The King and Prisoner Puzzle: A Way of Introducing the Components of Logical Structures
Roh, Kyeong Hah; Lee, Yong Hah; Tanner, Austin
2016-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to provide issues related to student understanding of logical components that arise when solving word problems. We designed a logic problem called the King and Prisoner Puzzle--a linguistically simple, yet logically challenging problem. In this paper, we describe various student solutions to the puzzle and discuss the…
PUZZLES – A CREATIVE WAY OF DEVELOPMENT OF LOGICAL THINKING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milková, Eva
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Logical thinking of students should be enhanced at all levels of their studies. There are many possibilities how to achieve it. In the paper one possible way within the subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization” dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be presented. These mathematical disciplines are powerful tools for teachers allowing them to develop logical thinking of students, increase their imagination and make them familiar with solutions to various problems. Thanks the knowledge gained within the subjects students should be able to describe various practical situations with the aid of graphs, solve the given problem expressed by the graph, and translate the solution back into the initial situation. Student engagement is crucial for successful education. Practical tasks and puzzles attract students to know more about the explained subject matter and to apply gained knowledge. There are an endless number of enjoyable tasks, puzzles and logic problems in books like “Mathematics is Fun”, in riddles magazines and on the Internet. In the paper, as an inspiration, four puzzles developing logical thinking appropriate to be solved using graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be introduced. On these puzzles of different level of difficulty the students’ ability to find out the appropriate graph-representation of the given task and solve it will be discussed as well. The author of the paper has been prepared with her students various multimedia applications dealing with objects appropriate to subject matter for more than 15 years. In the paper we also discuss a benefit of multimedia applications used as a support of subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization”.
Puzzles, paradoxes, and problem solving an introduction to mathematical thinking
Reba, Marilyn A
2014-01-01
Graphs: Puzzles and Optimization Graphical Representation and Search Greedy Algorithms and Dynamic Programming Shortest Paths, DNA Sequences, and GPS Systems Routing Problems and Optimal Circuits Traveling Salesmen and Optimal Orderings Vertex Colorings and Edge Matchings Logic: Rational Inference and Computer Circuits Inductive and Deductive Arguments Deductive Arguments and Truth-Tables Deductive Arguments and Derivations Deductive Logic and Equivalence Modeling Using Deductive Logic Probability: Predictions and Expectations Probability and Counting Counting and Unordered Outcomes Independen
Teaching Proofs and Algorithms in Discrete Mathematics with Online Visual Logic Puzzles
Cigas, John; Hsin, Wen-Jung
2005-01-01
Visual logic puzzles provide a fertile environment for teaching multiple topics in discrete mathematics. Many puzzles can be solved by the repeated application of a small, finite set of strategies. Explicitly reasoning from a strategy to a new puzzle state illustrates theorems, proofs, and logic principles. These provide valuable, concrete…
Algorithmic Puzzles: History, Taxonomies, and Applications in Human Problem Solving
Levitin, Anany
2017-01-01
The paper concerns an important but underappreciated genre of algorithmic puzzles, explaining what these puzzles are, reviewing milestones in their long history, and giving two different ways to classify them. Also covered are major applications of algorithmic puzzles in cognitive science research, with an emphasis on insight problem solving, and…
200 more puzzling physics problems with hints and solutions
Gnädig, Péter; Vigh, Máté
2016-01-01
Like its predecessor, 200 Puzzling Physics Problems, this book is aimed at strengthening students' grasp of the laws of physics by applying them to situations that are practical, and to problems that yield more easily to intuitive insight than to brute-force methods and complex mathematics. The problems are chosen almost exclusively from classical, non-quantum physics, but are no easier for that. They are intriguingly posed in accessible non-technical language, and require readers to select an appropriate analysis framework and decide which branches of physics are involved. The general level of sophistication needed is that of the exceptional school student, the good undergraduate, or the competent graduate student; some physics professors may find some of the more difficult questions challenging. By contrast, the mathematical demands are relatively minimal, and seldom go beyond elementary calculus. This further book of physics problems is not only instructive and challenging, but also enjoyable.
Fuzzy logic application for extruders replacement problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edison Conde Perez dos Santos
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In a scenario of uncertainty and imprecision, before taking the replacement analysis, a manager needs to consider the uncertain reality of a problem. In this scenario, the fuzzy logic makes an excellent option. Therefore, it is necessary to make a decision based on the fuzzy model. This study is based on the comparison of two methodologies used in the problem of asset replacement. The study, thus, was based on a comparison between two extruders for polypropylene yarn bibliopegy, comparing mainly the costs involved in maintaining the equipment.
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
2010-01-01
To help fifth- through eighth-grade students develop their deductive reasoning skills, the author used a ten-week supplementary curriculum so that students could answer logic questions. The curriculum, a series of lessons built around language-independent logic puzzles, has been used in classrooms of fifth through eighth grades. In most cases,…
Taylor, Wendy; Stacey, Kaye
2014-01-01
This article presents "The Two Children Problem," published by Martin Gardner, who wrote a famous and widely-read math puzzle column in the magazine "Scientific American," and a problem presented by puzzler Gary Foshee. This paper explains the paradox of Problems 2 and 3 and many other variations of the theme. Then the authors…
Spam:One Puzzled Problem for E-Commerce
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Qiansheng; YANG Jingmin
2004-01-01
E-commerce has advantages of low bargaining cost, full field service, and convenient. Its development forms and promotes the key factor of the global economic growth, and the security problem of e-commerce becomes more and more important thereupon. It is the subject of a great meaning to structure the safe, convenient e-commerce running environment. The task of anti-spam is a concrete content among them. This paper discusses the source and danger of spam, and the precautionary and radical cure measures of spam are put forwarded, and the technologies of the anti-spam are discussed especially.
Logic of management of strategic problems of the enterprise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivahnenko Aleksandr Vladimirovich
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Problems of management by firm in the conditions of changes are considered, types of strategic problems, logic of constructions of system of strategic management are allocated. Principles of formation of strategy of firm and a strategy choice in conditions not full definiteness are defined.
Problems Encountered in Teaching Logic in Faculties of Theology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hülya ALTUNYA
2014-04-01
Full Text Available From the past until today logic has always been affiliated with religious education in institutes of higher learning. In the history of Islamic thought, education in logic has at times held an important place in the curriculum, while at other times it has only been represented symbolically. Throughout the history of thought, religious sciences have not only possessed a hierarchical structure based on classification, but have also been institutionalized in order to protect the accumulation of the knowledge that has been attained. As a result, in order to function as a vehicle in the structuring of this knowledge, logic has become what is known as an introductory science. Over time, as a vehicle of religious sciences and an introductory science, logic has become a productive method by which different academic disciplines can attain information. Thus, until today in religious sciences education, logic has been used as a method both in the higher religious education provided in faculties of theology and in the madrasas which continue this education. In this paper, the education of logic that is given in faculties of theology, including how much of the curriculum is devoted to this subject, the quality of instruction, the integration of this subject with other lessons, the interest of students in this subject and whether or not the necessary productivity in logic instruction is being attained will be examined. In addition, to what extent logic can make new contributions to new thought and comprehension techniques for solving the theological problems of today will be investigated. An additional research question asked here is the extent to which students enrolled in theology faculties in formal and informal education, the very people who will later act as instructors in religious sciences, are aware of the importance of being familiar and skilled in “correct reasoning techniques”.
Smullyan, Raymond
2008-01-01
This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T
Plausible inference: A multi-valued logic for problem solving
Friedman, L.
1979-01-01
A new logic is developed which permits continuously variable strength of belief in the truth of assertions. Four inference rules result, with formal logic as a limiting case. Quantification of belief is defined. Propagation of belief to linked assertions results from dependency-based techniques of truth maintenance so that local consistency is achieved or contradiction discovered in problem solving. Rules for combining, confirming, or disconfirming beliefs are given, and several heuristics are suggested that apply to revising already formed beliefs in the light of new evidence. The strength of belief that results in such revisions based on conflicting evidence are a highly subjective phenomenon. Certain quantification rules appear to reflect an orderliness in the subjectivity. Several examples of reasoning by plausible inference are given, including a legal example and one from robot learning. Propagation of belief takes place in directions forbidden in formal logic and this results in conclusions becoming possible for a given set of assertions that are not reachable by formal logic.
From near to eternity: Spin-glass planting, tiling puzzles, and constraint-satisfaction problems
Hamze, Firas; Jacob, Darryl C.; Ochoa, Andrew J.; Perera, Dilina; Wang, Wenlong; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2018-04-01
We present a methodology for generating Ising Hamiltonians of tunable complexity and with a priori known ground states based on a decomposition of the model graph into edge-disjoint subgraphs. The idea is illustrated with a spin-glass model defined on a cubic lattice, where subproblems, whose couplers are restricted to the two values {-1 ,+1 } , are specified on unit cubes and are parametrized by their local degeneracy. The construction is shown to be equivalent to a type of three-dimensional constraint-satisfaction problem known as the tiling puzzle. By varying the proportions of subproblem types, the Hamiltonian can span a dramatic range of typical computational complexity, from fairly easy to many orders of magnitude more difficult than prototypical bimodal and Gaussian spin glasses in three space dimensions. We corroborate this behavior via experiments with different algorithms and discuss generalizations and extensions to different types of graphs.
USING CLOUD COMPUTING IN SOLVING THE PROBLEMS OF LOGIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavlo V. Mykytenko
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the most popular cloud services, in particular those which have their complete office suites, the basic functional characteristics and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of cloud services in the educational process. It was made a comparative analysis of the spreadsheets that are in office suites such cloud services like Zoho Office Suite, Microsoft Office 365 and Google Docs. On the basis of the research and the findings it was suggested the best cloud services for use in the educational process. The possibility of using spreadsheets in the study of logic, from creating formulas that implement logical operations, the creation of means of automation of problem solving process was considered.
Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning
2012-12-01
Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
van Deventer, M. Oskar
2009-01-01
The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by…
Bivalence, Classical Logic and the Problem of Contingent Statements
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... the core of logic; Furthermore, there may be no conflict between the principle of bivalence and other systems of logic that are not strictly bivalent, if their justification does not rely on a rejection of the principle of bivalence. Keywords: Bivalence, Contingent statements, Classical logic, Non-contradiction, Necessity, Ontology ...
Ingenious mathematical problems and methods
Graham, Louis A
2013-01-01
Collection of 100 of the best submissions to a math puzzle column features problems in engineering situations, logic, number theory, and geometry. Most solutions include details of several different methods.
Teaching Inductive Reasoning with Puzzles
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
2017-01-01
Working with language-independent logic structures can help students develop both inductive and deductive reasoning skills. The Japanese publisher Nikoli (with resources available both in print and online) produces a treasure trove of language-independent logic puzzles. The Nikoli print resources are mostly in Japanese, creating the extra…
A Modal Logic for the Decision-Theoretic Projection Problem
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Rens, GB
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The authors present a decidable logic in which queries can be posed about (i) the degree of belief in a propositional sentence after an arbitrary finite number of actions and observations and (ii) the utility of a finite sequence of actions after a...
Combining fuzzy mathematics with fuzzy logic to solve business management problems
Vrba, Joseph A.
1993-12-01
Fuzzy logic technology has been applied to control problems with great success. Because of this, many observers fell that fuzzy logic is applicable only in the control arena. However, business management problems almost never deal with crisp values. Fuzzy systems technology--a combination of fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics and a graphical user interface--is a natural fit for developing software to assist in typical business activities such as planning, modeling and estimating. This presentation discusses how fuzzy logic systems can be extended through the application of fuzzy mathematics and the use of a graphical user interface to make the information contained in fuzzy numbers accessible to business managers. As demonstrated through examples from actual deployed systems, this fuzzy systems technology has been employed successfully to provide solutions to the complex real-world problems found in the business environment.
Using fuzzy logic for automatic control: Case study of a problem of cereals samples classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lakhoua Najeh Mohamed
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the use of fuzzy logic for automatic control of industrial systems particularly the way to approach a problem of classification. We present a case study of a grading system of cereals that allows us to determine the price of transactions of cereals in Tunisia. Our contribution in this work consists in proposing not only an application of the fuzzy logic on the grading system of cereals but also a methodology enabling the proposing of a new grading system based on the concept of 'Grade' while using the fuzzy logic techniques. .
Usefulness of problem tree, objective tree and logical framework ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The discussion has led to the conclusion that higher learning institutions are not adequately preparing graduates to face the increasing labor market demands in terms of skills and competitiveness. Having outlined the roots of the problem through the problem tree, the researchers proposed potential strategies to handle the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The most common plasticizer, phthalates, are facing stricterregulations due to their omnipresence and possible effects onhuman health, and environment. But high cost, lack of applicationrange, and unknown long-term effects of non-phthalatealternatives make the scenario puzzling.
Parente, C.; Ferro, L.
2016-01-01
WOS:000387124100017 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) The Idea Puzzle is a software application created in 2007. It is a support tool to assist PhD students and researchers in the process of designing research projects through a focus on three central dimensions of research that are collectively represented by a triangle. Each side of the Idea Puzzle triangle corresponds to one of the three dimensions that every empirical research project should ideally include: ontology (data), epistemology (...
Puzzle Pedagogy: A Use of Riddles in Mathematics Education
Farnell, Elin
2017-01-01
In this article, I present a collection of puzzles appropriate for use in a variety of undergraduate courses, along with suggestions for relevant discussion. Logic puzzles and riddles have long been sources of amusement for mathematicians and the general public alike. I describe the use of puzzles in a classroom setting, and argue for their use as…
A fuzzy logic based PROMETHEE method for material selection problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammet Gul
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Material selection is a complex problem in the design and development of products for diverse engineering applications. This paper presents a fuzzy PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation method based on trapezoidal fuzzy interval numbers that can be applied to the selection of materials for an automotive instrument panel. Also, it presents uniqueness in making a significant contribution to the literature in terms of the application of fuzzy decision-making approach to material selection problems. The method is illustrated, validated, and compared against three different fuzzy MCDM methods (fuzzy VIKOR, fuzzy TOPSIS, and fuzzy ELECTRE in terms of its ranking performance. Also, the relationships between the compared methods and the proposed scenarios for fuzzy PROMETHEE are evaluated via the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Styrene Maleic Anhydride and Polypropylene are determined optionally as suitable materials for the automotive instrument panel case. We propose a generic fuzzy MCDM methodology that can be practically implemented to material selection problem. The main advantages of the methodology are consideration of the vagueness, uncertainty, and fuzziness to decision making environment.
Projects, Puzzles and Other Pedagogies: Working with Kids to Solve Local Problems
Marshman, Margaret
2012-01-01
Engaging and extending middle years students in mathematics is a continual challenge. One of the aims of the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" is to ensure that students are "confident, creative users and communicators of mathematics" (ACARA, 2011). Use of mathematical models and/or problems has been suggested as methods of…
Putting the puzzle together: the role of 'problem definition' in complex clinical judgement.
Cristancho, Sayra; Lingard, Lorelei; Forbes, Thomas; Ott, Michael; Novick, Richard
2017-02-01
We teach judgement in pieces; that is, we talk about each aspect separately (patient, plan, resources, technique, etc.). We also let trainees figure out how to put the pieces together. In complex situations, this might be problematic. Using data from a drawing-based study on surgeons' experiences with complex situations, we explore the notion of 'problem definition' in real-world clinical judgement using the theoretical lens of systems engineering. 'Emergence', the sensitising concept for analysis, is rooted in two key systems premises: that person and context are inseparable and that what emerges is an act of choice. Via a 'gallery walk' we used these premises to perform analysis on individual drawings as well as cross-comparisons of multiple drawings. Our focus was to understand similarities and differences among the vantage points used by multiple surgeons. In this paper we challenge two assumptions from current models of clinical judgement: that experts hold a fixed and static definition of the problem and that consequently the focus of the expert's work is on solving the problem. Each situation described by our participants revealed different but complementary perspectives of what a surgical problem might come to be: from concerns about ensuring standard of care, to balancing personal emotions versus care choices, to coordinating resources, and to maintaining control while in the midst of personality clashes. We suggest that it is only at the situation and system level, not at the individual level, that we are able to appreciate the nuances of defining the problem when experts make judgements during real-world complex situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toman, David; Weddel, Grant Edwin
2001-01-01
We present a decision procedure for the logical implication problem of a boolean complete DL dialect that includes attributes roles inverse roles and a new concept constructor that is capable of expressing a variety of equality and order generating dependencies The procedure underlies a mapping o...
Logic, probability, and human reasoning.
Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P
2015-04-01
This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paweł Sitek
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for modeling and solving supply chain optimization problems with soft, hard, and logical constraints. Ability to implement soft and logical constraints is a very important functionality for supply chain optimization models. Such constraints are particularly useful for modeling problems resulting from commercial agreements, contracts, competition, technology, safety, and environmental conditions. Two programming and solving environments, mathematical programming (MP and constraint logic programming (CLP, were combined in the hybrid method. This integration, hybridization, and the adequate multidimensional transformation of the problem (as a presolving method helped to substantially reduce the search space of combinatorial models for supply chain optimization problems. The operation research MP and declarative CLP, where constraints are modeled in different ways and different solving procedures are implemented, were linked together to use the strengths of both. This approach is particularly important for the decision and combinatorial optimization models with the objective function and constraints, there are many decision variables, and these are summed (common in manufacturing, supply chain management, project management, and logistic problems. The ECLiPSe system with Eplex library was proposed to implement a hybrid method. Additionally, the proposed hybrid transformed model is compared with the MILP-Mixed Integer Linear Programming model on the same data instances. For illustrative models, its use allowed finding optimal solutions eight to one hundred times faster and reducing the size of the combinatorial problem to a significant extent.
Teaching the Blue-Eyed Islanders Puzzle in a Liberal Arts Mathematics Course
Shea, Stephen
2012-01-01
The blue-eyed islanders puzzle is an old and challenging logic puzzle. This is a narrative of an experience introducing a variation of this puzzle on the first day of classes in a liberal arts mathematics course for non-majors. I describe an exercise that was used to facilitate the class's understanding of the puzzle.
Investigation of physics thought experiments’ effects on students’ logical problem solving skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ince Elif
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study, investigation of physics thought experiments’ effects on students’ logical problem-solving skills in collaborative groups. In this context, it was requested to undergraduate students who have taken General Physics I and General Physics II to develop thought experiments in order to solve daily life problems. At the next stage, students’ thought experiments were classified according to common issues in cooperative groups and were asked to try to solve the problems by using thought experiments’ process from each group. As a result of this study; students’ thought experiments related to daily life were developed and problem solving processes have been presented in detail.
2006-01-01
15 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of a portion of the south polar residual cap of Mars. The large, relatively flat-lying, puzzle-like pieces in this scene are mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide. Location near: 85.5oS, 76.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer
A review on application of neural networks and fuzzy logic to solve hydrothermal scheduling problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haroon, S.; Malik, T.N.; Zafar, S.
2014-01-01
Electrical power system is highly complicated having hydro and thermal mix with large number of machines. To reduce power production cost, hydro and thermal resources are mixed. Hydrothermal scheduling is the optimal coordination of hydro and thermal plants to meet the system load demand at minimum possible operational cost while satisfying the system constraints. Hydrothermal scheduling is dynamic, large scale, non-linear and non-convex optimization problem. The classical techniques have failed in solving such problem. Artificial Intelligence Tools based techniques are used now a day to solve this complex optimization problem because of their no requirements on the nature of the problem. The aim of this research paper is to provide a comprehensive survey of literature related to both Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) as effective optimization algorithms for the hydrothermal scheduling problem. The outcomes along with the merits and demerits of individual techniques are also discussed. (author)
Mathematical logic as a mean of solving the problems of power supply for buildings and constructions
Pryadko, Igor; Nozdrina, Ekaterina; Boltaevsky, Andrey
2017-10-01
The article analyzes the questions of application of mathematical logic in engineering design associated with machinery and construction. The aim of the work is to study the logical working-out of Russian electrical engineer V.I. Shestakov. These elaborations are considered in connection with the problem of analysis and synthesis of relay contact circuits of the degenerate (A) class which the scientist solved. The article proposes to use Shestakov’s elaborations for optimization of buildings and constructions of modern high-tech. In the second part of the article the events are actualized in association with the development of problems of application of mathematical logic in the analysis and synthesis of electric circuits, relay and bridging. The arguments in favor of the priority of the authorship of the elaborations of Russian electrical engineer V. I. Shestakov, K. Shannon - one of the founders of computer science, and Japanese engineer A. Nakashima are discussed. The issue of contradiction between V. I. Shestakov and representatives of the school of M. A. Gavrilov is touched on.
A study of fuzzy logic ensemble system performance on face recognition problem
Polyakova, A.; Lipinskiy, L.
2017-02-01
Some problems are difficult to solve by using a single intelligent information technology (IIT). The ensemble of the various data mining (DM) techniques is a set of models which are able to solve the problem by itself, but the combination of which allows increasing the efficiency of the system as a whole. Using the IIT ensembles can improve the reliability and efficiency of the final decision, since it emphasizes on the diversity of its components. The new method of the intellectual informational technology ensemble design is considered in this paper. It is based on the fuzzy logic and is designed to solve the classification and regression problems. The ensemble consists of several data mining algorithms: artificial neural network, support vector machine and decision trees. These algorithms and their ensemble have been tested by solving the face recognition problems. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection.
Logic problems and solutions for memory signal of SEC pump in FQNP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Yanfei; Dang Xiaoqiang; Zhou Li; Ye Aiai
2014-01-01
In the Fuqing nuclear power plant, as a nuclear safety function system, the essential service water system is set two trains, and there are two pumps in each train. These pumps can be switched automatically according to the operation conditions. The signal which performs the automatic switch function called memory signal. This paper introduces the definition and role of the memory signal firstly, and then analyzes the logic of the two mutual backup SEC pumps, and the implementation method based on DCS platform. Finally, this paper presents the problems of memory signal during the commissioning and operation. Meanwhile, this paper proposes solutions to solve these problems, and analyzes the risk of the solutions, as well the significance for later units. (authors)
Astroparticle physics: puzzles and discoveries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezinsky, V
2008-01-01
Puzzles often give birth to the great discoveries, the false discoveries sometimes stimulate the exiting ideas in theoretical physics. The historical examples of both are described in Introduction and in section 'Cosmological Puzzles'. From existing puzzles most attention is given to Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) puzzle and to cosmological constant problem. The 40-years old UHECR problem consisted in absence of the sharp steepening in spectrum of extragalactic cosmic rays caused by interaction with CMB radiation. This steepening is known as Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff. It is demonstrated here that the features of interaction of cosmic ray protons with CMB are seen now in the spectrum in the form of the dip and beginning of the GZK cutoff. The most serious cosmological problem is caused by large vacuum energy of the known elementary-particle fields which exceeds at least by 45 orders of magnitude the cosmological vacuum energy. The various ideas put forward to solve this problem during last 40 years, have weaknesses and cannot be accepted as the final solution of this puzzle. The anthropic approach is discussed
Sampling Random Bioinformatics Puzzles using Adaptive Probability Distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Have, Christian Theil; Appel, Emil Vincent; Bork-Jensen, Jette
2016-01-01
We present a probabilistic logic program to generate an educational puzzle that introduces the basic principles of next generation sequencing, gene finding and the translation of genes to proteins following the central dogma in biology. In the puzzle, a secret "protein word" must be found by asse...
On the Formal-Logical Analysis of the Foundations of Mathematics Applied to Problems in Physics
Kalanov, Temur Z.
2016-03-01
Analysis of the foundations of mathematics applied to problems in physics was proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. It is shown that critical analysis of the concept of mathematical quantity - central concept of mathematics - leads to the following conclusion: (1) The concept of ``mathematical quantity'' is the result of the following mental operations: (a) abstraction of the ``quantitative determinacy of physical quantity'' from the ``physical quantity'' at that the ``quantitative determinacy of physical quantity'' is an independent object of thought; (b) abstraction of the ``amount (i.e., abstract number)'' from the ``quantitative determinacy of physical quantity'' at that the ``amount (i.e., abstract number)'' is an independent object of thought. In this case, unnamed, abstract numbers are the only sign of the ``mathematical quantity''. This sign is not an essential sign of the material objects. (2) The concept of mathematical quantity is meaningless, erroneous, and inadmissible concept in science because it represents the following formal-logical and dialectical-materialistic error: negation of the existence of the essential sign of the concept (i.e., negation of the existence of the essence of the concept) and negation of the existence of measure of material object.
Famous puzzles of great mathematicians
Petković, Miodrag S
2009-01-01
This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this
Le Balleur, J. C.
1988-01-01
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J.L.; Barragan, A.M.; Palomera, M.A.
2005-01-01
In this paper we develop a methodology based on the use of the Fuzzy Logic technique to build multi-objective functions to be used in optimization processes applied to in-core nuclear fuel management. As an example, we selected the problem of determining optimal radial fuel enrichment and gadolinia distributions in a typical 'Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)' fuel lattice. The methodology is based on the use of the mathematical capability of Fuzzy Logic to model nonlinear functions of arbitrary complexity. The utility of Fuzzy Logic is to map an input space into an output space, and the primary mechanism for doing this is a list of if-then statements called rules. The rules refer to variables and adjectives that describe those variables and, the Fuzzy Logic technique interprets the values in the input vectors and, based on the set of rules assigns values to the output vector. The methodology was developed for the radial optimization of a BWR lattice where the optimization algorithm employed is Tabu Search. The global objective is to find the optimal distribution of enrichments and burnable poison concentrations in a 10*10 BWR lattice. In order to do that, a fuzzy control inference system was developed using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox of Matlab and it has been linked to the Tabu Search optimization process. Results show that Tabu Search combined with Fuzzy Logic performs very well, obtaining lattices with optimal fuel utilization. (authors)
Current puzzles in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-01-01
A meeting on ''Current puzzles in nuclear physics'' was held at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, on June 27 - 28, 1984. The meeting put emphasis on several puzzles which have not been solved for a long time in nuclear physics, and also on the puzzles. This collective report is composed of following eleven papers presented at the meeting. Almost all the papers are witten in English : (1) M1, GT excitations and configuration mixing (in Japanese). (2) Hadronic excitation of pionic states. (3) Microscopic analyses of 28 Si(α,α') 28 Si scattering and single particle strength in A = 29 nuclei. (4) Few-body physics and its incentives to nuclear physics. (5) Is it necessary to introduce three body interactions ? (in Japanese). (6) Puzzles in the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering. (7) Puzzles in NN, NΔ, πN and Nanti N interactions. (8) Problems in Hadron-Nucleus interaction. (9) Unified approach to the meson- and quark- theory of nuclear forces and currents. (10) Pion photoproduction in two Chiral bag models. (11) The dynamic bag model : The electromagnetic properties of nucleon. (Aoki, K.)
Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.
2017-01-01
A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each
Solving the Ternary Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Logic Gate Problem by Means of Adiabatic Switching
Pecar, Primoz; Mraz, Miha; Zimic, Nikolaj; Janez, Miha; Lebar Bajec, Iztok
2008-06-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are one of the most promising alternative platforms of the future. Recent years have witnessed the development of basic logic structures as well as more complex processing structures, however most in the realm of binary logic. On the grounds that future platforms should not disregard the advantages of multi-valued logic, Lebar Bajec et al. were the first to show that quantum-dot cellular automata can be used for the implementation of ternary logic as well. In their study the ternary AND and OR logic functions proved to be the most troublesome primitive to implement. This research presents a revised solution that is based on adiabatic switching.
a fuzzy logic approach to non-linearity problem of load frequency
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
2016-07-03
Jul 3, 2016 ... reduction in settling time, percent overshoot and steady state error. Keywords: fuzzy logic ... power system to regain a state of operating equilibrium given ... power system depends basically on the active (real) power balance ...
Historical analysis of the logic and rhetoric: problems on the procedural using of entimems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Freire Pimentel
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Through the historical and bibliographical method, this article aims to present a critical appraisal of the logic and rhetoric evolution, specifically how the enthymemes are currently used to support judicial decisions. The paper intends to prove that the decision-making precedes the writing process and it is not necessarily guided by a formal logic reasoning but, especially, through an ideological motivation, and also that the wording can be done based on enthymemes.
Debyser, Francis; And Others
1984-01-01
Four sets of French classroom activities are presented: a mystery whose clues include two postcard messages; three puzzles with grammar-related clues; a mystery contained in three comic strip frames; and the solving of a kidnapping mystery. (MSE)
PSQP: Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming.
Andalo, Fernanda A; Taubin, Gabriel; Goldenstein, Siome
2017-02-01
In this article we present the first effective method based on global optimization for the reconstruction of image puzzles comprising rectangle pieces-Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming (PSQP). The proposed novel mathematical formulation reduces the problem to the maximization of a constrained quadratic function, which is solved via a gradient ascent approach. The proposed method is deterministic and can deal with arbitrary identical rectangular pieces. We provide experimental results showing its effectiveness when compared to state-of-the-art approaches. Although the method was developed to solve image puzzles, we also show how to apply it to the reconstruction of simulated strip-shredded documents, broadening its applicability.
Utilizing a logic model to identify clinical research problems: a lesson from philosophy of science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Collins CR
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Cynthia R Collins School of Nursing, College of Social Sciences, Loyola University, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Communication and decision making in the health care workplace often involve finding solutions to ill-structured problems in uncertain, dynamic environments influenced by the competing interests of multiple stakeholders. In this environment, doctoral-prepared nurses who practice as administrators, policy makers, or advanced practice practitioners are often compelled to make important decisions based upon evaluating the merit of colleagues’ proposals against some desired organizational or population outcome. Of equal importance is the nurse leader’s own capacity to construct a compelling argument or proposal that will drive the organization forward to meet the evolving needs for quality health care. Where do we learn the skills necessary to foster this kind of critical thinking in our professional communications? The author suggests that one teaching–learning approach can be found through the thoughtful application of the work of British philosopher Steven Toulmin. Toulmin defined a model for both the analysis and derivation of logical arguments or proposals that can be readily learned and applied for use in health care systems. This model posits that a substantive argument or claim can be evaluated based on the assumptions it presumes (warrants and the strength of the evidence base (backing. Several of the social science professions have adapted Toulmin’s model to generate analysis and creative solutions to complex or emergent problems. The author proposes that an application of this model be included in the pedagogy of doctoral level Philosophy of Science or Nursing Theory courses. The Toulmin process often provides the doctoral student or novice researcher with their first real learning experience in defining the scope and inherent challenges of framing a clinical issue to be the focus of their scholarly translational
The Role of Logical Analysisof Natural Language in Formulating Empirical Problems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Materna, Pavel
2012-01-01
Roč. 4, 2-3 (2012), s. 131-146 ISSN 1829-0930. [Theoretical and Practical Issues of Transforming Society Development. Yerevan, 16.04.2012-17.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/0792 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : LANL * logical semantics * Frege * hyperintensionalism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Cognitive processes in solving variants of computer-based problems used in logic teaching
Eysink, Tessa H.S.; Dijkstra, S.; Kuper, Jan
2001-01-01
The effect of two instructional variables, visualisation and manipulation of objects, in learning to use the logical connective, conditional, was investigated. Instructions for 66 first- year social science students were varied in the computer-based learning environment Tarski's World, designed for
Problems in the Science and Mathematics of 'The Logic of Scientific Discovery'
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alan B. Whiting
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Professor Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994 was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century. However, in his most famous work 'The Logic of Scientific Discovery' he displays troubling misunderstandings of science and mathematics at a basic level. These call into question his conclusions concerning the philosophy of science. Quanta 2012; 1: 13–18.
Proof and Proving: Logic, Impasses, and the Relationship to Problem Solving
Savic, Milos
2012-01-01
Becoming a skillful prover is critical for success in advanced undergraduate and graduate mathematics courses. In this dissertation, I report my investigations of proof and the proving process in three separate studies. In the first study, I examined the amount of logic used in student-constructed proofs to help in the design of…
Fee, Brenda
2009-01-01
Challenging one's brain is the beginning of making great art. Tangrams are a great way to keep students thinking about their latest art project long after leaving the classroom. A tangram is a Chinese puzzle. The earliest known reference to tangrams appears in a Chinese book dated 1813, but the puzzles existed long before that date. The puzzle…
Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III
This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…
New Sliding Puzzle with Neighbors Swap Motion
Prihardono, Ariyanto; Kawagoe, Kenichi
2015-01-01
The sliding puzzles (15-puzzle, 8-puzzle, 5-puzzle) are known to have 2 kind of puz-zle: solvable puzzle and unsolvable puzzle. In this thesis, we make a new puzzle with only 1 kind of it, solvable puzzle. This new puzzle is made by adopting sliding puzzle with several additional rules from M13 puzzle; the puzzle that is formed form The Mathieu group M13. This puzzle has a movement that called a neighbors swap motion, a rule of movement that enables every neighboring points to swap. This extr...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rastović Danilo
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In earlier Rastovic's papers [1] and [2], the effort was given to analyze the stochastic control of tokamaks. In this paper, the deterministic control of tokamak turbulence is investigated via fractional variational calculus, particle in cell simulations, and fuzzy logic methods. Fractional integrals can be considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. The turbulent media could be of the fractal structure and the corresponding equations should be changed to include the fractal features of the media.
A Logical Deduction Based Clause Learning Algorithm for Boolean Satisfiability Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingshan Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Clause learning is the key component of modern SAT solvers, while conflict analysis based on the implication graph is the mainstream technology to generate the learnt clauses. Whenever a clause in the clause database is falsified by the current variable assignments, the SAT solver will try to analyze the reason by using different cuts (i.e., the Unique Implication Points on the implication graph. Those schemes reflect only the conflict on the current search subspace, does not reflect the inherent conflict directly involved in the rest space. In this paper, we propose a new advanced clause learning algorithm based on the conflict analysis and the logical deduction, which reconstructs a linear logical deduction by analyzing the relationship of different decision variables between the backjumping level and the current decision level. The logical deduction result is then added into the clause database as a newly learnt clause. The resulting implementation in Minisat improves the state-of-the-art performance in SAT solving.
Indeterministic Temporal Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trzęsicki Kazimierz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.
Using the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle to Infuse Your Mathematics Classroom with Computer Science Concepts
Marzocchi, Alison S.
2016-01-01
This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi…
Kelly, Janet
1997-01-01
Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)
The Entrepreneurial Earnings Puzzle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jing; Åstebro, Thomas
2014-01-01
A review of recent evidence on relative earnings from entrepreneurship versus wage work presents a puzzle: why do individuals become entrepreneurs when entrepreneurs on average apparently earn less than employees? After considering several potential explanations, we empirically analyze one: income...
Smets, P
1995-01-01
We start by describing the nature of imperfect data, and giving an overview of the various models that have been proposed. Fuzzy sets theory is shown to be an extension of classical set theory, and as such has a proeminent role or modelling imperfect data. The mathematic of fuzzy sets theory is detailled, in particular the role of the triangular norms. The use of fuzzy sets theory in fuzzy logic and possibility theory,the nature of the generalized modus ponens and of the implication operator for approximate reasoning are analysed. The use of fuzzy logic is detailled for application oriented towards process control and database problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annelie Jordaan
2005-05-01
Full Text Available The role of information technology in modern education has increased significantly over the past two decades [14]. The opportunity to develop an interactive software system with the aim of enhancing fundamental problem-solving skills of learners enrolled for the Computer Science, Information Technology and Mathematics programs at tertiary institutions is possible with object-oriented programming techniques and multi-dimensional graphic design. The definition of fundamental problem-solving skills includes cognitive functional skills such as logical thinking, conceptualism with prior knowledge, relationship forming and objective analysis. Experiments done for this research indicate that given the right educational tools, cognitive functional skills of learners can be stimulated, developed and enhanced. This, in turn, may lead to an increase in the graduation rates of learners enrolled for the Computer Science, Information Technology and Mathematics program and ultimately contribute to the reshaping of the educational experience.
Bolc, Leonard
1992-01-01
Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...
Fluid intelligence and psychosocial outcome: from logical problem solving to social adaptation.
Huepe, David; Roca, María; Salas, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A; Zamorano, Leandro; Concepción, Aimée; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín
2011-01-01
While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized. A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation). Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher. Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.
Fluid Intelligence and Psychosocial Outcome: From Logical Problem Solving to Social Adaptation
Huepe, David; Roca, María; Salas, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A.; Zamorano, Leandro; Concepción, Aimée; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín
2011-01-01
Background While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation). Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher. Conclusions/Significance Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts. PMID:21957464
Fluid intelligence and psychosocial outcome: from logical problem solving to social adaptation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Huepe
Full Text Available While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized.A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire, domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale, drug intake (ONUDD, self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation. Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher.Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juselius, Katarina
The persistent movements away from long-run benchmark values in real exchange rates, dubbed the PPP puzzle, observed in many real exchange rates during periods of currency float have been subject to much empirical research without resolving the puzzle. The paper demonstrates how the cointegrated...... VAR approach by grouping together components of similar persistence can be used to uncover structures in the data that ultimately may help to explain theoretically the forces underlying such puzzling movements. The charaterization of the data into components which are empirically I(0), I(1), and I(2......) is shown to be a powerful organizing principle allowing us to structure the data in long-run, medium-run, and short-run behavior. Its main advantage is the ability to associate persistent movements away from fundamental benchmark values in one variable/relation with similar persistent movements somewhere...
Problem solving through recreational mathematics
Averbach, Bonnie
1999-01-01
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
Solving jigsaw puzzles using image features
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ture R.; Drewsen, Peter; Hansen, Klaus
2008-01-01
In this article, we describe a method for automatic solving of the jigsaw puzzle problem based on using image features instead of the shape of the pieces. The image features are used for obtaining an accurate measure for edge similarity to be used in a new edge matching algorithm. The algorithm i...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. On IBM's Millennial Puzzle. A Sarangarajan. Classroom Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 81-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/10/0081-0089. Author Affiliations.
Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos
from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 5. Puzzles in physics. Hsiang-Nan Li ... Author Affiliations. Hsiang-Nan Li1 2. Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115, Republic of China; Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701, Republic of China ...
La Francophonie. Puzzle Corner.
Andrews, Ian A.
2000-01-01
Discusses the organization La Francophonie, which is an international community of people who speak French and convene to address issues. Presents a crossword puzzle that introduces readers to some of the nations involved in La Francophonie. Provides the across and down clues, a word list, and answer key. (CMK)
Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Bouzina
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries - we only change the principle, then the system changes completely.
Korkmaz, Özgen
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quigg, Chris
2005-01-01
It is a pleasure to be part of the SLAC Summer Institute again, not simply because it is one of the great traditions in our field, but because this is a moment of great promise for particle physics. I look forward to exploring many opportunities with you over the course of our two weeks together. My first task in talking about Nature's Greatest Puzzles, the title of this year's Summer Institute, is to deconstruct the premise a little bit
Close, Frank
2011-01-01
We are living in a Golden Age of Physics. Forty or so years ago, three brilliant, yet little-known scientists - an American, a Dutchman, and an Englishman - made breakthroughs which later inspired the construction of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva: a 27 kilometer-long machine which has already costs ten billion dollars, taken twenty years to build, and now promises to reveal how the universe itself came to be. The Infinity Puzzle is the inside story of those forty years of research, breakthrough, and endeavour. Peter Higgs, Gerard 't Hooft and James Bjorken, were the three scienti
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Liping
1998-01-01
Mechanisms affecting multicomponent material sputtering are complex. Isotope sputtering is the simplest in the multicomponent materials sputtering. Although only mass effect plays a dominant role in the isotope sputtering, there is still an isotope puzzle in sputtering by ion bombardment. The major arguments are as follows: (1) At the zero fluence, is the isotope enrichment ejection-angle-independent or ejection-angle-dependent? (2) Is the isotope angular effect the primary or the secondary sputter effect? (3) How to understand the action of momentum asymmetry in collision cascade on the isotope sputtering?
Embedding Logics into Product Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baaz, M.; Hájek, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Švejda, David
1998-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 1 (1998), s. 35-47 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 15 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Gödel logic * product logic * computational complexity * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
A beginner's guide to mathematical logic
Smullyan, Raymond M
2014-01-01
Combining stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic, this new textbook for first courses in mathematical logic was written by the subject's creative master. Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts with creative explanations and unique problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, recursion theory, and other topics.
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
1989-01-01
Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)
A Hybrid alldifferent-Tabu Search Algorithm for Solving Sudoku Puzzles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Soto
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Sudoku problem is a well-known logic-based puzzle of combinatorial number-placement. It consists in filling a n2 × n2 grid, composed of n columns, n rows, and n subgrids, each one containing distinct integers from 1 to n2. Such a puzzle belongs to the NP-complete collection of problems, to which there exist diverse exact and approximate methods able to solve it. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid algorithm that smartly combines a classic tabu search procedure with the alldifferent global constraint from the constraint programming world. The alldifferent constraint is known to be efficient for domain filtering in the presence of constraints that must be pairwise different, which are exactly the kind of constraints that Sudokus own. This ability clearly alleviates the work of the tabu search, resulting in a faster and more robust approach for solving Sudokus. We illustrate interesting experimental results where our proposed algorithm outperforms the best results previously reported by hybrids and approximate methods.
Goin-Kochel, Robin P
2016-02-01
Following is a brief musing on Roy Grinker's discussion of what the puzzle piece symbolizes for autism during his presentation at the 2015 International Meeting for Autism Research. In his words, "The puzzle piece is ubiquitous." It likely holds a different meaning for each of us, and this is how one autism researcher sees it. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kleene, Stephen Cole
1967-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Meyer, J.J.Ch.; Broersen, J.M.; Herzig, A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an overview of so-called BDI logics, logics where the notion of Beliefs, Desires and Intentions play a central role. Starting out from the basic ideas about BDI by Bratman, we consider various formalizations in logic, such as the approach of Cohen and Levesque, slightly
Combining Paraconsistent Logic with Argumentation
Grooters, Diana; Prakken, Hendrik
2014-01-01
One tradition in the logical study of argumentation is to allow for arguments that combine strict and defeasible inference rules, and to derive the strict inference rules from a logic at least as strong as classical logic. An unsolved problem in this tradition is how the trivialising effect of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronov, A.A.; Kurin, V.V.; Levichev, M.Yu.; Ryndyk, D.A.; Vostokov, V.I.
1993-01-01
In recent years there has been much interest in superconductor logical devices. Our paper is devoted to the analysis of some new possibilities in this field. The main problems here are: minimization of time of logical operations and reducing of device scale. Josephson systems are quite appropriate for this purpose because of small size, short characteristic time and also small energy losses. Two different types of Josephson logic have been investigated during last years. The first type is based on hysteretic V-A characteristic of a single Josephson junction. Superconducting and resistive (with nonzero voltage) states are considered as logical zero and logical unit. The second one - rapid single flux quantum logic, has been developed recently and is based on SQUID-like bistability. Different logical states are the states with different number of magnetic flux quanta inside closed superconducting contour. Information is represented by voltage pulses with fixed ''area'' (∫ V(t)/dt). This pulses are generated when logical state of SQUID-like elementary cell changes. The fundamental role of magnetic flux quantization in this type of logic leads to the necessity of large enough self-inductance of superconductor contour and thus to limitations on minimal device dimensions. (orig.)
The role of guidance in computer-based problem solving for the development of concepts of logic
Eysink, Tessa H.S.; Dijkstra, S.; Kuper, Jan
The effect of two instructional variables, manipulation of objects and guidance, in learning to use the logical connective, conditional, was investigated. Instructions for 72 first- and second year social science students were varied in the computer-based learning environment Tarski’s World,
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2012-01-01
We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...
Abdelfatah, Nasri; Brahim, Gasbaoui
2011-01-01
The Reactive power flow’s is one of the most electrical distribution systems problem wich have great of interset of the electrical network researchers, it’s cause’s active power transmission reduction, power losses decreasing, and the drop voltage’s increase. In this research we described the efficiency of the FLC-GAO approach to solve the optimal power flow (OPF) combinatorial problem. The proposed approach employ tow algorithms, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) algorithm for critical nodal de...
Basic Functional Analysis Puzzles of Spectral Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm
2011-01-01
We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles.......We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles....
Three Modes of Hydrogeophysical Investigation: Puzzles, Mysteries, and Conundrums
Ferre, P. A.
2011-12-01
In an article in the New Yorker in 2007, Malcolm Gladwell discussed the distinction that national security expert Gregory Treverton has made between puzzles and mysteries. Specifically, puzzles are problems that we understand and that will eventually be solved when we amass enough information. (Think crossword puzzles.) Mysteries are problems for which we have the necessary information, but it is often overwhelmed by irrelevant or misleading input. To solve a mystery, we require improved analysis. (Think find-a-word.) Gladwell goes on to explain that, in the national security realm, the Cold War was a puzzle while the current national security condition is a mystery. I will discuss the past, current, and future trajectories of hydrogeophysics in terms of puzzles and mysteries. I will also add a third class of problem: conundrums - those for which we lack sufficient information about their structure to know how to solve them. A conundrum is a mystery with an unexpected twist. I hope to make the case that the future growth of hydrogeophysics lies in our ability to address this more challenging and more interesting class of problem.
CROSSWORD PUZZLE INCREASE ATTENTION OF CHILDREN WITH ADHD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ah. Yusuf
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit is one of three main problems of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Children experience difficulty of paying attention and concentrating to one or more things or objects. As a results these children cannot perform the task well. Crossword puzzle is one of games that may increase attention and concentration. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of crossword puzzle to increase attention of children with ADHD. Method: Pre-experimental design was employed in this study. The population was ADHD students in Cakra Autisme Therapy. Seven students were recruited by means of purposive sampling. The independent variable was crossword puzzle and the dependent variable was the increase of attention. Data were collected using observation sheet and analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with level of significance of α≤ 0.05. Result: Result showed that crossword puzzle could increase attention. Respondent’s attention improved from less to good attention, particularly in playing activities (p=0.014. Analysis: This finding suggests that there was differences of attention between pre and post-test. It can be concluded that crossword puzzle can increase attention of the students with ADHD. Discussion: It is recommended for teachers and parents of ADHD children to give them crossword puzzle game everyday at school or at home. Further studies should involve larger sample size and employs another game not only to increase attention, but also reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity of ADHD child.
Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine
2015-06-23
A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited
Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle
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Mihovilovič Miha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.
Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mihovilovič, M.; Merkel, H.; Weber, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany)
2016-01-22
The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.
Bonesini, Maurizio
2017-12-01
The FAMU (Fisica degli Atomi Muonici) experiment has the goal to measure precisely the proton Zemach radius, thus contributing to the solution of the so-called proton radius "puzzle". To this aim, it makes use of a high-intensity pulsed muon beam at RIKEN-RAL impinging on a cryogenic hydrogen target with an high-Z gas admixture and a tunable mid-IR high power laser, to measure the hyperfine (HFS) splitting of the 1S state of the muonic hydrogen. From the value of the exciting laser frequency, the energy of the HFS transition may be derived with high precision ( 10-5) and thus, via QED calculations, the Zemach radius of the proton. The experimental apparatus includes a precise fiber-SiPMT beam hodoscope and a crown of eight LaBr3 crystals and a few HPGe detectors for detection of the emitted characteristic X-rays. Preliminary runs to optimize the gas target filling and its operating conditions have been taken in 2014 and 2015-2016. The final run, with the pump laser to drive the HFS transition, is expected in 2018.
Zajonc, R B; Markus, H; Markus, G B
1979-08-01
Studies relating intellectual performance to birth order report conflicting results, some finding intellectual scores to increase, others to decrease with birth order. In contrast, the relationship between intellectual performance and family size is stable and consistently replicable. Why do these two highly related variables generate such divergent results? This birth order puzzle is resolved by means of the confluence model that quantifies the influences upon intellectual growth arising within the family context. At the time of a new birth, two opposing influences act upon intellectual growth of the elder sibling: (a) his or her intellectual environment is "diluted" and (b) he or she loses the "last-born's handicap" and begins serving as an intellectual resource to the younger sibling. Since these opposite effects are not equal in magnitude, the differences in intellectual performance among birth ranks are shown to be age dependent. While elder children may surpass their younger siblings in intellectual performance at some ages, they may be overtaken by them at others. Thus when age is taken into consideration, the birth order literature loses its chaotic character and an orderly pattern of results emerges.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...
Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic
2014-01-01
This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics. The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field. The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...
A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic
Nalon, Cláudia; Zhang, Lan; Dixon, Clare; Hustadt, Ullrich
2014-01-01
We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and prese...
Optimization methods for logical inference
Chandru, Vijay
2011-01-01
Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio de Nardis
2014-11-01
Full Text Available All political sciences share the same logic and methods as the empirical social sciences and therefore produce perceptive knowledge. Empirical knowledge is based on a specific kind of observation driven by a set of theoretically developed concepts related to clearly observable social phenomena. Not all the concepts, however, are readily amenable to observational terms. We usually need to proceed to their operationalization. The formulation and the operational definition of the empirical concepts does not exhaust the analytic process. It is also necessary to observe how the phenomenon occurs in the reality, proceeding to classification or typological constructions and, sometimes, to the production of multi-dimensional models. Only after this process will the formulation of hypotheses be possible. They will later be verified through the use of methods of empirical control. The most frequently used activity in political sociology is comparison, which is the main method of any social science according to most scholars. Comparison can be carried out both among a certain number of cases or within a single case by comparing it in its historical development. The temporal dimension becomes crucial when one wishes to produce historically rooted generalizations and theories, therefore confined to a spatial and temporal dimension. Before proceeding with the comparison we must make sure that the cases selected are actually comparable and that they possess at least one property in common. The objective of this paper is therefore to describe forms and styles of comparison within the logic of social and political sciences
Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore
1989-01-01
These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.
Temporal logic motion planning
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Seotsanyana, M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...
Imaginary Cubes and Their Puzzles
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Hideki Tsuiki
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Imaginary cubes are three dimensional objects which have square silhouette projections in three orthogonal ways just as a cube has. In this paper, we study imaginary cubes and present assembly puzzles based on them. We show that there are 16 equivalence classes of minimal convex imaginary cubes, among whose representatives are a hexagonal bipyramid imaginary cube and a triangular antiprism imaginary cube. Our main puzzle is to put three of the former and six of the latter pieces into a cube-box with an edge length of twice the size of the original cube. Solutions of this puzzle are based on remarkable properties of these two imaginary cubes, in particular, the possibility of tiling 3D Euclidean space.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L
2010-01-01
We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.
Sleep for Kids: Games and Puzzles
... and puzzles can help you learn more about sleep! Learn about sleep with this fun crossword puzzle! Test your memory and learn how to get better sleep! Find the hidden sleep words! Avoid things that ...
Do Puzzle Pieces and Autism Puzzle Piece Logos Evoke Negative Associations?
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Raimond, Adam R.; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Boston, Jilana S.; Harp, Bev
2018-01-01
Puzzle pieces have become ubiquitous symbols for autism. However, puzzle-piece imagery stirs debate between those who support and those who object to its use because they believe puzzle-piece imagery evokes negative associations. Our study empirically investigated whether puzzle pieces evoke negative associations in the general public.…
Pedagogy Corner: The Architect's Puzzle
Lovitt, Charles
2017-01-01
Some years back, the author found the following problem in a spatial puzzle book: how many ways can you put four blocks together, face to face (with no vertical rotation symmetry)? He gave each student just four blocks and they collectively tried combinations to eventually agree on the answer of 15. He used to think it was a halfway decent task,…
Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development
Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat
2013-01-01
Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…
The B→πK puzzle and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imbeault, Maxime; Baek, Seungwon; London, David
2008-01-01
At present, there are discrepancies between the measurements of several observables in B→πK decays and the predictions of the Standard Model (the 'B→πK puzzle'). Although the effect is not yet statistically significant-it is at the level of ≥3σ-it does hint at the presence of new physics. In this Letter, we explore whether supersymmetry (SUSY) can explain the B→πK puzzle. In particular, we consider the SUSY model of Grossman, Neubert and Kagan (GNK). We find that it is extremely unlikely that GNK explains the B→πK data. We also find a similar conclusion in many other models of SUSY. And there are serious criticisms of the two SUSY models that do reproduce the B→πK data. If the B→πK puzzle remains, it could pose a problem for SUSY models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Noël Ferrié
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Le texte soutient que le « tournant naturaliste » que l’on nous invite à négocier ne donne aucun moyen supplémentaire pour parvenir à une description perspicace de ce que les gens font dans des circonstances précises, l’existence humaine pouvant être considérée comme une collection de circonstances précises. Sans doute le naturalisme nous permet-il de comprendre comment certaines actions humaines sont possibles, mais cela ne nous dit pas pourquoi et comment elles font sens pour tout un chacun. La méthodologie nécessaire pour éclaircir le premier point obscurcit généralement le second. Le mieux est donc de considérer que les deux approches ne vont pas de pair. Ce point de vue est soutenu à partir d’exemple tirés de l’anthropologie de la religion.To each one his puzzle. For a serene methodological pluralismThe text argues that the « naturalistic turn » that we are invited to negotiate does not give any additional means to achieve an insightful description of what people do in specific circumstances, and human existence can be considered as a collection of specific circumstances. Probably naturalism allows us to understand how some human actions are possible, but that does not tell us why and how they make sense for everyone. The methodology needed to clarify the first point usually obscures the second one. The best way is to consider that the two approaches do not go together. The text supports this view from an example drawn from the anthropology of religion.A cada uno su rompecabezas. En favor de un pluralismo metodológico serenoEl texto argumenta que la inflexión naturalista a la que se nos invita a participar no proporciona ningún medio suplementario que desemboque en una descripción perspicaz de lo que la gente hace en circunstancias concretas ya que la existencia humana puede ser considerada como una concatenación de circunstancias concretas. Sin duda el naturalismo nos permite comprender como son
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barragan M, A.M.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Palomera P, M.A.
2005-01-01
A methodology based on Fuzzy Logic for the construction of the objective function of the optimization problems of nuclear fuel is described. It was created an inference system that responds, in certain form, as a human expert when it has the task of qualifying different radial designs of fuel cells. Specifically it is detailed how an inference system based based on Fuzzy Logic that has five enter variables and one exit variable was built, which corresponds to the objective function for the radial design of a fuel cell for a BWR. The use of Fuzzy with Mat lab offered the visualization capacity of the exit variable in function of one or two enter variables at the same time. This allowed to build, in appropriate way, the combination of the inference rules and the membership functions of those diffuse sets used for each one of the enter variables. The obtained objective function was used in an optimization process based on Taboo search. The new methodology was proven for the design of a cell used in a fuel assemble of the Laguna Verde reactor obtaining excellent results. (Author)
Lubis, Asrin; Nasution, Andrea Arifsyah
2017-01-01
Mathematical reasoning in logical context has now received much attention in the mathematics curriculum documents of many countries, including Indonesia. In Indonesia, students start formally learning about logic when they pursue to senior-high school. Before, they previously have many experiences to deal with logic, but the earlier assignments do…
Propositional Logics of Dependence
Yang, F.; Väänänen, J.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study logics of dependence on the propositional level. We prove that several interesting propositional logics of dependence, including propositional dependence logic, propositional intuitionistic dependence logic as well as propositional inquisitive logic, are expressively complete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahbi Marrouchi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the continuous increase of the population and the perpetual progress of industry, the energy management presents nowadays a relevant topic that concerns researchers in electrical engineering. Indeed, in order to establish a good exploitation of the electrical grid, it is necessary to solve technical and economic problems. This can only be done through the resolution of the Unit Commitment Problem. Unit Commitment Problem allows optimizing the combination of the production units’ states and determining their production planning, in order to satisfy the expected consumption with minimal cost during a specified period which varies usually from 24 hours to one week. However, each production unit has some constraints that make this problem complex, combinatorial, and nonlinear. This paper presents a comparative study between a strategy based on hybrid gradient-genetic algorithm method and two strategies based on metaheuristic methods, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithm, in order to predict the combinations and the unit commitment scheduling of each production unit in one side and to minimize the total production cost in the other side. To test the performance of the optimization proposed strategies, strategies have been applied to the IEEE electrical network 14 busses and the obtained results are very promising.
Logic functions and equations examples and exercises
Steinbach, Bernd
2009-01-01
With a free, downloadable software package available to help solve the exercises, this book focuses on practical and relevant problems that arise in the field of binary logics, with its two main applications - digital circuit design, and propositional logics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....
Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic
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José Luis Usó-Doménech
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Classical logic is typically concerned with abstract analysis. The problem for a synthetic logic is to transcend and unify available data to reconstruct the object as a totality. Three rules are proposed to pass from classic logic to synthetic logic. We present the category logic of qualitative opposition using examples from various sciences. This logic has been defined to include the neuter as part of qualitative opposition. The application of these rules to qualitative opposition, and, in particular, its neuter, demonstrated that a synthetic logic allows the truth of some contradictions. This synthetic logic is dialectical with a multi-valued logic, which gives every proposition a truth value in the interval [0,1] that is the square of the modulus of a complex number. In this dialectical logic, contradictions of the neuter of an opposition may be true.
Making Peer-Assisted Content Distribution Robust to Collusion Using Bandwidth Puzzles
Reiter, Michael K.; Sekar, Vyas; Spensky, Chad; Zhang, Zhenghao
Many peer-assisted content-distribution systems reward a peer based on the amount of data that this peer serves to others. However, validating that a peer did so is, to our knowledge, an open problem; e.g., a group of colluding attackers can earn rewards by claiming to have served content to one another, when they have not. We propose a puzzle mechanism to make contribution-aware peer-assisted content distribution robust to such collusion. Our construction ties solving the puzzle to possession of specific content and, by issuing puzzle challenges simultaneously to all parties claiming to have that content, our mechanism prevents one content-holder from solving many others' puzzles. We prove (in the random oracle model) the security of our scheme, describe our integration of bandwidth puzzles into a media streaming system, and demonstrate the resulting attack resilience via simulations.
Popular lectures on mathematical logic
Wang, Hao
2014-01-01
A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasri Abdelfatah
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The Reactive power flow’s is one of the most electrical distribution systems problem wich have great of interset of the electrical network researchers, it’s cause’s active power transmission reduction, power losses decreasing, and the drop voltage’s increase. In this research we described the efficiency of the FLC-GAO approach to solve the optimal power flow (OPF combinatorial problem. The proposed approach employ tow algorithms, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC algorithm for critical nodal detection and gentic algorithm optimization (GAO algorithm for optimal seizing capacitor.GAO method is more efficient in combinatory problem solutions. The proposed approach has been examined and tested on the standard IEEE 57-bus the resulats show the power loss minimization denhancement, voltage profile, and stability improvement. The proposed approach results have been compared to those that reported in the literature recently. The results are promising and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, John C.
2002-01-01
In joint work with Peter O'Hearn and others, based on early ideas of Burstall, we have developed an extension of Hoare logic that permits reasoning about low-level imperative programs that use shared mutable data structure. The simple imperative programming language is extended with commands (not...... with the inductive definition of predicates on abstract data structures, this extension permits the concise and flexible description of structures with controlled sharing. In this paper, we will survey the current development of this program logic, including extensions that permit unrestricted address arithmetic...
Current puzzles and future possibilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagamiya, S.
1982-02-01
Four current puzzles and several future experimental possibilities in high-energy nuclear collision research are discussed. These puzzles are (1) entropy, (2) hydrodynamic flow, (3) anomalon, and (4) particle emission at backward angles in proton-nucleus collisions. The last one seems not to be directly related to the subject of the present school. But it is, because particle emission into the region far beyond the nucleon-nucleon kinematical limit is an interesting subject common for both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, and the basic mechanism involved is strongly related in these two cases. Future experimental possibilities are described which include: (1) possibilities of studying multibaryonic excited states, (2) applications of neutron-rich isotopes, and (3) other needed experimental tasks. 72 references
Programmable Array Logic Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demon Handoyo; Djen Djen Djainal
2007-01-01
Good digital circuit design that part of a complex system, often becoming a separate problem. To produce finishing design according to wanted performance is often given on to considerations which each other confuse, hence thereby analyse optimization become important in this case. To realization is made design logic program, the first are determined global diagram block, then are decided contents of these block diagram, and then determined its interconnection in the form of logic expression, continued with election of component. These steps are done to be obtained the design with low price, easy in its interconnection, minimal volume, low power and certainty god work. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prakash, Madappa
2014-01-01
Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. This article gives a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Focus is placed on the significant strides on neutron star research made by the group at Stony Brook, which Gerry built from scratch. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted
Construction-Paper Puzzle Masterpieces
Vance, Shelly
2010-01-01
Creating an appreciation of art history in her junior-high students has always been one of the author's greatest challenges as an art teacher. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students re-created a famous work of art--piece by piece, like a puzzle or a stained-glass window--out of construction paper. (Contains 1 resource.)
Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre
We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.
Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert
2004-01-01
Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...
The Simple Past Puzzle. A Study of Some Aspects of the Syntax and Semantics of Tense
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nino Gulli
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that the so-called present perfect puzzle is, in reality, a puzzle about the simple past. It is the latter, I argue, that shows a puzzling behavior, given that it can be used not only in definite contexts but also in seemingly indefinite ones. I employ the notions of time frame and specifiability to show how the obvious distinction between the two tenses in terms of temporal logic can be accounted for. I also propose that the past morpheme -ed be considered a kind of verb determiner which selects a temporal XP as a complement. Such complement can be (and usually is expressed either in the sentence or in the larger discourse; however, it can also remain implicit, or covert.
Reilly, D
2001-01-01
Homeopathy is a branch of Western medicine that has mostly been rejected by Western orthodoxy for the last 200 years because of conceptual and scientific clashes. Homeopathy uses microdoses of potential toxins to provoke defense and self-regulatory responses, rather than the more orthodox approach of blocking body reactions. This approach hints at its clinical scope: it can help, at times resolve, conditions that are intrinsically reversible rather than mechanical problems, deficiencies, or irreversible breakdowns in body functions where it is only palliative. In recent years, there has been a renaissance of interest. Public demand has soared, and with it professional interest. Approximately 20% of Scotland's general practitioners have completed basic training. This is partly occasioned by public interest in complementary medicine and a sympathy with the more mind-body approach of homeopathy, and partly by recent scientific evidence. Some homeopathic dilutions are so extreme they are dismissed by critics as only placebo. Yet trials and meta-analyses of controlled trials are pointing toward real effects, mechanism of action unknown. Clinical outcome studies suggest useful clinical impact and excellent safety. There seems to be a potential to enhance patient care by integrating the two systems.
Seyhan, Hatice Güngör
2015-01-01
This study was conducted with 98 prospective science teachers, who were composed of 50 prospective teachers that had participated in problem-solving applications and 48 prospective teachers who were taught within a more researcher-oriented teaching method in science laboratories. The first aim of this study was to determine the levels of…
Design and experimentation of BSFQ logic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosoki, T.; Kodaka, H.; Kitagawa, M.; Okabe, Y.
1999-01-01
Rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) logic needs synchronous pulses for each gate, so the clock-wiring problem is more serious when designing larger scale circuits with this logic. So we have proposed a new SFQ logic which follows Boolean algebra perfectly by using set and reset pulses. With this logic, the level information of current input is transmitted with these pulses generated by level-to-pulse converters, and each gate calculates logic using its phase level made by these pulses. Therefore, our logic needs no clock in each gate. We called this logic 'Boolean SFQ (BSFQ) logic'. In this paper, we report design and experimentation for an AND gate with inverting input based on BSFQ logic. The experimental results for OR and XOR gates are also reported. (author)
Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases
Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana
2017-01-01
Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...
Puzzles of large scale structure and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidharth, B.G.
2006-01-01
We consider the puzzle of cosmic voids bounded by two-dimensional structures of galactic clusters as also a puzzle pointed out by Weinberg: How can the mass of a typical elementary particle depend on a cosmic parameter like the Hubble constant? An answer to the first puzzle is proposed in terms of 'Scaled' Quantum Mechanical like behaviour which appears at large scales. The second puzzle can be answered by showing that the gravitational mass of an elementary particle has a Machian character (see Ahmed N. Cantorian small worked, Mach's principle and the universal mass network. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;21(4))
A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cláudia Nalon
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and present the results for a comparison with an existing tableau-based solver.
Decodoku: Quantum error rorrection as a simple puzzle game
Wootton, James
To build quantum computers, we need to detect and manage any noise that occurs. This will be done using quantum error correction. At the hardware level, QEC is a multipartite system that stores information non-locally. Certain measurements are made which do not disturb the stored information, but which do allow signatures of errors to be detected. Then there is a software problem. How to take these measurement outcomes and determine: a) The errors that caused them, and (b) how to remove their effects. For qubit error correction, the algorithms required to do this are well known. For qudits, however, current methods are far from optimal. We consider the error correction problem of qubit surface codes. At the most basic level, this is a problem that can be expressed in terms of a grid of numbers. Using this fact, we take the inherent problem at the heart of quantum error correction, remove it from its quantum context, and presented in terms of simple grid based puzzle games. We have developed three versions of these puzzle games, focussing on different aspects of the required algorithms. These have been presented and iOS and Android apps, allowing the public to try their hand at developing good algorithms to solve the puzzles. For more information, see www.decodoku.com. Funding from the NCCR QSIT.
The puzzle of neutron lifetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul, Stephan
2009-01-01
In this paper we review the role of the neutron lifetime and discuss the present status of measurements. In view of the large discrepancy observed by the two most precise individual measurements so far we describe the different techniques and point out the principle strengths and weaknesses. In particular we discuss the estimation of systematic uncertainties and its correlation to the statistical ones. In order to solve the present puzzle, many new experiments are either ongoing or being proposed. An overview on their possible contribution to this field will be given.
A Hierarchical Interface Design of a Puzzle Game for Elementary Education
Eun-Young Park; Young-Ho Park
2010-01-01
A basic instinct of humans for perfect completion usually drives us happy. Basically, humans purchase a certain complete match for scattered facts. The satisfaction of completing the scattered pieces gives us great pleasure. Thus many people put in their time and effort in the puzzle, and they gain strong satisfaction. The paper solves the importance of the general effects of a puzzle in building the edu-game design. Legacy online education has following problems. First, educational effects b...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten
2014-01-01
In Choreographic Programming, a distributed system is programmed by giving a choreography, a global description of its interactions, instead of separately specifying the behaviour of each of its processes. Process implementations in terms of a distributed language can then be automatically...... projected from a choreography. We present Linear Compositional Choreographies (LCC), a proof theory for reasoning about programs that modularly combine choreographies with processes. Using LCC, we logically reconstruct a semantics and a projection procedure for programs. For the first time, we also obtain...... a procedure for extracting choreographies from process terms....
The Magnets Puzzle is NP-Complete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kölker, Jonas
2012-01-01
In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete.......In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete....
Hadronic decay puzzle in charmonium physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Yifan
1996-01-01
Recent experimental results obtained at Beijing Electron-proton Collider sensitivity level the crisply defined nature of the hadronic decay puzzle in charmonium physics. Discovery of new anomalous decay modes breaks with the previously established pattern of the puzzle, and poses new challenges for its theoretical understanding
Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Faymonville
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1979-01-01
The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)
Zhang, Jianwei; Kudrna, Dave; Mu, Ting; Li, Weiming; Copetti, Dario; Yu, Yeisoo; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Lei, Yang; Wing, Rod A
2016-10-15
Next generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to rapidly and affordably generate vast quantities of sequence data. Once generated, raw sequences are assembled into contigs or scaffolds. However, these assemblies are mostly fragmented and inaccurate at the whole genome scale, largely due to the inability to integrate additional informative datasets (e.g. physical, optical and genetic maps). To address this problem, we developed a semi-automated software tool-Genome Puzzle Master (GPM)-that enables the integration of additional genomic signposts to edit and build 'new-gen-assemblies' that result in high-quality 'annotation-ready' pseudomolecules. With GPM, loaded datasets can be connected to each other via their logical relationships which accomplishes tasks to 'group,' 'merge,' 'order and orient' sequences in a draft assembly. Manual editing can also be performed with a user-friendly graphical interface. Final pseudomolecules reflect a user's total data package and are available for long-term project management. GPM is a web-based pipeline and an important part of a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) which can be easily deployed on local servers for any genome research laboratory. The GPM (with LIMS) package is available at https://github.com/Jianwei-Zhang/LIMS CONTACTS: jzhang@mail.hzau.edu.cn or rwing@mail.arizona.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Introduction to fuzzy logic using Matlab
Sivanandam, SN; Deepa, S N
2006-01-01
Fuzzy Logic, at present is a hot topic, among academicians as well various programmers. This book is provided to give a broad, in-depth overview of the field of Fuzzy Logic. The basic principles of Fuzzy Logic are discussed in detail with various solved examples. The different approaches and solutions to the problems given in the book are well balanced and pertinent to the Fuzzy Logic research projects. The applications of Fuzzy Logic are also dealt to make the readers understand the concept of Fuzzy Logic. The solutions to the problems are programmed using MATLAB 6.0 and the simulated results are given. The MATLAB Fuzzy Logic toolbox is provided for easy reference.
Carlton, David Bryan
The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly
Supersymmetry, the flavour puzzle and rare B decays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Straub, David Michael
2010-07-14
The gauge hierarchy problem and the flavour puzzle belong to the most pressing open questions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Supersymmetry is arguably the most popular framework of physics beyond the Standard Model and provides an elegant solution to the gauge hierarchy problem; however, it aggravates the flavour puzzle. In the first part of this thesis, I discuss several approaches to address the flavour puzzle in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and experimental tests thereof: supersymmetric grand unified theories with a unification of Yukawa couplings at high energies, theories with minimal flavour violation and additional sources of CP violation and theories with gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and a large ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values. In the second part of the thesis, I discuss the phenomenology of two rare B meson decay modes which are promising probes of physics beyond the Standard Model: The exclusive B {yields} K{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} decay, whose angular decay distribution will be studied at LHC and gives access to a large number of observables and the b{yields}s{nu}anti {nu} decays, which are in the focus of planned high-luminosity Super B factories. I discuss the predictions for these observables in the Standard Model and their sensitivity to New Physics. (orig.)
Food puzzles for cats: Feeding for physical and emotional wellbeing.
Dantas, Leticia Ms; Delgado, Mikel M; Johnson, Ingrid; Buffington, Ca Tony
2016-09-01
Many pet cats are kept indoors for a variety of reasons (eg, safety, health, avoidance of wildlife predation) in conditions that are perhaps the least natural to them. Indoor housing has been associated with health issues, such as chronic lower urinary tract signs, and development of problem behaviors, which can cause weakening of the human-animal bond and lead to euthanasia of the cat. Environmental enrichment may mitigate the effects of these problems and one approach is to take advantage of cats' natural instinct to work for their food. In this article we aim to equip veterinary professionals with the tools to assist clients in the use of food puzzles for their cats as a way to support feline physical health and emotional wellbeing. We outline different types of food puzzles, and explain how to introduce them to cats and how to troubleshoot challenges with their use. The effect of food puzzles on cats is a relatively new area of study, so as well as reviewing the existing empirical evidence, we provide case studies from our veterinary and behavioral practices showing health and behavioral benefits resulting from their use. © The Author(s) 2016.
Supersymmetry, the flavour puzzle and rare B decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Straub, David Michael
2010-01-01
The gauge hierarchy problem and the flavour puzzle belong to the most pressing open questions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Supersymmetry is arguably the most popular framework of physics beyond the Standard Model and provides an elegant solution to the gauge hierarchy problem; however, it aggravates the flavour puzzle. In the first part of this thesis, I discuss several approaches to address the flavour puzzle in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and experimental tests thereof: supersymmetric grand unified theories with a unification of Yukawa couplings at high energies, theories with minimal flavour violation and additional sources of CP violation and theories with gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and a large ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values. In the second part of the thesis, I discuss the phenomenology of two rare B meson decay modes which are promising probes of physics beyond the Standard Model: The exclusive B → K * l + l - decay, whose angular decay distribution will be studied at LHC and gives access to a large number of observables and the b→sνanti ν decays, which are in the focus of planned high-luminosity Super B factories. I discuss the predictions for these observables in the Standard Model and their sensitivity to New Physics. (orig.)
Computability, complexity, logic
Börger, Egon
1989-01-01
The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....
Solving the BM Camelopardalis puzzle
Teke, Mathias; Busby, Michael R.; Hall, Douglas S.
1989-01-01
BM Camelopardalis (=12 Cam) is a chromospherically active binary star with a relatively large orbital eccentricity. Systems with large eccentricities usually rotate pseudosynchronously. However, BM Cam has been a puzzle since its observed rotation rate is virtually equal to its orbital period indicating synchronization. All available photometry data for BM Cam have been collected and analyzed. Two models of modulated ellipticity effect are proposed, one based on equilibrium tidal deformation of the primary star and the other on a dynamical tidal effect. When the starspot variability is removed from the data, the dynamical tidal model was the better approximation to the real physical situation. The analysis indicates that BM Cam is not rotating pseudosynchronously but rotating in virtual synchronism after all.
The RPA Atomization Energy Puzzle.
Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P; Csonka, Gábor I
2010-01-12
There is current interest in the random phase approximation (RPA), a "fifth-rung" density functional for the exchange-correlation energy. RPA has full exact exchange and constructs the correlation with the help of the unoccupied Kohn-Sham orbitals. In many cases (uniform electron gas, jellium surface, and free atom), the correction to RPA is a short-ranged effect that is captured by a local spin density approximation (LSDA) or a generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Nonempirical density functionals for the correction to RPA were constructed earlier at the LSDA and GGA levels (RPA+), but they are constructed here at the fully nonlocal level (RPA++), using the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) of Langreth, Lundqvist, and collaborators. While they make important and helpful corrections to RPA total and ionization energies of free atoms, they correct the RPA atomization energies of molecules by only about 1 kcal/mol. Thus, it is puzzling that RPA atomization energies are, on average, about 10 kcal/mol lower than those of accurate values from experiment. We find here that a hybrid of 50% Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof GGA with 50% RPA+ yields atomization energies much more accurate than either one does alone. This suggests a solution to the puzzle: While the proper correction to RPA is short-ranged in some systems, its contribution to the correlation hole can spread out in a molecule with multiple atomic centers, canceling part of the spread of the exact exchange hole (more so than in RPA or RPA+), making the true exchange-correlation hole more localized than in RPA or RPA+. This effect is not captured even by the vdW-DF nonlocality, but it requires the different kind of full nonlocality present in a hybrid functional.
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
Classical logic and logicism in human thought
Elqayam, Shira
2012-01-01
This chapter explores the role of classical logic as a theory of human reasoning. I distinguish between classical logic as a normative, computational and algorithmic system, and review its role is theories of human reasoning since the 1960s. The thesis I defend is that psychological theories have been moving further and further away from classical logic on all three levels. I examine some prominent example of logicist theories, which incorporate logic in their psychological account, includin...
Logic programming extensions of Horn clause logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron Sigal
1988-11-01
Full Text Available Logic programming is now firmly established as an alternative programming paradigm, distinct and arguably superior to the still dominant imperative style of, for instance, the Algol family of languages. The concept of a logic programming language is not precisely defined, but it is generally understood to be characterized buy: a declarative nature; foundation in some well understood logical system, e.g., first order logic.
Three-valued logics in modal logic
Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard
2013-01-01
Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Yulianti
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Untuk mengatasi kurangnya minat dan hasil belajar fisika siswa dilakukan penelitian melalui kegiatan pembelajaran fisikakontekstual berbantuan jigsaw puzzle competititon. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VII H SMP Negeri 18 Semarang.Penelitian ini telah dilakukan pembelajaran dengan pendekatan kontekstual berbantuan jigsaw puzzle competition. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran kontekstual berbantuan jigsaw puzzle competition mampu meningkatan minat danhasil belajar siswa kelas VII H SMPNegeri 18 Semarang tahun pelajaran 2008/2009 secara signifikan. Agar lebih efektif sebaiknyadikembangkan pembelajaran kontekstual dengan metode lain agar diperoleh peningkatan minat dan hasil belajar Model ini perludiaplikasikan dalam pembelajaran fisika untuk materi yang lain.Â To overcome the problem of lack of students' interest as well as their achievements a Jigsaw Puzzle Competition in physicscontextual learning process was done. The students from VIIHclass of Junior High School 18 Semarang academic year 2008/2009were chosen as the subjects. The result of this research shows that contextual teaching and learning using Jigsaw PuzzleCompetition approach was not only increase the students' interest but also improve their achievements. In order to get moreeffective result, it is necessary to develop contextual teaching and learning by combining them with other method. Because of thegreat benefit of this model, it is necessary to apply this model to other physics learning concepts.Keywords: Jigsaw Puzzle Competition, contextual, interest;
A History of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio eRiguzzi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP has seen significant advances in the last 20 years, with many proposals for languages that combine probability with logic programming. Since the start, the problem of learning probabilistic logic programs has been the focus of much attention. Learning these programs represents a whole subfield of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP. In Probabilistic ILP (PILP two problems are considered: learning the parameters of a program given the structure (the rules and learning both the structure and the parameters. Usually structure learning systems use parameter learning as a subroutine. In this article we present an overview of PILP and discuss the main results.
The Puzzle of Male Chronophilias.
Seto, Michael C
2017-01-01
In this article, I return to the idea that pedophilia, a sexual interest in prepubescent children, can be considered a sexual orientation for age, in conjunction with the much more widely acknowledged and discussed sexual orientation for gender. Here, I broaden the scope to consider other chronophilias, referring to paraphilias for age/maturity categories other than young sexually mature adults. The puzzle of chronophilias includes questions about etiology and course, how chronophilias are related to each other, and what they can tell us about how human (male) sexuality is organized. In this article, I briefly review research on nepiophilia (infant/toddlers), pedophilia (prepubescent children), hebephilia (pubescent children), ephebophilia (postpubescent, sexually maturing adolescents), teleiophilia (young sexually mature adults, typically 20s and 30s), mesophilia (middle-aged adults, typically 40s and 50s), and gerontophilia (elderly adults, typically 60s and older) in the context of a multidimensional sexual orientations framework. Relevant research, limitations, and testable hypotheses for future work are identified.
T Atanassov, Krassimir
2017-01-01
The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.
Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh
2014-01-01
Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...
Krötzsch, M
2010-01-01
Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary
Flexible programmable logic module
Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Dai
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.
Implementation of fuzzy logic control algorithm in embedded ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Fuzzy logic control algorithm solves problems that are difficult to address with traditional control techniques. This paper describes an implementation of fuzzy logic control algorithm using inexpensive hardware as well as how to use fuzzy logic to tackle a specific control problem without any special software tools. As a case ...
Heunen, Chris
2008-01-01
We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.
Metamathematics of fuzzy logic
Hájek, Petr
1998-01-01
This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.
Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne
2015-01-01
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...
Application of temporal LNC logic in artificial intelligence
Adamek, Marek; Mulawka, Jan
2016-09-01
This paper presents the temporal logic inference engine developed in our university. It is an attempt to demonstrate implementation and practical application of temporal logic LNC developed in Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw.1 The paper describes the fundamentals of LNC logic, architecture and implementation of inference engine. The practical application is shown by providing the solution for popular in Artificial Intelligence problem of Missionaries and Cannibals in terms of LNC logic. Both problem formulation and inference engine are described in details.
The Puzzle of a Marble in a Spinning Pipe
2015-05-01
MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Puzzle of a Marble in a Spinning Pipe 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT What trajectory does a marble follow if it is held...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Physics Education 50 (3) 279 1. Problem statement A marble is placed one-third of the length along a
Reasoning by cases in Default Logic
Roos, N.; Roos, Nico
1998-01-01
Reiter's Default Logic is one of the most popular formalisms for describing default reasoning. One important defect of Default Logic is, however, the inability to reason by cases. Over the years, several solutions for this problem have been proposed. All these proposals deal with deriving new
Fuzzy logic control of nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Liangzhong; Guo Renjun; Ma Changwen
1996-01-01
The main advantage of the fuzzy logic control is that the method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. In this paper, the shortcomings and limitations of the model-based method in nuclear power plant control were presented, the theory of the fuzzy logic control was briefly introduced, and the applications of the fuzzy logic control technology in nuclear power plant controls were surveyed. Finally, the problems to be solved by using the fuzzy logic control in nuclear power plants were discussed
Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks
Haenni, R.; Romeijn, J.-W.; Wheeler, G.; Williamson, J.
2009-01-01
While in principle probabilistic logics might be applied to solve a range of problems, in practice they are rarely applied at present. This is perhaps because they seem disparate, complicated, and computationally intractable. However, we shall argue in this programmatic paper that several approaches
Phonotactics in inductive logic programming
Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.
2004-01-01
We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
In this paper, a theory of quantum logics is proposed which is general enough to enable us to reexamine a previous work on quantum logics in the context of this theory. It is then easy to assess the differences between the different systems studied. The quantum logical systems which are incorporated are divided into two groups which we call ''quantum propositional logics'' and ''quantum event logics''. The work of Kochen and Specker (partial Boolean algebras) is included and so is that of Greechie and Gudder (orthomodular partially ordered sets), Domotar (quantum mechanical systems), and Foulis and Randall (operational logics) in quantum propositional logics; and Abbott (semi-Boolean algebras) and Foulis and Randall (manuals) in quantum event logics, In this part of the paper, an axiom system for quantum propositional logics is developed and the above structures in the context of this system examined. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey
2008-01-01
Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics......, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...
Logic programming and metadata specifications
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.
1992-01-01
Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.
Lepton mixing and the ''solar neutrino puzzle''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.
1977-01-01
The results of the well known solar neutrino experiment of Davis et al. are discussed, in which the Cl-Ar method is used. The result of the experiment, a too small neutrino signal (the so-called ''solar neutrino puzzle'), has been tentatively accounted for in a number of quite exotic explanations. It appears that the explanation in terms of lepton mixing and neutrino sterility is quite attractive from the point of view of present day elementary particle physics and is much more natural than the other explanations of the ''puzzle''
Quantum Logic as a Dynamic Logic
Baltag, A.; Smets, S.
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear “no”.
Quantum logic as a dynamic logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear "no".
Transforming equality logic to propositional logic
Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.
2003-01-01
Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable
KEEFEKTIFAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN WORD SQUARE BERBANTU MEDIA PUZZLE PADA MATA PELAJARAN IPS SD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
IBNATUL IZZATI
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The problems of this research was: how the effectiveness of Word Square learning model supported by Puzzle media to improve learning outcome of Social subject of third grade at Public Elementary School of Wonopringgo 01 (SDN 01 Wonopringgo? The type of this research was True Experiment Design with type of pretest-posttest control group design one kind of treatment. The samples were taken from students of the third grade of A SDN 01 Wonopringgo in the academic year 2016/2017. The data in this study was obtained through tests and documentation. Experimental research on the third grade of A which was given Word Square learning model supported by Puzzle media and the third grade of B was not given Word Square learning model supported by Puzzle media. Posttest results showed that the percentage of posttest grade of the experimental class was 95% of students expressed thoroughly, while the control class is 70%, and based on t test one-party analysis obtained ttest > ttable = 3,100816112> 1.72. Thus, it could be concluded that the learning with Word Square model supported by Puzzle media was effective against student learning outcomes in Social subjects (IPS the third grade at SDN 01 Wonopringgo Pekalongan. Keywords : effectiveness, word square, puzzle
Difficult Sudoku Puzzles Created by Replica Exchange Monte Carlo Method
Watanabe, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
An algorithm to create difficult Sudoku puzzles is proposed. An Ising spin-glass like Hamiltonian describing difficulty of puzzles is defined, and difficult puzzles are created by minimizing the energy of the Hamiltonian. We adopt the replica exchange Monte Carlo method with simultaneous temperature adjustments to search lower energy states efficiently, and we succeed in creating a puzzle which is the world hardest ever created in our definition, to our best knowledge. (Added on Mar. 11, the ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P N Johnson-Laird
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.
Newton-Smith, WH
2003-01-01
A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.
Anticoincidence logic using PALs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolanos, L.; Arista Romeu, E.
1997-01-01
This paper describes the functioning principle of an anticoincidence logic and a design of this based on programing logic. The circuit was included in a discriminator of an equipment for single-photon absorptiometry
Reachability modules for the description logic SRIQ
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Nortje, R
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate module extraction for the Description Logic SRIQ. We formulate modules in terms of the reachability problem for directed hypergraphs. Using inseperability relations, we investigate the module-theoretic properties...
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)
Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe
1990-01-01
Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2015-01-01
We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....
Bergstra, J.A.
2011-01-01
Four options for assigning a meaning to Islamic Logic are surveyed including a new proposal for an option named "Real Islamic Logic" (RIL). That approach to Islamic Logic should serve modern Islamic objectives in a way comparable to the functionality of Islamic Finance. The prospective role of RIL
The Neutrosophic Logic View to Schrodinger's Cat Paradox, Revisited
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Florentin Smarandache
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The present article discusses Neutrosophic logic view to Schrodinger's cat paradox. We argue that this paradox involves some degree of indeterminacy (unknown which Neutrosophic logic can take into consideration, whereas other methods including Fuzzy logic cannot. To make this proposition clear, we revisit our previous paper by offering an illustration using modified coin tossing problem, known as Parrondo's game.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Forever Undecided: A Puzzle Guide to Gödel. R Ramanujam. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 97-98. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/07/0097-0098 ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, S Hong; Byrne, Enda M; Hultman, Christina M
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: A long-standing epidemiological puzzle is the reduced rate of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in those with schizophrenia (SZ) and vice versa. Traditional epidemiological approaches to determine if this negative association is underpinned by genetic factors would test for reduced rates of one...
A generalization of the Pasadena puzzle
Peterson, M.B.
2013-01-01
By generalizing the Pasadena puzzle introduced by Nover and Hájek (2004) we show that the sum total of value produced by an act can be made to converge to any real number by applying the Riemann rearrangement theorem, even if the scenario faced by the decision maker is non-probabilistic and fully
Puzzles in studies of quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Gongou
1994-01-01
Puzzles in studies of quantum chaos are discussed. From the view of global properties of quantum states, it is clarified that quantum chaos originates from the break-down of invariant properties of quantum canonical transformations. There exist precise correspondences between quantum and classical chaos
The Crossword Puzzle as a Teaching Tool.
Crossman, Edward K.
1983-01-01
In courses such as the history of psychology, it is necessary to learn a variety of relationships, events, and sequences, in addition to the task of having to pair certain key concepts with related names, e.g., phrenology--Hall. One tool useful in this type of learning is the crossword puzzle. (RM)
Mathematical History: Activities, Puzzles, Stories, and Games.
Mitchell, Merle
Based on the history of mathematics, these materials have been planned to enrich the teaching of mathematics in grades four, five, and six. Puzzles and games are based on stories about topics such as famous mathematicians, numerals of ancient peoples, and numerology. The sheets are arranged by grade level and are designed for easy duplication.…
Peelle's pertinent puzzle: Way of solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pronyaev, V.G.
2003-01-01
The effect of evident bias of evaluated data below the majority of experimental data observed in general least-squares model fitting of these data is called as Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP). Since the transformation of the central values is trivial, the solution by transformation of covariance matrices is deducted
Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle
Shakur, Asif
2015-01-01
A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Carvalho Sales
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Este texto pretende acompanhar os principais movimentos apresentados pelo filósofo Gilles Deleuze para propor uma estrutura do sentido, de acordo com a Lógica do sentido (1969. Para tanto, tentando nos alçar ao estruturalismo muito particular de Deleuze, seguiremos especialmente alguns argumentos estabelecidos entre a quarta (Das dualidades e a oitava (Da estrutura séries desse livro, bem como pontos do artigo Em que se pode reconhecer o estruturalismo? (1972.This article intends to follow the main movements presented by the philosopher Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995. to propose a strucuture of the sense according to The logic of sense (1969. In order to do this, trying to achieve the very particular Deleuzian structuralism, we will follow especially some arguments established between the fourth (Of dualities. and the eighth (Of structure. series of this book, as well as points of the text How do we recognize structuralism? (1974.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica
2009-01-01
By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Martin Mose
2014-01-01
A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horčík, Rostislav; Cintula, Petr
2004-01-01
Roč. 43, - (2004), s. 477-503 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004; GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Grant - others:GA CTU(CZ) project 0208613; net CEEPUS(SK) SK-042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many-valued logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Lpi logic * Takeuti-Titani logic * MV-algebras * product MV-algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2004
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria
2014-01-01
Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Newton C. A. da Costa
2002-12-01
Full Text Available In view of the present state of development of non classical logic, especially of paraconsistent logic, a new stand regarding the relations between logic and ontology is defended In a parody of a dictum of Quine, my stand May be summarized as follows. To be is to be the value of a variable a specific language with a given underlying logic Yet my stand differs from Quine’s, because, among other reasons, I accept some first order heterodox logics as genuine alternatives to classical logic I also discuss some questions of non classical logic to substantiate my argument, and suggest that may position complements and extends some ideas advanced by L Apostel.
Institutional Logics in Action
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva
2013-01-01
This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....
Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.
Li, Shengcai
2015-10-06
Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences.
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kish, Laszlo B. [Texas A and M University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College Station, TX 77843-3128 (United States)], E-mail: laszlo.kish@ece.tamu.edu
2009-03-02
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kish, Laszlo B.
2009-01-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
Kish, Laszlo B.
2009-03-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case ( N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Gonul BALKIR
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaschke, David; Alvarez-Castillo, David E.
2016-01-01
We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of 2 M ⊙ with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transition the hadronic EoS becomes favorable again? We show that taking into account the compositeness of baryons (by excluded volume and/or quark Pauli blocking) on the hadronic side and confining and stiffening effects on the quark matter side results in an early phase transition to quark matter with sufficient stiffening at high densities which removes all three present-day puzzles of CS interiors. Moreover, in this new class of EoS for hybrid CS falls the interesting case of a strong first order phase transition which results in the observable high mass twin star phenomenon, an astrophysical observation of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram
Lepton mixing and the 'solar neutrino puzzle'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.
1977-01-01
The results of the well-known solar neutrino experiments in which the Cl-Ar method was employed are discussed; the results of this experiment gave a too-small neutrino signal and were referred to as the 'solar neutrino puzzle'. A number of explanations have been offered to account for the results, but it is stated that the explanation in terms of lepton mixing and neutrino sterility is attractive in terms of present day elementary particle physics and much more natural than the other explanations offered. Headings are as follows: neutrino oscillations and lepton charge, oscillations and solar neutrino experiments, lepton mixing according to old and present ideas, neutrino oscillations and the 'solar neutrino puzzle'. (U.K.)
Dalen, Dirk
1983-01-01
A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schang Fabien
2017-03-01
Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.
Mankiw's Puzzle on Consumer Durables: A Misspecification
Tam Bang Vu
2005-01-01
Mankiw (1982) shows that consumer durables expenditures should follow a linear ARMA(1,1) process, but the data analyzed supports an AR(1) process instead; thus, a puzzle. In this paper, we employ a more general utility function than Mankiw's quadratic one. Further, the disturbance and depreciation rate are respecified, respectively, as multiplicative and stochastic. The analytical consequence is a nonlinear ARMA(infinity,1) process, which implies that the linear ARMA(1,1) is a misspecificatio...
Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle
Olovsson, Conny
2004-01-01
This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...
Co-constructive Logics for Proofs and Refutations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trafford James
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers logics which are formally dual to intuitionistic logic in order to investigate a co-constructive logic for proofs and refutations. This is philosophically motivated by a set of problems regarding the nature of constructive truth, and its relation to falsity. It is well known both that intuitionism can not deal constructively with negative information, and that defining falsity by means of intuitionistic negation leads, under widely-held assumptions, to a justification of bivalence. For example, we do not want to equate falsity with the non-existence of a proof since this would render a statement such as “pi is transcendental” false prior to 1882. In addition, the intuitionist account of negation as shorthand for the derivation of absurdity is inadequate, particularly outside of purely mathematical contexts. To deal with these issues, I investigate the dual of intuitionistic logic, co-intuitionistic logic, as a logic of refutation, alongside intuitionistic logic of proofs. Direct proof and refutation are dual to each other, and are constructive, whilst there also exist syntactic, weak, negations within both logics. In this respect, the logic of refutation is weakly paraconsistent in the sense that it allows for statements for which, neither they, nor their negation, are refuted. I provide a proof theory for the co-constructive logic, a formal dualizing map between the logics, and a Kripke-style semantics. This is given an intuitive philosophical rendering in a re-interpretation of Kolmogorov's logic of problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wall, M.J.W.
1992-01-01
The notion of open-quotes probabilityclose quotes is generalized to that of open-quotes likelihood,close quotes and a natural logical structure is shown to exist for any physical theory which predicts likelihoods. Two physically based axioms are given for this logical structure to form an orthomodular poset, with an order-determining set of states. The results strengthen the basis of the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum theory. 25 refs
Logical database design principles
Garmany, John; Clark, Terry
2005-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peliš, Michal
2017-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 3 (2017), s. 357-381 ISSN 1425-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * erotetic implication * erotetic logic * logic of questions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology http://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/index.php/LLP/article/view/LLP.2017.007
Pereyra, Nicolas A.
2018-06-01
This book gives a rigorous yet 'physics-focused' introduction to mathematical logic that is geared towards natural science majors. We present the science major with a robust introduction to logic, focusing on the specific knowledge and skills that will unavoidably be needed in calculus topics and natural science topics in general (rather than taking a philosophical-math-fundamental oriented approach that is commonly found in mathematical logic textbooks).
The Ay puzzle and the nuclear force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hueber, D.
1999-01-01
The nucleon-deuteron analyzing power A y in elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering poses a longstanding puzzle. At energies E lab below approximately 30 MeV, A y cannot be described by any realistic NN force. The inclusion of existing three-nucleon forces does not improve the situation. Because of recent questions about the 3 P J NN phases, we examine whether reasonable changes in the NN force can resolve the puzzle. In order to do this, we investigate the effect on the 3 P J waves produced by changes in different parts of the potential (viz., the central force, tensor force, etc.), as well as on the 2-body observables and on A y . We find that it is not possible with reasonable changes in the NN potential to increase the 3-body A y , and at the same time to keep the 2-body observables unchanged. We therefore conclude that the A y puzzle is likely to be solved by new three-nucleon forces, such as those of spin-orbit type, which have not yet been taken into account. Refs. 7, tab. 1 (author)
Dissolving the Puzzle of Resultant Moral Luck.
Levy, Neil
The puzzle of resultant moral luck arises when we are disposed to think that an agent who caused a harm deserves to be blamed more than an otherwise identical agent who did not. One popular (but controversial) perspective on resultant moral luck explains our dispositions to produce different judgments with regard to the agents who feature in these cases as a product not of what they genuinely deserve but of our epistemic situation. On this account, there is no genuine resultant moral luck; there is only luck in what evidence becomes available to observers. In this paper, I develop an evolutionary account of our inclination to take the results of actions as evidence for the mental states of agents, thereby explaining why the resulting intuitions are recalcitrant to correction. The account explains why the puzzle of resultant moral luck arises: because our disposition to take the harms agents cause as evidence of their mental states can produce intuitions which conflict with those that arise when we examine agents' mental states without reference to the results of their actions. The account also helps to solve the puzzle of resultant moral luck, by providing a strong reason to ignore the intuitions caused by our disposition to regard actual harms as evidence of mental states. Since these intuitions arise using an unreliable proxy for agents' mental states, they ought to be trumped by more reliable evidence.
The Ay puzzle and the nuclear force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hueber, D.; Friar, J.L.
1998-01-01
The nucleon-deuteron analyzing power A y in elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering poses a longstanding puzzle. At energies E lab below approximately 30 MeV A y cannot be described by any realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) force. The inclusion of existing three-nucleon forces does not improve the situation. Because of recent questions about the 3 P J NN phases, we examine whether reasonable changes in the NN force can resolve the puzzle. In order to do this we investigate the effect on the 3 P J waves produced by changes in different parts of the potential (viz., the central force, tensor force, etc.), as well as on the two-body observables and on A y . We find that it is not possible with reasonable changes in the NN potential to increase the three-body A y and at the same time to keep the two-body observables unchanged. We therefore conclude that the A y puzzle is likely to be solved by new three-nucleon forces, such as those of the spin-orbit type, which have not yet been taken into account. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC
2010-01-01
Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2012-01-01
In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for speciﬁcation and veriﬁcation of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service speciﬁcations. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a signiﬁcant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Carbone
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2015-01-01
The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th
Logic-programming language enriches design processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.
1984-03-22
With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.
Graphical approach for multiple values logic minimization
Awwal, Abdul Ahad S.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.
1999-03-01
Multiple valued logic (MVL) is sought for designing high complexity, highly compact, parallel digital circuits. However, the practical realization of an MVL-based system is dependent on optimization of cost, which directly affects the optical setup. We propose a minimization technique for MVL logic optimization based on graphical visualization, such as a Karnaugh map. The proposed method is utilized to solve signed-digit binary and trinary logic minimization problems. The usefulness of the minimization technique is demonstrated for the optical implementation of MVL circuits.
Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving
Chang, Chin-Liang
1969-01-01
This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Prioux, Bruna [Centro de Pesquisa e Documentacao da America Latina (CREDAL) (France)
2010-07-01
sustainable development, interdependence and energy governance, to relate the national and international energy policies. Energy national policies are relevant factors to be considered when a regional integration is studied. In fact, energy advantages and deficiencies emerge in regional scenario, showing that the interdependences depend on national logics and strategies. In this sense, we consider that the effect of energy integration in South America is unsatisfying because national policies do not converge. The advantages of integration (i.e. commerce increase, ensuring supplies and reducing price volatility) are neutralized without this countries' coordination. (author)
Understanding Social Media Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José van Dijck
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
Interfacial depinning transitions in disordered media: revisiting an old puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moglia, Belén; Albano, Ezequiel V; Villegas, Pablo; Muñoz, Miguel A
2014-01-01
Interfaces advancing through random media represent a number of different problems in physics, biology and other disciplines. Here, we study the pinning/depinning transition of the prototypical non-equilibrium interfacial model, i.e. the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation, advancing in a disordered medium. We will separately analyze the cases of positive and negative non-linearity coefficients, which are believed to exhibit qualitatively different behavior: the positive case shows a continuous transition that can be related to directed-percolation-depinning, while in the negative case there is a discontinuous transition and faceted interfaces appear. Some studies have argued from different perspectives that both cases share the same universal behavior. By using a number of computational and scaling techniques we will shed light on this puzzling situation and conclude that the two cases are intrinsically different. (paper)
The orthopositronium lifetime puzzle and its final solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Feng; Wu Jianda; Zhan Liang; Ye Bangjiao
2004-01-01
The ortho-positronium (o-Ps), which consists of an electron and positron, is a pure lepton bound system. The o-Ps lifetime can be calculated accurately by quantum electrodynamics, but there is a long-standing discrepancy between the theoretical calculations and the experimental results. Theoretical and experimental physicists have worked hard for a long time to solve the problem, and recently finally solved this lifetime puzzle. The authors briefly outline the discrepancy between the theoretical calculations of the o-Ps annihilation decay rate and some of the experimental measurements, as well as recent developments of experimental techniques, and its final solution. In particular, the final results of the Tokyo and michigan groups are discussed
Turner, J.A.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Rijswijk, Kelly; Williams, T.; Barnard, T.
2016-01-01
This study identifies systemic problems in the New Zealand Agricultural Innovation System (AIS) in rela-tion to the AIS capacity to enact a co-innovation approach, in which all relevant actors in the agriculturalsector contribute to combined technological, social and institutional change. Systemic
Contributions to Logical Database Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vitalie COTELEA
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper treats the problems arising at the stage of logical database design. It comprises a synthesis of the most common inference models of functional dependencies, deals with the problems of building covers for sets of functional dependencies, makes a synthesizes of normal forms, presents trends regarding normalization algorithms and provides a temporal complexity of those. In addition, it presents a summary of the most known keys’ search algorithms, deals with issues of analysis and testing of relational schemes. It also summarizes and compares the different features of recognition of acyclic database schemas.
Weakly Intuitionistic Quantum Logic
Hermens, Ronnie
2013-01-01
In this article von Neumann's proposal that in quantum mechanics projections can be seen as propositions is followed. However, the quantum logic derived by Birkhoff and von Neumann is rejected due to the failure of the law of distributivity. The options for constructing a distributive logic while
Kuusisto, Antti
2013-01-01
In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.
Cirstea, C.; Kurz, A.; Pattinson, D.; Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.
2011-01-01
Applications of modal logics are abundant in computer science, and a large number of structurally different modal logics have been successfully employed in a diverse spectrum of application contexts. Coalgebraic semantics, on the other hand, provides a uniform and encompassing view on the large
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Klarman, S
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...
Criteria for logical formalization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír
2013-01-01
Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013
NEVEN, Frank
2002-01-01
We survey some recent developments in the broad area of automata and logic which are motivated by the advent of XML. In particular, we consider unranked tree automata, tree-walking automata, and automata over infinite alphabets. We focus on their connection with logic and on questions imposed by XML.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evandro Agazzi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.
A. Ponse (Alban); M.B. van der Zwaag
2002-01-01
textabstractWe distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two
Uckelman, S.L.
2009-01-01
The origins of treating agency as a modal concept go back at least to the 11th century when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, provided a modal explication of the Latin facere ‘to do’, which can be formalized within the context of modern modal logic and neighborhood semantics. The agentive logic
Temporalized Epistemic Default Logic
van der Hoek, W.; Meyer, J.J.; Treur, J.; Gabbay, D.
2001-01-01
The nonmonotonic logic Epistemic Default Logic (EDL) [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] is based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. It has already been established [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] how upward reflection can be formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment based on epistemic states,
W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse
1995-01-01
textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the
The Middle East population puzzle.
Omran, A R; Roudi, F
1993-07-01
An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-01-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Heterogeneous logics of competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-03-29
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-Solving Skills
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; MacKay, Bruce
2015-01-01
Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called "Problems and Puzzles," which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom…
Early puzzle play: a predictor of preschoolers' spatial transformation skill.
Levine, Susan C; Ratliff, Kristin R; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Cannon, Joanna
2012-03-01
Individual differences in spatial skill emerge prior to kindergarten entry. However, little is known about the early experiences that may contribute to these differences. The current study examined the relation between children's early puzzle play and their spatial skill. Children and parents (n = 53) were observed at home for 90 min every 4 months (6 times) between 2 and 4 years of age (26 to 46 months). When children were 4 years 6 months old, they completed a spatial task involving mental transformations of 2-dimensional shapes. Children who were observed playing with puzzles performed better on this task than those who did not, controlling for parent education, income, and overall parent word types. Moreover, among those children who played with puzzles, frequency of puzzle play predicted performance on the spatial transformation task. Although the frequency of puzzle play did not differ for boys and girls, the quality of puzzle play (a composite of puzzle difficulty, parent engagement, and parent spatial language) was higher for boys than for girls. In addition, variation in puzzle play quality predicted performance on the spatial transformation task for girls but not for boys. Implications of these findings as well as future directions for research on the role of puzzle play in the development of spatial skill are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Early Puzzle Play: A predictor of preschoolers’ spatial transformation skill
Levine, S.C.; Ratliff, K.R.; Huttenlocher, J.; Cannon, J.
2011-01-01
Individual differences in spatial skill emerge prior to kindergarten entry. However, little is known about the early experiences that may contribute to these differences. The current study examines the relation between children’s early puzzle play and their spatial skill. Children and parents (n = 53) were observed at home for 90 minutes every four months (six times) between 2 and 4 years of age (26 to 46 months). When children were 4 years 6 months old, they completed a spatial task involving mental transformations of 2D shapes. Children who were observed playing with puzzles performed better on this task than those who did not, controlling for parent education, income, and overall parent word types. Moreover, among those children who played with puzzles, frequency of puzzle play predicted performance on the spatial transformation task. Although the frequency of puzzle play did not differ for boys and girls, the quality of puzzle play (a composite of puzzle difficulty, parent engagement, and parent spatial language) was higher for boys than girls. In addition, variation in puzzle play quality predicted performance on the spatial transformation task for girls but not boys. Implications of these findings as well as future directions for research on the role of the role of puzzle play in the development of spatial skill are discussed. PMID:22040312
A Tableau Prover for Natural Logic and Language
Abzianidze, Lasha
2015-01-01
Modeling the entailment relation over sentences is one of the generic problems of natural language understanding. In order to account for this problem, we design a theorem prover for Natural Logic, a logic whose terms resemble natural language expressions. The prover is based on an analytic tableau
The Quantum Logical Challenge: Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to Logic and Philosophy of Science
Beltrametti, E.; Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Giuntini, R.
2017-12-01
Peter Mittelstaedt's contributions to quantum logic and to the foundational problems of quantum theory have significantly realized the most authentic spirit of the International Quantum Structures Association: an original research about hard technical problems, which are often "entangled" with the emergence of important changes in our general world-conceptions. During a time where both the logical and the physical community often showed a skeptical attitude towards Birkhoff and von Neumann's quantum logic, Mittelstaedt brought into light the deeply innovating features of a quantum logical thinking that allows us to overcome some strong and unrealistic assumptions of classical logical arguments. Later on his intense research on the unsharp approach to quantum theory and to the measurement problem stimulated the increasing interest for unsharp forms of quantum logic, creating a fruitful interaction between the work of quantum logicians and of many-valued logicians. Mittelstaedt's general views about quantum logic and quantum theory seem to be inspired by a conjecture that is today more and more confirmed: there is something universal in the quantum theoretic formalism that goes beyond the limits of microphysics, giving rise to interesting applications to a number of different fields.
Nuclear clustering and the electron screening puzzle
Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.
2018-01-01
Electron screening changes appreciably the magnitude of astrophysical nuclear reactions within stars. This effect is also observed in laboratory experiments on Earth, where atomic electrons are present in the nuclear targets. Theoretical models were developed over the past 30 years and experimental measurements have been carried out to study electron screening in thermonuclear reactions. None of the theoretical models were able to explain the high values of the experimentally determined screening potentials. We explore the possibility that the "electron screening puzzle" is due to nuclear clusterization and polarization e_ects in the fusion reactions. We will discuss the supporting arguments for this scenario.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab
2005-02-01
It is a pleasure to be part of the SLAC Summer Institute again, not simply because it is one of the great traditions in our field, but because this is a moment of great promise for particle physics. I look forward to exploring many opportunities with you over the course of our two weeks together. My first task in talking about Nature's Greatest Puzzles, the title of this year's Summer Institute, is to deconstruct the premise a little bit.
Last piece of the puzzle for ATLAS
Clare Ryan
At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern. Each of ATLAS' small wheels are 9.3 metres in diameter and weigh 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. They are the final parts of ATLAS' muon spectrometer. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and since then many detector elements have journeyed down the 100 metre shaft into the ATLAS underground cavern. This last piece completes this gigantic puzzle.
Edge-Matching Problems with Rotations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ebbesen, Martin; Fischer, Paul; Witt, Carsten
2011-01-01
Edge-matching problems, also called puzzles, are abstractions of placement problems with neighborhood conditions. Pieces with colored edges have to be placed on a board such that adjacent edges have the same color. The problem has gained interest recently with the (now terminated) Eternity II...... puzzle, and new complexity results. In this paper we consider a number of settings which differ in size of the puzzles and the manipulations allowed on the pieces. We investigate the effect of allowing rotations of the pieces on the complexity of the problem, an aspect that is only marginally treated so...
Logical provenance in data-oriented workflows?
Ikeda, R.
2013-04-01
We consider the problem of defining, generating, and tracing provenance in data-oriented workflows, in which input data sets are processed by a graph of transformations to produce output results. We first give a new general definition of provenance for general transformations, introducing the notions of correctness, precision, and minimality. We then determine when properties such as correctness and minimality carry over from the individual transformations\\' provenance to the workflow provenance. We describe a simple logical-provenance specification language consisting of attribute mappings and filters. We provide an algorithm for provenance tracing in workflows where logical provenance for each transformation is specified using our language. We consider logical provenance in the relational setting, observing that for a class of Select-Project-Join (SPJ) transformations, logical provenance specifications encode minimal provenance. We have built a prototype system supporting the features and algorithms presented in the paper, and we report a few preliminary experimental results. © 2013 IEEE.
THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS
Contribution of Warsaw Logicians to Computational Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damian Niwiński
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The newly emerging branch of research of Computer Science received encouragement from the successors of the Warsaw mathematical school: Kuratowski, Mazur, Mostowski, Grzegorczyk, and Rasiowa. Rasiowa realized very early that the spectrum of computer programs should be incorporated into the realm of mathematical logic in order to make a rigorous treatment of program correctness. This gave rise to the concept of algorithmic logic developed since the 1970s by Rasiowa, Salwicki, Mirkowska, and their followers. Together with Pratt’s dynamic logic, algorithmic logic evolved into a mainstream branch of research: logic of programs. In the late 1980s, Warsaw logicians Tiuryn and Urzyczyn categorized various logics of programs, depending on the class of programs involved. Quite unexpectedly, they discovered that some persistent open questions about the expressive power of logics are equivalent to famous open problems in complexity theory. This, along with parallel discoveries by Harel, Immerman and Vardi, contributed to the creation of an important area of theoretical computer science: descriptive complexity. By that time, the modal μ-calculus was recognized as a sort of a universal logic of programs. The mid 1990s saw a landmark result by Walukiewicz, who showed completeness of a natural axiomatization for the μ-calculus proposed by Kozen. The difficult proof of this result, based on automata theory, opened a path to further investigations. Later, Bojanczyk opened a new chapter by introducing an unboundedness quantifier, which allowed for expressing some quantitative properties of programs. Yet another topic, linking the past with the future, is the subject of automata founded in the Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory. The studies on intuitionism found their continuation in the studies of Curry-Howard isomorphism. ukasiewicz’s landmark idea of many-valued logic found its continuation in various approaches to incompleteness and uncertainty.
New data structures and algorithms for logic synthesis and verification
Amaru, Luca Gaetano
2017-01-01
This book introduces new logic primitives for electronic design automation tools. The author approaches fundamental EDA problems from a different, unconventional perspective, in order to demonstrate the key role of rethinking EDA solutions in overcoming technological limitations of present and future technologies. The author discusses techniques that improve the efficiency of logic representation, manipulation and optimization tasks by taking advantage of majority and biconditional logic primitives. Readers will be enabled to accelerate formal methods by studying core properties of logic circuits and developing new frameworks for logic reasoning engines. · Provides a comprehensive, theoretical study on majority and biconditional logic for logic synthesis; · Updates the current scenario in synthesis and verification – especially in light of emerging technologies; · Demonstrates applications to CMOS technology and emerging technologies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkelstein, D.
1987-01-01
The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex
Logical inference and evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perey, F.G.
1981-01-01
Most methodologies of evaluation currently used are based upon the theory of statistical inference. It is generally perceived that this theory is not capable of dealing satisfactorily with what are called systematic errors. Theories of logical inference should be capable of treating all of the information available, including that not involving frequency data. A theory of logical inference is presented as an extension of deductive logic via the concept of plausibility and the application of group theory. Some conclusions, based upon the application of this theory to evaluation of data, are also given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.
1981-01-01
The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)
An Analysis of Closed-end Fund Puzzle for Emerging Capital Markets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor Dragota
2008-10-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the closed-end fund puzzle for an emerging capital market, respectively the Romanian one. Comparatively to more developed markets, as long as small markets are often very illiquid, it has to be used some specific valuation techniques in order to estimate the market values for closed-end funds. Also, one problem is this estimation can be made only in some (punctual moments.
Cosmic logic: a computational model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2016-01-01
We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps
Decoding Codewords: Statistical Analysis of a Newspaper Puzzle
Meacock, Susan; Meacock, Geoff
2012-01-01
In recent years English newspapers have started featuring a number of puzzles other than the ubiquitous crossword. Many of the puzzles are of Japanese origin such as Sudoku, Kakuro or Hidato. However, one recent one is very English and is called variously Cross-code, Alphapuzzle or some other name. In this article, it will be known as Codeword.…
A Puzzle Used to Teach the Cardiac Cycle
Marcondes, Fernanda K.; Moura, Maria J. C. S.; Sanches, Andrea; Costa, Rafaela; Oliveira de Lima, Patricia; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Amaral, Maria E. C.; Zeni, Paula; Gaviao, Kelly Cristina; Montrezor, Luís H.
2015-01-01
The aim of the present article is to describe a puzzle developed for use in teaching cardiac physiology classes. The puzzle presents figures of phases of the cardiac cycle and a table with five columns: phases of cardiac cycle, atrial state, ventricular state, state of atrioventricular valves, and pulmonary and aortic valves. Chips are provided…
The Clock Is Ticking: Library Orientation as Puzzle Room
Reade, Tripp
2017-01-01
Tripp Reade is the school librarian at Cardinal Gibbons High School in Raleigh, North Carolina. This article describes how he redesigned his school's library orientation program after learning about escape rooms and a variant known as puzzle rooms. Puzzle rooms present players with a set of challenges to solve; they require "teamwork,…
Crossword Puzzles as Learning Tools in Introductory Soil Science
Barbarick, K. A.
2010-01-01
Students in introductory courses generally respond favorably to novel approaches to learning. To this end, I developed and used three crossword puzzles in spring and fall 2009 semesters in Introductory Soil Science Laboratory at Colorado State University. The first hypothesis was that crossword puzzles would improve introductory soil science…
Right frontal gamma and beta band enhancement while solving a spatial puzzle with insight.
Rosen, A; Reiner, M
2017-12-01
Solving a problem with an "a-ha" effect is known as insight. Unlike incremental problem solving, insight is sudden and unique, and the question about its distinct brain activity, intrigues many researchers. In this study, electroencephalogram signals were recorded from 12 right handed, human participants before (baseline) and while they solved a spatial puzzle known as the '10 coin puzzle' that could be solved incrementally or by insight. Participants responded as soon as they reached a solution and reported whether the process was incremental or by sudden insight. EEG activity was recorded from 19 scalp locations. We found significant differences between insight and incremental solvers in the Gamma and Beta 2 bands in frontal areas (F8) and in the alpha band in right temporal areas (T6). The right-frontal gamma indicates a process of restructuring which leads to an insight solution, in spatial problems, further suggesting a universal role of gamma in restructuring. These results further suggest that solving a spatial puzzle via insight requires exclusive brain areas and neurological-cognitive processes which may be important for meta-cognitive components of insight solutions, including attention and monitoring of the solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham
2000-01-01
Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study of inform......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....
Characterization of quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahti, P.J.
1980-01-01
The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
1999-01-01
Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....
Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Poul Houman; Ritter, Thomas
2014-01-01
Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...
Constrained mathematics evaluation in probabilistic logic analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arlin Cooper, J
1998-06-01
A challenging problem in mathematically processing uncertain operands is that constraints inherent in the problem definition can require computations that are difficult to implement. Examples of possible constraints are that the sum of the probabilities of partitioned possible outcomes must be one, and repeated appearances of the same variable must all have the identical value. The latter, called the 'repeated variable problem', will be addressed in this paper in order to show how interval-based probabilistic evaluation of Boolean logic expressions, such as those describing the outcomes of fault trees and event trees, can be facilitated in a way that can be readily implemented in software. We will illustrate techniques that can be used to transform complex constrained problems into trivial problems in most tree logic expressions, and into tractable problems in most other cases.
Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
2015-01-01
In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....
Modern logic and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garden, R.W.
1984-01-01
The book applies the methods of modern logic and probabilities to ''interpreting'' quantum mechanics. The subject is described and discussed under the chapter headings: classical and quantum mechanics, modern logic, the propositional logic of mechanics, states and measurement in mechanics, the traditional analysis of probabilities, the probabilities of mechanics and the model logic of predictions. (U.K.)
Semantic theory for logic programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, F M
1981-01-01
The author axiomatizes a number of meta theoretic concepts which have been used in logic programming, including: meaning, logical truth, nonentailment, assertion and erasure, thus showing that these concepts are logical in nature and need not be defined as they have previously been defined in terms of the operations of any particular interpreter for logic programs. 10 references.
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Geoscience Data Puzzles: Developing Students' Ability to Make Meaning from Data
Kastens, K. A.; Turrin, M.
2010-12-01
One of the most fundamental aspects of geoscience expertise is the ability to extract insights from observational earth data. Where an expert might see trends, patterns, processes, and candidate causal relationships, a novice could look at the same data representation and see dots, wiggles and blotches of color. The problem is compounded when the student was not personally involved in collecting the data or samples and thus has no experiential knowledge of the Earth setting that the data represent. In other words, the problem is especially severe when students tap into the vast archives of professionally-collected data that the geoscience community has worked so hard to make available for instructional use over the internet. Moreover, most high school and middle school teachers did not themselves learn Earth Science through analyzing data, and they may lack skills and/or confidence needed to scaffold students through the process of learning to interpret realistically-complex data sets. We have developed “Geoscience Data Puzzles” with the paired goals of (a) helping students learn about the earth from data, and (b) helping teachers learn to teach with data. Geoscience Data Puzzles are data-using activities that purposefully present a low barrier-to-entry for teachers and a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses authentic geoscience data, but the data are carefully pre-selected in order to illuminate a fundamental Earth process within tractable snippets of data. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" moments, when the connection between data and process comes clear in a rewarding burst of insight. Every Puzzle is accompanied by a Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) guide, which explicates the chain of reasoning by which the puzzle-solver can use the evidence provided by the data to construct scientific claims. Four types of reasoning are stressed: spatial reasoning, in which students make inferences from observations about location, orientation, shape
Logic in the curricula of Computer Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margareth Quindeless
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the programs in Computer Science is to educate and train students to understand the problems and build systems that solve them. This process involves applying a special reasoning to model interactions, capabilities, and limitations of the components involved. A good curriculum must involve the use of tools to assist in these tasks, and one that could be considered as a fundamental is the logic, because with it students develop the necessary reasoning. Besides, software developers analyze the behavior of the program during the designed, the depuration, and testing; hardware designers perform minimization and equivalence verification of circuits; designers of operating systems validate routing protocols, programing, and synchronization; and formal logic underlying all these activities. Therefore, a strong background in applied logic would help students to develop or potentiate their ability to reason about complex systems. Unfortunately, few curricula formed and properly trained in logic. Most includes only one or two courses of Discrete Mathematics, which in a few weeks covered truth tables and the propositional calculus, and nothing more. This is not enough, and higher level courses in which they are applied and many other logical concepts are needed. In addition, students will not see the importance of logic in their careers and need to modify the curriculum committees or adapt the curriculum to reverse this situation.
Non-logic devices in logic processes
Ma, Yanjun
2017-01-01
This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes. Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.
Quantum top secret. The solution of the quantum puzzle. Metamorphosis of a picture of world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wingert, M.
2008-01-01
Many physicists believe that because of unexplained causes, which must anyway be concerned with the quantum puzzle and the mysterious consciousness, it would be no more possible to understand the real structure of the reality - this subtle smiling of the nature, which irritates the physicists since 100 years and the disturbed the theoretical physics so much that they threw the towel. Since nature is considered as absurd, strange, and crazy - and quantum theory as very complicated. But in reality the basic experiments are of a touching simplicity, which seems only completely unintelligible in the picture of world of mechanics. For these experiments show that the concept of body of mechanics and the body conceptions of the thinking cannot at all match the structure of nature. If this is objectively taken notice of without doubting on the existence of a reality, the experiments show the real, unveiled face of the nature. Light and matter must then consist of fields, which can themselves divide by non-mechanical way, so with wholeness, comparable only with cell division and branching processes in biology. Either it is completely crazy - or the only logic interpretation, which hitherto only no physicist risked to think. For these experiments disprove the atom and elementary-particle hypothesis, the picture of world of mechanics, and also the quantum-mechanical interpretation - and indeed uniquely. This knowledge could break the Gordian knot, solve the quantum puzzle, and also give away the secret of the thinking spirit
Refraining from terror: the puzzle of non violence in Western Sahara
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew Porges
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In Western Sahara, the former Spanish colony occupied by Morocco since 1975, virtually no violent resistance has been mounted by the indigenous Sahrawi people since the end of the 1975-1991 war between Morocco and the pro-independence Polisario Front. This absence of violence is puzzling in the light of several factors: the widespread public support for independence; the social and economic disparities between Moroccan and Sahrawi inhabitants of the territory; and Morocco’s brutal repression of Sahrawi culture, resistance, and expressions of proindependence feeling. This article examines the logic of violence (and its absence and of resistance, and draws lessons from Western Sahara. As well as advancing theoretical development, the article makes a methodological contribution to the study of resistance, and improves our understanding of the Western Sahara conflict through fieldwork, including around 60 interviews with Sahrawi activists conducted in the summer of 2014.
Matter-antimatter puzzle: LHCb improves resolution
Antonella Del Rosso
2012-01-01
In 2010, Fermilab’s DØ experiment reported a one percent difference in the properties of matter and antimatter in decays of B mesons (that is, particles containing beauty quarks) to muons. Saturday, at the ICHEP Conference in Melbourne, the LHCb experiment at CERN presents new results, which do not confirm this anomaly and are consistent with the Standard Model predictions. The same experiment has also presented the first evidence of asymmetry arising in other decays of the same family of mesons. The image becomes clearer but the puzzle has not yet been solved. Inside the LHCb detector. The matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe is a very hot topic in physics. The conundrum arises from the fact that, although objects made of antimatter are not observed in the Universe, theory predicts that matter and antimatter be created equally in particle interactions and in the Big Bang. Only small deviations from this very symmetric behaviour are incorporated in the theory. E...
2005-01-01
The team responsible for the installation of the hadronic calorimeter's central barrel after completion of the assembly work. Assembly of the great ATLAS puzzle continues underground. On 10 December, the final module of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter was assembled. This piece of the tile calorimeter had already been assembled above ground during a "dress rehearsal" in 2003 (see Bulletin no 46/2003, 10 November 2003). The hadronic calorimeter's two other barrels, the so-called "extended barrels", remain to be assembled with this first central barrel, which now surrounds the electromagnetic calorimeter barrel that was lowered into the cavern at the end of October. At the end of November, the second of the eight barrel toroid coils was also installed.
Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities
Brambilla, N; Heltsley, B K; Vogt, R; Bodwin, G T; Eichten, E; Frawley, A D; Meyer, A B; Mitchell, R E; Papadimitriou, V; Petreczky, P; Petrov, A A; Robbe, P; Vairo, A; Andronic, A; Arnaldi, R; Artoisenet, P; Bali, G; Bertolin, A; Bettoni, D; Brodzicka, J; Bruno, G E; Caldwell, A; Catmore, J; Chang, C H; Chao, K T; Chudakov, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, P; Drutskoy, A; Ellwanger, U; Faccioli, P; Gabareen Mokhtar, A; Garcia i Tormo, X; Hanhart, C; Harris, F A; Kaplan, D M; Klein, S R; Kowalski, H; Lansberg, J P; Levichev, E; Lombardo, V; Lourenco, C; Maltoni, F; Mocsy, A; Mussa, R; Navarra, F S; Negrini, M; Nielsen, M; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Peters, K; Polosa, A D; Qian, W; Qiu, J W; Rong, G; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Scomparin, E; Senger, P; Simon, F; Stracka, S; Sumino, Y; Voloshin, M; Weiss, C; Wohri, H K; Yuan, C Z
2011-01-01
A golden age for heavy quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the $B$-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA, JLab, and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing ...
The Eco-Efficiency Premium Puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenster, N.; Derwall, J.; Bauer, R.; Koedijk, K.
2004-09-01
Conventional investment theory suggests that socially responsible investing (SRI) leads to inferior, rather than superior, portfolio performance. Using Innovest's well-established corporate eco-efficiency scores, we provide evidence supporting the contrary. We compose two equity portfolios that differ in ecoefficiency characteristics and find that our high-ranked portfolio provided substantially higher average returns compared to its low-ranked counterpart over the period 1995-2003. Using a wide range of performance attribution techniques to address common methodological concerns, we show that this performance differential cannot be explained by differences in market sensitivity, investment style, or industry-specific components. We finally investigate whether this ecoefficiency premium puzzle withstands the inclusion of transaction costs scenarios, and evaluate how excess returns can be earned in a practical setting via a best-in-class stock selection strategy. The results remain significant under all levels of transactions costs, thus suggesting that the incremental benefits of SRI can be substantial
SOLVING THE PUZZLE OF SUBHALO SPINS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yang; Lin, Weipeng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai 200030 (China); Pearce, Frazer R.; Lux, Hanni; Onions, Julian [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Muldrew, Stuart I., E-mail: wangyang@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)
2015-03-10
Investigating the spin parameter distribution of subhalos in two high-resolution isolated halo simulations, recent work by Onions et al. suggested that typical subhalo spins are consistently lower than the spin distribution found for field halos. To further examine this puzzle, we have analyzed simulations of a cosmological volume with sufficient resolution to resolve a significant subhalo population. We confirm the result of Onions et al. and show that the typical spin of a subhalo decreases with decreasing mass and increasing proximity to the host halo center. We interpret this as the growing influence of tidal stripping in removing the outer layers, and hence the higher angular momentum particles, of the subhalos as they move within the host potential. Investigating the redshift dependence of this effect, we find that the typical subhalo spin is smaller with decreasing redshift. This indicates a temporal evolution, as expected in the tidal stripping scenario.
Morsanyi, Kinga; Handley, Simon J
2012-05-01
When people evaluate syllogisms, their judgments of validity are often biased by the believability of the conclusions of the problems. Thus, it has been suggested that syllogistic reasoning performance is based on an interplay between a conscious and effortful evaluation of logicality and an intuitive appreciation of the believability of the conclusions (e.g., Evans, Newstead, Allen, & Pollard, 1994). However, logic effects in syllogistic reasoning emerge even when participants are unlikely to carry out a full logical analysis of the problems (e.g., Shynkaruk & Thompson, 2006). There is also evidence that people can implicitly detect the conflict between their beliefs and the validity of the problems, even if they are unable to consciously produce a logical response (e.g., De Neys, Moyens, & Vansteenwegen, 2010). In 4 experiments we demonstrate that people intuitively detect the logicality of syllogisms, and this effect emerges independently of participants' conscious mindset and their cognitive capacity. This logic effect is also unrelated to the superficial structure of the problems. Additionally, we provide evidence that the logicality of the syllogisms is detected through slight changes in participants' affective states. In fact, subliminal affective priming had an effect on participants' subjective evaluations of the problems. Finally, when participants misattributed their emotional reactions to background music, this significantly reduced the logic effect. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L.
2017-01-01
Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La−Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s -process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La−Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measured the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba ii relative to La−Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba ii lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba ii lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba ii lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La−Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.
Exfoliation syndrome: assembling the puzzle pieces.
Pasquale, Louis R; Borrás, Terete; Fingert, John H; Wiggs, Janey L; Ritch, Robert
2016-09-01
To summarize various topics and the cutting edge approaches to refine XFS pathogenesis that were discussed at the 21st annual Glaucoma Foundation Think Tank meeting in New York City, Sept. 19-20, 2014. The highlights of three categories of talks on cutting edge research in the field were summarized. Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic disorder with a substantial ocular burden, including high rates of cataract, cataract surgery complications, glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion. New information about XFS is akin to puzzle pieces that do not quite join together to reveal a clear picture regarding how exfoliation material (XFM) forms. Meeting participants concluded that it is unclear how the mild homocysteinemia seen in XFS might contribute to the disarrayed extracellular aggregates characteristic of this syndrome. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants are unequivocally genetic risk factors for XFS but exactly how these variants contribute to the assembly of exfoliation material (XFM) remains unclear. Variants in a new genomic region, CACNA1A associated with XFS, may alter calcium concentrations at the cell surface and facilitate XFM formation but much more work is needed before we can place this new finding in proper context. It is hoped that various animal model and ex vivo systems will emerge that will allow for proper assembly of the puzzle pieces into a coherent picture of XFS pathogenesis. A clear understanding of XFS pathogenesis may lead to 'upstream solutions' to reduce the ocular morbidity produced by XFS. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L., E-mail: bala@astro.as.utexas.edu [W.J. McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)
2017-08-20
Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La−Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s -process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La−Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measured the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba ii relative to La−Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba ii lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba ii lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba ii lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La−Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.
Improving Object-Oriented Methods by using Fuzzy Logic
Marcelloni, Francesco; Aksit, Mehmet
2000-01-01
Object-oriented methods create software artifacts through the application of a large number or rules. Rules are typically formulated in two-valued logic. There are a number of problems on how rules are defined and applied in current methods. First, two-valued logic can capture completely neither
Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Speed Controller for a Permanent ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper DC motor control models were mathematically extracted and implemented using fuzzy logic speed controller. All control systems suffer from problems related to undesirable overshoot, longer settling times and vibrations while going from one state to another. To overcome the maximum overshoot, fuzzy logic ...
Diagnosable structured logic array
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Rushton, Andrew
2011-01-01
Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... of the exponentially distributed random variables that characterize the duration of the labeled transitions of a CMP. In this paper we present weak and strong complete axiomatizations for CML and prove a series of metaproperties, including the finite model property and the construction of canonical models. CML...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...
A Resolution of the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frydman, Roman; Goldberg, Michael D.; Johansen, Søren
Asset prices undergo long swings that revolve around benchmark levels. In currency markets, fluctuations involve real exchange rates that are highly persistent and that move in near-parallel fashion with nominal rates. The inability to explain these two regularities with one model has been called...... the "Purchasing Power Parity puzzle". In this paper, we trace the puzzle to exchange rate modelers' use of the "Rational Expectations Hypothesis". We show that once imperfect knowledge is recognized, a monetary model is able to account for the puzzle, as well as other salient features of the data, including...
Real exchange rate persistence and the excess return puzzle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juselius, Katarina; Assenmacher, Katrin
2017-01-01
The PPP puzzle refers to the wide swings of nominal exchange rates around their long-run equilibrium values whereas the excess return puzzle represents the persistent deviation of the domestic-foreign interest rate differential from the expected change in the nominal exchange rate. Using the I(2......) cointegrated VAR model, much of the excess return puzzle disappears when an uncertainty premium in the foreign exchange market, proxied by the persistent PPP gap, is introduced. Self-reinforcing feedback mechanisms seem to cause the persistence in the Swiss-US parity conditions. These results support imperfect...
Boyd, Susan L.
2007-01-01
Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…
Claude Ziad Bayeh
2015-01-01
The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...
Stoll, Robert R
1979-01-01
Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2009-01-01
The Propositional CalculusPropositional Connectives. Truth TablesTautologies Adequate Sets of Connectives An Axiom System for the Propositional Calculus Independence. Many-Valued LogicsOther AxiomatizationsFirst-Order Logic and Model TheoryQuantifiersFirst-Order Languages and Their Interpretations. Satisfiability and Truth. ModelsFirst-Order TheoriesProperties of First-Order Theories Additional Metatheorems and Derived Rules Rule C Completeness Theorems First-Order Theories with EqualityDefinitions of New Function Letters and Individual Constants Prenex Normal Forms Isomorphism of Interpretati
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young
2011-03-15
This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.
Gibson, J
2013-01-01
Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate
Evens, Aden
2015-01-01
Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo
Design of reconfigurable logic controllers
Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek
2016-01-01
This book presents the original concepts and modern techniques for specification, synthesis, optimisation and implementation of parallel logical control devices. It deals with essential problems of reconfigurable control systems like dependability, modularity and portability. Reconfigurable systems require a wider variety of design and verification options than the application-specific integrated circuits. The book presents a comprehensive selection of possible design techniques. The diversity of the modelling approaches covers Petri nets, state machines and activity diagrams. The preferences of the presented optimization and synthesis methods are not limited to increasing of the efficiency of resource use. One of the biggest advantages of the presented methods is the platform independence, the FPGA devices and single board computers are some of the examples of possible platforms. These issues and problems are illustrated with practical cases of complete control systems. If you expect a new look at the recon...
A Brief History of Fuzzy Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2012-04-01
Full Text Available
The problems of uncertainty, imprecision and vagueness have been discussed for many years. These problems have been major topics in philosophical circles with much debate, in particular, about the nature of vagueness and the ability of traditional Boolean logic to cope with concepts and perceptions that are imprecise or vague. The Fuzzy Logic (which is usually translated into Castilian by “Lógica Borrosa”, or “Lógica Difusa”, but also by “Lógica Heurística” can be considered a bypass-valued logics (Multi-valued Logic, MVL, its acronym in English. It is founded on, and is closely related to-Fuzzy Sets Theory, and successfully applied on Fuzzy Systems. You might think that fuzzy logic is quite recent and what has worked for a short time, but its origins date back at least to the Greek philosophers and especially Plato (428-347 B.C.. It even seems plausible
to trace their origins in China and India. Because it seems that they were the first to consider that all things need not be of a certain type or quit, but there are a stopover between. That is, be the pioneers in considering that there may be varying degrees of truth and falsehood. In case of colors, for example, between white and black there is a whole infinite scale: the shades of gray. Some recent theorems show that in principle fuzzy logic can be used to model any continuous system, be it based
in AI, or physics, or biology, or economics, etc. Investigators in many fields may find that fuzzy, commonsense models are more useful, and many more accurate than are standard mathematical ones. We analyze here the history and development of this problem: Fuzziness, or “Borrosidad” (in Castilian, essential to work with Uncertainty.
Quantum logics with existence property
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schindler, C.
1991-01-01
A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)
GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic
Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe
2008-01-01
It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...
Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker
2017-01-01
This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....
Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus
2015-01-01
We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaritza Tardo Fernández
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The cultural, technological and eminently social character of the computer programming problems solving process, joined with the complexity and difficulties detected in their teaching, has contributed to increase the concern about the study of the processes of communication, transmission and understanding of computer programming and to attract the attention of a wide scientific community in correspondence with the growing development that this reaches at the present time. That is the reason why this paper has the objective of discover, from the didactic point of view, the integrators axes of an algorithmic logic that solves the contradiction that is revealed in the formative process between the mathematic modeling and their algorithmic systematization to empower an efficient performance of the professionals of Computer Science and Computer Engineering. In this sense a new didactic proposal is based, that consist in an algorithmic logic, in which are specified and explained those essentials processes that should be carry out to solve computer programming problems. Based on the theoretical fundaments, we concluded that these processes constitute didactics moments, required in order to solve the contradiction mentioned before.RESUMENEl carácter eminentemente social, cultural y tecnológico del proceso de resolución de problemas de programación computacional, junto a la complejidad y dificultades detectadas en su enseñanza, han contribuido a despertar la preocupación por el estudio de los procesos de comunicación, transmisión y comprensión de la Programación y a interesar a una amplia comunidad científica en correspondencia con el creciente desarrollo que ésta alcanza en la actualidad. Razón por la cual este trabajo tiene como objetivo que se develen, desde el punto de vista didáctico, los ejes integradores de una lógica algorítmica que sea contentiva de la solución a la contradicción que se revela en el proceso formativo entre la
Some relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rine, D.C.
1986-01-01
There have been suggestions in the artificial intelligence literature that investigations into relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic may be helpful. This paper presents some of these relationships through equivalent algebraic evaluations
Lee, Jae-Il; Lee, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Hyouk-Sang; Kim, Young-Tae; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Sang-Joon; Kang, Byeong-Cheol
2008-10-01
The majority of newly acquired nonhuman primates encounter serious problems adapting themselves to new environments or facilities. In particular, loss of appetite and abnormal behavior can occur in response to environmental stresses. These adaptation abnormalities can ultimately have an affect on the animal's growth and well-being. In this study, we evaluated the affects of a puzzle feeder on the food intake and abnormal behavior of newly acquired rhesus monkeys for a short period. The puzzle feeder was applied to 47- to 58-month-old animals that had never previously encountered one. We found that there was no difference in the change of food intake between the bucket condition and the puzzle feeder condition. In contrast, the time spent for consumption of food was three times longer in the puzzle feeder condition than in the bucket condition. Two monkeys initially exhibited stereotypic behavior. One showed a decreasing, and the other an increasing pattern of abnormal behavior after introduction of the puzzle feeder. In conclusion, this result suggests that over a short period, the puzzle feeder can only affect the time for food consumption since it failed to affect the food intake and did not consistently influence stereotypic behaviors in newly acquired rhesus monkeys.
Formative Assessment Probes: Mountaintop Fossil: A Puzzling Phenomenon
Keeley, Page
2015-01-01
This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. This month's issue describes using formative assessment probes to uncover several ways of thinking about the puzzling discovery of a marine fossil on top of a mountain.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2014-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policies in a compositional way. Our main contributions are (i) to derive a logic that precisely captures the intentions of the standard, (ii) to formally define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 component evaluation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML...
Klev, Ansten Morch
2014-01-01
The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics
Structures for Epistemic Logic
Bezhanishvili, N.; Hoek, W. van der
2013-01-01
Epistemic modal logic in a narrow sense studies and formalises reasoning about knowledge. In a wider sense, it gives a formal account of the informational attitude that agents may have, and covers notions like knowledge, belief, uncertainty, and hence incomplete or partial information. As is so
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter
2009-01-01
's notion of branching time is analysed. It is argued that Prior can be criticized for identifying 'plain future'. Finally, Prior's four grades of tense-logical involvement are introduced and discussed. It is argued that the third grade is the most attractive form a philosophical point of view....
Expressivist Perspective on Logicality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Arazim, Pavel
2017-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 409-419 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logical constant * expressivism * topic-neutrality * proof- theory * conservativity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars
2012-01-01
, separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klev, Ansten
2017-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 3 (2017), s. 341-368 ISSN 0031-8019 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Philosophy of mathematics * logicism * Richard Dedekind Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology Impact factor: 0.419, year: 2016
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus
2010-01-01
In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze the probl...
LOGICAL SEMANTICS OF MODULARIZATION
DELAVALETTE, GRR
1992-01-01
An algebra of theories, signatures, renamings and the operations import and export is investigated. A normal form theorem for terms of this algebra is proved. Another algebraic approach and the relation with a fragment of second order logic are also considered.
Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou
1997-01-01
The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...
Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism
Symons, John
2008-01-01
Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.
Foundations of mathematical logic
Curry, Haskell B
2010-01-01
Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods, including algorithms and epitheory, and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms, explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems, and more. 1963 edition.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Svoboda, Vladimír; Peregrin, Jaroslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 263-287 ISSN 0920-427X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : argumentation * logical form * incorrect argument * correct arguments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.689, year: 2016
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2010-01-01
Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of
Logic Programming for Linguistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
2010-01-01
This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav
2010-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Temporalizing Epistemic Default Logic
van der Hoek, Wiebe; Meyer, John Jules; Treur, Jan
1998-01-01
We present an epistemic default logic, based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. Upward reflection is formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment relation, based on the objective facts that are either known or unknown at the object level. Then, the meta (monotonic) reasoning process generates
Logic Programming with Requests
De Schreye, Danny; Etalle, Sandro; van Raamsdonk, Femke
1999-01-01
We propose an extension of logic programming where the user can specify, together with the initial query, the information he is interested in by means of a request. This allows one to extract a result from an incomplete computation, such as the prefix of an infinite derivation. The classical
Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming....
Greek, Indian and Arabic logic
Gabbay, Dov M
2004-01-01
Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...
Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Stateless Puzzles for Real Time Online Fraud Preemption
Rahman, Mizanur; Recabarren, Ruben; Carbunar, Bogdan; Lee, Dongwon
2017-01-01
The profitability of fraud in online systems such as app markets and social networks marks the failure of existing defense mechanisms. In this paper, we propose FraudSys, a real-time fraud preemption approach that imposes Bitcoin-inspired computational puzzles on the devices that post online system activities, such as reviews and likes. We introduce and leverage several novel concepts that include (i) stateless, verifiable computational puzzles, that impose minimal performance overhead, but e...
The Puzzle of the Scandinavian Welfare State and Social Trust
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
2015-01-01
The Scandinavian welfare model is a puzzle to economists: It works economically, even though free-riding should prevail with its explosive cocktail of high taxation and high social benefits. One overlooked solution to the puzzle could be the unique stock of social trust present in Scandinavia. Here......, the four Scandinavian countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland) form the top three with scores above 60 percent social trust on a ranking that covers 94 countries from all over the world....
Fuzzy logic applications to control engineering
Langari, Reza
1993-12-01
This paper presents the results of a project presently under way at Texas A&M which focuses on the use of fuzzy logic in integrated control of manufacturing systems. The specific problems investigated here include diagnosis of critical tool wear in machining of metals via a neuro-fuzzy algorithm, as well as compensation of friction in mechanical positioning systems via an adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm. The results indicate that fuzzy logic in conjunction with conventional algorithmic based approaches or neural nets can prove useful in dealing with the intricacies of control/monitoring of manufacturing systems and can potentially play an active role in multi-modal integrated control systems of the future.
Complete proof systems for weighted modal logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim G.; Mardare, Radu
2014-01-01
(WML) is a multi-modal logic that expresses qualitative and quantitative properties of WTSs. While WML has been studied in various contexts and for various application domains, no proof system has been developed for it. In this paper we solve this open problem and propose both weak-complete and strong......The weighted transition systems (WTS) considered in this paper are transition systems having both states and transitions labeled with real numbers: the state labels denote quantitative resources, while the transition labels denote costs of transitions in terms of resources. Weighted Modal Logic....... This work emphasizes a series of similarities between WML and the probabilistic/stochastic modal logics for Markov processes and Harsanyi type spaces, such as the use of particular infinitary rules to guarantee the strong-completeness....
Logic integer programming models for signaling networks.
Haus, Utz-Uwe; Niermann, Kathrin; Truemper, Klaus; Weismantel, Robert
2009-05-01
We propose a static and a dynamic approach to model biological signaling networks, and show how each can be used to answer relevant biological questions. For this, we use the two different mathematical tools of Propositional Logic and Integer Programming. The power of discrete mathematics for handling qualitative as well as quantitative data has so far not been exploited in molecular biology, which is mostly driven by experimental research, relying on first-order or statistical models. The arising logic statements and integer programs are analyzed and can be solved with standard software. For a restricted class of problems the logic models reduce to a polynomial-time solvable satisfiability algorithm. Additionally, a more dynamic model enables enumeration of possible time resolutions in poly-logarithmic time. Computational experiments are included.
Computational logic with square rings of nanomagnets
Arava, Hanu; Derlet, Peter M.; Vijayakumar, Jaianth; Cui, Jizhai; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Kleibert, Armin; Heyderman, Laura J.
2018-06-01
Nanomagnets are a promising low-power alternative to traditional computing. However, the successful implementation of nanomagnets in logic gates has been hindered so far by a lack of reliability. Here, we present a novel design with dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged on a square lattice to (i) support transfer of information and (ii) perform logic operations. We introduce a thermal protocol, using thermally active nanomagnets as a means to perform computation. Within this scheme, the nanomagnets are initialized by a global magnetic field and thermally relax on raising the temperature with a resistive heater. We demonstrate error-free transfer of information in chains of up to 19 square rings and we show a high level of reliability with successful gate operations of ∼94% across more than 2000 logic gates. Finally, we present a functionally complete prototype NAND/NOR logic gate that could be implemented for advanced logic operations. Here we support our experiments with simulations of the thermally averaged output and determine the optimal gate parameters. Our approach provides a new pathway to a long standing problem concerning reliability in the use of nanomagnets for computation.
Logical reformulation of quantum mechanics. I. Foundations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omnes, R.
1988-01-01
The basic rules of quantum mechanics are reformulated. They deal primarily with individual systems and do not assume that every ket may represent a physical state. The customary kinematic and dynamic rules then allow to construct consistent Boolean logics describing the history of a system, following essentially Griffiths' proposal. Logical implication is defined within these logics, the multiplicity of which reflects the complementary principle. Only one interpretive rule of quantum mechanics is necessary in such a framework. It states that these logics provide bona fide foundations for the description of a quantum system and for reasoning about it. One attempts to build up classical physics, including classical logic, on these quantum foundations. The resulting theory of measurement needs not to state a priori that the eigenvalues of an observable have to be the results of individual measurements nor to assume wave packet reduction. Both these properties can be obtained as consequences of the basic rules. One also needs not to postulate that every observable is measurable, even in principle. A proposition calculus is obtained, allowing in principle the replacement of the discussion of problems concerned with the practical interpretation of experiments by due calculations
Towards the future of fuzzy logic
Trillas, Enric; Kacprzyk, Janusz
2015-01-01
This book provides readers with a snapshot of the state-of-the art in fuzzy logic. Throughout the chapters, key theories developed in the last fifty years as well as important applications to practical problems are presented and discussed from different perspectives, as the authors hail from different disciplines and therefore use fuzzy logic for different purposes. The book aims at showing how fuzzy logic has evolved since the first theory formulation by Lotfi A. Zadeh in his seminal paper on Fuzzy Sets in 1965. Fuzzy theories and implementation grew at an impressive speed and achieved significant results, especially on the applicative side. The study of fuzzy logic and its practice spread all over the world, from Europe to Asia, America and Oceania. The editors believe that, thanks to the drive of young researchers, fuzzy logic will be able to face the challenging goals posed by computing with words. New frontiers of knowledge are waiting to be explored. In order to motivate young people to engage in the ...
Parametric Analysis of Flexible Logic Control Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihua Fu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on deep analysis about the essential relation between two input variables of normal two-dimensional fuzzy controller, we used universal combinatorial operation model to describe the logic relationship and gave a flexible logic control method to realize the effective control for complex system. In practical control application, how to determine the general correlation coefficient of flexible logic control model is a problem for further studies. First, the conventional universal combinatorial operation model has been limited in the interval [0,1]. Consequently, this paper studies a kind of universal combinatorial operation model based on the interval [a,b]. And some important theorems are given and proved, which provide a foundation for the flexible logic control method. For dealing reasonably with the complex relations of every factor in complex system, a kind of universal combinatorial operation model with unequal weights is put forward. Then, this paper has carried out the parametric analysis of flexible logic control model. And some research results have been given, which have important directive to determine the values of the general correlation coefficients in practical control application.
Logic circuits from zero forcing.
Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael
We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.
HDL to verification logic translator
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
1992-01-01
The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.
Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction
Stairs, Allen
2015-01-01
Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.
Logical analysis of biological systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian
2005-01-01
R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....
Probabilistic logics and probabilistic networks
Haenni, Rolf; Wheeler, Gregory; Williamson, Jon; Andrews, Jill
2014-01-01
Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks presents a groundbreaking framework within which various approaches to probabilistic logic naturally fit. Additionally, the text shows how to develop computationally feasible methods to mesh with this framework.
Preferential reasoning for modal logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...
LEARNING VOCABULARY THROUGH COLOURFUL PUZZLE GAME
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Risca Dwiaryanti
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an important role because it links to the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those aspects should be integrated in teaching and learning process of English. However, the students must be able to know the meaning of each word or vocabulary of English in order to master the four skills. It is as a mean to create a sentence in daily communication to show someone’s feeling, opinion, idea, desire, etc. So that, both speakers understand what the other speaker mean. However, English as a second language in Indonesia seems very hard for the students to master vocabulary of English. It makes them not easy to be understood directly and speak fluently. The students, sometimes, get difficulties in understanding, memorizing the meaning of the vocabulary, and getting confused in using the new words. There must be an effective strategy to attract students’ interest, break the boredom, and make the class more lively. Based on the writer experience, Colourful Puzzle Game is able to make the students learn vocabulary quickly. It needs teacher’s creativity to create the materials of this game based on the class condition. The teacher just need a game board made from colourful papers, write any command and prohibition words on it. A dice is a tool to decide where the player should stop based on the number. Some pins as counter as sign of each player.
From Logical to Distributional Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Preller
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper relates two variants of semantic models for natural language, logical functional models and compositional distributional vector space models, by transferring the logic and reasoning from the logical to the distributional models. The geometrical operations of quantum logic are reformulated as algebraic operations on vectors. A map from functional models to vector space models makes it possible to compare the meaning of sentences word by word.
Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.
2002-01-01
We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...
Lectures on Logic and Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers fo...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash
2013-01-01
In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a log...
K-maps: a vehicle to an optimal solution in combinational logic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
K-maps: a vehicle to an optimal solution in combinational logic design problems using digital multiplexers. ... Abstract. Application of Karnaugh maps (K-Maps) for the design of combinational logic circuits and sequential logic circuits is a subject that has been widely discussed. However, the use of K-Maps in the design of ...
A critical study of fuzzy logic as a scientific method in social sciences ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The logic of the social sciences, from its inception, has been certain and classic. By advent of Fuzzy logic, gradually making use of it was common because of frequent capabilities and applications that in resolving problems of this science was been attributed to it. Changing of logic in a science or epistemic system has many ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke
unintended consequences. Theoretically, we draw on different management and governance theories, e.g. performance management. Empirically, the study is based on surveys to teachers and students at all Danish vocational colleges and interviews with school leaders, teachers and students at six colleges (cases...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...
Modern Logical Frameworks Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murawska, Agata Anna
2017-01-01
lack support for reasoning about, or programming with, the mechanised systems. Our main motivation is to eventually make it possible to model and reason about complex concurrent systems and protocols. No matter the application, be it the development of a logic for multiparty session types...... or a cryptographic protocol used in a voting system, we need the ability to model and reason about both the building blocks of these systems and the intricate connections between them. To this end, this dissertation is an investigation into LF-based formalisms that might help address the aforementioned issues. We...... design and provide the meta-theory of two new frameworks, HyLF and Lincx. The former aims to extend the expressiveness of LF to include proof irrelevance and some user-defined behaviours, using ideas from hybrid logics. The latter is a showcase for an easier to implement framework, while also allowing...
Competing Logics and Healthcare
Saks, Mike
2018-01-01
This paper offers a short commentary on the editorial by Mannion and Exworthy. The paper highlights the positive insights offered by their analysis into the tensions between the competing institutional logics of standardization and customization in healthcare, in part manifested in the conflict between managers and professionals, and endorses the plea of the authors for further research in this field. However, the editorial is criticized for its lack of a strong societal reference point, the comparative absence of focus on hybridization, and its failure to highlight structural factors impinging on the opposing logics in a broader neo-institutional framework. With reference to the Procrustean metaphor, it is argued that greater stress should be placed on the healthcare user in future health policy. Finally, the case of complementary and alternative medicine is set out which – while not explicitly mentioned in the editorial – most effectively concretizes the tensions at the heart of this analysis of healthcare. PMID:29626406
Conventions and Institutional Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westenholz, Ann
Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...
Universal Programmable Logic Controller Software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Arif Hamzah; Azhar Shamsudin; Fadil Ismail; Muhammad Nor Atan; Anwar Abdul Rahman
2013-01-01
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is an electronic hardware which is widely used in manufacturing or processing industries. It is also serve as the main control system hardware to run the production and manufacturing process. There are more than ten (10) well known company producing PLC hardware, with their own specialties, including the method of programming and language used. Malaysia Nuclear Agency have various plant and equipment, runs and control by PLC, such as Mintex Sinagama Plant, Alurtron Plant, and few laboratory equipment. Since all the equipment and plant are equipped with various brand or different manufacture of PLC, it creates difficulties to the supporting staff to master the control program. The same problems occur for new application of this hardware, since there no policies to purchase only one specific brand of PLC. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas Walton
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System (CAS, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. CAS also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.
Probabilistic Logical Characterization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermanns, Holger; Parma, Augusto; Segala, Roberto
2011-01-01
Probabilistic automata exhibit both probabilistic and non-deterministic choice. They are therefore a powerful semantic foundation for modeling concurrent systems with random phenomena arising in many applications ranging from artificial intelligence, security, systems biology to performance...... modeling. Several variations of bisimulation and simulation relations have proved to be useful as means to abstract and compare different automata. This paper develops a taxonomy of logical characterizations of these relations on image-finite and image-infinite probabilistic automata....
Bisimulations, games, and logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens; Clausen, Christian
1994-01-01
In a recent paper by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel, bisimulation is defined in an abstract and uniform way across a wide range of different models for concurrency. In this paper, following a recent trend in theoretical computer science, we characterize their abstract definition game-theoretically a......-theoretically and logically in a non-interleaving model. Our characterizations appear as surprisingly simple extensions of corresponding characterizations of interleaving bisimulation....
Stereotypical Reasoning: Logical Properties
Lehmann, Daniel
2002-01-01
Stereotypical reasoning assumes that the situation at hand is one of a kind and that it enjoys the properties generally associated with that kind of situation. It is one of the most basic forms of nonmonotonic reasoning. A formal model for stereotypical reasoning is proposed and the logical properties of this form of reasoning are studied. Stereotypical reasoning is shown to be cumulative under weak assumptions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhanov, O.A.; Rylov, S.V.; Semenov, V.K.; Vyshenskii, S.V.
1989-01-01
Several ways of local timing of the Josephson-junction RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic elements are proposed, and their peculiarities are discussed. Several examples of serial and parallel pipelined arithmetic blocks using various types of timing are suggested and their possible performance is discussed. Serial devices enable one to perform n-bit functions relatively slowly but using integrated circuits of a moderate integration scale, while parallel pipelined devices are more hardware-wasteful but promise extremely high productivity
1981-01-01
Rapport, Groupe Intelligence Pasero, R., Artificielle , Universite d’Aix-Marseille, Roussel, P. Luminy, France, 1973. [Kowalski 1974] Kowalski, R. A...THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the
Magnetoresistive logic and biochip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckl, Hubert; Brzeska, Monika; Brinkmann, Dirk; Schotter, J.Joerg; Reiss, Guenter; Schepper, Willi; Kamp, P.-B.; Becker, Anke
2004-01-01
While some magnetoresistive devices based on giant magnetoresistance or spin-dependent tunneling are already commercialized, a new branch of development is evolving towards magnetoresistive logic with magnetic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the new magnetoelectronic effects show promising properties in magnetoresistive biochips, which are capable of detecting even single molecules (e.g. DNA) by functionalized magnetic markers. The unclear limits of this approach are discussed with two model systems
A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2004-01-01
of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...
Temporal-logic analysis of microglial phenotypic conversion with exposure to amyloid-β.
Anastasio, Thomas J
2015-02-01
Alzheimer Disease (AD) remains a leading killer with no adequate treatment. Ongoing research increasingly implicates the brain's immune system as a critical contributor to AD pathogenesis, but the complexity of the immune contribution poses a barrier to understanding. Here I use temporal logic to analyze a computational specification of the immune component of AD. Temporal logic is an extension of logic to propositions expressed in terms of time. It has traditionally been used to analyze computational specifications of complex engineered systems but applications to complex biological systems are now appearing. The inflammatory component of AD involves the responses of microglia to the peptide amyloid-β (Aβ), which is an inflammatory stimulus and a likely causative AD agent. Temporal-logic analysis of the model provides explanations for the puzzling findings that Aβ induces an anti-inflammatory and well as a pro-inflammatory response, and that Aβ is phagocytized by microglia in young but not in old animals. To potentially explain the first puzzle, the model suggests that interferon-γ acts as an "autocrine bridge" over which an Aβ-induced increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increase in anti-inflammatory mediators also. To potentially explain the second puzzle, the model identifies a potential instability in signaling via insulin-like growth factor 1 that could explain the failure of old microglia to phagocytize Aβ. The model predicts that augmentation of insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling, and activation of protein kinase C in particular, could move old microglia from a neurotoxic back toward a more neuroprotective and phagocytic phenotype.
Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brambilla, N; Heltsley, B K; Vogt, R; Bodwin, G T; Eichten, E; Frawley, A D; Meyer, A B; Mitchell, R E; Papdimitriou, V; Petreczky, P; Petrov, A A; Robbe, P; Vairo, A; Andronic, A; Arnaldi, R; Artoisenet, P; Bali, G; Bertolin, A; Bettoni, D; Brodzicka, J; Bruno, G E; Caldwell, A; Catmore, J; Chang, C -H; Chao, K -T; Chudakov, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, P; Drutskoy, A; Ellwanger, U; Faccioli, P; Gabareen Mokhtar, A; Garcia i Tormo, X; Hanhart, C; Harris, F A; Kaplan, D M; Klein, S R; Kowalski, H; Lansberg, J -P; Levichev, E; Lombardo, V; Loureno, C; Maltoni, F; Mocsy, A; Mussa, R; Navarra, F S; Negrini, M; Nielsen, M; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Peters, K; Polosa, A D; Qian, W; Qiu, J -W; Rong, G; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Scomparin, E; Senger, P; Simon, F; Stracka, S; Sumino, Y; Voloshin, M; Weiss, C; Wohri, H K; Yuan, C -Z
2011-02-01
A golden age for heavy quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the $B$-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA, JLab, and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing investigations. The plethora of newly-found quarkonium-like states unleashed a flood of theoretical investigations into new forms of matter such as quark-gluon hybrids, mesonic molecules, and tetraquarks. Measurements of the spectroscopy, decays, production, and in-medium behavior of c\\bar{c}, b\\bar{b}, and b\\bar{c} bound states have been shown to validate some theoretical approaches to QCD and highlight lack of quantitative success for others. The intriguing details of quarkonium suppression in heavy-ion collisions that have emerged from RHIC have elevated the importance of separating hot- and cold-nuclear-matter effects in quark-gluon plasma studies. This review systematically addresses all these matters and concludes by prioritizing directions for ongoing and future efforts.
Modular Extracellular Matrices: Solutions for the Puzzle
Serban, Monica A.; Prestwich, Glenn D.
2008-01-01
The common technique of growing cells in two-dimensions (2-D) is gradually being replaced by culturing cells on matrices with more appropriate composition and stiffness, or by encapsulation of cells in three-dimensions (3-D). The universal acceptance of the new 3-D paradigm has been constrained by the absence of a commercially available, biocompatible material that offers ease of use, experimental flexibility, and a seamless transition from in vitro to in vivo applications. The challenge – the puzzle that needs a solution – is to replicate the complexity of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) environment with the minimum number of components necessary to allow cells to rebuild and replicate a given tissue. For use in drug discovery, toxicology, cell banking, and ultimately in reparative medicine, the ideal matrix would therefore need to be highly reproducible, manufacturable, approvable, and affordable. Herein we describe the development of a set of modular components that can be assembled into biomimetic materials that meet these requirements. These semi-synthetic ECMs, or sECMs, are based on hyaluronan derivatives that form covalently crosslinked, biodegradable hydrogels suitable for 3-D culture of primary and stem cells in vitro, and for tissue formation in vivo. The sECMs can be engineered to provide appropriate biological cues needed to recapitulate the complexity of a given ECM environment. Specific applications for different sECM compositions include stem cell expansion with control of differentiation, scar-free wound healing, growth factor delivery, cell delivery for osteochondral defect and liver repair, and development of vascularized tumor xenografts for personalized chemotherapy. PMID:18442709
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D ampersand D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D ampersand D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2
Interdisciplinarity, logic of uncertainty and fuzzy logic in primary school
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciana Delli Rocili
2015-12-01
Full Text Available On the occasion of the 120th anniversary of Mathesis, this work wants to be a memory, a tribute to two great presidents of Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini. Both have pursued the idea of interdisciplinary teaching and research. Bruno de Finetti, with his books on The invention of truth, (1934, and on Logic and Intuitive Mathematics, (1959, and his very famous "Theory of probability", (1970, shows a rejection of formal education, comfortable, monodisciplinary, made of certainties, and chooses the impervious way of addressing the problems that are to the base of science. Angelo Fadini, with his papers and books on Theory of Fuzzy Sets, shows first in Italy several logical questions which puts as the basis for practical applications in Architecture. This paper is an attempt to experiment, in an interdisciplinary framework, the basic ideas of Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini in primary school, in the belief that in the Primary School are formed ideas and intuitions, while in the secondary school the attention is focused mainly on specific issues of Mathematics. We shows some results of a still ongoing experimentation. Interdisciplinarietà, logica dell'incerto e logica sfumata nella scuola primaria In occasione dei 120 anni della Mathesis, questo lavoro vuole essere un ricordo, un omaggio a due grandi Presidenti della Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti e Angelo Fadini. Entrambi hanno portato avanti l’idea della interdisciplinarietà nell’insegnamento e nella ricerca. Bruno de Finetti, con la sua “Matematica Logico Intuitiva” del 1959, e la sua “Teoria delle probabilità”, del 1970, e ancora prima, con “L’invenzione della verità”, del 1934, mostra un rifiuto dell’insegnamento formale, comodo, monodisciplinare, fatto di certezze, e sceglie la strada impervia dell’affrontare i problemi che sono alla base della scienza. Angelo Fadini, con la sua Teoria degli Insiemi Sfocati, mostra per primo in Italia varie questioni
Evaluation of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Witala, H.
1998-01-01
The current status of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle is reviewed. Applying tight constraints on the allowed deviations between calculated predictions and accepted values for relevant nucleon-nucleon observables reveals that energy independent correction factors applied to the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions can not solve the puzzle. Furthermore, using the same constraints, charge-independence breaking in the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions can be ruled out as a possible tool to improve the agreement between three-nucleon calculations and data. The study of the energy dependence of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle gives clear evidence that the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interaction obtained from phase-shift analyses and used in potential models are correct above about 25 MeV, i.e., the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions have to be modified only at lower energies in order to solve the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle, unless new three-nucleon forces can be found that account for the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle without destroying the beautiful agreement between rigorous three-nucleon calculations and a large body of accurate three-nucleon data. (orig.)
Evaluation of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tornow, W. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Witala, H. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki
1998-07-20
The current status of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle is reviewed. Applying tight constraints on the allowed deviations between calculated predictions and accepted values for relevant nucleon-nucleon observables reveals that energy independent correction factors applied to the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interactions can not solve the puzzle. Furthermore, using the same constraints, charge-independence breaking in the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interactions can be ruled out as a possible tool to improve the agreement between three-nucleon calculations and data. The study of the energy dependence of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle gives clear evidence that the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interaction obtained from phase-shift analyses and used in potential models are correct above about 25 MeV, i.e., the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interactions have to be modified only at lower energies in order to solve the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle, unless new three-nucleon forces can be found that account for the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle without destroying the beautiful agreement between rigorous three-nucleon calculations and a large body of accurate three-nucleon data. (orig.) 18 refs.
Design of synthetic biological logic circuits based on evolutionary algorithm.
Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chang, Yen-Chang; Jennawasin, Tanagorn; Chen, Po-Kuei
2013-08-01
The construction of an artificial biological logic circuit using systematic strategy is recognised as one of the most important topics for the development of synthetic biology. In this study, a real-structured genetic algorithm (RSGA), which combines general advantages of the traditional real genetic algorithm with those of the structured genetic algorithm, is proposed to deal with the biological logic circuit design problem. A general model with the cis-regulatory input function and appropriate promoter activity functions is proposed to synthesise a wide variety of fundamental logic gates such as NOT, Buffer, AND, OR, NAND, NOR and XOR. The results obtained can be extended to synthesise advanced combinational and sequential logic circuits by topologically distinct connections. The resulting optimal design of these logic gates and circuits are established via the RSGA. The in silico computer-based modelling technology has been verified showing its great advantages in the purpose.
Indoor signal attenuation assessment via fuzzy logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre de Assis Mota
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This work focuses on the analysis of signal´s attenuation in indoor environments using a fuzzy logic approach based on the Shadowing Signal Propagation Model (SSPM. The SSPM allows the characterization of the attenuation caused by the environment through the ? parameter present in this model. In addition to this, the Fuzzy Logic provides a form of approximate reasoning that allows the treatment of problems with incomplete, vague and imprecise information. Also, it offers a simple way to obtain a possible solution for a problem using the heuristic knowledge about a particular situation. The results show that the methodology produced satisfactory results, close to the ones yielded by experimental methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker
2012-01-01
We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-eﬀect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....
Bright, Liam Kofi
2017-10-01
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On puzzles and non-puzzles in B→ππ,πK decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleischer, R.; Recksiegel, S.; Schwab, F.
2007-01-01
Recently, we have seen interesting progress in the exploration of CP violation in B d 0 →π + π - : the measurements of mixing-induced CP violation by the BaBar and Belle collaborations are now in good agreement with each other, whereas the picture of direct CP violation is still unclear. Using the branching ratio and direct CP asymmetry of B d 0 →π - K + , this situation can be clarified. We predict A CP dir (B d →π + π - )=-0.24±0.04, which favours the BaBar result, and we extract γ=(70.0 -4.3 +3.8 ) , which agrees with the unitarity triangle fits. Extending our analysis to other B→πK modes and B s 0 →K + K - with the help of the SU(3) flavour symmetry and plausible dynamical assumptions, we find that all observables with colour-suppressed electroweak penguin contributions are measured to be in excellent agreement with the standard model. As far as the ratios R c,n of the charged and neutral B→πK branching ratios are concerned, which are sizeably affected by electroweak penguin contributions, our standard-model predictions have almost unchanged central values but significantly reduced errors. Since the new data have moved quite a bit towards these results, the ''B→πK puzzle'' for the CP conserving quantities has been significantly reduced. However, the mixing-induced CP violation of B d 0 →π 0 K S does look puzzling; if confirmed by future measurements, this effect could be accommodated through a modified electroweak penguin sector with a large CP violating new-physics phase. Finally, we point out that the established difference between the direct CP asymmetries of B ± →π 0 K ± and B d →π -+ K ± appears to be generated by hadronic and not by new physics. (orig.)
Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic
Epstein, Richard L
2011-01-01
In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo
Distress risk and leverage puzzles: Evidence from Taiwan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kung-Cheng Ho
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Financial distress has been invoked in the asset pricing literature to explain the anomalous patterns in the cross-section of stock returns. The risk of financial distress can be measured using indexes. George and Hwang (2010 suggest that leverage can explain the distress risk puzzle and that firms with high costs choose low leverage to reduce distress intensities and earn high returns. This study investigates whether this relationship exists in the Taiwan market. When examined separately, distress intensity is found to be negatively related to stock returns, but leverage is found to not be significantly related to stock returns. The results are the same when distress intensity and leverage are examined simultaneously. After assessing the robustness by using O-scores, distress risk puzzle is found to exist in the Taiwan market, but the leverage puzzle is not
International trade network: fractal properties and globalization puzzle.
Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata
2014-12-12
Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.
Linear Temporal Logic-based Mission Planning
Anil Kumar; Rahul Kala
2016-01-01
In this paper, we describe the Linear Temporal Logic-based reactive motion planning. We address the problem of motion planning for mobile robots, wherein the goal specification of planning is given in complex environments. The desired task specification may consist of complex behaviors of the robot, including specifications for environment constraints, need of task optimality, obstacle avoidance, rescue specifications, surveillance specifications, safety specifications, etc. We use Linear Tem...
Neutrosophic Logic Applied to Decision Making
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Burtschy, Bernard
2014-01-01
Decision making addresses the usage of various methods to select "the best", in some way, alternative strategy (from many available) when a problem is given for solving. The authors propose the usage of neutrosophic way of thinking, called also Smarandache's logic, to select a model by experts when...... degrees of trustability, ultrastability (falsehood), and indeterminacy are used to decide. The procedures deal with multi-attribute neutrosophic decision making and a case study on e-learning software objects is presented....
Electron-muon puzzle and the electromagnetic coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jehle, H.
1977-01-01
On the basis of a heuristic model we argued in an earlier paper (paper C of this series) electric field (and of course the magnetic field, too) of a lepton or of a quark may be formulated in terms of a closed loop of quantized magnetic flux whose alternative forms (''loopforms'') are superposed with probability amplitudes so as to represent the electromagnetic field of that lepton or quark. The Zitterbewegung of a single stationary (''elementary'') particle suggests a kind of quasiextension, which is assumed, in the present theory, to permit concepts of structuralization of the electromagnetic field even for leptons. Mesons and baryons may be represented by linked quantized flux loops, i.e., quark loops (as in paper B). The central problem now (in this paper D) is to formulate those probability-amplitude distributions in terms of wave functions to characterize the internal structure of the lepton or quark in question. As probability-amplitude functions one may choose bases of irreducible representations of the group with respect to which the model is to be invariant. It is seen that this implies the SO(4) group. As both the electron-muon mass ratio and the electromagnetic coupling constant depend, in this flux-quantization model, on the correct formulation of the structuralization of probability-amplitude distributions, we should expect to get an insight into both these puzzles from finding the right probability-amplitude wave functions. Furthermore, it is seen that this same structuralization of probability-amplitude distributions also permits one to estimate the rate of weak interactions, thus relating them to electromagnetic interactions
Superconducting digital logic amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Przybysz, J.X.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions
THE EQUITY PREMIUM PUZZLE AND EMOTIONAL ASSET PRICING
MARC GÜRTLER; NORA HARTMANN
2007-01-01
"Since the equity premium as well as the risk-free rate puzzle question the concepts central to financial and economic modeling, we apply behavioral decision theory to asset pricing in view of solving these puzzles. U.S. stock market data for the period 1960-2003 and German stock market data for the period 1977-2003 show that emotional investors who act in accordance to Bell's (1985) disappointment theory -a special case of prospect theory- and additionally administer mental accounts demand a...
An overview of heavy quark energy loss puzzle at RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djordjevic, Magdalena
2006-01-01
We give a theoretical overview of the heavy quark tomography puzzle posed by recent non-photonic single electron data from central Au+Au collisions at √s = 200A GeV. We show that radiative energy loss mechanisms alone are not able to explain large single electron suppression data, as long as realistic parameter values are assumed. We argue that a combined collisional and radiative pQCD approach can solve a substantial part of the non-photonic single electron puzzle
The Meissner effect puzzle and the quantum force in superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikulov, A.V.
2012-01-01
The puzzle of the acceleration of the mobile charge carriers and the ions in the superconductor in direction opposite to the electromagnetic force revealed formerly in the Meissner effect is considered in the case of the transition of a narrow ring from normal to superconducting state. It is elucidated that the azimuthal quantum force was deduced eleven years ago from the experimental evidence of this acceleration but it cannot solve this puzzle. This quantum force explains other paradoxical phenomena connected with reiterated switching of the ring between normal and superconducting states.
The Closed-End Funds Puzzle: A Survey Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Charrón
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore the most salient research aimed at explaining the closed-end fund puzzle from both the traditional and behavioral finance perspectives. It provides a better understanding of closed-end fund behavior and motivates further research of closed-end funds, market efficiency, asset pricing and the traditional and behavioral finance paradigms. So far, none of the possible explanations from either traditional finance or behavioral finance have been able to fully account for the occurrence of the puzzle. It continues to be an important issue in the long standing debate between traditional finance and behavioral finance.
Quantum logics and convex geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunce, L.J.; Wright, J.D.M.
1985-01-01
The main result is a representation theorem which shows that, for a large class of quantum logics, a quantum logic, Q, is isomorphic to the lattice of projective faces in a suitable convex set K. As an application we extend our earlier results, which, subject to countability conditions, gave a geometric characterization of those quantum logics which are isomorphic to the projection lattice of a von Neumann algebra or a JBW-algebra. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sambasivan, S. Ilango
2004-01-01
Full text : PFBR is provided with two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems to detect any abnormalities and to initiate safety action. Each system consists of sensors, signal processing systems, logics, drive mechanisms and absorber rods. The absorber rods of the first system are Control and Safety Rods (CSR) and that of the second are called as Diverse Safety Rods (DSR). There are nine CSR and three DSR. While CSR are used for startup, control of reactor power, controlled shutdown and SCRAM, the DSR are used only for SCRAM. The respective drive mechanisms are called as CSRDM and DSRDM. Each of these two systems is capable of executing the shutdown satisfactorily with single failure criteria. Two independent safety logic systems based on diverse principles have been designed for the two shut down systems. The analog outputs of the sensors of Core Monitoring Systems comprising of reactor flux monitoring, core temperature monitoring, failed fuel detection and core flow monitoring systems are processed and converted into binary signals depending on their instantaneous values. Safety logic systems receive the binary signals from these core-monitoring systems and process them logically to protect the reactor against postulated initiating events. Neutronic and power to flow (P/Q) signals form the inputs to safety logic system-I and temperature signals are inputs to the safety logic system II. Failed fuel detection signals are processed by both the shut down systems. The two logic systems to actuate the safety rods are also based on two diverse designs and implemented with solid-state devices to meet all the requirements of safety systems. Safety logic system I that caters to neutronic and P/Q signals is designed around combinational logic and has an on-line test facility to detect struck at faults. The second logic system is based on dynamic logic and hence is inherently safe. This paper gives an overview of the two logic systems that have been
PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer
A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.
NICHD Research Networks Help Piece Together the Puzzle of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
... Print NICHD research networks help piece together the puzzle of polycystic ovary syndrome Many people think that ... more like putting together a thousand-piece jigsaw puzzle. Except that you can’t check the cover ...
Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-solving Skills
Shelly Wismath; Doug Orr; Bruce MacKay
2015-01-01
Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called Problems and Puzzles, which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom observation and other qualitative data collected over three semesters, we have identified three significant changes in student behaviour at specific points in the course....
Contextual logic for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector
2005-01-01
In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction
Tensor product of quantum logics
Pulmannová, Sylvia
1985-01-01
A quantum logic is the couple (L,M) where L is an orthomodular σ-lattice and M is a strong set of states on L. The Jauch-Piron property in the σ-form is also supposed for any state of M. A ``tensor product'' of quantum logics is defined. This definition is compared with the definition of a free orthodistributive product of orthomodular σ-lattices. The existence and uniqueness of the tensor product in special cases of Hilbert space quantum logics and one quantum and one classical logic are studied.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A.N. Prior (1914-69) in the course of the 1950s and 1960s founded a new and revolutionary paradigm in philosophy and logic. Its most central feature is the preoccupation with time and the development of the logic of time. However, this was inseparably interwoven with fundamental questions about h...... human freedom, ethics, and existence. This remarkable integration of themes also embodies an original and in fact revolutionary conception of logic. The book series, Logic and Philosophy of Time, is dedicated to a deep investigation and also the further development of Prior’s paradigm. ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s).......By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s)....
A Verification Study on the Loop-Breaking Logic of FTREX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Jong Soo
2008-01-01
The logical loop problem in fault tree analysis (FTA) has been solved by manually or automatically breaking their circular logics. The breaking of logical loops is one of uncertainty sources in fault tree analyses. A practical method which can verify fault tree analysis results was developed by Choi. The method has the capability to handle logical loop problems. It has been implemented in a FORTRAN program which is called VETA (Verification and Evaluation of fault Tree Analysis results) code. FTREX, a well-known fault tree quantifier developed by KAERI, has an automatic loop-breaking logic. In order to make certain of the correctness of the loop-breaking logic of FTREX, some typical trees with complex loops are developed and applied to this study. This paper presents some verification results of the loop-breaking logic tested by the VETA code
The Dutch local government bailout puzzle
Allers, Maarten
The fiscal federalism and public choice literatures stress that government bailouts should be ruled out as they increase the probability that jurisdictions will incur unsustainable debt levels or take excessive risk (moral hazard problem). The recent problems in the euro area seem to confirm this
Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor
The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid...
The problem with logic in the logical problem of language acquisition
Hendriks, P; Gleitman, LR; Joshi, AK
2000-01-01
This paper discusses the motivation behind the nativist position with respect to linguistic knowledge. In particular, the discussion focusses on the argument from the "poverty of the stimulus", which is generally assumed to be the most important argument in favor of a nativist position. On the basis
Fuzzy logic and intelligent technologies in nuclear science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruan, D.
1998-01-01
The research project on Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent technologies (FLINS) aims to bridge the gap between novel technologies and the nuclear industry. It aims to initiate research and development programs for solving intricate problems pertaining to the nuclear environment by using modern technologies as additional tool. The major achievements for 1997 include the application of the fuzzy-logic to the BR-1 reactor, the elaboration of a Fuzzy-control model as well as contributions to several workshops and publications
Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Ruan
1998-01-01
FLINS is the acronym for Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science. The main task for FLINS is to solve intricate problems pertaining to the nuclear environment by using modern technologies as additional tools and to bridge the gap between novel technologies and the industrial nuclear world. In 1997, major efforts went to the specific prototyping of Fuzzy Logic Control of SCK-CEN's BR1 research Reactor. Progress and achievements are reported
Jauch-Piron states on concrete quantum logics
Müller, V.
1993-03-01
We exhibit an example of a concrete (=set-representable) quantum logic which is not a Boolean algebra such that every state on it is Jauch-Piron. This gives a negative answer to a problem raised by Navara and Pták. Further we show that such an example does not exist in the class of complete (i.e., closed under arbitrary disjoint unions) concrete logics.
A comparative study of the A* heuristic search algorithm used to solve efficiently a puzzle game
Iordan, A. E.
2018-01-01
The puzzle game presented in this paper consists in polyhedra (prisms, pyramids or pyramidal frustums) which can be moved using the free available spaces. The problem requires to be found the minimum number of movements in order the game reaches to a goal configuration starting from an initial configuration. Because the problem is enough complex, the principal difficulty in solving it is given by dimension of search space, that leads to necessity of a heuristic search. The improving of the search method consists into determination of a strong estimation by the heuristic function which will guide the search process to the most promising side of the search tree. The comparative study is realized among Manhattan heuristic and the Hamming heuristic using A* search algorithm implemented in Java. This paper also presents the necessary stages in object oriented development of a software used to solve efficiently this puzzle game. The modelling of the software is achieved through specific UML diagrams representing the phases of analysis, design and implementation, the system thus being described in a clear and practical manner. With the purpose to confirm the theoretical results which demonstrates that Manhattan heuristic is more efficient was used space complexity criterion. The space complexity was measured by the number of generated nodes from the search tree, by the number of the expanded nodes and by the effective branching factor. From the experimental results obtained by using the Manhattan heuristic, improvements were observed regarding space complexity of A* algorithm versus Hamming heuristic.
A resolution of the inclusive flavor-breaking τ |Vus| puzzle
Hudspith, Renwick J.; Lewis, Randy; Maltman, Kim; Zanotti, James
2018-06-01
We revisit the puzzle of |Vus | values obtained from the conventional implementation of hadronic-τ- decay-based flavor-breaking finite-energy sum rules lying > 3 σ below the expectations of three-family unitarity. Significant unphysical dependences of |Vus | on the choice of weight, w, and upper limit, s0, of the experimental spectral integrals entering the analysis are confirmed, and a breakdown of assumptions made in estimating higher dimension, D > 4, OPE contributions identified as the main source of these problems. A combination of continuum and lattice results is shown to suggest a new implementation of the flavor-breaking sum rule approach in which not only |Vus |, but also D > 4 effective condensates, are fit to data. Lattice results are also used to clarify how to reliably treat the slowly converging D = 2 OPE series. The new sum rule implementation is shown to cure the problems of the unphysical w- and s0-dependence of |Vus | and to produce results ∼0.0020 higher than those of the conventional implementation employing the same data. With B-factory input, and using, in addition, dispersively constrained results for the Kπ branching fractions, we find |Vus | = 0.2231(27)exp(4)th, in excellent agreement with the result from Kℓ3, and compatible within errors with the expectations of three-family unitarity, thus resolving the long-standing inclusive τ |Vus | puzzle.
Puzzle of magnetic moments of Ni clusters revisited using quantum Monte Carlo method.
Lee, Hung-Wen; Chang, Chun-Ming; Hsing, Cheng-Rong
2017-02-28
The puzzle of the magnetic moments of small nickel clusters arises from the discrepancy between values predicted using density functional theory (DFT) and experimental measurements. Traditional DFT approaches underestimate the magnetic moments of nickel clusters. Two fundamental problems are associated with this puzzle, namely, calculating the exchange-correlation interaction accurately and determining the global minimum structures of the clusters. Theoretically, the two problems can be solved using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations and the ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) method correspondingly. Therefore, we combined the fixed-moment AIRSS and QMC methods to investigate the magnetic properties of Ni n (n = 5-9) clusters. The spin moments of the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) ground states are higher than those of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof ground states and, in the case of Ni 8-9 , two new ground-state structures have been discovered using the DMC calculations. The predicted results are closer to the experimental findings, unlike the results predicted in previous standard DFT studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven A. Frank
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.
The Effect of Monetary Policy on Exchange Rates : How to Solve the Puzzles
Kumah, F.Y.
1996-01-01
Recent empirical research on the effects of monetary policy shocks on exchange rate fluctuations have encountered the exchange rate puzzle and th e forward discount bias puzzle.The exchange rate puzzle is the tendency of the domestic currency (of non-US G-7 countries) to depreciate against the US
Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic
Gauthier, Yvon
2015-01-01
This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
Efficient dynamic optimization of logic programs
Laird, Phil
1992-01-01
A summary is given of the dynamic optimization approach to speed up learning for logic programs. The problem is to restructure a recursive program into an equivalent program whose expected performance is optimal for an unknown but fixed population of problem instances. We define the term 'optimal' relative to the source of input instances and sketch an algorithm that can come within a logarithmic factor of optimal with high probability. Finally, we show that finding high-utility unfolding operations (such as EBG) can be reduced to clause reordering.
Teaching logic using a state-of-art proof assistant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maxim Hendriks
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This article describes the system ProofWeb developed for teaching logic to undergraduate computer science students. The system is based on the higher order proof assistant Coq, and is made available to the students through an interactive web interface. Part of this system is a large database of logic problems. This database will also hold the solutions of the students. The students do not need to install anything to be able to use the system (not even a browser plug-in, and the teachers are able to centrally track progress of the students. The system makes the full power of Coq available to the students, but simultaneously presents the logic problems in a way that is customary in undergraduate logic courses. Both styles of presenting natural deduction proofs (Gentzen-style `tree view' and Fitch-style `box view' are supported. Part of the system is a parser that indicates whether the students used the automation of Coq to solve their problems or that they solved it themselves using only the inference rules of the logic. For these inference rules dedicated tactics for Coq have been developed. The system has already been used in type theory courses and logic undergraduate courses. The ProofWeb system can be tried at http://proofweb.cs.ru.nl/.
Games and puzzles for English as a second language
Fremont, Victoria
2011-01-01
Students can hone their verbal and grammatical skills with this entertaining workbook. Search-a-words, crossword puzzles, anagrams, and other challenges build vocabulary and spelling skills. They also help students understand and identify idioms, irregular past tenses and participles, and other linguistic stumbling blocks. Perfect for individual study or as a course supplement.
Towards a security model for computational puzzle schemes
Tang, Qiang; Jeckmans, Arjan
2011-01-01
In the literature, computational puzzle schemes have been considered as a useful tool for a number of applications, such as constructing timed cryptography, fighting junk emails, and protecting critical infrastructure from denial-of-service attacks. However, there is a lack of a general security
General intelligence is an emerging property, not an evolutionary puzzle.
Ramus, Franck
2017-01-01
Burkart et al. contend that general intelligence poses a major evolutionary puzzle. This assertion presupposes a reification of general intelligence - that is, assuming that it is one "thing" that must have been selected as such. However, viewing general intelligence as an emerging property of multiple cognitive abilities (each with their own selective advantage) requires no additional evolutionary explanation.
Children's Task Engagement during Challenging Puzzle Tasks
Wang, Feihong; Algina, James; Snyder, Patricia; Cox, Martha
2017-01-01
We examined children's task engagement during a challenging puzzle task in the presence of their primary caregivers by using a representative sample of rural children from six high-poverty counties across two states. Weighted longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to identify a task engagement factor…
Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper
We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finit...... markets. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles....
What do we learn from the ρ-π puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xueqian
2010-01-01
The experimental observation indicates that the branching ratio of ψ' →ρπ is very small while the ρ-π channel is a main one in J/ψ decays. To understand the puzzle, various interpretations have been proposed. Meanwhile according to the hadronic helicity selection rule, this decay mode should be suppressed. Numerical calculations are needed to determine how it is suppressed.We calculate the branching ratios of J/ψ→ρπ and ππ in the framework of QCD. The results show that the branching ratios are proportional to [(m u +m d )/(M J/ψ )] 2 for the ρπ mode and [(m u -m d )/(m J/ψ )] 2 for the ππ mode which is isospin violated. The theoretical prediction of the ratio of J/ψ → ρπ is smaller than data, but not too small to invoke a completely new mechanism. Thus the puzzle is still standing even though we learn much knowledge towards the puzzle and this will help to finally interpret the puzzle and then gain a deeper insight to the heavy quarkonia. (author)
Adding a Piece to the Leaf Epidermal Cell Shape Puzzle.
von Wangenheim, Daniel; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J
2017-11-06
The jigsaw puzzle-shaped pavement cells in the leaf epidermis collectively function as a load-bearing tissue that controls organ growth. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Majda et al. (2017) shed light on how the jigsaw shape can arise from localized variations in wall stiffness between adjacent epidermal cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Unraveling "Braid": Puzzle Games and Storytelling in the Imperative Mood
Arnott, Luke
2012-01-01
"Unraveling Braid" analyzes how unconventional, non-linear narrative fiction can help explain the ways in which video games signify. Specifically, this essay looks at the links between the semiotic features of Jonathan Blow's 2008 puzzle-platform video game Braid and similar elements in Georges Perec's 1978 novel "Life A User's Manual," as well as…
The Potential of Crossword Puzzles in Aiding English Language Learners
Merkel, Warren
2016-01-01
In an academic environment, teachers utilize crossword puzzles to help students learn or remember terminology. Outside the classroom, typically in daily newspapers, crosswords aid in vocabulary development, used as a learning tool, a leisure activity, or both. However, both the content and the grid structure of the crosswords in these two…
Experimental status of the E/ι puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lanaro, A.
1996-11-01
Despite the prolonged experimental effort devoted to the spectroscopy of the E/ι mesons, and the intense theoretical debate around this subject, many puzzling issues still prevent from a full understanding of the true scenario. The advent of new and more precise experimental measurements motivates a review on this topic
Puzzling with potential : dynamic testing of analogical reasoning in children
Stevenson, Claire Elisabeth
2012-01-01
Assessment procedures are frequent in children's school careers; however, measuring potential for learning has remained a puzzle. Dynamic testing is a method to assess cognitive potential that includes training in the assessment process. The goal of this thesis project was to develop a new dynamic
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2001-01-01
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic
Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan
2017-01-01
In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schumann, Andrew
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum
Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.
2009-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
A tristate optical logic system
Basuray, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar Ghosh, Hirak; Datta, A. K.
1991-09-01
A method is described to represent data in a tristate logic system which are subsequently replaced by Modified Trinary Numbers (MTN). This system is advantagegeous in parallel processing as carry and borrow free operations in arithmatic computation is possible. The logical operations are also modified according to the three states available. A possible practical application of the same using polarized light is also suggested.
Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior
Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.
1989-01-01
This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning.
Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics
Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde
Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.
Evidence logics with relational evidence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés
2017-01-01
We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...
Methods in Logic Based Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1999-01-01
Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...
Epistemic logics for sceptical agents
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bílková, M.; Majer, Ondrej; Peliš, Michal
2016-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 6 (2016), s. 1815-1841 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * substructural logic * frame semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zapatrin, R.R.
1992-01-01
Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs
Logical independence and quantum randomness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C; Prevedel, R; Klimek, P
2010-01-01
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Generator of combined logical signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laviron, Andre; Berard, Claude.
1982-01-01
The invention concerns a generator of combined logical signals to form combinations of two outputs at logical level 1 and N-2 outputs at logical level 0, among N generator outputs. This generator is characterized in that it includes a set of N means for storing combinations. Means enable the N storage means to be loaded with the logical levels corresponding to a pre-set starting combination, to control the operations for shifting the contents of the storage means and to control, by transfer facilities, the transfers of contents between these storage means. Controls enable the storage means to be actuated in order to obtain combinations of logical levels 1 and 0. The generation of combinations can be stopped after another pre-set combination. Application is for testing of safety circuits for nuclear power stations [fr
Reliability evaluation programmable logic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivani, L.; Murali, N.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.
2014-01-01
Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) are widely used as basic building modules in high integrity systems, considering their robust features such as gate density, performance, speed etc. PLDs are used to implement digital design such as bus interface logic, control logic, sequencing logic, glue logic etc. Due to semiconductor evolution, new PLDs with state-of-the-art features are arriving to the market. Since these devices are reliable as per the manufacturer's specification, they were used in the design of safety systems. But due to their reduced market life, the availability of performance data is limited. So evaluating the PLD before deploying in a safety system is very important. This paper presents a survey on the use of PLDs in the nuclear domain and the steps involved in the evaluation of PLD using Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing. (author)
Logical independence and quantum randomness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at
2010-01-15
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Marketing Logics, Ambidexterity and Influence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus
2012-01-01
in four CMOs have taken on this challenge, or adopted a marketing logic which could be referred to as ambidextrous. Furthermore, the study shows that this logic exerts a stronger impact on marketing's influence, compared to logics related to assuring brand consistency and measuring the performance...... of marketing processes. Three other ways to enact marketing management were also revealed, namely: an innovation; a communication; and a supporting marketing logic. This leads us to conclude that the influence of companies' marketing functions show up a heterogeneous picture within which the marketing logics......The duties of companies' chief marketing officers (CMOs) seem incompatible. They are expected to ensure that their company's market assets are properly exploited and recorded, while simultaneously enacting a proactive role in the company's business development. This study shows that about one...
Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2011-11-10
Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.
Flow Logic for Process Calculi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik
2012-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction......, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation...
Integrated development environment for fuzzy logic applications
Pagni, Andrea; Poluzzi, Rinaldo; Rizzotto, GianGuido; Lo Presti, Matteo
1993-12-01
During the last five years, Fuzzy Logic has gained enormous popularity, both in the academic and industrial worlds, breaking up the traditional resistance against changes thanks to its innovative approach to problems formalization. The success of this new methodology is pushing the creation of a brand new class of devices, called Fuzzy Machines, to overcome the limitations of traditional computing systems when acting as Fuzzy Systems and adequate Software Tools to efficiently develop new applications. This paper aims to present a complete development environment for the definition of fuzzy logic based applications. The environment is also coupled with a sophisticated software tool for semiautomatic synthesis and optimization of the rules with stability verifications. Later it is presented the architecture of WARP, a dedicate VLSI programmable chip allowing to compute in real time a fuzzy control process. The article is completed with two application examples, which have been carried out exploiting the aforementioned tools and devices.
PLQP & Company: Decidable Logics for Quantum Algorithms
Baltag, Alexandru; Bergfeld, Jort; Kishida, Kohei; Sack, Joshua; Smets, Sonja; Zhong, Shengyang
2014-10-01
We introduce a probabilistic modal (dynamic-epistemic) quantum logic PLQP for reasoning about quantum algorithms. We illustrate its expressivity by using it to encode the correctness of the well-known quantum search algorithm, as well as of a quantum protocol known to solve one of the paradigmatic tasks from classical distributed computing (the leader election problem). We also provide a general method (extending an idea employed in the decidability proof in Dunn et al. (J. Symb. Log. 70:353-359, 2005)) for proving the decidability of a range of quantum logics, interpreted on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We give general conditions for the applicability of this method, and in particular we apply it to prove the decidability of PLQP.
UTP and Temporal Logic Model Checking
Anderson, Hugh; Ciobanu, Gabriel; Freitas, Leo
In this paper we give an additional perspective to the formal verification of programs through temporal logic model checking, which uses Hoare and He Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP). Our perspective emphasizes the use of UTP designs, an alphabetised relational calculus expressed as a pre/post condition pair of relations, to verify state or temporal assertions about programs. The temporal model checking relation is derived from a satisfaction relation between the model and its properties. The contribution of this paper is that it shows a UTP perspective to temporal logic model checking. The approach includes the notion of efficiency found in traditional model checkers, which reduced a state explosion problem through the use of efficient data structures
Looking for Oriental fundamentals Fuzzy Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2013-10-01
Full Text Available For quite some time we have been trying to trace the river of Non-ClassicalLogics, and especially, Fuzzy Logic, trying to find the sources of this today flowing quite mighty river. Following from Lotfi A. Zadeh, we have traced his inspiring, the Polish logician Jan Lukasiewicz, who in turn was inspired by Aristotle's Peri Hermeneias (De Interpretatione. Also, Lukasiewicz occupies a central position in the Lvov-Warsaw School, who founded Kazimierz Twardowski, a student of Franz Brentano, and this in turn disciple of Bernard Bolzano. The connection with Leibniz and Bolzano come through medieval scholastic thinkers, especially John Duns Scotus and William of Ockham and the problem of future contingents, they had collected from the Aristotelian tradition. But there was to trace the “eastern (oriental track, which leads to the ancient Chinese and Indian philosophy. Here we will treat it as a first and necessary approach.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D ampersand D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA
Confluence of an extension of combinatory logic by Boolean constants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czajka, Łukasz
2017-01-01
We show confluence of a conditional term rewriting system CL-pc1, which is an extension of Combinatory Logic by Boolean constants. This solves problem 15 from the RTA list of open problems. The proof has been fully formalized in the Coq proof assistant....
Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne
2015-01-01
We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...
Some connections for manuals of empirical logic to functional analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, T.A.
1981-01-01
In this informal presentation, the theory of manuals of operations is connected with some familiar concepts in functional analysis; namely, base normed and order unit normed spaces. The purpose of this discussion is to present several general open problems which display the interplay of empirical logic with functional analysis. These are mathematical problems with direct physical interpretation. (orig./HSI)
Reprogrammable logic in memristive crossbar for in-memory computing
Cheng, Long; Zhang, Mei-Yun; Li, Yi; Zhou, Ya-Xiong; Wang, Zhuo-Rui; Hu, Si-Yu; Long, Shi-Bing; Liu, Ming; Miao, Xiang-Shui
2017-12-01
Memristive stateful logic has emerged as a promising next-generation in-memory computing paradigm to address escalating computing-performance pressures in traditional von Neumann architecture. Here, we present a nonvolatile reprogrammable logic method that can process data between different rows and columns in a memristive crossbar array based on material implication (IMP) logic. Arbitrary Boolean logic can be executed with a reprogrammable cell containing four memristors in a crossbar array. In the fabricated Ti/HfO2/W memristive array, some fundamental functions, such as universal NAND logic and data transfer, were experimentally implemented. Moreover, using eight memristors in a 2 × 4 array, a one-bit full adder was theoretically designed and verified by simulation to exhibit the feasibility of our method to accomplish complex computing tasks. In addition, some critical logic-related performances were further discussed, such as the flexibility of data processing, cascading problem and bit error rate. Such a method could be a step forward in developing IMP-based memristive nonvolatile logic for large-scale in-memory computing architecture.
The Logic of Practice in the Practice of Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raviola, Elena; Dubini, Paola
2016-01-01
of logics through a six months full-time ethnographic study at Il Sole-24 Ore, the largest Italian financial newspaper, between 2007 and 2008. An original conceptual framework is developed to analyse how the logic of journalism is enacted vis-à-vis that of advertising in a setting in which an old technology...... for news production – print newspaper – coexists with a new one – website – and thus encounters between new and old technological possibilities make workings of institutional logics particularly visible. The findings point out different mechanisms of institutional work dealing with actions that, made...
Local supersymmetry and the problem of the mass scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilles, H.P.
1983-02-01
Spontaneously broken supergravity might help us to understand the puzzle of the mass scales in grand unified models. We describe the general mechanism and point out the remaining problems. Some new results on local supercolor are presented
Flaxion: a minimal extension to solve puzzles in the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ema, Yohei [Department of Physics,The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo; Nakayama, Kazunori [Department of Physics,The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU),University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)
2017-01-23
We propose a minimal extension of the standard model which includes only one additional complex scalar field, flavon, with flavor-dependent global U(1) symmetry. It not only explains the hierarchical flavor structure in the quark and lepton sector (including neutrino sector), but also solves the strong CP problem by identifying the CP-odd component of the flavon as the QCD axion, which we call flaxion. Furthermore, the flaxion model solves the cosmological puzzles in the standard model, i.e., origin of dark matter, baryon asymmetry of the universe, and inflation. We show that the radial component of the flavon can play the role of inflaton without isocurvature nor domain wall problems. The dark matter abundance can be explained by the flaxion coherent oscillation, while the baryon asymmetry of the universe is generated through leptogenesis.
Moving pieces in a venomic puzzle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Verano-Braga, Thiago; Dutra, Alexandre A A; León, Ileana R
2013-01-01
Besides being a public health problem, scorpion venoms have a potential biotechnological application since they contain peptides that may be used as drug leads and/or to reveal novel pharmacological targets. A comprehensive Tityus serrulatus venom proteome study with emphasis on the phosphoproteo...
The puzzling entanglement of Schroedinger's wave function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.
1987-05-01
A brief review of the conceptual difficulties met by the quantum formalism is presented. The main attempts to overcome these difficulties are considered and their limitations are pointed out. A recent proposal based on the assumption of the occurrence of a specific type of wave function collapse is discussed and its consequences for the above-mentioned problems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs
Quarks and leptons: the generation puzzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harari, H.
1979-07-01
Some crucial questions with regards to the physics of the world beyond the standard view of quarks and leptons are investigated. The standard view is set forth, its problems noted, and its possibilities considered, particularly that of the grand unification scheme. Some open questions are listed. 29 references
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zizzi, P A
2007-01-01
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zizzi, P A [Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Via Trieste 63, 35121 Padova (Italy)
2007-05-15
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing.
Logic regression and its extensions.
Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo
2010-01-01
Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
QALYs, euthanasia and the puzzle of death.
Barrie, Stephen
2015-08-01
This paper considers the problems that arise when death, which is a philosophically difficult concept, is incorporated into healthcare metrics, such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). These problems relate closely to the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide because negative QALY scores can be taken to mean that patients would be 'better off dead'. There is confusion in the literature about the meaning of 0 QALY, which is supposed to act as an 'anchor' for the surveyed preferences on which QALYs are based. In the context of the debate over euthanasia, the QALY assumes an ability to make meaningful comparisons between life-states and death. Not only is this assumption questionable, but the ethical debate is much more broad than the question of whether death is preferable to a state of living. QALYs are derived from preferences about health states, so do not necessarily reflect preferences about events (eg, dying) or actions (eg, killing). This paper presents a new kind of problem for the QALY. As it stands, the QALY provides confused and unreliable information when it reports zero or negative values, and faces further problems when it appears to recommend death. This should preclude its use in the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide. These problems only apply where the QALY involves or seems to involve a comparison between life-states and death, and are not relevant to the more general discussion of the use of QALYs as a tool for comparing the benefits derived from treatment options. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.