid is interrupted, are increased, which may cause failure or damage for connecting appliances.

  14. Green Application for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Most space vehicle auxiliary power units (APUs) use hydrazine propellant for generating power. Hydrazine is a toxic, hazardous fuel that requires special safety equipment and processes for handling and loading. In recent years, there has been development of two green propellants (less toxic) that could enable their use in APUs. The Swedish government, in concert with the Swedish Space Corporation, has developed a propellant based on ammonium dinitramide (LMP-103S) that was flown on the Prisma spacecraft in 2010. The United States Air Force (USAF) has been developing a propellant based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (AFM315E) that is scheduled to fly on the Green Propellant Infusion Mission in the spring of 2016 to demonstrate apogee and reaction control thrusters. However, no one else in the Agency is currently pursuing use of green propellants for application to the APUs. Per the TA-01 Launch Propulsion Roadmap, the Space Technology Mission Directorate had identified the need to have a green propellant APU by 2015. This is our motivation for continuing activities.

  15. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications by using two-level DC/DC boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moamaei, Parvin

    Recently, photovoltaic (PV) generation is becoming increasingly popular in industrial applications. As a renewable and alternative source of energy they feature superior characteristics such as being clean and silent along with less maintenance problems compared to other sources of the energy. In PV generation, employing a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is essential to obtain the maximum available solar energy. Among several proposed MPPT techniques, the Perturbation and Observation (P&O;) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods are adopted in this work. The components of the MPPT control system which are P&O; and MPC algorithms, PV module and high gain DC-DC boost converter are simulated in MATLAB Simulink. They are evaluated theoretically under rapidly and slowly changing of solar irradiation and temperature and their performance is shown by the simulation results, finally a comprehensive comparison is presented.

  16. Experimental validation of easy algebraic models for power estimation of PV modules; Validacion experimental de metodos algebraicos sencillos de estimacion de la potencia maxima de modulos fotovoltaicos de siclicio cristalinoa Sol real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, C. M.; Aguilera, T. J.; Nofuentes, G. G.; Alvarez, E. M.; Castro, G. M. A.

    2004-07-01

    From electrical parameters of a PV module measured in conditions referred to as standard test conditions (STC, or standard reporting conditions, SRC) it is possible to predict its behaviour under natural sunlight, through numerical or algebraic methods. Some simple algebraic methods are experimentally compared in this work. Eventually, it is determined the method that fits best the empirical data concerning maximum power and energy yield of a calibrated m-Si PV module sited in the city of Jaen (Spain) from October 2003 to May 2004. (Author)

  17. Reliability Assessment of Transformerless PV Inverters considering Mission Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the small volume and high efficiency, transformerless inverters have gained much popularity in grid-connected PV applications, where minimizing leakage current injection is mandatory. This can be achieved by either modifying the modulation schemes or adding extra power switching devices, resulting in an uneven distribution of the power losses on the switching devices. Consequently, the device thermal loading is redistributed and thus may alter the entire inverter reliability performance, especially under a long-term operation. In this consideration, this paper assesses the device reliability of three transformerless inverters under a yearly mission profile (i.e., solar irradiance and ambient temperature. The mission profile is translated to device thermal loading, which is used for lifetime prediction. Comparison results reveal the lifetime mismatches among the power switching devices operating under the same condition, which offers new thoughts for a robust design and a reliable operation of grid-connected transformerless PV inverters with high efficiency.

  18. Green Applications for Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit...

  19. Electric power system applications of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Structure of a Generic Electric Power System  Power System Models  Power System Control Power System Security Assessment  Power System Optimization as a Function of Time  Review of Optimization Techniques Applicable to Power Systems Electric Power System Models  Complex Power Concepts Three-Phase Systems Per Unit Representation  Synchronous Machine Modeling Reactive Capability Limits Prime Movers and Governing Systems  Automatic Gain Control Transmission Subsystems  Y-Bus Incorporating the Transformer Effect  Load Models  Available Transfer Capability  Illustrative Examples  Power

  20. PV System Component Fault and Failure Compilation and Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Lavrova, Olga; Gooding, Renee Lynne

    2018-02-01

    This report describes data collection and analysis of solar photovoltaic (PV) equipment events, which consist of faults and fa ilures that occur during the normal operation of a distributed PV system or PV power plant. We present summary statistics from locations w here maintenance data is being collected at various intervals, as well as reliability statistics gathered from that da ta, consisting of fault/failure distributions and repair distributions for a wide range of PV equipment types.

  1. Assessing the need for better forecasting and observability of pv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    In its review of the challenges and opportunities associated with massive deployment of solar PV generation, the Grid integration working group of the ETIP PV identified forecasting and observability as critical technologies for the planning and operation of the power system with large PV...... penetration. In this white paper ETIP PV set out to spell out in more details what features are needed from these technologies and what is the state of the art....

  2. An Enhanced Droop Control Scheme for Resilient Active Power Sharing in Paralleled Two-Stage PV Inverter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    Traditional droop-controlled systems assume that the generators are able to provide sufficient power as required. This is however not always true, especially in renewable systems, where the energy sources (e.g., photovoltaic source) may not be able to provide enough power (or even loss of power...... generation) due to the intermittency. In that case, unbalance in active power generation may occur among the paralleled systems. Additionally, most droop-controlled systems have been assumed to be a single dc-ac inverter with a fixed dc input source. The dc-dc converter as the front-end of a two...

  3. Simplified life-cycle analysis of PV systems in buildings: present situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankl, P.; Masini, A.; Gamberale, M.; Toccaceli, D.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings shows several advantages compared to conventional PV power plants. The main objectives of the present study are the quantitative evaluation of the benefits of building-integrated PV systems over their entire life-cycle and the identification of best solutions to maximise their energy efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential. In order to achieve these objectives, a simplified life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been carried out. Firstly, a number of existing applications have been studied. Secondly, a parametric analysis of possible improvements in the balance-of-system (BOS) has been developed. Finally, the two steps have been combined with the analysis of crystalline silicon technologies. Results are reported in terms of several indicators: energy pay-back time, CO 2 yield and specific CO 2 emissions. The Indicators show that the integration of PV systems in buildings clearly increases the environmental benefits of present PV technology. These benefits will further increase with future PV technologies. Future optimised PV roof-integrated systems are expected to have an energy pay-back time of around 1-5 years (1 year with heat recovery) and to save during their lifetime more than 20 times the amount of CO 2 emitted during their manufacturing (34 times with heat recovery). (Author)

  4. Accident and everyday use for small PV power supply system. 2; Saigaiji ken`yo kogata taiyoko hatsuden system. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, S.; Sano, N.; Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study is under way for the development of a small power source system capable of supplying power to public facilities and home appliances at normal times and capable of turning immediately into a self-sustained power source in case of emergency. This study discusses a power source that is a combination of solar cell modules and a storage battery, which is subjected to analysis for its match with a light or a data-processing computer imposed as a load on the power source. In the experiment, the power source consists of solar cell modules and a rectangular wave inverter. The battery is a 12V/28Ah automotive battery, the solar cells are two 75W (17V/4.4A) modules, and the load is a fluorescent lamp, fan, electric bulb, or a computer. It is found that the system can operate near the maximum power point of the solar cell modules when the load is light and that the system still works on even when the load consumes more than what the solar cells module produce, this thanks to the battery serving as a backup. In the future, a test-dedicated small power source now under construction will be put to continuous operation for further study. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. PowerFactory applications for power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive set of guidelines and applications of DIgSILENT PowerFactory, an advanced power system simulation software package, for different types of power systems studies. Written by specialists in the field, it combines expertise and years of experience in the use of DIgSILENT PowerFactory with a deep understanding of power systems analysis. These complementary approaches therefore provide a fresh perspective on how to model, simulate and analyse power systems. It presents methodological approaches for modelling of system components, including both classical and non-

  6. A Power Series Expansion and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei

    2006-01-01

    Using the power series solution of a differential equation and the computation of a parametric integral, two elementary proofs are given for the power series expansion of (arcsin x)[squared], as well as some applications of this expansion.

  7. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Winfried [RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-23

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  8. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  9. Can hybrid solar-fossil power plants mitigate CO2 at lower cost than PV or CSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2013-03-19

    Fifteen of the United States and several nations require a portion of their electricity come from solar energy. We perform an engineering-economic analysis of hybridizing concentrating solar thermal power with fossil fuel in an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) generator. We construct a thermodynamic model of an ISCC plant in order to examine how much solar and fossil electricity is produced and how such a power plant would operate, given hourly solar resource data and hourly electricity prices. We find that the solar portion of an ISCC power plant has a lower levelized cost of electricity than stand-alone solar power plants given strong solar resource in the US southwest and market conditions that allow the capacity factor of the solar portion of the power plant to be above 21%. From a local government perspective, current federal subsidies distort the levelized cost of electricity such that photovoltaic electricity is slightly less expensive than the solar electricity produced by the ISCC. However, if the cost of variability and additional transmission lines needed for stand-alone solar power plants are taken into account, the solar portion of an ISCC power plant may be more cost-effective.

  10. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  11. Performance Comparison between ĆUK and SEPIC Converters for Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Incremental Conductance Technique in Solar Power Applications

    OpenAIRE

    James Dunia; Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important energy resources since it is clean, pollution free, and endless. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic output power, irrespective the variations of temperature and radiation conditions. This paper presents a comparison between Ćuk and SEPIC converter in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) system. In the paper, advantages and disadvantages of both converter...

  12. Community renewable energy in Panama: a sustainability assessment of the “Boca de Lura” PV-Wind-Battery hybrid power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madriz-Vargas Rolando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of a community renewable energy project implemented in the community of “Boca de Lura” located in rural Panama. This is a 2.17 kW stand-alone PV-Wind-Battery hybrid power system supplying energy to a local school also serving as a community facility. A novel sustainability assessment framework is used to examine the Boca de Lura experience and future perspectives for the power system and the project as a whole. The main challenges for Boca de Lura are discussed and recommendations to overcome some of the obstacles encountered are provided. Findings suggest that, even though the project was successfully implemented, its long-term operation is jeopardized due to non-technical aspects rather than technical ones. A potential solution is upgrading the stand-alone system into a minigrid; however, more studies and external advice are required to understand the implications for Boca de Lura, local institutions and possible national and international sponsors.

  13. Optimization of PV-based energy production by dynamic PV-panel/inverter configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    This paper investigates the possible increase in annual energy production of a PV system with more than one MPPT (maximum power point tracker) input channels under Nordic illumination conditions, in case a concept of dynamic switching of the PV panels is used at the inputs of the inverters....

  14. The market for photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzis, L.; Vejtasa, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was intended to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with a market analysis for photovoltaic (PV) technologies under development by EPRI and others. The analysis was to focus on markets and factors leading to significant incremental growth for PV demand, large enough to support more efficient scale PV manufacturing capacity. EPRI anticipates that PV ultimately could provide grid-connected power, however, the 1995--2010 market dynamics are uncertain. The specific objectives of this study, therefore, were to: determine what major future domestic US markets for PV technologies will emerge and provide enough volume to support significant improvements in manufacturing costs through manufacturing economies of scale; provide insight on what is needed to gain acceptance of PV technologies for electric power generation in those major markets; provide insight on when investments in demonstration and manufacturing facilities should be made and what is needed to be successful in each element of the business that these markets could support (e.g., technology development, manufacturing, sales, installation, and service); and provide key insights on the requirements for commercial success of PV in the utility sector

  15. The PV market - Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1900's. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market, however, is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy, the cost of PV systems, utility acceptance of PV, and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer, stand-alone, and utility markets. PV has unique attributes which make it a desirable source of energy in specific applications. It is a renewable source of energy, non-polluting, very reliable, predictable, low maintenance, modular, and has a very low operating cost. The energy source (sunlight) is distributed around the globe. Its limitations are high initial cost, no inherent energy storage, and low energy density

  16. Study of bypass diodes configuration on PV modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, S.; Boronat, A.; Chouder, A. [Electronics Engineering Department - UPC., C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul C4 Campus Nord UPC., 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    A procedure of simulation and modelling solar cells and PV modules, working partially shadowed in Pspice environment, is presented. Simulation results have been contrasted with real measured data from a commercial PV module of 209 Wp from Siliken. Some cases of study are presented as application examples of this simulation methodology, showing its potential on the design of bypass diodes configuration to include in a PV module and also on the study of PV generators working in partial shading conditions. (author)

  17. Methods for the Optimal Design of Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    and the efficient processing of this power by the DC/AC inverter. In this paper two new methods are presented for the optimal design of a PV inverter power section, output filter and MPPT control strategy. The influences of the electric grid regulations and standards as well as the PV array operational......The DC/AC inverters are used in grid-connected PV energy production systems as the power processing interface between the PV energy source and the electric grid. The energy injected into the electric grid by the PV installation depends on the amount of power extracted from the PV power source...

  18. Towards photovoltaic powered artificial retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Silvestre

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of current and future concepts in the field of retinal prostheses, and is focused on the power supply based on solar energy conversion; we introduce the possibility of using PV minimodules as power supply for a new concept of retinal prostheses: Photovoltaic Powered Artificial Retina (PVAR. Main characteristics of these PV modules are presented showing its potential for this application.

  19. Utilizing Maximum Power Point Trackers in Parallel to Maximize the Power Output of a Solar (Photovoltaic) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    completing the academic workload at NPS. Taking care of two toddlers all day, every day, is not an easy task. You make xxviii it seem effortless and...for the development of numerous thin-cell applications that meet the military’s requirements for ruggedness and power output. For example, the...2012, September 5). PV microinverters and power optimizers set for significant growth [PV Magazine Online]. Available: http://www.pv- magazine.com

  20. Special Application Thermoelectric Micro Isotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, Ben; Lieberman, Al; Khayat, Mo; Leanna, Andrew; Dobry, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Promising design concepts for milliwatt (mW) size micro isotope power sources (MIPS) are being sought for use in various space and terrestrial applications, including a multitude of future NASA scientific missions and a range of military applications. To date, the radioisotope power sources (RPS) used on various space and terrestrial programs have provided power levels ranging from one-half to several hundred watts. In recent years, the increased use of smaller spacecraft and planned new scientific space missions by NASA, special terrestrial and military applications suggest the need for lower power, including mW level, radioisotope power sources. These power sources have the potential to enable such applications as long-lived meteorological or seismological stations distributed across planetary surfaces, surface probes, deep space micro-spacecraft and sub-satellites, terrestrial sensors, transmitters, and micro-electromechanical systems. The power requirements are in the range of 1 mW to several hundred mW. The primary technical requirements for space applications are long life, high reliability, high specific power, and high power density, and those for some special military uses are very high power density, specific power, reliability, low radiological induced degradation, and very low radiation leakage. Thermoelectric conversion is of particular interest because of its technological maturity and proven reliability. This paper summarizes the thermoelectric, thermal, and radioisotope heat source designs and presents the corresponding performance for a number of mW size thermoelectric micro isotope power sources

  1. Step-Up Partial Power DC-DC Converters for Two-Stage PV Systems with Interleaved Current Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Wladimir Zapata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a partial power converter allowing us to obtain, with a single DC-DC converter, the same feature as the classical interleaved operation of two converters. More precisely, the proposed topology performs similarly as the input-parallel output-series (IPOS configuration reducing the current ripple at the input of the system and dividing the individual converters power rating, compared to a single converter. The proposed topology consists of a partial DC-DC converter processing only a fraction of the total power, thus allowing high efficiency. Experimental results are provided to validate the proposed converter topology with a Flyback-based 100 W test bench with a transformer turns ratio n 1 = n 2 . Experimental results show high performances reducing the input current ripple around 30 % , further increasing the conversion efficiency.

  2. Reliability consideration of low-power-grid-tied inverter for photovoltaic application

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.; Henze, N.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years PV modules have been improved evidently. An excellent reliability has been validated corresponding to Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) between 500 and 6000 years respectively in commercial utility power systems. Manufactures can provide performance guarantees for PV modules at least for 20 years. If an average inverter lifetime of 5 years is assumed, it is evident that the overall reliability of PV systems [PVSs] with integrated inverter is determined chiefly by the inverter i...

  3. Forecasting and observability: critical technologies for system operations with high PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    – Photovoltaics (ETIP PV) reviews the different use cases for these technologies, their current status, and the need for future developments. Power system operations require a real-time view of PV production for managing power reserves and for feeding shortterm forecasts. They also require forecasts on all......Forecasting and monitoring technologies for photovoltaics are required on different spatial and temporal scales by multiple actors, from the owners of PV systems to transmission system operators. In this paper the Grid integration working group of the European Technology and Innovation Platform...... timescales from the short (for dispatching purposes), where statistical models work best, to the very long (for infrastructure planning), where physics-based models are more accurate. Power system regulations are driving the development of these techniques. This application also provides a good basis...

  4. Demand Response in Low Voltage Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    the required flexibility from the electricity market through an aggregator. The optimum demand response enables consumption of maximum renewable energy within the network constraints. Simulation studies are conducted using Matlab and DigSilent Power factory software on a Danish low-voltage distribution system......In this paper, application of demand response to accommodate maximum PV power in a low-voltage distribution network is discussed. A centralized control based on model predictive control method is proposed for the computation of optimal demand response on an hourly basis. The proposed method uses PV...

  5. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  6. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  7. Experimental Implementation of a Low-Cost Single Phase Five-Level Inverter for Autonomous PV System Applications Without Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nouaiti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and the implementation of a low-cost single phase five-level inverter for photovoltaic applications. The proposed multilevel inverter is composed of a simple boost converter, a switched-capacitor converter, and an H-bridge converter. An efficient control method which associates a closed-loop regulation method with a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT method is applied in order to allow the proposed multilevel inverter to transfer power energy from solar panels to autonomous load with no storage batteries. An experimental prototype of this inverter is fabricated at the laboratory and tested with a digital control system. Obtained results confirm the simplicity and the performance of the proposed photovoltaic system.

  8. Learning in PV trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; De Moor, H.H.C.

    2004-06-01

    For large scale application of PV cost reduction is essential. It is shown in this study that the price evolution is on track and even accelerating the last 15 years. Using an experience curve approach a learning rate of little over 20% was found consistent with other studies. As data were collected for small rooftop grid connected systems, it could be shown that this learning rate is not only found for modules, but also for BOS (all costs apart from the modules) in Germany as well as in the Netherlands. Projections of the future price of PV systems show that a learning rate of at least 20% is needed to make introduction of PV affordable. It is very effective to invest in learning, thus increasing the learning rate, as well as developing market segments were the value of PV is higher, such as residential PV systems in southern Europe

  9. Power system protection 3 application

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  10. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  11. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  12. PV Horizon : Proceedings of the Workshop on Photovoltaic Hybrid Systems. CD ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this workshop was to share information on current photovoltaic (PV) and hybrid system technology, and to present information on international experience and trends in research and development. It brought together 70 experts from Canada, the United States, several European countries, Japan and Australia. Currently, PV hybrid systems are used for stand-alone projects in telecommunication applications, remote housing, and leisure lodges. The applications for these sectors are well known and the technology is cost effective. Other applications are for micro-grid applications such as small remote islands, village power and tourist resorts. The costs for these types of applications can also be effective as long as the power demand is relatively low. A keynote presentation which highlighted the current application of PV hybrid systems, was followed by three sessions dealing with international experience with hybrid systems, the research and development opportunities for hybrid systems, and visual presentations on a range of subjects dealing with PV hybrid systems, their components, system integration, standards, guidelines, and control system issues. It was noted that the future for renewables looks bright, particularly for developing countries. Their use will also reduce the environmental footprint of remote power solutions. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  14. Solar Power Potential of Tanzania: Identifying CSP and PV Hot Spots through a GIS Multicriteria Decision Making Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Ahmed; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    2017-01-01

    More than one billion people are still living without access to electricity today. More than half of them are living in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a noticeable shortage of energy related information in Africa, especially for renewable energies. Due to lacking studies and researches on integrating...... renewable energy technologies, the Tanzanian official generation expansion plan till 2035 showed high dependency on fossil fuel and a negligible role of renewables other than large hydropower. This study investigates the spatial suitability for large-scale solar power installations in Tanzania through using...... technology-specific suitability map categorizes all the non-excluded areas into most suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, and least suitable areas. The study also suggests four hot spots (i.e. specific recommended locations) for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) installations and four hot spots...

  15. A Practical Optimization Method for Designing Large PV Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Koutroulis, E.; Eyigun, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays Photovoltaic (PV) plants have multi MW sizes, the biggest plants reaching tens of MW of capacity. Such large-scale PV plants are made up of several thousands of PV panels, each panel being in the range of 150-350W. This means that the design of a Large PV power plant is a big challenge...... and configuring such a plant should be implemented taking into consideration not only the cost of the installation, but also the Annual Energy Production, the Performance Ratio and the Levelized Cost Of Energy. In this paper, an algorithm is presented including the most important models of the PV system...

  16. Photovoltaic electricity industry and markets Status and trends in France 1992-2002 - Technical report. Survey report of photovoltaic power applications in France 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, Andre; Juquois, Fabrice

    2003-01-01

    The report provides a picture of the photovoltaic industry and its applications in France covering the years 1992 to end 2002. The main stream of photovoltaic (PV) activity in France is that of off-grid power systems. Nevertheless, the ADEME and other public authority partners decided in 1999 to contribute to the funding of grid-connected distributed photovoltaic power systems. During the year 2002, 3,4 MW of photovoltaic power systems were installed in France and its overseas departments. The annual off-grid PV power system market remains stable at around 2,4 MW per year and that of grid-connected distributed power systems reached almost 1 MW in 2002. The total cumulative installed PV power in France is 17 MW of which 15 MW are off-grid systems and 2 MW are grid-connected distributed PV power systems. This installed capacity represents the annual production of 15 GWh of electricity. The PV cell/module industry remains very active. The annual production of photovoltaic multi-crystalline silicon cells increased by 25 % during the year 2002 to reach 17 MW while the production of amorphous silicon thin film modules increased slightly to go over half a megawatt. Two French companies started introducing on the market photovoltaic modules specifically designed for building integration. Price of photovoltaic power systems is decreasing towards 20 euros per watt for off-grid systems under public funding and turnkey prices for grid-connected distributed PV power systems vary from 6 to 8 euros per watt according to the level of building integration. Business turnover of main companies covering the whole field of cell/module manufacturing and PV power system developers/installers, increased 18 % in 2002 to reach 130 million euros. Due to a Governmental decision taken in 1998, the ADEME increased its annual public budget for the promotion of PV in France to reach around 10 MEUR per year. This new measure allowed a) to reactivate the ADEME's research and technological

  17. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    This report presents a description of the status of photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the 20 participating countries of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. A survey of the status of PV power systems applications and markets in each country has been conducted every two years for the past six years and biennial reports published. The decision has now been taken to move to shorter annual reports and this is the first such report. This report presents an overview of PV power systems applications and markets at the end of 1998 and analyses the trends in PV power systems implemented between 1992 and 1998. (author)

  18. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This report presents a description of the status of photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the 20 participating countries of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. A survey of the status of PV power systems applications and markets in each country has been conducted every two years for the past six years and biennial reports published. The decision has now been taken to move to shorter annual reports and this is the first such report. This report presents an overview of PV power systems applications and markets at the end of 1998 and analyses the trends in PV power systems implemented between 1992 and 1998. (author)

  19. PV ready roofing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The integration of PV technology into roofs of houses has become very popular in the United States, Japan, Germany and The Netherlands. There could be a considerable market in the UK for these systems, given the large number of houses that are projected to be built in the next 10 years, and taking account of increased awareness of energy issues. A significant proportion of the market share of annual installed PV is for solar PV systems installed into homes (currently 15%), this is expected to rise to 23% (900MW) by 2010. The grid connected roof and building mounted facade systems represent the fastest growing market for PV systems in Europe. In conclusion, therefore, innovative approached for fixing PV technology onto roofs have been identified for both domestic roofs and for the commercial sector. With reference to production methodologies within the roofing industry, both approaches should be capable of being designed with PV-ready connections suitable for fixing PV modules at a later date. This will help overcome the key barriers of cost of installation, skills required and the lack of retrofit potential. Based on the results of this project, Sustainable Energy together with PV Systems are keen to take forward the full research and development of PV-ready systems for both the domestic and commercial sectors.

  20. Building brighter PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current status and future prospects of the UK market for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity are briefly discussed. Through the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the UK Government has supported research and development (R and D) into PV for a number of years. This programme has now been extended to demonstrating PV systems on houses. Phase 2 - the domestic field trial programme - aims to monitor the performance of individual systems and the impact on a cluster of systems on the electricity network. New funding had allowed a trebling of the size of this programme, which involves both private developers and housing associations. The DTI is also working to promote PV on commercial buildings, eg the installation of BP Solar PV systems at BP petrol stations. The PV industry in the UK is technically strong and is working to overcome the barriers in the UK to greater uptake of the technology (including cost, conservatism, legal requirements and metering practices). Improvements are expected in a number of recent initiatives in the electricity industry to boost PV use and the PV industry is lobbying for PV to be included in the Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA) scheme

  1. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  2. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  3. Geometrical thermodynamics and P-V criticality of the black holes with power-law Maxwell field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H.; Panah, B.E. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Talezadeh, M.S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    We study the thermodynamical structure of Einstein black holes in the presence of power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics for two different cases. The behavior of temperature and conditions regarding the stability of these black holes are investigated. Since the language of geometry is an effective method in general relativity, we concentrate on the geometrical thermodynamics to build a phase space for studying thermodynamical properties of these black holes. In addition, taking into account the denominator of the heat capacity, we use the proportionality between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to extract the critical values for these black holes. Besides, the effects of the variation of different parameters on the thermodynamical structure of these black holes are investigated. Furthermore, some thermodynamical properties such as the volume expansion coefficient, speed of sound, and isothermal compressibility coefficient are calculated and some remarks regarding these quantities are given. (orig.)

  4. Geometrical thermodynamics and P-V criticality of the black holes with power-law Maxwell field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Panah, B.E.; Panahiyan, S.; Talezadeh, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    We study the thermodynamical structure of Einstein black holes in the presence of power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics for two different cases. The behavior of temperature and conditions regarding the stability of these black holes are investigated. Since the language of geometry is an effective method in general relativity, we concentrate on the geometrical thermodynamics to build a phase space for studying thermodynamical properties of these black holes. In addition, taking into account the denominator of the heat capacity, we use the proportionality between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to extract the critical values for these black holes. Besides, the effects of the variation of different parameters on the thermodynamical structure of these black holes are investigated. Furthermore, some thermodynamical properties such as the volume expansion coefficient, speed of sound, and isothermal compressibility coefficient are calculated and some remarks regarding these quantities are given. (orig.)

  5. Power electronics handbook components, circuits and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1993-01-01

    Power Electronics Handbook: Components, Circuits, and Applications is a collection of materials about power components, circuit design, and applications. Presented in a practical form, theoretical information is given as formulae. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 deals with the usual components found in power electronics such as semiconductor devices and power semiconductor control components, their electronic compatibility, and protection. Part 2 tackles parts and principles related to circuits such as switches; link frequency chargers; converters; and AC line control, and Part 3

  6. Optimal design of PV and HP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo

    2015-01-01

    Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution is descr...... that the thermal storage with a BT is a better investment than a PV system without HP or no investment. Furthermore, it showed that the optimization model developed in this project is capable of finding the optimal combination of component sizes based on our data.......Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution...... is described, where the thermal energy is stored in a buffer tank (BT) capable of dispersing heat to either the heating system of a house or a hot water tank, for later use. The thermal storage solution including a BT can increase the self-consumption of residentially produced PV power and thereby shift...

  7. Performance evaluation of directly photovoltaic powered DC PM (direct current permanent magnet) motor – propeller thrust system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlam, Ozcan; Kolhe, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) powered directly coupled electro-mechanical system has wide applications (e.g. PV powered cooling fans in green houses, PV water pumping system, solar vehicles). The objective of this work is to analyse the operation of directly PV powered DC PM (direct current permanent magnet) motor – propeller system for selection of motor parameters. The performance of such system mainly depends on the incident solar radiation, operating cell temperature, DC motor and propeller load parameters. It is observed that the operating points of the PV DC PM motor – propeller system matches very closely with the maximum power points (MPPs) of the PV array, if the DC PM motor – propeller parameters have been properly selected. It is found that for a specific application of such type of system, matching of torque–speed operating points with respect to the maximum power points of PV array are very important. It is ascertained through results that the DC PM motor's armature resistance, magnetic field constant, starting current to overcome the starting torque and torque coefficient are the main parameters. In designing a PV powered DC PM motor for a specific application, selection of these parameters are important for maximum utilization of the PV array output. The results of this system are useful for designing of directly PV powered DC PM motor's for aerodynamic applications. - Highlights: • We analyse the performance of directly PV powered DC PM motor – propeller system. • We examine PV electro-mechanical system for selection of DC motor parameters. • Matching of torque–speed curve to maximum power points of PV array is important

  8. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.; Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews the status and prospects of photovoltaic power systems and the R and D trends (silicon performances, thin films, balance of systems components), and describes the market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems: at the short and medium term level, isolated systems for rural electricity supply in IEA member countries and decentralized energy supply (remote users and village power) in developing countries; at the medium and long term level, decentralized building integration in urban and rural areas, power stations for peak power and local grid support. The objectives of the IEA collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries are summarized, with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. 4 figs

  9. Power electronics and control techniques for maximum energy harvesting in photovoltaic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Femia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) so

  10. Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic for Solar Photovoltaic Systems Under Non-Uniform Irradiation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    P. Selvam; S. Senthil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has played a vital role to enhance the efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation under varying atmospheric temperature and solar irradiation. However, it is hard to track the maximum power point using conventional linear controllers due to the natural inheritance of nonlinear I-V and P-V characteristics of solar PV systems. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is suitable for nonlinear system control applications and eliminating oscillations, circuit c...

  11. Low power reactor for remote applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.; Palmer, R.G.; Kirchner, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    A compact, low power reactor is being designed to provide electric power for remote, unattended applications. Because of the high fuel and maintenance costs for conventional power sources such as diesel generators, a reactor power supply appears especially attractive for remote and inaccessible locations. Operating at a thermal power level of 135 kWt, the power supply achieves a gross electrical output of 25 kWe from an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine. By intentional selection of design features stressing inherent safety, operation in an unattended mode is possible with minimal risk to the environment. Reliability is achieved through the use of components representing existing, proven technology. Low enrichment uranium particle fuel, in graphite core blocks, cooled by heat pipes coupled to an ORC converter insures long-term, virtually maintenance free, operation of this reactor for remote applications. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Real Time Photovoltaic Array Simulator for Testing Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Valentini, Massimo; Raducu, Alin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a real time flexible PV array simulator is presented. It is a system that can simulate different PV panel arrays in specific environmental conditions. To evaluate performance of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters only measurements...... undertaken with an appropriate PV array simulator provide accurate and reproducible results. Thus the PV array simulator has been developed and implemented. MPPT efficiency tests on a commercial grid-connected PV inverter have been performed to validate the PV array simulator....

  13. Product integrated PV: the future is design and styling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore how PV powered products have been designed in the past. For this purpose we have drawn a historical time line of the design features of PV powered products in the context of main stream design and styling. Our time frame is 1970 till 2016, focusing in first instance on

  14. Two Classes of Power Series and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei

    2002-01-01

    In this note, using the method of undetermined coefficients, we obtain the power series for exp ( f ( x )) and ln ( f ( x )) by means of a simple recursion. As applications, we show how those power series can be used to reproduce and improve some well-known results in analysis. These results may be used as enrichment material in an advanced…

  15. Power Transformer Application for Wind Plant Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bloethe, W.G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Goltz, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Niemira, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nuckles, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Reza, M [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Richardson, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Schoene, Jens [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Snyder, Isabelle B [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Zahalka, G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2010-01-01

    Wind power plants use power transformers to step plant output from the medium voltage of the collector system to the HV or EHV transmission system voltage. This paper discusses the application of these transformers with regard to the selection of winding configuration, MVA rating, impedance, loss evaluation, on-load tapchanger requirements, and redundancy.

  16. MPPT algorithm for voltage controlled PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel concept for an MPPT that can be used in case of a voltage controlled grid connected PV inverters. In case of single-phase systems, the 100 Hz ripple in the AC power is also present on the DC side. Depending on the DC link capacitor, this power fluctuation can be used t...... to track the MPP of the PV array, using the information that at MPP the power oscillations are very small. In this way the algorithm can detect the fact that the current working point is at the MPP, for the current atmospheric conditions....

  17. Interharmonics from Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration level of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems increases, the power quality is one of the major concerns for system operators and the demands are becoming even stricter. The impact of interharmonics on the grid has been acknowledged in recent research when considering a large......-scale adoption of PV inverters. However, the origins of interharmonics remain unclear. Thus, this paper performs tests on a commercial PV inverter to explore interharmonic generation and more important investigates the mechanism of interharmonic emission. The investigation reveals that the perturbation...... of the solutions. Simulation results indicate that the constant-voltage MPPT method is the most suitable solution to the mitigation of interharmonics introduced by the MPPT operation, as it avoids the perturbation in the PV voltage during operation....

  18. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  19. Accelerating residential PV expansion: demand analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Richard; Williams, Robert; Payne, Adam

    2005-01-01

    This article quantifies the potential market for grid-connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) electricity integrated into new homes built in the US. It complements an earlier supply-side analysis by the authors that demonstrates the potential to reduce PV module prices below $1.5/W p by scaling up existing thin-film technology in 100 MW p /yr manufacturing facilities. The present article demonstrates that, at that price, PV modules may be cost effective in 125,000 new home installations per year (0.5 GW p /yr). While this market is large enough to support multiple scaled up thin-film PV factories, inefficient energy pricing and demand-side market failures will inhibit prospective PV consumers without strong public policy support. Net metering rules, already implemented in many states to encourage PV market launch, represent a crude but reasonable surrogate for efficient electricity pricing mechanisms that may ultimately emerge to internalize the externality benefits of PV. These public benefits include reduced air pollution damages (estimated costs of damage to human health from fossil fuel power plants are presented in Appendix A), deferral of transmission and distribution capital expenditures, reduced exposure to fossil fuel price risks, and increased electricity system reliability for end users. Thus, net metering for PV ought to be implemented as broadly as possible and sustained until efficient pricing is in place. Complementary PV 'buydowns' (e.g., a renewable portfolio standard with a specific PV requirement) are needed to jumpstart regional PV markets

  20. An optimization approach to parallel generation solar PV investments in the U.S.: Two applications illustrate the case for tariff reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kildegaard, Arne; Wente, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    We construct a model to optimize the economics of distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) for a parallel generation (behind-the-meter) application. Applying the model to the short-interval load and insolation data for two similar dairy operations in the U.S. Upper Midwest region, we find that highly site-specific differences in parameters lead to strikingly divergent results. Operating behind-the-meter strongly rewards real-time concurrence between on-site generation and on-site load. Compared to operating under a value of solar tariff (VOST) or net energy metering (NEM), we argue that parallel generation tariffs amplify the existing, irreducible uncertainties of project economics, and discourage DGPV investment. - Highlights: • Presents a novel approach to optimizing the size of behind-the-meter PV. • Demonstrates interaction of tax and financial parameters with load and insolation data. • Identifies how behind-the-meter operation raises risk to project economics.