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Sample records for putting integrated reservoir

  1. Putting integrated reservoir characterization into practice - in house training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, F.M. Jr.; Best, D.A.; Clarke, R.T. [Mobile Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The need for even more efficient reservoir characterization and management has forced a change in the way Mobil Oil provides technical support to its production operations. We`ve learned that to be successful, a good understanding of the reservoir is essential. This includes an understanding of the technical and business significance of reservoir heterogeneities at different stages of field development. A multi-disciplinary understanding of the business of integrated reservoir characterization is essential and to facilitate this understanding, Mobil has developed a highly successful {open_quotes}Reservoir Characterization Field Seminar{close_quotes}. Through specific team based case studies that incorporate outcrop examples and data the program provides participants the opportunity to explore historic and alternative approaches to reservoir description, characterization and management. We explore appropriate levels and timing of data gathering, technology applications, risk assessment and management practices at different stages of field development. The case studies presented throughout the course are a unique element of the program which combine real life and hypothetical problem sets that explore how different technical disciplines interact, the approaches to a problem solving they use, the assumptions and uncertainties contained in their contributions and the impact those conclusions may have on other disciplines involved in the overall reservoir management process. The team building aspect of the course was an added bonus.

  2. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  3. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  4. Defining Integrated Science Education and Putting It to Test

    OpenAIRE

    Åström, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The thesis is made up by four studies, on the comprehensive theme of integrated and subject-specific science education in Swedish compulsory school. A literature study on the matter is followed by an expert survey, then a case study and ending with two analyses of students' science results from PISA 2003 and PISA 2006. The first two studies explore similarities and differences between integrated and subject-specific science education, i.e. Science education and science taught as Biology, Chem...

  5. Integration of rock typing methods for carbonate reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliakbardoust, E; Rahimpour-Bonab, H

    2013-01-01

    Reservoir rock typing is the most important part of all reservoir modelling. For integrated reservoir rock typing, static and dynamic properties need to be combined, but sometimes these two are incompatible. The failure is due to the misunderstanding of the crucial parameters that control the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock and thus selecting inappropriate methods for defining static rock types. In this study, rock types were defined by combining the SCAL data with the rock properties, particularly rock fabric and pore types. First, air-displacing-water capillary pressure curues were classified because they are representative of fluid saturation and behaviour under capillary forces. Next the most important rock properties which control the fluid flow and saturation behaviour (rock fabric and pore types) were combined with defined classes. Corresponding petrophysical properties were also attributed to reservoir rock types and eventually, defined rock types were compared with relative permeability curves. This study focused on representing the importance of the pore system, specifically pore types in fluid saturation and entrapment in the reservoir rock. The most common tests in static rock typing, such as electrofacies analysis and porosity–permeability correlation, were carried out and the results indicate that these are not appropriate approaches for reservoir rock typing in carbonate reservoirs with a complicated pore system. (paper)

  6. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

    2009-01-07

    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  7. Integrated Approach to Drilling Project in Unconventional Reservoir Using Reservoir Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Jerzy; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Wojnarowski, Paweł; Janiga, Damian; Skrzypaszek, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Accumulation and flow mechanisms in unconventional reservoir are different compared to conventional. This requires a special approach of field management with drilling and stimulation treatments as major factor for further production. Integrated approach of unconventional reservoir production optimization assumes coupling drilling project with full scale reservoir simulation for determine best well placement, well length, fracturing treatment design and mid-length distance between wells. Full scale reservoir simulation model emulate a part of polish shale - gas field. The aim of this paper is to establish influence of technical factor for gas production from shale gas field. Due to low reservoir permeability, stimulation treatment should be direct towards maximizing the hydraulic contact. On the basis of production scenarios, 15 stages hydraulic fracturing allows boost gas production over 1.5 times compared to 8 stages. Due to the possible interference of the wells, it is necessary to determine the distance between the horizontal parts of the wells trajectories. In order to determine the distance between the wells allowing to maximize recovery factor of resources in the stimulated zone, a numerical algorithm based on a dynamic model was developed and implemented. Numerical testing and comparative study show that the most favourable arrangement assumes a minimum allowable distance between the wells. This is related to the volume ratio of the drainage zone to the total volume of the stimulated zone.

  8. Integration of dynamical data in a geostatistical model of reservoir; Integration des donnees dynamiques dans un modele geostatistique de reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Reis, L.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed in this thesis a methodology of integrated characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs, from geologic modeling to history matching. This methodology is applied to the reservoir PBR, situated in Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, which has been producing since June 1979. This work is an extension of two other thesis concerning geologic and geostatistical modeling of the reservoir PBR from well data and seismic information. We extended the geostatistical litho-type model to the whole reservoir by using a particular approach of the non-stationary truncated Gaussian simulation method. This approach facilitated the application of the gradual deformation method to history matching. The main stages of the methodology for dynamic data integration in a geostatistical reservoir model are presented. We constructed a reservoir model and the initial difficulties in the history matching led us to modify some choices in the geological, geostatistical and flow models. These difficulties show the importance of dynamic data integration in reservoir modeling. The petrophysical property assignment within the litho-types was done by using well test data. We used an inversion procedure to evaluate the petrophysical parameters of the litho-types. The up-scaling is a necessary stage to reduce the flow simulation time. We compared several up-scaling methods and we show that the passage from the fine geostatistical model to the coarse flow model should be done very carefully. The choice of the fitting parameter depends on the objective of the study. In the case of the reservoir PBR, where water is injected in order to improve the oil recovery, the water rate of the producing wells is directly related to the reservoir heterogeneity. Thus, the water rate was chosen as the fitting parameter. We obtained significant improvements in the history matching of the reservoir PBR. First, by using a method we have proposed, called patchwork. This method allows us to built a coherent

  9. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  10. Stress estimation in reservoirs using an integrated inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuyer, Antoine; Cupillard, Paul; Giot, Richard; Conin, Marianne; Leroy, Yves; Thore, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Estimating the stress in reservoirs and their surroundings prior to the production is a key issue for reservoir management planning. In this study, we propose an integrated inverse method to estimate such initial stress state. The 3D stress state is constructed with the displacement-based finite element method assuming linear isotropic elasticity and small perturbations in the current geometry of the geological structures. The Neumann boundary conditions are defined as piecewise linear functions of depth. The discontinuous functions are determined with the CMA-ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy) optimization algorithm to fit wellbore stress data deduced from leak-off tests and breakouts. The disregard of the geological history and the simplified rheological assumptions mean that only the stress field, statically admissible and matching the wellbore data should be exploited. The spatial domain of validity of this statement is assessed by comparing the stress estimations for a synthetic folded structure of finite amplitude with a history constructed assuming a viscous response.

  11. The geological model calibration - Learnings from integration of reservoir geology and field performance - Example from the upper carboniferous reservoirs of the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Kunakbayeva, G.; Veen, J.H. ten; Belt, F. van den; Twerda, A.; Peters, L.; Davis, P.; Williams, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Geological Model Calibration - Learnings from Integration of Reservoir Geology and Field Performance: example from the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs of the Southern North Sea. Copyright © (2012) by the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers All rights reserved.

  12. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  13. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France); Geffroy, F. [Centre de Geostatistique, Fontainebleau (France)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  14. MAPPING OF RESERVOIR PROPERTIES AND FACIES THROUGH INTEGRATION OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Reynolds; Dean S. Oliver; Fengjun Zhang; Yannong Dong; Jan Arild Skjervheim; Ning Liu

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of permeability and porosity in a reservoir is necessary for the prediction of future oil production, estimation of the location of bypassed oil, and optimization of reservoir management. But while the volume of data that can potentially provide information on reservoir architecture and fluid distributions has increased enormously in the past decade, it is not yet possible to make use of all the available data in an integrated fashion. While it is relatively easy to generate plausible reservoir models that honor static data such as core, log, and seismic data, it is far more difficult to generate plausible reservoir models that honor dynamic data such as transient pressures, saturations, and flow rates. As a result, the uncertainty in reservoir properties is higher than it could be and reservoir management can not be optimized. The goal of this project is to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem is necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management. Facies (defined here as regions of relatively uniform petrophysical properties) are common features of all reservoirs. Because the flow properties of the various facies can vary greatly, knowledge of the location of facies boundaries is of utmost importance for the prediction of reservoir performance and for the optimization of reservoir management. When the boundaries between facies are fairly well known, but flow properties are poorly known, the average properties for all facies can be determined using traditional techniques. Traditional history matching honors dynamic data by adjusting petrophysical properties in large areas, but in the process of adjusting the reservoir model ignores the static data and often results in implausible reservoir

  15. Upscaling of permeability heterogeneities in reservoir rocks; an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikes, D.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis presents a hierarchical and geologically constrained deterministic approach to incorporate small-scale heterogeneities into reservoir flow simulators. We use a hierarchical structure to encompass all scales from laminae to an entire depositional system. For the geological models under

  16. Advances in coalbed methane reservoirs using integrated reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing in Karaganda coal basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Aimukhan, Adina; Kenshimova, Aida; Mullagaliyev, Fandus; Akbarov, Erlan; Mullagaliyeva, Lylia; Kabirova, Svetlana; Almukhametov, Azamat

    2017-04-01

    Coalbed methane from Karaganda coal basin is considered to be an unconventional source of energy for the Central and Eastern parts of Kazakhstan. These regions are situated far away from the main traditional sources of oil and gas related to Precaspian petroleum basin. Coalbed methane fields in Karaganda coal basin are characterized by geological and structural complexity. Majority of production zones were characterized by high methane content and extremely low coal permeability. The coal reservoirs also contained a considerable natural system of primary, secondary, and tertiary fractures that were usually capable to accommodate passing fluid during hydraulic fracturing process. However, after closing was often observed coal formation damage including the loss of fluids, migration of fines and higher pressures required to treat formation than were expected. Unusual or less expected reservoir characteristics and values of properties of the coal reservoir might be the cause of the unusual occurred patterns in obtained fracturing, such as lithological peculiarities, rock mechanical properties and previous natural fracture systems in the coals. Based on these properties we found that during the drilling and fracturing of the coal-induced fractures have great sensitivity to complex reservoir lithology and stress profiles, as well as changes of those stresses. In order to have a successful program of hydraulic fracturing and avoid unnecessary fracturing anomalies we applied integrated reservoir characterization to monitor key parameters. In addition to logging data, core sample analysis was applied for coalbed methane reservoirs to observe dependence tiny lithological variations through the magnetic susceptibility values and their relation to permeability together with expected principal stress. The values of magnetic susceptibility were measured by the core logging sensor, which is equipped with the probe that provides volume magnetic susceptibility parameters

  17. Analog Integrated Circuit Design for Spike Time Dependent Encoder and Reservoir in Reservoir Computing Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    HAS BEEN REVIEWED AND IS APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. FOR THE CHIEF ENGINEER : / S / / S...bridged high-performance computing, nanotechnology , and integrated circuits & systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS neuromorphic computing, neuron design, spike...multidisciplinary effort encompassed high-performance computing, nanotechnology , integrated circuits, and integrated systems. The project’s architecture was

  18. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels

  19. MAPPING OF RESERVOIR PROPERTIES AND FACIES THROUGH INTEGRATION OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Reynolds; Dean S. Oliver; Yannong Dong; Ning Liu; Guohua Gao; Fengjun Zhang; Ruijian Li

    2004-12-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of permeability and porosity in a reservoir is necessary for the prediction of future oil production, estimation of the location of bypassed oil, and optimization of reservoir management. The volume of data that can potentially provide information on reservoir architecture and fluid distributions has increased enormously in the past decade. The techniques developed in this research will make it easier to use all the available data in an integrated fashion. While it is relatively easy to generate plausible reservoir models that honor static data such as core, log, and seismic data, it is far more difficult to generate plausible reservoir models that honor dynamic data such as transient pressures, saturations, and flow rates. As a result, the uncertainty in reservoir properties is higher than it could be and reservoir management can not be optimized. In this project, we have developed computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Specifically, we have developed methods for adjusting porosity and permeability fields to match both production and time-lapse seismic data and have also developed a procedure to adjust the locations of boundaries between facies to match production data. In all cases, the history matched rock property fields are consistent with a prior model based on static data and geologic information. Our work also indicates that it is possible to adjust relative permeability curves when history matching production data.

  20. Integration of Seismic and Petrophysics to Characterize Reservoirs in “ALA” Oil Field, Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on “ALA” field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of −2,453 to −3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  1. Integration of seismic and petrophysics to characterize reservoirs in "ALA" oil field, Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, P A; Olabode, S O; Opeloye, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on "ALA" field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of -2,453 to -3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  2. Low-Loss Photonic Reservoir Computing with Multimode Photonic Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katumba, Andrew; Heyvaert, Jelle; Schneider, Bendix; Uvin, Sarah; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2018-02-08

    We present a numerical study of a passive integrated photonics reservoir computing platform based on multimodal Y-junctions. We propose a novel design of this junction where the level of adiabaticity is carefully tailored to capture the radiation loss in higher-order modes, while at the same time providing additional mode mixing that increases the richness of the reservoir dynamics. With this design, we report an overall average combination efficiency of 61% compared to the standard 50% for the single-mode case. We demonstrate that with this design, much more power is able to reach the distant nodes of the reservoir, leading to increased scaling prospects. We use the example of a header recognition task to confirm that such a reservoir can be used for bit-level processing tasks. The design itself is CMOS-compatible and can be fabricated through the known standard fabrication procedures.

  3. HIV integration sites and implications for maintenance of the reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Jori; Cameron, Paul U; Lewin, Sharon R

    2018-03-01

    To provide an overview of recent research of how HIV integration relates to productive and latent infection and implications for cure strategies. How and where HIV integrates provides new insights into how HIV persists on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Clonal expansion of infected cells with the same integration site demonstrates that T-cell proliferation is an important factor in HIV persistence, however, the driver of proliferation remains unclear. Clones with identical integration sites harbouring defective provirus can accumulate in HIV-infected individuals on ART and defective proviruses can express RNA and produce protein. HIV integration sites differ in clonally expanded and nonexpanded cells and in latently and productively infected cells and this influences basal and inducible transcription. There is a growing number of cellular proteins that can alter the pattern of integration to favour latency. Understanding these pathways may identify new interventions to eliminate latently infected cells. Using advances in analysing HIV integration sites, T-cell proliferation of latently infected cells is thought to play a major role in HIV persistence. Clonal expansion has been demonstrated with both defective and intact viruses. Production of viral RNA and protein from defective viruses may play a role in driving chronic immune activation. The site of integration may determine the likelihood of proliferation and the degree of basal and induced transcription. Finally, host factors and gene expression at the time of infection may determine the integration site. Together these new insights may lead to novel approaches to elimination of latently infected cells.

  4. Prediction of total organic carbon content in shale reservoir based on a new integrated hybrid neural network and conventional well logging curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linqi; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Chaomo; Wei, Yang; Zhou, Xueqing; Cheng, Yuan; Huang, Yuyang; Zhang, Le

    2018-06-01

    There is increasing interest in shale gas reservoirs due to their abundant reserves. As a key evaluation criterion, the total organic carbon content (TOC) of the reservoirs can reflect its hydrocarbon generation potential. The existing TOC calculation model is not very accurate and there is still the possibility for improvement. In this paper, an integrated hybrid neural network (IHNN) model is proposed for predicting the TOC. This is based on the fact that the TOC information on the low TOC reservoir, where the TOC is easy to evaluate, comes from a prediction problem, which is the inherent problem of the existing algorithm. By comparing the prediction models established in 132 rock samples in the shale gas reservoir within the Jiaoshiba area, it can be seen that the accuracy of the proposed IHNN model is much higher than that of the other prediction models. The mean square error of the samples, which were not joined to the established models, was reduced from 0.586 to 0.442. The results show that TOC prediction is easier after logging prediction has been improved. Furthermore, this paper puts forward the next research direction of the prediction model. The IHNN algorithm can help evaluate the TOC of a shale gas reservoir.

  5. Performance modeling of an integral, self-regulating cesium reservoir for the ATI-TFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, K.L.; Ramalingam, M.L.; Young, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    This work covers the performance modeling of an integral metal-matrix cesium-graphite reservoir for operation in the Advanced Thermionic Initiative-Thermionic Fuel Element (ATI-TFE) converter configuration. The objectives of this task were to incorporate an intercalated cesium-graphite reservoir for the 3C 24 Cs→2C 36 Cs+Cs (g) two phase equilibrium reaction into the emitter lead region of the ATI-TFE. A semi two-dimensional, cylindrical TFE computer model was used to obtain thermal and electrical converter output characteristics for various reservoir locations. The results of this study are distributions for the interelectrode voltage, output current density, and output power density as a function of axial position along the TFE emitter. This analysis was accomplished by identifying an optimum cesium pressure for three representative pins in the ATI ''driverless'' reactor core and determining the corresponding position of the graphite reservoir in the ATI-TFE lead region. The position for placement of the graphite reservoir was determined by performing a first-order heat transfer analysis of the TFE lead region to determine its temperature distribution. The results of this analysis indicate that for the graphite reservoirs investigated the 3C 24 Cs→2C 36 Cs+Cs (g) equilibrium reaction reservoir is ideal for placement in the TFE emitter lead region. This reservoir can be directly coupled to the emitter, through conduction, to provide the desired cesium pressure for optimum performance. The cesium pressure corresponding to the optimum converter output performance was found to be 2.18 torr for the ATI core least power TFE, 2.92 torr for the average power TFE, and 4.93 torr for the maximum power TFE

  6. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Collier, Hughbert A.; Bennett, Michael

    2002-01-29

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate NMR techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging are being linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of the core and theoretical model.

  7. Modeling and Analysis of Integrated Bathymetric and Geodetic Data for Inventory Surveys of Mining Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochałek Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The significant part of the hydrography is bathymetry, which is the empirical part of it. Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of waterways and reservoirs, and graphic presentation of measured data in form of bathymetric maps, cross-sections and three-dimensional bottom models. The bathymetric measurements are based on using Global Positioning System and devices for hydrographic measurements – an echo sounder and a side sonar scanner. In this research authors focused on introducing the case of obtaining and processing the bathymetrical data, building numerical bottom models of two post-mining reclaimed water reservoirs: Dwudniaki Lake in Wierzchosławice and flooded quarry in Zabierzów. The report includes also analysing data from still operating mining water reservoirs located in Poland to depict how bathymetry can be used in mining industry. The significant issue is an integration of bathymetrical data and geodetic data from tachymetry, terrestrial laser scanning measurements.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Integrated Bathymetric and Geodetic Data for Inventory Surveys of Mining Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochałek, Agnieszka; Lipecki, Tomasz; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Jabłoński, Mateusz

    2018-03-01

    The significant part of the hydrography is bathymetry, which is the empirical part of it. Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of waterways and reservoirs, and graphic presentation of measured data in form of bathymetric maps, cross-sections and three-dimensional bottom models. The bathymetric measurements are based on using Global Positioning System and devices for hydrographic measurements - an echo sounder and a side sonar scanner. In this research authors focused on introducing the case of obtaining and processing the bathymetrical data, building numerical bottom models of two post-mining reclaimed water reservoirs: Dwudniaki Lake in Wierzchosławice and flooded quarry in Zabierzów. The report includes also analysing data from still operating mining water reservoirs located in Poland to depict how bathymetry can be used in mining industry. The significant issue is an integration of bathymetrical data and geodetic data from tachymetry, terrestrial laser scanning measurements.

  9. Application of Reservoir Flow Simulation Integrated with Geomechanics in Unconventional Tight Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Menglu; Chen, Shengnan; Mbia, Ernest; Chen, Zhangxing

    2018-01-01

    Multistage hydraulic fracturing techniques, combined with horizontal drilling, have enabled commercial production from the vast reserves of unconventional tight formations. During hydraulic fracturing, fracturing fluid and proppants are pumped into the reservoir matrix to create the hydraulic fractures. Understanding the propagation mechanism of hydraulic fractures is essential to estimate their properties, such as half-length. In addition, natural fractures are often present in tight formations, which might be activated during the fracturing process and contribute to the post-stimulation well production rates. In this study, reservoir simulation is integrated with rock geomechanics to predict the well post-stimulation productivities. Firstly, a reservoir geological model is built based on the field data collected from the Montney formation in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. The hydraulic fracturing process is then simulated through an integrated approach of fracturing fluid injection, rock geomechanics, and tensile failure criteria. In such a process, the reservoir pore pressure increases with a continuous injection of the fracturing fluid and proppants, decreasing the effective stress exerted on the rock matrix accordingly as the overburden pressure remains constant. Once the effective stress drops to a threshold value, tensile failure of the reservoir rock occurs, creating hydraulic fractures in the formation. The early production history of the stimulated well is history-matched to validate the predicted fracture geometries (e.g., half-length) generated from the fracturing simulation process. The effects of the natural fracture properties and well bottom-hole pressures on well productivity are also studied. It has been found that nearly 40% of hydraulic fractures propagate in the beginning stage (the pad step) of the fracturing schedule. In addition, well post-stimulation productivity will increase significantly if the natural fractures are propped or

  10. Towards an optimal integrated reservoir system management for the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Kessem–Tendaho project is completed to bring about socioeconomic development and growth in the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. To support reservoir Koka, two new reservoirs where built together with extensive infrastructure for new irrigation projects. For best possible socioeconomic benefits under conflicting management goals, like energy production at three hydropower stations and basin wide water supply at various sites, an integrated reservoir system management is required. To satisfy the multi-purpose nature of the reservoir system, multi-objective parameterization-simulation-optimization model is applied. Different Pareto-optimal trade-off solutions between water supply and hydro-power generation are provided for two scenarios (i recent conditions and (ii future planned increases for Tendaho and Upper Awash Irrigation projects. Reservoir performance is further assessed under (i rule curves with a high degree of freedom – this allows for best performance, but may result in rules curves to variable for real word operation and (ii smooth rule curves, obtained by artificial neuronal networks. The results show no performance penalty for smooth rule curves under future conditions but a notable penalty under recent conditions.

  11. Optimal Reoperation of Multi-Reservoirs for Integrated Watershed Management with Multiple Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and environmental deterioration. The social, economic, water quality and ecological benefits were respectively taken into account as the scheduling objectives and quantified according to economic models. River minimum ecological flows and reservoir water levels based on flood control were taken as key constraint conditions. Feasible search discrete differential dynamic programming (FS-DDDP was used to run the model. The proposed model was used in the upstream of the Nanpan River, to quantitatively evaluate the difference between optimal reoperation and routine operation. The results indicated that the reoperation could significantly increase the water quality benefit and have a minor effect on the benefits of power generation and irrigation under different hydrological years. The model can be readily adapted to other multi-reservoir systems for water resources management.

  12. Towards an optimal integrated reservoir system management for the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ruben; Gebretsadik, Henok Y.; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the Kessem-Tendaho project is completed to bring about socioeconomic development and growth in the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. To support reservoir Koka, two new reservoirs where built together with extensive infrastructure for new irrigation projects. For best possible socioeconomic benefits under conflicting management goals, like energy production at three hydropower stations and basin wide water supply at various sites, an integrated reservoir system management is required. To satisfy the multi-purpose nature of the reservoir system, multi-objective parameterization-simulation-optimization model is applied. Different Pareto-optimal trade-off solutions between water supply and hydro-power generation are provided for two scenarios (i) recent conditions and (ii) future planned increases for Tendaho and Upper Awash Irrigation projects. Reservoir performance is further assessed under (i) rule curves with a high degree of freedom - this allows for best performance, but may result in rules curves to variable for real word operation and (ii) smooth rule curves, obtained by artificial neuronal networks. The results show no performance penalty for smooth rule curves under future conditions but a notable penalty under recent conditions.

  13. CEO Appointments and the Loss of Firm-specific Knowledge - Putting Integrity Back into Hiring Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rost, Katja; Salomo, Søren

    2008-01-01

    that over the past decades the dishonesty of the predecessor has become relatively more important for the appointment decisions of firms. We conclude that outside hires are a suboptimal trend because external candidates even step up the regression of integrity in firms: As nobody has an incentive to invest......A rarely studied trend in corporate governance is the increasing tendency to fill CEO openings through external hires rather than through internal promotions: Kevin J. Murphy and Ján Zábojník (2004) show that the proportion of outside hires has doubled and their pay premium almost quadrupled over...

  14. CEO Appointments and the Loss of Firm-specific Knowledge - Putting Integrity Back into Hiring Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rost, Katja; Salomo, Søren

    2008-01-01

    the last thirty years. Assuming that general managerial skills are becoming more important relative to firm-specific skills, the authors conclude that competition in the managerial labor market establishes optimal contracts. In our model and our empirical analysis we question this explanation by assuming...... that over the past decades the dishonesty of the predecessor has become relatively more important for the appointment decisions of firms. We conclude that outside hires are a suboptimal trend because external candidates even step up the regression of integrity in firms: As nobody has an incentive to invest...

  15. CEO Appointments and the Loss of Firm-Specific Knowledge - Putting Integrity Back into Hiring Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rost, Katja; Salomo, Søren; Osterloh, Margit

    2008-01-01

    the last thirty years. Assuming that general managerial skills are becoming more important relative to firm-specific skills, the authors conclude that competition in the managerial labor market establishes optimal contracts. In our model and our empirical analysis we question this explanation by assuming...... that over the past decades the dishonesty of the predecessor has become relatively more important for the appointment decisions of firms. We conclude that outside hires are a suboptimal trend because external candidates even step up the regression of integrity in firms: As nobody has an incentive to invest...

  16. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  17. Integration of 3D photogrammetric outcrop models in the reservoir modelling workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    3D technologies are now widely used in geosciences to reconstruct outcrops in 3D. The technology used for the 3D reconstruction is usually based on Lidar, which provides very precise models. Such datasets offer the possibility to build well-constrained outcrop analogue models for reservoir study purposes. The photogrammetry is an alternate methodology which principles are based in determining the geometric properties of an object from photographic pictures taken from different angles. Outcrop data acquisition is easy, and this methodology allows constructing 3D outcrop models with many advantages such as: - light and fast acquisition, - moderate processing time (depending on the size of the area of interest), - integration of field data and 3D outcrops into the reservoir modelling tools. Whatever the method, the advantages of digital outcrop model are numerous as already highlighted by Hodgetts (2013), McCaffrey et al. (2005) and Pringle et al. (2006): collection of data from otherwise inaccessible areas, access to different angles of view, increase of the possible measurements, attributes analysis, fast rate of data collection, and of course training and communication. This paper proposes a workflow where 3D geocellular models are built by integrating all sources of information from outcrops (surface picking, sedimentological sections, structural and sedimentary dips…). The 3D geomodels that are reconstructed can be used at the reservoir scale, in order to compare the outcrop information with subsurface models: the detailed facies models of the outcrops are transferred into petrophysical and acoustic models, which are used to test different scenarios of seismic and fluid flow modelling. The detailed 3D models are also used to test new techniques of static reservoir modelling, based either on geostatistical approaches or on deterministic (process-based) simulation techniques. A modelling workflow has been designed to model reservoir geometries and properties from

  18. Developing an integrated 3D-hydrodynamic and emerging contaminant model for assessing water quality in a Yangtze Estuary Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cong; Zhang, Jingjie; Bi, Xiaowei; Xu, Zheng; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-12-01

    An integrated 3D-hydrodynamic and emerging contaminant model was developed for better understanding of the fate and transport of emerging contaminants in Qingcaosha Reservoir. The reservoir, which supplies drinking water for nearly half of Shanghai's population, is located in Yangtze Delta. The integrated model was built by Delft3D suite, a fully integrated multidimensional modeling software. Atrazine and Bisphenol A (BPA) were selected as two representative emerging contaminants for the study in this reservoir. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated and validated against observations from 2011 to 2015 while the integrated model was calibrated against observations from 2014 to 2015 and then applied to explore the potential risk of high atrazine concentrations in the reservoir driven by agriculture activities. Our results show that the model is capable of describing the spatial and temporal patterns of water temperature, salinity and the dynamic distributions of two representative emerging contaminants (i.e. atrazine and BPA) in the reservoir. The physical and biodegradation processes in this study were found to play a crucial role in determining the fate and transport of atrazine and BPA in the reservoir. The model also provides an insight into the potential risk of emerging contaminants and possible mitigation thresholds. The integrated approach can be a very useful tool to support policy-makers in the future management of Qingcaosha Reservoir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cold reservoir integrated into a brine circuit of energy roofing, coupled to a heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, M.

    1983-12-01

    Model studies are presented in which the economic effects of a cold reservoir integrated in a heat pump system were established. Cold reservoirs have the following advantages: 1. The absolute annual savings increase with the storage volume. Storage volumes of 1 to 10 m/sup 3/ are economical, depending on the mode of operation. 2. If the storage volume is sufficiently large, the heat pump (operated in a bivalent, parallel system) can supply a considerable amount of the required even below the design temperature. 3. With a sufficiently large storage volume, the heat pump may be operated in more or less monovalent mode even if the heat pump has not been designed for a minimum ambient temperature.

  20. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock

  1. Integrating desalination to reservoir operation to increase redundancy for more secure water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Rashi; Ng, Tze Ling

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of integrating desalination to existing reservoir systems to mitigate supply uncertainty. Desalinated seawater and wastewater are relatively reliable but expensive. Water from natural resources like reservoirs is generally cheaper but climate sensitive. We propose combining the operation of a reservoir and seawater and wastewater desalination plants for an overall system that is less vulnerable to scarcity and uncertainty, while constraining total cost. The joint system is modeled as a multiobjective optimization problem with the double objectives of minimizing risk and vulnerability, subject to a minimum limit on resilience. The joint model is applied to two cases, one based on the climate and demands of a location in India and the other of a location in California. The results for the Indian case indicate that it is possible for the joint system to reduce risk and vulnerability to zero given a budget increase of 20-120% under current climate conditions and 30-150% under projected future conditions. For the Californian case, this would require budget increases of 20-80% and 30-140% under current and future conditions, respectively. Further, our analysis shows a two-way interaction between the reservoir and desalination plants where the optimal operation of the former is just as much affected by the latter as the latter by the former. This highlights the importance of an integrated management approach. This study contributes to a greater quantitative understanding of desalination as a redundancy measure for adapting water supply infrastructures for a future of greater scarcity and uncertainty.

  2. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume

  3. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications particularly for

  4. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  5. Caprock Integrity during Hydrocarbon Production and CO2 Injection in the Goldeneye Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Saeed; Paluszny, Adriana; Zimmerman, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a key technology for addressing climate change and maintaining security of energy supplies, while potentially offering important economic benefits. UK offshore, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs have the potential capacity to store significant quantities of carbon dioxide, produced during power generation from fossil fuels. The Goldeneye depleted gas condensate field, located offshore in the UK North Sea at a depth of ~ 2600 m, is a candidate for the storage of at least 10 million tons of CO2. In this research, a fully coupled, full-scale model (50×20×8 km), based on the Goldeneye reservoir, is built and used for hydro-carbon production and CO2 injection simulations. The model accounts for fluid flow, heat transfer, and deformation of the fractured reservoir. Flow through fractures is defined as two-dimensional laminar flow within the three-dimensional poroelastic medium. The local thermal non-equilibrium between injected CO2 and host reservoir has been considered with convective (conduction and advection) heat transfer. The numerical model has been developed using standard finite element method with Galerkin spatial discretisation, and finite difference temporal discretisation. The geomechanical model has been implemented into the object-oriented Imperial College Geomechanics Toolkit, in close interaction with the Complex Systems Modelling Platform (CSMP), and validated with several benchmark examples. Fifteen major faults are mapped from the Goldeneye field into the model. Modal stress intensity factors, for the three modes of fracture opening during hydrocarbon production and CO2 injection phases, are computed at the tips of the faults by computing the I-Integral over a virtual disk. Contact stresses -normal and shear- on the fault surfaces are iteratively computed using a gap-based augmented Lagrangian-Uzawa method. Results show fault activation during the production phase that may affect the fault's hydraulic conductivity

  6. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly progress report, June 13, 1995--September 12, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.K.

    1995-09-12

    At this stage of the reservoir characterization research, the main emphasis is on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Progress is reported on geological analysis, reservoir simulation, and reservoir management.

  7. Integrating geologic and engineering data into 3-D reservoir models: an example from norman wells field, NWT, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yose, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    A case study of the Norman Wells field will be presented to highlight the work-flow and data integration steps associated with characterization and modeling of a complex hydrocarbon reservoir. Norman Wells is a Devonian-age carbonate bank ('reef') located in the Northwest Territories of Canada, 60 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. The reservoir reaches a maximum thickness of 130 meters in the reef interior and thins toward the basin due to depositional pinch outs. Norman Wells is an oil reservoir and is currently under a 5-spot water injection scheme for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). EOR strategies require a detailed understanding of how reservoir flow units, flow barriers and flow baffles are distributed to optimize hydrocarbon sweep and recovery and to minimize water handling. Reservoir models are routinely used by industry to characterize the 3-D distribution of reservoir architecture (stratigraphic layers, depositional facies, faults) and rock properties (porosity. permeability). Reservoir models are validated by matching historical performance data (e.g., reservoir pressures, well production or injection rates). Geologic models are adjusted until they produce a history match, and model adjustments are focused on inputs that have the greatest geologic uncertainty. Flow simulation models are then used to optimize field development strategies and to forecast field performance under different development scenarios. (author)

  8. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  9. Integrated workflow for characterizing and modeling fracture network in unconventional reservoirs using microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, Tayeb

    We develop a new method for integrating information and data from different sources. We also construct a comprehensive workflow for characterizing and modeling a fracture network in unconventional reservoirs, using microseismic data. The methodology is based on combination of several mathematical and artificial intelligent techniques, including geostatistics, fractal analysis, fuzzy logic, and neural networks. The study contributes to scholarly knowledge base on the characterization and modeling fractured reservoirs in several ways; including a versatile workflow with a novel objective functions. Some the characteristics of the methods are listed below: 1. The new method is an effective fracture characterization procedure estimates different fracture properties. Unlike the existing methods, the new approach is not dependent on the location of events. It is able to integrate all multi-scaled and diverse fracture information from different methodologies. 2. It offers an improved procedure to create compressional and shear velocity models as a preamble for delineating anomalies and map structures of interest and to correlate velocity anomalies with fracture swarms and other reservoir properties of interest. 3. It offers an effective way to obtain the fractal dimension of microseismic events and identify the pattern complexity, connectivity, and mechanism of the created fracture network. 4. It offers an innovative method for monitoring the fracture movement in different stages of stimulation that can be used to optimize the process. 5. Our newly developed MDFN approach allows to create a discrete fracture network model using only microseismic data with potential cost reduction. It also imposes fractal dimension as a constraint on other fracture modeling approaches, which increases the visual similarity between the modeled networks and the real network over the simulated volume.

  10. Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling to assess water exchange in a data-scarce reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binbin; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhonggen; Liu, Changming; Ma, Jianming

    2017-12-01

    Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling is useful in evaluating hydrodynamic characteristics (e.g. water exchange processes) in data-scarce water bodies, however, most studies lack verification of the hydrologic model. Here, water exchange (represented by water age) was investigated through integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of the Hongfeng Reservoir, a poorly gauged reservoir in southwest China. The performance of the hydrologic model and parameter replacement among sub-basins with hydrological similarity was verified by historical data. Results showed that hydrological similarity based on the hierarchical cluster analysis and topographic index probability density distribution was reliable with satisfactory performance of parameter replacement. The hydrodynamic model was verified using daily water levels and water temperatures from 2009 and 2010. The water exchange processes in the Hongfeng Reservoir are very complex with temporal, vertical, and spatial variations. The temporal water age was primarily controlled by the variable inflow and outflow, and the maximum and minimum ages for the site near the dam were 406.10 d (15th June) and 90.74 d (3rd August), respectively, in 2010. Distinct vertical differences in water age showed that surface flow, interflow, and underflow appeared alternately, depending on the season and water depth. The worst water exchange situation was found in the central areas of the North Lake with the highest water ages in the bottom on both 15th June and 3rd August, in 2010. Comparison of the spatial water ages revealed that the more favorable hydraulic conditions on 3rd August mainly improved the water exchange in the dam areas and most areas of the South Lake, but had little effect on the bottom layers of the other deepest areas in the South and North Lakes. The presented framework can be applied in other data-scarce waterbodies worldwide to provide better understanding of water exchange processes.

  11. Integrated petrophysical and reservoir characterization workflow to enhance permeability and water saturation prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, Meshal; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Elkatatny, Salaheldin; Al-Yousef, Hasan; Al-Ghamdi, Tariq

    2017-07-01

    Accurate estimation of permeability is essential in reservoir characterization and in determining fluid flow in porous media which greatly assists optimize the production of a field. Some of the permeability prediction techniques such as Porosity-Permeability transforms and recently artificial intelligence and neural networks are encouraging but still show moderate to good match to core data. This could be due to limitation to homogenous media while the knowledge about geology and heterogeneity is indirectly related or absent. The use of geological information from core description as in Lithofacies which includes digenetic information show a link to permeability when categorized into rock types exposed to similar depositional environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a robust combined workflow integrating geology and petrophysics and wireline logs in an extremely heterogeneous carbonate reservoir to accurately predict permeability. Permeability prediction is carried out using pattern recognition algorithm called multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC). We will bench mark the prediction results with hard data from core and well test analysis. As a result, we showed how much better improvements are achieved in the permeability prediction when geology is integrated within the analysis. Finally, we use the predicted permeability as an input parameter in J-function and correct for uncertainties in saturation calculation produced by wireline logs using the classical Archie equation. Eventually, high level of confidence in hydrocarbon volumes estimation is reached when robust permeability and saturation height functions are estimated in presence of important geological details that are petrophysically meaningful.

  12. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neural reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  13. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  14. Efficient Operation of a Multi-purpose Reservoir in Chile: Integration of Economic Water Value for Irrigation and Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M. A.; Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Moreno, R.

    2016-12-01

    Operation of hydropower reservoirs in Chile is prescribed by an Independent Power System Operator. This study proposes a methodology that integrates power grid operations planning with basin-scale multi-use reservoir operations planning. The aim is to efficiently manage a multi-purpose reservoir, in which hydroelectric generation is competing with other water uses, most notably irrigation. Hydropower and irrigation are competing water uses due to a seasonality mismatch. Currently, the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs with substantial power capacity is prescribed as the result of a grid-wide cost-minimization model which takes irrigation requirements as constraints. We propose advancing in the economic co-optimization of reservoir water use for irrigation and hydropower at the basin level, by explicitly introducing the economic value of water for irrigation represented by a demand function for irrigation water. The proposed methodology uses the solution of a long-term grid-wide operations planning model, a stochastic dual dynamic program (SDDP), to obtain the marginal benefit function for water use in hydropower. This marginal benefit corresponds to the energy price in the power grid as a function of the water availability in the reservoir and the hydrologic scenarios. This function allows capture technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoir in the power grid and is generated with the dual variable of the power-balance constraint, the optimal reservoir operation and the hydrologic scenarios used in SDDP. The economic value of water for irrigation and hydropower are then integrated into a basin scale stochastic dynamic program, from which stored water value functions are derived. These value functions are then used to re-optimize reservoir operations under several inflow scenarios.

  15. Integrated Sedimentological Approach to Assess Reservoir Quality and Architecture of Khuff Carbonates: Outcrop Analog, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mutsim; Abdullatif, Osman

    2017-04-01

    The Permian to Triassic Khuff carbonate reservoirs (and equivalents) in the Middle East are estimated to contain about 38.4% of the world's natural gas reserves. Excellent exposed outcrops in central Saudi Arabia provide good outcrop equivalents to subsurface Khuff reservoirs. This study conduct high resolution outcrop scale investigations on an analog reservoir for upper Khartam of Khuff Formation. The main objective is to reconstruct litho- and chemo- stratigraphic outcrop analog model that may serve to characterize reservoir high resolution (interwell) heterogeneity, continuity and architecture. Given the fact of the limitation of subsurface data and toolsin capturing interwell reservoir heterogeneity, which in turn increases the value of this study.The methods applied integrate sedimentological, stratigraphic petrographic, petrophysical data and chemical analyses for major, trace and rare earth elements. In addition, laser scanning survey (LIDAR) was also utilized in this study. The results of the stratigraphic investigations revealed that the lithofacies range from mudstone, wackestone, packestone and grainstone. These lithofacies represent environments ranging from supratidal, intertidal, subtidal and shoal complex. Several meter-scale and less high resolution sequences and composite sequences within 4th and 5th order cycles were also recognized in the outcrop analog. The lithofacies and architectural analysis revealed several vertically and laterally stacked sequences at the outcrop as revealed from the stratigraphic sections and the lidar scan. Chemostratigraphy is effective in identifying lithofacies and sequences within the outcrop analog. Moreover, different chemical signatures were also recognized and allowed establishing and correlating high resolution lithofacies, reservoir zones, layers and surfaces bounding reservoirs and non-reservoir zones at scale of meters or less. The results of this high resolution outcrop analog study might help to understand

  16. Integrating sequence stratigraphy and rock-physics to interpret seismic amplitudes and predict reservoir quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanima

    This dissertation focuses on the link between seismic amplitudes and reservoir properties. Prediction of reservoir properties, such as sorting, sand/shale ratio, and cement-volume from seismic amplitudes improves by integrating knowledge from multiple disciplines. The key contribution of this dissertation is to improve the prediction of reservoir properties by integrating sequence stratigraphy and rock physics. Sequence stratigraphy has been successfully used for qualitative interpretation of seismic amplitudes to predict reservoir properties. Rock physics modeling allows quantitative interpretation of seismic amplitudes. However, often there is uncertainty about selecting geologically appropriate rock physics model and its input parameters, away from the wells. In the present dissertation, we exploit the predictive power of sequence stratigraphy to extract the spatial trends of sedimentological parameters that control seismic amplitudes. These spatial trends of sedimentological parameters can serve as valuable constraints in rock physics modeling, especially away from the wells. Consequently, rock physics modeling, integrated with the trends from sequence stratigraphy, become useful for interpreting observed seismic amplitudes away from the wells in terms of underlying sedimentological parameters. We illustrate this methodology using a comprehensive dataset from channelized turbidite systems, deposited in minibasin settings in the offshore Equatorial Guinea, West Africa. First, we present a practical recipe for using closed-form expressions of effective medium models to predict seismic velocities in unconsolidated sandstones. We use an effective medium model that combines perfectly rough and smooth grains (the extended Walton model), and use that model to derive coordination number, porosity, and pressure relations for P and S wave velocities from experimental data. Our recipe provides reasonable fits to other experimental and borehole data, and specifically

  17. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Posidonia Shale outcrop analogue: From serendipity to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  18. Mapping of Reservoir Properties and Facies Through Integration of Static and Dynamic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Albert C.; Oliver, Dean S.; Zhang, Fengjun; Dong, Yannong; Skjervheim, Jan Arild; Liu, Ning

    2003-03-10

    The goal of this project was to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem was necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management.

  19. Mapping of Reservoir Properties and Facies Through Integration of Static and Dynamic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Dean S.; Reynolds, Albert C.; Zhang, Fengjun; Li, Ruijian; Abacioglu, Yafes; Dong, Yannong

    2002-03-05

    The goal of this project was to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem is necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management.

  20. Integrated 3D Reservoir/Fault Property Modelling Aided Well Planning and Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery in a Niger Delta Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyeagoro, U. O.; Ebong, U. E.; Nworie, E. A.

    2002-01-01

    The large and varied portfolio of assets managed by oil companies requires quick decision-making and the deployment of best in class technologies in asset management. Timely decision making and the application of the best technologies in reservoir management are however sometimes in conflict due to large time requirements of the latter.Optimizing the location of development wells is critical to account for variable fluid contact movements and pressure interference effects between wells, which can be significant because of the high permeability (Darcy range) of Niger Delta reservoirs. With relatively high drilling costs, the optimization of well locations necessitates a good realistic static and dynamic 3D reservoir description, especially in the recovery of remaining oil and oil rim type of reservoirs.A detailed 3D reservoir model with fault properties was constructed for a Niger delta producing field. This involved the integration of high quality 3D seismic, core, petrophysics, reservoir engineering, production and structural geology data to construct a realistic 3D reservoir/fault property model for the field. The key parameters considered during the construction of the internal architecture of the model were the vertical and horizontal reservoir heterogeneities-this controls the fluid flow within the reservoir. In the production realm, the fault thickness and fault permeabilities are factors that control the impedance of fluid flow across the fault-fault transmissibility. These key internal and external reservoir/structural variables were explicitly modeled in a 3D modeling software to produce different realizations and manage the uncertainties.The resulting 3D reservoir/fault property model was upscaled for simulation purpose such that grid blocks along the fault planes have realistic transmissibility multipliers of 0 to 1 attached to them. The model was also used in the well planner to optimize the positioning of a high angle deviated well that penetrated

  1. Integrated method to optimize well connection and platform placement on a multi-reservoir scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Sergio Henrique Guerra de; Madeira, Marcelo Gomes; Franca, Martha Salles [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mota, Rosane Oliveira; Silva, Edilon Ribeiro da; King, Vanessa Pereira Spear [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a workflow created to optimize the platform placement and well-platform connections on a multi reservoir scenario using an integrated reservoir simulator paired with an optimization engine. The proposed methodology describes how a new platform, being incorporated into a pre-existing asset, can be better used to develop newly-discovered fields, while helping increase the production of existing fields by sharing their production load. The sharing of production facilities is highly important in Brazilian offshore assets because of their high price (a few billion dollars per facility) and the fact that total production is usually limited to the installed capacity of liquid processing, which is an important constraint on high water-cut well production rates typical to this region. The case study asset used to present the workflow consists of two deep water oil fields, each one developed by its own production platform, and a newly-discovered field with strong aquifer support that will be entirely developed with a new production platform. Because this new field should not include injector wells owing to the strong aquifer presence, the idea is to consider reconnecting existing wells from the two pre-existing fields to better use the production resources. In this scenario, the platform location is an important optimization issue, as a balance between supporting the production of the planned wells on the new field and the production of re-routed wells from the existing fields must be reached to achieve improved overall asset production. If the new platform is too far away from any interconnected production well, pressure-drop issues along the pipeline might actually decrease production from the existing fields rather than augment it. The main contribution of this work is giving the reader insights on how to model and optimize these complex decisions to generate high-quality scenarios. (author)

  2. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

    2001-05-03

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

  3. Integrated reservoir assessment and characterization: Final report, October 1, 1985--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honarpour, M.; Szpakiewicz, M.; Sharma, B.; Chang, Ming-Ming; Schatzinger, R.; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L.; Maerefat, N.

    1989-05-01

    This report covers the development of a generic approach to reservoir characterization, the preliminary studies leading to the selection of an appropriate depositional system for detailed study, the application of outcrop studies to quantified reservoir characterization, and the construction of a quantified geological/engineering model used to screen the effects and scales of various geological heterogeneities within a reservoir. These heterogeneities result in large production/residual oil saturation contrasts over small distances. 36 refs., 124 figs., 38 tabs.

  4. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  5. Carbon Sequestration in a Large Hydroelectric Reservoir: An Integrative Seismic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendonca, R.; Kosten, S.; Sobek, S.; Cole, J.J.; Bastos, A.C.; Albuquerque, A.L.; Cardoso, S.J.; Roland, F.

    2014-01-01

    Artificial reservoirs likely accumulate more carbon than natural lakes due to their unusually high sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, the actual magnitude of carbon accumulating in reservoirs is poorly known due to a lack of whole-system studies of carbon burial. We determined the organic carbon

  6. Reservoir Modeling by Data Integration via Intermediate Spaces and Artificial Intelligence Tools in MPS Simulation Frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Rouhollah; Khamehchi, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Conditioning stochastic simulations are very important in many geostatistical applications that call for the introduction of nonlinear and multiple-point data in reservoir modeling. Here, a new methodology is proposed for the incorporation of different data types into multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation frameworks. Unlike the previous techniques that call for an approximate forward model (filter) for integration of secondary data into geologically constructed models, the proposed approach develops an intermediate space where all the primary and secondary data are easily mapped onto. Definition of the intermediate space, as may be achieved via application of artificial intelligence tools like neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, eliminates the need for using filters as in previous techniques. The applicability of the proposed approach in conditioning MPS simulations to static and geologic data is verified by modeling a real example of discrete fracture networks using conventional well-log data. The training patterns are well reproduced in the realizations, while the model is also consistent with the map of secondary data

  7. Reservoir Modeling by Data Integration via Intermediate Spaces and Artificial Intelligence Tools in MPS Simulation Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Rouhollah, E-mail: rouhollahahmadi@yahoo.com [Amirkabir University of Technology, PhD Student at Reservoir Engineering, Department of Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khamehchi, Ehsan [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Conditioning stochastic simulations are very important in many geostatistical applications that call for the introduction of nonlinear and multiple-point data in reservoir modeling. Here, a new methodology is proposed for the incorporation of different data types into multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation frameworks. Unlike the previous techniques that call for an approximate forward model (filter) for integration of secondary data into geologically constructed models, the proposed approach develops an intermediate space where all the primary and secondary data are easily mapped onto. Definition of the intermediate space, as may be achieved via application of artificial intelligence tools like neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, eliminates the need for using filters as in previous techniques. The applicability of the proposed approach in conditioning MPS simulations to static and geologic data is verified by modeling a real example of discrete fracture networks using conventional well-log data. The training patterns are well reproduced in the realizations, while the model is also consistent with the map of secondary data.

  8. Improved prediction of reservoir behavior through integration of quantitative geological and petrophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auman, J. B.; Davies, D. K.; Vessell, R. K.

    1997-08-01

    Methodology that promises improved reservoir characterization and prediction of permeability, production and injection behavior during primary and enhanced recovery operations was demonstrated. The method is based on identifying intervals of unique pore geometry by a combination of image analysis techniques and traditional petrophysical measurements to calculate rock type and estimate permeability and saturation. Results from a complex carbonate and sandstone reservoir were presented as illustrative examples of the versatility and high level of accuracy of this method in predicting reservoir quality. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs.

  9. Integration of advanced geoscience and engineering techniques to quantify interwell heterogeneity in reservoir models. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W.W.; Buckley, J.S.; Ouenes, A.

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this three-year project was to provide a quantitative definition of reservoir heterogeneity. This objective was accomplished through the integration of geologic, geophysical, and engineering databases into a multi-disciplinary understanding of reservoir architecture and associated fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. This interdisciplinary effort integrated geological and geophysical data with engineering and petrophysical results through reservoir simulation to quantify reservoir architecture and the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. An improved reservoir description allows greater accuracy and confidence during simulation and modeling as steps toward gaining greater recovery efficiency from existing reservoirs. A field laboratory, the Sulimar Queen Unit, was available for the field research. Several members of the PRRC staff participated in the development of improved reservoir description by integration of the field and laboratory data as well as in the development of quantitative reservoir models to aid performance predictions. Subcontractors from Stanford University and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) collaborated in the research and participated in the design and interpretation of field tests. The three-year project was initiated in September 1993 and led to the development and application of various reservoir description methodologies. A new approach for visualizing production data graphically was developed and implemented on the Internet. Using production data and old gamma rays logs, a black oil reservoir model that honors both primary and secondary performance was developed. The old gamma ray logs were used after applying a resealing technique, which was crucial for the success of the project. In addition to the gamma ray logs, the development of the reservoir model benefitted from an inverse Drill Stem Test (DST) technique which provided initial estimates of the reservoir permeability at different wells.

  10. Cold fronts and reservoir limnology: an integrated approach towards the ecological dynamics of freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Pereira, K C; Luzia, A P; Passerini, M D; Chiba, W A C; Morais, M A; Sebastien, N Y

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the effects of cold fronts on the dynamics of freshwater ecosystems of southeast South America. Cold fronts originating from the Antarctic show a monthly frequency that promotes turbulence and vertical mixing in reservoirs with a consequence to homogenize nutrient distribution, dissolved oxygen and temperature. Weak thermoclines and the athelomixis process immediately before, during and after the passage of cold fronts interfere with phytoplankton succession in reservoirs. Cyanobacteria blooms in eutrophic reservoirs are frequently connected with periods of stratification and stability of the water column. Cold fronts in the Amazon and Pantanal lakes may produce fish killings during the process of "friagem" associated mixing events. Further studies will try to implement a model to predict the impact of cold fronts and prepare management procedures in order to cope with cyanobacteria blooms during warm and stable water column periods. Changes in water quality of reservoirs are expected during circulation periods caused by cold fronts.

  11. Cold fronts and reservoir limnology: an integrated approach towards the ecological dynamics of freshwater ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG. Tundisi

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors discuss the effects of cold fronts on the dynamics of freshwater ecosystems of southeast South America. Cold fronts originating from the Antarctic show a monthly frequency that promotes turbulence and vertical mixing in reservoirs with a consequence to homogenize nutrient distribution, dissolved oxygen and temperature. Weak thermoclines and the athelomixis process immediately before, during and after the passage of cold fronts interfere with phytoplankton succession in reservoirs. Cyanobacteria blooms in eutrophic reservoirs are frequently connected with periods of stratification and stability of the water column. Cold fronts in the Amazon and Pantanal lakes may produce fish killings during the process of "friagem" associated mixing events. Further studies will try to implement a model to predict the impact of cold fronts and prepare management procedures in order to cope with cyanobacteria blooms during warm and stable water column periods. Changes in water quality of reservoirs are expected during circulation periods caused by cold fronts.

  12. Controlling Eutrophication in A Mediterranean Shallow Reservoir by Phosphorus Loading Reduction: The Need for an Integrated Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragüeta, Mikel; Acebes, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Increased nutrient enrichment in Mediterranean standing waters has enhanced the risk of being affected by cyanobacterial blooms. Because phosphorus abatement is shaped as a crucial strategy for controlling eutrophication, this study introduces a structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation dynamic model elaborated for Cazalegas Reservoir (Spain) to assess the feasibility of implementing a set of internal and external control measures and hydromorphological adjustments to meet the goal of oligotrophication. This shallow reservoir is another case where recurrent eutrophication has led to reach annual mean total phosphorus concentrations (0.16 ± 0.08 mg total phosphorus/L) over the threshold of current water policies, triggering cyanobacterial growth up to undesirable levels in summer time (approximately 50,000 cells/mL). Modeling results showed that (i) after upgrading water treatment in the main tributary, (ii) applying a lanthanum-modified bentonite into the water column and sediment, and (iii) increasing reservoir water level, in-lake P concentrations and cyanobacterial abundance decreased in an 88% (below 0.01 mg total phosphorus/L) and 84% (below 6000 cells/mL), respectively in the most critical periods. However, the constraints of the proposed management strategies are associated with their costs of implementation and the time span for a stable trophic recovery of the reservoir. In that end, integrated management approaches are aimed to be adopted by water managers to reach adequate ecological status of freshwater bodies.

  13. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  14. Integrated petrophysical approach for determining reserves and reservoir characterization to optimize production of oil sands in northeastern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.; Koch, J. [Weatherford Canada Partnership, Bonneyville, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This study used logging data, borehole imaging data, dipole sonic and magnetic resonance data to study a set of 6 wells in the McMurray Formation of northeastern Alberta. The data sets were used to understand the geologic settings, fluid properties, and rock properties of the area's geology as well as to more accurately estimate its reservoir and production potential. The study also incorporated data from electric, nuclear and acoustic measurements. A shaly sand analysis was used to provide key reservoir petrophysical data. Image data in the study was used to characterize the heterogeneity and permeability of the reservoir in order to optimize production. Results of the shaly sand analysis were then combined with core data and nuclear resonance data in order to determine permeability and lithology-independent porosity. Data sets were used to iteratively refine an integrated petrophysical analysis. Results of the analysis indicated that the depositional environment in which the wells were located did not match a typical fluvial-estuarine sands environment. A further interpretation of all data indicated that the wells were located in a shoreface environment. It was concluded that the integration of petrophysical measurements can enable geoscientists to more accurately characterize sub-surface environments. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural analysis that is carried out to evaluate the reservoir properties of Qishn sandstone as well as the entrapment style of the hydrocarbons at Sharyoof field, Sayun-Masila Basin that is located at the east central of Yemen. The reservoir rocks are dominated by clean porous and permeable sandstones zones usually intercalated with some clay stone interbeds. As identified from well logs, Qishn sandstone is classified into subunits (S1A, S1B, S1C and S2) with different reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon potentiality. A number of qualitative and quantitative well logging analyses are used to characterize the different subunits of the Qishn reservoir and identify its hydrocarbon potentiality. Dia-porosity, M-N, Pickett, Buckles plots, petrophysical analogs and lateral distribution maps are used in the analysis. Shale volume, lithology, porosity, and fluid saturation are among the most important deduced parameters. The analysis revealed that S1A and S1C are the main hydrocarbon-bearing units. More specifically, S1A unit is the best, as it attains the most prolific hydrocarbon saturations (oil saturation "SH″ up to 65) and reservoir characteristics. An average petrophysical ranges of 4-21%, 16-23%, 11-19%, 0-65%, are detected for S1A unit, regarding shale volume, total and effective porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, respectively. Meanwhile, S1B unit exhibits less reservoir characteristics (Vsh>30%, ϕEff<15% and SH< 15%). The lateral distribution maps revealed that most of the hydrocarbons (for S1A and S1C units) are indicated at the middle of the study area as NE-SW oriented closures. The analysis and interpretation of seismic data had clarified that the structure of study area is represented by a big middle horst bounded by a group of step-like normal faults at the extreme boundaries (faulted anticlinal-structure). In conclusion, the entrapment of the encountered hydrocarbon at Sharyoof oil

  16. The relationship between age, rotator cuff integrity, and osseous microarchitecture of greater tuberosity: Where should we put anchor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholinne, Erica; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Sung Jung; Park, So Hyun; Jeon, In-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microarchitecture of the greater tuberosity with or without rotator cuff tear and to obtain optimum location for anchor screw insertion for rotator cuff repair. Twenty-five humeral heads were harvested from 13 male cadavers of mean age 58.4 years, including 6 humeri with rotator cuff tear and 19 intact humeri. Six regions of interest (proximal, intermediate, and distal zones of the superficial and deep regions) were divided into the anterior (G1), middle (G2), and posterior (G3) areas of the greater tuberosity. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were evaluated. Total trabecular bone volume was greater in subjects 50 years old but did not differ significantly in subjects with and without rotator cuff tear. Cortical thickness in both intact and torn rotator cuff groups was significantly greater in the proximal and intermediate zones than in the distal zone. Cortical thickness was related to anatomic location rather than age or cuff tear. The optimal location for anchor screw insertion during rotator cuff repair is either the proximal or intermediate region of the greater tuberosity. Age has more influence in terms of trabecular bone volume loss than rotator cuff integrity. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A new approach to integrate seismic and production data in reservoir models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouenes, A.; Chawathe, A.; Weiss, W. [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A great deal of effort is devoted to reducing the uncertainties in reservoir modeling. For example, seismic properties are used to improve the characterization of interwell properties by providing porosity maps constrained to seismic impedance. Another means to reduce uncertainties is to constrain the reservoir model to production data. This paper describes a new approach where the production and seismic data are simultaneously used to reduce the uncertainties. In this new approach, the primary geologic parameter that controls reservoir properties is identified. Next, the geophysical parameter that is sensitive to the dominant geologic parameter is determined. Then the geology and geophysics are linked using analytic correlations. Unfortunately, the initial guess resulted in a reservoir model that did not match the production history. Since the time required for trial and error matching of production history is exorbitant, an automatic history matching method based on a fast optimization method was used to find the correlating parameters. This new approach was illustrated with an actual field in the Williston Basin. Upscalling problems do not arise since the scale is imposed by the size of the seismic bin (66m, 219 ft) which is the size of the simulator gridblocks.

  18. 4D seismic reservoir characterization, integrated with geo-mechanical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelov, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production induces time-lapse changes in the seismic attributes (travel time and amplitude) both at the level of the producing reservoir and in the surrounding rock. The detected time-lapse changes in the seismic are induced from the changes in the petrophysical properties of the rock,

  19. An integratedReservoir-Plant” strategy for a sustainable and efficient use of geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Vaccaro, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach for the design of geothermal power plants for water dominant resources is here proposed. The importance of a strategic approach is underlined, considering all the connections between the analysis of the geothermal potential of the reservoir (geophysical exploration and geochemical analysis) with the design of the plant based on thermodynamic and energy considerations, mainly regarding ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles) power plants. This multidisciplinary approach is fundamental for the objective of a sustainable exploitation of medium to low enthalpy sources. The aim of this study is to propose the optimization and management of the global system “reservoir-power plant” as the task of geothermal projects. This approach can be pursued only in a multidisciplinary perspective in which both Engineering and Geological aspects are involved. Numerical simulation appears to be an essential interacting step. After analyzing the problems caused by an incorrect characterization of geothermal source, reinjection temperature and strategy, a method for the numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs long-term behavior/capacity is discussed. This could be the key instrument to synthesize the strategy inputs. A numerical modeling is performed, using as reference data the history matching of a well known and completely analyzed geothermal field. -- Highlights: ► Design of Binary plants based on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). ► A multidisciplinary approach for the design of geothermal power plants is proposed. ► Optimization of global system Reservoir-Plant is the aim of a geothermal project. ► Numerical simulation is strategic for the design of a geothermal ORC power plant. ► A numerical model of a geothermal reservoir has been realized and simulated.

  20. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  1. Integrated Modeling and Carbonate Reservoir Analysis, Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation, Fishpond Field, Southwest Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Alexander Emory

    This field case study focuses on Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover hydrocarbon reservoir characterization, modeling and evaluation at Fishpond Field, Escambia County, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of North America. The field is located in the Conecuh Embayment area, south of the Little Cedar Creek Field in Conecuh County and east of Appleton Field in Escambia County. In the Conecuh Embayment, Smackover microbial buildups commonly developed on Paleozoic basement paleohighs in an inner to middle carbonate ramp setting. The microbial and associated facies identified in Fishpond Field are: (F-1) peloidal wackestone, (F-2) peloidal packstone, (F-3) peloidal grainstone, (F-4) peloidal grainstone/packstone, (F-5) microbially-influenced wackestone, (F-6) microbially-influenced packstone, (F-7) microbial boundstone, (F-8) oolitic grainstone, (F-9) shale, and (F-10) dolomitized wackestone/packstone. The Smackover section consists of an alternation of carbonate facies, including F-1 through F-8. The repetitive vertical trend in facies indicates variations in depositional conditions in the area as a result of changes in water depth, energy conditions, salinity, and/or water chemistry due to temporal variations or changes in relative sea level. Accommodation for sediment accumulation also was produced by a change in base level due to differential movement of basement rocks as a result of faulting and/or subsidence due to burial compaction and extension. These changes in base level contributed to the development of a microbial buildup that ranges between 130-165 ft in thickness. The Fishpond Field carbonate reservoir includes a lower microbial buildup interval, a middle grainstone/packstone interval and an upper microbial buildup interval. The Fishpond Field has sedimentary and petroleum system characteristics similar to the neighboring Appleton and Little Cedar Creek Fields, but also has distinct differences from these Smackover fields. The characteristics of the

  2. Know thy reservoir : multi-disciplinary shale gas solution integrates cased hole evaluation interpretation and stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2009-11-15

    This article discussed Schlumberger's efforts in making shale gas a priority. Shale gas plays require maximum reservoir exposure to be economic. The exploitation of shale gas has been solved through the use of long horizontal wells that are fractured in multiple zones along their length. Companies have invested heavily into research to find increasingly novel ways to reduce costs and extract more molecules of gas from the ultra-low permeability rock. The tools and techniques that Schlumberger has developed for well stimulation and completion were described. Schlumberger was extremely focused on improving its ability to understand the Horn River reservoir and improve completion practices. Openhole logging was discussed as an option. Schlumberger in conjunction with its in-house data and consulting services group, also devised a method to log a lateral well after it had been cased, cemented, and the rig had been released. It was concluded that using such instruments as spectroscopy logging, epithermal neutron porosity logging and multidimensional shear sonic logging tools, Schlumberger could provide all the necessary measurements post-casing. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Application of Nemerow Index Method and Integrated Water Quality Index Method in Water Quality Assessment of Zhangze Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Feng, Minquan; Hao, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-01

    [Objective] Based on the water quality historical data from the Zhangze Reservoir from the last five years, the water quality was assessed by the integrated water quality identification index method and the Nemerow pollution index method. The results of different evaluation methods were analyzed and compared and the characteristics of each method were identified.[Methods] The suitability of the water quality assessment methods were compared and analyzed, based on these results.[Results] the water quality tended to decrease over time with 2016 being the year with the worst water quality. The sections with the worst water quality were the southern and northern sections.[Conclusion] The results produced by the traditional Nemerow index method fluctuated greatly in each section of water quality monitoring and therefore could not effectively reveal the trend of water quality at each section. The combination of qualitative and quantitative measures of the comprehensive pollution index identification method meant it could evaluate the degree of water pollution as well as determine that the river water was black and odorous. However, the evaluation results showed that the water pollution was relatively low.The results from the improved Nemerow index evaluation were better as the single indicators and evaluation results are in strong agreement; therefore the method is able to objectively reflect the water quality of each water quality monitoring section and is more suitable for the water quality evaluation of the reservoir.

  4. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-12-31

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have investigated the relative merits of the traditional history matching ('amplitude inversion') and a novel travel time inversion in terms of robustness of the method and convergence behavior of the solution. We show that the traditional amplitude inversion is orders of magnitude more non-linear and the solution here is likely to get trapped in local minimum, leading to inadequate history match. The proposed travel time inversion is shown to be extremely efficient and robust for practical field applications. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects

  5. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  6. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  7. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could

  8. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  9. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  10. Well Integrity for Natural Gas Storage in Depleted Reservoirs and Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perfect, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morris, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bauer, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bromhal, Grant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Glosser, Deborah [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Wyatt, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The 2015-2016 Aliso Canyon/Porter Ranch natural gas well blowout emitted approximately 100,000 tonnes of natural gas (mostly methane, CH4) over four months. The blowout impacted thousands of nearby residents, who were displaced from their homes. The high visibility of the event has led to increased scrutiny of the safety of natural gas storage at the Aliso Canyon facility, as well as broader concern for natural gas storage integrity throughout the country. This report presents the findings of the DOE National Laboratories Well Integrity Work Group efforts in the four tasks. In addition to documenting the work of the Work Group, this report presents high priority recommendations to improve well integrity and reduce the likelihood and consequences of subsurface natural gas leaks.

  11. Efficient integration of stiff kinetics with phase change detection for reactive reservoir processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Gerritsen, Margot G.; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2007-01-01

    We propose the use of implicit one-step Explicit Singly Diagonal Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) methods for integration of the stiff kinetics in reactive, compositional and thermal processes that are solved using operator-splitting type approaches. To facilitate the algorithmic development we...

  12. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  13. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and south Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Reeves, J.J.

    1996-06-17

    The principal objective of this research is to demonstrate in the field that 3D seismic data can be used to aid in identifying porosity zones, permeability barriers and thief zones and thereby improve waterflood design. Geologic and engineering data will be integrated with the geophysical data to result in a detailed reservoir characterization. Reservoir simulation will then be used to determine infill drilling potential and the optimum waterflood design for the project area. This design will be implemented and the success of the waterflood evaluated.

  14. Constructing development and integrated coastal zone management in the conditions of the landslide slopes of Cheboksary water reservoir (Volga River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonorova, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Uncontrolled construction and insufficient accounting of engineering-geological and hydro-geological conditions of the coastal zone, intensified technogenic impact on sloping surfaces and active urbanization led to the emergence of serious problems and emergency situations on the coasts of many Volga reservoirs, including the Cheboksary reservoir, within Cheboksary urban district and adjacent territories of Chuvashia. This article is devoted to substantiation of the possibility of rational construction development of landslide slopes of the Cheboksary water reservoir.

  15. Well Integrity for Natural Gas Storage in Depleted Reservoirs and Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perfect, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morris, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bauer, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bromhal, Grant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Glosser, Deborah [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Wyatt, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Introduction Motivation The 2015-2016 Aliso Canyon/Porter Ranch natural gas well blowout emitted approximately 100,000 tonnes of natural gas (mostly methane, CH4) over four months. The blowout impacted thousands of nearby residents, who were displaced from their homes. The high visibility of the event has led to increased scrutiny of the safety of natural gas storage at the Aliso Canyon facility, as well as broader concern for natural gas storage integrity throughout the country. Federal Review of Well Integrity In April of 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) through the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), announced the formation of a new Interagency Task Force on Natural Gas Storage Safety. The Task Force enlisted a group of scientists and engineers at the DOE National Laboratories to review the state of well integrity in natural gas storage in the U.S. The overarching objective of the review is to gather, analyze, catalogue, and disseminate information and findings that can lead to improved natural gas storage safety and security and thus reduce the risk of future events. The “Protecting our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety Act of 2016’’ or the ‘‘PIPES Act of 2016,’’which was signed into law on June 22, 2016, created an Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak Task Force led by the Secretary of Energy and consisting of representatives from the DOT, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Health and Human Services, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Department of Commerce and the Department of Interior. The Task Force was asked to perform an analysis of the Aliso Canyon event and make recommendations on preventing similar incidents in the future. The PIPES Act also required that DOT/PHMSA promulgate minimum safety standards for underground storage that would take effect within two years. Background on the DOE

  16. Application of integrated petroleum reservoir study for intervention and field development program in western onshore field, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Kumar Baskaran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an integrated reservoir study is performed in the J#Field (J-Oil Field of western onshore, India to evaluate its additional reserves expectations and implement field developments plan using waterflood pilot program. The target strata includes two formations of Paleogene, which is about 3600 ft, namely G#Fm (G-Formation of the Eocene and T#Fm (T-Formation of Oligocene, subdivided into 11 zones. Based on these results, an attempt was made to construct of an optimization plan to exploit it, taking into account that the field is producing since 1947, with a cumulative production of 183.5 MMbbl and an overall recovery factor of 28% until January 2016. On the basis of the potential evaluation and geological modeling, blocks J48 and J45 were simulated, and the remaining oil distribution characteristics in two blocks were studied after history match. The work includes the stratigraphic studies, seismic study, logging interpretation, sedimentary facies modeling, three dimensional geological modeling, simulations for waterflooding, and future field development plans.

  17. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an efficient trajectory-based approach to integrate transient pressure data into high-resolution reservoir and aquifer models. The method involves alternating travel time and peak amplitude matching of pressure response using inverse modeling and is particularly well-suited for high resolution subsurface characterization using hydraulic tomography or pressure interference tests. Compared to travel time inversion only, our proposed approach results in a significantly improved match of the pressure response at the wells and also better estimates of subsurface properties. This is accomplished with very little increase in computational cost. Utilizing the concept of a ''diffusive'' time of flight derived from an asymptotic solution of the diffusivity equation, we develop analytical approaches to estimate the sensitivities for travel time and peak amplitude of pressure response to subsurface properties. The sensitivities are then used in an iterative least-squared minimization to match the pressure data. We illustrate our approach using synthetic and field examples. In the field application at a fractured limestone formation, the predominant fracture patterns emerging from the inversion are shown to be consistent with independent geophysical experiments and borehole data

  18. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico, Semi-Annual; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, Stephen C.; Jennings, James W.; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Outcrop studies include stratigraphic and petrophysical analysis. Analysis of the detailed sequence- and cycle-scale architecture of the Clear Fork reservoir-equivalent outcrops in Apache Canyon is nearly complete. This work reveals two high-frequency transgressive-regressive sequences (HFS) in the lower Clear Fork composite depositional sequence and three HFS in the basal middle Clear Fork composite depositional sequence. A 1,800-ft transect of 1-inch-diameter samples was collected from one cycle at the Apache Canyon outcrop. The transect was sampled with 5-ft spacing, but there were some gaps due to cover and cliff, resulting in 181 samples. Permeability, porosity, and grain density were measured, and the spatial statistics are being analyzed geostatistically

  19. Integrating a Typhoon Event Database with an Optimal Flood Operation Model on the Real-Time Flood Control of the Tseng-Wen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.

    2012-04-01

    Typhoons which normally bring a great amount of precipitation are the primary natural hazard in Taiwan during flooding season. Because the plentiful rainfall quantities brought by typhoons are normally stored for the usage of the next draught period, the determination of release strategies for flood operation of reservoirs which is required to simultaneously consider not only the impact of reservoir safety and the flooding damage in plain area but also for the water resource stored in the reservoir after typhoon becomes important. This study proposes a two-steps study process. First, this study develop an optimal flood operation model (OFOM) for the planning of flood control and also applies the OFOM on Tseng-wun reservoir and the downstream plain related to the reservoir. Second, integrating a typhoon event database with the OFOM mentioned above makes the proposed planning model have ability to deal with a real-time flood control problem and names as real-time flood operation model (RTFOM). Three conditions are considered in the proposed models, OFOM and RTFOM, include the safety of the reservoir itself, the reservoir storage after typhoons and the impact of flooding in the plain area. Besides, the flood operation guideline announced by government is also considered in the proposed models. The these conditions and the guideline can be formed as an optimization problem which is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) in this study. Furthermore, a distributed runoff model, kinematic-wave geomorphic instantaneous unit hydrograph (KW-GIUH), and a river flow simulation model, HEC-RAS, are used to simulate the river water level of Tseng-wun basin in the plain area and the simulated level is shown as an index of the impact of flooding. Because the simulated levels are required to re-calculate iteratively in the optimization model, applying a recursive artificial neural network (recursive ANN) instead of the HEC-RAS model can significantly reduce the computational burden of

  20. Integrating Geographical Information Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Modelling Optimum Sites for Locating Water Reservoirs. A Case Study of the Debub District in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney G. Tsiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model water reservoir site selection for a real world application in the administrative district of Debub, Eritrea. This is a region were scarcity of water is a fundamental problem. Erratic rainfall, drought and unfavourable hydro-geological characteristics exacerbates the region’s water supply. Consequently, the population of Debub is facing severe water shortages and building reservoirs has been promoted as a possible solution to meet the future demand of water supply. This was the most powerful motivation to identify candidate sites for locating water reservoirs. A number of conflicting qualitative and quantitative criteria exist for evaluating alternative sites. Decisions regarding criteria are often accompanied by ambiguities and vagueness. This makes fuzzy logic a more natural approach to this kind of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA problems. This paper proposes a combined two-stage MCDA methodology. The first stage involved utilizing the most simplistic type of data aggregation techniques known as Boolean Intersection or logical AND to identify areas restricted by environmental and hydrological constraints and therefore excluded from further study. The second stage involved integrating fuzzy logic with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to identify optimum and back-up candidate water reservoir sites in the area designated for further study.

  1. The persistence of natural CO2 accumulations over millennial timescales: Integrating noble gas and reservoir data at Bravo Dome, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, D.

    2017-12-01

    Bravo Dome, the largest CO2 reservoir in the US, is a hydrogeologically closed system that has stored a very large amount of CO2 on millennial time scales. The pre-production gas pressures in Bravo Dome indicate that the reservoir is highly under-pressured and is divided into separate pressure compartments that do not communicate hydrologically. Previous studies used the noble gas composition at Bravo Dome to constrain the amount of dissolved CO2 into the brine. This CO2 dissolution into brine plays an important role in the observed under-pressure at the reservoir. However, the dissolution rates and transport mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we are looking into reservoir pressures and noble gas composition in the northeastern section of the reservoir to constrain timescales of CO2 dissolution. We are interested in northeastern part of the reservoir because the largest amount of CO2 was dissolved into brine in this section. Also, we specifically look into the evolution of the CO2/3He and 20Ne concentration during convective CO2 dissolution at Bravo Dome. 20Ne has atmospheric origin and is initially in the brine, while 3He and CO2 have magmatic sources and were introduced with the gas. CO2/3He decreases as more CO2 dissolves into brine, due to the higher solubility of CO2 compare to that of 3He. However, 20Ne concentration in the gas increases due to exsolution of 20Ne from brine into the gas phase. We present 2D numerical simulation that demonstrate the persistence of CO2 over 1Ma and reproduce the observed reservoir pressures and noble gas compositions. Our results indicate that convection is required to produce observed changes in gas composition. But diffusion makes a significant contribution to mass transport.

  2. Integrated use of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage in two fish species to assess pollution in man-made hydroelectric reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragui, M M; Paulino, M G; Pereira, C D S; Carvalho, C S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H; Fernandes, M N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between contaminant body burden and the oxidative stress status of the gills and livers of two wild fish species in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station (HPS) reservoir (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Gills and livers presented similar pathways of metals and organochlorine bioaccumulation. During June, organochlorines were associated with lipid peroxidation (LPO), indicating oxidative stress due to the inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In the most polluted areas, metal concentrations in the liver were associated with metallothionein. During December, contaminants in the gills and liver were associated with catalase activity and LPO. Aldrin/dieldrin was the contaminant most associated with oxidative damage in the livers of both species. This integrated approach shed light on the relationship between adverse biological effects and bioaccumulation of contaminants inputted by intensive agricultural practices and proved to be a suitable tool for assessing the environmental quality of man-made reservoirs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Legal study on water environmental protection of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG He

    2007-01-01

    Water environment security of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area has become a more extensive concern since the impoundment of the reservoir. This paper describes the existing water environmental hazards and defects in current legal system for water environmental protection in this area, and also discusses their possible causes and potential problems in the future based on first hand materials and other literature. According to the theories of integrated river basin management and environmental equity principle, legal proposals are put forward, which include building an unitary legal system dedicated to the Reservoir Area, setting up a basin authority of the Yangtze River to preside over the resources protection and development, using interests' compensation system to solve interest conflicts among different reaches, and making concrete regulations to direct public participation in water environmental security protection of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  4. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU

  5. Integrated interpretation of AE clusters and fracture system in Hijiori HDR artificial reservoir; Hijiori koon gantai jinko choryuso no AE cluster to kiretsu system ni kansuru togoteki kaishaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, K [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    With regard to a fracture system in the Hijiori hot dry rock artificial reservoir, an attempt was made on an interpretation which integrates different data. Major factors that characterize development and performance of an artificial reservoir are composed of a fracture system in rocks, which acts as circulating water paths, a heat exchange face and a reservoir space. The system relates not only with crack density distribution, but also with cracks activated by water pressure fracturing, cracks generating acoustic emission (AE), and cracks working as major flow paths, all of which are characterized by having respective behaviors and roles. Characteristics are shown on AE cluster distribution, crack distribution, production zone and estimated stress fields. Mutual relationship among these elements was discussed based on the Coulomb`s theory. The most important paths are characterized by distribution of slippery cracks. Directions and appearance frequencies of the slippery cracks affect strongly directionality of the paths, which are governed by distribution of the cracks (weak face) and stress field. Among the slippery cracks, cracks that generate AE are cracks that release large energy when a slip occurs. Evaluation on slippery crack distribution is important. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie's parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  7. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  8. Putting Integrated Systems Health Management Capabilities to Work: Development of an Advanced Caution and Warning System for Next-Generation Crewed Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.

  9. Integrated Reservoir Modeling of CO2-EOR Performance and Storage Potential in the Farnsworth Field Unit, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, W.; Balch, R. S.; Cather, M.; Dai, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We present a performance assessment methodology and storage potential for CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in partially depleted reservoirs. A three dimensional heterogeneous reservoir model was developed based on geological, geophysics and engineering data from Farnsworth field Unit (FWU). The model aided in improved characterization of prominent rock properties within the Pennsylvanian aged Morrow sandstone reservoir. Seismic attributes illuminated previously unknown faults and structural elements within the field. A laboratory fluid analysis was tuned to an equation of state and subsequently used to predict the thermodynamic minimum miscible pressure (MMP). Datasets including net-to-gross ratio, volume of shale, permeability, and burial history were used to model initial fault transmissibility based on Sperivick model. An improved history match of primary and secondary recovery was performed to set the basis for a CO2 flood study. The performance of the current CO2 miscible flood patterns was subsequently calibrated to historical production and injection data. Several prediction models were constructed to study the effect of recycling, addition of wells and /or new patterns, water alternating gas (WAG) cycles and optimum amount of CO2 purchase on incremental oil production and CO2 storage in the FWU. The history matching study successfully validated the presence of the previously undetected faults within FWU that were seen in the seismic survey. The analysis of the various prediction scenarios showed that recycling a high percentage of produced gas, addition of new wells and a gradual reduction in CO2 purchase after several years of operation would be the best approach to ensure a high percentage of recoverable incremental oil and sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 within the Morrow reservoir. Larger percentage of stored CO2 were dissolved in residual oil and less amount existed as supercritical free CO2. The geomechanical analysis on the caprock proved to an

  10. Integrated Analysis Seismic Inversion and Rockphysics for Determining Secondary Porosity Distribution of Carbonate Reservoir at “FR” Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosid, M. S.; Augusta, F. F.; Haidar, M. W.

    2018-05-01

    In general, carbonate secondary pore structure is very complex due to the significant diagenesis process. Therefore, the determination of carbonate secondary pore types is an important factor which is related to study of production. This paper mainly deals not only to figure out the secondary pores types, but also to predict the distribution of the secondary pore types of carbonate reservoir. We apply Differential Effective Medium (DEM) for analyzing pore types of carbonate rocks. The input parameter of DEM inclusion model is fraction of porosity and the output parameters are bulk moduli and shear moduli as a function of porosity, which is used as input parameter for creating Vp and Vs modelling. We also apply seismic post-stack inversion technique that is used to map the pore type distribution from 3D seismic data. Afterward, we create porosity cube which is better to use geostatistical method due to the complexity of carbonate reservoir. Thus, the results of this study might show the secondary porosity distribution of carbonate reservoir at “FR” field. In this case, North – Northwest of study area are dominated by interparticle pores and crack pores. Hence, that area has highest permeability that hydrocarbon can be more accumulated.

  11. Put order picking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the warehouse is very important logistic component of the supply chain, where order-picking systems have important role. Due to the significant impact on logistics performance permanent goals are to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of these systems. To achieve these goals, there are different researches, and their success is determined by the achieved performances. Performances order picking process are dependent on the applied technology concepts of order-picking system, as well as the ways in which it is organized and managed. In addition to the standard conceptions (the man to good and good to the man is one of the newer, so-called. 'put' system - the inverse order-picking. The aim of this paper is to describe this concept, point out its core strengths and weaknesses and provide a basis that may be of importance in the development of warehouse technological solutions and application of this order-picking systems concept.

  12. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  13. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  14. Integrated petrophysical and sedimentological study of the Middle Miocene Nullipore Formation (Ras Fanar Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt): An approach to volumetric analysis of reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afife, Mohamed M.; Sallam, Emad S.; Faris, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to integrate sedimentological, log and core analyses data of the Middle Miocene Nullipore Formation at the Ras Fanar Field (west central Gulf of Suez, Egypt) to evaluate and reconstruct a robust petrophysical model for this reservoir. The Nullipore Formation attains a thickness ranging from 400 to 980 ft and represents a syn-rift succession of the Middle Miocene marine facies. It consists of coralline-algal-reefal limestone, dolomitic limestone and dolostone facies, with few clay and anhydrite intercalations. Petrographically, seven microfacies types (MF1 to MF7) have been recognized and assembled genetically into three related facies associations (FA1 to FA3). These associations accumulated in three depositional environments: 1) peritidal flat, 2) restricted lagoon, and 3) back-shoal environments situated on a shallow inner ramp (homoclinal) setting. The studied rocks have been influenced by different diagenetic processes (dolomitization, cementation, compaction, authigenesis and dissolution), which led to diminishing and/or enhancing the reservoir quality. Three superimposed 3rd-order depositional sequences are included in the Nullipore succession displaying both retrogradational and aggradational packages of facies. Given the hydrocarbon potential of the Nullipore Formation, conventional well logs of six boreholes and core analyses data from one of these wells (RF-B12) are used to identify electrofacies zones of the Nullipore Formation. The Nullipore Formation has been subdivided into three electrofacies zones (the Nullipore-I, Nullipore-II, and Nullipore-III) that are well-correlated with the three depositional sequences. Results of petrographical studies and log analyses data have been employed in volumetric calculations to estimate the amount of hydrocarbon-in-place and then the ultimate recovery of the Nullipore reservoir. The volumetric calculations indicate that the total volume of oil-in-place is 371 MMSTB at 50% probability (P50), whereas

  15. An integrated approach to model the biomagnification of organic pollutants in aquatic food webs of the Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir ecosystem using adapted pollution scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Starke, Björn; Ottermanns, Richard; Rings, Ursula; Floehr, Tilman; Hollert, Henner; Hou, Junli; Li, Bo; Wu, Ling Ling; Yuan, Xingzhong; Strauch, Katrin; Wei, Hu; Norra, Stefan; Holbach, Andreas; Westrich, Bernhard; Schäffer, Andreas; Roß-Nickoll, Martina

    2013-10-01

    The impounding of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) at the Yangtze River caused large flooding of urban, industrial, and agricultural areas, and profound land use changes took place. Consequently, substantial amounts of organic and inorganic pollutants were released into the reservoir. Additionally, contaminants and nutrients are entering the reservoir by drift, drainage, and runoff from adjacent agricultural areas as well as from sewage of industry, aquacultures, and households. The main aim of the presented research project is a deeper understanding of the processes that determines the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of organic pollutants, i.e., mainly pesticides, in aquatic food webs under the newly developing conditions of the TGR. The project is part of the Yangtze-Hydro environmental program, financed by the German Ministry of Education and Science. In order to test combinations of environmental factors like nutrients and pollution, we use an integrated modeling approach to study the potential accumulation and biomagnification. We describe the integrative modeling approach and the consecutive adaption of the AQUATOX model, used as modeling framework for ecological risk assessment. As a starting point, pre-calibrated simulations were adapted to Yangtze-specific conditions (regionalization). Two exemplary food webs were developed by a thorough review of the pertinent literature. The first typical for the flowing conditions of the original Yangtze River and the Daning River near the city of Wushan, and the second for the stagnant reservoir characteristics of the aforementioned region that is marked by an intermediate between lake and large river communities of aquatic organisms. In close cooperation with German and Chinese partners of the Yangtze-Hydro Research Association, other site-specific parameters were estimated. The MINIBAT project contributed to the calibration of physicochemical and bathymetric parameters, and the TRANSMIC project delivered

  16. The integration of elastic wave properties and machine learning for the distribution of petrophysical properties in reservoir modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, T. C.; Ghosh, D. P.; Negash, B. M.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional reservoir modeling employs variograms to predict the spatial distribution of petrophysical properties. This study aims to improve property distribution by incorporating elastic wave properties. In this study, elastic wave properties obtained from seismic inversion are used as input for an artificial neural network to predict neutron porosity in between well locations. The method employed in this study is supervised learning based on available well logs. This method converts every seismic trace into a pseudo-well log, hence reducing the uncertainty between well locations. By incorporating the seismic response, the reliance on geostatistical methods such as variograms for the distribution of petrophysical properties is reduced drastically. The results of the artificial neural network show good correlation with the neutron porosity log which gives confidence for spatial prediction in areas where well logs are not available.

  17. RECENT ADVANCES IN NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIR MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    ORDOÑEZ, A; PEÑUELA, G; IDROBO, E. A; MEDINA, C. E

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of oil reserves are contained in naturally fractured reservoirs. Most of these hydrocarbon volumes have been left behind because of the poor knowledge and/or description methodology of those reservoirs. This lack of knowledge has lead to the nonexistence of good quantitative models for this complicated type of reservoirs. The complexity of naturally fractured reservoirs causes the need for integration of all existing information at all scales (drilling, well logging, seismic, we...

  18. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  19. Sweet spot identification and smart development -An integrated reservoir characterization study of a posidonia shale of a posidonia shale outcrop analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.; Zijp, M.H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  20. Fracture-network analysis of the Latemar Platform (northern Italy): integrating outcrop studies to constrain the hydraulic properties of fractures in reservoir models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boro, H.; Rosero, E.; Bertotti, G.V.

    2014-01-01

    Fractures in subsurface reservoirs are known to have significant impacts on reservoir productivity. Quantifying their importance, however, is challenged by limited subsurface observations, and intense computations for modelling and upscaling. In this paper, we present a workflow to construct and

  1. 三峡库区小江流域水环境综合区划%Integrated Water Environment Regionalization in Xiaojiang Watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶晶; 王文杰; 郎海鸥; 饶胜; 王维; 白雪

    2011-01-01

    In this study, taking Xiaojiang Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area as the research object, comprehensively considering the effects of land system, aquatic system, and socio-economic system on the water environment, an index system of integrated water environment regionalization was established, and the basic unit of division was developed under the watershed DEM. In accordance with the method of dominant factors and space overlay, combined with GIS software, integrated water environment regionalization in Xiaojiang Watershed was separated into three zones, i.e. water conservation and ecological conservation zonein the north, pollution control zone in the south, and eutrophication control zone on the mainstream area of Xiaojiang Watershed, respectively. And according to the characteristics and the main environmental problems of the region, put forward environmental protection requirements and measures. In the water conservation and ecological conservation zone, vegetation are not high, and degradation is obvious, requesting to protect existing forest, prohibite excessive deforestation, and facilitate afforestation; in the pollution control zone, forest and grass cover is low, soil erosion is very serious, and industrial pollution emission is the most important factor causing changes in water quality, needing to take pollution control as the main approach; Xiaojiang Watershed is the largest fluctuation band in Three Gorges Reservoir eutrophication control area, requiring proper resettlement, while focusing on strengthening eutrophication management. By exploring the integrated environmental management approach in Xiaojiang Watershed, we proposed zone management of water environment as a new idea, in order to improve the management of water environment in China.%本研究以三峡库区小江流域为研究对象,在综合考虑陆域、水体、社会经济对流域水环境影响的基础上,建立了水环境综合区划的指标体系,同时根据DEM划

  2. Integration into JRODOS the models of radionuclide transport in rivers, reservoirs and coastal waters to support the emergency response in early accidental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Bezhenar, R.; Boyko, O.; Ievdin, I.; Koshebutsky, V.; Maderich, V. [Institute of Mathematical Machines and Systems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Raskob, W.; Trybushnyi, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The decision support system for offsite nuclear emergency management RODOS (Real-time on-line decision support), developed under several EC RTD Framework Programs, contains many models related to support decision making in case of a nuclear or radiological emergency. Based on the request of the end users, it was re-engineered based on the JAVA technology and further named JRODOS. The consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident clearly demonstrated the importance of modeling tools predicting the radionuclide transport in marine and freshwater environment and assessing the doses to the public via the aquatic food chain to improve decision making in general. As a consequence, such an activity was launched as part of the European project PREPARE aiming to integrate the 3-dimensional model THREETOX for the radionuclide transport in coastal waters, estuaries, deep lakes, and reservoirs into hydrological model chain of JRODOS - JHDM (JRODOS Hydrological Dispersion Module). So far JHDM contains several aquatic radionuclide transport models describing the sequence of the processes 'atmospheric fallout to watershed' - 'radionuclide inflow to a river net' - 'radionuclide transport in river' - 'doses via aquatic pathways'. The implementation of the THREETOX model into this chain by developing also a user friendly interface will extend the applicability of JRODOS to deep fresh water bodies and marine coastal waters. This paper describes the assessment capabilities of this advanced model chain for two examples of the JRODOS implementation in Ukraine. JRODOS is installed in the emergency centers for two Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) - Zaporizzhya NPP (ZNPP) and Rivne NPP (RNPP). The different models of the JHDM were customized for these NPPs taking into account the characteristics of the water bodies in the surroundings of the NPPs. For the RNPP, located at the bank of the Sozh River which is a tributary of the

  3. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  4. An Integrated Rock Typing Approach for Unraveling the Reservoir Heterogeneity of Tight Sands in the Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkhchi, Rahim Kadkhodaie; Rezaee, Reza; Harami, Reza Moussavi

    2014-01-01

    Tight gas sands in Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin show large heterogeneity in reservoir characteristics and production behavior related to depositional and diagenetic features. Diagenetic events (compaction and cementation) have severely affected the pore system. In order to investigate...... the petrophysical characteristics, reservoir sandstone facies were correlated with core porosity and permeability and their equivalent well log responses to describe hydraulic flow units and electrofacies, respectively. Thus, very tight, tight, and sub-tight sands were differentiated. To reveal the relationship...... between pore system properties and depositional and diagenetic characteristics in each sand type, reservoir rock types were extracted. The identified reservoir rock types are in fact a reflection of internal reservoir heterogeneity related to pore system properties. All reservoir rock types...

  5. The water-quality monitoring program for the Baltimore reservoir system, 1981-2007—Description, review and evaluation, and framework integration for enhanced monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koterba, Michael T.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Baltimore, Maryland, and parts of five surrounding counties obtain their water from Loch Raven and Liberty Reservoirs. A third reservoir, Prettyboy, is used to resupply Loch Raven Reservoir. Management of the watershed conditions for each reservoir is a shared responsibility by agreement among City, County, and State jurisdictions. The most recent (2005) Baltimore Reservoir Watershed Management Agreement (RWMA) called for continued and improved water-quality monitoring in the reservoirs and selected watershed tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a retrospective review of the effectiveness of monitoring data obtained and analyzed by the RWMA jurisdictions from 1981 through 2007 to help identify possible improvements in the monitoring program to address RWMA water-quality concerns. Long-term water-quality concerns include eutrophication and sedimentation in the reservoirs, and elevated concentrations of (a) nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) being transported from the major tributaries to the reservoirs, (b) iron and manganese released from reservoir bed sediments during periods of deep-water anoxia, (c) mercury in higher trophic order game fish in the reservoirs, and (d) bacteria in selected reservoir watershed tributaries. Emerging concerns include elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, and disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the drinking water from both supply reservoirs. Climate change and variability also could be emerging concerns, affecting seasonal patterns, annual trends, and drought occurrence, which historically have led to declines in reservoir water quality. Monitoring data increasingly have been used to support the development of water-quality models. The most recent (2006) modeling helped establish an annual sediment Total Maximum Daily Load to Loch Raven Reservoir, and instantaneous and 30-day moving average water-quality endpoints for chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Loch Raven and Prettyboy

  6. Putting Emotional Intelligence To Work

    CERN Document Server

    Ryback, David

    2012-01-01

    Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work offers a new paradigm of communication for the 21st-century workplace. Beginning with the thoughts of communication pioneer Carl Rogers, this book covers the origins and history of emotional intelligence, why it is essential at this point in the changing marketplace, how to delegate and negotiate more effectively, and how to change yourself to become a more effective player. An EQ (Emotional Quotient) survey helps you determine where you are on the scale of executive intelligence. Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work leaves you with a greater understand

  7. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  8. Heating being put into service

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The SMB-SE group would like to inform you that, the central heating will start this year, on Monday 3 October 2016, and will be progressively and depending on the weather forecast put into service throughout. All buildings will have heating within the following few days. Thank you for your understanding. The CERN heating team SMB-SE

  9. ICRP putting wealth before health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in recommended dose limits for radiation workers set by the International Commission for Radiological Protection do not go far enough. The ICRP has put industry profitability before worker safety, and their recommendations should not be the basis for UK or European law. (author)

  10. 3D Reservoir Modeling of Semutang Gas Field: A lonely Gas field in Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt, with Integrated Well Log, 2D Seismic Reflectivity and Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Z.; Woobaidullah, A. S. M.; Snigdha, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bengal Basin with its prolific gas rich province provides needed energy to Bangladesh. Present energy situation demands more Hydrocarbon explorations. Only 'Semutang' is discovered in the high amplitude structures, where rest of are in the gentle to moderate structures of western part of Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt. But it has some major thrust faults which have strongly breached the reservoir zone. The major objectives of this research are interpretation of gas horizons and faults, then to perform velocity model, structural and property modeling to obtain reservoir properties. It is needed to properly identify the faults and reservoir heterogeneities. 3D modeling is widely used to reveal the subsurface structure in faulted zone where planning and development drilling is major challenge. Thirteen 2D seismic and six well logs have been used to identify six gas bearing horizons and a network of faults and to map the structure at reservoir level. Variance attributes were used to identify faults. Velocity model is performed for domain conversion. Synthetics were prepared from two wells where sonic and density logs are available. Well to seismic tie at reservoir zone shows good match with Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator on seismic section. Vsh, porosity, water saturation and permeability have been calculated and various cross plots among porosity logs have been shown. Structural modeling is used to make zone and layering accordance with minimum sand thickness. Fault model shows the possible fault network, those liable for several dry wells. Facies model have been constrained with Sequential Indicator Simulation method to show the facies distribution along the depth surfaces. Petrophysical models have been prepared with Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate petrophysical parameters away from the existing wells to other parts of the field and to observe heterogeneities in reservoir. Average porosity map for each gas zone were constructed. The outcomes of the research

  11. Effects of the discharge of uranium mining effluents on the water quality of the reservoir: an integrative chemical and ecotoxicological assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Carla Rolim; do Nascimento, Heliana de Azevedo Franco; Rodgher, Suzelei; Almeida, Tito; Bruschi, Armando Luiz; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Bonifácio, Rodrigo Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The water quality of the Antas reservoir, under the influence of treated effluents from a uranium mining area Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) with acid mine drainage, was investigated. Samples were collected every 3 months from the Antas reservoir (CAB, P41-E and P14) and from the UTM (P41-S). Chemical and acute 48 h toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia magna analyses were carried out to determine the potential environmental risks due to discharging the uranium mine effluents int...

  12. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  13. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1. Introduction. Sediment ... rendered water storage structures useless in less than 25 years. ... reservoir, thus reducing the space available for water storage and ...

  14. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  15. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  16. Integrated Water Basin Management Including a Large Pit Lake and a Water Supply Reservoir: The Mero-Barcés Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jordi; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Hernández-Anguiano, Horacio; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water resource managers attempt to minimize conflicts among users, preserve the environment as much as possible, and satisfy user necessities at a minimum cost. Several European directives indirectly address mine restoration policies, with a goal of minimizing negative impacts and adding social and environmental value where possible. Water management must consider water sources, ecological flows, flood control, and variability in the demands for urban, industrial, and agricultural uses. In the context of the present study, the city of A Coruña is located in Galicia (NW Spain). The water supply system for this city and surrounding municipalities (~400.000 inhabitants) is based on the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir. In cases when precipitation is scarce (e.g. no rain for more than seven consecutive months) and there is a seasonal increase in demand significantly stress the supply system so that, as occurred in 2010, shortages and water supply restrictions need to be considered. This is a clear indication of that, at present, the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir has not enough capacity to cope with a scenario of increasing water demand (due to the vegetative and seasonal increase of population) and hydric stress likely connected with the widely acknowledged climate change. In the present context of monetary resources scarcity and society concern with respect large new public work projects, the construction of a new dam is challenging. However the opportunity provided by the recent flooding of the Meirama open pit (a large mine void that has been forced-flooded for its reclamation and it is located in the headwaters of one of the rivers draining towards the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir) proves to be a significant new asset that will help to improve the future water management scenarios under the acknowledged uncertain conditions. In this study we have studied in detail the hydrochemistry of the affected systems (lake, river and reservoir) in order to make clear whether or not the

  17. Simulation of Reservoir Sediment Flushing of the Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation and its effect on the environment are the most serious world-wide problems in water resources development and utilization today. As one of the largest water conservancy projects, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has been controversial since its demonstration period, and sedimentation is the major concern. Due to the complex physical mechanisms of water and sediment transport, this study adopts the Error Back Propagation Training Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN to analyze the relationship between the sediment flushing efficiency of the TGR and its influencing factors. The factors are determined by the analysis on 1D unsteady flow and sediment mathematical model, mainly including reservoir inflow, incoming sediment concentration, reservoir water level, and reservoir release. Considering the distinguishing features of reservoir sediment delivery in different seasons, the monthly average data from 2003, when the TGR was put into operation, to 2011 are used to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN model. The results indicate that, although the sample space is quite limited, the whole sediment delivery process can be schematized by the established BP-ANN model, which can be used to help sediment flushing and thus decrease the reservoir sedimentation.

  18. Naturally fractured reservoirs: Optimized E and P strategies using a reaction-transport-mechanical simulator in an integrated approach. Annual report, 1996--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.; Jenkins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Ortoleva, P.; Ozkan, G.; Shebl, M.; Sibo, W.; Tuncay, K. [Laboratory for Computational Geodynamics (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Company (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The methodology and results of this project are being tested using the Andector-Goldsmith Field in the Permian Basin, West Texas. The study area includes the Central Basin Platform and the Midland Basin. The Andector-Goldsmith Field lies at the juncture of these two zones in the greater West Texas Permian Basin. Although the modeling is being conducted in this area, the results have widespread applicability to other fractured carbonate and other reservoirs throughout the world.

  19. Putting science on the agenda

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The job of CERN Director-General comes with a lot of responsibility, and that’s particularly true today. We’re living through a period of unique circumstances for science. Positive indicators, such as a renewal of interest in physical sciences at the University level and unprecedented public interest in the LHC, are aligning with storm clouds in the form of a prolonged economic crisis that will put downward pressure on everyone’s budgets.   That means that science has to make its voice heard if it’s to preserve support, and if it wants to be in a position to play the role it must in navigating the major societal challenges of our time. For that reason, I have been a fairly rare sight at CERN of late. Last week, I was in Davos for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. It was my second time at Davos, and I used the opportunity to argue that science should be more closely linked to the political thread of the meeting. I think my argument was he...

  20. Putting the spiritual into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia von Boguslawski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine how Rudolf Steiner’s anthroposophical ideas were reflected and put into practice in the lives of the Finnish couple Olly (Olga Donner (1881–1956, neé Sinebrychoff and Uno Donner (1872–1958. They encountered anthroposophy in 1913 and subsequently embraced it as the guiding principle of their lives. Through a close examination of these two people we aim to shed light on how a new worldview like anthroposophy, which was gaining followers in early twentieth-century Finland, was also a manifestation of wider changes in religious culture in Europe. Our perspective could be described as biographical in the sense that it has been characterised by Simone Lässig (2008: 11 who writes that ‘the reconstruction of individual life courses helps to discover more about the context – for example, about daily rituals, pious practices, or kinship relationship’. Thus, the biographical perspective serves as a tool for grasping how something as deeply personal as an anthroposophical worldview was understood and practised, not only by Olly and Uno Donner, but also by a larger group of people who in the early twentieth century were looking for new ways to make sense of the surrounding world.

  1. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  2. Sensorimotor Rhythm Neurofeedback Enhances Golf Putting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Yang; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been related to automaticity during skilled action execution. However, few studies have bridged the causal link between SMR activity and sports performance. This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance. We hypothesized that preelite golfers would exhibit enhanced putting performance after SMR NFT. Sixteen preelite golfers were recruited and randomly assigned into either an SMR or a control group. Participants were asked to perform putting while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, both before and after intervention. Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.

  3. Fortescue reservoir development and reservoir studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzell, S.T.; Hicks, G.J.; Horden, M.J.; Irrgang, H.R.; Janssen, E.J.; Kable, C.W.; Mitchell, R.A.H.; Morrell, N.W.; Palmer, I.D.; Seage, N.W.

    1985-03-01

    The Fortescue field in the Gippsland Basin, offshore southeastern Australia is being developed from two platforms (Fortescue A and Cobia A) by Esso Australia Ltd. (operator) and BHP Petroleum. The Fortescue reservoir is a stratigraphic trap at the top of the Latrobe Group of sediments. It overlies the western flank of the Halibut and Cobia fields and is separated from them by a non-net sequence of shales and coals which form a hydraulic barrier between the two systems. Development drilling into the Fortescue reservoir commenced in April 1983 with production coming onstream in May 1983. Fortescue, with booked reserves of 44 stock tank gigalitres (280 million stock tank barrels) of 43/sup 0/ API oil, is the seventh major oil reservoir to be developed in the offshore Gippsland Basin by Esso/BHP. In mid-1984, after drilling a total of 20 exploration and development wells, and after approximately one year of production, a detailed three-dimensional, two-phase reservoir simulation study was performed to examine the recovery efficiency, drainage patterns, pressure performance and production rate potential of the reservoir. The model was validated by history matching an extensive suite of Repeat Formation Test (RFT) pressure data. The results confirmed the reserves basis, and demonstrated that the ultimate oil recovery from the reservoir is not sensitive to production rate. This result is consistent with studies on other high quality Latrobe Group reservoirs in the Gippsland Basin which contain undersaturated crudes and receive very strong water drive from the Basin-wide aquifer system. With the development of the simulation model during the development phase, it has been possible to more accurately define the optimal well pattern for the remainder of the development.

  4. Reservoir Models for Gas Hydrate Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, R.

    2016-12-01

    Scientific and industrial drilling programs have now providing detailed information on gas hydrate systems that will increasingly be the subject of field experiments. The need to carefully plan these programs requires reliable prediction of reservoir response to hydrate dissociation. Currently, a major emphasis in gas hydrate modeling is the integration of thermodynamic/hydrologic phenomena with geomechanical response for both reservoir and bounding strata. However, also critical to the ultimate success of these efforts is the appropriate development of input geologic models, including several emerging issues, including (1) reservoir heterogeneity, (2) understanding of the initial petrophysical characteristics of the system (reservoirs and seals), the dynamic evolution of those characteristics during active dissociation, and the interdependency of petrophysical parameters and (3) the nature of reservoir boundaries. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous aspect of every natural reservoir, and appropriate characterization is vital. However, heterogeneity is not random. Vertical variation can be evaluated with core and well log data; however, core data often are challenged by incomplete recovery. Well logs also provide interpretation challenges, particularly where reservoirs are thinly-bedded due to limitation in vertical resolution. This imprecision will extend to any petrophysical measurements that are derived from evaluation of log data. Extrapolation of log data laterally is also complex, and should be supported by geologic mapping. Key petrophysical parameters include porosity, permeability and it many aspects, and water saturation. Field data collected to date suggest that the degree of hydrate saturation is strongly controlled by/dependant upon reservoir quality and that the ratio of free to bound water in the remaining pore space is likely also controlled by reservoir quality. Further, those parameters will also evolve during dissociation, and not necessary in a simple

  5. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: An integrated field and laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Paula S.; Pinheiro, Ana Paula B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Bazzoli, Nilo [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, PUC Minas, Belo Horizonte 30535-610, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Rizzo, Elizete, E-mail: ictio@icb.ufmg.br [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay–Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  6. Putting the pinch on reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavic, P.; Kravanja, Z.; Homsak, M.

    1990-01-01

    Pinch technology has proven to be a powerful tool for designing new processes and retrofitting old ones. But, until recently, it was thought to pertain only to heat exchanger networks, separators and power devices (such as heat engines and heat pumps). Regarded as process background, reactors have been left out of heat integrations. Their structure, however, can be changed and, within limits, their parameters modified to better exploit energy. In a pinch-designed plant, heat is transferred between the hot and cold process streams so efficiently that the plant's utility requirements (heat sources and sinks) are minimal. The design procedure is discussed. It involves two steps: finding a nearly optimal process structure by means of an analysis of process-temperature-vs.- enthalpy diagrams, and then optimizing the structure by means of grid diagrams or a computerized procedure

  7. FY 1998 report on the development of technology for reservoir mass and heat flow characterization. Theme 5-2. Monitoring and modeling of reservoir mass and heat flows (Integrated reservoir modeling and simulation techniques/Modeling support technique); 1998 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu hokokusho (yoyaku). 5-2. Choryuso hendo yosoku gijutsu (modeling shien gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This R and D are aimed at establishing technology to support the reservoir modeling work required for predicting the reservoir variation from the geological/geochemical side. The contents of the development are (1) establishment of the practical measuring system for core fracture system, and (2) establishment of new modeling support technology. In (1), as the core fraction system measuring system, the measurement of fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and melting point and laser Raman spectroscopy were applied to the Wasabizawa area to obtain the results. In (2), the R and D were conducted of a rapid age measuring method for altered rock/unaltered rock and an analytical method for fluid flow using trace chemical components of hydrothermal minerals. In the former, 3-D thermoluminescent intensity of the age-known quartz was measured. The TL age of weak altered rock of Kijiyama dacite in the Wasabizawa area was 320Ka, almost the same result as 320Ka already reported. In the latter, trace components of quartz were measured at each well, and changes in the depth direction were made clear. It was made clear that the variation of Na/K ratio is large around the lost circulation stratum. The geothermal fluid flow was made clear by the analysis of similarity of the intensity ratio. (NEDO)

  8. Putting people into the picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J

    1989-01-01

    In an interview with the newly appointed head of the Population, Women, and Natural Resources Program of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Dr. Pietronella van den Oever reflects on the concern about natural resources and working with women, rural development, and agricultural extension projects. She considers her job to have three main objectives: 1) to try to increase the in-house knowledge among the staff about population matters and also in the country where they work; 2) to conceptualize the linkages between the sustainable use of natural resources and demographic variables because of the struggle to integrate population concerns into programs (the example of Zaire is given, which had the same level of fertility and maternal mortality as Mali with very few resources; this shows the lack of knowledge and the effect of resources on population); 3) to test the practical application of joint policies, strategies, and projects relating to conservation of natural resources and population. This can be done if population and natural resources projects are integrated. As a start a population reference library will be set up and a population data tape will be produced for staff who travel to various countries. Other initiatives will be the formation of a committee on population/resources links, and the field testing of the unit's Population, Resources, and Development Guidebook, particularly in relation to Pakistan's national conservation strategy. Eventually a work book is hoped to be developed from this for those wanting to plan their natural resources. In addition, the program is helping to plan the Africa Women's Assembly in Harare, Zimbabwe, to be held in February 1990. The objective is to involve local people in conserving nature. Since women are heavily involved in agriculture, they should be educated to use resources in a sustainable way.

  9. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Mafalda; Mancy, Rebecca; Biek, Roman; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cross, Paul C; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Haydon, Daniel T

    2014-05-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  11. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafalda, Viana; Rebecca, Mancy; Roman, Biek; Sarah, Cleaveland; Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Daniel T, Haydon

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems.

  12. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Canada puts emphasis on SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to hydroelectricity and 16% share of nuclear power, Canada is among the few countries to respect GIEC's 2050 climate objectives: producing 80% of electricity without emitting CO 2 . In the context of a growing power demand, Canada has integrated nuclear energy in its energy scenarios. Small Modular Reactors (SMR) are considered as an efficient means to replace diesel generators used in small isolated communities. Several North America start-ups such as Terrestrial Energy that develops molten salt reactors, have moved to Canada. The British firm Moltex has chosen Canadian Nuclear Safety Authority (CCSN for the certification of its 4. generation reactor. In Ontario, Canada's most populated province, nuclear energy produces 60% of its electricity consumption and has allowed the progressive shutdown of all coal-fed power plants of the province. Between 2000 and 2013 nuclear power increased by 20% whereas the coal share in power production dropped by 27%. The 2014 Toronto Public Health report highlights that since 2004 premature mortality has dropped by 23% and the hospitalization due to air pollution by 41%. (A.C.)

  14. Menthol: putting the pieces together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-05-01

    To integrate information on cigarette companies' understanding and use of menthol as summarised in published research based on previously internal tobacco industry documents with results from large population-based surveys of tobacco use and other independent sources. Papers published in this supplement of Tobacco Control, together with papers identified using PubMed searches. Tobacco companies shaped consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. Menthol is not just a flavouring agent. Cigarette companies use menthol's ability to mask irritation and provide sensory effects to make menthol cigarettes appeal to youth and health-concerned smokers, in part because menthol makes low-tar cigarettes more palatable. Consistent with targeted marketing, youths, women and African Americans disproportionately smoke menthols. There appear to be complex interactions with addictive effects of nicotine. The ubiquitous addition of menthol by tobacco companies to over 90% of all tobacco products, whether labelled 'menthol' or not, demonstrates that menthol is not simply a flavour or brand. Menthol imparts sensory characteristics to cigarettes and has a complex interaction with nicotine that affects smoking behaviour whether it is perceived or not, or whether cigarettes containing menthol are marketed as 'menthol' or not. Adding menthol increases fine particles in cigarette smoke, which have immediate adverse effects on the risk of heart attack. Information from industry documents, confirmed by independent scientific literature, consistently demonstrates that menthol increases population harm from smoking by increasing initiation and reducing cessation in some groups. Menthol facilitates and increases smoking, which causes disease and death.

  15. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-04-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.

  16. Multi Data Reservoir History Matching using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-05-01

    Reservoir history matching is becoming increasingly important with the growing demand for higher quality formation characterization and forecasting and the increased complexity and expenses for modern hydrocarbon exploration projects. History matching has long been dominated by adjusting reservoir parameters based solely on well data whose spatial sparse sampling has been a challenge for characterizing the flow properties in areas away from the wells. Geophysical data are widely collected nowadays for reservoir monitoring purposes, but has not yet been fully integrated into history matching and forecasting fluid flow. In this thesis, I present a pioneering approach towards incorporating different time-lapse geophysical data together for enhancing reservoir history matching and uncertainty quantification. The thesis provides several approaches to efficiently integrate multiple geophysical data, analyze the sensitivity of the history matches to observation noise, and examine the framework’s performance in several settings, such as the Norne field in Norway. The results demonstrate the significant improvements in reservoir forecasting and characterization and the synergy effects encountered between the different geophysical data. In particular, the joint use of electromagnetic and seismic data improves the accuracy of forecasting fluid properties, and the usage of electromagnetic data has led to considerably better estimates of hydrocarbon fluid components. For volatile oil and gas reservoirs the joint integration of gravimetric and InSAR data has shown to be beneficial in detecting the influx of water and thereby improving the recovery rate. Summarizing, this thesis makes an important contribution towards integrated reservoir management and multiphysics integration for reservoir history matching.

  17. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  18. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1987 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Ian

    1989-12-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin. The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power, flood control, and navigation and other benefits. Research began in May 1983 to determine how operations of Libby dam impact the reservoir fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these impacts. This study is unique in that it was designed to accomplish its goal through detailed information gathering on every trophic level in the reservoir system and integration of this information into a quantitative computer model. The specific study objectives are to: quantify available reservoir habitat, determine abundance, growth and distribution of fish within the reservoir and potential recruitment of salmonids from Libby Reservoir tributaries within the United States, determine abundance and availability of food organisms for fish in the reservoir, quantify fish use of available food items, develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat for fish and fish food organisms, and estimate impacts of reservoir operation on the reservoir fishery. 115 refs., 22 figs., 51 tabs.

  19. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - Development of solar beam power generation and utilization systems and ancillary technologies (Research and development of new building material integrated solar cell modules - investigation and research on analysis of practical application); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinkenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no kenkyu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to promote the research to put new building material integrated solar cell modules into practical use, the following items were investigated: (1) functions and specifications for harmonizing with buildings, (2) new module materials that can respond to building materials, (3) marketability, (4) standardization of the assessment methods, (5) consistency with relevant legislation and related institutions, (6) effects on environment as building materials, and (7) investigation on technological trends inside and outside the country. In Item (1), the significance of developing the new building material integrated solar cell modules was made clear. In Item (2), the performance requirements on the currently used module materials were put into order. In Item (3), the market size was investigated, and assignments to establishing the market were put into order, such as the distribution and construction institutions, and assistance to the system introduction. In Item (4), standardization and unification of the assessment methods were discussed, and the items to be standardized were extracted. In Item (6), LCA on the currently used modules was performed. In Item (7), participation was made to the second solar beam power generation conference and EUROSUN '98; investigations were made on trends of developing the new building material integrated solar cell modules and how the recycling related legislation is being progressed; and the achievements in the development activities were confirmed, and the assignments were investigated at the new building material integrated solar cell module subcommittee. (NEDO)

  1. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  2. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. We learned, however, that this strategy was impractical. The different data and tools need to be integrated from the beginning because they are all interrelated. This report describes a new approach to geostatistical modeling and presents an integration of geology and geophysics to explain the formation of the complex Coalinga reservoir.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  4. HIV-1 Reservoir Association with Immune Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vallejo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of EBioMedicine, Ruggiero and colleagues describe immune activation biomarkers associated with the size of the HIV reservoir in a carefully designed cross-sectional study. The cohort consists of a homogeneous sample of HIV-1-infected patients with long-term plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression under antiretroviral treatment (ART. It is crucial to explore the potential utility of biomarkers that are easier (less labor intensive, less expensive to measure than integrated HIV DNA load, in order to quickly and accurately quantify cellular reservoirs of HIV.

  5. Geological Characterisation of Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tse

    The reservoir formation consists of multilayered alternating beds of sandstone and shale cap rocks ... In the oil sector, Nigeria is one of the highest emitters ... Industrial emission and flaring .... integration of the 3D seismic data and wireline logs.

  6. Estimation of reservoir fluid volumes through 4-D seismic analysis on Gullfaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veire, H.S.; Reymond, S.B.; Signer, C.; Tenneboe, P.O.; Soenneland, L.; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla

    1998-12-31

    4-D seismic has the potential to monitor hydrocarbon movement in reservoirs during production, and could thereby supplement the predictions of reservoir parameters offered by the reservoir simulator. However 4-D seismic is often more band limited than the vertical resolution required in the reservoir model. As a consequence the seismic data holds a composite response from reservoir parameter changes during production so that the inversion becomes non-unique. A procedure where data from the reservoir model are integrated with seismic data will be presented. The potential of such a procedure is demonstrated through a case study from a recent 4-D survey over the Gullfaks field. 2 figs.

  7. Coupling a fluid flow simulation with a geomechanical model of a fractured reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Segura Segarra, José María; Paz, C.M.; de Bayser, M.; Zhang, J.; Bryant, P.W.; Gonzalez, Nubia Aurora; Rodrigues, E.; Vargas, P.E.; Carol, Ignacio; Lakshmikantha, Ramasesha Mookanahallipatna; Das, K. C.; Sandha, S.S.; Cerqueira, R.; Mello,, U.

    2013-01-01

    Improving the reliability of integrated reservoir development planning and addressing subsidence, fault reactivation and other environmental impacts, requires increasingly sophisticated geomechanical models, especially in the case of fractured reservoirs where fracture deformation is strongly coupled with its permeability change. Reservoir simulation has historically treated any geomechanical effects by means of a rock compressibility term/table, which can be improved by simulating the actual...

  8. Are Geotehrmal Reservoirs Stressed Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Laboso, R. C.; Layland-Bachmann, C. E.; Feigl, K. L.; Foxall, W.; Tabrez, A. R.; Mellors, R. J.; Templeton, D. C.; Akerley, J.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal permeability can be strongly influenced by developing connected networks of open fractures. However, the detailed evolution of a fracture network, its extent, and the persistence of fracture porosity are difficult to analyze. Even in fault-hosted geothermal systems, where heat is brought to the surface from depth along a fault, hydrothermal flow is heterogeneously distributed. This is presumably due to variations in fracture density, connectivity, and attitude, as well as variations in fracture permeability caused by sealing of fractures by precipitated cements or compaction. At the Brady Geothermal field in Nevada, we test the relationship between the modeled local stress state perturbed by dislocations representing fault slip or volume changes in the geothermal reservoir inferred from surface deformation measured by InSAR and the location of successful geothermal wells, hydrothermal activity, and seismicity. We postulate that permeability is favored in volumes that experience positive Coulomb stress changes and reduced compression, which together promote high densities of dilatant fractures. Conversely, permeability can be inhibited in locations where Coulomb stress is reduced, compression promotes compaction, or where the faults are poorly oriented in the stress field and consequently slip infrequently. Over geologic time scales spanning the development of the fault system, these local stress states are strongly influenced by the geometry of the fault network relative to the remote stress driving slip. At shorter time scales, changes in fluid pressure within the fracture network constituting the reservoir cause elastic dilations and contractions. We integrate: (1) direct observations of stress state and fractures in boreholes and the mapped geometry of the fault network; (2) evidence of permeability from surface hydrothermal features, production/injection wells and surface deformations related to pumping history; and (3) seismicity to test the

  9. Putting Opportunism in the Back Seat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Weber, Libby

    2013-01-01

    TCE and its applications in management research put more emphasis on opportunism than on bounded rationality. By augmenting the bounded rationality assumption to include interpretive limitations, we show that there are sources of costly conflict that are not rooted in opportunism. Moreover, we show...

  10. THE IDIOM OF KRIVI PUT KOD SENJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Čilaš Šimpraga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The idiom of Krivi Put kod Senja is part of West-Štokavian dialect. The basics of phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexical characteristics of idiom are considered in this article. Research confirmed common features with idioms of Bunjevo beyond Velebit’s part of hinterland of Senj.

  11. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  12. Multicultural Education Course Put into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which two teachers who have previously taken a multicultural education course put into practice multicultural teaching in a first grade afterschool program. Banks' five dimensions of multicultural education are used as the theoretical framework for analyzing past research on multicultural education courses and for…

  13. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  14. Big meeting puts the case for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    It was a workshop on a scale to match the ultimate goal. When some 500 physicists met in Aachen, Germany, in October to put the research case for the proposed Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the turnout was among the biggest attendances of the year

  15. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  16. Integrating telemedicine and telehealth: putting it all together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ronald S; Lopez, Ana Maria; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Beinar, Sandra J; Holcomb, Michael; McNeely, Richard A; Latifi, Rifat; Barker, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Telemedicine and telehealth programs are inherently complex compared with their traditional on-site health care delivery counterparts. Relatively few organizations have developed sustainable, multi-specialty telemedicine programs, although single service programs, such as teleradiology and telepsychiatry programs, are common. A number of factors are barriers to the development of sustainable telemedicine and telehealth programs. First, starting programs is often challenging since relatively few organizations have, in house, a critical mass of individuals with the skill sets required to organize and manage a telemedicine program. Therefore, it is necessary to "boot strap" many of the start-up activities using available personnel. Another challenge is to assemble a management team that has time to champion telemedicine and telehealth while dealing with the broad range of issues that often confront telemedicine programs. Telemedicine programs housed within a single health care delivery system have advantages over programs that serve as umbrella telehealth organizations for multiple health care systems. Planning a telemedicine program can involve developing a shared vision among the participants, including the parent organizations, management, customers and the public. Developing shared visions can be a time-consuming, iterative process. Part of planning includes having the partnering organizations and their management teams reach a consensus on the initial program goals, priorities, strategies, and implementation plans. Staffing requirements of telemedicine and telehealth programs may be met by sharing existent resources, hiring additional personnel, or outsourcing activities. Business models, such as the Application Service Provider (ASP) model used by the Arizona Telemedicine Program, are designed to provide staffing flexibility by offering a combination of in-house and out-sourced services, depending on the needs of the individual participating health care organizations. Telemedicine programs should perform ongoing assessments of activities, ranging from service usage to quality of service assessments, to ongoing analyses of financial performance. The financial assessments should include evaluations of costs and benefits, coding issues, reimbursement, account receivables, bad debt and network utilization. Long-range strategic planning for a telemedicine and telehealth program should be carried out on an on-going basis and should include the program's governing board. This planning process should include goal setting and the periodic updating of the program's vision and mission statements. There can be additional special issues for multi-organization telemedicine and telehealth programs. For example, authority management can require the use of innovative approaches tailored to the realities of the organizational structures of the participating members. Inter-institutional relations may introduce additional issues when competing health care organizations are utilizing shared resources. Branding issues are preferably addressed during the initial planning of a multi-organizational telemedicine and telehealth program. Ideally, public policy regarding telemedicine and telehealth within a service region will complement the objectives of telemedicine and telehealth programs within that service area.

  17. Nagylengyel: an interesting reservoir. [Yugoslovia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedinszky, J

    1971-04-01

    The Nagylengyel oil field, discovered in 1951, has oil-producing formations mostly in the Upper-Triassic dolomites, in the Norian-Ractian transition formations, in the Upper-Cretaceous limestones and shales, and in the Miocene. The formation of the reservoir space occurred in many stages. A porous, cavernous fractured reservoir is developed in the Norian principal dolomite. A cavernous fractured reservoir exists in the Cretaceous limestone and in the Cretaceous shale and porous fractured reservoir is developed in the Miocene. The derivation of the model of the reservoir, and the conservative evaluation of the volume of the reservoir made it possible to use secondary recovery.

  18. Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Final report, March 7, 1996 to September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dershowitz, William S.; Einstein, Herbert H.; LaPoint, Paul R.; Eiben, Thorsten; Wadleigh, Eugene; Ivanova, Violeta

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes research conducted for the Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies Project. The five areas studied are development of hierarchical fracture models; fractured reservoir compartmentalization, block size, and tributary volume analysis; development and demonstration of fractured reservoir discrete feature data analysis tools; development of tools for data integration and reservoir simulation through application of discrete feature network technologies for tertiary oil production; quantitative evaluation of the economic value of this analysis approach.

  19. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  20. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  1. Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments and heterogeneity. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, C.

    1998-01-01

    A case study approach using Terry Sandstone production from the Hambert-Aristocrat Field, Weld County, Colorado was used to document the process of integration. One specific project goal is to demonstrate how a multidisciplinary approach can be used to detect reservoir compartmentalization and improve reserve estimates. The final project goal is to derive a general strategy for integration for independent operators. Teamwork is the norm for the petroleum industry where teams of geologists, geophysicists, and petroleum engineers work together to improve profits through a better understanding of reservoir size, compartmentalization, and orientation as well as reservoir flow characteristics. In this manner, integration of data narrows the uncertainty in reserve estimates and enhances reservoir management decisions. The process of integration has proven to be iterative. Integration has helped identify reservoir compartmentalization and reduce the uncertainty in the reserve estimates. This research report documents specific examples of integration and the economic benefits of integration.

  2. Putting Opportunism in the Back Seat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Weber, Libby

    2013-01-01

    TCE and its applications in management research put more emphasis on opportunism than on bounded rationality. By augmenting the bounded rationality assumption to include interpretive limitations, we show that there are sources of costly conflict that are not rooted in opportunism. Moreover, we show...... that bounded rationality may drive opportunism. All hierarchal forms are inherently subject to specific bounded-rationality-based conflicts, thus have different capacities to mitigate bounded-rationality-based transaction costs....

  3. Putting Reusability First: A Paradigm Switch in Remote Laboratories Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Vérot

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new devices brought online thanks to our Collaborative Remote Laboratories framework. Whereas previous devices integrated in our remote laboratory belongs to the domain of electronics, such as Vector Network Analyzers, the devices at the concern in this paper are, on one hand, an antenna workbench, and on the other, an homemade switching device, which embeds several electronic components. Because the middleware and framework for our environment were designed to be reusable, we wanted to put it to the test by integrating new and different devices in our Online Engineering catalog. After presenting the devices to be put online, we will expose the software development efforts required in regards to the reusability of the solution. As a consequence, the expose work and results tend to make the Online Engineering software architects to think reusability first, breaking with the current trends to implement Remote Labs one after the other, without much reusability, apart the capitalized experience. In this, we defend a paradigm switch in our current engineering approaches for Remote Laboratories implementations: Reusability should be thought first.

  4. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and thus...... basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... have hardly any stylolites and can have porosity above 40% or even 50% and thus also have relatively high permeability. Such intervals have the problem though, that increasing effective stress caused by hydrocarbon production results in mechanical compaction and overall subsidence. Most other chalk...

  5. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  6. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  7. Local Water Management of Small Reservoirs: Lessons from Two Case Studies in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmy Sally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso is actively pursuing the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in its development plans. Several policy and institutional mechanisms have been put in place, including the adoption of a national IWRM action plan (PAGIRE and the establishment so far of 30 local water management committees (Comités Locaux de l’Eau, or CLE. The stated purpose of the CLE is to take responsibility for managing water at sub-basin level. The two case studies discussed in this paper illustrate gaps between the policy objective of promoting IWRM on the one hand, and the realities associated with its practical on-the-ground implementation on the other. A significant adjustment that occurred in practice is the fact that the two CLE studied have been set up as entities focused on reservoir management, whereas it is envisioned that a CLE would constitute a platform for sub-basin management. This reflects a concern to minimise conflict and optimally manage the country’s primary water resource and illustrates the type of pragmatic actions that have to be taken to make IWRM a reality. It is also observed that the local water management committees have not been able to satisfactorily address questions regarding access to, and allocation of, water, which are crucial for the satisfactory functioning of the reservoirs. Water resources in the reservoirs appear to be controlled by the dominant user. In order to correct this trend, measures to build mutual trust and confidence among water users 'condemned' to work together to manage their common resource are suggested, foremost of which is the need to collect and share reliable data. Awareness of power relationships among water user groups and building on functioning, already existing formal or informal arrangements for water sharing are key determinants for successful implementation of the water reform process underway.

  8. Reservoir shorelines : a methodology for evaluating operational impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, M.; Braund-Read, J.; Musgrave, B. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    BC Hydro has been operating hydroelectric facilities for over a century in British Columbia. The integrity and stability of the shorelines and slopes bordering hydroelectric reservoirs is affected by changing water levels in the reservoir, natural processes of flooding, wind and wave action and modification of groundwater levels. Establishing setbacks landward of the shoreline are needed in order to protect useable shoreline property that may be at risk of flooding, erosion or instability due to reservoir operations. Many of the reservoirs in British Columbia are situated in steep, glaciated valleys with diverse geological, geomorphological and climatic conditions and a variety of eroding shorelines. As such, geotechnical studies are needed to determine the operational impacts on reservoir shorelines. Since the 1960s BC Hydro has been developing a methodology for evaluating reservoir impacts and determining the land around the reservoir perimeter that should remain as a right of way for operations while safeguarding waterfront development. The methodology was modified in the 1990s to include geomorphological and geological processes. However, uncertainties in the methodology still exist due to limited understanding of key issues such as rates of erosion and shoreline regression, immaturity of present day reservoir shorelines and impacts of climate change. 11 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  9. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  10. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  11. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.

    2011-12-01

    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  12. Simulation and optimisation modelling approach for operation of the Hoa Binh Reservoir, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Hoa Binh, the largest reservoir in Vietnam, plays an important role in flood control for the Red River delta and hydropower generation. Due to its multi-purpose character, conflicts and disputes in operating the reservoir have been ongoing since its construction, particularly in the flood season....... This paper proposes to optimise the control strategies for the Hoa Binh reservoir operation by applying a combination of simulation and optimisation models. The control strategies are set up in the MIKE 11 simulation model to guide the releases of the reservoir system according to the current storage level......, the hydro-meteorological conditions, and the time of the year. A heuristic global optimisation tool, the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm, is adopted for optimising the reservoir operation. The optimisation puts focus on the trade-off between flood control and hydropower generation for the Hoa...

  13. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  14. Use of natural geochemical tracers to improve reservoir simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseby, O.; Chatzichristos, C.; Sagen, J.; Muller, J.; Kleven, R.; Bennett, B.; Larter, S.; Stubos, A.K.; Adler, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces a methodology for integrating geochemical data in reservoir simulations to improve hydrocarbon reservoir models. The method exploits routine measurements of naturally existing inorganic ion concentration in hydrocarbon reservoir production wells, and uses the ions as non-partitioning water tracers. The methodology is demonstrated on a North Sea field case, using the field's reservoir model, together with geochemical information (SO{sub 4}{sup 2}, Mg{sup 2+} K{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -} concentrations) from the field's producers. From the data-set we show that some of the ions behave almost as ideal sea-water tracers, i.e. without sorption to the matrix, ion-exchange with the matrix or scale-formation with other ions in the formation water. Moreover, the dataset shows that ion concentrations in pure formation-water vary according to formation. This information can be used to allocate produced water to specific water-producing zones in commingled production. Based on an evaluation of the applicability of the available data, one inorganic component, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}, is used as a natural seawater tracer. Introducing SO{sub 4}{sup 2} as a natural tracer in a tracer simulation has revealed a potential for improvements of the reservoir model. By tracking the injected seawater it was possible to identify underestimated fault lengths in the reservoir model. The demonstration confirms that geochemical data are valuable additional information for reservoir characterization, and shows that integration of geochemical data into reservoir simulation procedures can improve reservoir simulation models. (author)

  15. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  16. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  17. Exploration and reservoir characterization; Technology Target Areas; TTA2 - Exploration and reservoir characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    In future, research within exploration and reservoir characterization will play an even more important role for Norway since resources are decreasing and new challenges like deep sea, harsh environment and last but not least environmental issues have to be considered. There are two major fields which have to be addressed within exploration and reservoir characterization: First, replacement of reserves by new discoveries and ultimate field recoveries in mature basins at the Norwegian Continental shelf, e.g. at the Halten Terrace has to be addressed. A wealth of data exists in the more mature areas. Interdisciplinary integration is a key feature of reservoir characterization, where available data and specialist knowledge need to be combined into a consistent reservoir description. A systematic approach for handling both uncertainties in data sources and uncertainties in basic models is needed. Fast simulation techniques are necessary to generate models spanning the event space, covering both underground based and model-based uncertainties. Second, exploration in frontier areas like the Barents Sea region and the deeper Voering Basin has to be addressed. The scarcity of wells in these frontier areas leads to uncertainties in the geological understanding. Basin- and depositional modelling are essential for predicting where source rocks and reservoir rocks are deposited, and if, when and which hydrocarbons are generated and trapped. Predictive models and improved process understanding is therefore crucial to meet these issues. Especially the challenges related to the salt deposits e.g. sub-salt/sub-basalt reservoir definitions in the Nordkapp Basin demands up-front research and technology developments. TTA2 stresses the need to focus on the development of new talents. We also see a strong need to push cooperation as far as possible in the present competitive environment. Projects that may require a substantial financial commitment have been identified. The following

  18. Putting the sun to work in Sacramento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    At dawn this morning, the sun went to work for customers of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The largest photovoltaic (PV) power plant in the world, adjacent to the closed nuclear power plant at Rancho Seco, generated enough electricity for over a thousand customers, rooftop solar water heaters lowered thousands of residential electric bills and rooftop PV systems turned hundreds of Sacramento homes into mini power plants. SMUD, in partnership with their customers-owners, is leading the way in putting the sun to work today. SMUD plans to have at least half of its energy come from energy efficiency, existing hydroelectric plants and renewable resources in this decade. SMUD expects investments made in solar power today to provide its customer-owners with substantial long-term energy, environmental and community benefits. This article describes some of SMUD's efforts

  19. "Danish women put up with less"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leine, Marie; Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    2018-01-01

    women put up with less”—and that the report was, in effect, invalid. In this article we outline the discursive space that emerges when the mass media seeks to tackle symptoms of inequality in Denmark. We argue that the ideology of gender equality comes to construct a dominant discourse, which silences...... symptoms of inequality. Thereby, gendered violence in Denmark is rendered invisible in public awareness.......Denmark is a country that has been heralded for its high levels of gender equality for decades. One would have expected, then, that the recent EU report that ranked Denmark as the EU-member country with the highest occurrence of physical violence towards women would have created a public uproar...

  20. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2011-01-11

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  1. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-02-21

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  2. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  3. All-optical reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  4. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  5. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  6. Tidal phenomena in reservoirs; Fenomeno de mare em reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinilla Cortes, John Freddy

    1997-06-01

    This work models the oceanic tidal effect on reservoirs by coupling geomechanic principles with equations for fluid in a deformable porous media. The coupling revealed the importance of establishing properly the system compressibility under the various possible configurations of the loading system. The basic models for infinite reservoir, constant outer-pressure reservoir and closed reservoir were considered. It was verified that it was possible to apply the superposition of effects on the solution for the basic models by carrying a simple transformation on the solution variable. The problem was treated by in the context of test analysis, concerning dimensionless form of variables and the inclusion of well effects. The solution for the infinite reservoir including tidal effects. The solution for the infinite reservoir including tidal effects was obtained in the Laplace space and was inverted numerically by using Crump's routine. The results were incorporated to conventional type curves, and were validated by comparison with real and simulated pressure test data. Finally, alternate practices were suggested to integrate the well test analysis in reservoirs affected by the tidal effect. (author)

  7. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  8. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  9. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  10. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Sande Guy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir’s complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  11. Tourism's collapse puts Gambian women at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, M S

    1995-06-01

    Despite efforts of the Gambian government, which established a ministry in 1981 that would tackle gender issues, improve women's health, and promote empowerment, women are underrepresented in government and business, and 84% are illiterate. Child mortality is among the highest in Africa; 134 children per 1000 die before their fifth birthday. In the mid-1980s austerity measures adopted by the World Bank and IMF left the ministry without funds. Rice and vegetable production, the main source of income for women, fell in the 1990s. In 1994, paddy production dropped 23% from the previous year; this was due to a lack of technical and financial assistance. The collapse of tourism with Capt. Yahya Jammeh's seizure of power has put prostitutes catering to tourists out of work, but women who have lost jobs in the hotel industry may be pushed into local prostitution to survive. The impact of this on the HIV/AIDS epidemic is unclear. Although Gambia is one of the world's most aid-dependent countries (more than a quarter of the GNP before the coup), corruption and mismanagement in the nongovernmental sector is widespread. The director of the Women in Development Programme, a $15m World Bank project, was forced to resign over allegations of fraud. The political process sidelines women; only village chiefs, who are traditionally men, are allowed to vote when new heads are elected.

  12. Microchips and controlled-release drug reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes and updates the development of implantable microchip-containing devices that control dosing from drug reservoirs integrated with the devices. As the expense and risk of new drug development continues to increase, technologies that make the best use of existing therapeutics may add significant value. Trends of future medical care that may require advanced drug delivery systems include individualized therapy and the capability to automate drug delivery. Implantable drug delivery devices that promise to address these anticipated needs have been constructed in a variety of ways using micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS or NEMS)-based technology. These devices expand treatment options for addressing unmet medical needs related to dosing. Within the last few years, advances in several technologies (MEMS or NEMS fabrication, materials science, polymer chemistry, and data management) have converged to enable the construction of miniaturized implantable devices for controlled delivery of therapeutic agents from one or more reservoirs. Suboptimal performance of conventional dosing methods in terms of safety, efficacy, pain, or convenience can be improved with advanced delivery devices. Microchip-based implantable drug delivery devices allow localized delivery by direct placement of the device at the treatment site, delivery on demand (emergency administration, pulsatile, or adjustable continuous dosing), programmable dosing cycles, automated delivery of multiple drugs, and dosing in response to physiological and diagnostic feedback. In addition, innovative drug-medical device combinations may protect labile active ingredients within hermetically sealed reservoirs. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. An Integrated Model for Computer Aided Reservoir Description : from Outcrop Study to Fluid Flow Simulations Un logiciel intégré pour une description des gisements assistée par ordinateur : de l'étude d'un affleurement aux simulations de l'écoulement des fluides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerillot D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An accurate understanding of the internal architecture of a reservoir is required to improve reservoir management for oil recovery. Geostatistical methods give an image of this architecture. The purpose of this paper is to show how this lithological description could be used for reservoir simulation. For this purpose, scale averaging problems must be solved for non-additive variables. A method giving a full effective permeability matrix is proposed. The integrated software described here starts from core analysis and lithologic logs to provide data for reservoir simulators. Each of the steps of this interactive and graphic system is explained here. Pour faire de bonnes prévisions de production pour un gisement pétrolifère, il est nécessaire de connaître précisément son architecture interne. Les méthodes géostatistiques donnent une représentation de cette architecture. L'objectif de cet article est de montrer une façon d'utiliser cette description lithologique pour la simulation des réservoirs. Il faut alors résoudre des problèmes de changement d'échelle pour les variables qui ne sont pas additives. On propose une méthode d'estimation de la perméabilité effective sous la forme d'une matrice pleine. Le logiciel intégré que l'on décrit part de l'analyse des carottes et des diagraphies en lithologies et fournit des données pour les simulateurs de gisement. On détaille ici chaque étape de ce système interactif graphique.

  14. Investigating leaks in dams and reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Millions of people throughout the world depend on dams and reservoirs for electricity, water and flood protection. Dams require significant investment to build and maintain, and yet their usefulness and integrity are constantly threatened by leakage and sedimentation. Isotope hydrology techniques, combined with conventional analytical methods, are a cost-effective tool to reduce such threats. The International Atomic Energy Agency is promoting their use to protect these investments and improve management, particularly by supporting specialized teams of scientists and engineers to investigate dam leakage in African countries on request. (IAEA)

  15. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf; Saad, Bilal; Negara, Ardiansyah; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically

  16. Microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Martin; Beckmaann, Sabrina; Siegert, Michael; Grundger, Friederike; Richnow, Hans [Geomicrobiology Group, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, oil production has increased enormously but almost half of the oil now remaining is heavy/biodegraded and cannot be put into production. There is therefore a need for new technology and for diversification of energy sources. This paper discusses the microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs. The objective of the study is to identify microbial and geochemical controls on methanogenesis in reservoirs. A graph shows the utilization of methane for various purposes in Germany from 1998 to 2007. A degradation process to convert coal to methane is shown using a flow chart. The process for converting oil to methane is also given. Controlling factors include elements such as Fe, nitrogen and sulfur. Atmospheric temperature and reservoir pressure and temperature also play an important role. From the study it can be concluded that isotopes of methane provide exploration tools for reservoir selection and alkanes and aromatic compounds provide enrichment cultures.

  17. Quality Risk Management: Putting GMP Controls First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kevin; Greene, Anne; Zwitkovits, Michael; Calnan, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    to be any control that is put in place to assure product quality and regulatory compliance. This improved approach is also based on how the detectability of risks is assessed. This is important because when producing medicines, it is not always good practice to place a high reliance upon detection-type controls in the absence of an adequate level of assurance in the manufacturing process that leads to the finished medicine.

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors for purging HIV-1 from the latent reservoir.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matalon, S.; Rasmussen, T.A.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    A reservoir of latently infected memory CD4(+) T cells is believed to be the source of HIV-1 reemergence after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 eradication may depend on depletion of this reservoir. Integrated HIV-1 is inaccessible for expression, in part because of histone

  19. A Call-Put Duality for Perpetual American Options

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    International audience; It is well known that in models with time-homogeneous local volatility functions and constant interest and dividend rates, the European Put prices are transformed into European Call prices by the simultaneous exchanges of the interest and dividend rates and of the strike and spot price of the underlying. This paper investigates such a Call Put duality for perpetual American options. It turns out that the perpetual American Put price is equal to the perpetual American C...

  20. Design Techniques and Reservoir Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Fereidooni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced oil recovery using nitrogen injection is a commonly applied method for pressure maintenance in conventional reservoirs. Numerical simulations can be practiced for the prediction of a reservoir performance in the course of injection process; however, a detailed simulation might take up enormous computer processing time. In such cases, a simple statistical model may be a good approach to the preliminary prediction of the process without any application of numerical simulation. In the current work, seven rock/fluid reservoir properties are considered as screening parameters and those parameters having the most considerable effect on the process are determined using the combination of experimental design techniques and reservoir simulations. Therefore, the statistical significance of the main effects and interactions of screening parameters are analyzed utilizing statistical inference approaches. Finally, the influential parameters are employed to create a simple statistical model which allows the preliminary prediction of nitrogen injection in terms of a recovery factor without resorting to numerical simulations.

  1. The Characteristics of Spanish Reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armengol, J; Merce, R

    2003-01-01

    Sau Reservoir was first filled in 1963 in a middle stretch of the Ter River, as part of a multi-use scheme, including hydroelectric power, agricultural irrigation, domestic and industrial water supply...

  2. Forming mechanism of the Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Fu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin are important oil and gas exploration targets in the basin, but their dissolution mechanisms are in controversy. In this paper, based on the integrated study of sedimentation, sequence and reservoir, together with microscopic analysis and macroscopic seismic data analysis, the carbonate karst reservoirs in the study area were divided into three types: dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoir, pore-cavity dolomite reservoir and fracture-cavity siliceous reservoir, and their forming mechanisms were discussed respectively. Some findings were obtained. First, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs are distributed in the upper Yingshan Fm and Yijianfang Fm of the Ordovician vertically, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs are mainly developed in the Penglai Fm and lower Yingshan Fm of the Ordovician with great thickness. Second, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs were formed by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary (lowstand tract, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs were formed by deep burial dolomitization controlled by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary, both of which are distributed in the highstand tract below the third-order sequence boundary. Third, siliceous reservoirs are developed under the control of faulting, as a result of reworking of deep hydrothermal fluids along faults to the limestone, and the siliceous reservoirs and their hydrothermal solution fracture-cavity systems are distributed near faults. It is further predicted that, in addition to the three types of reservoir above, platform-margin reef-flat reservoirs are developed in the Ordovician on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin.

  3. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  4. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-12-23

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around

  5. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie's parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie's parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie's parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around 15%.

  6. Putting the Function in Maize Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Moose

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The 51st Maize Genetics Conference was held March 12–15, 2009 at Pheasant Run Resort in St. Charles, Illinois. Nearly 500 attendees participated in a scientific program (available at covering a wide range of topics which integrate the rich biology of maize with recent discoveries in our understanding of the highly dynamic maize genome. Among the many research themes highlighted at the conference, the historical emphasis on studying the tremendous phenotypic diversity of maize now serves as the foundation for maize as a leading experimental system to characterize the mechanisms that generate variation in complex plant genomes and associate evolutionary change with phenotypes of interest.

  7. Monthly reservoir inflow forecasting using a new hybrid SARIMA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models have been frequently ... studied the perfor- mance of stochastic models against ANN models in ..... the model parameters and Se is the standard error. 2.1.3 Nonlinear term ...... ison of regression, ARIMA and ANN models for reservoir inflow forecasting ...

  8. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  9. Neutrons put the brakes on stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Katynna

    2006-01-01

    Don't you hate it when you're driving along, put your foot on the brake and feel that juddering feeling through the pedal? It happens when the disc brake rotors become distorted through normal use of the brakes. To the car manufacturing industry it's called r unout , and is a multimillion dollar warranty problem each year. Not to mention a pain for drivers! Dr Maurice Ripley and Dr Oliver Kirstein from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) wanted to figure out whether runout is caused by residual stresses from the manufacturing process or by normal use of the brake, so they decided to test and compare a used and new brake disc. 'To picture what metal looks like at the atomic level, imagine spheres stacked evenly around each other in all three dimensions,' explained Kirstein. T he spheres represent atoms in the metal and the structure is called a metallic lattice.' We're familiar with the idea that metal expands when it gets hot - the atoms get excited with the heat and have the energy to move further away from each other, so spaces between the atoms in the lattice get larger. 'When parts of the metal are heated up and cool down at different rates, you may end up with a distorted lattice with some parts expanded and others not,' explained Kirstein. 'This unevenness in the lattice creates residual stress.' While a bunch of methods were available to test the discs, Kirstein and Ripley picked neutrons from ANSTO's HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) as their tool of choice. 'Neutrons allow us to look at the inside of the metal without damaging it,' said Kirstein. 'They can penetrate through the iron, so we were able to take measurements at a series of points at different depths through the brake disc.' Word around the car industry is that when residual stresses are relaxed through heating of the brake disc during use, the discs could potentially distort, causing the runout and that juddering feeling. But everyone was clueless as to what

  10. Putting mechanisms into crop production models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Kenneth J; Jones, James W; White, Jeffrey W; Asseng, Senthold; Lizaso, Jon I

    2013-09-01

    Crop growth models dynamically simulate processes of C, N and water balance on daily or hourly time-steps to predict crop growth and development and at season-end, final yield. Their ability to integrate effects of genetics, environment and crop management have led to applications ranging from understanding gene function to predicting potential impacts of climate change. The history of crop models is reviewed briefly, and their level of mechanistic detail for assimilation and respiration, ranging from hourly leaf-to-canopy assimilation to daily radiation-use efficiency is discussed. Crop models have improved steadily over the past 30-40 years, but much work remains. Improvements are needed for the prediction of transpiration response to elevated CO₂ and high temperature effects on phenology and reproductive fertility, and simulation of root growth and nutrient uptake under stressful edaphic conditions. Mechanistic improvements are needed to better connect crop growth to genetics and to soil fertility, soil waterlogging and pest damage. Because crop models integrate multiple processes and consider impacts of environment and management, they have excellent potential for linking research from genomics and allied disciplines to crop responses at the field scale, thus providing a valuable tool for deciphering genotype by environment by management effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A rationale for reservoir management economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    Significant economic benefits can be derived from the application f reservoir management. The key elements in economical reservoir management are the efficient use of available resources and optimization of reservoir exploitation through a multidisciplined approach. This paper describes various aspects of and approaches to reservoir management and provides case histories that support the findings

  12. A hybrid framework for reservoir characterization using fuzzy ranking and an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baijie; Wang, Xin; Chen, Zhangxin

    2013-08-01

    Reservoir characterization refers to the process of quantitatively assigning reservoir properties using all available field data. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have recently been introduced to solve reservoir characterization problems dealing with the complex underlying relationships inherent in well log data. Despite the utility of ANNs, the current limitation is that most existing applications simply focus on directly implementing existing ANN models instead of improving/customizing them to fit the specific reservoir characterization tasks at hand. In this paper, we propose a novel intelligent framework that integrates fuzzy ranking (FR) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks for reservoir characterization. FR can automatically identify a minimum subset of well log data as neural inputs, and the MLP is trained to learn the complex correlations from the selected well log data to a target reservoir property. FR guarantees the selection of the optimal subset of representative data from the overall well log data set for the characterization of a specific reservoir property; and, this implicitly improves the modeling and predication accuracy of the MLP. In addition, a growing number of industrial agencies are implementing geographic information systems (GIS) in field data management; and, we have designed the GFAR solution (GIS-based FR ANN Reservoir characterization solution) system, which integrates the proposed framework into a GIS system that provides an efficient characterization solution. Three separate petroleum wells from southwestern Alberta, Canada, were used in the presented case study of reservoir porosity characterization. Our experiments demonstrate that our method can generate reliable results.

  13. An ultrasonic analysis of the comparative efficiency of various cardiotomy reservoirs and micropore blood filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D T; Watson, B G; Waterhouse, P S

    1978-01-01

    The ability of 12 commercially available cardiotomy reservoirs to remove bubbles from aspirated blood was investigated by means of a simulated cardiopulmonary bypass circuit and an ultrasonic microbubble detector. Performance varied considerably. The number of gaseous microemboli remaining after passage of blood through the reservoir was reduced by (a) holding the blood in the reservoir, (b) reducing the volume of air mixed with the aspirated blood, and (c) using a reservoir that did not induce turbulence and that contained integral micropore filtration material. Further micropore filtration of the blood after passage through the cardiotomy reservoir was beneficial, and significantly more bubbles were extracted when the microfilter was sited below the reservoir than when it was placed in the arterial line. PMID:684672

  14. A poroelastic reservoir model for predicting subsidence and mapping subsurface pressure fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.; Olson, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    A forward model was constructed to numerically predict surface subsidence and reservoir compaction following the approach of Segall [Pure Appl. Phys. 139 (1992) 536]. A nucleus of poroelastic strain is numerically integrated over a rectangular prism assuming constant pressure change. This fundamental geometry allows a reservoir to be divided into many small cubic blocks in a manner similar to reservoir simulation. The subsidence and compaction effects of the pressure change throughout the reservoir are calculated by the superposition of results from each individual block. Using forward modeling, pressure boundary conditions can be acquired from pressure test data or reservoir simulation predictions. An inversion model also was developed that can track pressure fronts in a subsurface reservoir using surface displacements. The capability of the inversion model was demonstrated using synthetic examples of one-well and four-well cases with different layouts of surface observation locations. The impact of noise on the inversion result is also included

  15. Putting informed and shared decision making into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Grams, Garry; Lamarre, Amanda

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the practice, experiences and views of motivated and trained family physicians as they attempt to implement informed and shared decision making (ISDM) in routine practice and to identify and understand the barriers they encounter. Patient involvement in decision making about their health care has been the focus of much academic activity. Although significant conceptual and experimental work has been done, ISDM rarely occurs. Physician attitudes and lack of training are identified barriers. Qualitative analysis of transcripts of consultations and key informant group interviews. Six family physicians received training in the ISDM competencies. Audiotapes of office consultations were made before and after training. Transcripts of consultations were examined to identify behavioural markers associated with each competency and the range of expression of the competencies. The physicians attended group interviews at the end of the study to explore experiences of ISDM. The physicians liked the ISDM model and thought that they should put it into practice. Evidence from transcripts indicated they were able to elicit concerns, ideas and expectations (although not about management) and agree an action plan. They did not elicit preferences for role or information. They sometimes offered choices. They had difficulty achieving full expression of any of the competencies and integrating ISDM into their script for the medical interview. The study also identified a variety of competency-specific barriers. A major barrier to the practice of ISDM by motivated physicians appears to be the need to change well-established patterns of communication with patients.

  16. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  17. Effect of Putting Grip on Eye and Head Movements During the Golf Putting Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the effect of three different putting grips (conventional, cross-hand, and one-handed on variations in eye and head movements during the putting stroke. Seven volunteer novice players, ranging in age from 21 to 22 years, participated in the study. During each experimental session, the subject stood on a specially designed platform covered with artificial turf and putted golf balls towards a standard golf hole. The three different types of grips were tested at two distances: 3 and 9 ft. For each condition, 20 putts were attempted. For each putt, data were recorded over a 3-s interval at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Eye movements were recorded using a helmet-mounted eye movement monitor. Head rotation about an imaginary axis through the top of the head and its center-of-rotation was measured by means of a potentiometer mounted on a fixed frame and coupled to the helmet. Putter-head motion was measured using a linear array of infrared phototransistors embedded in the platform. The standard deviation (STD, relative to the initial level was calculated for eye and head movements over the duration of the putt (i.e., from the beginning of the backstroke, through the forward stroke, to impact. The averaged STD for the attempted putts was calculated for each subject. Then, the averaged STDs and other data for the seven subjects were statistically compared across the three grip conditions. The STD of eye movements were greater (p < 0.1 for conventional than cross-hand (9 ft and one-handed (3 and 9 ft grips. Also, the STD of head movements were greater (p < 0.1; 3 ft for conventional than cross-hand and one-handed grips. Vestibulo-ocular responses associated with head rotations could be observed in many 9 ft and some 3 ft putts. The duration of the putt was significantly longer (p < 0.05; 3 and 9 ft for the one-handed than conventional and cross-hand grips. Finally, performance, or percentage putts made, was

  18. Numerical Simulations of Spread Characteristics of Toxic Cyanide in the Danjiangkou Reservoir in China under the Effects of Dam Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many accidents of releasing toxic pollutants into surface water happen each year in the world. It is believed that dam cooperation can affect flow field in reservoir and then can be applied to avoiding and reducing spread speed of toxic pollutants to drinking water intake mouth. However, few studies investigated the effects of dam cooperation on the spread characteristics of toxic pollutants in reservoir, especially the source reservoir for water diversion with more than one dam. The Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the China’ South-to-North Water Diversion Middle Route Project. The human activities are active within this reservoir basin and cyanide-releasing accident once happened in upstream inflow. In order to simulate the spread characteristics of cyanide in the reservoir in the condition of dam cooperation, a three-dimensional water quality model based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC has been built and put into practice. The results indicated that cooperation of two dams of the Danjiangkou Reservoir could be applied to avoiding and reducing the spread speed of toxic cyanide in the reservoir directing to the water intake mouth for water diversions.

  19. Evaluation of reservoir operation strategies for irrigation in the Macul Basin, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Tinoco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study focus: An irrigation project is planned in the study basin for developing the agriculture as the main income in the region. The proposed water system comprises three large reservoirs damming the rivers Macul and Maculillo. The river basin planning and operation were investigated by modelling alternative reservoir operation strategies aiming at a sustainable balance between irrigation and river ecology by integrated reservoir/river management. New hydrological insights for the region: After simulation of long-term meteorological series in a model of the integrated water system, covering several historical extreme events, results indicate that the planned irrigation volumes are higher than the available water for a sustainable irrigation strategy. Two lines of action are suggested for reaching the target irrigation demands: design of a deficit irrigation system, and modifications to the reservoir's spillway height. Keywords: Reservoir operation, Conceptual model, Irrigation

  20. Putting Priors in Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly infinite dimensional feature space. We describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using predefined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can en- code prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains template for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic- algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code. The results show that the Mixture Density Mercer-Kernel described here outperforms tree-based classification in distinguishing high-redshift galaxies from low- redshift galaxies by approximately 16% on test data, bagged trees by approximately 7%, and bagged trees built on a much larger sample of data by approximately 2%.

  1. Modeling of reservoir operation in UNH global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, Alexander; Prusevich, Alexander; Frolking, Steve; Glidden, Stanley; Lammers, Richard; Wisser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Climate is changing and river flow is an integrated characteristic reflecting numerous environmental processes and their changes aggregated over large areas. Anthropogenic impacts on the river flow, however, can significantly exceed the changes associated with climate variability. Besides of irrigation, reservoirs and dams are one of major anthropogenic factor affecting streamflow. They distort hydrological regime of many rivers by trapping of freshwater runoff, modifying timing of river discharge and increasing the evaporation rate. Thus, reservoirs is an integral part of the global hydrological system and their impacts on rivers have to be taken into account for better quantification and understanding of hydrological changes. We developed a new technique, which was incorporated into WBM-TrANS model (Water Balance Model-Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems) to simulate river routing through large reservoirs and natural lakes based on information available from freely accessible databases such as GRanD (the Global Reservoir and Dam database) or NID (National Inventory of Dams for US). Different formulations were applied for unregulated spillway dams and lakes, and for 4 types of regulated reservoirs, which were subdivided based on main purpose including generic (multipurpose), hydropower generation, irrigation and water supply, and flood control. We also incorporated rules for reservoir fill up and draining at the times of construction and decommission based on available data. The model were tested for many reservoirs of different size and types located in various climatic conditions using several gridded meteorological data sets as model input and observed daily and monthly discharge data from GRDC (Global Runoff Data Center), USGS Water Data (US Geological Survey), and UNH archives. The best results with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient in the range of 0.5-0.9 were obtained for temperate zone of Northern Hemisphere where most of large

  2. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, S.; Maraschini, A.; Pacini, F.; Biran, O.

    2009-01-01

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  3. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    The subject of this thesis is the development, application and study of novel multilevel methods for the acceleration and improvement of reservoir simulation techniques. The motivation for addressing this topic is a need for more accurate predictions of porous media flow and the ability to carry...... Full Approximation Scheme) • Variational (Galerkin) upscaling • Linear solvers and preconditioners First, a nonlinear multigrid scheme in the form of the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) is implemented and studied for a 3D three-phase compressible rock/fluids immiscible reservoir simulator...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...

  4. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  5. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-01-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  6. Sedimentological and Geomorphological Effects of Reservoir Flushing: The Cachi Reservoir, Costa Rica, 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders; Swenning, Joar

    1999-01-01

    Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs......Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs...

  7. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  8. The Researches on Reasonable Well Spacing of Gas Wells in Deep and low Permeability Gas Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yu Bei; Hui, Li; Lin, Li Dong

    2018-06-01

    This Gs64 gas reservoir is a condensate gas reservoir which is relatively integrated with low porosity and low permeability found in Dagang Oilfield in recent years. The condensate content is as high as 610g/m3. At present, there are few reports about the well spacing of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad. Therefore, determining the reasonable well spacing of the gas reservoir is important for ensuring the optimal development effect and economic benefit of the gas field development. This paper discusses the reasonable well spacing of the deep and low permeability gas reservoir from the aspects of percolation mechanics, gas reservoir engineering and numerical simulation. considering there exist the start-up pressure gradient in percolation process of low permeability gas reservoir, this paper combined with productivity equation under starting pressure gradient, established the formula of gas well spacing with the formation pressure and start-up pressure gradient. The calculation formula of starting pressure gradient and well spacing of gas wells. Adopting various methods to calculate values of gas reservoir spacing are close to well testing' radius, so the calculation method is reliable, which is very important for the determination of reasonable well spacing in low permeability gas reservoirs.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

  10. Putting informed and shared decision making into practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Grams, Garry; LaMarre, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To investigate the practice, experiences and views of motivated and trained family physicians as they attempt to implement informed and shared decision making (ISDM) in routine practice and to identify and understand the barriers they encounter. Background  Patient involvement in decision making about their health care has been the focus of much academic activity. Although significant conceptual and experimental work has been done, ISDM rarely occurs. Physician attitudes and lack of training are identified barriers. Design  Qualitative analysis of transcripts of consultations and key informant group interviews. Settings and participants  Six family physicians received training in the ISDM competencies. Audiotapes of office consultations were made before and after training. Transcripts of consultations were examined to identify behavioural markers associated with each competency and the range of expression of the competencies. The physicians attended group interviews at the end of the study to explore experiences of ISDM. Results  The physicians liked the ISDM model and thought that they should put it into practice. Evidence from transcripts indicated they were able to elicit concerns, ideas and expectations (although not about management) and agree an action plan. They did not elicit preferences for role or information. They sometimes offered choices. They had difficulty achieving full expression of any of the competencies and integrating ISDM into their script for the medical interview. The study also identified a variety of competency‐specific barriers. Conclusion  A major barrier to the practice of ISDM by motivated physicians appears to be the need to change well‐established patterns of communication with patients. PMID:17083559

  11. Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding for ESL learners struggling with reading. ... are intended to open up for debate a topic of critical importance to the country's education system. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Your Summer Fun Print version Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun Summer ... adults involve the use of alcohol. 1 Swimmers can get in over their heads. Alcohol impairs judgment ...

  13. Putting Knowledge to Work: Collaborating, Influencing and Learning ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Download PDF ... Putting Knowledge to Work explores how the brains of such ... She previously worked with Statistics Canada, Graybridge Malkam, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, and Human Resources and Skills ...

  14. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  15. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  16. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  17. Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Newbery, J.D.H. [Conoco, UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

  18. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  19. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  20. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  1. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  2. Non-Markovian decay of a three-level cascade atom in a structured reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.J.; Garraway, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of a three-level atom in a cascade (or ladder) configuration with both transitions coupled to a single structured reservoir of quantized electromagnetic field modes is treated using Laplace transform methods applied to the coupled amplitude equations. In this system two-photon excitation of the reservoir occurs, and both sequences for emitting the two photons are allowed and included in the theory. An integral equation is found to govern the complex amplitudes of interest. It is shown that the dynamics of the atomic system is completely determined in terms of reservoir structure functions, which are products of the mode density with the coupling constant squared. This dependence on reservoir structure functions rather than on the mode density or coupling constants alone, shows that it may be possible to extend pseudomode theory to treat multiphoton excitation of a structured reservoir--pseudomodes being introduced in one-one correspondence with the poles of reservoir structure functions in the complex frequency plane. A general numerical method for solving the integral equations based on discretizing frequency space, and applicable to different structured reservoirs such as high-Q cavities and photonic band-gap systems, is presented. An application to a high-Q-cavity case with identical Lorentzian reservoir structure functions is made, and the non-Markovian decay of the excited state shown. A formal solution to the integral equations in terms of right and left eigenfunctions of a non-Hermitian kernel is also given. The dynamics of the cascade atom, with the two transitions coupled to two separate structured reservoirs of quantized electromagnetic field modes, is treated similarly to the single structured reservoir situation. Again the dynamics only depends on reservoir structure functions. As only one sequence of emitting the two photons now occurs, the integral equation for the amplitudes can be solved analytically. The non-Markovian decay of the

  3. Quiet Eye Training Facilitates Competitive Putting Performance in Elite Golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10 ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious. PMID:21713182

  4. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  5. A Time Domain Update Method for Reservoir History Matching of Electromagnetic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-03-25

    -conditioned inversion process, applicable to arbitrary reservoir geometries and enables efficient integration with real field crosswell EM data.

  6. MIKROMITSETY- MIGRANTS IN MINGECHEVIR RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. It is hardly possible to predict the continued stability of the watercourse ecosystems without the study of biological characteristics and composition of organisms inhabiting them. In the last 35-40 years, environmental conditions of the Mingachevir reservoir are determined by the stationary anthropogenic pressure. It was found that such components of plankton as algae, bacteria and fungi play a leading role in the transformation and migration of pollutants. The role of the three groups of organisms is very important in maintaining the water quality by elimination of pollutants. Among the organisms inhabiting the Mingachevir Reservoir, micromycetes have not yet been studied. Therefore, the study of the species composition and seasonal dynamics, peculiarities of their growth and development in the environment with the presence of some of the pollutants should be considered to date.Methods. In order to determine the role of micromycetes-migrants in the mineralization of organic substrates, as an active participant of self-purification process, we used water samples from the bottom sediments as well as decaying and skeletonized stalks of cane, reeds, algae, macrophytes, exuvia of insects and fish remains submerged in water.Findings. For the first time, we obtained the data on the quality and quantity of microscopic mycelial fungi in freshwater bodies on the example of the Mingachevir water reservoir; we also studied the possibilities for oxygenating the autochthonous organic matter of allochthonous origin with micromycetes-migrants.Conclusions. It was found that the seasonal development of micromycetes-migrants within the Mingachevir reservoir is characterized by an increase in the number of species in the summer and a gradual reduction in species diversity in the fall. 

  7. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  8. Williston Reservoir raising - environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This preliminary environmental overview report was prepared by B.C. Hydro in June 1987 and revised in July 1988 as an initial assessment of a possible 1.5 m (5 ft.) raise in the Williston Reservoir maximum normal level. The enviromental overview study and the associated engineering and property studies were undertaken to provide information for a decision on whether to initiate more detailed studies. Overview studies are based mainly on available reports, mapping and field data, supplemented by limited site reconnaissance and, in this case, input from key agencies and groups. The lack of adequate mapping of areas which could be affected by reservoir raising did not permit definitive conclusion to be reached. This mapping will be done over the next year to complete the overview assessment. This document covers the impact assessment of socio-economic factors, forestry, reservoir clearing, heritage, recreation, aquatic resources, and wilflife. Further studies in each of these areas are also included. 54 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  11. Using microstructure observations to quantify fracture properties and improve reservoir simulations. Final report, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubach, S.E.; Marrett, R.; Rossen, W.; Olson, J.; Lake, L.; Ortega, O.; Gu, Y.; Reed, R.

    1999-01-01

    The research for this project provides new technology to understand and successfully characterize, predict, and simulate reservoir-scale fractures. Such fractures have worldwide importance because of their influence on successful extraction of resources. The scope of this project includes creation and testing of new methods to measure, interpret, and simulate reservoir fractures that overcome the challenge of inadequate sampling. The key to these methods is the use of microstructures as guides to the attributes of the large fractures that control reservoir behavior. One accomplishment of the project research is a demonstration that these microstructures can be reliably and inexpensively sampled. Specific goals of this project were to: create and test new methods of measuring attributes of reservoir-scale fractures, particularly as fluid conduits, and test the methods on samples from reservoirs; extrapolate structural attributes to the reservoir scale through rigorous mathematical techniques and help build accurate and useful 3-D models of the interwell region; and design new ways to incorporate geological and geophysical information into reservoir simulation and verify the accuracy by comparison with production data. New analytical methods developed in the project are leading to a more realistic characterization of fractured reservoir rocks. Testing diagnostic and predictive approaches was an integral part of the research, and several tests were successfully completed.

  12. The Potential of a Surfactant/Polymer Flood in a Middle Eastern Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshal Algharaib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated full-field reservoir simulation study has been performed to determine the reservoir management and production strategies in a mature sandstone reservoir. The reservoir is a candidate for an enhanced oil recovery process or otherwise subject to abandonment. Based on its charateristics, the reservoir was found to be most suited for a surfactant/polymer (SP flood. The study started with a large data gathering and the building of a full-field three-dimensional geological model. Subsequently, a full field simulation model was built and used to history match the water flood. The history match of the water flood emphasizes the areas with remaining high oil saturations, establishes the initial condition of the reservoir for an SP flood, and generates a forecast of reserves for continued water flood operations. A sector model was constructed from the full field model and then used to study different design parameters to maximize the project profitability from the SP flood. An economic model, based on the estimated recovery, residual oil in-place, oil price, and operating costs, has been implemented in order to optimize the project profitability. The study resulted in the selection of surfactant and polymer concentrations and slug size that yielded the best economic returns when applied in this reservoir. The study shows that, in today’s oil prices, surfactant/polymer flood when applied in this reservoir has increased the ultimate oil recovery and provide a significant financial returns.

  13. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  14. The Perpetual American Put Option for Jump-Diffusions

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.

    2010-01-01

    -This is the author's version of the article"The Perpetual American Put Option for Jump-Diffusions" Energy Systems pp 493-507. We solve a specific optimal stopping problem with an infinite time horizon, when the state variable follows a jump-diffusion. The novelty of the paper is related to the inclusion of a jump component in this stochastic process. Under certain conditions, our solution can be interpreted as the price of an American perpetual put option. We characterize the continuation...

  15. Modular reservoir concept for MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantwell, Cara T; Wei, Pinghung; Ziaie, Babak; Rao, Masaru P

    2014-01-01

    While MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery device development efforts have typically focused on tightly-integrated solutions, we propose an alternate conception based upon a novel, modular drug reservoir approach. By decoupling the drug storage functionality from the rest of the delivery system, this approach seeks to minimize cold chain storage volume, enhance compatibility with conventional pharmaceutical practices, and allow independent optimization of reservoir device design, materials, and fabrication. Herein, we report the design, fabrication, and preliminary characterization of modular reservoirs that demonstrate the virtue of this approach within the application context of transdermal insulin administration for diabetes management. (technical note)

  16. Modular reservoir concept for MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Cara T.; Wei, Pinghung; Ziaie, Babak; Rao, Masaru P.

    2014-11-01

    While MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery device development efforts have typically focused on tightly-integrated solutions, we propose an alternate conception based upon a novel, modular drug reservoir approach. By decoupling the drug storage functionality from the rest of the delivery system, this approach seeks to minimize cold chain storage volume, enhance compatibility with conventional pharmaceutical practices, and allow independent optimization of reservoir device design, materials, and fabrication. Herein, we report the design, fabrication, and preliminary characterization of modular reservoirs that demonstrate the virtue of this approach within the application context of transdermal insulin administration for diabetes management.

  17. Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments and heterogeneity. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, C.W. Van; Thompson, R.S.

    1995-10-27

    This United States Department of Energy (DOE) research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. A field study integrating the disciplines of geology, geophysics, and petroleum engineering will be the mechanism for documenting the integrated approach. This is an area of keen interest to the oil and gas industry. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field.

  18. Novel mechanisms to inhibit HIV reservoir seeding using Jak inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gavegnano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment of HIV infection with ART, elucidating strategies to overcome HIV persistence, including blockade of viral reservoir establishment, maintenance, and expansion, remains a challenge. T cell homeostasis is a major driver of HIV persistence. Cytokines involved in regulating homeostasis of memory T cells, the major hub of the HIV reservoir, trigger the Jak-STAT pathway. We evaluated the ability of tofacitinib and ruxolitinib, two FDA-approved Jak inhibitors, to block seeding and maintenance of the HIV reservoir in vitro. We provide direct demonstration for involvement of the Jak-STAT pathway in HIV persistence in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro; pSTAT5 strongly correlates with increased levels of integrated viral DNA in vivo, and in vitro Jak inhibitors reduce the frequency of CD4+ T cells harboring integrated HIV DNA. We show that Jak inhibitors block viral production from infected cells, inhibit γ-C receptor cytokine (IL-15-induced viral reactivation from latent stores thereby preventing transmission of infectious particles to bystander activated T cells. These results show that dysregulation of the Jak-STAT pathway is associated with viral persistence in vivo, and that Jak inhibitors target key events downstream of γ-C cytokine (IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 ligation to their receptors, impacting the magnitude of the HIV reservoir in all memory CD4 T cell subsets in vitro and ex vivo. Jak inhibitors represent a therapeutic modality to prevent key events of T cell activation that regulate HIV persistence and together, specific, potent blockade of these events may be integrated to future curative strategies.

  19. Flexible Multilingual Education: Putting Children's Needs First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the benefits of multilingual education that puts children's needs and interests above the individual languages involved. It advocates flexible multilingual education, which builds upon children's actual home resources and provides access to both the local and global languages that students need for their educational and…

  20. Bounds for the American perpetual put on a stock index

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, V.

    2001-01-01

    Let us consider n stocks with dependent price processes each following a geometric Brownian motion. We want to investigate the American perpetual put on an index of those stocks. We will provide inner and outer boundaries for its early exercise region by using a decomposition technique for optimal stopping.

  1. Some particular problems put by operating experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candiotti, C.; Mabeix, R.; Uguen, R.

    1960-01-01

    On basis of a six years experience in operating research reactors, the authors explain, first, the difference in their utilization between these piles and another similar ones and, after, in consequence, they set off corresponding servitudes. These servitudes put very particular problems in operating itself, maintenance, modifications or additions on these apparatus. (author) [fr

  2. "Big Bang"test put off until May 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "First tests in a scientific project aimed at solving mysteries of the universe and the "Big Bang" which created it have been put off from November to late april or early May next year, an official said yesterday." (2/3 page)

  3. PUTTING COMMUNICATION FRONT AND CENTER IN INSTITUTIONAL THEORY AND ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.P.; Durand, R.; Fiss, P.C.; Lammers, J.C.; Vaara, E.

    2015-01-01

    We conceptualize the roots of cognitive, linguistic, and communicative theories of institutions and outline the promise and potential of a stronger communication focus for institutional theory. In particular, we outline a theoretical approach that puts communication at the heart of theories of

  4. Assessing water reservoirs management and development in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castelletti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this paper we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam, and to evaluate the potential improvement by the adoption of a more sophisticated information system. To reach this goal we analyze the historical operation of the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River, explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives (hydropower production, flood control and water supply, using multi-objective optimization techniques, namely Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Finally, we assess the structural system potential and the need for capacity expansion by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization techniques, while investment should be put into enlarging the system storage capacity and exploiting additional information to inform the operation.

  5. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  6. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  7. Effect of reservoir heterogeneity on air injection performance in a light oil reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air injection is a good option to development light oil reservoir. As well-known that, reservoir heterogeneity has great effect for various EOR processes. This also applies to air injection. However, oil recovery mechanisms and physical processes for air injection in heterogeneous reservoir with dip angle are still not well understood. The reported setting of reservoir heterogeneous for physical model or simulation model of air injection only simply uses different-layer permeability of porous media. In practice, reservoir heterogeneity follows the principle of geostatistics. How much of contrast in permeability actually challenges the air injection in light oil reservoir? This should be investigated by using layered porous medial settings of the classical Dykstra-Parsons style. Unfortunately, there has been no work addressing this issue for air injection in light oil reservoir. In this paper, Reservoir heterogeneity is quantified based on the use of different reservoir permeability distribution according to classical Dykstra-Parsons coefficients method. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on physical process and production performance of air injection in light oil reservoir through numerical reservoir simulation approach. The basic model is calibrated based on previous study. Total eleven pseudo compounders are included in this model and ten complexity of reactions are proposed to achieve the reaction scheme. Results show that oil recovery factor is decreased with the increasing of reservoir heterogeneity both for air and N2 injection from updip location, which is against the working behavior of air injection from updip location. Reservoir heterogeneity sometimes can act as positive effect to improve sweep efficiency as well as enhance production performance for air injection. High O2 content air injection can benefit oil recovery factor, also lead to early O2 breakthrough in heterogeneous reservoir. Well

  8. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  9. Level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Marco A.; McLaughlin, Dennis

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the application of level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir models. The identification of facies is a geometrical inverse ill-posed problem that we formulate in terms of shape optimization. The goal is to find a region (a geologic facies) that minimizes the misfit between predicted and measured data from an oil-water reservoir. In order to address the shape optimization problem, we present a novel application of the level-set iterative framework developed by Burger in (2002 Interfaces Free Bound. 5 301-29 2004 Inverse Problems 20 259-82) for inverse obstacle problems. The optimization is constrained by (the reservoir model) a nonlinear large-scale system of PDEs that describes the reservoir dynamics. We reformulate this reservoir model in a weak (integral) form whose shape derivative can be formally computed from standard results of shape calculus. At each iteration of the scheme, the current estimate of the shape derivative is utilized to define a velocity in the level-set equation. The proper selection of this velocity ensures that the new shape decreases the cost functional. We present results of facies identification where the velocity is computed with the gradient-based (GB) approach of Burger (2002) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) technique of Burger (2004). While an adjoint formulation allows the straightforward application of the GB approach, the LM technique requires the computation of the large-scale Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system that arises at each iteration of the scheme. We efficiently solve this system by means of the representer method. We present some synthetic experiments to show and compare the capabilities and limitations of the proposed implementations of level-set techniques for the identification of geologic facies.

  10. Level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Marco A; McLaughlin, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the application of level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir models. The identification of facies is a geometrical inverse ill-posed problem that we formulate in terms of shape optimization. The goal is to find a region (a geologic facies) that minimizes the misfit between predicted and measured data from an oil–water reservoir. In order to address the shape optimization problem, we present a novel application of the level-set iterative framework developed by Burger in (2002 Interfaces Free Bound. 5 301–29; 2004 Inverse Problems 20 259–82) for inverse obstacle problems. The optimization is constrained by (the reservoir model) a nonlinear large-scale system of PDEs that describes the reservoir dynamics. We reformulate this reservoir model in a weak (integral) form whose shape derivative can be formally computed from standard results of shape calculus. At each iteration of the scheme, the current estimate of the shape derivative is utilized to define a velocity in the level-set equation. The proper selection of this velocity ensures that the new shape decreases the cost functional. We present results of facies identification where the velocity is computed with the gradient-based (GB) approach of Burger (2002) and the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) technique of Burger (2004). While an adjoint formulation allows the straightforward application of the GB approach, the LM technique requires the computation of the large-scale Karush–Kuhn–Tucker system that arises at each iteration of the scheme. We efficiently solve this system by means of the representer method. We present some synthetic experiments to show and compare the capabilities and limitations of the proposed implementations of level-set techniques for the identification of geologic facies

  11. Experimental demonstration of reservoir computing on a silicon photonics chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Mechet, Pauline; van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Fiers, Martin; Morthier, Geert; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2014-03-01

    In today’s age, companies employ machine learning to extract information from large quantities of data. One of those techniques, reservoir computing (RC), is a decade old and has achieved state-of-the-art performance for processing sequential data. Dedicated hardware realizations of RC could enable speed gains and power savings. Here we propose the first integrated passive silicon photonics reservoir. We demonstrate experimentally and through simulations that, thanks to the RC paradigm, this generic chip can be used to perform arbitrary Boolean logic operations with memory as well as 5-bit header recognition up to 12.5 Gbit s-1, without power consumption in the reservoir. It can also perform isolated spoken digit recognition. Our realization exploits optical phase for computing. It is scalable to larger networks and much higher bitrates, up to speeds >100 Gbit s-1. These results pave the way for the application of integrated photonic RC for a wide range of applications.

  12. Muon Tomography of Deep Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Alain H.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2016-12-31

    Imaging subsurface geological formations, oil and gas reservoirs, mineral deposits, cavities or magma chambers under active volcanoes has been for many years a major quest of geophysicists and geologists. Since these objects cannot be observed directly, different indirect geophysical methods have been developed. They are all based on variations of certain physical properties of the subsurface that can be detected from the ground surface or from boreholes. Electrical resistivity, seismic wave’s velocities and density are certainly the most used properties. If we look at density, indirect estimates of density distributions are performed currently by seismic reflection methods - since the velocity of seismic waves depend also on density - but they are expensive and discontinuous in time. Direct estimates of density are performed using gravimetric data looking at variations of the gravity field induced by the density variations at depth but this is not sufficiently accurate. A new imaging technique using cosmic-ray muon detectors has emerged during the last decade and muon tomography - or muography - promises to provide, for the first time, a complete and precise image of the density distribution in the subsurface. Further, this novel approach has the potential to become a direct, real-time, and low-cost method for monitoring fluid displacement in subsurface reservoirs.

  13. Smart waterflooding in carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, A.

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior in porous media. The main conclusion of most previous studies was that it is the rock wettability alteration towards more water wetting condition that helps improving the oil recovery. In the first step of this project, we focused on verifying this conclusion. Coreflooding experiments were carried out using Stevens Klint outcrop chalk core plugs with brines without sulfate, as well as brines containing sulfate in different concentrations. The effects of temperature, injection rate, crude oil composition and different sulfate concentrations on the total oil recovery and the recovery rate were investigated. Experimental results clearly indicate improvement of the oil recovery without wettability alteration. At the second step of this project, we studied crude oil/brine interactions under different temperatures, pressures and salinity conditions in order to understand mechanisms behind the high salinity waterflooding. Our results show, in particular that sulfate ions may help decreasing the crude oil viscosity or formation of, seemingly, an emulsion phase between sulfate-enriched brine and oil at high temperature and pressure. Experimental results indicate that crude oils interact differently with the same brine solutions regarding phase behavior and viscosity measurements. This difference is attributed to the difference in composition of the different crude oils. More experiments

  14. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  16. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase

  17. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated

  18. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  19. A Simple Approach to Dynamic Material Balance in Gas-Condensate Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari Sureshjani M.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In traditional material balance calculations, shut-in well pressure data are used to determine average reservoir pressure while recent techniques do not require the well to be shut-in and use instead flowing well pressure-rate data. These methods, which are known as “dynamic” material balance, are developed for single-phase flow (oil or gas in reservoirs. However, utilization of such methods for gas-condensate reservoirs may create significant errors in prediction of average reservoir pressure due to violation of the single-phase assumption in such reservoirs. In a previous work, a method for production data analysis in gas-condensate reservoirs was developed. The method required standard gas production rate, producing gas-oil ratio, flowing well pressure, CVD data and relative permeability curves. This paper presents a new technique which does not need relative permeability curves and flowing well pressure. In this method, the producing oil-gas ratio is interpolated in the vaporized oil in gas phase (Rv versus pressure (p data in the CVD table and the corresponding pressure is located. The parameter pressure/two-phase deviation factor (p/ztp is then evaluated at the determined pressure points and is plotted versus produced moles (np which forms a straight line. The nature of this plot is such that its extrapolation to point where p/ztp = 0 will give initial moles in place. Putting initial pressure/initial two-phase deviation factor (pi/ztp,i (known parameter and estimated initial moles (ni into the material balance equation, average reservoir pressure can be determined. A main assumption behind the method is that the region where both gas and condensate phases are mobile is of negligible size compared to the reservoir. The approach is quite simple and calculations are much easier than the previous work. It provides a practical engineering tool for industry studies as it requires data which are generally available in normal production

  20. Investigation on behavior of bacteria in reservoir for microbial enhanced oil recovery; Biseibutsuho (MEOR) no tameno yusonai saikin katsudo ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M.; Nakaya, K. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Research Center; Maezumi, S.; Yazawa, N. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Hong, C.; Chida, T.; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Behavior of bacteria activated in reservoir though molasses-injection-tests, was investigated using the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) method, for elucidating potential bacteria to suppress in situ growth of microbes to be injected into the reservoir in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process. As a result, some bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae species or their close relative species were grown predominantly in the reservoir, among bacteria inhibiting in the ground-water. The foregoing indicates that behavior of these bacteria in reservoir must be taken into consideration when giving a full account of behavior of microbes to be injected into the reservoir to put the MEOR process into operation. Potential proliferation using molasses to activate those bacteria was also estimated on the laboratory tests, to clarify the growth of microbes to be injected into the reservoir to operate the MEOR process. In consequence, it became clear that these bacteria have a potential growth exceeding 10{sup 8} CFU/ml, utilizing molasses. These facts indicated that microbes to be injected into the reservoir at the MEOR field tests are necessary to grow more excellently than bacteria inhabiting in the ground-water. In addition, as flow, the injection fluid is influenced by reservoir heterogeneity caused by injection of molasses, it was inferred that microbes to be injected into the reservoir at the MEOR field process are also necessary to grow more remarkably than bacteria inhabiting in the reservoir brine at high permeability zones and bacteria inhabiting in the reservoir rock. Furthermore, the results of the functional testing for MEOR conducted in the presence of bacteria activated through molasses-injection-tests indicated the importance of effective use of microbes to be injected, taking into account the characteristics of the reservoir and function for MEOR of those microbes. (author)

  1. Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Annual report, March 7, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dershowitz, W.S.; La Pointe, P.R.; Einstein, H.H.; Ivanova, V.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes progress on the project, {open_quotes}Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies{close_quotes} during the period March 7, 1996 to February 28, 1997. The report presents summaries of technology development for the following research areas: (1) development of hierarchical fracture models, (2) fractured reservoir compartmentalization and tributary volume, (3) fractured reservoir data analysis, and (4) integration of fractured reservoir data and production technologies. In addition, the report provides information on project status, publications submitted, data collection activities, and technology transfer through the world wide web (WWW). Research on hierarchical fracture models included geological, mathematical, and computer code development. The project built a foundation of quantitative, geological and geometrical information about the regional geology of the Permian Basin, including detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and fracturing of Permian rocks in the project study area (Tracts 17 and 49 in the Yates field). Based on the accumulated knowledge of regional and local geology, project team members started the interpretation of fracture genesis mechanisms and the conceptual modeling of the fracture system in the study area. Research on fractured reservoir compartmentalization included basic research, technology development, and application of compartmentalized reservoir analyses for the project study site. Procedures were developed to analyze compartmentalization, tributary drainage volume, and reservoir matrix block size. These algorithms were implemented as a Windows 95 compartmentalization code, FraCluster.

  2. Quantification of Interbasin Transfers into the Addicks Reservoir during Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, A.; Juan, A.; Gori, A.; Maulsby, F.; Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Between August 25 and 30, Hurricane Harvey dropped unprecedented rainfall over southeast Texas causing widespread flooding in the City of Houston. Water levels in the Addicks and Barker reservoirs, built in the 1940s to protect downtown Houston, exceeded previous records by approximately 2 meters. Concerns regarding structural integrity of the dams and damage to neighbourhoods in within the reservoir pool resulted in controlled releases into Buffalo Bayou, flooding an estimated 4,000 additional structures downstream of the dams. In 2016, during the Tax Day it became apparent that overflows from Cypress Creek in northern Harris County substantially contribute to water levels in Addicks. Prior to this event, little was known about the hydrodynamics of this overflow area or about the additional stress placed on Addicks and Barker reservoirs due to the volume of overflow. However, this information is critical for determining flood risk in Addicks Watershed, and ultimately Buffalo Bayou. In this study, we utilize the recently developed HEC-RAS 2D model the interbasin transfer that occurs between Cypress Creek Watershed and Addicks Reservoir to quantify the volume and rate at which water from Cypress enters the reservoir during extreme events. Ultimately, the results of this study will help inform the official hydrologic models used by HCFCD to determine reservoir operation during future storm events and better inform residents living in or above the reservoir pool about their potential flood risk.

  3. Review on applications of artificial intelligence methods for dam and reservoir-hydro-environment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allawi, Mohammed Falah; Jaafar, Othman; Mohamad Hamzah, Firdaus; Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura Syed; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Efficacious operation for dam and reservoir system could guarantee not only a defenselessness policy against natural hazard but also identify rule to meet the water demand. Successful operation of dam and reservoir systems to ensure optimal use of water resources could be unattainable without accurate and reliable simulation models. According to the highly stochastic nature of hydrologic parameters, developing accurate predictive model that efficiently mimic such a complex pattern is an increasing domain of research. During the last two decades, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been significantly utilized for attaining a robust modeling to handle different stochastic hydrological parameters. AI techniques have also shown considerable progress in finding optimal rules for reservoir operation. This review research explores the history of developing AI in reservoir inflow forecasting and prediction of evaporation from a reservoir as the major components of the reservoir simulation. In addition, critical assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of integrated AI simulation methods with optimization methods has been reported. Future research on the potential of utilizing new innovative methods based AI techniques for reservoir simulation and optimization models have also been discussed. Finally, proposal for the new mathematical procedure to accomplish the realistic evaluation of the whole optimization model performance (reliability, resilience, and vulnerability indices) has been recommended.

  4. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  5. The role of anxiety in golf putting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Ian; MacNamara, Aine; Shafat, Amir; Dunphy, Orla; Murphy, Sinead; O'Connor, Kenneth; Ryan, Tara; Waldron, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed INTRODUCTION: Anxiety???s influence on performance continues to be one of the main research interests for sport psychologists (Hanin, 2000). It is apparent, though, that there is a lack of empirical research characterising the multi-disciplinary effect of anxiety on sports performance. The current study aimed to ascertain biomechanical (accuracy, movement variability) and psychological (anxiety) markers to determine how anxiety affects golf putting. METHOD: 22 healthy s...

  6. Distance and slope constraints: adaptation and variability in golf putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Gonçalo; Couceiro, Micael S; Barreiros, João; Clemente, Filipe M; Mendes, Rui; Martins, Fernando M

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to understand the adaptation to external constraints and the effects of variability in a golf putting task. We describe the adaptation of relevant variables of golf putting to the distance to the hole and to the addition of a slope. The sample consisted of 10 adult male (33.80 ± 11.89 years), volunteers, right handed and highly skilled golfers with an average handicap of 10.82. Each player performed 30 putts at distances of 2, 3 and 4 meters (90 trials in Condition 1). The participants also performed 90 trials, at the same distances, with a constraint imposed by a slope (Condition 2). The results indicate that the players change some parameters to adjust to the task constraints, namely the duration of the backswing phase, the speed of the club head and the acceleration at the moment of impact with the ball. The effects of different golf putting distances in the no-slope condition on different kinematic variables suggest a linear adjustment to distance variation that was not observed when in the slope condition.

  7. Putting lexical constraints in context into the visual-world paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Jared M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Trueswell, John C

    2008-06-01

    Prior eye-tracking studies of spoken sentence comprehension have found that the presence of two potential referents, e.g., two frogs, can guide listeners toward a Modifier interpretation of Put the frog on the napkin... despite strong lexical biases associated with Put that support a Goal interpretation of the temporary ambiguity (Tanenhaus, M. K., Spivey-Knowlton, M. J., Eberhard, K. M. & Sedivy, J. C. (1995). Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension. Science, 268, 1632-1634; Trueswell, J. C., Sekerina, I., Hill, N. M. & Logrip, M. L. (1999). The kindergarten-path effect: Studying on-line sentence processing in young children. Cognition, 73, 89-134). This pattern is not expected under constraint-based parsing theories: cue conflict between the lexical evidence (which supports the Goal analysis) and the visuo-contextual evidence (which supports the Modifier analysis) should result in uncertainty about the intended analysis and partial consideration of the Goal analysis. We reexamined these put studies (Experiment 1) by introducing a response time-constraint and a spatial contrast between competing referents (a frog on a napkin vs. a frog in a bowl). If listeners immediately interpret on the... as the start of a restrictive modifier, then their eye movements should rapidly converge on the intended referent (the frog on something). However, listeners showed this pattern only when the phrase was unambiguously a Modifier (Put the frog that's on the...). Syntactically ambiguous trials resulted in transient consideration of the Competitor animal (the frog in something). A reading study was also run on the same individuals (Experiment 2) and performance was compared between the two experiments. Those individuals who relied heavily on lexical biases to resolve a complement ambiguity in reading (The man heard/realized the story had been...) showed increased sensitivity to both lexical and contextual constraints in the put-task; i

  8. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  9. A method for the assessment of long-term changes in carbon stock by construction of a hydropower reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Julio Werner Yoshioka; Mannich, Michael; Hilgert, Stephan; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Bleninger, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Sustainability of hydropower reservoirs has been questioned since the detection of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are mainly composed of carbon dioxide and methane. A method to assess the impact on the carbon cycle caused by the transition from a natural river system into a reservoir is presented and discussed. The method evaluates the long term changes in carbon stock instead of the current approach of monitoring and integrating continuous short term fluxes. A case study was conducted in a subtropical reservoir in Brazil, showing that the carbon content within the reservoir exceeds that of the previous landuse. The average carbon sequestration over 43 years since damming was 895 mg C m[Formula: see text] and found to be mainly due to storage of carbon in sediments. These results demonstrate that reservoirs have two opposite effects on the balance of GHGs. By storing organic C in sediments, reservoirs are an important carbon sink. On the other hand, reservoirs increase the flux of methane into the atmosphere. If the sediments of reservoirs could be used for long term C storage, reservoirs might have a positive effect on the balance of GHGs.

  10. Assessment of disturbance at three spatial scales in two large tropical reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Morais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large reservoirs are an increasingly common feature across tropical landscapes because of their importance for water supply, flood control and hydropower, but their ecological conditions are infrequently evaluated. Our objective was to assess the range of disturbances for two large tropical reservoirs and their influences on benthic macroinvertebrates. We tested three hypotheses: i a wide variation in the level of environmental disturbance can be observed among sites in the reservoirs; ii the two reservoirs would exhibit a different degree of disturbance level; and iii the magnitude of disturbance would influence the structure and composition of benthic assemblages. For each reservoir, we assessed land use (macroscale, physical habitat structure (mesoscale, and water quality (microscale. We sampled 40 sites in the littoral zones of both Três Marias and São Simão Reservoirs (Minas Gerais, Brazil. At the macroscale, we measured cover percentages of land use categories in buffer areas at each site, where each buffer was a circular arc of 250 m. At the mesoscale, we assessed the presence of human disturbances in the riparian and drawdown zones at the local (site scale. At the microscale, we assessed water quality at each macroinvertebrate sampling station using the Micro Disturbance Index (MDI. To evaluate anthropogenic disturbance of each site, we calculated an integrated disturbance index (IDI from a buffer disturbance index (BDI and a local disturbance index (LDI. For each site, we calculated richness and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae genera richness, abundance and percent Chironomidae individuals, abundance and percent EPT individuals, richness and percent EPT taxa, abundance and percent resistant individuals, and abundance and percent non-native individuals. We also evaluated the influence of disturbance on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages at the entire-reservoir scale. The BDI, LDI and IDI had significantly

  11. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  12. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    brine solutions regarding phase behavior and viscosity measurements. This difference is attributed to the difference in composition of the different crude oils. More experiments are carried out in order to understand mechanisms of the crude oil viscosity reduction and emulsion formation. We observed...... with and without aging. The total oil recovery, recovery rate and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injected fluids under different temperatures and wettability conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that the oil recovery mechanism under high salinity seawater flooding...... phase could be the possible reasons for the observed increase in oil recovery with sulfate ions at high temperature in chalk reservoirs, besides the mechanism of the rock wettability alteration. * Crude oil/brine interaction study suggests that viscosity reduction for crude oil in contact with brine...

  13. Reservoirs talk to pressure recorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamenter, C B

    1968-02-01

    Keeping pace with increased demand for efficiency in secondary recovery schemes is the widening use of downhole tools charged with supplying data before and during the operation of the projects. One of the most important of these is the pressure recorder. This highly sensitive instrument, housed in a tough, slim steel case and lowered by drill pipe or cable, accurately measures the pressure of its downhole environment. This information is instantly available at the surface whenever a pressure reading is required. Typical applications of surface recorders often contribute are: (1) production practices such as checking surface and subsurface equipment, and special lifting problems; (2) well conditions including regular productivity indices, data observations and for interference studies; (3) secondary recovery projects, in both producing and injection wells; and (4) reservoir conditions where oil-water contacts and damaged zones need close attention.

  14. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...... the uid ow. We discretize the the two-phase ow model spatially using the nite volume method (FVM), and we use the two point ux approximation (TPFA) and the single-point upstream (SPU) scheme for computing the uxes. We propose a new formulation of the differential equation system that arise...... as a consequence of the spatial discretization of the two-phase ow model. Upon discretization in time, the proposed equation system ensures the mass conserving property of the two-phase ow model. For the solution of the spatially discretized two-phase ow model, we develop mass conserving explicit singly diagonally...

  15. 3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul R.; Hermanson, Jan

    2002-09-09

    The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models.

  16. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  17. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs.

  18. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  19. Estimating Western U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensching, L.; Livneh, B.; Greimann, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    Reservoir sedimentation is a long-term problem for water management across the Western U.S. Observations of sedimentation are limited to reservoir surveys that are costly and infrequent, with many reservoirs having only two or fewer surveys. This work aims to apply a recently developed ensemble of sediment algorithms to estimate reservoir sedimentation over several western U.S. reservoirs. The sediment algorithms include empirical, conceptual, stochastic, and processes based approaches and are coupled with a hydrologic modeling framework. Preliminary results showed that the more complex and processed based algorithms performed better in predicting high sediment flux values and in a basin transferability experiment. However, more testing and validation is required to confirm sediment model skill. This work is carried out in partnership with the Bureau of Reclamation with the goal of evaluating the viability of reservoir sediment yield prediction across the western U.S. using a multi-algorithm approach. Simulations of streamflow and sediment fluxes are validated against observed discharges, as well as a Reservoir Sedimentation Information database that is being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Specific goals of this research include (i) quantifying whether inter-algorithm differences consistently capture observational variability; (ii) identifying whether certain categories of models consistently produce the best results, (iii) assessing the expected sedimentation life-span of several western U.S. reservoirs through long-term simulations.

  20. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  1. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  2. Monitoring programme of water reservoir Grliste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuckovic, M; Milenkovic, P.; Lukic, D.

    2002-01-01

    The quality of surface waters is a very important problem incorporated in the environment protection, especially in water resources. The Timok border-land hasn't got sufficient underground and surface waters. This is certificated by the International Association for Water Resource. That was reason for building the water reservoir 'Grliste'. Drinking water from water reservoir 'Grliste' supplies Zajecar and the surroundings. (author)

  3. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  4. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...

  5. Reservoir model for the Alameda Central waterflood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, T E

    1968-01-01

    The basic approach used in developing the model to characterize the Alameda Central Unit Waterflood assumes continuity of the reservoir mechanics with time. The past performance was analyzed to describe the reservoir and future performance was assumed to follow the established patterns. To develop a mathematical picture of the Alameda Central Unit reservoir, a two-dimensional single-phase steady-state model was used in conjunction with material balance calculations, real-time conversion methods and oil-water interface advance calculations. The model was developed to optimize water injection allocation, determine the configuration of the frontal advance and evaluate the success of the waterflood. The model also provides a basis for continuing review and revision of the basic concepts of reservoir operation. The results of the reservoir study have confirmed the apparent lack of permeability orientation in the pool and indicate that the waterflood is progressing better than originally anticipated.

  6. Monitoring Vertical Crustal Deformation and Gravity Variations during Water Level Changes at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level changes at the Three Gorges reservoir is important for the safe operation of the Three Gorges Dam and for the monitoring and prevention of a regional geological disaster. In this study, we determined vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the Three Gorges reservoir from direct calculations and actual measurements and a comprehensive solution. We used water areas extracted image data from the ZY-3 satellite and water level data to calculate gravity changes and vertical crustal deformation caused by every 5 m change in the water level due to storage and drainage of the Three Gorges reservoir from 145 m to 175 m. The vertical crustal deformation was up to 30 mm. The location of gravity change above 20 μ Gal(1 Gal=10-2 m/s2 was less than 2 km from the centerline of the Yangtze River. The CORS ES13 in Badong, near the reservoir, measured the vertical crustal deformation during water level changes. Because of the small number of CORS and gravity stations in the Three Gorges reservoir area, monitoring deformation and gravity related to changes in the Three Gorges reservoir water level cannot be closely followed. Using 26 CORS and some of the gravity stations in the Three Gorges area and based on loading deformation and the spherical harmonic analysis method, an integrated solution of vertical deformation and gravity variations during water level changes of the reservoir was determined, which is consistent with the actual CORS monitoring results. By comparison, we found that an integrated solution based on a CORS network can effectively enhance the capability of monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the reservoir.

  7. The Alphabet Soup of HIV Reservoir Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Radwa R; Li, Jonathan Z

    2017-04-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy in suppressing HIV, life-long therapy is required to avoid HIV reactivation from long-lived viral reservoirs. Currently, there is intense interest in searching for therapeutic interventions that can purge the viral reservoir to achieve complete remission in HIV patients off antiretroviral therapy. The evaluation of such interventions relies on our ability to accurately and precisely measure the true size of the viral reservoir. In this review, we assess the most commonly used HIV reservoir assays, as a clear understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each is vital for the accurate interpretation of results and for the development of improved assays. The quantification of intracellular or plasma HIV RNA or DNA levels remains the most commonly used tests for the characterization of the viral reservoir. While cost-effective and high-throughput, these assays are not able to differentiate between replication-competent or defective fractions or quantify the number of infected cells. Viral outgrowth assays provide a lower bound for the fraction of cells that can produce infectious virus, but these assays are laborious, expensive and substantially underestimate the potential reservoir of replication-competent provirus. Newer assays are now available that seek to overcome some of these problems, including full-length proviral sequencing, inducible HIV RNA assays, ultrasensitive p24 assays and murine adoptive transfer techniques. The development and evaluation of strategies for HIV remission rely upon our ability to accurately and precisely quantify the size of the remaining viral reservoir. At this time, all current HIV reservoir assays have drawbacks such that combinations of assays are generally needed to gain a more comprehensive view of the viral reservoir. The development of novel, rapid, high-throughput assays that can sensitively quantify the levels of the replication-competent HIV reservoir is still needed.

  8. Reservoir Identification: Parameter Characterization or Feature Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The ultimate goal of oil and gas exploration is to find the oil or gas reservoirs with industrial mining value. Therefore, the core task of modern oil and gas exploration is to identify oil or gas reservoirs on the seismic profiles. Traditionally, the reservoir is identify by seismic inversion of a series of physical parameters such as porosity, saturation, permeability, formation pressure, and so on. Due to the heterogeneity of the geological medium, the approximation of the inversion model and the incompleteness and noisy of the data, the inversion results are highly uncertain and must be calibrated or corrected with well data. In areas where there are few wells or no well, reservoir identification based on seismic inversion is high-risk. Reservoir identification is essentially a classification issue. In the identification process, the underground rocks are divided into reservoirs with industrial mining value and host rocks with non-industrial mining value. In addition to the traditional physical parameters classification, the classification may be achieved using one or a few comprehensive features. By introducing the concept of seismic-print, we have developed a new reservoir identification method based on seismic-print analysis. Furthermore, we explore the possibility to use deep leaning to discover the seismic-print characteristics of oil and gas reservoirs. Preliminary experiments have shown that the deep learning of seismic data could distinguish gas reservoirs from host rocks. The combination of both seismic-print analysis and seismic deep learning is expected to be a more robust reservoir identification method. The work was supported by NSFC under grant No. 41430323 and No. U1562219, and the National Key Research and Development Program under Grant No. 2016YFC0601

  9. Studying Operation Rules of Cascade Reservoirs Based on Multi-Dimensional Dynamics Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many optimization models and methods are applied to the optimization of reservoir operation at present, the optimal operation decision that is made through these models and methods is just a retrospective review. Due to the limitation of hydrological prediction accuracy, it is practical and feasible to obtain the suboptimal or satisfactory solution by the established operation rules in the actual reservoir operation, especially for the mid- and long-term operation. In order to obtain the optimized sample data with global optimality; and make the extracted operation rules more reasonable and reliable, this paper presents the multi-dimensional dynamic programming model of the optimal joint operation of cascade reservoirs and provides the corresponding recursive equation and the specific solving steps. Taking Li Xianjiang cascade reservoirs as a case study, seven uncertain problems in the whole operation period of the cascade reservoirs are summarized after a detailed analysis to the obtained optimal sample data, and two sub-models are put forward to solve these uncertain problems. Finally, by dividing the whole operation period into four characteristic sections, this paper extracts the operation rules of each reservoir for each section respectively. When compared the simulation results of the extracted operation rules with the conventional joint operation method; the result indicates that the power generation of the obtained rules has a certain degree of improvement both in inspection years and typical years (i.e., wet year; normal year and dry year. So, the rationality and effectiveness of the extracted operation rules are verified by the comparative analysis.

  10. Recovery Act: Understanding the Impact of CO2 Injection on the Subsurface Microbial Community in an Illinois Basin CCS Reservoir: Integrated Student Training in Geoscience and Geomicrobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouke, Bruce [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    An integrated research and teaching program was developed to provide cross--disciplinary training opportunities in the emerging field of carbon capture and storage (CCS) for geobiology students attending the University of Illinois Urbana-­Champaign (UIUC). Students from across the UIUC campus participated, including those from the departments of Geology, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Animal Sciences and the Institute for Genomic Biology. The project took advantage of the unique opportunity provided by the drilling and sampling of the large-­scale Phase III CCS demonstration Illinois Basin - Decatur Project (IBDP) in the central Illinois Basin at nearby Decatur, Illinois. The IBPD is under the direction of the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS, located on the UIUC campus) and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). The research component of this project focused on the subsurface sampling and identification of microbes inhabiting the subsurface Cambrian-­age Mt. Simon Sandstone. In addition to formation water collected from the injection and monitoring wells, sidewall rock cores were collected and analyzed to characterize the cements and diagenetic features of the host Mt. Simon Sandstone. This established a dynamic geobiological framework, as well as a comparative baseline, for future studies of how CO2 injection might affect the deep microbial biosphere at other CCS sites. Three manuscripts have been prepared as a result of these activities, which are now being finalized for submission to top-­tier international peer-­reviewed research journals. The training component of this project was structured to ensure that a broad group of UIUC students, faculty and staff gained insight into CCS issues. An essential part of this training was that the UIUC faculty mentored and involved undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdocs and research scientists, at all stages of the project in order

  11. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Quarterly progress report, April 1 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1997-03-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The main challenge of the proposed research is to automate the generation of detailed reservoir descriptions honoring all the available {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}hard{close_quotes} data that ranges from qualitative and semi-quantitative geological interpretations to numeric data obtained from cores, well tests, well logs and production statistics. It involves significant amount of information exchange between researchers in geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering. Computer science (and artificial intelligence) provides the means to effectively acquire, integrate and automate the key expertise in the various disciplines in a reservoir characterization expert system. Additional challenges are the verification and validation of the expert system, since much of the interpretation of the experts is based on extended experience in reservoir characterization. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an Al-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an Al-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data.

  12. Carbon dioxide removal and tradeable put options at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Andrew; Coffman, D.’Maris

    2018-05-01

    Options are derivative contracts that give the purchaser the right to buy (call options) or sell (put options) a given underlying asset at a particular price at a future date. The purchaser of a put option may exercise the right to sell the asset to the issuer at any point in the future before the expiration of the contract. These rights may be contracted directly between two parties (i.e. over-the-counter), or may be sold publicly on formal exchanges, such as the Chicago Board Options Exchange. If the latter, they are called tradeable put options (TPOs) because they can be bought and sold by third-parties via a secondary market. The World Bank has a Pilot Auction Facility for methane and carbon mediation which uses TPOs in carbon-relevant markets, giving producers (of e.g. forest restoration) a floor price for their product [1]. This enables long-term producer planning. We discuss the potentially broader use of these options contracts in carbon dioxide removal (CDR) markets generally and at scale. We conclude that they can, if priced correctly, encourage rapid investment both in CDR technology and in operational capacity. TPOs could do this without creating the same type of systemic risk associated with other instruments (e.g. long-dated futures). Nevertheless, the widespread use of such instruments potentially creates novel risks. These include the political risk of premature closure [2] (conventionally rendered as ‘counting your chickens before they are hatched’) and the economic risk of overpaying for carbon removal services. These instruments require careful structuring, and do not inoculate the CDR market against regulatory disruption, or political pressure. Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of TPO markets in CDR, but we urge caution in respect of identified risks.

  13. Reservoir safety, politics and conflict resolution : a British experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.

    1998-01-01

    The flooding problem in southwest England, in particular at Somerset, Bruton, was discussed. Recent research has shown that the reservoir spillways in the area may have been underdesigned. A study was conducted in the late 1970s of the local rainfall data in order to determine whether the Bruton area is subject to an increase in severe rainfall and to determine the design of the dam. The probable maximum flood was calculated using the flood studies report method and was found to be 240 m 3 /s. The spillway was designed accordingly and the dam was constructed in 1984. Later, the probable maximum flood was recalculated using different assumptions and the new value obtained was 360 m 3 /s, an increase of 50 per cent over the original value. A subsequent report by a consulting engineering firm pointed out that some overtopping of the dam crest would have to take place and that the integrity of the dam would have to be maintained by the cover of the grass present. This, and other examples illustrate that reservoir design is not always the result of scientific research designed to prevent future reservoir failures, but that it is driven by political considerations, evolving in response to failures of existing structures. The situation remains unresolved to date, due to hesitation on the part of the Environment Agency, the Institute of Hydrology, and the Department of Environment and Transport to discuss and consider the conflicting results of the new research. 19 refs

  14. Daily reservoir inflow forecasting combining QPF into ANNs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Cheng, Chun-Tian; Liao, Sheng-Li; Wu, Xin-Yu; Shen, Jian-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Daily reservoir inflow predictions with lead-times of several days are essential to the operational planning and scheduling of hydroelectric power system. The demand for quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) is increasing in hydropower operation with the dramatic advances in the numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This paper presents a simple and an effective algorithm for daily reservoir inflow predictions which solicits the observed precipitation, forecasted precipitation from QPF as predictors and discharges in following 1 to 6 days as predicted targets for multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP-ANNs) modeling. An improved error back-propagation algorithm with self-adaptive learning rate and self-adaptive momentum coefficient is used to make the supervised training procedure more efficient in both time saving and search optimization. Several commonly used error measures are employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed model and the results, compared with that of ARIMA model, show that the proposed model is capable of obtaining satisfactory forecasting not only in goodness of fit but also in generalization. Furthermore, the presented algorithm is integrated into a practical software system which has been severed for daily inflow predictions with lead-times varying from 1 to 6 days of more than twenty reservoirs operated by the Fujian Province Grid Company, China.

  15. Electro-magnetic heating in viscous oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper discussed electromagnetic (EM) heating techniques for primary and secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Ohmic, induction, and formation resistive heating techniques were discussed. Issues related to energy equivalence and hardware requirements were reviewed. Challenges related to heat losses in vertical wellbores, well integrity, and galvanic corrosion were also outlined. A pair of 1500 foot horizontal wells in a heavy oil reservoir were then modelled in order to optimize EM recovery processes. DC current was used in a base case water flood run. Electrical conductivities were measured. The model was converted to a homogenous model in order to study injector and producer electrodes. The study showed that reservoir resistance was low, and most of the heating took place near the electrode area where electric lines diverged or converged. Results of the study suggested that EM heating in formations is not as efficient as steam-based processes. Accurate simulations of EM heating processes within reservoirs are difficult to obtain, as the amounts of estimated heat input are sensitive to grid refinement. It was concluded that hot spots in the EM electrodes have also caused failures in other field applications and studies. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Can operations put the MPS into an unsafe state?

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, L

    2011-01-01

    During the 2010 run, the MPS have been additionally stressed by the commissioning of operational procedures and systems tests. As requested by the MPS external review committee, human factors have to be further minimized and discipline reinforced when increasing the stored beam energies towards and beyond the 2010 target of 30 MJ. This talk will present a synthesis of the Evian discussion on MPS and human factors, with an emphasis on the tools and procedures to be put in place for the 2011 run in order to ensure the machine safety during standard beam operation and after periods of machine developments or technical stops.

  17. The Human Dimension: Putting the Person into Personalised Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Rob

    2017-04-01

    Technological advances enabling us to personalise medical interventions at the biological level must be matched by parallel advances in how we support the informed choices essential to patient and public participation. We cannot take participation for granted. To be truly personalised, medicine must take account of the perceptions and capabilities that shape participation. To do this, we need a better understanding of how people perceive personalised medicine and how they judge its value and risks. To realise the promise of 4P medicine we need to personalise at the psychosocial as well as biological dimension, putting the person into personalised medicine.

  18. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Oil Reservoirs Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea

    expensive gradient computation by using high-order ESDIRK (Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta) temporal integration methods and continuous adjoints. The high order integration scheme allows larger time steps and therefore faster solution times. We compare gradient computation by the continuous...... gradient-based optimization and the required gradients are computed by the adjoint method. We propose the use of efficient high order implicit time integration methods for the solution of the forward and the adjoint equations of the dynamical model. The Ensemble Kalman filter is used for data assimilation...... equivalent strategy is not justified for the particular case studied in this paper. The third contribution of this thesis is a mean-variance method for risk mitigation in production optimization of oil reservoirs. We introduce a return-risk bicriterion objective function for the profit-risk tradeoff...

  19. Seismic Modeling Of Reservoir Heterogeneity Scales: An Application To Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Bellefleur, G.; Milkereit, B.

    2008-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates, a type of inclusion compound or clathrate, are composed of gas molecules trapped within a cage of water molecules. The occurrence of gas hydrates in permafrost regions has been confirmed by core samples recovered from the Mallik gas hydrate research wells located within Mackenzie Delta in Northwest Territories of Canada. Strong vertical variations of compressional and shear sonic velocities and weak surface seismic expressions of gas hydrates indicate that lithological heterogeneities control the distribution of hydrates. Seismic scattering studies predict that typical scales and strong physical contrasts due to gas hydrate concentration will generate strong forward scattering, leaving only weak energy captured by surface receivers. In order to understand the distribution of hydrates and the seismic scattering effects, an algorithm was developed to construct heterogeneous petrophysical reservoir models. The algorithm was based on well logs showing power law features and Gaussian or Non-Gaussian probability density distribution, and was designed to honor the whole statistical features of well logs such as the characteristic scales and the correlation among rock parameters. Multi-dimensional and multi-variable heterogeneous models representing the same statistical properties were constructed and applied to the heterogeneity analysis of gas hydrate reservoirs. The petrophysical models provide the platform to estimate rock physics properties as well as to study the impact of seismic scattering, wave mode conversion, and their integration on wave behavior in heterogeneous reservoirs. Using the Biot-Gassmann theory, the statistical parameters obtained from Mallik 5L-38, and the correlation length estimated from acoustic impedance inversion, gas hydrate volume fraction in Mallik area was estimated to be 1.8%, approximately 2x108 m3 natural gas stored in a hydrate bearing interval within 0.25 km2 lateral extension and between 889 m and 1115 m depth

  20. Geological and Petrophysical Characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D Simulation of a Fluvial-Deltaic Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr, Thomas C.

    2001-10-31

    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone project was to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization f fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Quantitative geological and petrophysical information on the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah was collected. Both new and existing data was integrated into a three-dimensional model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations.

  1. Economic and social importance of dam reservoirs – a study of the Soła River cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jaguś

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the functions of dam reservoirs in terms of their socioeconomic usefulness. Three dam reservoirs of the Soła cascade were chosen (Tresna, Porąbka, Czaniec as the example that are located in the southern part of Silesian Provence. The cascade is an integrated retention system, but particular reservoirs have different functions. The role of reservoirs in flood protection (Tresna, Porąbka, drinking water supply (Czaniec, electricity production (Porąbka/Porąbka-Żar, recreation (Porąbka, Tresna, supply of rock aggregate (Tresna was depicted as well. The high importance of the cascade for economic development of the region was demonstrated. Finally, the controversies about the construction and utility of dam reservoirs were discussed.

  2. Alien fish species in reservoir systems in Turkey: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Innal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s natural river systems have been anthropogenically altered in the past century. Native fish communities of river systems have comeunder increasing pressure from water engineering projects, pollution, overfishing and the movements of alien fish species. Introduction ofalien fishes is one of the main threats to the survival and genetic integrity of native fishes around the world. In Turkey, alien freshwater fish are continuing to increase in number of species, abundance, and distribution. The present paper reviews fish stocking studies in Turkey’s reservoirs.

  3. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  4. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted...... of the future risk of outbreaks in the Nordic countries. DTU Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous risk assessment of potential spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. Mathematical models for selected vector borne diseases are continuously updated...

  5. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  6. CO2/ brine substitution experiments at simulated reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Juliane; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Capillary properties of rocks affect the mobility of fluids in a reservoir. Therefore, the understanding of the capillary pressure behaviour is essential to assess the long-term behaviour of CO2 reservoirs. Beyond this, a calibration of the petrophysical properties on water saturation of reservoir rocks at simulated in situ conditions is crucial for a proper interpretation of field monitoring data. We present a set-up, which allows for the combined measurements of capillary pressure, electric resistivity, and elastic wave velocities under controlled reservoir conditions (pconf = 400 bar, ppore = 180 bar, T = 65 ° C) at different brine-CO2 saturations. The capillary properties of the samples are measured using the micropore membrane technique. The sample is jacketed with a Viton tube (thickness = 4 mm) and placed between two current electrode endcaps, which as well contain pore fluid ports and ultrasonic P and S wave transducers. Between the sample and the lower endcap the hydrophilic semi-permeable micro-pore membrane (pore size = 100 nm) is integrated. It is embedded into filter papers to establish a good capillary contact and to protect the highly sensitive membrane against mechanical damage under load. Two high-precision syringe pumps are used to displace a quantified volume of brine by CO2 and determine the corresponding sample saturation. The fluid displacement induces a pressure gradient along the sample, which corresponds to the capillary pressure at a particular sample saturation. It is measured with a differential pressure sensor in the range between 0 - 0.2 MPa. Drainage and imbibition cycles are performed to provide information on the efficiency of capillary trapping and to get a calibration of the petrophysical parameters of the sample.

  7. Optimal Operation of Hydropower Reservoirs under Climate Change: The Case of Tekeze Reservoir, Eastern Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikru Fentaw Abera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of reservoirs is very essential for water resource planning and management, but it is very challenging and complicated when dealing with climate change impacts. The objective of this paper was to assess existing and future hydropower operation at the Tekeze reservoir in the face of climate change. In this study, a calibrated and validated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to model runoff inflow into the Tekeze hydropower reservoir under present and future climate scenarios. Inflow to the reservoir was simulated using hydro-climatic data from an ensemble of downscaled climate data based on the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment over African domain (CORDEX-Africa with Coupled Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 simulations under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Observed and projected inflows to Tekeze hydropower reservoir were used as input to the US Army Corps of Engineer’s Reservoir Evaluation System Perspective Reservoir Model (HEC-ResPRM, a reservoir operation model, to optimize hydropower reservoir release, storage and pool level. Results indicated that climate change has a clear impact on reservoir inflow and showed increase in annual and monthly inflow into the reservoir except in dry months from May to June under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. HEC-ResPRM optimal operation results showed an increase in Tekeze reservoir power storage potential up to 25% and 30% under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios, respectively. This implies that Tekeze hydropower production will be affected by climate change. This analysis can be used by water resources planners and mangers to develop reservoir operation techniques considering climate change impact to increase power production.

  8. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery methods have become significant in the industry\\'s drive to increase recovery rates from oil and gas reservoirs. For heavy oil reservoirs, the immobility of the oil at reservoir temperatures, caused by its high viscosity, limits the recovery rates and strains the economic viability of these fields. While thermal recovery methods, such as steam injection or THAI, have extensively been applied in the field, their success has so far been limited due to prohibitive heat losses and the difficulty in controlling the combustion process. Electromagnetic (EM) heating via high-frequency EM radiation has attracted attention due to its wide applicability in different environments, its efficiency, and the improved controllability of the heating process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase recovery rates. Limited research has been undertaken so far to capture the nonlinear reservoir dynamics and significantly varying flow rates for thermally heated heavy oil reservoir that may notably change production rates and render conventional history matching frameworks more challenging. We present a new history matching framework for EM heated heavy oil reservoirs incorporating cross-well seismic imaging. Interfacing an EM heating solver to a reservoir simulator via Andrade’s equation, we couple the system to an ensemble Kalman filter based history matching framework incorporating a cross-well seismic survey module. With increasing power levels and heating applied to the heavy oil reservoirs, reservoir dynamics change considerably and may lead to widely differing production forecasts and increased uncertainty. We have shown that the incorporation of seismic observations into the EnKF framework can significantly enhance reservoir simulations, decrease forecasting

  9. TRANSFER RESERVOIR AS A RAINWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Malmur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive rainfalls and snow melting often cause floods in protected areas and overflow the existing sewage systems. Such cases are particularly burdensome for the inhabitants and cause considerable physical losses. One of the possible constructional solutions to ensure the effective outflow of stormwater are transfer reservoirs located between the draining system and a receiver set discussed in this paper. If gravity outflow of sewage is impossible, the initial part of sewage volume is accumulated in the transfer reservoir and then it is transferred into the water receiver set. However, gravity discharge of sewage to the water receiver set occurs through transfer chambers in the transfer reservoir.

  10. Non-Markovian reservoir-dependent squeezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, J

    2010-01-01

    The squeezing dynamics of a damped harmonic oscillator are studied for different types of environment without making the Markovian approximation. The squeezing dynamics of a coherent state depend on the reservoir spectrum in a unique way that can, in the weak coupling approximation, be analysed analytically. Comparison of squeezing dynamics for ohmic, sub-ohmic and super-ohmic environments is done, showing a clear connection between the squeezing-non-squeezing oscillations and reservoir structure. Understanding the effects occurring due to structured reservoirs is important both from a purely theoretical point of view and in connection with evolving experimental techniques and future quantum computing applications.

  11. Transfer of mechanical energy during the shot put

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażkiewicz Michalina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter. Statistically significant transfer was found in the study group between the following segments: Right Knee – Right Hip (p = 0.0035, Left Hip - Torso (p = 0.0201, Torso – Right Shoulder (p = 0.0122 and Right Elbow – Right Wrist (p = 0.0001. Furthermore, the results of cluster analysis showed that the kinetic chain used during the final shot acceleration movement had two different models. Differences between the groups were revealed mainly in the energy generated by the hips and trunk.

  12. Gasbuggy reservoir evaluation - 1969 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, C.H.; Ward, Don C.; Lemon, R.F.

    1970-01-01

    The December 10, 1967, Project Gasbuggy nuclear detonation followed the drilling and testing of two exploratory wells which confirmed reservoir characteristics and suitability of the site. Reentry and gas production testing of the explosive emplacement hole indicated a collapse chimney about 150 feet in diameter extending from the 4,240-foot detonation depth to about 3,900 feet, the top of the 300-foot-thick Pictured Cliffs gas sand. Production tests of the chimney well in the summer of 1968 and during the last 12 months have resulted in a cumulative production of 213 million cubic feet of hydrocarbons, and gas recovery in 20 years is estimated to be 900 million cubic feet, which would be an increase by a factor of at least 5 over estimated recovery from conventional field wells in this low permeability area. At the end of production tests the flow rate was 160,000 cubic feet per day, which is 6 to 7 times that of an average field well in the area. Data from reentry of a pre-shot test well and a new postshot well at distances from the detonation of 300 and 250 feet, respectively, indicate low productivity and consequently low permeability in any fractures at these locations. (author)

  13. Gasbuggy reservoir evaluation - 1969 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H; Ward, Don C [Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior (United States); Lemon, R F [El Paso Natural Gas Company (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The December 10, 1967, Project Gasbuggy nuclear detonation followed the drilling and testing of two exploratory wells which confirmed reservoir characteristics and suitability of the site. Reentry and gas production testing of the explosive emplacement hole indicated a collapse chimney about 150 feet in diameter extending from the 4,240-foot detonation depth to about 3,900 feet, the top of the 300-foot-thick Pictured Cliffs gas sand. Production tests of the chimney well in the summer of 1968 and during the last 12 months have resulted in a cumulative production of 213 million cubic feet of hydrocarbons, and gas recovery in 20 years is estimated to be 900 million cubic feet, which would be an increase by a factor of at least 5 over estimated recovery from conventional field wells in this low permeability area. At the end of production tests the flow rate was 160,000 cubic feet per day, which is 6 to 7 times that of an average field well in the area. Data from reentry of a pre-shot test well and a new postshot well at distances from the detonation of 300 and 250 feet, respectively, indicate low productivity and consequently low permeability in any fractures at these locations. (author)

  14. Improving Geologic and Engineering Models of Midcontinent Fracture and Karst-Modified Reservoirs Using New 3-D Seismic Attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Nissen; Saibal Bhattacharya; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton

    2009-03-31

    Our project goal was to develop innovative seismic-based workflows for the incremental recovery of oil from karst-modified reservoirs within the onshore continental United States. Specific project objectives were: (1) to calibrate new multi-trace seismic attributes (volumetric curvature, in particular) for improved imaging of karst-modified reservoirs, (2) to develop attribute-based, cost-effective workflows to better characterize karst-modified carbonate reservoirs and fracture systems, and (3) to improve accuracy and predictiveness of resulting geomodels and reservoir simulations. In order to develop our workflows and validate our techniques, we conducted integrated studies of five karst-modified reservoirs in west Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. Our studies show that 3-D seismic volumetric curvature attributes have the ability to re-veal previously unknown features or provide enhanced visibility of karst and fracture features compared with other seismic analysis methods. Using these attributes, we recognize collapse features, solution-enlarged fractures, and geomorphologies that appear to be related to mature, cockpit landscapes. In four of our reservoir studies, volumetric curvature attributes appear to delineate reservoir compartment boundaries that impact production. The presence of these compartment boundaries was corroborated by reservoir simulations in two of the study areas. Based on our study results, we conclude that volumetric curvature attributes are valuable tools for mapping compartment boundaries in fracture- and karst-modified reservoirs, and we propose a best practices workflow for incorporating these attributes into reservoir characterization. When properly calibrated with geological and production data, these attributes can be used to predict the locations and sizes of undrained reservoir compartments. Technology transfer of our project work has been accomplished through presentations at professional society meetings, peer-reviewed publications

  15. Marine controlled source electromagnetic (mCSEM) detects hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Santos Basin - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonora, Marco Polo Pereira; Rodrigues, Luiz Felipe [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zerilli, Andrea; Labruzzo, Tiziano [WesternGeco, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) has driven the attention of an increasing number of operators due to its sensitivity to map resistive structures, such as hydrocarbon reservoirs beneath the ocean floor and successful case histories have been reported. The Santos basin mCSEM survey was performed as part of a technical co-operation project between PETROBRAS and Schlumberger to assess the integration of selected deep reading electromagnetic technologies into the full cycle of oil field exploration and development. The survey design was based on an in-depth sensitivity study, built on known reservoirs parameters, such as thickness, lateral extent, overburden and resistivities derived from seismic and well data. In this context, the mCSEM data were acquired to calibrate the technology over the area's known reservoirs, quantify the resistivity anomalies associated with those reservoirs, with the expectation that new prospective locations could be found. We show that the mCSEM response of the known reservoirs yields signatures that can be clearly imaged and accurately quantified and there are evident correlations between the mCSEM anomalies and the reservoirs. (author)

  16. A simulation method for the rapid screening of potential depleted oil reservoirs for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Le Gallo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases emission is a growing concern of many industries. The oil and gas industry has a long commercial practice of gas injection, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and gas storage. Using a depleted oil or gas reservoir for CO 2 storage has several interesting advantages. The long-term risk analysis of the CO 2 behavior and its impact on the environment is a major concern. That is why the selection of an appropriate reservoir is crucial to the success of a sequestration operation. Our modeling study, based on a synthetic reservoir, quantifies uncertainties due to reservoir parameters in order to establish a set of guidelines to select the most appropriate depleted reservoirs. Several production and sequestration scenarios are investigated in order to quantify key parameter for CO 2 storage. The influence of parameters such as API gravity, heterogeneity (Dykstra-Parson coefficient), pressure support (water injection) and cap rock integrity are analyzed. Estimation of sequestration capacity is proposed through a sequestration factor (SF) estimated for different reservoir production drives. Multiple regression relationships were developed, allowing SF estimation. CO 2 sequestration optimization highlights the best clean oil recovery strategy (CO 2 injection and/or oil production)

  17. Acoustic Impedance Inversion To Identify Oligo-Miocene Carbonate Facies As Reservoir At Kangean Offshore Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuli Purnama, Arif; Ariyani Machmud, Pritta; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Yusro, Miftahul; Gunawan, Agung; Rahmadi, Dicky

    2018-03-01

    Model based inversion was applied to inversion process of 2D seismic data in Kangean Offshore Area. Integration acoustic impedance from wells and seismic data was expected showing physical property, facies separation and reservoir quality of carbonate rock, particularly in Kangean Offshore Area. Quantitative and qualitative analysis has been conducted on the inversion results to characterize the carbonate reservoir part of Kujung and correlate it to depositional facies type. Main target exploration in Kangean Offshore Area is Kujung Formation (Oligo-Miocene Carbonate). The type of reservoir in this area generate from reef growing on the platform. Carbonate rock is a reservoir which has various type and scale of porosity. Facies determination is required to to predict reservoir quality, because each facies has its own porosity value. Acoustic impedance is used to identify and characterize Kujung carbonate facies, also could be used to predict the distribution of porosity. Low acoustic impedance correlated with packstone facies that has acoustic impedance value below 7400 gr/cc*m/s. In other situation, high acoustic impedance characterized by wackestone facies above 7400 gr/cc*m/s. The interpretation result indicated that Kujung carbonate rock dominated by packstone facies in the upper part of build-up and it has ideal porosity for hydrocarbon reservoir.

  18. Modeling surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics of a seasonally ice-covered hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Strachan, Ian B; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-04-15

    The thermal dynamics of human created northern reservoirs (e.g., water temperatures and ice cover dynamics) influence carbon processing and air-water gas exchange. Here, we developed a process-based one-dimensional model (Snow, Ice, WAater, and Sediment: SIWAS) to simulate a full year's surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for a moderately large (>500km(2)) boreal hydroelectric reservoir in northern Quebec, Canada. There is a lack of climate and weather data for most of the Canadian boreal so we designed SIWAS with a minimum of inputs and with a daily time step. The modeled surface energy fluxes were consistent with six years of observations from eddy covariance measurements taken in the middle of the reservoir. The simulated water temperature profiles agreed well with observations from over 100 sites across the reservoir. The model successfully captured the observed annual trend of ice cover timing, although the model overestimated the length of ice cover period (15days). Sensitivity analysis revealed that air temperature significantly affects the ice cover duration, water and sediment temperatures, but that dissolved organic carbon concentrations have little effect on the heat fluxes, and water and sediment temperatures. We conclude that the SIWAS model is capable of simulating surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for boreal reservoirs in regions where high temporal resolution climate data are not available. SIWAS is suitable for integration into biogeochemical models for simulating a reservoir's carbon cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Girassol I. Girassol development: project challenges and reservoir uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancelin, J.P.; Pelleau, R.; Serceau, A. [TotalFinaElf, la Defense 6, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2002-10-01

    The Girassol Field is located 210 km northwest of Luanda, the Angolan capital, and about 150 km from shore. Girassol was the first discovery made in the prolific Block 17. This was followed by Dalia, Rosa, Lirio, Jasmim, Cravo, Orchidea, etc. April 1996: Girassol field is discovered on Block 17 in deep waters, offshore Angola. July 1998: The Girassol development project is approved by all parties. December 2001: Less than three and a half years after approval, Girassol comes on-stream. By the end of 2001, daily production is 100000 b/d with the production plateau of 200000 b/d to be reached by April 2002. The reservoir, located in 1,400 m water depth, is large (10 km by 14 km). Estimated oil in place is 1,550 mmbbls with recoverable reserves put at 725 mmbbls. The oil quality of 32 deg API is close to Brent specifications. The Girassol development scheme is based on 39 sub-sea wells - 23 oil producers, 14 water injectors and two gas injectors. The field will be developed in two phases: the first phase, completed in December 2001, includes 11 wells - eight oil producers, two water injectors and one gas injector. The second phase development is ongoing and will be completed mid-2003. The overall investment for the two phases of the Girassol development is US$ 2.8 bn. The Girassol project team had to fulfill three main objectives: first priority was given to technical quality; second priority was to closely monitor the development budget and contain the final cost; third priority was to achieve first oil as early as possible. Describe the Girassol reservoir and explain the main subsurface uncertainties; describe the selected development scheme; explain Girassol's major challenges; describe the contractual strategy information on cost, schedule and the project organisation are given. (authors)

  20. Fracture detection, mapping, and analysis of naturally fractured gas reservoirs using seismic technology. Final report, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Many basins in the Rocky Mountains contain naturally fractured gas reservoirs. Production from these reservoirs is controlled primarily by the shape, orientation and concentration of the natural fractures. The detection of gas filled fractures prior to drilling can, therefore, greatly benefit the field development of the reservoirs. The objective of this project was to test and verify specific seismic methods to detect and characterize fractures in a naturally fractured reservoir. The Upper Green River tight gas reservoir in the Uinta Basin, Northeast Utah was chosen for the project as a suitable reservoir to test the seismic technologies. Knowledge of the structural and stratigraphic geologic setting, the fracture azimuths, and estimates of the local in-situ stress field, were used to guide the acquisition and processing of approximately ten miles of nine-component seismic reflection data and a nine-component Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP). Three sources (compressional P-wave, inline shear S-wave, and cross-line, shear S-wave) were each recorded by 3-component (3C) geophones, to yield a nine-component data set. Evidence of fractures from cores, borehole image logs, outcrop studies, and production data, were integrated with the geophysical data to develop an understanding of how the seismic data relate to the fracture network, individual well production, and ultimately the preferred flow direction in the reservoir. The multi-disciplinary approach employed in this project is viewed as essential to the overall reservoir characterization, due to the interdependency of the above factors.

  1. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  2. determination of verticality of reservoir engineering structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    applications is 3D survey and management of oil and gas facilities and other engineering structures. This recent .... also affect ground water contamination. 2. VERTICALITY ...... The soil, water and concrete in a Reservoir at the foundation bed ...

  3. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Savvichev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, S. N. Vinogradskii Institute of Microbiology (Russian Federation); Zinchenko, A. V. [A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  4. Zooplankton assemblage of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    The influence of physico-chemical properties of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a shallow tropical African reservoir) on its zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated at three stations for two years between January 2002 and December 2003. Diversity is not high: only three groups of zooplankton were found: Rotifera with eight genera; and Cladocera and Copepoda with three genera each. Rotifera dominated numerically (71.02%), followed by Cladocera (16.45%) and Copepoda (12.53%). The zooplankton was more prevalent during the rainy season, and there were variations in the composition and abundance along the reservoir continuum. Factors such as temperature, nutrients, food availability, shape and hydrodynamics of the reservoir, as well as reproductive strategies of the organisms, strongly influence the generic composition and population density of zooplankton. Prevention of ecological deterioration of the water body would greatly should result in a more productive water body, rich in zooplankton and with better fisheries.

  5. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan; Harbi, Badr M.

    2015-01-01

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A

  6. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  7. Lower Palaeozoic reservoirs of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, R.; McDougall, N. [Robertson Research International Ltd., Llandudno, Conwy (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of features considered significant in the exploration and development of Lower Palaeozoic reservoirs of North Africa. Information is derived from a review of literature on the Lower Palaeozoic successions of North Africa, combined with outcrop observations from the Anti Atlas mountains of Morocco. The focus of the exploration-oriented part of the review is on identification of potential traps other than two-way structural dip closure. Stratigraphic elements described include depositional models of reservoir facies, tectonic unconformities and possible eustatic unconformities. Cases of established or potential trapping by post-depositional faulting by diagenesis and by hydrodynamic flow are examined. Development-related topics highlighted include the impact on reservoir matrix quality of burial diagenesis and of palaeo-weathering at the Hercynian unconformity. Other issues discussed which additionally affect producibility from the reservoir matrix include tectonic fracturing, palaeotopography and unloading fracturing at the Hercynian unconformity, and induced fracturing within the present stress regimes. (author)

  8. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the... have a condensate drain valve that can be manually operated. Automatic condensate drain valves may be...

  9. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  10. Flow of a stream through a reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, K.

    1967-01-01

    If a reservoir is fed from a single source, which may not always be pure, the extent to which the inflowing stream mixes with the water in the reservoir is important for the quality of the water supplied by the reservoir. This question was investigated at the Lingese Reservoir, containing between one and two million cubic metres of water, in the Bergisches Land (North Rhine-Westphalia). The investigation was carried out at four different seasons so that the varying effects of the stream-water temperatures could be studied in relation to the temperature of the reservoir water. The stream was radioactively labelled at the point of inflow into the reservoir, and its flow through the reservoir was measured in length and depth from boats, by means of 1-m-long Geiger counters. In two cases the radioactivity of the outflowing water was also measured at fixed points. A considerable variety of intermixing phenomena were observed; these were mainly of limnological interest. The results of four experiments corresponding to the four different seasons are described in detail. They were as follows: (1) The mid-October experiment where the stream, with a temperature of 8.0 deg. C, was a good 5 deg. C colder than the water of the reservoir, whose temperature was almost uniform, ranging from 13.2 deg. C at the bed to 13.6 deg. C at the surface. (2) The spring experiment (second half of March), when the stream temperature was only 0.3 deg. C below that of the reservoir surface (7.8 deg. C), while the temperature of the bed was 5.8 deg. C. (3) The winter experiment (early December) where at first the temperature of the stream was approximately the same as that of the surface so that, once again, the stream at first flowed 1/2 - 1 m below the surface. During the almost wind-free night a sudden fall in temperature occurred, and the air temperature dropped from 0 deg. C to -12 deg. C. (4) The summer experiment (end of July to mid-August) when the stream was nearly 1 deg. C colder than

  11. Depositional sequence analysis and sedimentologic modeling for improved prediction of Pennsylvanian reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    Reservoirs in the Lansing-Kansas City limestone result from complex interactions among paleotopography (deposition, concurrent structural deformation), sea level, and diagenesis. Analysis of reservoirs and surface and near-surface analogs has led to developing a {open_quotes}strandline grainstone model{close_quotes} in which relative sea-level stabilized during regressions, resulting in accumulation of multiple grainstone buildups along depositional strike. Resulting stratigraphy in these carbonate units are generally predictable correlating to inferred topographic elevation along the shelf. This model is a valuable predictive tool for (1) locating favorable reservoirs for exploration, and (2) anticipating internal properties of the reservoir for field development. Reservoirs in the Lansing-Kansas City limestones are developed in both oolitic and bioclastic grainstones, however, re-analysis of oomoldic reservoirs provides the greatest opportunity for developing bypassed oil. A new technique, the {open_quotes}Super{close_quotes} Pickett crossplot (formation resistivity vs. porosity) and its use in an integrated petrophysical characterization, has been developed to evaluate extractable oil remaining in these reservoirs. The manual method in combination with 3-D visualization and modeling can help to target production limiting heterogeneities in these complex reservoirs and moreover compute critical parameters for the field such as bulk volume water. Application of this technique indicates that from 6-9 million barrels of Lansing-Kansas City oil remain behind pipe in the Victory-Northeast Lemon Fields. Petroleum geologists are challenged to quantify inferred processes to aid in developing rationale geologically consistent models of sedimentation so that acceptable levels of prediction can be obtained.

  12. The question of recharge to the deep thermal reservoir underlying the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park: Chapter H in Integrated geoscience studies in Integrated geoscience studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area—Volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes in the Yellowstone geoecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Truesdell, Alfred Hemingway; Morgan, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    The extraordinary number, size, and unspoiled beauty of the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (the Park) make them a national treasure. The hydrology of these special features and their relation to cold waters of the Yellowstone area are poorly known. In the absence of deep drill holes, such information is available only indirectly from isotope studies. The δD-δ18O values of precipitation and cold surface-water and ground-water samples are close to the global meteoric water line (Craig, 1961). δD values of monthly samples of rain and snow collected from 1978 to 1981 at two stations in the Park show strong seasonal variations, with average values for winter months close to those for cold waters near the collection sites. δD values of more than 300 samples from cold springs, cold streams, and rivers collected during the fall from 1967 to 1992 show consistent north-south and east-west patterns throughout and outside of the Park, although values at a given site vary by as much as 8 ‰ from year to year. These data, along with hot-spring data (Truesdell and others, 1977; Pearson and Truesdell, 1978), show that ascending Yellowstone thermal waters are modified isotopically and chemically by a variety of boiling and mixing processes in shallow reservoirs. Near geyser basins, shallow recharge waters from nearby rhyolite plateaus dilute the ascending deep thermal waters, particularly at basin margins, and mix and boil in reservoirs that commonly are interconnected. Deep recharge appears to derive from a major deep thermal-reservoir fluid that supplies steam and hot water to all geyser basins on the west side of the Park and perhaps in the entire Yellowstone caldera. This water (T ≥350°C; δD = –149±1 ‰) is isotopically lighter than all but the farthest north, highest altitude cold springs and streams and a sinter-producing warm spring (δD = –153 ‰) north of the Park. Derivation of this deep fluid solely from present-day recharge is

  13. limnological study of the Guavio Reservoir (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan, Gabriel; Bohorquez, Amparo; Catano, Ramiro; Ardila, Jorge I

    2000-01-01

    From September to December 1996, a limnological study of el Guavio reservoir from o to 100m deep was undertaken. Samples of plankton were taken and chlorophyll a determined. The study showed a well-mixed column of water. Dissolved oxygen remained 60% saturation at 100m deep. Values of phosphorus and nitrogen, as well chlorophyll was very low. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were diverse. The main problem of the reservoir is sediments coming from very erossionable surroundings

  14. Pollination Reservoirs in Lowbush Blueberry (Ericales: Ericaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini, E. M.; Drummond, F. A.; Hoshide, A. K.; Dibble, A. C.; Stack, L. B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator?the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter ?PRs?) may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast b...

  15. Ecological operation for Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian Guo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply, and recreation, and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on the river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied with a focus on maintaining a healthy river ecosystem. This study considered ecological operation targets, including maintaining the river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Using flow data from 1900 to 2006 at the Yichang gauging station as the control station data for the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets for the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. This paper proposes a reservoir ecological operation model, which comprehensively considers flood control, power generation, navigation, and the ecological environment. Three typical periods, wet, normal, and dry years, were selected, and the particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to analyze the model. The results show that ecological operation modes have different effects on the economic benefit of the hydropower station, and the reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for the requirements of spawning of the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand is met. The results provide a reference for designing reasonable operation schemes for the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  16. Analog readout for optical reservoir computers

    OpenAIRE

    Smerieri, Anteo; Duport, François; Paquot, Yvan; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a new, powerful and flexible machine learning technique that is easily implemented in hardware. Recently, by using a time-multiplexed architecture, hardware reservoir computers have reached performance comparable to digital implementations. Operating speeds allowing for real time information operation have been reached using optoelectronic systems. At present the main performance bottleneck is the readout layer which uses slow, digital postprocessing. We have designed a...

  17. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  18. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0417] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY.... Add Sec. 165.T09-0417 as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock...

  19. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE SUNN PEST, EURYGASTER INTEGRICEPS PUT. (HETEROPTERA, SCUTELLERIDAE IN THE LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan KIVAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of azadirachtin on different stages of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Het., Scutelleridae in the laboratory, a commercial neem insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was applied at dose of 0.5 % by dipping insects. No effect was observed for 1. instar nymphs at 1 day after application, although adults had slightly effect (20 %. Adults and nymphs were infl uenced 7 days after the treatment and mortality rates for adults and nymphs were recorded 44.0 and 51.9 %, respectively. The hatching of treated eggs was reduced than control. These results indicate that NeemAzal T/S may be used in integrated sunn pest management, but should be evaluated for fi eld efficacy.

  20. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  1. Quantification of oil recovery efficiency, CO 2 storage potential, and fluid-rock interactions by CWI in heterogeneous sandstone oil reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran; Sisson, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Significant interest exists in improving recovery from oil reservoirs while addressing concerns about increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The combination of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and safe geologic storage of CO2 in oil reservoirs is appealing and can be achieved by carbonated (CO...... for oil recovery and CO2 storage potential on heterogeneous cores. Since not all the oil reservoirs are homogenous, understanding the potential of CWI as an integrated EOR and CO2 storage scenario in heterogeneous oil reservoirs is essential....

  2. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is less than 10%. Long-term silting measurements of three small reservoirs were used to evaluate the method described by Rahmanian and Banihashemi for predicting sediment distributions in small reservoirs. Rahmanian and Banihashemi stated that their model of distribution of sediment deposition in water reservoir works well for a long duration operation. In the presented study, the silting rate was used in order to determine the long duration operation. Silting rate is a quotient of volume of the sediment deposited in the reservoir and its original volume. It was stated that when the silting rate had reached 50%, the sediment deposition in the reservoir may be described by an empirical reservoir depth shape function (RDSF.

  3. Water in chalk reservoirs: 'friend or foe?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth

    2004-01-01

    Most of the petroleum fields in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are sandstone reservoirs; the oil and gas are trapped in different species of sandstone. But the Ekofisk Field is a chalk reservoir, which really challenges the operator companies. When oil is produced from chalk reservoirs, water usually gets in and the reservoir subsides. The subsidence may be expensive for the oil companies or be used to advantage by increasing the recovery rate. Since 60 per cent of the world's petroleum reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs, it is important to understand what happens as oil and gas are pumped out. Comprehensive studies at the Department of Petroleum Technology and Applied Geophysics at Stavanger University College in Norway show that the mechanical properties of chalk are considerably altered when the pores in the rock become saturated with oil/gas or water under different stress conditions. The processes are extremely complex. The article also maintains that the effects of injecting carbon dioxide from gas power plants into petroleum reservoirs should be carefully studied before this is done extensively

  4. The pollution of the 'iron gate' reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic-Mladenovic, M.; Varga, S; Popovic, L.; Damjanovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Iron Gate I (the Djerdap) Water Power and Navigational System, one of the largest in Europe (completed in 1972 by joint efforts of Yugoslavia and Romania). In this paper the attention is devoted to review of the sediment monitoring program and impacts of reservoir sedimentation, as well as to the investigations of water and sediment quality. Special consideration is paid to the issue of sediment pollution research needs. Namely, the hot spot of the 'Iron Gate' sedimentation represents a scarcely known pollution of sediment deposits. The present pollution probably is considerable, since the 'Iron Gate' reservoir drains about 577000 km 2 , with over 80 million inhabitants, and developed municipal and industrial infrastructure. Therefore, in the thirty-year reservoir life various types of sediment-bound pollutants entered and deposited within it. Especially severe incidents happened during 1999 (as a result of NATO bombing campaign) and 2000 (two accidental pollutions in the Tisza river catchment). The study of the 'Iron Gate' reservoir pollution should be prepared in order to enlighten the present state of reservoir sedimentation and pollution. The main objectives of the study are to enhance the government and public awareness of the present environmental state of the 'Iron Gate' reservoir and to serve as a baseline for all future actions. (author)

  5. Putting an end to nuclear energy: why and how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This short book demonstrates the necessity and possibility to put an end to nuclear energy. First, it sweeps away the fallacious reasoning of nuclear supporters, like the energy independence, the safety and security aspects, the electricity cost, the greenhouse gases abatement. Then, it replaces the ending of nuclear energy in the more general framework of a worldwide energy transition, with its constraints and risks, which has become a necessity considering the geographical disparities of energy consumption. According to the author, the particular energy situation of France would lead the country to isolation and to an energy impasse while other worldwide and regional scenarios exist which would lead to exit the crisis and to reach a new energy civilization. Finally, a reasoned scenario of nuclear energy exit is proposed for France which is based on other power generation means. Such an energy transition will require some political and social conditions which are discussed. (J.S.)

  6. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  7. Putting conflict management into practice: a nursing case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Cristina García

    2006-04-01

    This paper is intended to put knowledge in conflict management into practice through reflecting on a nursing case study. Nursing organizations are particularly vulnerable to conflict as the context of nurses' work may be difficult and stressful. Power conflict is argued to be an important source of tension within nursing units. Learning to manage conflict at an early stage is therefore crucial to the effective functioning of nursing organizations. A nursing case study that illustrates power conflict in an oncology nursing unit is displayed and reflection on conflict management from the case is provided. There is no appropriate or inappropriate strategy to deal with conflict. However, detecting initial symptoms of conflict and adopting the most effective behaviour to conflict resolution is essential in nursing units. Further nursing education in conflict management for staff nurses and nurse managers is greatly needed.

  8. Integrating Data of Different Types and Different Supports into Reservoir Models Construction de modèles de réservoir contraints par des données de natures différentes et caractéristiques d’échelles différentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ravalec M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the joint integration of production and 4-D inverted seismic data into reservoir models. These data correspond to different types and different scales. Therefore, we developed two-scale simulation workflows making it possible to incorporate data at the right scale. This issue also emphasized the need for adapting traditional history-matching methodologies. For instance, the formulation of the objective function and the development of customized parameterization techniques turned out to be two key factors controlling the efficiency of the matching process. Two application examples are presented. The first one is a small-size synthetic field case. It aims to build a set of reservoir models respecting either production data only or both production and 4-D seismic-related data. It is shown that the incorporation of 4-D seismic-related data in addition to production data into reservoir models contributes to reduce the uncertainty in production forecasts. The second example is a field in the North Sea offshore Norway operated by Statoil. It stresses difficulties in conditioning reservoir models to both real production and 4-D inverted seismic data among the very large number of uncertain parameters to handle and the comparison of real noisy data with numerical responses. Cet article présente une méthodologie permettant d’élaborer des modèles de réservoir contraints à la fois par des données de production et des attributs sismiques 4-D. Ces données sont de natures très différentes et caractérisent des échelles tout aussi différentes. Leur intégration à l’échelle appropriée dans des modèles de réservoir a nécessité le développement d’une chaîne de simulation faisant intervenir deux échelles, ce qui nous a amené à adapter les techniques classiques de calage d’historique. Par exemple, il s’est avéré important de revoir la formulation de la fonction objectif pour mieux quantifier l

  9. Launch Velocities in Successful Golf Putting: An Analytical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Mahoney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study is concerned with the special case of a putted ball intersecting a standard golf hole at its diameter. The velocity of the ball at the initial rim of the hole is termed the launch velocity and depending upon its value the ball may either be captured or it may escape capture by jumping over the hole. The critical value of the launch velocity (V is such that lesser values result in capture while greater values produce escape. Purpose: Since the value of the V entered prominently in some theoretical studies of putting, the aim of the current study is to provide an original re-evaluation of V and to contrast our results with existing results. Method: This analytical analysis relies on trigonometry in conjunction with Newtonian mechanics and the mathematics of projectiles. The results of a recent study into the mathematics of a bouncing ball which included the notions of restitution and friction were also employed in the analysis. Results: If bouncing and slipping do not occur when the ball hits the far rim of the hole our analysis produces a value of V of 1.356 m/s. When bouncing and slipping are present we find that V is at least 1.609 m/s but increases beyond this value as slipping and friction become greater. Useful relations which relate the dynamics and geometry of the ball to V are provided. Conclusion: Since ambient conditions may influence the extent of bounce and slippage we conjecture that the value of V is not unique.

  10. Climate-smart conservation: putting adaption principles into practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bruce A.; Glick, Patty; Edelson, Naomi; Staudt, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Climate change already is having significant impacts on the nation’s species and ecosystems, and these effects are projected to increase considerably over time. As a result, climate change is now a primary lens through which conservation and natural resource management must be viewed. How should we prepare for and respond to the impacts of climate change on wildlife and their habitats? What should we be doing differently in light of these climatic shifts, and what actions continue to make sense? Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice offers guidance for designing and carrying out conservation in the face of a rapidly changing climate. Addressing the growing threats brought about or accentuated by rapid climate change requires a fundamental shift in the practice of natural resource management and conservation. Traditionally, conservationists have focused their efforts on protecting and managing systems to maintain their current state, or to restore degraded systems back to a historical state regarded as more desirable. Conservation planners and practitioners will need to adopt forward-looking goals and implement strategies specifically designed to prepare for and adjust to current and future climatic changes, and the associated impacts on natural systems and human communities—an emerging discipline known as climate change adaptation. The field of climate change adaptation is still in its infancy. Although there is increasing attention focused on the subject, much of the guidance developed to date has been general in nature, concentrating on high-level principles rather than specific actions. It is against this backdrop that this guide was prepared as a means for helping put adaptation principles into practice, and for moving adaptation from planning to action.

  11. Massachusetts reservoir simulation tool—User’s manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey developed the Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool to examine the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflows in Massachusetts by simulating the daily water balance of reservoirs. The simulation tool was developed to assist environmental managers to better manage water withdrawals in reservoirs and to preserve downstream aquatic habitats.

  12. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, Martin J.; Orr, Franklin M.

    1999-05-17

    This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1997 - September 1998 under the second year of a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the "Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs." The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four areas: (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each state of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.

  13. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  14. Analysis of induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs – An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Arno; Oye, Volker; Jousset, Philippe; Deichmann, Nicholas; Gritto, Roland; McGarr, Arthur F.; Majer, Ernest; Bruhn, David

    2014-01-01

    In this overview we report results of analysing induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs in various tectonic settings within the framework of the European Geothermal Engineering Integrating Mitigation of Induced Seismicity in Reservoirs (GEISER) project. In the reconnaissance phase of a field, the subsurface fault mapping, in situ stress and the seismic network are of primary interest in order to help assess the geothermal resource. The hypocentres of the observed seismic events (seismic cloud) are dependent on the design of the installed network, the used velocity model and the applied location technique. During the stimulation phase, the attention is turned to reservoir hydraulics (e.g., fluid pressure, injection volume) and its relation to larger magnitude seismic events, their source characteristics and occurrence in space and time. A change in isotropic components of the full waveform moment tensor is observed for events close to the injection well (tensile character) as compared to events further away from the injection well (shear character). Tensile events coincide with high Gutenberg-Richter b-values and low Brune stress drop values. The stress regime in the reservoir controls the direction of the fracture growth at depth, as indicated by the extent of the seismic cloud detected. Stress magnitudes are important in multiple stimulation of wells, where little or no seismicity is observed until the previous maximum stress level is exceeded (Kaiser Effect). Prior to drilling, obtaining a 3D P-wave (Vp) and S-wave velocity (Vs) model down to reservoir depth is recommended. In the stimulation phase, we recommend to monitor and to locate seismicity with high precision (decametre) in real-time and to perform local 4D tomography for velocity ratio (Vp/Vs). During exploitation, one should use observed and model induced seismicity to forward estimate seismic hazard so that field operators are in a position to adjust well hydraulics (rate and volume of the

  15. An environmental data base for all Hydro-Quebec reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has created two management positions specifically for reservoirs, namely Reservoir Ecology Advisor and Reservoir Management Advisor. To assist management decisions, a means was required of bringing together all existing environmental information for each reservoir operated by Hydro-Quebec, including storage reservoirs, auxiliary reservoirs and forebays. A relational database using Reflex software was developed on a network of Macintosh computers. The database contains five blocks of information: general information, and physical, physiochemical, biologic and socioeconomic characteristics for each reservoir. Data will be collected on over 100 sites, and the tool will form the basis for developing a medium-range study program on reservoir ecology. The program must take into account the physical, biological and socioeconomic aspects of the environment, as well as the concerns of management personnel operating the reservoirs, the local population, reservoir users, and various government departments. 2 figs

  16. Putting It Together: Integrating Jazz Education in the Elementary General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura

    2004-01-01

    American schools have great secondary performance programs, and many of these programs do wonderful things with jazz education. As wonderful as these programs are, only a small percentage of secondary school students join them, and usually the percentage of students participating in the jazz components of these programs is even smaller. As many…

  17. Productivity of Stored Water in Some Selected Multiple Use Small Reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor, F. O.; Yamoah-Antwi, D.; Odai, S. N.; Adjei, K. A.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana is a water stressed area with agriculture as the main occupation of the inhabitants. The importance of small reservoirs for the sustenance of the livelihood of the people in this part of the country during the dry season cannot be over emphasized. Most of these small reservoirs were constructed, in the 1960s, mainly with the aim of providing water for domestic use and livestock watering during the dry periods of the year. Over the years, however, these small reservoirs have been put to a variety of uses, some of which accelerate the depletion of the stored water. The reservoirs are therefore most times, unable to serve the purposes for which they were constructed. To address this situation, a study was conducted to determine the productivity of stored water in small reservoirs to better inform policy makers and water managers in the allocation of water especially in the dry season. Water productivity can be thought of as the output (product) that can be obtained per unit volume of water used or applied for either crop or livestock production. Data on crops and livestock were obtained through questionnaire administration, interviews, focus group discussions, physical measurements as well as field observations from nine reservoirs in the UER. The research findings show that donkeys have the highest productivity of about US90 followed by cattle with US70. These high productivity values are as a result of the variety of products and services rendered by donkeys and cattle. For crop, tomatoes have the highest productivity value compared with pepper and leafy vegetables. Despite the fact that donkeys had the highest productivity and hence priority over all uses, it is prudent to note that, inhabitants of the study area aside the sale of livestock for money (income) keep livestock for prestige. Therefore in the allocation of stored water in small multiple use reservoirs, the allocation criteria should consider the views, values and

  18. Putting tested options into practice in Benin | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... ... of regenerating soil using planting pits; integrated crop management; and the use of organic fertilizers. ... When needed, the committee issues separate alerts that may warn of extreme weather events. ... Related articles ...

  19. Analysis and application of classification methods of complex carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongyan; Qin, Ruibao; Ping, Haitao; Wei, Dan; Liu, Xiaomei

    2018-06-01

    There are abundant carbonate reservoirs from the Cenozoic to Mesozoic era in the Middle East. Due to variation in sedimentary environment and diagenetic process of carbonate reservoirs, several porosity types coexist in carbonate reservoirs. As a result, because of the complex lithologies and pore types as well as the impact of microfractures, the pore structure is very complicated. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately calculate the reservoir parameters. In order to accurately evaluate carbonate reservoirs, based on the pore structure evaluation of carbonate reservoirs, the classification methods of carbonate reservoirs are analyzed based on capillary pressure curves and flow units. Based on the capillary pressure curves, although the carbonate reservoirs can be classified, the relationship between porosity and permeability after classification is not ideal. On the basis of the flow units, the high-precision functional relationship between porosity and permeability after classification can be established. Therefore, the carbonate reservoirs can be quantitatively evaluated based on the classification of flow units. In the dolomite reservoirs, the average absolute error of calculated permeability decreases from 15.13 to 7.44 mD. Similarly, the average absolute error of calculated permeability of limestone reservoirs is reduced from 20.33 to 7.37 mD. Only by accurately characterizing pore structures and classifying reservoir types, reservoir parameters could be calculated accurately. Therefore, characterizing pore structures and classifying reservoir types are very important to accurate evaluation of complex carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East.

  20. Upper Hiwassee River Basin reservoirs 1989 water quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    The water in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin is slightly acidic and low in conductivity. The four major reservoirs in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin (Apalachia, Hiwassee, Chatuge, and Nottely) are not threatened by acidity, although Nottely Reservoir has more sulfates than the other reservoirs. Nottely also has the highest organic and nutrient concentrations of the four reservoirs. This results in Nottely having the poorest water clarity and the most algal productivity, although clarity as measured by color and secchi depths does not indicate any problem with most water use. However, chlorophyll concentrations indicate taste and odor problems would be likely if the upstream end of Nottely Reservoir were used for domestic water supply. Hiwassee Reservoir is clearer and has less organic and nutrient loading than either of the two upstream reservoirs. All four reservoirs have sufficient algal activity to produce supersaturated dissolved oxygen conditions and relatively high pH values at the surface. All four reservoirs are thermally stratified during the summer, and all but Apalachia have bottom waters depleted in oxygen. The very short residence time of Apalachia Reservoir, less than ten days as compared to over 100 days for the other three reservoirs, results in it being more riverine than the other three reservoirs. Hiwassee Reservoir actually develops three distinct water temperature strata due to the location of the turbine intake. The water quality of all of the reservoirs supports designated uses, but water quality complaints are being received regarding both Chatuge and Nottely Reservoirs and their tailwaters

  1. Reservoir architecture and tough gas reservoir potential of fluvial crevasse-splay deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Toorenenburg, K.A.; Donselaar, M.E.; Weltje, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional tough gas reservoirs in low-net-to-gross fluvial stratigraphic intervals may constitute a secondary source of fossil energy to prolong the gas supply in the future. To date, however, production from these thin-bedded, fine-grained reservoirs has been hampered by the economic risks

  2. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, V; Asael, D; Baland, R M; Baludikay, B K; Beghin, J; Belza, J; Beuthe, M; Breuer, D; Chernonozhkin, S; Claeys, Ph; Cornet, Y; Cornet, L; Coyette, A; Debaille, V; Delvigne, C; Deproost, M H; De WInter, N; Duchemin, C; El Atrassi, F; François, C; De Keyser, J; Gillmann, C; Gloesener, E; Goderis, S; Hidaka, Y; Höning, D; Huber, M; Hublet, G; Javaux, E J; Karatekin, Ö; Kodolanyi, J; Revilla, L Lobo; Maes, L; Maggiolo, R; Mattielli, N; Maurice, M; McKibbin, S; Morschhauser, A; Neumann, W; Noack, L; Pham, L B S; Pittarello, L; Plesa, A C; Rivoldini, A; Robert, S; Rosenblatt, P; Spohn, T; Storme, J -Y; Tosi, N; Trinh, A; Valdes, M; Vandaele, A C; Vanhaecke, F; Van Hoolst, T; Van Roosbroek, N; Wilquet, V; Yseboodt, M

    2016-11-01

    The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) 'PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.

  3. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  4. Constraints on Water Reservoir Lifetimes From Catchment-Wide 10Be Erosion Rates—A Case Study From Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Caroline; Hetzel, Ralf; Akal, Cüneyt; Christl, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    The functionality and retention capacity of water reservoirs is generally impaired by upstream erosion and reservoir sedimentation, making a reliable assessment of erosion indispensable to estimate reservoir lifetimes. Widely used river gauging methods may underestimate sediment yield, because they do not record rare, high-magnitude events and may underestimate bed load transport. Hence, reservoir lifetimes calculated from short-term erosion rates should be regarded as maximum values. We propose that erosion rates from cosmogenic 10Be, which commonly integrate over hundreds to thousands of years, are useful to complement short-term sediment yield estimates and should be employed to estimate minimum reservoir lifetimes. Here we present 10Be erosion rates for the drainage basins of six water reservoirs in Western Turkey, which are located in a tectonically active region with easily erodible bedrock. Our 10Be erosion rates for these catchments are high, ranging from ˜170 to ˜1,040 t/km2/yr. When linked to reservoir volumes, they yield minimum reservoir lifetimes between 25 ± 5 and 1,650 ± 360 years until complete filling, with four reservoirs having minimum lifespans of ≤110 years. In a neighboring region with more resistant bedrock and less tectonic activity, we obtain much lower catchment-wide 10Be erosion rates of ˜33 to ˜95 t/km2/yr, illustrating that differences in lithology and tectonic boundary conditions can cause substantial variations in erosion even at a spatial scale of only ˜50 km. In conclusion, we suggest that both short-term sediment yield estimates and 10Be erosion rates should be employed to predict the lifetimes of reservoirs.

  5. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  6. Mercury and methylmercury in reservoirs in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Fredericksen, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an element that occurs naturally, but evidence suggests that human activities have resulted in increased amounts being released to the atmosphere and land surface. When Hg is converted to methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems, MeHg accumulates and increases in the food web so that some fish contain levels which pose a health risk to humans and wildlife that consume these fish. Reservoirs unlike natural lakes, are a part of river systems that are managed for flood control. Data compiled and interpreted for six flood-control reservoirs in Indiana showed a relation between Hg transport, MeHg formation in water, and MeHg in fish that was influenced by physical, chemical, and biological differences among the reservoirs. Existing information precludes a uniform comparison of Hg and MeHg in all reservoirs in the State, but factors and conditions were identified that can indicate where and when Hg and MeHg levels in reservoirs could be highest.

  7. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  8. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Structural and reservoir quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusillon, Elme; Clerc, Nicolas; Makhloufi, Yasin; Brentini, Maud; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    , or sedimentation rates and (3) diagenetic history (Makhloufi et al., 2017). A detail structural characterization of the basin using 2D seismic data reveals the existence of several wrench fault zones and intra-basinal thrusts across the basin, which could act as hydraulic conduits and play a key role in connecting the most productive reservoir facies. To understand the propagation of these heterogeneous reservoirs, rock types are currently defined and will be integrated into 3D geological models. This integrated study allows us to understand better the distribution and properties of productive reservoir facies as well as hydraulic connectivity zones within the study area. This provides consistent knowledge for future geothermal exploration steps toward the successful development of this sustainable energy resource in the Greater Geneva Basin. Brentini et al. 2017 : Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin: integration of geological data in the new Information System. Abstract, EGU General Assembly 2017, Vienna, Austria Clerc et al. 2016 : Structural Modeling of the Geneva Basin for Geothermal Ressource Assessment. Abstract, 14th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, Geneva, Switzerland Makhloufi et al. 2017 : Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France) : impact of diagenesis on reservoir properties of the Upper Jurassic carbonate sediments. Abstract, EGU General Assembly 2017, Vienna, Austria Moscariello, A. 2016 : Geothermal exploration in SW Switzerland, Proceeding , European Geotermal Congress 2016, Strasbourg, France

  9. Training in virtual environments: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskaliuk, Johannes; Bertram, Johanna; Cress, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Virtual training environments are used when training in reality is challenging because of the high costs, danger, time or effort involved. In this paper we argue for a theory-driven development of such environments, with the aim of connecting theory to practice and ensuring that the training provided fits the needs of the trained persons and their organisations. As an example, we describe the development of VirtualPolice (ViPOL), a training environment for police officers in a federal state of Germany. We provided the theoretical foundation for ViPOL concerning the feeling of being present, social context, learning motivation and perspective-taking. We developed a framework to put theory into practice. To evaluate our framework we interviewed the stakeholders of ViPOL and surveyed current challenges and limitations of virtual training. The results led to a review of a theory-into-practice framework which is presented in the conclusion. Feeling of presence, social context, learning motivation and perspective-taking are relevant for training in virtual environments. The theory-into-practice framework presented here supports developers and trainers in implementing virtual training tools. The framework was validated with an interview study of stakeholders of a virtual training project. We identified limitations, opportunities and challenges.

  10. Putting science at the heart of European policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    One year ago, the incoming European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker shocked the scientific world by scrapping the post of Chief Scientific Advisor. This week, the Commission made amends by launching a well-considered Scientific Advisory Mechanism (SAM) that not only puts science back at the heart of policy, but does so in a much more structured and robust way than conferring such responsibility on a single individual.     The SAM has two independent strands: an advisory group of seven scientists, and funding through the Horizon 2020 programme for national academies and learned societies to network and collaborate on policy issues. Both are backed up by a secretariat at Commission headquarters in Brussels. When Mr Juncker scrapped the role of Chief Scientific Advisor, it was against a backdrop of sometimes vitriolic attacks on the incumbent, Anne Glover, due to her outspoken views on GMOs. Mr Juncker’s move was seen by some as simply giving in to a powerful lob...

  11. Case studies in control putting theory to work

    CERN Document Server

    Juričić, Đani

    2013-01-01

    Case Studies in Control presents a framework to facilitate the use of advanced control concepts in real systems based on two decades of research and over 150 successful applications for industrial end-users from various backgrounds. In successive parts the text approaches the problem of putting the theory to work from both ends, theoretical and practical. The first part begins with a stress on solid control theory and the shaping of that theory to solve particular instances of practical problems. It emphasizes the need to establish by experiment whether a model-derived solution will perform properly in reality. The second part focuses on real industrial applications based on the needs and requirements of end-users. Here, the engineering approach is dominant but with theoretical input of varying degree depending on the particular process involved. Following the illustrations of the progress that can be made from either extreme of the well-known theory–practice divide, the text proceeds to a third part relate...

  12. Households facing constraints. Fuel poverty put into context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Ute [ISG Business School, Paris (France); Meier, Helena [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2014-02-15

    The present paper discusses the concept of fuel poverty taking into account the arbitrages made by households when they are facing economic constraints. Fuel poverty is still lacking a common definition throughout Europe: while the UK and France have (different) official definitions, there is still no definition in a country like Germany, or at the European level. Where definitions exist, they often consider that fuel poor households have high energy needs. The possibility of being fuel poor even without having high energy needs and the various arbitrage possibilities of households - i.e. to under-spend and use too little energy - are not systematically discussed. Our paper tries to fill that gap by putting fuel poverty into the larger context of constraints faced by households. Based on a graphical analysis, it shows that different situations of fuel poverty might occur. It results in the identification of two distinct fuel poverty problems: an ''energy inequality'' problem, reflected by the fact that some households pay disproportionately high energy bills, and an ''energy affordability'' problem that can affect a larger share of the population. It finally explores the two types of fuel poverty for European countries and discusses policy implications.

  13. Households facing constraints. Fuel poverty put into context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Ute; Meier, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The present paper discusses the concept of fuel poverty taking into account the arbitrages made by households when they are facing economic constraints. Fuel poverty is still lacking a common definition throughout Europe: while the UK and France have (different) official definitions, there is still no definition in a country like Germany, or at the European level. Where definitions exist, they often consider that fuel poor households have high energy needs. The possibility of being fuel poor even without having high energy needs and the various arbitrage possibilities of households - i.e. to under-spend and use too little energy - are not systematically discussed. Our paper tries to fill that gap by putting fuel poverty into the larger context of constraints faced by households. Based on a graphical analysis, it shows that different situations of fuel poverty might occur. It results in the identification of two distinct fuel poverty problems: an ''energy inequality'' problem, reflected by the fact that some households pay disproportionately high energy bills, and an ''energy affordability'' problem that can affect a larger share of the population. It finally explores the two types of fuel poverty for European countries and discusses policy implications.

  14. Don’t put your family at risk

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    How easy is it to fall into the trap of cyber-criminals? Get one’s online banking password stolen? Lose photos to third parties? It's easier than you think. One single click to open a malicious attachment or a malicious web page is sufficient to put your family at risk.   Sometimes adversaries even call you in order to get their malicious job done. Once their malware is installed on your home computer, it records all your activity, monitors your online banking activities, steals your passwords, activates your computer’s microphone and camera, and sends all that data back to the adversary. This person can now do whatever they want: take money from your bank account, order books with your Amazon password, deface your Facebook profiles, send strange messages to your peers, or post the captured images of your daughter in front of the computer on dodgy web sites. Not only can you lose (lots of!) money, but having strange messages sent on your b...

  15. Putting Qumran, Jesus and his movement into relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After referring briefly to the fantasies regarding the origins of Christianity as elicited by the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 (Dupont-Sommer, Allegro, Thiering, the purpose of the contribution is to put the Jesus movement into relief in the context of first-century Judaism. The identity of the Qumranites is argued to be Essene scribes. The identity, ideology and practices of the latter are compared with those of Jesus of Nazareth and the movement he elicited using the following rubrics: (1 Jesus, the teacher of righteousness and the powers that be; (2 asceticism versus itinerary charismaticism; (3 caring versus lack of caring for the sick, poor and marginalised; (4 elitist priests and scribes versus lower-class peasants; (5 the interpretation of the law; (6 religious and daily practices (baptism, ritual meal, sacrifice, prayer, community of possessions, scribal activity; (7 religious views or ideology (kingdom of God, the new covenant, light and darkness, politics. The result is a picture of Jesus (with his focus on human suffering in sharp relief versus Qumran and facets of the early church.

  16. Putting your human resource department to work for you.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, C R

    1991-06-01

    As a staff function, human resources is organized as a service activity. Service activities render no patient care; they do not advance the work of the organization. However, they support the performance of the organization's work and in a practical sense become necessary. For example, if a pure service, such as building maintenance, did not exist, the facility's physical plant would gradually self-destruct. Similarly, without human resources to see to the maintenance of the work force, the overall suitability and capability of that work force will steadily erode. Recognize human resources for what it is--an essential service function required to help the organization run as efficiently as possible. Learn what the HR department does, and especially learn why the department does what it does. Provide input to the human resource department. Forge a continuing working relationship with the HR department, making it clear that you expect service from this essential service department. Challenge the HR department to do more, to do better, and to continually improve service--and put the human resource department to work for you and your employees.

  17. Putting equity center stage: challenging evidence-free reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Margaret; Dahlgren, Göran; McIntyre, Di

    2007-01-01

    Do we have an "evidence-free zone" around the health sector reforms that have taken place over the past few decades? Certainly, many of the policy prescriptions have been based on ideology and assumptions about the likely impact of policies, rather than evidence-based. The provision of health care is increasingly treated as a commodity that can be subjected to the same prescription as other goods: privatization, competition, deregulation, decentralization. Evidence has slowly emerged over the 1990s and early 2000s on the adverse effects of these policy prescriptions on equity, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, but a shift in policy is barely perceptible. There is a need for a fresh approach that puts equity center stage. A gap that must be filled is on the "demand" or "need" side: in particular, the impact of policy changes on families and communities. This article is the first in a series of eight articles that present the findings of studies that attempt to fill this gap, helping to develop a more evidence-based approach to equity and health sector policy from the users'/potential patients' perspective.

  18. Cultivation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within their invaded range to improve water quality in reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlan, C; Aldridge, D C

    2013-09-01

    of spread to other locations. This may render some reservoir systems, such as dammed rivers which have outflows to downstream watercourses, unsuitable for cultivation. Such reservoirs are especially common in North America. We consider the practicalities of putting a zebra mussel cultivation system into place and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude that zebra mussel cultivation offers an attractive tool for managing nutrient-enriched reservoirs, but that the benefits and costs must be balanced on a site-by-site basis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effective water influx control in gas reservoir development: Problems and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the diversity of geological characteristics and the complexity of percolation rules, many problems are found ineffective water influx control in gas reservoir development. The problems mainly focus on how to understand water influx rules, to establish appropriate countermeasures, and to ensure the effectiveness of technical measures. It is hard to obtain a complete applicable understanding through the isolated analysis of an individual gas reservoir due to many factors such as actual gas reservoir development phase, research work, pertinence and timeliness of measures, and so on. Over the past four decades, the exploration, practicing and tracking research have been conducted on water control in gas reservoir development in the Sichuan Basin, and a series of comprehensive water control technologies were developed integrating advanced concepts, successful experiences, specific theories and mature technologies. Though the development of most water-drive gas reservoirs was significantly improved, water control effects were quite different. Based on this background, from the perspective of the early-phase requirements of water influx control, the influencing factors of a water influx activity, the dynamic analysis method of water influx performance, the optimizing strategy of a water control, and the water control experience of typical gas reservoirs, this paper analyzed the key problems of water control, evaluated the influencing factors of water control effect, explored the practical water control strategies, and proposed that it should be inappropriate to apply the previous water control technological model to actual work but the pertinence should be improved according to actual circumstances. The research results in the paper provide technical reference for the optimization of water-invasion gas reservoir development.

  20. Hybrid Multi-Objective Optimization of Folsom Reservoir Operation to Maximize Storage in Whole Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharian, E.; Gailey, R.; Maples, S.; Azizipour, M.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Fogg, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    The drought incidents and growing water scarcity in California have a profound effect on human, agricultural, and environmental water needs. California experienced multi-year droughts, which have caused groundwater overdraft and dropping groundwater levels, and dwindling of major reservoirs. These concerns call for a stringent evaluation of future water resources sustainability and security in the state. To answer to this call, Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) was passed in 2014 to promise a sustainable groundwater management in California by 2042. SGMA refers to managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a key management option, especially in areas with high variation in water availability intra- and inter-annually, to secure the refill of underground water storage and return of groundwater quality to a desirable condition. The hybrid optimization of an integrated water resources system provides an opportunity to adapt surface reservoir operations for enhancement in groundwater recharge. Here, to re-operate Folsom Reservoir, objectives are maximizing the storage in the whole American-Cosumnes watershed and maximizing hydropower generation from Folsom Reservoir. While a linear programing (LP) module tends to maximize the total groundwater recharge by distributing and spreading water over suitable lands in basin, a genetic based algorithm, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II), layer above it controls releases from the reservoir to secure the hydropower generation, carry-over storage in reservoir, available water for replenishment, and downstream water requirements. The preliminary results show additional releases from the reservoir for groundwater recharge during high flow seasons. Moreover, tradeoffs between the objectives describe that new operation performs satisfactorily to increase the storage in the basin, with nonsignificant effects on other objectives.

  1. Operational trade-offs in reservoir control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.

    1993-11-01

    Reservoir operation decisions require constant reevaluation in the face of conflicting objectives, varying hydrologic conditions, and frequent operational policy changes. Optimality is a relative concept very much dependent on the circumstances under which a decision is made. More than anything else, reservoir management authorities need the means to assess the impacts of various operational options. It is their responsibility to define what is desirable after a thorough evaluation of the existing circumstances. This article presents a model designed to generate operational trade-offs common among reservoir systems. The model avoids an all-encompassing problem formulation and distinguishes three operational modes (levels) corresponding to normal, drought, and flood operations. Each level addresses only relevant system elements and uses a static and a dynamic control module to optimize turbine performance within each planning period and temporally. The model is used for planning the operation of the Savannah River System.

  2. Prediction of reservoir compaction and surface subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.A.; Smits, R.M.M.

    1988-06-01

    A new loading-rate-dependent compaction model for unconsolidated clastic reservoirs is presented that considerably improves the accuracy of predicting reservoir rock compaction and surface subsidence resulting from pressure depletion in oil and gas fields. The model has been developed on the basis of extensive laboratory studies and can be derived from a theory relating compaction to time-dependent intergranular friction. The procedure for calculating reservoir compaction from laboratory measurements with the new model is outlined. Both field and laboratory compaction behaviors appear to be described by one single normalized, nonlinear compaction curve. With the new model, the large discrepancies usually observed between predictions based on linear compaction models and actual (nonlinear) field behavior can be explained.

  3. Reservoir Sedimentation: Impact, Extent, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Richard F.

    Storage reservoirs play an important role in water resources development throughout the world. The one problem with reservoirs that is universal is the continual reduction in usable capacity caused by siltation. This book reviews the world picture of erosion and sediment yield, the large variations that exist, and the physical phenomena related to reservoir siltation. The book is in the Technical Paper series of The World Bank (Technical Paper 71) and is not a formal publication. Rather, it is intended to be circulated to encourage discussion and comment and to communicate results quickly. The book is reproduced from typescript, but this does not detract from the value of the contents as a useful text for hydrologrsts, engineers, and soil conservationists in developing countries.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Schaeffer, R.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Rudd et al. have suggested that, per unit of electrical energy produced, greenhouse-gas emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in northern Canada may be comparable to emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. The purpose of this comment is to elaborate these issues further so as to understand the potential contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to the greenhouse effect. More than focusing on the total budget of carbon emissions (be they in the form of CH 4 or be they in the form of CO 2 ), this requires an evaluation of the accumulated greenhouse effect of gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs and fossil-fuelled power plants. Two issues will be considered: (a) global warming potential (GWP) for CH 4 ; and (b) how greenhouse-gas emissions from hydroelectric power plants stand against emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants with respect to global warming

  5. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  6. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%.......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...

  7. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  8. From obc seismic to porosity volume: A pre-stack analysis of a turbidite reservoir, deepwater Campos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz M. R.

    The Campos Basin is the best known and most productive of the Brazilian coastal basins. Turbidites are, by far, the main oil-bearing reservoirs. Using a four component (4-C) ocean-bottom-cable (OBC) seismic survey I set out to improve the reservoir characterization in a deep-water turbidite field in the Campos Basin. In order to achieve my goal, pre-stack angle gathers were derived and PP and PS inversion were performed. The inversion was used as an input to predict the petrophysical properties of the reservoir. Converting seismic reflection amplitudes into impedance profiles not only maximizes vertical resolution but also minimizes tuning effects. Mapping the porosity is extremely important in the development of a hydrocarbon reservoirs. Combining seismic attributes derived from the P-P data and porosity logs I use linear multi-regression and neural network geostatistical tools to predict porosity between the seismic attributes and porosity logs at the well locations. After predicting porosity in well locations, those relationships were applied to the seismic attributes to generate a 3-D porosity volume. The predicted porosity volume highlighted the best reservoir facies in the reservoir. The integration of elastic impedance, shear impedance and porosity improved the reservoir characterization.

  9. The Application of a Multi-Beam Echo-Sounder in the Analysis of the Sedimentation Situation of a Large Reservoir after an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Luan Yan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wenchuan Earthquake took place in the upper reach catchment of the Min River. It resulted in large amounts of loose materials gathering in the river channel, leading to changes in the sediment transport system in this area. The Zipingpu Reservoir is the last and the largest reservoir located in the upper reach of the Min River. It is near the epicenter and receives sediment from upstream. This paper puts forward a study on the reservoir sedimentation and storage capacity of the Zipingpu Reservoir, employing a multi-beam echo-sounder system in December 2012. Then, the data were merged with digital line graphics and shuttle radar topography mission data in ArcGIS to build a digital elevation model and triangulate the irregular network of Zipingpu Reservoir. Via the analysis of the bathymetric data, the results show the following: (1 The main channels of the reservoir gradually aggrade to a flat bottom from the deep-cutting valley. Sedimentation forms a reach with a W-shaped longitudinal thalweg profile and an almost zero slope reach in the upstream section of the reservoir due to the natural barrier induced by a landslide; (2 The loss ratios of the wetted cross-section surface are higher than 10% in the upstream section of the reservoir and higher than 40% in the natural barrier area; (3 Comparing the surveyed area storage capacity of December 2012 with March 2008, the Zipingpu Reservoir has lost 15.28% of its capacity at the dead storage water level and 10.49% of its capacity at the flood limit water level.

  10. Controls on Cementation in a Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meireles, Leonardo Teixeira Pinto; Hussein, A.; Welch, M.J.

    In this study, we identify different controls on cementation in a chalk reservoir. Biot’s coefficient, a measure of cementation, stiffness and strength in porous rocks, is calculated from logging data (bulk density and sonic Pwave velocity). We show that Biot’s coefficient is correlated...... to the water saturation of the Kraka reservoir and is partly controlled by its stratigraphic sub-units. While the direct causal relationship between Biot’s coefficient and water saturation cannot be extended for Biot’s coefficient and porosity, a correlation is also identified between the two, implying...

  11. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  12. Nonlinearities in reservoir engineering: Enhancing quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangming; Hu, Qingping; Li, Lingchao; Huang, Chen; Rao, Shi

    2017-12-01

    There are two decisive factors for quantum correlations in reservoir engineering, but they are strongly reversely dependent on the atom-field nonlinearities. One is the squeezing parameter for the Bogoliubov modes-mediated collective interactions, while the other is the dissipative rates for the engineered collective dissipations. Exemplifying two-level atomic ensembles, we show that the moderate nonlinearities can compromise these two factors and thus enhance remarkably two-mode squeezing and entanglement of different spin atomic ensembles or different optical fields. This suggests that the moderate nonlinearities of the two-level systems are more advantageous for applications in quantum networks associated with reservoir engineering.

  13. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  14. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  15. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in water supply reservoirs in Jingjinji area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Guang; Lv, Zhiwei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Jingjinji area occupies important position in developing of the Chinese economy, while there exists a sharp conflict between economic growth and limited water resources in this area. To ensure the safety of water consumption of cities in Jingjinji area, we investigated the abundance of three classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in water and sediment of six water supply reservoirs in this area. The results showed that the detection frequency of sul1, tetM and ermB were 100%. However, the content ranges of these genes were different (10 -5 to 10 -2 /16S gene copies for sul1, 10 -5 to 10 -3 /16S gene copies for ermB, and 10 -5 to 10 -3 /16S gene copies for tetM). The content of ribosome protection proteins (RPP) genes were the highest in all selected tet genes. The highest abundance of ARGs in water and sediment samples was sampled from Panjiakou reservoir and Guanting reservoir, respectively. Except COD, chla and tetM, there are no significant correlation between water quality parameters and ARGs. Overall, this study provides integrated profiles of the three types of ARGs in water supply reservoirs of Jingjinji area and thus helps to re-evaluate the effects of human activities to water supply reservoirs.

  16. Planning and Corrupting Water Resources Development: The Case of Small Reservoirs in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Venot

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural (water development is once again at the fore of the development agenda of sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, corruption is seen as a major obstacle to the sustainability of future investments in the sector but there is still little empirical evidence on the ways corruption pervades development projects. This paper documents the planning and implementation processes of two specific small reservoir programmes in the north of Ghana. We specifically delve into the dynamics of corruption and interrogate the ways they add to the inherent unpredictability of development planning. We argue that operational limitations of small reservoirs such as poor infrastructure, lack of managerial and organisational capacity at the community level and weak market integration and public support are the symptoms – rather than inherent problems – of wider lapses in the planning processes that govern the development of small reservoirs in Ghana and plausibly worldwide. A suite of petty misconduct and corrupt practices during the planning, tendering, supervision, and administration of contracts for the rehabilitation and construction of small reservoirs results in delays in implementation, poor construction, escalating costs, and ultimately failures of small reservoirs vis-à-vis their intended goals and a widely shared frustration among donor agencies, civil servants, contractors, and communities. Such practices hang on and can only be addressed through a better understanding of the complex web of formal decisions and informal rules that shape the understanding and actions of the state.

  17. Seismic signatures of the Lodgepole fractured reservoir in Utah-Wyoming overthrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.; Collier, H.; Angstman, B.

    1997-08-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based upon the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. We present the feasibility of using seismic measurement techniques to map the fracture zones between wells spaced 2400 ft at depths of about 1000 ft. For this purpose we constructed computer models (which include azimuthal anisotropy) using Lodgepole reservoir parameters to predict seismic signatures recorded at the borehole scale, crosswell scale, and 3 D seismic scale. We have integrated well logs with existing 2D surfaces seismic to produce petrophysical and geological cross sections to determine the reservoir parameters and geometry for the computer models. In particular, the model responses are used to evaluate if surface seismic and crosswell seismic measurements can capture the anisotropy due to vertical fractures. Preliminary results suggested that seismic waves transmitted between two wells will propagate in carbonate fracture reservoirs, and the signal can be received above the noise level at the distance of 2400 ft. In addition, the large velocities contrast between the main fracture zone and the underlying unfractured Boundary Ridge Member, suggested that borehole reflection imaging may be appropriate to map and fracture zone thickness variation and fracture distributions in the reservoir.

  18. Petroleum Characterisation and Reservoir Dynamics - The Froey Field and the Rind Discovery, Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhullar, Abid G.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is to apply the fundamental principles of petroleum geochemistry integrated with petroleum/reservoir engineering and geological concepts to the dynamics and characterisation of petroleum reservoirs. The study is based on 600 core samples and 9 DST oils from 11 wells in the Froey Field and the Rind Discovery. The work is presented in five papers. Paper 1 is a detailed characterisation of the reservoirs using a petroleum geochemical approach. Paper 2 describes the application of a single reservoir geochemical screening technique to exploration, appraisal and production geology and reservoir/petroleum engineering. Paper 3 compares the Iatroscan TLC-FID screening technique and the extraction efficiency of micro-extraction used in this work with the well-established Rock-Eval geochemical screening method and with the Soxtec extraction method. Paper 4 refines the migration and filling models of Paper 1, and Paper 5 presents a comparison of models of petroleum generation, migration and accumulation based on geochemical data with 1D burial history, a ''pseudo well'' based on actual well data and regional seismic analysis representing the hydrocarbon generative basin conditions.

  19. Determination of the Cascade Reservoir Operation for Optimal Firm-Energy Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia today face a new paradigm in water management where aim to apply integrated water resources management has become unavoidable task in purpose of achieving greater level of effectiveness and efficiency. On of most interesting case study is the case of Citarum river, one of the most potential river for water supply in West Java, Indonesia. Alongside the river, Saguling, Cirata and Djuanda Reservoirs had been constructed in series/cascade. Saguling and Cirata reservoirs are particularly operated for hydroelectric power and Djuanda is multipurpose reservoir mainly operated for irrigation and contribute domestic water supply for Jakarta (capital city of Indonesia. Basically all reservoirs are relying on same resources, therefore this condition has considered addressing management and operational problem. Therefore, an approach toward new management and operation system are urgently required in order to achieve the effective and efficient output and to avoid conflicts of water used. This study aims to obtain energy production from Citarum Cascade Reservoir System using Genetic Algorithms optimization with the objective function to maximize firm-energy. Firm-energy is the minimum energy requirements must be available in a certain time period. Then, the result obtained by using the energy produced by GA is compared to the conventional searching technique of Non-Linier Programming (NLP. The GA derived operating curves reveal the higher energy and firm-energy than NLP model

  20. Influences of porous reservoir Laplace pressure on emissions from passively fed ionic liquid electrospray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Daniel G., E-mail: dcourtney@alum.mit.edu; Shea, Herbert [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Microsystems for Space Technologies Laboratory (LMTS), Neuchatel CH-2002 (Switzerland)

    2015-09-07

    Passively fed ionic liquid electrospray sources are capable of efficiently emitting a variety of ion beams with promising applications to spacecraft propulsion and as focused ion beams. Practical devices will require integrated or coupled ionic liquid reservoirs; the effects of which have not been explored in detail. Porous reservoirs are a simple, scalable solution. However, we have shown that their pore size can dramatically alter the beam composition. Emitting the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(triflouromethylsulfonyl)amide, the same device was shown to yield either an ion or droplet dominated beam when using reservoirs of small or large pore size, respectively; with the latter having a mass flow in excess of 15 times larger than the former at negative polarity. Another source, emitting nearly purely ionic beams of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, was similarly shown to emit a significant droplet population when coupled to reservoirs of large (>100 μm) pores; constituting a reduction in propulsive efficiency from greater than 70% to less than 30%. Furthermore, we show that reservoir selection can alter the voltage required to obtain and sustain emission, increasing with smaller pore size.

  1. Presence of riparian vegetation increases biotic condition of fish assemblages in two Brazilian reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cop Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The riparian vegetation in lakes and reservoirs is source of course wood structures such as trunks and branches and is used as sheltering, spawning and foraging habitats for fishes. The reduction of these submerged structures can thus, affect the composition and structure of fish assemblages in reservoirs. Aim To evaluate the influence of riparian vegetation on the biotic condition of fish assemblage by adapting the Reservoir Fish Assemblage Index (RFAI to two reservoirs in the Upper Paranapanema river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Methods The RFAI was adapted from metrics related to the functional characteristics and composition of fish assemblages through a protocol of metric selection and validation, and to its response to the presence of riparian vegetation. Results The final RFAI was composed by nine metrics, been lower in sites without riparian vegetation as consequence of the predominance of larger individuals and the percent of piscivorous and detritivorous fishes. Conclusions These results suggest that increasing shore habitat complexity in reservoirs by maintaining riparian vegetation increases fish biotic integrity.

  2. A New Method for Fracturing Wells Reservoir Evaluation in Fractured Gas Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fracture is a geological phenomenon widely distributed in tight formation, and fractured gas reservoir stimulation effect mainly depends on the communication of natural fractures. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the evaluation of this reservoir and to find out the optimal natural fractures development wells. By analyzing the interactions and nonlinear relationships of the parameters, it establishes three-level index system of reservoir evaluation and proposes a new method for gas well reservoir evaluation model in fractured gas reservoir on the basis of fuzzy logic theory and multilevel gray correlation. For this method, the Gaussian membership functions to quantify the degree of every factor in the decision-making system and the multilevel gray relation to determine the weight of each parameter on stimulation effect. Finally through fuzzy arithmetic operator between multilevel weights and fuzzy evaluation matrix, score, rank, the reservoir quality, and predicted production will be gotten. Result of this new method shows that the evaluation of the production coincidence rate reaches 80%, which provides a new way for fractured gas reservoir evaluation.

  3. Putting Personal Knowledge Management under the Macroscope of Informing Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a novel Personal Knowledge Management (PKM concept and prototype system. The system’s objective is to aid life-long-learning, resourcefulness, creativity, and teamwork of individuals throughout their academic and professional life and as contributors and beneficiaries of organizational and societal performance. Such a scope offers appealing and viable opportunities for stakeholders in the educational, professional, and developmental context. To further validate the underlying PKM application design, the systems thinking techniques of the transdiscipline of Informing Science (IS are employed. By applying Cohen’s IS-Framework, Leavitt’s Diamond Model, the IS-Meta Approach, and Gill’s and Murphy’s Three Dimensions of Design Task Complexity, the more specific KM models and methodologies central to the PKMS concept are aligned, introduced, and visualized. The extent of this introduction offers an essential overview, which can be deepened and broadened by using the cited URL and DOI links pointing to the available resources of the author’s prior publications. The paper emphasizes the differences of the proposed meme-based PKM System compared to its traditional organizational document-centric counterparts as well as its inherent complementing synergies. As a result, it shows how the system is closing in on Vannevar Bush’s still unfulfilled vison of the ‘Memex’, an as-close-as-it-gets imaginary ancestor celebrating its 70th anniversary as an inspiring idea never realized. It also addresses the scenario recently put forward by Levy which foresees a decentralizing revolution of knowledge management that gives more power and autonomy to individuals and self-organized groups. Accordingly, it also touches on the PKM potential in terms of Kuhn’s Scientific Revolutions and Disruptive Innovations.

  4. Diamonds in the dust: Putting bling into records management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matroko, X

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available the organisation, to finalise a records management policy for the CSIR and to produce an integrated records management implementation plan. The project was called “Diamonds in the Dust” to highlight the fact that effective records management does not imply...

  5. Health systems financing: putting together the “back office”

    OpenAIRE

    Dare, Lola; Reeler, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Strengthening healthcare systems has been identified as central to Africa achieving global and regional development targets, including the millennium development goals. Lola Dare and Anne Reeler present case studies on issues that can contribute to improved integration and lead to better performance of health systems in Africa

  6. Cultural Shifts: Putting Critical Information Literacy into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the example of foreign languages to explore the integration of critical information literacy into the curriculum of various disciplines. By closely examining the practices and values inherent in the foreign language information environment, the paper suggests that a critical vision of information literacy provides the most…

  7. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs: Effects of Reservoir Parameters on Gas Productivity and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Gaddipati, M.; Nyayapathi, L.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on production rates of natural gas from gas hydrates by the method of depressurization, using CMG STARS. Seven factors/parameters were considered as perturbations from a base-case hydrate reservoir description based on Problem 7 of the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison Study led by the Department of Energy and the USGS. This reservoir is modeled after the inferred properties of the hydrate deposit at the Prudhoe Bay L-106 site. The included sensitivity variables were hydrate saturation, pressure (depth), temperature, bottom-hole pressure of the production well, free water saturation, intrinsic rock permeability, and porosity. A two-level (L=2) Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to study the relative effects of these factors. The measured variable was the discounted cumulative gas production. The discount rate chosen was 15%, resulting in the gas contribution to the net present value of a reservoir. Eight different designs were developed for conducting sensitivity analysis and the effects of the parameters on the real and discounted production rates will be discussed. The breakeven price in various cases and the dependence of the breakeven price on the production parameters is given in the paper. As expected, initial reservoir temperature has the strongest positive effect on the productivity of a hydrate deposit and the bottom-hole pressure in the production well has the strongest negative dependence. Also resulting in a positive correlation is the intrinsic permeability and the initial free water of the formation. Negative effects were found for initial hydrate saturation (at saturations greater than 50% of the pore space) and the reservoir porosity. These negative effects are related to the available sensible heat of the reservoir, with decreasing productivity due to decreasing available sensible heat. Finally, we conclude that for the base case reservoir, the break-even price (BEP

  9. Biophysical investigation of type A PutAs reveals a conserved core oligomeric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korasick, David A. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Singh, Harkewal [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Pemberton, Travis A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Luo, Min [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Dhatwalia, Richa [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Tanner, John J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA

    2017-08-01

    Many enzymes form homooligomers, yet the functional significance of self-association is seldom obvious. Herein, we examine the connection between oligomerization and catalytic function for proline utilization A (PutA) enzymes. PutAs are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze both reactions of proline catabolism. Type A PutAs are the smallest members of the family, possessing a minimal domain architecture consisting of N-terminal proline dehydrogenase and C-terminal l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase modules. Type A PutAs form domain-swapped dimers, and in one case (Bradyrhizobium japonicum PutA), two of the dimers assemble into a ring-shaped tetramer. Whereas the dimer has a clear role in substrate channeling, the functional significance of the tetramer is unknown. To address this question, we performed structural studies of four-type A PutAs from two clades of the PutA tree. The crystal structure of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus PutA covalently inactivated by N-propargylglycine revealed a fold and substrate-channeling tunnel similar to other PutAs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that Bdellovibrio PutA is dimeric in solution, in contrast to the prediction from crystal packing of a stable tetrameric assembly. SAXS studies of two other type A PutAs from separate clades also suggested that the dimer predominates in solution. To assess whether the tetramer of B. japonicum PutA is necessary for catalytic function, a hot spot disruption mutant that cleanly produces dimeric protein was generated. The dimeric variant exhibited kinetic parameters similar to the wild-type enzyme. These results implicate the domain-swapped dimer as the core structural and functional unit of type A PutAs.

  10. Environmental Status of Kam’yanske Reservoir (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharamok Tetyana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental status of Kam’yanske reservoir (47°55′51.6″N 33°46′08.4″E as one of the small water bodies belonging to southeast Ukraine was investigated. The integrated environmental assessment based on the quality indices of salt content, trophic–saprobiological indicators and specific toxic water indicators of Kam’yanske reservoir are characterised as ‘satisfactory’ and ‘slightly polluted’. Defined bottom accumulation coefficient (BAC shows continuing heavy metals enlargement in the upper layer of the bottom sediments and chronic pollution in ecosystem. The content of heavy metals in the muscles of industrial fish in the researched pond did not exceed maximal allowed concentration (MAC for fish as food according to Ukrainian standards. Accumulation of heavy metals in fish was due to the peculiarities of their ways of nutrition and existing. The total contents of heavy metals in common carp was almost twice as large compared to other fish. The maximum accumulation rates set for fish muscles of essential elements – zinc and iron.

  11. Healing and Preventing Pain: Complementary and Integrative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Pain Management Healing and Preventing Pain, Complementary and Integrative Approaches Past ... Pain Management" Articles Putting A Pause In Pain / Healing and Preventing Pain Complementary and Integrative Approaches / Pain ...

  12. Imaging CO2 reservoirs using muons borehole detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Bonal, N.; Lintereur, A.; Mellors, R. J.; Paulsson, B. N. P.; Rowe, C. A.; Varner, G. S.; Kouzes, R.; Flygare, J.; Mostafanezhad, I.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Guardincerri, E.; Chapline, G.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 in subsurface reservoirs is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We present a method of 4D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Although muon flux rapidly decreases with depth, preliminary analyses indicate that the muon technique is sufficiently sensitive to effectively map density variations caused by fluid displacement at depths consistent with proposed CO2reservoirs. The intensity of the muon flux is, to first order, inversely proportional to the density times the path length, with resolution increasing with measurement time. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in subsurface locations is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors both capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will be able to resist the harsh underground conditions (temperature, pressure, corrosion) for long periods of time. Such a detector with these capabilities has been developed through a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. A prototype has been tested in underground laboratories during 2016. In particular, we will present results from a series of tests performed in a tunnel comparing efficiencies, and angular and position resolution to measurements collected at the same locations by large instruments developed by Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories. We will also present the results of simulations of muon detection for various CO2 reservoir situations and muon detector configurations. Finally, to improve imaging of 3D subsurface structures, a combination of seismic data, gravity data, and muons can be used. Because seismic waves, gravity anomalies, and muons are all sensitive to density, the combination of two or three of these measurements promises to be a powerful way to improve spatial

  13. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  14. Dissolved methane in Indian freshwater reservoirs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvenkar, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kurian, S.; Shenoy, D.M.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Patil, S.; Sarkar, A.; Gauns, M.

    of the central part of the Indo- Gangetic Plain just north of the Tropic of Cancer. The eighth – the Bhakra-Nangal Dam is built over the Sutlej River at the foothills of the Himalayas. The reservoirs of these dams vary greatly in size from very small systems...

  15. Do cyanobacterial picoplankton exist in eutrophic reservoirs?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárková, Jaroslava

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2002), s. 497-500 ISSN 0368-0770 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6017004; GA AV ČR IAA6017803; GA AV ČR KSK2005601 Keywords : reservoir * colonial picocynobacteria Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  16. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  17. Landscape runoff, precipitation variation and reservoir limnology

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Landscape runoff potential impact on reservoir limnology was indirectly evaluated by assessing the effect of precipitation variation on several water quality parameters, on Anabaena (Cyanophyta) and crustacean zooplankton abundances. The obtained results showed that total phosphorus increased with strong precipitation events whereas water transparency presented an opposite trend. Wet periods followed by long dry periods favored Anabaena dominance, which induced a...

  18. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  19. Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Hurwitz, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    When it comes to forecasting eruptions, volcano observatories rely mostly on real-time signals from earthquakes, ground deformation, and gas discharge, combined with probabilistic assessments based on past behavior [Sparks and Cashman, 2017]. There is comparatively less reliance on geophysical and petrological understanding of subsurface magma reservoirs.

  20. Accouting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J. J.; Deemer, B. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Nietch, C. T.; Waldo, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a `basis for future methodological development' due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions linked to the National Lakes Assessment.

  1. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  2. Novel Synechococcus genomes reconstructed from freshwater reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabello-Yeves, P.J.; Haro-Moreno, J.M.; Martin-Cuadrado, A.B.; Ghai, Rohit; Picazo, A.; Camacho, A.; Rodriguez-Valera, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, June (2017), č. článku 1151. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04828S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Synechococcus * picocyanobacteria * freshwater reservoirs * metagenomics * abundance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  3. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  4. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  5. Exponential rate of convergence in current reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    De Masi, Anna; Presutti, Errico; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Vares, Maria Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a family of interacting particle systems on $[-N,N]$ that arises as a natural model for current reservoirs and Fick's law. We study the exponential rate of convergence to the stationary measure, which we prove to be of the order $N^{-2}$.

  6. The glaciogenic reservoir analogue studies project (GRASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, Julien; Vegt, P. van der

    in Quaternary glaciated areas and their nature and sediment composition is critical to drive a sustainable production strategy and assess their vulnerability. Seismic resolution however, often limits the understanding of channel valleys morphology, 3D geometry and internal reservoir distribution, thus...

  7. Parallel Numerical Simulations of Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Pedro; Mangiavacchi, Norberto

    2010-11-01

    The study of the water flow and scalar transport in water reservoirs is important for the determination of the water quality during the initial stages of the reservoir filling and during the life of the reservoir. For this scope, a parallel 2D finite element code for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with scalar transport was implemented using the message-passing programming model, in order to perform simulations of hidropower water reservoirs in a computer cluster environment. The spatial discretization is based on the MINI element that satisfies the Babuska-Brezzi (BB) condition, which provides sufficient conditions for a stable mixed formulation. All the distributed data structures needed in the different stages of the code, such as preprocessing, solving and post processing, were implemented using the PETSc library. The resulting linear systems for the velocity and the pressure fields were solved using the projection method, implemented by an approximate block LU factorization. In order to increase the parallel performance in the solution of the linear systems, we employ the static condensation method for solving the intermediate velocity at vertex and centroid nodes separately. We compare performance results of the static condensation method with the approach of solving the complete system. In our tests the static condensation method shows better performance for large problems, at the cost of an increased memory usage. Performance results for other intensive parts of the code in a computer cluster are also presented.

  8. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-01-01

    To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of...

  9. Predicting interwell heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs: Outcrop observations and applications of progressive facies variation through a depositional cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, P.R.; Barton, M.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Nearly 11 billion barrels of mobile oil remain in known domestic fluvial-deltaic reservoirs despite their mature status. A large percentage of this strategic resource is in danger of permanent loss through premature abandonment. Detailed reservoir characterization studies that integrate advanced technologies in geology, geophysics, and engineering are needed to identify remaining resources that can be targeted by near-term recovery methods, resulting in increased production and the postponement of abandonment. The first and most critical step of advanced characterization studies is the identification of reservoir architecture. However, existing subsurface information, primarily well logs, provides insufficient lateral resolution to identify low-permeability boundaries that exist between wells and compartmentalize the reservoir. Methods to predict lateral variability in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs have been developed on the basis of outcrop studies and incorporate identification of depositional setting and position within a depositional cycle. The position of a reservoir within the framework of a depositional cycle is critical. Outcrop studies of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone of Utah have demonstrated that the architecture and internal heterogeneity of sandstones deposited within a given depositional setting (for example, delta front) vary greatly depending upon whether they were deposited in the early, progradational part of a cycle or the late, retrogradational part of a cycle. The application of techniques similar to those used by this study in other fluvial-deltaic reservoirs will help to estimate the amount and style of remaining potential in mature reservoirs through a quicklook evaluation, allowing operators to focus characterization efforts on reservoirs that have the greatest potential to yield additional resources.

  10. Innovation-driven efficient development of the Longwangmiao Fm large-scale sulfur gas reservoir in Moxi block, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block of the Anyue Gas field, Sichuan Basin, is the largest single-sandbody integrated carbonate gas reservoir proved so far in China. Notwithstanding this reservoir's advantages like large-scale reserves and high single-well productivity, there are multiple complicated factors restricting its efficient development, such as a median content of hydrogen sulfide, low porosity and strong heterogeneity of fracture–cave formation, various modes of gas–water occurrences, and close relation between overpressure and stress sensitivity. Up till now, since only a few Cambrian large-scale carbonate gas reservoirs have ever been developed in the world, there still exists some blind spots especially about its exploration and production rules. Besides, as for large-scale sulfur gas reservoirs, the exploration and construction is costly, and production test in the early evaluation stage is severely limited, all of which will bring about great challenges in productivity construction and high potential risks. In this regard, combining with Chinese strategic demand of strengthening clean energy supply security, the PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field Company has carried out researches and field tests for the purpose of providing high-production wells, optimizing development design, rapidly constructing high-quality productivity and upgrading HSE security in the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block. Through the innovations of technology and management mode within 3 years, this gas reservoir has been built into a modern large-scale gas field with high quality, high efficiency and high benefit, and its annual capacity is now up to over 100 × 108 m3, with a desirable production capacity and development indexes gained as originally anticipated. It has become a new model of large-scale gas reservoirs with efficient development, providing a reference for other types of gas reservoirs in China.

  11. Putting computational modeling at the fingertips of bench biologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgard, Markus

    Communication is key in successful collaborations between theoretical and experimental life scientists. In our line of work we integrate physiological and systems-level data of cell factories with constraint-based Modeling approaches to predict suitable targets for metabolic engineering. The most......-level programming environment Mathematica and an open source metabolic modeling package (MASS Toolbox) to quickly prototype maps and other interactive widgets. In the long term, we would like to make those publicly accessible using open web technologies....

  12. Analysis of Sedimentation in Wonogiri Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Inti Budi Santosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wonogiri reservoir which has 730 million cubic meters of total storage, 90 square kilometers of water area, and 1260 square kilometers of catchment area, is located in the Wonogiri Regency, Central Java Province. It was first established in 1981 and began its operation in 1982 with the expectation that it would last for about 100 years. Today (2002 the reservoir has got a serious problem of sedimentation. The sedimentation is so large that it would decrease the capacity storage of the reservoir and would shorten the length of operation. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the sediment that comes into the reservoir. This research would be based on the total sediment calculation of the sedimentation, through some methods, such as echo sounding measured data, land erosion (USLE, the calculation of the sediment in rivers. This research calculates the sediment capacities based on the water flow data and the sediment rating curves in rivers of Keduang, Tirtomoyo, Temon, upstream reach of Bengawan Solo, Alang, and Wuryantoro. The suspended load was calculated based on the sediment rating curves, whereas the bed load was computed as the percentage of the suspended load. The sum of both calculation results would be the total sediment. The calculation result showed that the total sediment which has come into the reservoir is 6.68 million cubic meters per year. As a comparison, the writer noted that the former researcher using echo sounding method done by the Faculty of Geography of the Universitas Gadjah Mada in 1985, it found that the total sediment capacity which came into the reservoir was 6.60 million cubic meters per year or 5.40 mm per year of sheet erosion. The other research using echo sounding method done by JICA in 2000 found that the total sediment which had come into the reservoir was 4.50 million cubic meters per year or 3.50 mm per year of sheet erosion. By knowing the results of calculation of the total sediment, we can learn that

  13. Muscular power, neuromuscular activation, and performance in shot put athletes at preseason and at competition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, Thomas A; Terzis, Gerasimos; Boudolos, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Georgios

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in shot put performance, muscular power, and neuromuscular activation of the lower extremities, between the preseason and the competition period, in skilled shot put athletes using the rotational technique. Shot put performance was assessed at the start of the pre-season period as well as after 12 weeks, at the competition period, in nine shot putters. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right vastus lateralis muscle was recorded during all shot put trials. Maximum squat strength (1RM) and mechanical parameters during the countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force platform were also determined at pre-season and at competition period. Shot put performance increased 4.7% (p phase was increased significantly (p training period. Shot put performance was significantly related with muscular power and takeoff velocity during the CMJ, at competition period (r = 0.66, p competition period.

  14. Principal component analysis to assess the composition and fate of impurities in a large river-embedded reservoir: Qingcaosha Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Deng, Yang; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2013-08-01

    Qingcaosha Reservoir (QR) is the largest river-embedded reservoir in east China, which receives its source water from the Yangtze River (YR). The temporal and spatial variations in dissolved organic matter (DOM), chromophoric DOM (CDOM), nitrogen, phosphorus and phytoplankton biomass were investigated from June to September in 2012 and were integrated by principal component analysis (PCA). Three PCA factors were identified: (1) phytoplankton related factor 1, (2) total DOM related factor 2, and (3) eutrophication related factor 3. Factor 1 was a lake-type parameter which correlated with chlorophyll-a and protein-like CDOM (r = 0.793 and r = 0.831, respectively). Factor 2 was a river-type parameter which correlated with total DOC and humic-like CDOM (r = 0.668 and r = 0.726, respectively). Factor 3 correlated with total nitrogen and phosphorus (r = 0.864 and r = 0.621, respectively). The low flow speed, self-sedimentation and nutrient accumulation in QR resulted in increases in PCA factor 1 scores (phytoplankton biomass and derived CDOM) in the spatial scale, indicating a change of river-type water (YR) to lake-type water (QR). In summer, the water temperature variation induced a growth-bloom-decay process of phytoplankton combined with the increase of PCA factor 2 (humic-like CDOM) in the QR, which was absent in the YR.

  15. Reservoir pressure evolution model during exploration drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotaev B. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of laboratory studies and literature data the method for estimating reservoir pressure in exploratory drilling has been proposed, it allows identify zones of abnormal reservoir pressure in the presence of seismic data on reservoir location depths. This method of assessment is based on developed at the end of the XX century methods using d- and σ-exponentials taking into account the mechanical drilling speed, rotor speed, bit load and its diameter, lithological constant and degree of rocks' compaction, mud density and "regional density". It is known that in exploratory drilling pulsation of pressure at the wellhead is observed. Such pulsation is a consequence of transferring reservoir pressure through clay. In the paper the mechanism for transferring pressure to the bottomhole as well as the behaviour of the clay layer during transmission of excess pressure has been described. A laboratory installation has been built, it has been used for modelling pressure propagation to the bottomhole of the well through a layer of clay. The bulge of the clay layer is established for 215.9 mm bottomhole diameter. Functional correlation of pressure propagation through the layer of clay has been determined and a reaction of the top clay layer has been shown to have bulge with a height of 25 mm. A pressure distribution scheme (balance has been developed, which takes into account the distance from layers with abnormal pressure to the bottomhole. A balance equation for reservoir pressure evaluation has been derived including well depth, distance from bottomhole to the top of the formation with abnormal pressure and density of clay.

  16. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  17. Evaluation of Gaussian approximations for data assimilation in reservoir models

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco A.; Law, Kody J H; Stuart, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    is fundamental for the optimal management of reservoirs. Unfortunately, due to the large-scale highly nonlinear properties of standard reservoir models, characterizing the posterior is computationally prohibitive. Instead, more affordable ad hoc techniques, based

  18. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  19. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR FLOW MEASUREMENTS FROM MARIOTTE RESERVOIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, Jim; Murphy, Fred

    1987-01-01

    The mariotte reservoir supplies water at a constant hydraulic pressure by self-regulation of its internal gas pressure. Automated outflow measurements from mariotte reservoirs are generally difficult because of the reservoir's self-regulation mechanism. This paper describes an automated flow meter specifically designed for use with mariotte reservoirs. The flow meter monitors changes in the mariotte reservoir's gas pressure during outflow to determine changes in the reservoir's water level. The flow measurement is performed by attaching a pressure transducer to the top of a mariotte reservoir and monitoring gas pressure changes during outflow with a programmable data logger. The advantages of the new automated flow measurement techniques include: (i) the ability to rapidly record a large range of fluxes without restricting outflow, and (ii) the ability to accurately average the pulsing flow, which commonly occurs during outflow from the mariotte reservoir.

  20. Designing adaptive operating rules for a large multi-purpose reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Reservoirs whose live storage capacity is large compared with annual inflow have "memory", i.e., their storage levels contain information about past inflows and reservoir operations. Such "long-memory" reservoirs can be found in basins in dry regions such as the Nile River Basin in Africa, the Colorado River Basin in the US, or river basins in Western and Central Asia. There the effects of a dry year have the potential to impact reservoir levels and downstream releases for several subsequent years, prompting tensions in transboundary basins. Yet, current reservoir operation rules in those reservoirs do not reflect this by integrating past climate history and release decisions among the factors that influence operating decisions. This work proposes and demonstrates an adaptive reservoir operating rule that explicitly accounts for the recent history of release decisions, and not only current storage level and near-term inflow forecasts. This implies adding long-term (e.g., multiyear) objectives to the existing short-term (e.g., annual) ones. We apply these operating rules to the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a large reservoir under construction on the Blue Nile River. Energy generation has to be balanced with the imperative of releasing enough water in low flow years (e.g., the minimum 1, 2 or 3 year cumulative flow) to avoid tensions with downstream countries, Sudan and Egypt. Maximizing the minimum multi-year releases could be of interest for the Nile problem to minimize the impact on performance of the large High Aswan Dam in Egypt. Objectives include maximizing the average and minimum annual energy generation and maximizing the minimum annual, two year and three year cumulative releases. The system model is tested using 30 stochastically generated streamflow series. One can then derive adaptive release rules depending on the value of one- and two-year total releases with respect to thresholds. Then, there are 3 sets of release rules for the reservoir depending

  1. Exploring synergistic benefits of Water-Food-Energy Nexus through multi-objective reservoir optimization schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uen, Tinn-Shuan; Chang, Fi-John; Zhou, Yanlai; Tsai, Wen-Ping

    2018-08-15

    This study proposed a holistic three-fold scheme that synergistically optimizes the benefits of the Water-Food-Energy (WFE) Nexus by integrating the short/long-term joint operation of a multi-objective reservoir with irrigation ponds in response to urbanization. The three-fold scheme was implemented step by step: (1) optimizing short-term (daily scale) reservoir operation for maximizing hydropower output and final reservoir storage during typhoon seasons; (2) simulating long-term (ten-day scale) water shortage rates in consideration of the availability of irrigation ponds for both agricultural and public sectors during non-typhoon seasons; and (3) promoting the synergistic benefits of the WFE Nexus in a year-round perspective by integrating the short-term optimization and long-term simulation of reservoir operations. The pivotal Shihmen Reservoir and 745 irrigation ponds located in Taoyuan City of Taiwan together with the surrounding urban areas formed the study case. The results indicated that the optimal short-term reservoir operation obtained from the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) could largely increase hydropower output but just slightly affected water supply. The simulation results of the reservoir coupled with irrigation ponds indicated that such joint operation could significantly reduce agricultural and public water shortage rates by 22.2% and 23.7% in average, respectively, as compared to those of reservoir operation excluding irrigation ponds. The results of year-round short/long-term joint operation showed that water shortage rates could be reduced by 10% at most, the food production rate could be increased by up to 47%, and the hydropower benefit could increase up to 9.33 million USD per year, respectively, in a wet year. Consequently, the proposed methodology could be a viable approach to promoting the synergistic benefits of the WFE Nexus, and the results provided unique insights for stakeholders and policymakers to pursue

  2. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  3. Socio-environmental actions on the Itaipu Binacional reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghetti, J.R.; Perez Chena, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Itaipu Hydroelectric Power complex exploits the potential of a stretch of the Paran river which runs between Brazil and Paraguay. Forested areas bordering the reservoir have been established and are dedicated to environmental protection. Itaipu Binacional, together with the municipal councils, plans and defines appropriate use and occupation of the land so that various socio-environmental-economic activities can be developed and contribute to the integration of the new region. Concessions have been granted for a variety of communal and private projects which are in harmony with conservationist principles. The conservation units in the area are described and aquatic environmental studies, micro-climate analysis, soil conservation programmes, and environmental education and research are outlined. (UK)

  4. The science of golf putting a complete guide for researchers, players and coaches

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the motor performance and biomechanics of golf putting, providing methodologies, studies and approaches to this concept. Presenting outcomes of research published over the past six years, it offers guidelines from a scientifically oriented perspective, and employs new technologies and mathematical methods to assess golf putting. The chapters cover aspects such as pendulum-like motion in sports, setting up the experimental design, and performance metrics for putting variables. Paving the way for an improved understanding of what leads to failure and success in golf putting, this book offers an invaluable reference source for sports scientists, engineers and mathematicians, as well as golfers.

  5. Generation of reservoir models on flexible meshes; Generation de modeles de reservoir sur maillage flexible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, L.

    2005-12-15

    The high level geo-statistic description of the subsurface are often far too detailed for use in routine flow simulators. To make flow simulations tractable, the number of grid blocks has to be reduced: an approximation, still relevant with flow description, is necessary. In this work, we place the emphasis on the scaling procedure from the fine scale model to the multi-scale reservoir model. Two main problems appear: Near wells, faults and channels, the volume of flexible cells may be less than fine ones, so we need to solve a down-scaling problem; Far from these regions, the volume of cells are bigger than fine ones so we need to solve an up-scaling problem. In this work, research has been done on each of these three areas: down-scaling, up-scaling and fluid flow simulation. For each of these subjects, a review, some news improvements and comparative study are proposed. The proposed down-scaling method is build to be compatible with existing data integration methods. The comparative study shows that empirical methods are not enough accurate to solve the problem. Concerning the up-scaling step, the proposed approach is based on an existing method: the perturbed boundary conditions. An extension to unstructured mesh is developed for the inter-cell permeability tensor. The comparative study shows that numerical methods are not always as accurate as expected and the empirical model can be sufficient in lot of cases. A new approach to single-phase fluid flow simulation is developed. This approach can handle with full tensorial permeability fields with source or sink terms.(author)

  6. State of the art of reservoir sedimentation management in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño Salas, Cándido; Sanz Montero, Esther; Cobo Rayán, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Part of the total reservoir storage capacity in Spain (56 km3) is lost due to sedimentation processes taking place. Surveys carried out in 121 reservoirs indicate that 6% of them have undergone a capacity reduction of over 50%. However, most of them (81%) are characterised by a reservoir capacity loss below 20%. The most frequent methods used to control reservoir sedimentation in Spain fall into one of the following groups: reduction of sediment yield through basin management and removal of t...

  7. First assessment of the ecological status of Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.; Lemaire, B.; Vinc on Leite, B.; Tassin, B.; Amacha, N.; Slim, K.; Atoui, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many reservoirs have been constructed throughout the world during the 20th century, with many also suffering from eutrophication. The resulting increased phytoplankton biomass in reservoirs impairs their use. Except for Lake Kinneret, the environmental status of lakes and reservoirs in the Middle East is poorly documented. Karaoun reservoir, also known as Qaroun, Qaraoun or Qarun, is the largest water body in Lebanon, having been constructed for irrigation and hydropower production. This present study reviews Karaoun reservoir, including its characteristics, uses, water quality and phytoplankton succession, to assess the environmental status of the reservoir on the basis of the few existing previous publications about the reservoir. Since 2004, which is 39 years after its construction, the reservoir is considered to be hypereutrophic, with low phytoplankton biodiversity and regular blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The nutrient and trace metal concentrations would not prevent use of the reservoir for a drinking water supply for Beirut, as is currently being planned, although not all the micropollutants in the lake were documented. Karaoun reservoir is compared to other monitored lakes and reservoirs around the Mediterranean Sea. They share annual toxic cyanobacteria blooms of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and of Microcystis aeruginosa. The phytoplankton composition and succession of Karaoun reservoir is more similar to El Gergal reservoir (Spain) than nearby natural lakes such as Lake Kinneret (Israel) and Lake Trichonis (Greece). Phytoplankton diversity in Karaoun reservoir was the lowest, due to higher nutrient concentrations and a larger decrease in water level in the dry season. Karaoun reservoir represents an interesting example of the potential response of the phytoplankton community in other lakes and reservoirs during the drought periods expected to occur as a result of global climate change. (author)

  8. Reservoir management under consideration of stratification and hydraulic phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Nandalal, K.D.W.

    1995-01-01


    Reservoirs are the most important components in a water resources system. They are used to store water to extend its temporal availability. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water change when impounded in reservoirs. This implies the possibility of using reservoirs for the control of the quality of water besides merely satisfying the quantity requirement. This study presents several techniques formulated to manage a reservoir when both quantity and quality of...

  9. Pore Type Classification on Carbonate Reservoir in Offshore Sarawak using Rock Physics Model and Rock Digital Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, L A; Harith, Z Z T

    2014-01-01

    It has been recognized that carbonate reservoirs are one of the biggest sources of hydrocarbon. Clearly, the evaluation of these reservoirs is important and critical. For rigorous reservoir characterization and performance prediction from geophysical measurements, the exact interpretation of geophysical response of different carbonate pore types is crucial. Yet, the characterization of carbonate reservoir rocks is difficult due to their complex pore systems. The significant diagenesis process and complex depositional environment makes pore systems in carbonates far more complicated than in clastics. Therefore, it is difficult to establish rock physics model for carbonate rock type. In this paper, we evaluate the possible rock physics model of 20 core plugs of a Miocene carbonate platform in Central Luconia, Sarawak. The published laboratory data of this area were used as an input to create the carbonate rock physics models. The elastic properties were analyzed to examine the validity of an existing analytical carbonate rock physics model. We integrate the Xu-Payne Differential Effective Medium (DEM) Model and the elastic modulus which was simulated from a digital carbonate rock image using Finite Element Modeling. The results of this integration matched well for the separation of carbonate pore types and sonic P-wave velocity obtained from laboratory measurement. Thus, the results of this study show that the integration of rock digital image and theoretical rock physics might improve the elastic properties prediction and useful for more advance geophysical techniques (e.g. Seismic Inversion) of carbonate reservoir in Sarawak

  10. Sudden water pollution accidents and reservoir emergency operations: impact analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hezhen; Lei, Xiaohui; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Kong, Lingzhong; Jiang, Yunzhong; Wang, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  11. Rapid differentiation in a sill-like magma reservoir: a case study from the campi flegrei caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Lucia; Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, geophysical investigations have detected wide magma reservoirs beneath quiescent calderas. However, the discovery of partially melted horizons inside the crust is not sufficient to put constraints on capability of reservoirs to supply cataclysmic eruptions, which strictly depends on the chemical-physical properties of magmas (composition, viscosity, gas content etc.), and thus on their differentiation histories. In this study, by using geochemical, isotopic and textural records of rocks erupted from the high-risk Campi Flegrei caldera, we show that the alkaline magmas have evolved toward a critical state of explosive behaviour over a time span shorter than the repose time of most volcanic systems and that these magmas have risen rapidly toward the surface. Moreover, similar results on the depth and timescale of magma storage were previously obtained for the neighbouring Somma-Vesuvius volcano. This consistency suggests that there might be a unique long-lived magma pool beneath the whole Neapolitan area.

  12. Parallel processing using an optical delay-based reservoir computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Delay systems subject to delayed optical feedback have recently shown great potential in solving computationally hard tasks. By implementing a neuro-inspired computational scheme relying on the transient response to optical data injection, high processing speeds have been demonstrated. However, reservoir computing systems based on delay dynamics discussed in the literature are designed by coupling many different stand-alone components which lead to bulky, lack of long-term stability, non-monolithic systems. Here we numerically investigate the possibility of implementing reservoir computing schemes based on semiconductor ring lasers. Semiconductor ring lasers are semiconductor lasers where the laser cavity consists of a ring-shaped waveguide. SRLs are highly integrable and scalable, making them ideal candidates for key components in photonic integrated circuits. SRLs can generate light in two counterpropagating directions between which bistability has been demonstrated. We demonstrate that two independent machine learning tasks , even with different nature of inputs with different input data signals can be simultaneously computed using a single photonic nonlinear node relying on the parallelism offered by photonics. We illustrate the performance on simultaneous chaotic time series prediction and a classification of the Nonlinear Channel Equalization. We take advantage of different directional modes to process individual tasks. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk between the tasks. Our results indicate that prediction/classification with errors comparable to the state-of-the-art performance can be obtained even with noise despite the two tasks being computed simultaneously. We also find that a good performance is obtained for both tasks for a broad range of the parameters. The results are discussed in detail in [Nguimdo et al., IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst. 26, pp. 3301-3307, 2015

  13. Mathematical and field analysis of longitudinal reservoir infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, W. T.; Capart, H.

    2016-12-01

    In reservoirs, severe problems are caused by infilled sediment deposits. In long term, the sediment accumulation reduces the capacity of reservoir storage and flood control benefits. In the short term, the sediment deposits influence the intakes of water-supply and hydroelectricity generation. For the management of reservoir, it is important to understand the deposition process and then to predict the sedimentation in reservoir. To investigate the behaviors of sediment deposits, we propose a one-dimensional simplified theory derived by the Exner equation to predict the longitudinal sedimentation distribution in idealized reservoirs. The theory models the reservoir infill geomorphic actions for three scenarios: delta progradation, near-dam bottom deposition, and final infill. These yield three kinds of self-similar analytical solutions for the reservoir bed profiles, under different boundary conditions. Three analytical solutions are composed by error function, complementary error function, and imaginary error function, respectively. The theory is also computed by finite volume method to test the analytical solutions. The theoretical and numerical predictions are in good agreement with one-dimensional small-scale laboratory experiment. As the theory is simple to apply with analytical solutions and numerical computation, we propose some applications to simulate the long-profile evolution of field reservoirs and focus on the infill sediment deposit volume resulting the uplift of near-dam bottom elevation. These field reservoirs introduced here are Wushe Reservoir, Tsengwen Reservoir, Mudan Reservoir in Taiwan, Lago Dos Bocas in Puerto Rico, and Sakuma Dam in Japan.

  14. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a 300-foot...

  15. Analysis of Fluvial Sediment Discharges into Kubanni Reservoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sediment discharges into the Kubanni Reservoir (KR) has been measured and analysed in this study. The predominant sandy-clay sediment in the reservoir has an estimated total sediment load of 20,387,000 kg/year. The depth and area coverage of the reservoir was surveyed using a defined distributed grid line ...

  16. Reservoir site evaluation through routing | Ogunlela | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... m3/s, and a relative attenuation of 41.10%. Also; the reservoir would not be overtopped since the 99.54 m water elevation for the 25-yr, 24-hr storm was below the reservoir embankment top elevation. Keywords:Reservoir routing. Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems Vol. 3 (1) 2005: pp.

  17. Reservoir management under consideration of stratification and hydraulic phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandalal, K.D.W.

    1995-01-01


    Reservoirs are the most important components in a water resources system. They are used to store water to extend its temporal availability. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water change when impounded in reservoirs. This implies the possibility of using reservoirs

  18. Third workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1977-12-15

    The Third Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 14, 1977, with 104 attendees from six nations. In keeping with the recommendations expressed by the participants at the Second Workshop, the format of the Workshop was retained, with three days of technical sessions devoted to reservoir physics, well and reservoir testing, field development, and mathematical modeling of geothermal reservoirs. The program presented 33 technical papers, summaries of which are included in these Proceedings. Although the format of the Workshop has remained constant, it is clear from a perusal of the Table of Contents that considerable advances have occurred in all phases of geothermal reservoir engineering over the past three years. Greater understanding of reservoir physics and mathematical representations of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated reservoirs are evident; new techniques for their analysis are being developed, and significant field data from a number of newer reservoirs are analyzed. The objectives of these workshops have been to bring together researchers active in the various physical and mathematical disciplines comprising the field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give the participants a forum for review of progress and exchange of new ideas in this rapidly developing field, and to summarize the effective state of the art of geothermal reservoir engineering in a form readily useful to the many government and private agencies involved in the development of geothermal energy. To these objectives, the Third Workshop and these Proceedings have been successfully directed. Several important events in this field have occurred since the Second Workshop in December 1976. The first among these was the incorporation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) into the newly formed Department of Energy (DOE) which continues as the leading Federal agency in geothermal reservoir engineering research. The Third

  19. What did the Romans ever do for us? Putting humans in global land models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, M. F.; Wada, Y.; Dermody, B.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2016-12-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s, awareness of the shortage of global water resources lead to the first detailed global water resources assessments using regional statistics of water use and observations of meteorological and hydrological variables. Shortly thereafter, the first macroscale hydrological models (MHM) appeared. In these models, blue water (i.e., surface water and renewable groundwater) availability was calculated by accumulating runoff over a stream network and comparing it with population densities or with estimated water demand for agriculture, industry and households. In this talk we review the evolution of human impact modelling in global land models with a focus on global water resources, touching upon developments of the last 15 years: i.e. calculating human water scarcity; estimating groundwater depletion; adding dams and reservoirs; fully integrating water use (abstraction, application, consumption, return flow) in the hydrology; simulating the effects of land use change. We identify four major challenges that hamper the further development of integrated water resources modelling and thus prohibit realistic projections of the future terrestrial water cycle in the Anthropocene. These are: 1) including the ability to model infrastructural changes and measures; 2) projecting future water demand and water use and associated measures; 3) including virtual water trade; 4) including land use change and landscape change. While all these challenges will likely benefit from hydro-economics and the newly developing field of socio-hydrology, we also show that especially for challenges 3 and 4 lessons can be drawn from the (pre)historic past. To make this point we provide two case studies: one modelling the virtual water trade in the Roman Empire and one modelling human-landscape interaction in prehistoric Calabria (Italy).

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.