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Sample records for putting episodic disability

  1. Putting episodic disability into context: a qualitative study exploring factors that influence disability experienced by adults living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Kelly K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of individuals may be living with the health-related consequences of HIV and its associated treatments, a concept we term disability. However, the context in which disability is experienced from the HIV perspective is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to describe the contextual factors that influence the experiences of disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV. Methods We conducted four focus groups and 15 face-to-face interviews with 38 men and women living with HIV. We asked participants to describe their health-related challenges, the physical, social and psychological areas of their life affected, and the impact of these challenges on their overall health. We also conducted two validity check focus groups with seven returning participants. We analyzed data using grounded theory techniques to develop a conceptual framework of disability for adults living with HIV, called the Episodic Disability Framework. Results Contextual factors that influenced disability were integral to participants' experiences and emerged as a key component of the framework. Extrinsic contextual factors included social support (support from friends, family, partners, pets and community, support from health care services and personnel, and programme and policy support and stigma. Intrinsic contextual factors included living strategies (seeking social interaction with others, maintaining a sense of control over life and the illness, "blocking HIV out of the mind", and adopting attitudes and beliefs to help manage living with HIV and personal attributes (gender and aging. These factors may exacerbate or alleviate dimensions of HIV disability. Conclusion This framework is the first to consider the contextual factors that influence experiences of disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV. Extrinsic factors (level of social support and stigma and intrinsic factors (living strategies and

  2. Putting Disability Studies to Work in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penketh, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Putting disability studies to work in art education suggests a form of action or industry, a creative opportunity for something to be done, recognising the relationship between theory and practice. Drawing on discourse analysis, this article offers an initial theoretical discussion of some of the ways in which disability is revealed and created…

  3. Measuring episodic abdominal pain and disability in suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valerie; Durkalski; Walter; Stewart; Paulette; MacDougall; Patrick; Mauldin; Joseph; Romagnuolo; Olga; Brawman-Minzter; Peter; Cotton

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the reliability of an instrument that measures disability arising from episodic abdominal pain in patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction(SOD).METHODS:Although several treatments have been utilized to reduce pain and associated disability,measurement tools have not been developed to reliably track outcomes.Two pilot studies were conducted to assess test-retest reliability of a newly developed instrument,the recurrent abdominal pain intensity and disability(RAPID) instrument.The...

  4. Incomes and Outcomes: Social Security Disability Benefits in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, Robert A; Estroff, Sue E; Sint, Kyaw; Lin, Haiqun; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Schooler, Nina R; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    Social Security Administration (SSA) disability benefits are an important source of income for people with psychoses and confer eligibility for health insurance. The authors examined the impact of coordinated specialty care on receipt of such benefits in first-episode psychosis, along with the correlates and consequences of receiving them. The Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode-Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study, a 34-site cluster-randomized trial, compared NAVIGATE, a coordinated specialty care program, to usual community care over 2 years. Receipt of SSA benefits and clinical outcomes were assessed at program entry and every 6 months for 2 years. Piecewise regression analysis was used to identify relative change in outcome trajectories after receipt of disability benefits. Among 399 RAISE-ETP participants, 36 (9%) were receiving SSA disability benefits at baseline; of the remainder, 124 (34.1%) obtained benefits during the 2-year study period. The NAVIGATE intervention improved quality of life, symptoms, and employment but did not significantly reduce the likelihood of receiving SSA disability benefits. Obtaining benefits was predicted by more severe psychotic symptoms and greater dysfunction and was followed by increased total income but fewer days of employment, reduced motivation (e.g., sense of purpose, greater anhedonia), and fewer days of intoxication. A 2-year coordinated specialty care intervention did not reduce receipt of SSA disability benefits. There were some advantages for those who obtained SSA disability benefits over the 2-year treatment period, but there were also some unintended adverse consequences. Providing income supports without impeding recovery remains an important policy challenge.

  5. The Neuropsychology of Cluster Headache: Cognition, Mood, Disability, and Quality of Life of Patients With Chronic and Episodic Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Torkamani, Mariam; Ernst, Lea; Cheung, Lok Sze; Lambru, Giorgio; Matharu, Manjit; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Cluster headache (CH) is commonly regarded as one of the most disabling headache conditions, and referred to as one of the most painful conditions known to humankind. Although there has been some research indicating the severe impact of CH, there is little comprehensive evidence of its impact on quality of life, disability, mood, and cognitive function in both its episodic (ECH) and chronic (CCH) variants. Methods This cross-sectional study investigates various aspects of cognitive...

  6. Psychosocial disability before, during, and after a major depressive episode - A 3-wave population-based study of state, scar, and trait effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Nolen, WA; Vollebergh, W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial disability after remission from a unipolar major depressive episode (MDE) can be due to (1) residual symptoms (state effect), (2) the continuation of premorbid disability (trait effect), and/or (3) disability that developed during the MDE and persisted beyond recovery (scar

  7. Psychosocial disability before, during, and after a major depressive episode - A 3-wave population-based study of state, scar, and trait effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Nolen, WA; Vollebergh, W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial disability after remission from a unipolar major depressive episode (MDE) can be due to (1) residual symptoms (state effect), (2) the continuation of premorbid disability (trait effect), and/or (3) disability that developed during the MDE and persisted beyond recovery (scar

  8. Putting health metrics into practice: using the disability-adjusted life year for strategic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfield, Kim; Smith, Brian; Gray, Rob; Ngamkitpaiboon, Lek; Vielot, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Implementing organizations are pressured to be accountable for performance. Many health impact metrics present limitations for priority setting; they do not permit comparisons across different interventions or health areas. In response, Population Services International (PSI) adopted the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted as its bottom-line performance metric. While international standards exist for calculating DALYs to determine burden of disease (BOD), PSI's use of DALYs averted is novel. It uses DALYs averted to assess and compare the health impact of its country programs, and to understand the effectiveness of a portfolio of interventions. This paper describes how the adoption of DALYs averted influenced organizational strategy and presents the advantages and constraints of using the metric. Health impact data from 2001-2011 were analyzed by program area and geographic region to measure PSI's performance against its goal of doubling health impact between 2007-2011. Analyzing 10 years of data permitted comparison with previous years' performance. A case study of PSI's Asia and Eastern European (A/EE) region, and PSI/Laos, is presented to illustrate how the adoption of DALYs averted affected strategic decision making. Between 2007-2011, PSI's programs doubled the total number of DALYs averted from 2002-2006. Most DALYs averted were within malaria, followed by HIV/AIDS and family planning (FP). The performance of PSI's A/EE region relative to other regions declined with the switch to DALYs averted. As a result, the region made a strategic shift to align its work with countries' BOD. In PSI/Laos, this redirection led to better-targeted programs and an approximate 50% gain in DALYs averted from 2009-2011. PSI's adoption of DALYs averted shifted the organization's strategic direction away from product sales and toward BOD. Now, many strategic decisions are based on "BOD-relevance," the share of the BOD that interventions can potentially address. This switch

  9. Disability multilevel modelling in first episodes of psychosis at 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor-Marsá, Blanca; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cabello, María; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Setién-Suero, Esther; Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    The description of longitudinal bio-psycho-social profiles in FEP samples may be useful for the prediction of disability trajectories. This study aimed to describe the differences between disability status of FEP patients at baseline and their change over time, analysing how variables associated to the psychological status, and the environment of the patient can affect his or her disability trajectory, once the influence of health condition and socio-demographic variables has been controlled for. Using data from a 3-year follow-up study on early psychosis (PAFIP), a multilevel structure in which the longitudinal measurements (within level) were nested within the individuals (between level), was modeled. The contribution of the different time-varying and time-invariant variables to the patients' disability outcomes was tested through eight nested models. Consecutive models, that successively added health related, socio-demographic, psychological and environmental variables to the unconditional model were estimated, by means of deviance and fit statistics. The present work revealed the importance of psychological and environmental factors in the explanation of disability changes in the context of FEP. We may conclude that longitudinal assessments of time-varying predictors - living situation (b=-0.10, pdisability variation over time, independently from symptoms' severity, duration of untreated psychosis, age, gender and years of education. Additionally, the level of premorbid adjustment (b=0.05, pdisability outcomes among FEP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of Persistent Disability and Back Pain in Older Adults with a New Episode of Care for Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Sean D; Sherman, Karen J; Heagerty, Patrick J; Mock, Charles N; Dettori, Nathan J; Comstock, Bryan A; Avins, Andrew L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2017-06-01

     To identify predictors of persistent disability and back pain in older adults.  Prospective cohort study.  Back pain outcomes using longitudinal data registry.  Five thousand two hundred twenty adults age 65 years and older with a new primary care visit for back pain.  Baseline measurements included: demographics, health, and back pain characteristics. We abstracted imaging findings from 348 radiology reports. The primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and back pain intensity. We defined persistent disability as RMDQ of 4/24 or higher at both six and 12 months and persistent back pain as pain 3/10 or higher at both six and 12 months.  There were 2,498 of 4,143 (60.3%) participants with persistent disability, and 2,099 of 4,144 (50.7%) had persistent back pain. Adjusted analyses showed the following characteristics most strongly predictive of persistent disability and persistent back pain: sex, race, worse baseline clinical characteristics of back pain, leg pain, back-related disability and duration of symptoms, smoking, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, a history of falls, greater number of comorbidities, knee osteoarthritis, wide-spread pain syndromes, and an index diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Within the imaging data subset, central spinal stenosis was not associated with disability or pain.  We found that many predictors in older adults were similar to those for younger populations.

  11. Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unable, and it isn't a sickness. Most people with disabilities can - and do - work, play, learn, and enjoy ... five people in the United States has a disability. Some people are born with one. Others have them as ...

  12. Put Your Hands Together

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-24

    In this podcast, learn how to help stop the spread of infection and stay healthy. It's easy when you 'Put Your Hands Together.'.  Created: 3/24/2011 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID) and National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/24/2011.

  13. Are You Putting Me On?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王花枝

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of phrases built on the word “put”, such as put by, put for, put across, put over and so forth. The expression“putting one on”is among them. You tell a person something that he finds difficult to believe, and he may look at you closely and ask:“Are you putting me on?”He does-n蒺t think you are serious. Perhaps, you are joking with him, teasing him, try-ing to test his reaction(反应).The expression “putting one on”is closest to the phrase “to put one over on a person”, meaning to trick, to de...

  14. 小议put on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓迪

    2011-01-01

    put on可以表达多种含义,现将其主要用法总结如下。 1.穿上;戴上。例如:Nancy put on her coat and went out 南希穿上大衣出去了。 2.涂;抹;擦。例如:Lucy was putting on her makeup in front of the mirror.

  15. Late onset hereditary episodic ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damak, M; Riant, F; Boukobza, M; Tournier-Lasserve, E; Bousser, M-G; Vahedi, K

    2009-05-01

    Episodic ataxias (EA) are hereditary paroxysmal neurological diseases with considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. So far seven loci have been reported and four different genes have been identified. Analysis of additional sporadic or familial cases is needed to better delineate the clinical and genetic spectrum of EA. A two generation French family with late onset episodic ataxia was examined. All consenting family members had a brain MRI with volumetric analysis of the cerebellum. Haplotype analysis was performed for the EA2 locus (19p13), the EA5 locus (2q22), the EA6 locus (5p13) and the EA7 locus (19q13). Mutation screening was performed for all exons of CACNA1A (EA2), EAAT1 (EA6) and the coding sequence of KCNA1 (EA1). Four family members had episodic ataxia with onset between 48 and 56 years of age but with heterogeneity in the severity and duration of symptoms. The two most severely affected had daily attacks of EA with a slowly progressive and disabling permanent cerebellar ataxia and a poor response to acetazolamide. Brain MRI showed in three affected members a decrease in the ratio of cerebellar volume:total intracranial volume, indicating cerebellar atrophy. No deleterious mutation was found in CACNA1A, SCA6, EAAT1 or KCNA1. In addition, the EA5 locus was excluded. A new phenotype of episodic ataxia has been described, characterised clinically by a late onset and progressive permanent cerebellar signs, and genetically by exclusion of the genes so far identified in EA.

  16. Talking about Teaching Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; DiMattia, Cara; Ribeiro, Branca; Lara-Meloy, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines two types of discourse in which teachers engage when discussing case studies based on classroom episodes, and the ways in which the availability of video data of these episodes may motivate a shift in the mode of discourse used. We interviewed two pairs of secondary school mathematics teachers after they had read a case study…

  17. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  18. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    ). This was done for all women who had records of one or more singleton births from 1998 until 2012. In total, we had information on 822 439 children born to 491 242 unique mothers. Results showed first-time psychiatric episodes treated at inpatient facilities were rare during pregnancy, but increased...... significantly shortly following childbirth (0.02 vs 0.25 per 1000 births). In comparison, first-time psychiatric episodes treated at outpatient facilities were more common, and showed little variation across pregnancy and postpartum. For every single birth resulting in postpartum episodes treated at inpatient...

  19. First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Psychosis Treatment Share Fact Sheet: First Episode Psychosis Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy En Español Facts About Psychosis The word psychosis is used to describe conditions ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: episodic ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions episodic ataxia episodic ataxia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Episodic ataxia is a group of related conditions that affect ...

  1. Put numbers on the sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    exposure of humans, to the local impacts associated with physical transformation of land and extraction of water. Chemicals can cause toxic impacts to humans and ecosystems on all scales. All these impacts need to be quantified if we want to put numbers on sustainability. The life cycle perspective...... on products and systems and the coverage of all relevant environmental impacts are combined in Life cycle assessment (LCA) which is introduced in the talk as the tool to put numbers on environmental sustainability. The basics of LCA are introduced, current applications are presented and a discussion of its...

  2. Putting Emotional Intelligence To Work

    CERN Document Server

    Ryback, David

    2012-01-01

    Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work offers a new paradigm of communication for the 21st-century workplace. Beginning with the thoughts of communication pioneer Carl Rogers, this book covers the origins and history of emotional intelligence, why it is essential at this point in the changing marketplace, how to delegate and negotiate more effectively, and how to change yourself to become a more effective player. An EQ (Emotional Quotient) survey helps you determine where you are on the scale of executive intelligence. Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work leaves you with a greater understand

  3. Heating being put into service

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The SMB-SE group would like to inform you that, the central heating will start this year, on Monday 3 October 2016, and will be progressively and depending on the weather forecast put into service throughout. All buildings will have heating within the following few days. Thank you for your understanding. The CERN heating team SMB-SE

  4. Putting Motor Resonance in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Perceiving another person's actions changes the spatial perspective people use to describe objects in a scene, possibly because seeing human action induces people to map the actions, including their spatial context, to their own body and motor representations [Lozano, S. C., Hard, B. M., & Tversky, B. (2007). Putting action in perspective.…

  5. Putting Pow into Art Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Jay; Packer, Todd

    2004-01-01

    How would you like to put some "Pow!" into your art instruction? A lesson in comic books--history, design, story, and production--can make your classes come alive. The authors present a new approach to using comics to build artistic skills and involve students in art appreciation. Why Comics? Many art teachers have students who say, "I hate art!"…

  6. Putting food on the table

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candel, J.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Putting food on the table: the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security Jeroen Candel Food security concerns and arguments have made a revival in European Union (EU) governance since the 2007-8 and 2010 global food price crises. This renaissa

  7. Aseismic strain episodes at Campi Flegrei, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Roberto; Amoruso, Antonella; Bilham, Roger; Di Lieto, Bellina; Errico, Antonio; Linde, Alan; Sacks, Selwyn

    2014-05-01

    Since spring 2004 a research project has been developed in Italy to install borehole Sacks-Evertson strainmeters (dilatometers) aimed to improve monitoring systems of the Italian volcanoes. 6 borehole dilatometers have been installed around Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius during 2004-2005 (Scarpa et al., 2007). This small network has been implemented by two arrays of long-baseline water tube tiltmeters installed in underground tunnels since 2008. Relevant strainmeter and tiltmeter data have been collected and analyzed at the instruments installed at Campi Flegrei during the recent unrest episodes. Renewed activity started since 2004-2005, characterized by a quite low rate of vertical vertical displacement, amounting initially to a few cm/year. A long term strain episode occurred during summer 2006, in correspondence to an increase of CO2 emission and displacements measured also by tiltmeters and GPS transducers. This strain episode preceded the seismic activity by few months, as also observed during the 1982 most significant unrest. Other aseismic slip episodes have been recorded in 2009, in correspondence of the renewal of gas emission activity at Solfatara, in 2010, one day before a seismic swarm, and in September 2012, few days before the most significant seismic swarm occurred after the 1982-1984 uplift. The time scale of these phenomena is ranging from some hours to several days, putting further constraints on the origin of ground uplifts at Campi Flegrei. Their location is compatible with the source inferred from long term deformation signals, at about 4 km depth beneath Pozzuoli.

  8. TV review: Nova scienceNOW - Season 2, Episode 4

    CERN Document Server

    Lasser, Josh

    2007-01-01

    "Sitting down to watch the fourth episode of the second season of Nova ScienceNOW I'm mainly struck by one thought: why have they only put out four epidoses nearly nine months into their second season? The second story is all about CERN and the LHC. (2 pages)

  9. Putting food on the table

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Putting food on the table: the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security Jeroen Candel Food security concerns and arguments have made a revival in European Union (EU) governance since the 2007-8 and 2010 global food price crises. This renaissance of food security has been accompanied by increasing awareness among scholars and policymakers about high degrees of complexity, uncertainty, controversy, and cross-scale dynamics surrounding food security as well as consequent ...

  10. First-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    . Patients with first-episode psychosis had significantly high NEO-PI-R scores for neuroticism and agreeableness, and lower scores for conscientiousness and extroversion. The median time for remission in the total sample was three months. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less...

  11. Primary Episodic Ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and genetic diagnosis, genotype-phenotype correlations, pathophysiology and treatment of primary episodic ataxia syndromes are reviewed by researchers from Departments of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA; National Hospital for Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; and University of Rochester School of Medicine, NY, USA.

  12. [Hereditary episodic ataxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riant, F; Vahedi, K; Tournier-Lasserve, E

    2011-05-01

    Episodic ataxia (EA) designates a group of autosomal dominant channelopathies that manifest as paroxysmal attacks of imbalance and incoordination. EA conditions are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Seven types of EA have been reported so far but the majority of clinical cases result from two recognized entities. Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is characterized by brief episodes of ataxia and dysarthria, and interictal myokymia. Onset occurs during the first two decades of life. Associated epilepsy has been reported in some EA1 patients. EA1 is caused by mutations of the KCNA1 gene coding for the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1. Mutation is mostly missense mutations. Acetazolamide, a carbonic-anhydrase inhibitor, may reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks in some but not all affected individuals. Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is characterized by episodes lasting longer than in EA1, that manifest by ataxia, dysarthria, vertigo, and also, in most of the cases, an interictal nystagmus. Other clinical features as developmental delay or epilepsy can be present in some patients. Brain MRI shows frequently a vermian atrophy. Onset occurs typically in childhood or early adolescence, but can sometimes be in adulthood. EA2 is caused by mutations in CACNA1A, a gene coding for the neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.1. For two-thirds of the cases, mutations lead to a stop codon. This type is most often responsive to acetazolamide that reduces the frequency and severity of attacks, but does not appear to prevent the progression of interictal symptoms. This article summarizes current knowledge on episodic ataxia type 1 and 2 and describes briefly the other types of EA. Molecular analysis of KCNA1 or CACNA1A provides a confirmation of the diagnosis of EA1 and EA2. Other types remain rare phenotypic variants. Among them, only two genes have been identified: CACNB4 in EA5 and SLC1A3 in EA6 and mutations have been found in a very few cases. No mutation

  13. Characteristics of a new episode of neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Andrew M; Maher, Christopher G; McAuley, James H; Jull, Gwendolen A; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2013-06-01

    We report on the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients seeking manual therapy care for a new episode of non-specific neck pain and report on characteristics associated with higher levels of pain and disability in these patients. Demographic and clinical data were collected from patients who enrolled in a clinical trial of manipulation for neck pain. A profile of these patients was formulated using descriptive statistics. Multivariate linear regression models were used to describe the relationship between patient characteristics and severity of pain and disability. Patients with a new episode of non-specific neck pain reported pain intensity of 6.1 ± 2.0 (mean ± SD) on a 0-10 numerical scale and disability scores of 15.7 ± 7.4 (Neck Disability Index/50). Sixty-three percent had a prior history of neck pain. Concomitant symptoms were highly prevalent including upper limb pain (80%), headache (65%), upper back pain (64%), lower back pain (39%), dizziness (31%) and nausea (23%). There was a strong association between pain intensity and disability (p pain was also associated with not having concomitant back pain (p = 0.01) More severe disability was also associated with poor general health (p neck pain, and deemed suitable for treatment with neck manipulation reported moderately high intensity pain and disability with widespread and frequent concomitant symptoms.

  14. Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Intellectual Disability Jun 16, 2010 NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet 8 ... ready! Back to top What is an Intellectual Disability? Intellectual disability is a term used when a ...

  15. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Learning Disabilities KidsHealth > For Teens > Learning Disabilities Print A ... study engineering as he'd hoped? What Are Learning Disabilities? For someone diagnosed with a learning disability, ...

  16. [Understanding disability, a first act of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Bertrand

    2012-04-01

    One of the ways of taking care of another person consists in banishing prejudices. With disabled patients, nurses must avoid empathy which would lead them to consider the disability from their personal point of view. Disability obliges caregivers to move away from their usual understanding of the body, sensations, perceptions and imagination. Rather than putting oneself in the place of the disabled person it is a question of understanding the difference.

  17. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  18. Perspectives on Episodic-like and Episodic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M Pause

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory.

  19. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  20. Putting science on the agenda

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The job of CERN Director-General comes with a lot of responsibility, and that’s particularly true today. We’re living through a period of unique circumstances for science. Positive indicators, such as a renewal of interest in physical sciences at the University level and unprecedented public interest in the LHC, are aligning with storm clouds in the form of a prolonged economic crisis that will put downward pressure on everyone’s budgets.   That means that science has to make its voice heard if it’s to preserve support, and if it wants to be in a position to play the role it must in navigating the major societal challenges of our time. For that reason, I have been a fairly rare sight at CERN of late. Last week, I was in Davos for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. It was my second time at Davos, and I used the opportunity to argue that science should be more closely linked to the political thread of the meeting. I think my argument was he...

  1. Putting HR outsourcing into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the time-consuming responsibility of human resources (HR) management, a growing number of medical practices are outsourcing their HR to professional employer organizations (PEOs) so they can concentrate on their core business. A PEO functions as an HR department-minus the high overhead-managing daily administrative tasks such as payroll processing and related tax filings, employee benefits, and workers' compensation coverage and claims resolution. PEOs help physicians' offices keep up with the piles of paperwork that never seem to shrink, freeing doctors to focus on patient care and building their practice. Because of their volume buying power, PEOs are able to offer employees of small medical practices big-company benefits-everything from health, dental, and vision coverage to long-term disability insurance and tuition assistance. A fledgling industry only a decade ago, HR outsourcing has morphed into a blossoming industry. Enlisting the services of a PEO is now considered de rigueur in many small business circles.

  2. Disability Identity--Disability Pride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a way of thinking about disability which has emerged out of the UK Disabled People's Movement over the last three decades in opposition to the preceding medical model of disability which viewed disability as synonymous with problem. Disabled people are increasingly challenging the notion that their embodiment is inherently…

  3. Episodic neurological channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Devon P; Ptácek, Louis J

    2010-10-21

    Inherited episodic neurological disorders are often due to mutations in ion channels or their interacting proteins, termed channelopathies. There are a wide variety of such disorders, from those causing paralysis, to extreme pain, to ataxia. A common theme in these is alteration of action potential properties or synaptic transmission and a resulting increased propensity of the resulting tissue to enter into or stay in an altered excitability state. Manifestations of these disorders are triggered by an array of precipitants, all of which stress the particular affected tissue in some way and aid in propelling its activity into an aberrant state. Study of these disorders has aided in the understanding of disease risk factors and elucidated the cause of clinically related sporadic disorders. The findings from study of these disorders will aid in the diagnosis and efficient targeted treatment of affected patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cerebral oedema in episodic ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevits, L; Cambron, M; Anseeuw, S

    2009-03-01

    We report a patient with episodic ataxia (presumably of type 2) who developed cerebral oedema secondary to a common infection (presumably viral). Cerebral oedema may be a part of the clinical spectrum of familial episodic ataxia and argues for an overlap with hemiplegic migraine. It is suggested to consider a diagnosis of episodic ataxia or familial hemiplegic migraine in catastrophic reactions to apparent trivial trauma or infection.

  6. Familial episodic ataxia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugundhan, K; Thiruvarutchelvan, K; Sivakumar, S

    2011-10-01

    The familial episodic ataxia type II is a rare, dominantly inherited disease characterized by episodes of ataxia of early onset, often with completely normal cerebellar function between attacks. We report a family with affected members who had features of episodic ataxia type II and cerebellar atrophy on MRI imaging. All the affected members were successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. They are asymptomatic at 2 year follow-up.

  7. The evolution of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  8. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  9. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  10. Ocular Dominance and Handedness in Golf Putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kristine; Guillon, Michel; Naroo, Shehzad A

    2015-10-01

    In golf, the impact of eye-hand dominance on putting performance has long been debated. Eye-hand dominance is thought to impact how golfers judge the alignment of the ball with the target and the club with the ball, as well as how golfers visualize the line of the putt when making decisions about the force needed to hit the ball. Previous studies have all measured ocular dominance in primary gaze only, despite golfers spending a significant amount of their time in a putting stance (bent at the hips, head tilted down). Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess ocular dominance in both primary gaze (aligning the ball with the target) and putting gaze (addressing the ball and aligning the club). This study investigated measuring pointing ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions on 31 golfers (14 amateur, 7 club professionals, and 10 top professionals). All players were right-handed golfers, although one reported having no hand dominance and one reported being strongly left hand dominant. The results showed that (1) primary and putting gaze ocular dominances are not equal, nor are they predictive of each other; (2) the magnitude of putting ocular dominance is significantly less than the magnitude of primary gaze ocular dominance; (3) ocular dominance is not correlated with handedness in either primary or putting gaze; and (4) eye-hand dominance is not associated with increased putting skill, although ocular dominance may be associated with increased putting success. It is important that coaches assess golfers' ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions to ensure they have the most accurate information upon which to base their vision strategy decisions.

  11. Putting Self-Determination into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Meagan; Test, David W.; Wood, Wendy M.; Browder, Diane; Algozzine, Bob

    2004-01-01

    Self-determination (SD) has been a major topic in special education literature over the past 10 years, but research-based practices on SD for students with disabilities are still limited. This study was designed to examine 6 programs identified as placing a major emphasis on promoting SD with students with disabilities. Qualitative data were…

  12. Guidance for Contributors to Episodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Episodes is distributed to awide range of scientists in over 150 countries. It aims to keep readers informed, of new and current developments in earth science and is a vital communications link in the global geological community.

  13. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  14. [Therapeutic strategies in the first psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douki, S; Taktak, M J; Ben Zineb, S; Cheour, M

    1999-11-01

    A first psychotic episode includes a wide range of disorders with different outcomes: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, brief reactive psychosis, organic psychoses and delusional disorder. The course and outcome of a first psychotic episode is greatly dependent on its initial management. Major clinical, etiopathogenic and therapeutic advances have been achieved in this field and have allowed specific management strategies to be adopted. The primary task of therapists involved in the management of patients who have experienced a first episode of psychosis is promotion of recovery and prevention of secondary morbidity, relapse and persistent disability. The main guidelines of an early psychosis management are:--to keep in mind that early psychosis is not early schizophrenia. Thus, clinicians and therapists should avoid an early diagnosis of schizophrenia. Diagnosis in early psychosis can be highly unstable. A diagnosis of schizophrenia, with its implications of pessimism, relapse and disability, does not contribute anything positive in terms of guiding treatment. On the contrary, such a diagnosis may damage the patient and family by stigmatizing them and affecting the way they are viewed and managed by healthcare professionals.--To integrate biological, psychological and social interventions: effective medications is useful in reducing the risk of relapse, but is not a guarantee against it. Psychological and social interventions can greatly help promote recovery.--To tailor the various strategies to met the needs of an individual: as an example, it is important to formulate appropriate strategies for the different stages of the illness (prodromal phase, acute phase, early recovery phase and late recovery phase) because patients have different therapeutic needs at each stage.--In the acute treatment, not to concentrate on short-term goals in indicating antipsychotic treatment: prescribing

  15. Episodic ataxias 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloh, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    The episodic ataxias are autosomal dominant disorders usually beginning in the first two decades of life. Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is characterized by brief episodes of ataxia, typically lasting seconds, and interictal myokymia, while episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is manifested by longer episodes of ataxia (hours) with interictal nystagmus. The EA1 gene (KCNA1) codes for the six transmembrane segments (S1 to S6) of the Kv1.1 potassium channel subunit and the EA2 gene (CACNA1A) encodes for the Ca(v)2.1 subunit of the P/Q calcium channel complex. EA1 mutations are always missense while most EA2 mutations disrupt the reading frame. Studies of the biophysical properties of the mutant Kv1.1 and Ca(v)2.1 channels in Xenopus oocytes and mammalian cell lines demonstrate clear physiologic consequences of the genetic mutations although no consistent pattern for genotype-phenotype correlation has emerged. Genetic testing for EA1 and EA2 is available, but since no single mutation is prominent for either KCNA1 or CACNA1A, all of the coding regions of the genes need to be screened for mutations. Acetazolamide can be dramatic in controlling episodes of ataxia with EA2 but is typically less beneficial with EA1. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Teen Safety: Putting an End to Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Teen Safety: Putting An End to Bullying Page Content Article Body The outbreak of school ... that has been allowed to go virtually unchecked: bullying. It turns out that many of these adolescent ...

  17. Putting New Laboratory Tests Into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Putting New Laboratory Tests into Practice Share this page: Was this ... of articles that describe how different types of laboratory tests are developed, validated, and made available for ...

  18. [A new assessment for episodic memory. Episodic memory test and caregiver's episodic memory test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Factitious psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Romano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs for epileptic seizures (ES is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder.

  20. Apathy in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored.......Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored....

  1. [First-episode psychosis, cognitive difficulties and remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, P

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive difficulties are a core feature of schizophrenia. They are frequent, severe, and clearly associated with functional disabilities. They have been explored during different phases of the disease, but what we know essentially concerns the chronic period in middle-age patients. In this article we will specifically focus on cognition at the time of first episode. First episode is a key life period, occurring while social demands are increasing and more complex on the one hand, and while there are important changes in structural and functional cerebral anatomy on the other hand. Exploring cognitive difficulties at the time of first episode offers the opportunity to better know their time course, to avoid interpretative difficulties due to the chronicity of the disease and its treatments, and to develop early therapeutics in order to improve outcome. Cognitive difficulties are clearly present at the time of first episode; their nature and severity appear similar to those observed in more chronic patients. Therefore, they cannot be entirely explained by treatments, hospitalizations or chronicity, and appear more as an intrinsic feature of the disease. The course of their trajectory through the progression of the disease remains uncertain; while they are already present during childhood or adolescence in some subjects who will later declare schizophrenia, they seem to worsen during the period of early prodroms, that is years before psychotic symptoms emerge. Whether they aggravate again during the first episode process is still a matter of debate. While longer DUP is associated with a poor outcome, this does not seem to hold true for cognitive impairments. Cannabis or tobacco use are neither associated with worse cognitive abilities in first-episode patients; a reverse relationship even sometimes exists. Cognitive impairment appears as largely independent from other clinical dimensions, acknowledging its own physiopathology and requiring specific evaluation and

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities-A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is the ability of the circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels have been found in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), which puts them at higher risk for cardiovascula

  3. Imagining the personal past: Episodic counterfactuals compared to episodic memories and episodic future projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    life script), and how these were affected by temporal distance (1 month, 1 year, 5+ years). The findings showed that the three types of events differed phenomenologically. First, episodic memories were remembered more easily, with more sensory details, and from a dominantly field perspective compared...... memories and future projections by neither having the positivity bias of the future events nor the enhanced sensory details of the past events. Across all three event types sensory details decreased, whereas importance, reference to cultural life script, and centrality increased with increasing temporal...... are few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e.g., imagery, emotional valence, rehearsal) and content (e.g., reference to cultural...

  4. Gender differences in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, A; Nilsson, L G; Bäckman, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between gender and memory has been largely neglected by research, despite occasional studies reporting gender differences in episodic memory performance. The present study examined potential gender differences in episodic memory, semantic memory, primary memory, and priming. Five hundred thirty women and 470 men, randomly sampled from the city of Umeå, Sweden, 35-80 years of age, participated in the study. There were no differences between men and women with regard to age or education, or on a measure of global intellectual functioning. As has been demonstrated previously, men out performed women on a visuospatial task and women outperformed men on tests of verbal fluency. In addition, the results demonstrated that women consistently performed at a higher level than did men on the episodic memory tasks, although there were no differences between men and women on the tasks assessing semantic memory, primary memory, or priming. The women's higher level of performance on the episodic memory tasks could not be fully explained by their higher verbal ability.

  5. Factors associated with work, social life and family life disability in bipolar disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Jurado, Dolores; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2011-04-30

    We analyzed the presence of work, social life and family life disability in 108 outpatients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) diagnosis of bipolar disorder and their association with previous course-of-illness variables and current psychopathology. Work disability was pragmatically defined as being on a disability pension or in the process of obtaining it; social life or family life disability was defined by a score ≥ 7 in the respective subscales of the Sheehan Disability Scale. At least one type of disability (for work, social life or family life) affected 52-54% of the patients; and two types, 37%. By logistic regression and multiple linear regression analyses we determined the variables independently associated with each type of disability: 1) Work disability was significantly associated with previous repeated manic episodes, three or more hospitalizations, with current depressive symptoms and inversely with the educational attainment. 2) Social life disability significantly increased with the number of hospitalizations and was associated with previous repeated depressive episodes and current depressive symptoms. In alternative models, nicotine dependence and lack of social support were significantly associated with work and social life disability respectively. And 3) family life disability significantly increased with number of hospitalizations, CAGE questionnaire score and age; and was associated with previous repeated manic episodes and current depressive symptoms. In conclusion, previous course-of-illness variables, particularly a high number of manic episodes, and current psychopathology - as indicated by the presence of nicotine dependence or depressive symptoms - may be indicators of disability; previous manic episodes appear to affect disability at work or at family life whereas previous depressive episodes seem to be related with social life disability.

  6. Putting Opportunism in the Back Seat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Weber, Libby

    2013-01-01

    TCE and its applications in management research put more emphasis on opportunism than on bounded rationality. By augmenting the bounded rationality assumption to include interpretive limitations, we show that there are sources of costly conflict that are not rooted in opportunism. Moreover, we show...

  7. Multicultural Education Course Put into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which two teachers who have previously taken a multicultural education course put into practice multicultural teaching in a first grade afterschool program. Banks' five dimensions of multicultural education are used as the theoretical framework for analyzing past research on multicultural education courses and for…

  8. "Big Bang" project put off to 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Evans, Robert

    2007-01-01

    "First tests in a scientific project aimed at solving myteries of the universe and the "Big Bang" that created it have been put off from November to late April or early May next year, an official said on Wednesday" (1/2 page)

  9. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  10. Put It Back in the Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A little boy and his grandfather are raking (用耙子耙) leaves in the yard.The little boy finds an earthworm (蚯蚓) trying to get back into its hole.He says,"Grandpa,I bet I can put that worm back in that hole."

  11. Quanwei Copper Processing Base Put Into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Quanwei (Tongling) Copper Co.,Ltd’s copper processing base in Tongling of Anhui Province has been put into operation at the end of De- cember last year. It is reported that the copper processing project, invested by Zhengwei (Shenzhen) Technology

  12. Putting Consistent Theories Together in Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应明生

    1995-01-01

    The problem of putting consistent theories together in institutions is discussed.A general necessary condition for consistency of the resulting theory is carried out,and some sufficient conditions are given for diagrams of theories in which shapes are tree bundles or directed graphs.Moreover,some transformations from complicated cases to simple ones are established.

  13. Religious Coping, Meaning-Making and Stress: Perspective of Support Staff of Children with Disabilities in Residential Disability Centres in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud; Al-Bahrani, Muna

    2016-01-01

    Staff providing support to children with disabilities in residential disability centres in Oman are exposed to stressful work environments which may put them at an increased risk of burnout. Previous research has examined predictors of stress in disability support staff, but there is little consensus as the findings are inconclusive. Using a…

  14. 'You get out what you put in'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Chris O'Connor trained at the Nightingale School of Nursing at St Thomas' Hospital in London, qualifying as a mental health nurse in 1993. He worked in acute psychiatry, and learning disabilities and older people's services, before becoming head of nursing practice for a London mental health trust. His current role is nurse consultant for dementia and older people at East Surrey Hospital.

  15. Intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mercury, and other toxins reduces the risk of disability. Teaching women about the risks of alcohol and drugs during ... 2013;33-41. Shapiro BK, Batshaw ML. Intellectual disability. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  16. Motivation and episodic memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ngaosuvan, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    In everyday life, motivation and learning are connected like music and dancing. Many educators realize this and work hard to improve their students' motivation. A motivated student may repeat and self-rehearse the content of a chapter more often, which leads to better learning. However, from a cognitive psychology point of view, it is still uncertain if motivation without differences in repetition or attention, affects episodic memory performance. That is, would a motivated student perform be...

  17. Episodic fieldwork, updating, and sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, M.

    2013-01-01

    on these relationships. I draw on Simmel's concept of sociability to explore the significance of the recurring updates that are so much a part of long-term and thus episodic fieldwork. Updating suggests participation, positionality, and transformation-as well as play and familiarity. The presumption of familiarity......, which is at the heart of sociability, becomes a tool for exploring time and new social experiences and the ways in which chronology is interwoven with shifting social positions....

  18. Putting flexible animal prospection into context: escaping the theoretical box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The debate on non-human future-oriented cognition has long revolved around the question whether such cognition at all occurs. Closer inspection reveals just how much cognition in general-down to its simplest forms-is geared toward predicting the future in a bid to maintain homeostasis and fend off entropy. Over the course of life's existence on Earth, evolution and natural selection have, through a series of evolutionary arms races, gotten increasingly good at achieving this. Prospection has reached its current pinnacle based partly on a system for episodic cognition that-as research increasingly is showing-is not limited principally to human beings. Nevertheless, and despite some notable recent defections, many researchers remain convinced of the merits of the Bischof-Köhler Hypothesis with its claim that no species other than human beings is able to anticipate future needs or otherwise live in anything other than the immediate present moment. What might, at first, appear to be empirical disputes turn out to reveal largely unquestioned theoretical divides. Without due care, one risks setting out conditions for 'true' future orientation that are irrelevant for describing human cognition. In sorting out the theoretical and terminological muddle framing contemporary debate, this article makes a plea for moving beyond past dogmas while putting animal prospection research into the context of evolution and contemporary cognitive science. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Causes of Middle School Students’ English Learning Disability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡鸿娟

    2016-01-01

    In teaching practice, the author find that middle school students have various disability in learning English. Based on the communication with students and teachers, the author analyzes the causes of English learning disability and puts forward some suggestions to improve their English learning ability.

  20. Constructing Sexual Identities: People with Intellectual Disability Talking about Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi-Lane, Claire; Callus, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented research undertaken in collaboration with a self-advocacy group using inclusive research methods and puts forward the views of people with intellectual disability on the topics of sexuality and relationships. The paper presents the perceptions of sexuality of the people with intellectual disability and how these are influenced…

  1. Diagnostic and therapeutic hardships with mixed affective state presenting as catatonia in a patient with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthick Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed affective episodes can be misdiagnosed, especially in patients with intellectual disability (ID. We describe the case of an 18-year-old girl with mild ID, who presented with features of catatonia during the first mixed episode. These symptoms responded well to electroconvulsive therapy, following which clear affective symptoms emerged. Her affective episode did not respond adequately to olanzapine but improved significantly after the addition of sodium valproate. The difficulties of diagnosing affective episodes in persons with intellectual disabilities are discussed. This case suggests that mixed affective episodes should be considered in the differential diagnosis when poorly elaborated affective and psychotic symptoms are present in a patient with ID.

  2. An invisible wall put up by ghosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>When I was a child, my grandmother would often tell me ghost stories. One of them was about an invisible wall that had been put up by ghosts.It was a winter night that was getting darker and darker, colder and colder. A lone farmer was driving his horse and cart along a country path. As he was getting close to his village, he could see the cemetery with the myriad tombs on both sides

  3. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE by Bradford C. Mason December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Rudolph P. Darken Second Reader: Thomas Mackin...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PUTTING THE CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Bradford C. Mason...12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In the context of national critical infrastructure security and resilience doctrine

  4. The Impact of Putting Mubarak on Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On August 3,2011,83-year-old former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was put on trial,lying on a hospital bed an iron cage in a Cairo courtroom. Zhang Zhongxiang,Deputy Director of the Department of the West Asian and African Studies at the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies,believes that the Mubarak trial will not only aggravate conflict among Egyptian people, but also complicate the regional tensions and

  5. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  6. Planning Physical Education Lessons as Teaching "Episodes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoupis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    An "episode" is a unit of time within which teachers and students are working on the same objective and are engaged in the same teaching/learning style. The duration of each episode, as well as the number of them in a single lesson, may vary. Additionally, the multiple episodes of a lesson may have similar objectives, offer similar…

  7. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...

  8. PUTTING RURAL POLICY ON THE FRONT BURNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A "new countryside" is not a new concept. In 1956, the Chinese Government set a goal of restructuring rural areas, hut that was not specified in its work agenda. In early 2006, the Central Government released its first major document of the year, which calls the construction of a "new socialist countryside" the foremost task facing China in the 2006-10 period. Why did the government put the goal on its agenda this year?Chen Xiwen, Deputy Director of the Office of the Central Financial Work Leading Group,...

  9. Episodic memories in anxiety disorders: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin eZlomuzica

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD. The available literature on explicit-, autobiographical- and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.

  10. Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: intersections between memory and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K

    2015-01-01

    This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one's personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one's personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions.

  11. Familial episodic ataxia in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, I G; Jolly, R D; Burnham, D; Ridler, A I; Poff, G J; Blair, H T

    2013-03-01

    A similar episodic neurological disorder occurred in new born lambs on two unrelated properties involving disparate breeds of sheep. Because of the number of lambs born, cross-breeding and the fact it occurred in some mating groups and not others, a dominant mode of inheritance was, initially and separately, suspected in each case. The sires of affected lambs were apparently normal. Whereas one was New Zealand Romney, the other was a composite breed with East Friesian genetics, but both rams originated from the same source property. To investigate the pathogenesis of the disorder these two rams were acquired and mated with unrelated sheep, under experimental conditions in a more controlled environment. A proportion of lambs born to both sires exhibited a similar neurological disorder. Some lambs were noted to be abnormal at birth, both on home properties and in the experimental flock. They tended to adopt a head and neck extended posture and were slow to get to their feet and suckle when they then became more or less normal. When forced to move, they and other more robust lambs elicited an asymmetric gait, base-wide extensor hypertonia (hypometria) of thoracic limbs and flexor hypertonia (hypermetria) of pelvic limbs. In some there was nystagmus. After several metres of asymmetric ataxic gait they would fall to one side, sometimes adopting a sitting position. Recovery usually occurred in one to several minutes. As lambs aged, it became more difficult to elicit the episodes of dysfunction and by 6 months of age they appeared normal. The disorder was diagnosed as a dominant familial episodic cerebellovestibular ataxia inherited as a dominant trait, with incomplete penetration of observed clinical signs and variable expressivity. A proportion of affected lambs are likely to die in the neonatal period so the specific nature of the disorder may go unrecognised. Because of incomplete penetrance and varying expressivity, many of the lambs carrying this mutation will

  12. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-02-21

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  13. Putting dental mercury pollution into perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D W

    2004-08-28

    This paper deals with the issue of amalgam waste from dental offices. The aim is to put into perspective the very small contribution of dental mercury to the overall volume of mercury discharged into the environment each year. While the amount discharged from dental offices is very small compared to other sources, the amount discharged into the environment from amalgam fillings in people's mouths is estimated as less than 2% of the amount from dental offices. At least 50% of mercury in the environment comes from natural sources. The major source of man-made mercury pollution is the industrial burning of fossil fuels. It is important to distinguish between inorganic mercury and organic mercury in terms of the impact on the health of the population.

  14. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2011-01-11

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  15. Caregiver psychoeducation for first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.

  16. Episodic memory--from brain to mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbinteanu, Janina; Kennedy, Pamela J; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal mechanisms of episodic memory, the conscious recollection of autobiographical events, are largely unknown because electrophysiological studies in humans are conducted only in exceptional circumstances. Unit recording studies in animals are thus crucial for understanding the neurophysiological substrate that enables people to remember their individual past. Two features of episodic memory--autonoetic consciousness, the self-aware ability to "travel through time", and one-trial learning, the acquisition of information in one occurrence of the event--raise important questions about the validity of animal models and the ability of unit recording studies to capture essential aspects of memory for episodes. We argue that autonoetic experience is a feature of human consciousness rather than an obligatory aspect of memory for episodes, and that episodic memory is reconstructive and thus its key features can be modeled in animal behavioral tasks that do not involve either autonoetic consciousness or one-trial learning. We propose that the most powerful strategy for investigating neurophysiological mechanisms of episodic memory entails recording unit activity in brain areas homologous to those required for episodic memory in humans (e.g., hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) as animals perform tasks with explicitly defined episodic-like aspects. Within this framework, empirical data suggest that the basic structure of episodic memory is a temporally extended representation that distinguishes the beginning from the end of an event. Future research is needed to fully understand how neural encodings of context, sequences of items/events, and goals are integrated within mnemonic representations of autobiographical events.

  17. Impact of episodic thinking on altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Richard; Pickover, Alison; Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M; Baker, Sydney; Landes, Reid D

    2016-07-01

    Episodic future thinking, which refers to the use of prospective imagery to concretely imagine oneself in future scenarios, has been shown to reduce delay discounting (enhance self-control). A parallel approach, in which prospective imagery is used to concretely imagine other's scenarios, may similarly reduce social discounting (i.e., enhance altruism). In study 1, participants engaged in episodic thinking about the self or others, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. Reductions in social discounting were observed as a function of episodic thinking about others, though an interaction with order was also observed. Using an independent-measures design in study 2, the effect of episodic thinking about others was replicated. Study 3 addressed a limitation of studies 1 and 2, the possibility that simply thinking about others decreased social discounting. Capitalizing on Construal Level Theory, which specifies that social distance and time in the future are both dimensions of a common psychological distance, we hypothesized that episodic future thinking should also decrease social discounting. Participants engaged in episodic future thinking or episodic present thinking, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. The pattern of results was similar to study 1, providing support for the notion that episodic thinking about psychologically distant outcomes (for others or in the future) reduces social discounting. Application of similar episodic thinking approaches may enhance altruism.

  18. Should You Put Sunscreen on Infants? Not Usually

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Should You Put Sunscreen on Infants? Not Usually Share Tweet Linkedin ... month-old baby is there, too. Should you put sunscreen on her? Not usually, according to Hari ...

  19. What Are the Factors That Put a Pregnancy at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are the factors that put a pregnancy at risk? Skip sharing on social ... hearing problems. 7 Cigarette smoking. Smoking during pregnancy puts the fetus at risk for preterm birth, certain ...

  20. Researchers Put Embryo Development 'On Hold' in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162187.html Researchers Put Embryo Development 'On Hold' in Mice Putting stem cells ... were able to halt development of early mouse embryos for up to a month in the lab ...

  1. National preventive plan: putting stewardship into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Federici

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO-European region Tallin-Charter, Stewardship (S is on the health agenda of many European countries and in particular of those involved in the devolution of powers, as is the case of Italy. Many observers agree that, in such cases, both the configuration and the application of state authority in the health sector should be realigned so as to achieve desired policy objectives.We present an experience of what could be meant by S in practice, applied to the field of planning preventive interventions.The Italian National Preventive Plan 2010-2012 is a comprehensive Plan dealing with many areas of prevention. For all these areas, the main health objectives, the specific regional goals and the intervention - called “central" actions- that the Ministry of Health (MoH is in charge of carrying out in order to support regional preventive programs, are stated in this Plan. In order to carry out its task, the MoH has referred to the model of stewardship and has reconsidered its role. Therefore, the MoH has matched the sub-functions of S according to the model outlined by Travis et al, and the prior actions that have been proposed by local and national governments, as the main aspects of how to deal with the governance of prevention. Overall, we experienced that the S framework is a suitable and helpful tool to tackle what the challenge of national planning, in the scenario of devolution, is. In doing so, we have learnt some practical lessons about the running of the system and about how to plan according to stewardship, in particular.Among these, given that the steward’s most specific responsibility in planning is to assure stewardship, a sound capacity building is needed as a cornerstone in evolving the culture of the NHS. Furthermore, in order to put this effectively into practice, the Steward must be able to measure S functions, and putting in practice a S model needs international comparison and cultural growth....

  2. Tourism's collapse puts Gambian women at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, M S

    1995-06-01

    Despite efforts of the Gambian government, which established a ministry in 1981 that would tackle gender issues, improve women's health, and promote empowerment, women are underrepresented in government and business, and 84% are illiterate. Child mortality is among the highest in Africa; 134 children per 1000 die before their fifth birthday. In the mid-1980s austerity measures adopted by the World Bank and IMF left the ministry without funds. Rice and vegetable production, the main source of income for women, fell in the 1990s. In 1994, paddy production dropped 23% from the previous year; this was due to a lack of technical and financial assistance. The collapse of tourism with Capt. Yahya Jammeh's seizure of power has put prostitutes catering to tourists out of work, but women who have lost jobs in the hotel industry may be pushed into local prostitution to survive. The impact of this on the HIV/AIDS epidemic is unclear. Although Gambia is one of the world's most aid-dependent countries (more than a quarter of the GNP before the coup), corruption and mismanagement in the nongovernmental sector is widespread. The director of the Women in Development Programme, a $15m World Bank project, was forced to resign over allegations of fraud. The political process sidelines women; only village chiefs, who are traditionally men, are allowed to vote when new heads are elected.

  3. Putting in place the LHC computing organization

    CERN Multimedia

    Akesson, T

    2001-01-01

    Following the CERN review of computing, the ball is in the able hands of the CERN directorate to translate the review recommendations into the implementation of a LHC computing organization. From the ATLAS point of view it is rather clear what is needed: A credible set-up that can get into place the total computing infrastructure to match ATLAS global computing requirements, and not just at CERN. The next six months will demonstrate if CERN is on a good track to get operational an organization that can tackle this global challenge. CERN put forward to the 15th of June Council a paper that invites comments on a LHC Computing Grid Project as part of the CERN base program. In particular, it asked for new resources, of 25+25 MCHF, for CERN to build the CERN-part of a prototype that should be matched to the need of the experiments for the forthcoming data challenges. The intention of CERN now is to discuss with member-states in July to establish a sufficient resource-base to get approval at the September Commit...

  4. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  5. Prevalence of subsequent depression to an episode of myocardial infarction in Cartagena, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Franco Ray; García-del-Río Carlos; Barrios-Ayola Francisco; Bula-Anichiarico Doris; Fuentes-de-Oro Nacira; Corrales-Santander Hugo; Adie-Villafañe Richard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: depression is the main cause of disability and suicide worldwide, ithas been associated with different diseases. At least 65% of patients with myocardialinfarction (MI) experience depressive symptoms and 15 to 20% are diagnosed withmajor depression. It is unknown the prevalence of depression after MI in our midst.Objectives: estimate the prevalence of subsequent depression to an episode of MI inthree hospitals of Cartagena, Colombia and describe the severity of the depression,th...

  6. Police Response to Family Abduction Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass, Peggy S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines role of police in responding to family abduction episodes using data from a national survey. Addresses questions concerning frequency of police involvement, how abductions to which police respond differ from those to which they don't, actions taken by police, and the effects of their actions on episode outcomes. (LKS)

  7. Intrusions in Episodic Memory: Reconsolidation or Interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingmüller, Angela; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Sommer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a…

  8. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  9. [Challenge of social reintegration after a first-episode psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachoud, B

    2013-09-01

    One of the main issues of early intervention in first-episode psychosis is to prevent social exclusion, or at least to seek to reduce it as soon as possible. The aim is not only symptom remission and relapse prevention, it is also to optimize the social and functional outcome of the illness. Social exclusion is not only one the disabling consequences of the illness, it is also, due to a negative circularity, an aggravating factor. Therefore, alongside the healthcare strategy aiming at the remission and relapse prevention, it will be useful to set up, at an early stage, a strategy aiming at maintaining or restoring social inclusion, and more generally to support the social recovery. We will specify the factors conditioning such prospects for recovery, and the variety of measures to support this strategy.

  10. [First episode of schizophrenia and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacon, Bianca Cristina Ciccone; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari

    2006-06-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the main health problems in current days, requiring considerable investment from the health system. Intervening in the first episode offers a unique opportunity in the treatment of schizophrenia and influences the course of the illness. This article consists of a critical literature review aimed at examining knowledge on first episode schizophrenia and discussing the contribution of nursing care. A research was carried out in bibliographical databases. The data collected made possible the organization of information on the general concept of schizophrenia, its first episode, types of intervention and nursing performance. We found out that in Brazil there are few studies related to first episode schizophrenia in Nursing, few available specialized services, and few social resources. This situation reveals the need for more studies on first episode schizophrenia.

  11. Putting Technology Into Youth Mental Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E. Montague

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although young people aged 16 to 25 are particularly susceptible to mental ill-health, they are difficult to engage in ongoing treatment. Meanwhile, young people are more engaged with digital technologies than ever before, with the Internet and mobile technologies reaching ubiquity in young lives. Despite this, it is unclear from the literature how young people’s high technology use may be harnessed for the better management of youth mental health problems in face-to-face treatment. To explore young people’s opinions on how technology can be used for treatment engagement and as a complement to mental health treatment, a total of 21 participants aged 16 to 25 years were consulted in two focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, with consensus coding by two independent raters. Participants were positive about the integration of technology into youth mental health practice, but indicated that identifying the client’s preferred technology was the most reliable means of engagement. They reported already using technology as an informal complement to treatment, and asserted that formal technology integration must have a clear benefit to treatment while not replacing face-to-face time. Technology use to provide support beyond discharge and between sessions was suggested as a useful means for continuity of care and to prevent relapse. While various technologies were described as engaging, easy-to-access, informative, and empowering, their benefits are not yet being harnessed in youth health services to their full potential. More research is required to better understand how to best put technology into youth mental health practice.

  12. First-episode schizophrenia: characterization and clinical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Bilder

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological impairments are well documented in schizophrenia and are important targets of treatment. Information about the severity and pattern of deficits after treatment for the first psychotic episode and about relationships between these deficits and syndromal characteristics remains limited. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments including 41 individual tests were given to 94 patients with first-episode schizophrenia after initial stabilization of psychosis and to a comparison group of 36 healthy volunteers. Profiles of neuropsychological deficits and the relationship of deficits to sex and handedness were examined. Correlations of neuropsychological deficit with a broad range of historical and clinical characteristics, including outcome, were explored. Patients had a large generalized neuropsychological deficit. Patients also had, superimposed on the generalized deficit, subtle relative deficits in memory and executive functions. Learning/memory dysfunction best distinguished patients from healthy individuals; after accounting for this difference, only motor deficits further distinguished the groups. Patients with higher neuropsychological ability had only memory deficits, and patients with lower ability had both memory and executive deficits. Dextral patients had less severe generalized deficit. Severity of residual symptoms was associated with greater generalized deficit. Executive and attentional deficits were most linked to global functional impairment and poor outcome. The results document a large generalized deficit, and more subtle differential deficits, in clinically stabilized first-episode patients. Learning/memory deficits were observed even in patients with less severe generalized deficit, but the pattern was unlike the amnestic syndrome and probably reflects different mechanisms. Executive and attentional deficits marked the more severe ly disabled patients, and may portend relatively poor outcome. Failure to

  13. Disability Experience and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Lois M

    2016-10-01

    Top themes of international research on disability in the past three decades are discussed: disability dynamics, buffers and barriers for disability, disability trends, and disability among very old persons. Each theme is highlighted by research examples. Turning to measurement, I discuss traditional measures of disability, new longer and shorter ones, and composites like disability-free life expectancy, noting their merits. Contemporary models of disability are presented, ranging from visual images to formal theories. The article ends on how scientists can facilitate movement of disability science into health care practice and policy.

  14. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: ionic controls of episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigington, P.J.; DeWalle, David R.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Kretser, W.A.; Simonin, H.A.; Van Sickle, J.; Baker, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Episodic Response Project (ERP), we intensively monitored discharge and stream chemistry of 13 streams located in the Northern Appalachian region of Pennsylvania and in the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York from fall 1988 to spring 1990. The ERP clearly documented the occurrence of acidic episodes with minimum episodic pH ??? 5 and inorganic monomeric Al (Alim) concentrations >150 ??g/L in at least two study streams in each region. Several streams consistently experienced episodes with maximum Alim concentrations >350 ??g/L. Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) depressions resulted from complex interactions of multiple ions. Base cation decreases often made the most important contributions to ANC depressions during episodes. Organic acid pulses were also important contributors to ANC depressions in the Adirondack streams, and to a lesser extent, in the Catskill and Pennsylvania streams. Nitrate concentrations were low in the Pennsylvania streams, whereas the Catskill and Adirondack study streams had high NO3- concentrations and large episodic pulses (???54 ??eq/L). Most of the Pennsylvania study streams also frequently experienced episodic pulses of SO42- (???78 ??eq/L), whereas the Adirondack and Catskill streams did not. High baseline concentrations of SO42- (all three study areas) and NO3- (Adirondacks and Catskills) reduced episodic minimum ANC, even when these ions did not change during episodes. The ion changes that controlled the most severe episodes (lowest minimum episodic ANC) differed from the ion changes most important to smaller, more frequent episodes. Pulses of NO3- (Catskills and Adirondacks), SO42- (Pennsylvania), or organic acids became more important during major episodes. Overall, the behavior of streamwater SO42- and NO4- is an indicator that acidic deposition has contributed to the severity of episodes in the study streams.

  15. The acute and preventative treatment of episodic migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Episodic migraine is a common debilitating condition with significant worldwide impact. An effective management plan must include acute treatment to relieve the pain and potential disability associated with the attacks and may also include preventative treatments with an aim of decreasing attack frequency and severity in the longer term. Acute treatments must be limited to a maximum of 2-3 days a week to prevent medication overuse headache and focus on simple analgesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans. Preventative treatments are numerous and should be considered when migraine attacks are frequent and or disabling, acute medication is failing, in special circumstances such as hemiplegic migraines or if the patient requests them. All preventative medications must be given at therapeutic doses for at least 6-8 weeks before an adequate trial can be judged ineffective. The most important factor in choosing drugs is the patient and the clinical features of their attack and treatment should be tailored to these. Relative co-morbidities will influence drug choice, as will the side effect profile and the efficacy of the drug. First line preventative drugs include ß-blockers, amitriptyline and anti-epileptic drugs such as topiramate and valproate. Drugs with lower efficacy or poorer side effect profiles include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin and herbal medicines.

  16. Physical activity, physical disability, and osteoarthritic pain in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis

  17. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  18. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  19. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Curiae Briefs Legislative Goals Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities National Goals 2015 SIS Product Information Benefits of ... SIS-A Contact Us New 2017 Products Intellectual Disability Historical Context Definition FAQs on Intellectual Disability Diagnostic ...

  20. Disability and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Makers CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... for children and teens » Challenges Facing People with Disabilities People with disabilities can find it more difficult ...

  1. Disability and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Disability and health Fact sheet Reviewed November 2016 Key ... services and therefore experience unmet health care needs. Disability and health The International Classification of Functioning, Disability ...

  2. Relationship between menarche and psychosis onset in women with first episode of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Abadal, Elena; Usall, Judith; Barajas, Anna; Carlson, Janina; Iniesta, Raquel; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Baños, Iris; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age at menarche and age at first episode of psychosis, as well as clinical severity and outcome, in a population of women with first-episode psychosis. Clinical and socio-demographical data, age at menarche and at first-episode psychosis, parental history of psychosis and cannabis-use habits were obtained from 42 subjects with a first episode of psychosis. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Global Assessment Function, Disability Assessment Schedule, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, European Quality of Life, and Lewis and Murray Obstetric Complication Scales were administered. Statistical analysis was performed by means of zero-order correlations and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests using SPSS version 17.0. We found no significant correlation between age at menarche and age at first-episode psychosis, or with the clinical scores performed. We observed that subjects with earlier age at menarche had more parental history of psychosis. Our negative results do not support the theory of a possible protective role of oestrogen, which seems to be more complex than previously thought. We would suggest that further research is needed to investigate developmental influences of sex steroids on the onset of psychosis and potentially therapeutic benefits based upon oestrogen. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Episodic memory: from mind to brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulving, Endel

    2002-01-01

    Episodic memory is a neurocognitive (brain/mind) system, uniquely different from other memory systems, that enables human beings to remember past experiences. The notion of episodic memory was first proposed some 30 years ago. At that time it was defined in terms of materials and tasks. It was subsequently refined and elaborated in terms of ideas such as self, subjective time, and autonoetic consciousness. This chapter provides a brief history of the concept of episodic memory, describes how it has changed (indeed greatly changed) since its inception, considers criticisms of it, and then discusses supporting evidence provided by (a) neuropsychological studies of patterns of memory impairment caused by brain damage, and (b) functional neuroimaging studies of patterns of brain activity of normal subjects engaged in various memory tasks. I also suggest that episodic memory is a true, even if as yet generally unappreciated, marvel of nature.

  4. [Episodic memory: from mind to brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulving, E

    2004-04-01

    Episodic memory is a neurocognitive (brain/mind) system, uniquely different from other memory systems, that enables human beings to remember past experiences. The notion of episodic memory was first proposed some 30 Years ago. At that time it was defined in terms of materials and tasks. It was subsequently refined and elaborated in terms of ideas such as self, subjective time, and autonoetic consciousness. This chapter provides a brief history of the concept of episodic memory, describes how it has changed (indeed greatly changed) since its inception, considers criticisms of it, and then discusses supporting evidence provided by (a) neuropsychological studies of patterns of memory impairment caused by brain damage, and (b) functional neuroimaging studies of patterns of brain activity of normal subjects engaged in various memory tasks. I also suggest that episodic memory is a true, even if as yet generally unappreciated, marvel of nature.

  5. Febrile Episodic Ataxia with Novel Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2 kindred with ataxic spells induced by fever or high environmental temperature and a novel CACNA1A mutation were identified and reported from the Universities of Mississippi and Minnesota.

  6. [Non-verbal learning disabilities: developmental dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, L

    2007-11-01

    Dyspraxia is a non verbal neuropsychological dysfunction still unrecognized but which can generate scholar learning and behavioural disabilities. We propose, at first time, to do a state of art with the various terminologies and typologies which lead to put together clumsiness, motor coordination disorder and the different types of dyspraxia. Then, we will bring an integrative model and clinical data in children with developmental dyspraxia, allowing a better pointing, to make a diagnostic and then we suggest some advices for remediations.

  7. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry

    2013-01-01

    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis.......Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  8. Hippocampal place cells, context, and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2006-01-01

    Although most observers agree that the hippocampus has a critical role in learning and memory, there remains considerable debate about the precise functional contribution of the hippocampus to these processes. Two of the most influential accounts hold that the primary function of the hippocampus is to generate cognitive maps and to mediate episodic memory processes. The well-documented spatial firing patterns (place fields) of hippocampal neurons in rodents, along with the spatial learning impairments observed with hippocampal damage support the cognitive mapping hypothesis. The amnesia for personally experienced events seen in humans with hippocampal damage and the data of animal models, which show severe memory deficits associated with hippocampal lesions, support the episodic memory account. Although an extensive literature supports each of these hypotheses, a specific contribution of place cells to episodic memory has not been clearly demonstrated. Recent data from our laboratory, together with previous findings, indicate that hippocampal place fields and neuronal responses to task-relevant stimuli are highly sensitive to the context, even when the contexts are defined by abstract task demands rather than the spatial geometry of the environment. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that place fields reflect a more general context processing function of the hippocampus. Hippocampal context representations could serve to differentiate contexts and prime the relevant memories and behaviors. Since episodic memories, by definition, include information about the time and place where the episode occurred, contextual information is a necessary prerequisite for any episodic memory. Thus, place fields contribute importantly to episodic memory as part of the needed context representations. Additionally, recent findings indicate that hippocampal neurons differentiate contexts at progressively finer levels of detail, suggesting a hierarchical coding scheme which

  9. Timing of spontaneous sleep-paralysis episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A; Cheyne, J Allan

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this prospective naturalistic field study was to determine the distribution of naturally occurring sleep-paralysis (SP) episodes over the course of nocturnal sleep and their relation to bedtimes. Regular SP experiencers (N = 348) who had previously filled out a screening assessment for SP as well as a general sleep survey were recruited. Participants reported, online over the World Wide Web, using a standard reporting form, bedtimes and subsequent latencies of spontaneous episodes of SP occurring in their homes shortly after their occurrence. The distribution of SP episodes over nights was skewed to the first 2 h following bedtime. Just over one quarter of SP episodes occurred within 1 h of bedtime, although episodes were reported throughout the night with a minor mode around the time of normal waking. SP latencies following bedtimes were moderately consistent across episodes and independent of bedtimes. Additionally, profiles of SP latencies validated self-reported hypnagogic, hypnomesic, and hypnopompic SP categories, as occurring near the beginning, middle, and end of the night/sleep period respectively. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that SP timing is controlled by mechanisms initiated at or following sleep onset. These results also suggest that SP, rather than uniquely reflecting anomalous sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, may result from failure to maintain sleep during REM periods at any point during the sleep period. On this view, SP may sometimes reflect the maintenance of REM consciousness when waking and SP hallucinations the continuation of dream experiences into waking life.

  10. Issues for the future. Putting the jigsaw together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Oxfam's efforts to support organizations working with disabled people in Bosnia highlight the necessity of taking into account other forms of disadvantage that increase vulnerability, such as gender, when planning interventions. When Oxfam began working in Bosnia in 1993, disability was widely perceived as a medical rather than a social development issue. An Oxfam-inspired inter-Association project set up the Lotos Resource Center to create badly needed joint social space and office space for vocational training. Realizing that it was difficult to reach women with disabilities, Oxfam representatives made home visits to encourage women to participate in activities. Oxfam also actively co-opted women to join the steering committee. This work gave Oxfam a better understanding of the fact that a diversity of needs exists for disabled men and women, for able-bodied women caring for disabled partners, and for women caring for disabled children. Lessons learned include 1) people with disabilities are not homogeneous in their needs; 2) it is essential to take positive action to involve disabled women; 3) gender and disability analysis must be inclusive and must consider different sources of marginalization or else marginalization will be reinforced; and 4) a basic rights approach provides a clear framework to understand dimensions of disadvantage within households.

  11. Effect of Putting Grip on Eye and Head Movements During the Golf Putting Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the effect of three different putting grips (conventional, cross-hand, and one-handed on variations in eye and head movements during the putting stroke. Seven volunteer novice players, ranging in age from 21 to 22 years, participated in the study. During each experimental session, the subject stood on a specially designed platform covered with artificial turf and putted golf balls towards a standard golf hole. The three different types of grips were tested at two distances: 3 and 9 ft. For each condition, 20 putts were attempted. For each putt, data were recorded over a 3-s interval at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Eye movements were recorded using a helmet-mounted eye movement monitor. Head rotation about an imaginary axis through the top of the head and its center-of-rotation was measured by means of a potentiometer mounted on a fixed frame and coupled to the helmet. Putter-head motion was measured using a linear array of infrared phototransistors embedded in the platform. The standard deviation (STD, relative to the initial level was calculated for eye and head movements over the duration of the putt (i.e., from the beginning of the backstroke, through the forward stroke, to impact. The averaged STD for the attempted putts was calculated for each subject. Then, the averaged STDs and other data for the seven subjects were statistically compared across the three grip conditions. The STD of eye movements were greater (p < 0.1 for conventional than cross-hand (9 ft and one-handed (3 and 9 ft grips. Also, the STD of head movements were greater (p < 0.1; 3 ft for conventional than cross-hand and one-handed grips. Vestibulo-ocular responses associated with head rotations could be observed in many 9 ft and some 3 ft putts. The duration of the putt was significantly longer (p < 0.05; 3 and 9 ft for the one-handed than conventional and cross-hand grips. Finally, performance, or percentage putts made, was

  12. Episodic and Semantic Memory Contribute to Familiar and Novel Episodic Future Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that episodic future thinking (EFT relies on both episodic and semantic memory; however, event familiarity may importantly affect the extent to which episodic and semantic memory contribute to EFT. To test this possibility, two behavioral experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the proportion of episodic and semantic memory used in an EFT task. The results indicated that more episodic memory was used when imagining familiar future events compared with novel future events. Conversely, significantly more semantic memory was used when imagining novel events compared with familiar events. Experiment 2 aimed to verify the results of Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we found that familiarity moderated the effect of priming the episodic memory system on EFT; particularly, it increased the time required to construct a standard familiar episodic future event, but did not significantly affect novel episodic event reaction time. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that event familiarity importantly moderates episodic and semantic memory’s contribution to EFT.

  13. Measuring disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia : A validation study of an observational method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; van Dijk, AJ; Stehmann-Saris, FC; Kinebanian, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and construct validity of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing the face and upper body and putting on a

  14. Measuring disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia: a validation study of an observational method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Dijk, A.J. van; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and construct validity of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing the face and upper body and putting on a

  15. Stress, Depression, Workplace and Social Supports and Burnout in Intellectual Disability Support Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutkins, E.; Brown, R. F.; Thorsteinsson, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff providing support to people with intellectual disabilities are exposed to stressful work environments which may put them at an increased risk of burnout. A small prior literature has examined predictors of burnout in disability support staff, but there is little consensus. In this study, we examined direct and indirect…

  16. Measuring disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia : A validation study of an observational method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; van Dijk, AJ; Stehmann-Saris, FC; Kinebanian, A

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and construct validity of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing the face and upper body and putting on a

  17. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eGanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as memory detection, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  18. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  19. Autobiographical Memory and Episodic Future Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Recalling the past and imagining the future is thought to employ very similar cognitive mechanisms. The strategic retrieval of specific past autobiographical events has been shown to depend on executive processes, and to be affected by cue imageability. The cognitive mechanisms underlying...... the construction of specific events during episodic future thinking remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined whether episodic future thoughts depend on executive processes and are affected by cue imageability to the same extent as autobiographical remembering of past events. Results showed...... that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking were affected similarly by cue imageability, suggesting that retrieval strategy can be manipulated in similar ways for both temporal directions. Furthermore, executive control processes (as measured by verbal fluency) was correlated with fluency and number...

  20. Migraine with benign episodic unilateral mydriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr FI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nedaa Skeik1, Fadi I Jabr21Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Horizon Medical Center, Hospital Medicine, Dickson, TN, USAAbstract: Pupil asymmetry or anisocoria can have benign or malignant causes, and be categorized as acute or chronic. It can also be a normal finding in about 20% of cases. Benign episodic unilateral mydriasis is an isolated benign cause of intermittent pupil asymmetry. The exact pathophysiology is not always understood. According to one hypothesis, it is due to discordance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. It is occasionally seen in patients with migraine. Some authors consider it a limited form of ophthalmoplegic migraine. We report a case of benign episodic unilateral mydriasis diagnosed in a 30-year-old lady with a history of migraine who had extensive negative neurological evaluation.Keywords: anisocoria, migraine, unilateral episodic mydriasis

  1. Exploring disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV/AIDS: Development of a conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayoumi Ahmed M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy, in developed countries HIV increasingly is perceived as a long-term illness. Individuals may experience health-related consequences of HIV and its associated treatments, a concept that may be termed disability. To date, a comprehensive framework for understanding the health-related consequences experienced by people living with HIV has not been developed. The purpose of this research was to develop a conceptual framework of disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV. Methods We conducted four focus groups and 15 face-to-face interviews with 38 adults living with HIV. We asked participants to describe their health-related challenges, their physical, social and psychological areas of life affected, and impact on their overall health. We analyzed data using grounded theory techniques. We also conducted two validity check focus groups with seven returning participants. Results Disability was conceptualized by participants as multi-dimensional and episodic characterized by unpredictable periods of wellness and illness. The Episodic Disability Framework consisted of three main components: a dimensions of disability that included symptoms and impairments, difficulties carrying out day-to-day activities, challenges to social inclusion, and uncertainty that may fluctuate on a daily basis and over the course of living with HIV, b contextual factors that included extrinsic factors (social support and stigma and intrinsic factors (living strategies and personal attributes that may exacerbate or alleviate disability, and c triggers that initiate momentous or major episodes of disability such as receiving an HIV diagnosis, starting or changing medications, experiencing a serious illness, and suffering a loss of others. Conclusion The Episodic Disability Framework considers the variable nature of disability, acknowledges uncertainty as a key component, describes

  2. Hemicrania continua evolving from episodic paroxysmal hemicrania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Pinedo, F; Zurdo, M; Martínez-Acebes, E

    2006-09-01

    A 45-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed in our unit with episodic paroxysmal hemicrania, was seen 2 years later for ipsilateral hemicrania continua in remitting form. Both types of headache had a complete response to indomethacin and did not occur simultaneously. The patient had a previous history of episodic moderate headaches that met criteria for probable migraine without aura and also had a family history of headache. The clinical course in this case suggests a pathogenic relationship between both types of primary headache.

  3. Levels of disability in Major Depression - Findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijshaar, M.E.; Hoeymans, N.; Bijl, R.V.; Spijker, J.; Essink-Bot, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Information oil the distribution of disability associated with major depression (MD) across different groups of patients is of interest to health policy and planning. We examined the associations of severity and type (a single or recurrent episode) of MD with disability in a Dutch genera

  4. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  5. Linerboard Machine in Hebei Yongxing Paper Put into Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The construction of 6# linerboard machine (PM6) with annual output of 400,000 tons in Yongxing Paper, located in Luannan City, Hebei Province has completed and the machine was put into production in August 2009.

  6. Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Your Summer Fun Print version Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun Summer ... adults involve the use of alcohol. 1 Swimmers can get in over their heads. Alcohol impairs judgment ...

  7. Zhongxian-Wuhan Natural Gas Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 1375-kilometer Zhongxian-Wuhan natural gas pipeline was put into operation on November 16 after five years of construction, starting to supply natural gas for commercial users in Central China's Hubei Province one month ahead of schedule.

  8. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  9. Examining the Factors Associated with Paid Employment of Clients Enrolled in First Episode of Psychosis Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S. Dewa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders. For a significant portion of individuals who suffer from this disorder, onset occurs in young adulthood, arresting important social and educational development that is necessary for future successful labor force participation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about clients enrolled in first episode psychosis programs and psychosocial outcomes by examining the factors associated with paid employment among young adults who have experienced their first psychotic episodes. In this paper, we consider the association of socioeconomic factors to employment. Our results suggest that in addition to treatment, socioeconomic factors such as receipt of public disability benefits and educational attainment are associated with employment status. These results can help to inform future directions for the enhancement of psychosocial programs in FEP models to promote paid employment.

  10. Autobiographical thinking interferes with episodic memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Craig

    Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.

  11. Autobiographical Memory and Episodic Future Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine; Berntsen, Dorthe

    that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking were affected similarly by cue imageability, suggesting that retrieval strategy can be manipulated in similar ways for both temporal directions. Furthermore, executive control processes (as measured by verbal fluency) was correlated with fluency and number...

  12. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  13. How successful are first episode programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Rasmussen, Jesper Østrup; Melau, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been hypothesized that the first 5 years after first episode of psychosis are a critical period with opportunities for ameliorating the course of illness. On the basis of this rationale, specialized assertive early intervention services were developed. We wanted to inves...

  14. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  15. Gender differences in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...

  16. Attentional control and competition between episodic representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyürek, Elkan G.; Schubö, Anna; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between attentional control and episodic representation was investigated in six experiments that employed a variant of the classic attentional blink paradigm. We introduced a task-irrelevant (unpredictive) color match between the first and second target stimulus in a three-stream ra

  17. Episodic neurological dysfunction in hereditary peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Baburao Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Episodic transient neurological symptoms are an important set of problems presenting to a neurologist in his routine practice. Occasionally, detailed clinical history including past and family history supplemented with focused examination can bring out a rare cause for such symptoms. We describe in this report in a young male presenting with episodic focal neurological dysfunction, with family history of similar episodes in mother and brother. Examination showed features of pes cavus and peripheral neuropathy for which patient was asymptomatic. Mother and brother were established cases of hereditary neuropathy. Imaging on multiple occasions showed reversible white matter abnormalities. Clinical suspicion of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1X was confirmed with detection of mutation in Gap Junction B1 (GJB1 gene, which codes for connexin 32 protein (c.425G>A; p.R142Q hemizygous mutation. Though this mutation has been already reported in CMTX patients, it has not been associated with transient neurological dysfunctions. This is probably the first reported case of CMTX patient with transient neurological dysfunction from India, whose family members had similar episodes.

  18. Family Intervention in First-Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Sadath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Family interventions have produced benefits on clinical and family outcomes in long standing psychosis. However, little is known about the efficacy of such interventions in the early stages of psychosis. This article reviews published research over the last two decades on family intervention in first-episode psychosis. Electronic databases, such as PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect, have been systematically searched. In addition, an exhaustive Internet search was also carried out using Google and Google Scholar to identify the potential studies that evaluated family interventions in first-episode psychosis. We have identified seven reports of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs and five non-randomized and uncontrolled studies of family intervention. Our review on 12 reports of family intervention studies has shown mixed effects on outcomes in first-episode psychosis. Most of the reports showed no added benefits or very short-term benefits on primary clinical or family outcome variables. There is a dearth of family intervention studies in first-episode psychosis. More RCTs are needed to reach reliable conclusions.

  19. The Interpersonal Conflict Episode: A Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawski, Carl

    A detailed systems diagram elaborates the process of dealing with a single conflict episode between two parties or persons. Hypotheses are fully stated to lead the reader through the flow diagram. A concrete example illustrates its use. Detail is provided in an accounting scheme of virtually all possible variables to consider in analyzing a…

  20. Episodic memory decline and healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.C.; Daselaar, S.M.; Cabeza, R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the cognitive functions most affected by the aging process is our memory for personally experienced past events or episodic memory (EM). The advent of functional neuroimaging has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of EM and its decline with age. The current chapter revi

  1. CRITICAL WAVE EPISODES FOR ASSESSMENT OF ROLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2006-01-01

    the time-varying restoring moment and the heave acceleration. The result is the mean outcrossing rate of the roll angle together with corresponding most probable wave scenarios (critical wave episodes), leading to specific maximum roll angles. The procedure is computationally very effective and can thus...

  2. Mental health nursing and first episode psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, L. van; Goossens, P.J.J.; Achterberg, T. van

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to identify mental health nursing's contribution to the care and treatment of patients with a first episode of psychosis; A systematic literature review was undertaken, with 27 articles selected for study. Five domains were identified: development of

  3. A human experimental model of episodic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrini, Laura; Hennings, Kristian; Li, Xi

    2014-01-01

    An experimental model of daily episodic pain was developed to investigate peripheral sensitization and cortical reorganization in healthy individuals. Two experiments (A and B) were conducted. Experiments A and B consisted of one and five consecutive days, respectively, in which the participants ...

  4. Original Symbols in Episode Four of Ulysses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2015-01-01

    Ulysses is considered to be the masterpiece of James Joyce's literary accomplishments.Many symbols are applied in this novel,of which the implied meanings are obscure but significant.This paper is intended to make a detailed analysis of the original symbols in the fourth episode of Ulysses.

  5. Original Symbols in Episode Four of Ulysses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2015-01-01

    Ulysses is considered to be the masterpiece of James Joyce’s literary accomplishments.Many symbols are applied in this novel,of which the implied meanings are obscure but significant.This paper is intended to make a detailed analysis of the original symbols in the fourth episode of Ulysses.

  6. A calendar savant with episodic memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian E; Drowos, David B; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-06-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures and retain some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year-old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient's memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable.

  7. Cannabis use and first manic episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, Nathalie; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2014-08-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug among patients with bipolar disorder. Available data has shown that the risk of psychotic disorders increases with the frequency and intensity of cannabis abuse. The present purpose was to review relevant studies to investigate whether cannabis use can be linked to the onset of mania in bipolar disorder. Articles published between 1972 and December 2013 were searched on Medline and PsychInfo using the following keywords: first manic episode, or onset mania, or bipolar disorder and cannabis. Relevant papers cited in the references of selected articles were further considered for inclusion into the review. Lifetime use of cannabis among bipolar patients appears to be around 70% and approximately 30% of patients with a bipolar disorder present a comorbidity of cannabis abuse or dependence. Cannabis use is associated with younger age at onset of first mania and with more frequent depressive or manic episodes, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent. Likewise cannabis consumption is related to poorer outcome and an increased risk of rapid cycling or mixed episodes. In contrast, neuro-cognitive functioning seems to be positively affected in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. While cannabis use often precedes first manic episodes, the causal direction remains to be determined. Variations in definition of cannabis use/dependence. Lack of controlled studies limiting definite conclusions about a putative causal relationship between cannabis and onset of mania. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relationships between cannabis use and first manic episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Talk About: Coaches What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... becoming an independent person. continue What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...

  9. Epidemiology of episodic adenolymphangitis: a longitudinal prospective surveillance among a rural community endemic for bancroftian filariasis in coastal Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhal Kalpataru

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological knowledge on acute condition of lymphatic filariasis is essential to understand the burden and issues on management of the disease. Methods A one year long longitudinal prospective surveillance of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL was carried out in rural population of Orissa, India. Results The annual incidence of ADL per 1000 individuals is 85.0, and is slightly higher (P > 0.05 in male (92.0 than in female (77.6. A steady rise in the incidence of ADL episodes along with the age is recorded. The distribution indicates that persons with chronic disease are more prone to ADL attacks. The average number of episodes per year is 1.57 (1.15 SD per affected person, and is gender dependent. Duration of the episode varies from 1 to 11 days with mean duration of 3.93 (1.94 SD days. The chronic disease is the significant predictor for the duration of the episode. The data show that fever and swelling at inguinal regions are most common symptoms. Conclusion The incidence, frequency and duration of ADL episodes in this community are similar to that of other endemic areas. As the loss due to these ADL episodes is substantial, it should be considered while further estimating the burden due to lymphatic filariasis. The disability and loss caused by chronic forms of filariasis is higher, and the additional incapacity caused by the ADL episode, majority of which occur among chronic filariasis patients, further poses the burden on individuals and their families. Hence, morbidity management measures to prevent ADL episodes among endemic communities are to be implemented.

  10. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  11. What Are Learning Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... space, and writing down their thoughts. 6 , 7 Dyscalculia. People with this math learning disability may have ... National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2010). What is dyscalculia? Retrieved June 26, 2012, from https://www.understood. ...

  12. SSA Disability Claim Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset includes fiscal year data for initial claims for SSA disability benefits that were referred to a state agency for a disability determination. Specific...

  13. Executive function, episodic memory, and Medicare expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Alex C; Austin, Andrea M; Grodstein, Francine; Bynum, Julie P W

    2017-07-01

    We examined the relationship between health care expenditures and cognition, focusing on differences across cognitive systems defined by global cognition, executive function, or episodic memory. We used linear regression models to compare annual health expenditures by cognitive status in 8125 Nurses' Health Study participants who completed a cognitive battery and were enrolled in Medicare parts A and B. Adjusting for demographics and comorbidity, executive impairment was associated with higher total annual expenditures of $1488 per person (P executive function, but not episodic memory ($584 higher for every 1 standard deviation decrement in executive function; P executive function is specifically and linearly associated with higher health care expenditures. Focusing on management strategies that address early losses in executive function may be effective in reducing costly services. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Directed forgetting in frontal patients' episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Pilar; Van der Linden, Martial; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2007-03-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of patients with lesions of the prefrontal cortex in directed forgetting in episodic memory, i.e. the capacity to actively forget irrelevant information. Four lists of 24 intermixed to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) words were presented for retention. Restricted (TBR only) and unrestricted (TBR and TBF) recall were tested. The results showed that prefrontal patients presented with a general reduction in episodic memory but a normal ability to selectively recall the TBR items during restricted and unrestricted recall. These results are consistent with previous reports of intact directed forgetting in frontal patients and are discussed in terms of their implications for the current debate on the neural substrate of executive functions.

  15. Antipsychotic medication for early episode schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, John; Kao, Dennis; Soydan, Haluk; Adams, Clive E

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications in early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders is common, but both short and long-term effects on the illness are unclear. There have been numerous suggestions that people with early episodes of schizophrenia appear to respond differently than those with multiple prior episodes. The number of episodes may moderate response to drug treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of antipsychotic medication treatment on people with early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group register (July 2007) as well as references of included studies. We contacted authors of studies for further data. Selection criteria Studies with a majority of first and second episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders comparing initial antipsychotic medication treatment with placebo, milieu, or psychosocial treatment. Data collection and analysis Working independently, we critically appraised records from 681 studies, of which five studies met inclusion criteria. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) where possible. For continuous data, we calculated mean difference (MD). We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. Main results Five studies (combined total n=998) met inclusion criteria. Four studies (n=724) provided leaving the study early data and results suggested that individuals treated with a typical antipsychotic medication are less likely to leave the study early than those treated with placebo (Chlorpromazine: 3 RCTs n=353, RR 0.4 CI 0.3 to 0.5, NNT 3.2, Fluphenaxine: 1 RCT n=240, RR 0.5 CI 0.3 to 0.8, NNT 5; Thioridazine: 1 RCT n=236, RR 0.44 CI 0.3 to 0.7, NNT 4.3, Trifulperazine: 1 RCT n=94, RR 0.96 CI 0.3 to 3.6). Two studies contributed data to assessment of adverse effects and present a general pattern of more frequent side effects among individuals treated with typical antipsychotic medications

  16. Variable protostellar accretion with episodic bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest development of the disk gravitational instability and fragmentation model, originally introduced by us to explain episodic accretion bursts in the early stages of star formation. Using our numerical hydrodynamics model with improved disk thermal balance and star-disk interaction, we computed the evolution of protostellar disks formed from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In agreement with our previous studies, we find that cores of higher initial mass and angular momentum produce disks that are more favorable to gravitational instability and fragmentation, while a higher background irradiation and magnetic fields moderate the disk tendency to fragment. The protostellar accretion in our models is time-variable, thanks to the nonlinear interaction between different spiral modes in the gravitationally unstable disk, and can undergo episodic bursts when fragments migrate onto the star owing to the gravitational interaction with other fragments or spiral arms. Most bursts occur...

  17. Episodic future thinking in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jade Q; Szpunar, Karl K; Godovich, Sheina A; Schacter, Daniel L; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-12-01

    Research on future-oriented cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has primarily focused on worry, while less is known about the role of episodic future thinking (EFT), an imagery-based cognitive process. To characterize EFT in this disorder, we used the experimental recombination procedure, in which 21 GAD and 19 healthy participants simulated positive, neutral and negative novel future events either once or repeatedly, and rated their phenomenological experience of EFT. Results showed that healthy controls spontaneously generated more detailed EFT over repeated simulations. Both groups found EFT easier to generate after repeated simulations, except when GAD participants simulated positive events. They also perceived higher plausibility of negative-not positive or neutral-future events than did controls. These results demonstrate a negativity bias in GAD individuals' episodic future cognition, and suggest their relative deficit in generating vivid EFT. We discuss implications for the theory and treatment of GAD.

  18. Paroxysmal movement disorders and episodic ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, Emilio; Perez-Dueñas, Belén

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarizes clinical symptoms of some paroxysmal dyskinesias (PDs) of infancy and childhood, as well as episodic ataxias. PDs refer to a complex group of disorders whose main feature is the occurrence of sudden, intermittent attacks of abnormal postures and involuntary movements. PDs can sometimes be symptomatic (secondary PDs), but usually an underlying cerebral lesion is not present (primary PDs). Some of the primary PDs are transient, such as benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy. Chronic PDs are subdivided into nonkinesigenic (Mount and Reback type), kinesigenic (Kertesz type), and exercise-induced (Lance type) but cases that overlap with these types are on record. They are autosomal dominant inherited conditions. The myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 gene is responsible for nonkinesigenic PDs. To date, the genetic basis of kinesigenic PDs remains unknown. Several clinical entities associated epilepsy with PDs, such as infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA). Exercise-induced PD type can be produced by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene that encodes Glut1 (glucose transporter type1). Episodic ataxias are inherited disorders of intermittent ataxia. The attacks are brief and triggered by abrupt exercise and emotional stimulus. Between attacks, palpebral and hand muscle myokymia is often seen in episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1). In episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) interictal nystagmus is usually present. Some of these latter patients develop progressive ataxia with vermian atrophy. This disorder is associated with mutations in the human Ca channel alfa 1 subunit CACN1A4 gene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enabling the Disabled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China tries to improve the quality of life for disabled people Based on achievements during the past five years, people with disabilities in China will have greater access to education and employment during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-15), said Wang Naikun, Executive Vice President of the China Disabled Persons’ Federation (CDPF).

  20. Social Psychoanalytic Disability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodley, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores connections and tensions between psychoanalysis and disability studies. The first part of the paper considers contemporaneous engagements with the psyche by a number of disability studies writers. These scholars have remained accountable to a politicised disability studies but have pushed for critical encounters with the…

  1. Cognitive dissonance resolution depends on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammat, Mariam; Karoui, Imen El; Allali, Sébastien; Hagège, Joshua; Lehongre, Katia; Hasboun, Dominique; Baulac, Michel; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Michon, Agnès; Dubois, Bruno; Navarro, Vincent; Salti, Moti; Naccache, Lionel

    2017-01-23

    The notion that past choices affect preferences is one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first report in the 50 s, and its theorization within the cognitive dissonance framework. In the free-choice paradigm (FCP) after choosing between two similarly rated items, subjects reevaluate chosen items as more attractive and rejected items as less attractive. However the relations prevailing between episodic memory and choice-induced preference change (CIPC) remain highly debated: is this phenomenon dependent or independent from memory of past choices? We solve this theoretical debate by demonstrating that CIPC occurs exclusively for items which were correctly remembered as chosen or rejected during the choice stage. We used a combination of fMRI and intra-cranial electrophysiological recordings to reveal a modulation of left hippocampus activity, a hub of episodic memory retrieval, immediately before the occurrence of CIPC during item reevaluation. Finally, we show that contrarily to a previous influential report flawed by a statistical artifact, this phenomenon is absent in amnesic patients for forgotten items. These results demonstrate the dependence of cognitive dissonance on conscious episodic memory. This link between current preferences and previous choices suggests a homeostatic function of this regulative process, aiming at preserving subjective coherence.

  2. The neural basis of involuntary episodic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shana A; Rubin, David C; Miles, Amanda; Davis, Simon W; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of involuntary memory largely unknown. We hypothesized that, because the main difference between voluntary and involuntary memory is the controlled retrieval processes required by the former, there would be greater frontal activity for voluntary than involuntary memories. Conversely, we predicted that other components of the episodic retrieval network would be similarly engaged in the two types of memory. During encoding, all participants heard sounds, half paired with pictures of complex scenes and half presented alone. During retrieval, paired and unpaired sounds were presented, panned to the left or to the right. Participants in the involuntary group were instructed to indicate the spatial location of the sound, whereas participants in the voluntary group were asked to additionally recall the pictures that had been paired with the sounds. All participants reported the incidence of their memories in a postscan session. Consistent with our predictions, voluntary memories elicited greater activity in dorsal frontal regions than involuntary memories, whereas other components of the retrieval network, including medial-temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and ventral parietal regions were similarly engaged by both types of memories. These results clarify the distinct role of dorsal frontal and ventral occipitotemporal regions in predicting strategic retrieval and recalled information, respectively, and suggest that, although there are neural differences in retrieval, involuntary memories share neural components with established voluntary memory systems.

  3. Narrative construction is intact in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keven, Nazim; Kurczek, Jake; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Craver, Carl F

    2017-07-28

    Autobiographical remembering and future imagining overlap in their underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms. The hippocampus and surrounding regions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL), known for their role in forming and maintaining autobiographical episodic memories, are also thought to play an essential role in fictitious and future constructions. Amnesic individuals with bilateral hippocampal damage cannot reconstruct their past personal experiences and also have severe deficits in the ability to construct coherent fictitious or future narratives. However, it is not known whether this impairment reflects a failure to generate details from autobiographical episodic memory to populate personal narratives or an inability to bind such details into coherent narratives. We show that four individuals with hippocampal damage and episodic amnesia can construct narratives when the relevant details of the story are provided in a picture book and that their narratives maintain overall coherence on several measures. These findings indicate that individuals with hippocampal damage can bind details into coherent narratives when details are available to them. We conclude that the hippocampal system instead likely plays a role in the generation of details from which narratives are constructed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive dissonance resolution depends on episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammat, Mariam; Karoui, Imen El; Allali, Sébastien; Hagège, Joshua; Lehongre, Katia; Hasboun, Dominique; Baulac, Michel; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Michon, Agnès; Dubois, Bruno; Navarro, Vincent; Salti, Moti; Naccache, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    The notion that past choices affect preferences is one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first report in the 50 s, and its theorization within the cognitive dissonance framework. In the free-choice paradigm (FCP) after choosing between two similarly rated items, subjects reevaluate chosen items as more attractive and rejected items as less attractive. However the relations prevailing between episodic memory and choice-induced preference change (CIPC) remain highly debated: is this phenomenon dependent or independent from memory of past choices? We solve this theoretical debate by demonstrating that CIPC occurs exclusively for items which were correctly remembered as chosen or rejected during the choice stage. We used a combination of fMRI and intra-cranial electrophysiological recordings to reveal a modulation of left hippocampus activity, a hub of episodic memory retrieval, immediately before the occurrence of CIPC during item reevaluation. Finally, we show that contrarily to a previous influential report flawed by a statistical artifact, this phenomenon is absent in amnesic patients for forgotten items. These results demonstrate the dependence of cognitive dissonance on conscious episodic memory. This link between current preferences and previous choices suggests a homeostatic function of this regulative process, aiming at preserving subjective coherence. PMID:28112261

  5. Application of Compound Options in the Evaluation of American Puts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Antonio Rincon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a numerical method is developed to determine the value of a put, based in the solution of Black and Scholes (1973 for European option and on Richardson extrapolation that calculates the limit of an options sequence, whose time intervals tend to zero. In the beginning of the 70s, Black and Scholes (1973 and Merton (1973 they had developed partial differential equation, whose solution it determines the value of an European option. The boundary condition will go to determine the type of option (purchase or sale. Values for the put are calculated, priced and compared with methods of the numerical integration and the binomial approach.

  6. Efficiency of sodium oxybate in episodic cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hildegard; Uhl, Verena; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sándor, Peter S; Kallweit, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man suffering from episodic cluster headache treated successfully with sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate may be a therapeutic option in attacks of episodic cluster headache.

  7. [Episodic foresight in normal cognitive and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Valentina; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-03-01

    The ability to project the self forward in time to pre-experience personal events is referred to as episodic future thinking. Different theories have been proposed to try to explain the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying episodic future thinking. In this paper we focus on studies concerning the episodic prospection capacity in cognitive aging and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia. Older adults usually produce fewer episodic details than young adults when recalling past events and when imagining future events. Patients with early to moderate Alzheimer's disease have impaired capacity in the generation of episodic details for retrieved past events and imagined future events. Similarly patients with early to moderate semantic dementia have difficulties in episodic future thinking whereas they succeed to retrieve episodic past events. These patterns are discussed with regard to the respective role of the episodic and personal semantic representations in future personal thoughts as a function of temporal distance by purposing a new neurocognitive model (TEDIFT).

  8. Higher Death Rate Among Youth With First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases News Release Thursday, April 6, 2017 Higher death rate among youth with first episode psychosis NIH- ... experiencing first episode psychosis have a much higher death rate than previously thought. Researchers analyzed data on ...

  9. Ecological momentary assessment of eating episodes in obese adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G; Durkin, Nora; Beach, Heather M; Berg, Kelly C; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2014-01-01

    The context of eating episodes in obesity is poorly understood. This study examined emotional, physiological, and environmental correlates of pathological and nonpathological eating episodes in a heterogeneous sample of obese adults...

  10. Differential mortality among semiskilled applicants of disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, H; Jeune, B; Skytthe, A

    1988-01-01

    The mortality experience among 4,440 applicants for disability pension has been examined during a period of observation of ten years. All applicants were males and had been member of the Danish Semiskilled Workers' Union. The reference group consists of age matched male members of the same union....... The applicants for disability pension experienced a considerable excess mortality when compared with the reference group. The higher mortality risk is still present more than ten years after the application has been settled. The persons who were refused disability pension experienced an elevated mortality, too....... In opposition to previous studies it is not found informative to put forward a common estimate of the elevated mortality rate because the group of disability applicants is very heterogeneous concerning their mortality experience; the excess mortality is most elevated among persons granted the high level pension...

  11. Facing up to disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Shakespeare

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They successfully demanded that disability be seen as a matter of equal opportunities and human rights, a shift which has now been described in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This is a global treaty which has so far been signed by 155 states and passed into law by 127.

  12. Beyond (Models of) Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Jonas-Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The strategy of developing an ontology or models of disability as a prior step to settling ethical issues regarding disabilities is highly problematic for two reasons. First, key definitional aspects of disability are normative and cannot helpfully be made value-neutral. Second, if we accept that the contested concept of disability is value-laden, it is far from obvious that there are definitive reasons for choosing one interpretation of the concept over another. I conclude that the concept of disability is better left ethically open-ended or broad enough to encompass the examination of various ethical issues (such as oppression, minority rights, or physical discomfort). Alternatively, the concept of disability could be altogether abandoned in order to focus on specific issues without being hindered by debates about the nature of disability. Only political costs, rather than conceptual considerations internal to the models, could be weighed against such a conclusion. PMID:26892249

  13. Integrated Disability Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Angeloni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to increase awareness regarding the wide and universal significance of disability, as well as the important benefits of an Integrated Disability Management (IDM approach. The scientific basis for IDM is explored in the first place through an analysis of its relationship to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. The conceptual paradigm of the ICF shares an ideological position with the IDM approach in that they are both underpinned by dynamic and multidimensional constructions of disability, which imply equally holistic and interdisciplinary responses. The IDM approach can be applied across a diversity of human situations to provide solutions that reflect the multifaceted and widespread nature of disability. The IDM approach is intended as a strategy capable of handling: inclusion of people with disabilities, active aging of human resources, health and safety in the workplace, prevention of disabilities and various diseases, return-to-work, absenteeism, and presenteeism.

  14. Theory of mind is independent of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Stuss, Donald T; Levine, Brian; Tulving, Endel

    2007-11-23

    Theory of mind (ToM) to infer other people's current mental states and episodic memory of personal happenings have been assumed to be closely related. We report two participants with severely impaired episodic memory who perform indistinguishably from healthy controls on objective ToM tests. These results suggest that ToM can function independently of episodic memory.

  15. China's Largest Oil Storage Tanks Put into Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Two 125,000-cubic-meter and 90-meter-diameter crude storage tanks, currently largest ones in China,have been constructed and put into service at Sinopec's Maoming Petrochemical Harbor Company in Southeast China's Guangdong Province in recent time.

  16. An on-line gasoline blending system put into production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Anew system for online gasoline blending, which was developed by researchers from the CAS Institute of Automation (CASIA), has been put into production at China Petrochemical Corporation (SINOPEC) and PetroChina Corporation. It is expected to thoroughly renovate the technology in this regard and achieve maximal economic benefits in oil production stage.

  17. Bounds for the American perpetual put on a stock index

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, V.

    2001-01-01

    Let us consider n stocks with dependent price processes each following a geometric Brownian motion. We want to investigate the American perpetual put on an index of those stocks. We will provide inner and outer boundaries for its early exercise region by using a decomposition technique for optimal stopping.

  18. Banshan Gas-Fired Turbine Generator Set Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ No.1 generator set of Banshan gas-fired power generation project, which is the first 9 FA heavy-duty gas turbine generator set in China that has drawn much attention, was successfully put into operation and merged into power grid at 21:30 in June 2, three months ahead of schedule.

  19. Introduction. Presidential disability and presidential succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Robert E; Bucy, Erik P

    2014-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on presidential disability and succession focuses on the distinctly positive contributions that invocations of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment have made to American political life since the Amendment's ratification in 1967. It also underlines the importance for Presidents, their family members and aides to understand the necessity for putting the welfare of the country first, above all else-even at times above the wishes of a disabled Chief Executive. As the articles in this special issue make clear, the Twenty-Fifth Amendment provides an effective constitutional mechanism by which the country's well-being can be maintained while simultaneously showing compassion and respect for a disabled leader. The idea for this issue emerged from a conference organized by Professor Robert E. Gilbert focusing on presidential disability and succession held on the campus of Northeastern University in April 2014. Papers from the conference assembled here clarify and add to the historical record about presidential inability while illuminating the many political, legal, and constitutional contingencies that future presidential administrators may face. Contributors to this issue have varied disciplinary and professional backgrounds, including expertise in American politics, constitutional law, the presidency and vice presidency, presidential impairment, and, of course, the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the Constitution.

  20. The smoke episode in Buenos Aires, 15-20 April 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbery, Ernesto Hugo; Ciappesoni, Hector C.; Kalnay, Eugenia

    2008-11-01

    The smoke that affected the city of Buenos Aires and its suburbs (approximate population, 13M) in mid April 2008 was an extreme event without historical precedent. The episode resulted in an increase of health problems among the population (respiratory problems, eye irritation) and, due to poor visibility, led to hazardous driving conditions and accidents that forced the intermittent closure of major highways. The origin of the smoke was traced to pasture burning in the La Plata River delta, to the northwest of Buenos Aires. Unfortunately, the increased shifting of livestock to the La Plata River delta may result in more common smoke episodes due to associated biomass burning practices. We clarify the mechanisms that resulted in this extreme episode, including the contribution of the La Plata River local circulations to the intensity of the event. We further show its high predictability using high resolution regional model simulations and forecasts. Our results suggest that a high resolution regional model could be used to monitor and predict several days in advance the atmospheric transport of smoke. These results could have policy implications, as preventive measures on biomass burning could be put in effect when smoke from the fires is predicted to affect a densely populated area.

  1. Recovery from Multiple Episodes of Bipolar I Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David A; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Leon, Andrew C.; Coryell, William; Endicott, Jean; Li, Chunshan; Boland, Robert J.; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the duration of bipolar I major and minor depressive episodes and factors associated with time to recovery. Method 219 participants with bipolar I disorder based on Research Diagnostic Criteria analogs to DSM-IV-TR criteria were recruited from 1978–1981 and followed for up to 25 years. Psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. The probability of recovery over time from multiple successive depressive episodes was examined with survival analytic techniques, including mixed-effects grouped-time survival models. Results The median duration of major depressive episodes was 14 weeks, and over 70% recovered within 12 months of onset of the episode. The median duration of minor depressive episodes was 8 weeks, and approximately 90% recovered within 6 months of onset of the episode. Aggregated data demonstrated similar durations of the first three major depressive episodes. However, for each participant with multiple episodes of major depression or minor depression, the duration of each episode was not consistent (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.07 and 0.25 for major and minor depression, respectively). The total number of years in episode over follow-up with major plus minor depression prior to onset of a major depressive episode was significantly associated with a decreased probability of recovery from that episode; with each additional year, the likelihood of recovery was reduced by 7% (hazard ratio: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98, p=0.002). Conclusions Bipolar I major depression generally lasts longer than minor depression, and the duration of multiple episodes within an individual varies. However, the probability of recovery over time from an episode of major depression appears to decline with each successive episode. PMID:23561241

  2. Behavioral analysis of narcoleptic episodes in orexin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibiger, Judith; Fendt, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Orexin-deficient mice express narcoleptic episodes which mirror some of the main symptoms of human narcolepsy. Therefore, they are often used in narcolepsy research. However, little is known about some behavioral characteristics of narcoleptic episodes, e.g. about episode types, duration, and variability. In the present study, 351 narcoleptic episodes of orexin-deficient mice were behaviorally characterized. Based on this data, we describe different onset and progression episodes types. These episode types affected episode duration, i.e. abrupt onsets and 'shaking'-like movements increased episode duration. Our data suggests that promoting motor activity enhances the frequency of narcoleptic episode. Inter-individual variability of episode frequency and duration was large; however, the intra-individual frequency was relatively stable. Based on these findings we suggest the following to increase the statistical power of experiments in orexin-deficient mice: Using a pre-screen and selecting the mice with decent episode frequency, using an enriched environment as well as using repeated-measure designs.

  3. On the Development of Episodic Memory: Two Basic Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold

    2013-01-01

    In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ...

  4. Lifespan trends of autobiographical remembering: episodicity and search for meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena; Welzer, Harald

    2013-09-01

    Autobiographical memories of older adults show fewer episodic and more non-episodic elements than those of younger adults. This semantization effect is attributed to a loss of episodic memory ability. However the alternative explanation by an increasing proclivity to search for meaning has not been ruled out to date. To test whether a decrease in episodicity and an increase in meaning-making in autobiographical narratives are related across the lifespan, we used different instructions, one focussing on specific episodes, the other on embedding events in life, in two lifespan samples. A continuous decrease of episodic quality of memory (memory specificity, narrative quality) was confirmed. An increase of search for meaning (interpretation, life story integration) was confirmed only up to middle adulthood. This non-inverse development of episodicity and searching for meaning in older age speaks for an autonomous semantization effect that is not merely due to an increase in interpretative preferences.

  5. Episodic Aging and End States of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2008-01-01

    It is known that comets are aging very rapidly on cosmic scales, because they rapidly shed mass. The processes involved are (i) normal activity - sublimation of ices and expulsion of dust from discrete emission sources on and/or below the surface of a comet's nucleus, and (ii) nuclear fragmentation. Both modes are episodic in nature, the latter includes major steps in the comet's life cycle. The role and history of dynamical techniques used are described and results on mass losses due to sublimation and dust expulsion are reviewed. Studies of split comets, Holmes-like exploding comets, and cataclysmically fragmenting comets show that masses of 10 to 100 million tons are involved in the fragmentation process. This and other information is used to investigate the nature of comets' episodic aging. Based on recent advances in understanding the surface morphology of cometary nuclei by close-up imaging, a possible mechanism for large-scale fragmentation events is proposed and shown to be consistent with evidence available from observations. Strongly flattened pancake-like shapes appear to be required for comet fragments by conceptual constraints. Possible end states are briefly examined.

  6. Cabergoline-induced manic episode: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Rabia Nazik; Elyas Kaya, Zeynep; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Cingi Yirün, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Cabergoline is an orally administered synthetic dopamine agonist that is used for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, Parkinson’s disease and antipsychotic-induced prolactin elevation. One of the main characteristics of cabergoline is its long duration of effect. It is highly effective in suppressing prolactin levels up to 21 days after a single 1 mg oral dose. The prolonged elimination half-life offers an advantage of once-daily dosing, but it might be a handicap in terms of washout of adverse effects such as psychosis. Cabergoline has been associated with adverse reactions consistent with other dopaminergic agonists including cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric effects. It is known that dopaminergic treatment is a remarkable risk factor for psychosis. A number of reports implicate dopamine agonists in the development of psychosis, but there is no knowledge in the literature of dopamine agonist-induced mania. In this case, we report the first manic episode occurring after cabergoline use for hyperprolactinemia treatment. In susceptible individuals, cabergoline can cause manic episodes and cabergoline should be used more carefully considering the risk–benefit ratio. PMID:27354910

  7. Episodic Aging and End States of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2008-01-01

    It is known that comets are aging very rapidly on cosmic scales, because they rapidly shed mass. The processes involved are (i) normal activity - sublimation of ices and expulsion of dust from discrete emission sources on and/or below the surface of a comet's nucleus, and (ii) nuclear fragmentation. Both modes are episodic in nature, the latter includes major steps in the comet's life cycle. The role and history of dynamical techniques used are described and results on mass losses due to sublimation and dust expulsion are reviewed. Studies of split comets, Holmes-like exploding comets, and cataclysmically fragmenting comets show that masses of 10 to 100 million tons are involved in the fragmentation process. This and other information is used to investigate the nature of comets' episodic aging. Based on recent advances in understanding the surface morphology of cometary nuclei by close-up imaging, a possible mechanism for large-scale fragmentation events is proposed and shown to be consistent with evidence available from observations. Strongly flattened pancake-like shapes appear to be required for comet fragments by conceptual constraints. Possible end states are briefly examined.

  8. Course of insight in manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insight is an important factor associated with non compliance and poor outcome. Poor level of insight has been described as a characteristic in patients with acute bipolar disorder with more unawareness in social consequences with increasing severity in manic episode. Aim: Main aim of study was to see the baseline and longitudinal relationship between dimensions of insight with improvement in psychopathology. Setting and Design: Forty four patients diagnosed with mania, were selected from an inpatient setting at Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra with mean age of 31.07(±9.00 years. They were assessed at base line and were followed up weekly or psychopathology and insight. Materials and Methods: The Young′s mania rating scale for psychopathology and insight was assessed on three dimensions of SUMD. Results: Twenty five patients eventually completed the study. There was a positive correlation with global insight and with psychopathology consistent in longitudinal follow-up (P<0.05, but not correlating for awareness for achieved effect of medication and social consequences. Linear regression showed a positive relationship at the first and second week of assessment of SUMD and YMRS scores (P=0.001; 0.019. Conclusion: Improvement in insight is graded in a manic episode as compared to psychopathology. There is slower improvement in awareness of social consequences of mental disorder. It means that improvement in psychopathology may not necessarily indicate remission and need further supervision to improve insight and hence monitoring.

  9. Injuries and Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Chaudhry, Ramiz A.

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults with disabilities are at an increased risk of injury. Falls are the leading mechanism of injury regardless of the disability status and are even more common in those with moderate or severe disabilities. The setting for the injury differs with the disability status. Compared to individuals with moderate or no disabilities,…

  10. Domestic abuse in the Archers: putting the storyline into context

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The eked out tale of the abusive relationship between the Titcheners in the long running BBC Radio 4 soap, The Archers, culminated on Sunday evening with a knife attack by the long suffering Helen on her psychologically controlling husband Rob. Here, Jennifer Brown puts the storyline in context, offering a forensic psychology perspective and outlining the frequency of similar cases in the UK alongside the recent legal provisions to legislate against such behaviour.

  11. Episodes in the mathematics of medieval Islam

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an account of selected topics from key mathematical works of medieval Islam, based on the Arabic texts themselves. Many of these works had a great influence on mathematics in Western Europe. Topics covered in the first edition include arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and numerical approximation; this second edition adds number theory and combinatorics. Additionally, the author has included selections from the western regions of medieval Islam—both North Africa and Spain. The author puts the works into their historical context and includes numerous examples of how mathematics interacted with Islamic society.

  12. Disability and global development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Joan; Lord, Janet; Defranco, Allison

    2012-07-01

    The United States invests billions of taxpayer dollars each year into foreign assistance programs that foster international diplomacy and development directed toward improving the quality of life for people around the world. These programs develop economies and combat poverty, promote democracy and governance, build new infrastructure, advance and protect human rights, among other development goals. The United States cannot effectively accomplish the goals of foreign assistance programs unless it undertakes measures to ensure that the programs are accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. The United States has been a leader in advancing the rights of people with disabilities and must continue to promote disability rights through its international development work. Overseas economic development will not be successful unless people with disabilities are included. Because of the significant number of people with disabilities in developing countries, if they are not included, the very economic growth the United States is trying to foster will be hindered. The goals of democracy and governance programs cannot be achieved without the inclusion of people with disabilities. In many countries, domestic law contains blatant discriminatory provisions for people with disabilities that undermine access to justice and full participation in society. The provisions that discriminate against people with disabilities include arbitrary exclusions in electoral codes, sweeping plenary guardianship laws with no due-process protections, discriminatory banking practices, and inaccessible court proceedings. National disability legal frameworks remain underdeveloped throughout the world.

  13. The Matter of Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David T; Snyder, Sharon L

    2016-12-01

    By ruling out questions of impairment from the social critique of disability, Disability Studies (DS) analyses establish a limit point in the field. Of course the setting of "limits" enables possibilities in multiple directions as well as fortifies boundaries of refusal. For instance, impairment (the biological conditions of an organism's inefficient attachment to the world) becomes in DS simultaneously a productive refusal to interpret disabled bodies as inferior to non-disabled bodies (i.e. pathologized) and a bar to thinking through more active engagements with disability as materiality. Disability materiality such as conditions produced by ecological toxicities serve as active switch-points for creative corporeal navigations of the interaction between bodies and environments.In fact in this paper we want to propose a more "lively" definition of disability materiality to existing definitions of impairment as limiting expressions of non-normative bodies. We have no useful ways of explaining disability as adaptation and it's time we begin the process of theorizing more active ideas of materiality that extend existing ideas of disability beyond simplistic conceptions of socially rejected biologies made available by social constructivist thought.

  14. Disability and voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko

    2014-07-01

    For millions of people with disabilities in the United States, exercising the fundamental right to vote remains a challenge. Over the last few decades, the U.S. government has enacted several pieces of legislation to make voting accessible to individuals with disabilities. We examine trends in self-reported voting rates among people with and without disabilities to uncover evidence for the effects of these policies on political participation. We also explore what policy change is necessary to encourage people with disabilities to vote by investigating whether the participation rates vary by the types of disabilities. We analyze the Current Population Survey (CPS) data in the years of presidential elections for the period of 1980-2008. Our analysis shows that the population aged 18-64 with work-preventing disabilities has been persistently less likely to vote compared to the corresponding population without such disabilities. In addition, individuals with cognitive and mobility impairments have the lowest rates of electoral participation. The gap in the likelihood of voting in-person between people with and without disabilities is considerably larger than the gap in the likelihood of voting by-mail, regardless of the types of impairments that they have. The participation gap between people with and without disabilities did not decrease over the last three decades despite the presence of federal laws that aimed at removing barriers for voting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Depression-related work disability: socioeconomic inequalities in onset, duration and recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Ervasti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is a major cause of disability in working populations and the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in disability is an important public health challenge. We examined work disability due to depression with four indicators of socioeconomic status. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 125 355 Finnish public sector employees was linked to national register data on work disability (>9 days due to depressive disorders (International Classification of Diseases, codes F32-F34 from January 2005 to December 2011. Primary outcomes were the onset of work disability due to depressive disorders and, among those with such disability, return to work after and recurrent episodes of work disability due to depression. RESULTS: We found a consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient in work disability due to depression. Lower occupational position, lower educational level, smaller residence size, and rented (vs. owner-occupied residence were all associated with an increased risk of work disability. Return to work was slower for employees with basic education (cumulative odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39 compared to those with higher education. Recurrent work disability episodes due to depression were less common among upper-grade non-manual workers (the highest occupational group than among lower-grade non-manual (hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25 and manual (hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.26 workers. CONCLUSIONS: These data from Finnish public sector employees show persistent socioeconomic inequalities in work disability due to depression from 2005 to 2011 in terms of onset, recovery and recurrence.

  16. Depression-related work disability: socioeconomic inequalities in onset, duration and recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a major cause of disability in working populations and the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in disability is an important public health challenge. We examined work disability due to depression with four indicators of socioeconomic status. A prospective cohort study of 125 355 Finnish public sector employees was linked to national register data on work disability (>9 days) due to depressive disorders (International Classification of Diseases, codes F32-F34) from January 2005 to December 2011. Primary outcomes were the onset of work disability due to depressive disorders and, among those with such disability, return to work after and recurrent episodes of work disability due to depression. We found a consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient in work disability due to depression. Lower occupational position, lower educational level, smaller residence size, and rented (vs. owner-occupied) residence were all associated with an increased risk of work disability. Return to work was slower for employees with basic education (cumulative odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39) compared to those with higher education. Recurrent work disability episodes due to depression were less common among upper-grade non-manual workers (the highest occupational group) than among lower-grade non-manual (hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25) and manual (hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.26) workers. These data from Finnish public sector employees show persistent socioeconomic inequalities in work disability due to depression from 2005 to 2011 in terms of onset, recovery and recurrence.

  17. Psychiatric Illness and Behavioural Problems in Adults with Learning Disability and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoumitro Deb

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively collected data on the rate and type of psychiatric illness and behavioural problems on 143 adults with learning disability and epilepsy. 55% behavioural problems. 19% verbal aggression and temper tantrums, and 13% injurious behaviour. The overall rates of behavioural problems and different types of behaviours found in the current study cohort are similar to what was found before in learning disabled adults in general, as well as in epileptic and non-epileptic learning disabled adults. Psychiatric diagnosis was made in 12.6% combined diagnosis of schizophrenia, delusional disorder and schizo-affective disorder was most common (5% diagnosis of depressive episode (3% bipolar affective disorder.

  18. The social model of disability: dichotomy between impairment and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M

    2013-08-01

    The rhetoric of the social model of disability is presented, and its basic claims are critiqued. Proponents of the social model use the distinction between impairment and disability to reduce disabilities to a single social dimension-social oppression. They downplay the role of biological and mental conditions in the lives of disabled people. Consequences of denying biological and mental realities involving disabilities are discussed. People will benefit most by recognizing both the biological and the social dimensions of disabilities.

  19. Critiquing 'disability': the Disability Discrimination Act's interplay with society

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of the legal constitution of disability employed by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. The concept of disability employed will be evaluated with reference to current social models of disability. These will be employed to evaluate to what extent, if at all, the Act’s definition accords with the contemporary models of disability. The definition of disability will be deconstructed and by reference to both legal and non-legal sources, key fault areas within the...

  20. Time course of episodes of definitive vertigo in Meniere's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Perez, Paz; Sanz, Ricardo; Orts, Miguel; Marco, Jaime; Barona, Rafael; Tapia, Mari C; Aran, Ismael; Cenjor, Carlos; Perez, Nicolas; Morera, Constantino; Ramirez, Rafael

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the frequency and duration of episodes of definitive vertigo in Ménière's disease. Prospective longitudinal study. Multiple tertiary referral centers. Five hundred ten individuals from 8 hospitals that met the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery diagnostic criteria for definitive Ménière's disease. Conservative treatment. Frequency and duration of episodes of definitive vertigo during follow-up. Ménière's disease affects both sexes and both ears equally, with onset generally in the fourth decade of life. The number of episodes of vertigo is greater in the first few years of the disease. Although episodes of vertigo that last longer than 6 hours are less frequent than shorter episodes, they occur with similar frequency throughout the natural course of the disease. The percentage of patients without episodes of vertigo increases as the disease progresses, and 70% of patients who did not have an episode of vertigo for 1 year will continue to be free of episodes during the following year. Thus, there is a relationship between the frequency of episodes in consecutive years, although this association decreases rapidly as the number of years increases. The frequency of definitive episodes of vertigo in Ménière's disease decreased during follow-up, and many individuals reached a steady-state phase free of vertigo.

  1. Meteorological Modeling of a Houston Ozone Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    The State of Texas requires accurate meteorological simulations of a Houston-Galveston ozone episode to drive their photochemical model for regulatory purposes. The episode of greatest interest occurred during TexAQS-2000, so there is an unusually large amount of data available for driving and validating the simulation. The key meteorological process to simulate is the sea breeze. In the Houston area, this sea breeze takes two forms, both of which typically occur on a summertime day. The first form is the sea breeze front, which forms along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay if the midday winds are light or offshore and travels inland during the afternoon and early evening. The second form is an inertia-gravity wave response of unusually large amplitude and horizontal scale, due to Houston's proximity to 30 N. It manifests itself as a steady rotation of the wind, superimposed on the background flow, with an amplitude of 2-3 m/s. The MM5 (v3.4) model characteristics were tailored to simulate this phenomenon. Over 20 vertical levels were located in the lowest 300 mb. The soil moisture availability was adjusted according to rainfall prior to and during the event so that the model simulated a reasonably accurate land-sea and urban-rural temperature contrast. A planetary boundary layer scheme was chosen to produce lower atmospheric structures similar to those observed in special soundings. To further increase the agreement between the model and observed fields, data from five profilers and one Doppler lidar were assimilated into the simulation. Assimilation parameters were chosen to provide a large impact on the large-scale, slowly-varying winds while allowing the smaller-scale sea breeze front and other such phenomena to evolve according to the internal dynamics of the model. The assimilation was essential for compelling the model to capture a nighttime low-level jet that was present during part of the episode and which the unassimilated model runs were

  2. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP About ODEP ... Youth in Transition Publications for Order and Download Disability Statistics September 2017 Disability Employment Statistics Ages 16 ...

  3. Minority Perceptions of the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Sheldon A.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the attitudes of Black versus White male students (N=60) toward three different disability types. Results showed significant differences between race, disability type, and social distance with Blacks evaluating disabled persons more highly. (LLL)

  4. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The..., Put-in-Bay, Ohio. This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the...

  5. Disability, poverty and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Disability is both a cause and consequence of poverty. Eliminating world poverty is unlikely to be achieved unless the rights and needs of people with disabilities are taken into account. According to the United Nations, one person in 20 has a disability. More than three out of four of these live in a developing country. More often than not they are among the poorest of the poor. Recent World Bank estimates suggest they may account for as many as one in five of the world's poorest. Disability limits access to education and employment, and leads to economic and social exclusion. Poor people with disabilities are caught in a vicious cycle of poverty and disability, each being both a cause and a consequence of the other. A large proportion of disability is preventable. Achieving the international development targets for economic, social and human development will undoubtedly reduce the levels of disability in many poor countries. However, general improvements in living conditions will not be enough. Specific steps are still required, not only for prevention, but also to ensure that people with disabilities are able to participate fully in the development process, obtain a fair share of the benefits, and claim their rights as full and equal members of society. An integrated approach is required, linking prevention and rehabilitation with empowerment strategies and changes in attitudes. This paper assesses the significance of disability as a key development issue, and its importance in relation to poverty, human rights, and the achievement of internationally agreed development targets. It also sets out ways in which development co-operation, including DFID's own work, can help incorporate the rights and needs of people with disabilities into the mainstream of poverty reduction work and the achievement of human rights.

  6. Disability in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-09-01

    This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety disorders. Data were from 1826 subjects from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose anxiety disorders. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was used to measure disability in six domains (cognition, mobility, selfcare, social interaction, life activities, participation). Severity of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour symptoms was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear Questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were associated with higher disability. Disability was generally highest in multiple anxiety disorder (e.g. mean disability in cognition=33.7) and social anxiety disorder (mean=32.7), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (mean=27.2) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (mean=26.3), and lowest in panic disorder without agoraphobia (mean=22.1). Anxiety arousal was more associated with disability in life activities (B=8.5, panxiety disorders were not completely explained by anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour. The cross-sectional study design precludes any causal interpretations. In order to examine the full range of comorbidity among anxiety, a greater range of anxiety disorders would have been preferable. Disability is highest in social anxiety disorder and multiple anxiety disorder. Both anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour are associated with higher disability levels but do not fully explain the differences across anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study......The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale....... Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two...

  8. Heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mavrakis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to investigate the possible temporal correlation between heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays' activity, on various time scales. Cosmic rays measurements are sparse and cover less extended periods than those of precipitation. Precipitation is largely influenced by local climatic and even physiographic conditions, while cosmic rays' distribution is far more uniform over an area. Thus, in an effort to cover a larger range of climatic characteristics, each cosmic rays station was correlated with several nearby precipitation stations. Selected statistical methods were employed for the data processing. The analysis was preformed on annual, seasonal, monthly and daily basis whenever possible. Wet and dry regions and/or seasons seem to present a different response of precipitation to cosmic rays variations. Also Forbush decreases in most cases will not lead to heavy precipitation, yet this might be sensitive to precipitable water availability.

  9. Episodic Ataxias: Clinical and Genetic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Choi, Jae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Episodic ataxia (EA) is a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by recurrent spells of truncal ataxia and incoordination lasting minutes to hours. Most have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. To date, 8 subtypes have been defined according to clinical and genetic characteristics, and five genes are known to be linked to EAs. Both EA1 and EA2, which are caused by mutations in KCNA1 and CACNA1A, account for the majority of EA, but many patients with no identified mutations still exhibit EA-like clinical features. Furthermore, genetically confirmed EAs have mostly been identified in Caucasian families. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the clinical and genetic characteristics of EAs. Additionally, we summarize the phenotypic features of the genetically confirmed EA2 families in Korea. PMID:27667184

  10. Suicidal Ideation Induced by Episodic Cannabis Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Raja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The report describes a patient who presented suicidal ideation only in two different occasions, immediately after acute cannabis intoxication. He used cannabis only in these two circumstances. Although a definite association between cannabis use and suicidal ideation or behavior has been already reported in the literature, the described case presents two original clinical aspects that deserve consideration. First, episodic assumption of cannabis induced suicidal ideation abruptly. Second, suicidal ideation appeared independent of mood depression, stressors, or life events, suggesting that suicidality may be not a direct consequence of depression and appears to be a relatively independent psychopathological dimension. There seems to be no linear relation between the severity of depression and the risk of suicide.

  11. Happiness in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agid, Ofer; McDonald, Krysta; Siu, Cynthia; Tsoutsoulas, Christopher; Wass, Caroline; Zipursky, Robert B; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2012-10-01

    Happiness is a core dimension of a person's life, related to both functioning and success. As patients with schizophrenia experience marked functional deficits, it would be informative to investigate their level of happiness. There are limited data currently available, perhaps due to the longstanding belief that anhedonia is an inherent feature of this illness. The present study set out to specifically assess happiness in schizophrenia in relation to both clinical and functional measures of outcome. Thirty-one first-episode remitted patients and 29 age- and sex-matched controls participated in the study. Patients' clinical status was assessed and a series of self-report questionnaires were used to measure levels of happiness, life satisfaction, success and functioning in both patients and controls. Patients experienced marked functional impairment versus healthy controls (phappiness (p=0.113) and satisfaction with life (p=0.350). In the patient group, we found that higher happiness ratings were significantly associated with less depression, less negative symptoms, less social withdrawal, greater life satisfaction, and higher social and occupational functioning. Both cognitive functioning and insight had no significant direct effects on ratings of happiness in the patient group. Despite marked functional impairment, individuals with first-episode schizophrenia are as happy as controls. Mechanisms that might allow for this are discussed, as are the implications for rehabilitation efforts that assume an individual holds to the same drives and goals as before the illness onset and/or is unhappy with their present functional status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Episodic Volcanism and Geochemistry in Western Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, I.; Carr, M. J.; Gazel, E.; Swisher, C.; Turrin, B.

    2007-12-01

    The active volcanic arc in western Nicaragua is separated from the Miocene arc by a temporal gap in the volcanic record, during which little volcanic material was erupted. Previous work suggested that this gap lasted from 7 to 1.6 Ma, during which volcanic production in Nicaragua was limited or nonexistent. Because the precise timing and duration of this gap has been poorly constrained, recent fieldwork has focused on locating samples that may have erupted close to or even during this apparent hiatus in activity. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dates reveal pulses of low- level episodic volcanism at 7 Ma and 1 Ma between the active and Miocene arcs with current volcanism beginning ~350 ka. In addition, sampling from an inactive area between Coseguina and San Cristobal yielded two distinct groupings of ages; one of Tamarindo age (13 Ma) and the other around 3.5 Ma-the only samples of that age collected on-strike with the active arc. This raises the possibility the bases of the other active volcanoes contain lavas that are older than expected, but have been covered by subsequent eruptions. The Miocene arc differs from the active arc in Central America in several ways, with the latter having higher Ba/La and U/Th values due to increased slab input and changes in subducted sediment composition. Analysis of sample C-51 and others taken from the same area may shed light on the timing of this shift from high to low Ba/La and U/Th values. More importantly, it may help explain why the arc experienced such a dramatic downturn in volcanic production during this time. We also report 25 new major and trace element analyses that shed some light on the origins of these minor episodes of Nicaraguan volcanism. These samples are currently awaiting Sr and Nd isotopic analyses.

  13. [Diabetic ketoacidosis. Revision of 82 episodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, J R; Cortés, E; Pallotta, M G; Domínguez, J M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 82 episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis were analysed in 70 adult patients. Population characteristics can be seen in Table 1. It was possible to determine the causes of 74 episodes (Table 2); infections, insulin reduction or suppression and psychic stress included 89 % of these causes. The most frequent infection sites were airway, urinary tract and skin surface. The most important symptoms and signs shown by patients on admission (Table 3) were digestive and those derived from dehydration and acidosis. Figure 2 shows laboratory data on admission: average glycemia, 395 mg %, 90 % with pH values below 7.30; the majority revealed high hematocrit urea and kaliemia values. Unusual treatment performed in the classical way (Figure 3) can be divided into two periods: the first of eapid expansion and insulinization (first three hours) and the second of slow replenishment (4 to 24 hours) consisting of two stages in which the velocity of liquid infusion is diminished while glucose and potassium backing is started. No difference was found between the results of those who received bicarbonate and those who did not (Table 4). Response to treatment is shown in Fig. 4. On pointing out the decrease in kalemia (1.18 mEq/l in the first 6 hours), however, it must be kept in mind that on admission 10 % of the patients were in a state of hypokalemia with less than 3.5 mEq/l. Table 5 shows complications that arose during treatment: hypokalemia, 32 %; hupoglucemia, 11 % and phlebitis, 17 % (catheterized). Five patients, (7 5) died. Four had been admitted in a state of coma with a severe infectious state (bronchopneumonia, acute pyelonephritis, meningo-encephalitis). The analysis of this paper shows the importance of an adequate diabetic education and briefing both for the patients, to be aware of the unleashing factors, and for the physicians, in order to avoid the complications of treatment.

  14. Catatonia in Older Adult Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan White

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia has been described in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs. These are the first three published cases of catatonia in adults older than 50 years of age with IDs. They were followed using the KANNER scale and, in one case, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK monitoring. Case 1 is a 67-year-old Caucasian who probably had been having intermittent episodes of undiagnosed catatonia withdrawal for many years. His episodes of agitation and withdrawal behavior responded to lorazepam up to 8 mg/day. Case 2 is a 63-year-old Caucasian male who had probably had undiagnosed catatonic episodes since age 25. An agitation episode that rated 88 on Part 2 of the KANNER scale ended within minutes after he received 1 mg of intramuscular lorazepam. He had no symptom relapses for 4 years after getting stable oral lorazepam doses (3–8.5 mg/day. Case 3 is a 55-year-old African-American male with severe ID and bradycardia (with a pacemaker. He had been “institutionalized” since age 22 and his undiagnosed catatonic episodes appeared to have been intermittently present for at least the last ten years. As he became tolerant and experienced symptom relapse, oral lorazepam was slowly increased (1.5–18 mg/day. Electroconvulsive therapy was ruled out due to his pacemaker.

  15. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Practices which put... which put retailer independence at risk. The practices specified in this section put retailer... practices that put retailer independence at risk. (a) The act by an industry member of resetting stock on...

  16. Negotiating hearing disability and hearing disabled identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2012-01-01

        Using disability theory as a framework and social science theories of identity to strengthen the arguments, this paper explores empirically how working-age adults confront the medical diagnosis of hearing impairment. For most participants hearing impairment threatens the stability of social...... interaction and the construction of hearing disabled identities is seen as shaped in the interaction with the hearing impaired person‟s surroundings. In order to overcome the potential stigmatisation the „passing‟ as normal becomes predominant. For many the diagnosis provokes radical redefinitions of the self....... The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...

  17. What differentiates episodic future thinking from complex scene imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vito, Stefania; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the contributions of familiarity of setting, self-relevance and self-projection in time to episodic future thinking. The role of familiarity of setting was assessed, in Experiment 1, by comparing episodic future thoughts to autobiographical future events supposed to occur in unfamiliar settings. The role of self-relevance was assessed, in Experiment 2, by comparing episodic future thoughts to future events involving familiar others. The role of self-projection in time was assessed, in both Experiments, by comparing episodic future thoughts to autobiographical events that were not temporal in nature. Results indicated that episodic future thoughts were more clearly represented than autobiographical future events occurring in unfamiliar setting and future events involving familiar others. Our results also revealed that episodic future thoughts were indistinguishable from autobiographical atemporal events with respect to both subjective and objective detail ratings. These results suggest that future and atemporal events are mentally represented in a similar way.

  18. Beauty and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    People often hold stereotypical notions about disability, assuming people with significant disabilities offer little in terms of friendship or contribution. Some are even repulsed by that person's physical appearance. Such responses, evident within the Christian community as well, fail to acknowledge the inherent worth of the person as created in…

  19. Disability Employment 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. President Bush's position is that he "will not be satisfied until every American who wants to work can find…

  20. Categorizing clients with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lena; Amby, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Danish governments have continuously proclaimed goals of raising the employment rate for people with disabilities, most recently in the publication “10 goal for social mobility” (Government 2016). In spite of this, the employment rate for people with disabilities has been more than 30 percent les...

  1. Enabling the Disabled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Based on achievements during the past five years, people with disabilities in China will have greater access to education and employment during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-15), said Wang Naikun, Executive Vice President of the China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF).

  2. Moving beyond Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    2008-01-01

    Moving beyond Disability was the theme of the 12th World Congress of the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics. This paper is a reflection of one of the keynote lectures discussing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Multicultural aspects in di

  3. Introduction: Childhood and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-06-21

    From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.

  4. Learning Disabilities and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Brown, Dale S., Ed.

    This book provides information on preparing individuals with learning disabilities for the challenges of employment and outlines the rights of those with learning disabilities in the workplace. Introductory chapters in Part 1 include: "Life after School: Challenges in the Workplace" (Paul J. Gerber); "The New Economy in the 21st…

  5. Learning about Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Rita Ann

    1983-01-01

    The author describes lessons provided for regular class elementary students to help them understand disabilities and disabled persons. Objectives, materials needed, and activities are outlined for six lessons focusing on the following topics: individual differences, wheelchairs; devices that help people walk; amputation, artificial limbs, and…

  6. Disability and Human Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff McNair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of models of disability growing out of the field of disability studies and leading to a call for interventions going beyond a simply medical model approach. A brief discussion of human supports/services is provided such that readers engaged in the development of services/supports can base them on best principles.

  7. The Disabled: Media's Monster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    From the early nineteenth century to the present, horror, gangster, and adventure films, television, the comics, and newspapers have shown physical and mental disabilities to connote murder, violence, and danger. Such false portrayals have promoted negative public attitudes toward people with disabilities. (Author/MJL)

  8. Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Cheri; Gregg, Noel

    1986-01-01

    The emerging population of learning disabled college students is presenting a new challenge to college professionals: admission officers, counselors, financial aid personnel, academic advisors, and professors. Learning disablities interfere with the ability to perceive, process, sort, store, or retrieve information regardless of level of…

  9. Dismissal through disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ours, van Jan; Ridder, Geert; Hassink, Wolter

    1995-01-01

    If a firm wants to reduce its workforce, it may dismiss some of its workers. Altematively, it may make workers eligible for disability benefits. Upon examination these workers formally satisfy the conditions for disability enrolment. Because these conditions allow for a rather liberal interpretation

  10. Ghana: Disability and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Betsy H.; Evans, William H.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study explores the educational system and attitudes toward disability in the Volta Region of Ghana. Traditional, Christian, and Islamic beliefs toward disability are explored. Educators from Accra and three families from the Volta Region with children with special needs are interviewed in an effort to explore the connection…

  11. 77 FR 8234 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-- Disability and Rehabilitation Research... Disability and Rehabilitation Research-- Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program-- Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project--Center on Knowledge Translation for Disability...

  12. Testing episodic memory in animals: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, D P; Clayton, N S

    2001-08-01

    Episodic memory involves the encoding and storage of memories concerned with unique personal experiences and their subsequent recall, and it has long been the subject of intensive investigation in humans. According to Tulving's classical definition, episodic memory "receives and stores information about temporally dated episodes or events and temporal-spatial relations among these events." Thus, episodic memory provides information about the 'what' and 'when' of events ('temporally dated experiences') and about 'where' they happened ('temporal-spatial relations'). The storage and subsequent recall of this episodic information was thought to be beyond the memory capabilities of nonhuman animals. Although there are many laboratory procedures for investigating memory for discrete past episodes, until recently there were no previous studies that fully satisfied the criteria of Tulving's definition: they can all be explained in much simpler terms than episodic memory. However, current studies of memory for cache sites in food-storing jays provide an ethologically valid model for testing episodic-like memory in animals, thereby bridging the gap between human and animal studies memory. There is now a pressing need to adapt these experimental tests of episodic memory for other animals. Given the potential power of transgenic and knock-out procedures for investigating the genetic and molecular bases of learning and memory in laboratory rodents, not to mention the wealth of knowledge about the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the rodent hippocampus (a brain area heavily implicated in episodic memory), an obvious next step is to develop a rodent model of episodic-like memory based on the food-storing bird paradigm. The development of a rodent model system could make an important contribution to our understanding of the neural, molecular, and behavioral mechanisms of mammalian episodic memory.

  13. Dissociating effects of acute photic stress on spatial, episodic-like and working memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passecker, Johannes; Barlow, Sally; O'Mara, Shane M

    2014-10-01

    Adaptively responding to acute stress has been of great importance for human and animal survival. However, for our species, stress-related disorders are putting an ever-increasing burden on healthcare systems. It is thus crucial to understand the basic processes and cognitive changes associated with acute stress. Here, we examined the effects of acute stress exposure on spatial (water maze) and memory (delayed match to sample and episodic-memory-like tasks) performance. We found striking performance deficits in stressed animals navigating in the water maze. We also found, in an episodic-like memory task, striking object-location deficits, but not in temporal-object association learning in stressed animals. Finally, no differences were apparent for any delay periods (up to 30s) in a delayed match to sample task. Taken together, these results show a strong differential effect of acute stress on differing memory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Putting Information First Luciano Floridi and the Philosophy of Information

    CERN Document Server

    Allo, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Putting Information First focuses on Luciano Floridi's contributions to the philosophy of information. Respected scholars stimulate the debate on the most distinctive and controversial views he defended, and present the philosophy of information as a specific way of doing philosophy.Contains eight essays by leading scholars, a reply by Luciano Floridi, and an epilogue by Terrell W. BynumExplains the importance of philosophy of information as a specific way of doing philosophyFocuses directly on the work of Luciano Floridi in the area of philosophy of information, but also connects to contempor

  15. Can operations put the MPS into an unsafe state?

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, L

    2011-01-01

    During the 2010 run, the MPS have been additionally stressed by the commissioning of operational procedures and systems tests. As requested by the MPS external review committee, human factors have to be further minimized and discipline reinforced when increasing the stored beam energies towards and beyond the 2010 target of 30 MJ. This talk will present a synthesis of the Evian discussion on MPS and human factors, with an emphasis on the tools and procedures to be put in place for the 2011 run in order to ensure the machine safety during standard beam operation and after periods of machine developments or technical stops.

  16. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  17. Sex differences in episodic memory: minimal influence of estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E; Eriksson, Elias; Nilsson, Lars Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2003-07-01

    Sex differences exist for several cognitive tasks and estrogen has been suggested to influence these differences. Eighteen men and 18 women were matched on age and estradiol level. Potential sex differences were assessed in episodic memory, semantic memory, verbal fluency, problem solving, and visuospatial ability. Significant sex differences, favoring women, were found for tasks assessing episodic memory. Correlations between estradiol level and cognitive performance were significant for face recognition in females. Since sex differences remained in verbal episodic memory tasks and face recognition despite matched levels of estradiol, circulating estradiol does not appear to be of paramount consequence for observed sex differences in episodic memory.

  18. PHYSICAL LOAD RELATED TO HIGHWAY-DRIVING AMONG DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi IKEDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving environments have been designed basically for travel by physically and mentally unimpaired people. On the other hand, sufficient, special considerations are not given to the vehicles driven by disabled people. In order to examine the ergonomic driving load put on both disabled and physically unimpaired people while they are on highways, the driving conditions and the muscle-stress of disabled people were evaluated on the approach to curves. Also the influence of acceleration-and-deceleration and centrifugal force on vehicles were evaluated in straight, split and inter-flows of traffic. The subjects of this study consisted of 5 physically unimpaired people and 10 disabled people who required auxiliaries for their vehicles due to handicaps of their lower limbs or to both upper and lower limbs. The study was conducted on the loop line of the Hanshin Expressway in Osaka, Japan. As a result of measuring the accelerated velocity of vehicles in motion and electromyograms of drivers of the vehicles, it was found that the driving load of disabled people is heavier than that of physically unimpaired people. It was also found that certain driving conditions are different for disabled people to travel at high speed.

  19. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: episodic response project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigington, P.J.; Baker, J.P.; DeWalle, David R.; Kretser, W.A.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Simonin, H.A.; Van Sickle, J.; Mcdowell, M.K.; Peck, D.V.; Barchet, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Episodic Response Project (ERP) was an interdisciplinary study designed to address uncertainties about the occurrence, nature, and biological effects of episodic acidification of streams in the northeastern United States. The ERP research consisted of intensive studies of the chemistry and biological effects of episodes in 13 streams draining forested watersheds in the three study regions: the Northern Appalachian region of Pennsylvania and the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Wet deposition was measured in each of the three study regions. Using automated instruments and samplers, discharge and chemistry of each stream was monitored intensively from fall 1988 through spring 1990. Biological studies focused on brook trout and native forage fish. Experimental approaches included in situ bioassays, radio transmitter studies of fish movement, and fish population studies. This paper provides an overview of the ERP, describes the methodology used in hydrologic and water chemistry components of the study, and summarizes the characteristics of the study sites, including the climatic and deposition conditions during the ERP and the general chemical characteristics of the study streams.

  20. 75 FR 62676 - Disability Determinations by State Agency Disability Examiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 RIN 0960-AG87 Disability Determinations by State Agency Disability... a temporary basis to permit State agency disability examiners to make fully favorable determinations in certain claims for disability benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act...

  1. 75 FR 9821 - Disability Determinations by State Agency Disability Examiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 RIN 0960-AG87 Disability Determinations by State Agency Disability... to amend our rules to permit disability examiners in the State agencies to make fully favorable determinations in certain claims for disability benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act...

  2. Transfer of mechanical energy during the shot put.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Łysoń, Barbara; Chmielewski, Adam; Wit, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter. Statistically significant transfer was found in the study group between the following segments: Right Knee - Right Hip (p = 0.0035), Left Hip - Torso (p = 0.0201), Torso - Right Shoulder (p = 0.0122) and Right Elbow - Right Wrist (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, the results of cluster analysis showed that the kinetic chain used during the final shot acceleration movement had two different models. Differences between the groups were revealed mainly in the energy generated by the hips and trunk.

  3. Conventional flow curves of liquid cast iron put on spheroidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Borowiecki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to confirm the hypothesis that the conventional flow curves of liquid cast iron put on sferoidization determined from the rod fluidity test are comparable to flow curves of liquids in environmental temperature. Moreover has been identified, that conventional flow curves for this liquid cast iron are similar to generalized non- Newtonian liquids curves.For rods with the diameters 3-8 mm there are three various curves:1 – the flow curve of liquid cast iron put on spheroidization overheated about 80 K resemble a shape adequately to a curve of densified liquid with shearing. This phenomenon can be caused by high overcooled and creation of crystallization nuclei;2 – metal alloys overheated about 180 K resemble a shape adequately to Newtonian liquid;3 – metal alloys overheated about 210 K resemble a shape of curve adequately to dispersed liquid with shearing. This phenomenon probably depends on influence of gas which creates on boundary of metal-sand mould.

  4. Putting matters on the triangle-hinge models

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Umeda, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper [arXiv:1503.08812] a new class of models generating three-dimensional random volumes are introduced, where the Boltzmann weight of each configuration is given by the product of values assigned to the triangles and the hinges. These triangle-hinge models are characterized by semisimple associative algebras, and the set of possible diagrams can be reduced such that only and all of the three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions are generated. In this letter, we give a general prescription to put matters on the models. We show that the degrees of freedom representing matter fields can be assigned to simplices of any dimensions (tetrahedra, triangles, edges and vertices) in such a way that they have local interactions. Simple examples include the Ising model, the q-state Potts models and the RSOS models coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity. We also show that the three-dimensional colored tensor models can be obtained by putting specific matters on both tetrahedra and tria...

  5. Transfer of mechanical energy during the shot put

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażkiewicz Michalina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter. Statistically significant transfer was found in the study group between the following segments: Right Knee – Right Hip (p = 0.0035, Left Hip - Torso (p = 0.0201, Torso – Right Shoulder (p = 0.0122 and Right Elbow – Right Wrist (p = 0.0001. Furthermore, the results of cluster analysis showed that the kinetic chain used during the final shot acceleration movement had two different models. Differences between the groups were revealed mainly in the energy generated by the hips and trunk.

  6. Negotiating hearing disability and hearing disabled identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2012-01-01

    . The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...

  7. GLOBALISATION AND THE UNPREDICTABILITY OF CRISIS EPISODES: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF COUNTRY RISK INDEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Martín-Albizuri, Nerea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing globalisation process has not put an end to international financial crises. On the contrary, it seems to have contributed to their appearance and to accentuating their degrees of unpredictability. In this context, the main objective of the present study is to establish whether the values of the best-known and most widely used country risk indexes, namely, the Euromoney index and the International Country Risk Group (ICRG, and the values of their representative variables could have forecasted well in advance the crises that took place between 1994 and 2002, a period which is herein termed the ‘globalisation era’. The results show that, although the selected indexes and their representative variables were able to identify certain vulnerabilities, they could not accurately identify the political, economic, and/or financial factors that developed prior to these crisis episodes.

  8. Internet accessibility and disability policy: lessons for digital inclusion and equality from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Goggin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the fifth decade of the internet, accessibility for all, especially those with disabilities, is central to digital inclusion. Yet internationally, the score card on internet and accessibility remains mixed, at best; and woefully inadequate, at worst. Via an Australian case study, we argue that it is imperative to better understand how internet technology interacts with the life worlds and dynamics of disability, and we suggest how policy can be articulated and improved to put people with disabilities on an equal basis to others in digital societies.

  9. Infertility: Inability or Disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Khetarpal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability.

  10. What's new@CERN, episode 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video productions

    2011-01-01

    On Monday 7 November at 4pm in English and 4.20pm in French, watch "What's new@CERN" on webcast.cern.ch. In this second episode: LHC performance, a journey to the particle source and this past month's news.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-posterframe-640x360-at-30-percent.jpg', '1394250', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4');

  11. Time and Space in Manic Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa Figueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporality and Spatiality have been extensively addressed in philosophy, and their disturbances have been extensivelystudied in psychopathology (e.g. Wyllie 2005. Mental health patients: (1 describe pathological experiences of Timeand Space (Gallagher and Varela 2003; (2 show disturbed timing (Tysk 1984; (3 experience psychopathologicalphenomena that could be the cause of changes in temporality and spatiality. These topics will be discussed in the case ofmood disorders, in particular euphoric and dysphoric mania episodes. Any phenomenological study in mood disordersis delicate as affective disorders are in themselves phenomenologically diverse, because they have obscure meaning,multitude of criteria and inconsistent reference norms. Also, psychoanalytical, colloquial and cognitive psychologieskeep instilling comprehensive and epistemological structures onto both mood and time/space notions. Nevertheless,bridging philosophical phenomenology and epistemology on time and temporality with mood psychopathology andtaxonomy constitutes an on-going project. Theories by Heidegger, Husserl and Merleau-Ponty as well as by Minkowsky,Binswanger, Fuchs, Parnas, and Sass could help to describe this relation deepened into many other Twentieth-Centuryphilosophical papers. A similar account of space and spatiality will be brought about. We will reason about the conceptthat they provide evidence to address current conceptualization of “bipolar” disorder and the hierarchical grouping ofdysphoric and euphoria mania.

  12. Trigeminal neuralgia: unilateral episodic facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2015-06-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare cause of episodic unilateral facial pain and often in the initial presentation dental causes need to be eliminated, as it frequently presents in the lower trigeminal divisions. The pain description is characteristic of electric shock-like pain that is light-touch provoked, paroxysmal, and occurring daily; the condition can go into remission for weeks or months, however. The first-line drug is either carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine and has to be started in low doses. Over 70% of patients will initially obtain immediate relief. If efficacy or tolerability becomes a problem, then referral to a secondary care specialist should be made. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can determine if there is a symptomatic cause and whether surgery is indicated. Surgical options provide longest pain relief periods. Patients need to be given information about all treatment options so they can make a decision about treatment. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, © Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the Web site: www.paineurope.com , at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources.

  13. Rethinking disability: the social model of disability and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Disability is commonly viewed as a problem that exists in a person's body and requires medical treatment. The social model of disability, by contrast, distinguishes between impairment and disability, identifying the latter as a disadvantage that stems from a lack of fit between a body and its social environment. This paper describes the social model of disability and then considers how it might deal with chronic disease or impairment and why medical professionals should learn about disability perspectives to improve their practice.

  14. Rethinking disability: the social model of disability and chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Goering, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Disability is commonly viewed as a problem that exists in a person’s body and requires medical treatment. The social model of disability, by contrast, distinguishes between impairment and disability, identifying the latter as a disadvantage that stems from a lack of fit between a body and its social environment. This paper describes the social model of disability and then considers how it might deal with chronic disease or impairment and why medical professionals should learn about disability...

  15. Dickens and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainapel, S F

    1996-12-01

    The novels of Charles Dickens include many vivid portraits of individuals with physical disabilities or deformities, and these conditions are often used symbolically to highlight some of the author's recurring themes. Disabled children are depicted as innocent victims, while their older counterparts are most often viewed as corrupt victimizers whose physical deformities are outward manifestations of their inner depravity. Punishment for moral failings in non-disabled characters frequently takes the form of paralysis and/or aphasia resulting from a cerebrovascular accident. In this context the wheelchair becomes a potent metaphor of imprisonment as a form of retributive justice.

  16. Paralympic Athletes and "Knowing Disability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    This article explores non-disabled young people's understandings of Paralympic athletes and the disability sports they play. The article examines how society has come to know disability by discussing medical and social model views of disability. The conceptual tools offered by Pierre Bourdieu are utilised as a means of understanding the nature and…

  17. Paralympic Athletes and "Knowing Disability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    This article explores non-disabled young people's understandings of Paralympic athletes and the disability sports they play. The article examines how society has come to know disability by discussing medical and social model views of disability. The conceptual tools offered by Pierre Bourdieu are utilised as a means of understanding the nature and…

  18. The Excessive Appearance of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalko, Rod

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages the appearance of disability in contemporary Western culture. Rather than taking disability for granted as a biomedical condition, I interrogate how disability is made to appear in our culture, including its appearance as a biomedical condition. Fundamentally, disability appears to us as a trouble and, as such, cultural…

  19. Disability Studies. NRC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Perri

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, what people now refer to as "disability studies" has been a powerful influence on policy and practice in regards to people with disabilities. Disability studies has evolved as a means of addressing how people with disabilities have been treated historically and how they continue to be treated. The field of disability…

  20. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Riggins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n = 40. Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4 regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability.

  1. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these air... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is...

  2. Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

  3. Using Story Grammar To Teach Literature: Episodic Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Ronald; Dickey, JoAnna Paterno

    To help students achieve a better understanding of narrative prose, yet still keep the benefits of semantic mapping, the traditional form of the semantic map is modified by incorporating the elements of story structure as part of the map. This format is called episodic mapping. Episodic mapping is based on the idea that most well-developed stories…

  4. Episodic Mapping: A Technique To Help Students Understand Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Ronald; Henson, Kenneth

    Semantic mapping is effective with expository prose but not as effective with narrative prose. To achieve a better understanding of narrative prose, yet still keep the benefits of semantic mapping, the traditional approach can be modified into a technique called "episodic mapping." Episodic mapping is based on the idea that most stories…

  5. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, MPM; Liddle, PF; Burgerhof, JGM; Knegtering, R; Bosch, RJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders. Method: We assessed NSS in a sample of 60 healthy controls, 191 first episode psychosis patients and 81 mood disorder patients. We used a principle component analy

  6. Key features of human episodic recollection in the cross-episode retrieval of rat hippocampus representations of space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Kelemen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological studies focus on memory retrieval as a reproduction of what was experienced and have established that neural discharge is replayed to express memory. However, cognitive psychology has established that recollection is not a verbatim replay of stored information. Recollection is constructive, the product of memory retrieval cues, the information stored in memory, and the subject's state of mind. We discovered key features of constructive recollection embedded in the rat CA1 ensemble discharge during an active avoidance task. Rats learned two task variants, one with the arena stable, the other with it rotating; each variant defined a distinct behavioral episode. During the rotating episode, the ensemble discharge of CA1 principal neurons was dynamically organized to concurrently represent space in two distinct codes. The code for spatial reference frame switched rapidly between representing the rat's current location in either the stationary spatial frame of the room or the rotating frame of the arena. The code for task variant switched less frequently between a representation of the current rotating episode and the stable episode from the rat's past. The characteristics and interplay of these two hippocampal codes revealed three key properties of constructive recollection. (1 Although the ensemble representations of the stable and rotating episodes were distinct, ensemble discharge during rotation occasionally resembled the stable condition, demonstrating cross-episode retrieval of the representation of the remote, stable episode. (2 This cross-episode retrieval at the level of the code for task variant was more likely when the rotating arena was about to match its orientation in the stable episode. (3 The likelihood of cross-episode retrieval was influenced by preretrieval information that was signaled at the level of the code for spatial reference frame. Thus key features of episodic recollection manifest in rat hippocampal

  7. EEG Suppression Associated with Apneic Episodes in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evonne Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the EEG findings from an ex-preterm neonate at term equivalent age who presented with intermittent but prolonged apneic episodes which were presumed to be seizures. A total of 8 apneic episodes were captured (duration 23–376 seconds during EEG monitoring. The baseline EEG activity was appropriate for corrected gestational age and no electrographic seizure activity was recorded. The average baseline heart rate was 168 beats per minute (bpm and the baseline oxygen saturation level was in the mid-nineties. Periods of complete EEG suppression lasting 68 and 179 seconds, respectively, were recorded during 2 of these 8 apneic episodes. Both episodes were accompanied by bradycardia less than 70 bpm and oxygen saturation levels of less than 20%. Short but severe episodes of apnea can cause complete EEG suppression in the neonate.

  8. Episodic Memory and Beyond: The Hippocampus and Neocortex in Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, Morris; Cabeza, Roberto; Winocur, Gordon; Nadel, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen dramatic technological and conceptual changes in research on episodic memory and the brain. New technologies, and increased use of more naturalistic observations, have enabled investigators to delve deeply into the structures that mediate episodic memory, particularly the hippocampus, and to track functional and structural interactions among brain regions that support it. Conceptually, episodic memory is increasingly being viewed as subject to lifelong transformations that are reflected in the neural substrates that mediate it. In keeping with this dynamic perspective, research on episodic memory (and the hippocampus) has infiltrated domains, from perception to language and from empathy to problem solving, that were once considered outside its boundaries. Using the component process model as a framework, and focusing on the hippocampus, its subfields, and specialization along its longitudinal axis, along with its interaction with other brain regions, we consider these new developments and their implications for the organization of episodic memory and its contribution to functions in other domains.

  9. Intermittent inhaled corticosteroids in infants with episodic wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Loland, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    secondary outcomes were the time to discontinuation due to persistent wheezing and safety, as evaluated by height and bone mineral density at the end of the study. RESULTS: We enrolled 411 infants and randomly assigned 294 to receive budesonide at a first episode of wheezing. The proportion of symptom...... not affected by treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent inhaled corticosteroid therapy had no effect on the progression from episodic to persistent wheezing and no short-term benefit during episodes of wheezing in the first three years of life. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00234390.).......BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that asthma is preceded by a stage of recurrent episodes of wheezing during the first years of life and that inhaled corticosteroid therapy during symptomatic episodes in this early phase may delay progression to persistent wheezing. METHODS: We assigned one...

  10. Ageing and recurrent episodes of neuroinflammation promote progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Biozzi ABH mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peferoen, Laura A N; Breur, Marjolein; van de Berg, Sarah; Peferoen-Baert, Regina; Boddeke, Erik H W G M; van der Valk, Paul; Pryce, Gareth; van Noort, Johannes M; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce the frequency of relapses by modulating adaptive immune responses but fail to limit the irreversible neurodegeneration driving progressive disability. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Biozzi ABH mice recapitulates clinical features of MS including relapsing-remitting episodes and secondary-progressive disability. To address the contribution of recurrent inflammatory events and ageing as factors that amplify progressive neurological disease, we examined EAE in 8- to 12-week-old and 12-month-old ABH mice. Compared with the relapsing-remitting (RREAE) and secondary progressive (SPEAE) EAE observed in young mice, old mice developed progressive disease from onset (PEAE) associated with pronounced axonal damage and increased numbers of CD3(+) T cells and microglia/macrophages, but not B cells. Whereas the clinical neurological features of PEAE and SPEAE were comparable, the pathology was distinct. SPEAE was associated with significantly reduced perivascular infiltrates and T-cell numbers in the central nervous system (CNS) compared with PEAE and the acute phase of RREAE. In contrast to perivascular infiltrates that declined during progression from RREAE into SPEAE, the numbers of microglia clusters remained constant. Similar to what is observed during MS, the microglia clusters emerging during EAE were associated with axonal damage and oligodendrocytes expressing heat-shock protein B5, but not lymphocytes. Taken together, our data reveal that the course of EAE is dependent on the age of the mice. Younger mice show a relapsing-remitting phase followed by progressive disease, whereas old mice immediately show progression. This indicates that recurrent episodes of inflammation in the CNS, as well as age, contribute to progressive neurological disease.

  11. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  12. Putting the child at the center of inter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Ida

    2016-01-01

    coordinate their children's everyday lives, but in the case of children in out-of-home care, the responsibility of care is distributed between several professionals and institutions. Research often recommends that inter-professional cooperation should put the child at the centre and be more child focused....... But what does that mean? The paper investigates theoretical understandings of ‘child centredness’ in inter-professional cooperation. It also includes an empirical example taken from a research project that followed four children in their everyday lives in two residential homes in Denmark. The research...... explored how professionals work together across contexts in order to support children to take part in school and leisure-time activities. The overall reasoning leads to the point that for children in out-of-home care, the possibility of exercising personal agency in their everyday life constitutes...

  13. Climate-smart conservation: putting adaption principles into practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bruce A.; Glick, Patty; Edelson, Naomi; Staudt, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Climate change already is having significant impacts on the nation’s species and ecosystems, and these effects are projected to increase considerably over time. As a result, climate change is now a primary lens through which conservation and natural resource management must be viewed. How should we prepare for and respond to the impacts of climate change on wildlife and their habitats? What should we be doing differently in light of these climatic shifts, and what actions continue to make sense? Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice offers guidance for designing and carrying out conservation in the face of a rapidly changing climate. Addressing the growing threats brought about or accentuated by rapid climate change requires a fundamental shift in the practice of natural resource management and conservation. Traditionally, conservationists have focused their efforts on protecting and managing systems to maintain their current state, or to restore degraded systems back to a historical state regarded as more desirable. Conservation planners and practitioners will need to adopt forward-looking goals and implement strategies specifically designed to prepare for and adjust to current and future climatic changes, and the associated impacts on natural systems and human communities—an emerging discipline known as climate change adaptation. The field of climate change adaptation is still in its infancy. Although there is increasing attention focused on the subject, much of the guidance developed to date has been general in nature, concentrating on high-level principles rather than specific actions. It is against this backdrop that this guide was prepared as a means for helping put adaptation principles into practice, and for moving adaptation from planning to action.

  14. Disabilities and Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about learning more about kids who have disabilities.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  15. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sets MADDS Case Definitions Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia & ... Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions due to an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavior areas. These conditions begin during ...

  16. Resettlement for disabled refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansha Mirza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades there have been some positive (albeit inconsistent changes in US refugee admissions policy as well as in UNHCR’s guidelines for resettlement, especially relating to refugees with disabilities.

  17. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  18. Who occupies disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Pollard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Locating occupational therapy within gendered and racialized systems of power, the authors consider the intersectional nature of critical disability studies discourse and the need for occupational therapy to incorporate such values into practice. This article discusses ways in which occupational therapy as a profession and individual therapists can align with or resist the economic determination which has come to dominate medical systems. It considers some of the political background to the history of the profession and its relationship with power. This positioning of the profession is explored against the impact of neoliberal economic policy on health, rights, service delivery and disability, and against some key issues, the pressure of ageing populations and the positon of occupational therapists as women professionals. Current policies present a critical challenge to central occupational therapy tenets. Occupational therapists may find themselves working both in alliance with disabled people and disability activists, and against them.

  19. Preventing Antisocial Behavior in Disabled and At-Risk Students. Policy Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Soleil

    This paper reviews the research on factors that contribute to or protect from the development of antisocial behavior in children, especially those with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). It also presents a model to promote prosocial behavior. General risk factors that put all children at risk for…

  20. Preventing unemployment and disability benefit receipt among people with mental illness: Evidence review and policy significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie; Kleinman, Rebecca; Fischer, Benjamin; Morris, Eric; Blyler, Crystal

    2017-06-01

    We identify effective services to assist 3 groups of people with mental illnesses become or remain employed and prevent dependence on disability cash benefits: (a) individuals, including youth, who are experiencing an initial episode of psychosis; (b) employed individuals at risk of losing jobs due to mental illness; and (c) individuals who are or may become long-term clients of mental health services and are likely to apply for disability benefits. We searched for articles published between 1992 and 2015 using key word terminology related to employment support services and each subgroup, and prioritized articles by study design. The individual placement and support model of supported employment is more effective than traditional vocational programs in helping people with serious mental illnesses who are engaged in treatment or receiving disability benefits obtain competitive employment. Some early intervention programs effectively serve people who experience a first episode of mental illness, but more research is needed to demonstrate long-term outcomes. Less is known about the effectiveness of employment interventions in preventing unemployment and use of disability benefits among individuals at risk for job loss or long-term mental illness. States can fund employment supports to help prevent the need for disability benefit receipt by creatively combining federal sources, but the funding picture is imperfect. Medicaid expansion and other provisions of the Affordable Care Act may fund employment supports and assist in reducing dependence on disability benefits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Narrative competence in caring encounters with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gjermestad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities form a vulnerable group within the Norwegian health and social care system, whose needs can be poorly understood due to their cognitive and communicative challenges. Aim: This article aims to contribute to a richer understanding of persons with profound disabilities as narrative agents, and to highlight how the narrative competence of healthcare staff can be instrumental to a person-centred approach. Method: The methodology used was a practice development project in residential housing for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Dialogue seminars and reflection seminars with staff were conducted, and a group interview was carried out. Results: Episodes of emotional, embodied and silent narratives were identified. These episodes illustrated the staff’s narrative competence in bodily enacted caring encounters. Conclusion: This small-scale practice development project can contribute to changes and new ways forward towards person-centred care for adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in residential housing. Implications for practice: Staff narrative competence is crucial to facilitating person-centred care for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities This narrative competence can be developed through providing arenas for discussion and reflection among staff Sharing various interpretations of the non-verbal and bodily expressions of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities can contribute to a richer understanding of these individuals, and promote and strengthen their fundamental human rights

  2. Prostitution, disability and prohibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-01-01

    Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing...... sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three...

  3. Disability at Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Evlice; Turgay Demir; Kezban Aslan; Hacer Bozdemir; Meltem Demirkiran; ilker Unal; sebnem Bicakci

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: It is aimed to identify cases who had disability rates because of Neurological diseases and applied to Health Committee in Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Department of Neurology. Material and Methods: Cases who applied to Health Committee in Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Department of Neurology between January 2013 - December 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. It was investigated their diagnosis, age, gender, disability rate and relationships with each othe...

  4. Pycnogenol treatment of acute hemorrhoidal episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Errichi, Bruno; Di Renzo, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Ricci, Andrea; Dugall, Mark; Cornelli, Umberto; Cacchio, Marisa; Rohdewald, Peter

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the efficacy of orally and topically applied Pycnogenol for the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks in a controlled, randomized study with 84 subjects. Within less than 48 h of onset of an acute attack, patients were enrolled and signs and symptoms were scored. This evaluation was repeated after seven days' treatment and again seven days following treatment cessation. The decrease in scores was significantly more pronounced in the Pycnogenol-treated groups than in the control group given placebo (p Pycnogenol for relieving signs and symptoms of acute external hemorrhoids. In a group of patients given topical (0.5%) Pycnogenol in addition to oral Pycnogenol the improvement in symptoms set in significantly faster and was more pronounced. The most prominent symptom, hemorrhoidal bleeding, was completely absent in all patients treated with Pycnogenol for seven days and also at the 14 days follow-up. In contrast, bleedings were still observed in the control group during the two weeks follow-up. This study indicates that Pycnogenol, both in oral and in topical form, is effective for controlling this common, disabling health problem. The application of Pycnogenol eases the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks and help avoid bleedings.

  5. Acute rejection episodes after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamida Fethi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute rejection episodes (AREs are a major determinant of renal allograft survival. The incorporation of new immunosuppressive agents explains, at least partially, the improvement seen in the results of transplantation in recent years. The objectives of this study are to analyze the incidence and severity of AREs, their risk factors and their influence on graft and patient survival. We retrospectively studied 280 kidney transplants performed in adults at the Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, between 1986 and 2004. The diagnosis of ARE was based on clinical data and response to treatment. Allograft biopsies were performed in ten cases. The treatment of AREs consisted of pulse methylprednisolone and anti-thymocyte globulin. There were 186 males (66.4% and 94 females (33.6%, and their mean age was 31 ± 8.9 years. Overall, the 280 study patients experienced a total of 113 AREs. Of them, 85 had only one ARE, 28 had two to three and none had more than three AREs. A total of 68 AREs were completely re-versible, 42 were partially reversible while three could not be reversed with treatment. The mean inci-dence of AREs was 40.4%. The incidence was > 45% between 1986 and 1997, decreased to 20.5% between 1998 and 2000 and to 9% between 2001 and 2004. Graft survival rates in patients with and without AREs were respectively 91% and 93% at three years, 82% and 90% at five years and 73% and 83% at 10 years. We found a decrease in the incidence of AREs in recent years in our study patients, and this was related to the introduction of sensitized cross-match and the newer immunosuppressive agents, particularly MMF. Additionally, AREs had a deleterious impact on late graft survival in our study population.

  6. Next-generation sequencing identifies novel CACNA1A gene mutations in episodic ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksemous, Neven; Roy, Bishakha; Smith, Robert A; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2016-03-01

    Episodic Ataxia type 2 (EA2) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited neurological disorder characterized by recurrent disabling imbalance, vertigo, and episodes of ataxia lasting minutes to hours. EA2 is caused most often by loss of function mutations of the calcium channel gene CACNA1A. In addition to EA2, mutations in CACNA1A are responsible for two other allelic disorders: familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Herein, we have utilized next-generation sequencing (NGS) to screen the coding sequence, exon-intron boundaries, and Untranslated Regions (UTRs) of five genes where mutation is known to produce symptoms related to EA2, including CACNA1A. We performed this screening in a group of 31 unrelated patients with EA2 symptoms. Both novel and known mutations were detected through NGS technology, and confirmed through Sanger sequencing. Genetic testing showed in total 15 mutation bearing patients (48%), of which nine were novel mutations (6 missense and 3 small frameshift deletion mutations) and six known mutations (4 missense and 2 nonsense).These results demonstrate the efficiency of our NGS-panel for detecting known and novel mutations for EA2 in the CACNA1A gene, also identifying a novel missense mutation in ATP1A2 which is not a normal target for EA2 screening.

  7. Whole-exome sequencing as a diagnostic tool in a family with episodic ataxia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacik, Pawel; Guthrie, Kimberly J; Strongosky, Audrey J; Broderick, Daniel F; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Tang, Sha; El-Khechen, Dima; Parker, Alexander S; Ross, Owen A; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2015-03-01

    Complex neurologic phenotypes are inherently difficult to diagnose. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a new tool in the neurologist's diagnostic armamentarium. Whole-exome sequencing can be applied to investigate the "diagnostic odyssey" cases. These cases involve patients with rare diseases that likely have a genetic etiology but have failed to be diagnosed by clinical evaluation and targeted gene testing. We describe such a case, a 22-year-old man who had mild intellectual developmental disability and episodes of jerking ataxic movements that affected his whole body. He underwent numerous multidisciplinary and multicentric evaluations throughout his life that failed to establish a clear diagnosis. Following his visit to Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, WES was applied for genetic determination of the unknown disorder in the proband and his biological parents and sister. Additional clinical evaluation, magnetic resonance neuroimaging, electromyography, and electroencephalography of the proband were performed to verify the phenotype after the WES results were available. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of WES to facilitate the diagnosis of episodic ataxia type 1. This case illustrates that WES supported by clinical data is a useful and time-saving tool in the evaluation of patients with rare and complex hereditary disorders. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sports and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H

    2010-03-01

    Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care.

  9. Depressive episodes with suicide attempts in severe depression: suicides and controls differ only in the later episodes of unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of suicide attempts across the depressive episodes in suicides and controls with a severe depression. A blind record evaluation was performed of 100 suicide victims and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2006. There was a similar number of episodes in suicides and controls and in the early episodes a similar number of suicide attempts in both groups. However, in the later episodes future suicides showed more suicide attempts as compared to controls. This was found for unipolar depression only. This difference was found despite previously shown similar rates of adequate treatment and improvement. In conclusion, more depressive episodes including suicide attempts appeared to be related to suicide.

  10. The Intersections of the CEDAW and CRPD: Putting Women's Rights and Disability Rights into Action in Four Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Rangita de Silva

    2010-01-01

    This report examines a new model built on advancing an intersectional human rights platform of action. The four country project in the Asian region provided a powerful locus for an innovative human rights praxis which integrated a dialectical interaction between different social movements, analytical insights and concrete political strategies and…

  11. Examining Factors Associated with Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholly, Kristen; Katz, Alan R; Kehl, Lisa

    2014-04-26

    Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students' heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one's social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students' perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.

  12. Elements of episodic-like memory in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2009-03-01

    Representations of unique events from one's past constitute the content of episodic memories. A number of studies with non-human animals have revealed that animals remember specific episodes from their past (referred to as episodic-like memory). The development of animal models of memory holds enormous potential for gaining insight into the biological bases of human memory. Specifically, given the extensive knowledge of the rodent brain, the development of rodent models of episodic memory would open new opportunities to explore the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and molecular mechanisms of memory. Development of such animal models holds enormous potential for studying functional changes in episodic memory in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, amnesia, and other human memory pathologies. This article reviews several approaches that have been used to assess episodic-like memory in animals. The approaches reviewed include the discrimination of what, where, and when in a radial arm maze, dissociation of recollection and familiarity, object recognition, binding, unexpected questions, and anticipation of a reproductive state. The diversity of approaches may promote the development of converging lines of evidence on the difficult problem of assessing episodic-like memory in animals.

  13. Examining factors associated with heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Scholly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students’ heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one’s social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students’ perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.

  14. [A blind bicycle repair man at the Stedelijk Museum: the exhibition and congress 'labour for the disabled' of 1928].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, H J E; Schmidt, S H

    2002-01-01

    In the 1920's concern about the rising number of disabled unemployed urban poor led to the founding of the AVO (Dutch organization for labour care for the disabled) in 1927. The AVO presented the problem of the vulnerability of the physically and mentally disabled in the labour market as a matter of collective responsibility. At the Amsterdam AVO congress of 1928 expert contributors discussed the economic, social and medical aspects of disability and work. Simultaneously, a museum exhibition aimed at arousing the interest of the general public and at promoting a more understanding attitude towards the disabled. Though the twofold AVO manifestation raised an immediate favourable general response and the subject was put on the political agenda, the subsequent economic recession and war forestalled concrete measures. Essentially it was the first public debate on disability in the Netherlands.

  15. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism.

  16. Microbiology of Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients with Multiple Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessim, Sharon J.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Bargman, Joanne M.; Jassal, Sarbjit V.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)–associated peritonitis clusters within patients. Patient factors contribute to peritonitis risk, but there is also entrapment of organisms within the biofilm that forms on PD catheters. It is hypothesized that this biofilm may prevent complete eradication of organisms, predisposing to multiple infections with the same organism. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in the Canadian multicenter Baxter POET (Peritonitis, Organism, Exit sites, Tunnel infections) database from 1996 to 2005, we studied incident PD patients with 2 or more peritonitis episodes. We determined the proportion of patients with 2 or more episodes caused by the same organism. In addition, using a multivariate logistic regression model, we tested whether prior peritonitis with a given organism predicted the occurrence of a subsequent episode with the same organism. ♦ Results: During their time on PD, 558 patients experienced 2 or more peritonitis episodes. Of those 558 patients, 181 (32%) had at least 2 episodes with the same organism. The organism most commonly causing repeat infection was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), accounting for 65.7% of cases. Compared with peritonitis caused by other organisms, a first CNS peritonitis episode was associated with an increased risk of subsequent CNS peritonitis within 1 year (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.8; p peritonitis, 48% of repeat episodes occurred within 6 months of the earlier episode. ♦ Conclusions: In contrast to previous data, we did not find a high proportion of patients with multiple peritonitis episodes caused by the same organism. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the organism most likely to cause peritonitis more than once in a given patient, and a prior CNS peritonitis was associated with an increased risk of CNS peritonitis within the subsequent year. PMID:22215659

  17. Emotion episodes of Afrikaans-speaking employees in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara S. Jonker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Emotions must be investigated within the natural contexts in which they occur. It therefore becomes crucial to study episodes in the workplace.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative emotion episodes and frequencies of working Afrikaans-speaking adults.Motivation for the study: To date, no study has been conducted to determine emotion episodes amongst White Afrikaans-speaking working adults in South Africa. Gooty, Connelly, Griffith and Gupta also argue for research on emotions in the natural settings in which they occur – the workplace.Research design, approach and method: A survey design with an availability sample was used. The participants (N = 179 consisted of White Afrikaans-speaking working adults. The Episode Grid was administered to capture the emotion episodes.Main findings: The main emotion episodes reported on with positive content included goal achievement, receiving recognition and personal incidents. Emotion episodes with negative content included categories such as behaviour of work colleagues, acts of boss/superior/management and task requirements.Practical and/or managerial implications: The findings are useful for managers who want to enhance the emotional quality of the work-life of employees. Changes could be made, for example, to practices of giving recognition within work environments and the clarification of task requirements. The knowledge on emotion episodes could be very useful in planning interventions.Contribution and/or value-adding: The findings and results of this study provided insight into emotion episodes as events in the workplace can cause positive and negative workplace experiences. This information should be taken into consideration with regard to wellness and emotion measurement efforts.

  18. Genetics of human episodic memory: dealing with complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2011-09-01

    Episodic memory is a polygenic behavioral trait with substantial heritability estimates. Despite its complexity, recent empirical evidence supports the notion that behavioral genetic studies of episodic memory might successfully identify trait-associated molecules and pathways. The development of high-throughput genotyping methods, of elaborated statistical analyses and of phenotypic assessment methods at the neural systems level will facilitate the reliable identification of novel memory-related genes. Importantly, a necessary crosstalk between behavioral genetic studies and investigation of causality by molecular genetic studies will ultimately pave the way towards the identification of biologically important, and hopefully druggable, genes and molecular pathways related to human episodic memory.

  19. Imaging episodic memory: implications for cognitive theories and phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, L

    1999-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies are beginning to identify neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive functions. This paper presents results relevant to several theories and phenomena of episodic memory, including component processes of episodic retrieval, encoding specificity, inhibition, item versus source memory, encoding-retrieval overlap, and the picture-superiority effect. Overall, by revealing specific activation patterns, the results provide support for existing theoretical views and they add some unique information which may be important to consider in future attempts to develop cognitive theories of episodic memory.

  20. Cannabis potentially reduces recurrent episodes of hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumpattra Chariyawong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare disease affecting an estimated 1 in 50,000 individuals in the United States.The clinical presentation involves recurrent episodes of angioedema, without urticaria or pruritus, in mucosal tissues of various organ systems. We present a case of HAE type II with concomitant use of cannabis that possibly decreased the frequency of his episodes of angioedema. Recent studies indicate that cannabis has an important role in regulating innate immunity and inflammatory responses through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. These effects might reduce episodes of angioedema, but more research is needed.

  1. Muscles and their role in episodic tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Ashina, S; Moore, K A

    2016-01-01

    recommendations for the treatment of episodic TTH based on these. RESULTS: Peripheral activation or sensitization of myofascial nociceptors is most probably involved in the development of muscle pain and the acute episode of TTH. Repetitive episodes of muscle pain may sensitize the central nervous system....... Ibuprofen 400 mg and aspirin 1000 mg are recommended as drugs of first choice based on treatment effect, safety profile and costs. Non-pharmacological therapies include electromyographic biofeedback, physiotherapy and muscle relaxation therapy. Future studies should aim to identify the triggers...

  2. Familial Hemiplegic Migraine and Recurrent Episodes of Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBianca, Sonja; Jensen, Rigmor; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare autosomal dominant form of migraine with motor aura. We present a case report of a father and son with very similar attacks of hemiplegic migraine and recurrent episodes of accompanying psychoses. Previously, such episodes led to hospitalization...... and extended clinical examinations, which further worsened the psychoses. Since the episodes were recognized as related to the hemiplegic migraine, a treatment strategy combining sleep and sedation was initiated and progression onto psychosis was almost completely avoided in both father and son. Genetic...

  3. Episodic ataxia : a case report and review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhvi J

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the clinical features of a 29 year female presenting with a 3 years history of episodes of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and nystagmus lasting 3-5 days, recurring almost every month. Sleep disturbance and buzzing in ears were noted 3-4 days before each episode. No other precipitant factor was present. Family history was negative. She was diagnosed as a case of episodic ataxia type-2 and was successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. She was asymptomatic at 2 year followup.

  4. Inferring Neuronal Network Connectivity using Time-constrained Episodes

    CERN Document Server

    Patnaik, Debprakash; Unnikrishnan, K P

    2007-01-01

    Discovering frequent episodes in event sequences is an interesting data mining task. In this paper, we argue that this framework is very effective for analyzing multi-neuronal spike train data. Analyzing spike train data is an important problem in neuroscience though there are no data mining approaches reported for this. Motivated by this application, we introduce different temporal constraints on the occurrences of episodes. We present algorithms for discovering frequent episodes under temporal constraints. Through simulations, we show that our method is very effective for analyzing spike train data for unearthing underlying connectivity patterns.

  5. 19 CFR 10.605 - Goods classifiable as goods put up in sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods classifiable as goods put up in sets. 10.605... put up in sets. Notwithstanding the specific rules set forth in General Note 29(n), HTSUS, goods classifiable as goods put up in sets for retail sale as provided for in General Rule of Interpretation 3,...

  6. The Effects of Multisensory Imagery in Conjunction with Physical Movement Rehearsal on Golf Putting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploszay, A. J.; Gentner, Noah B.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wrisberg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    A multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of a pre-shot putting routine on the putting performance of four NCAA Division I golfers. The routine involved a combination of multisensory imagery and simulated putting movements. Results suggested that the intervention was effective for some participants. Discussion focuses on…

  7. The Effects of Multisensory Imagery in Conjunction with Physical Movement Rehearsal on Golf Putting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploszay, A. J.; Gentner, Noah B.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wrisberg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    A multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of a pre-shot putting routine on the putting performance of four NCAA Division I golfers. The routine involved a combination of multisensory imagery and simulated putting movements. Results suggested that the intervention was effective for some participants. Discussion focuses on…

  8. High prevalence of somatic symptoms and depression in women with disabling chronic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, G E; Brandes, J L; Digre, K B; Baggaley, S; Martin, V; Recober, A; Geweke, L O; Hafeez, F; Aurora, S K; Herial, N A; Utley, C; Khuder, S A

    2007-01-09

    To better define, in women with headache, the relationship of depression and somatic symptoms to headache, characterized by diagnoses, frequency, and disability. At six headache specialty clinics, women with headache were classified using ICHD-II criteria, and frequency was recorded. A questionnaire addressing demographics, age at onset of headache, headache-related disability, somatic symptom, and depression severity was completed. Logistic regression was performed to measure the associations of headache frequency and headache-related disability with somatic symptom and depression severity. A total of 1,032 women with headache completed the survey, 593 with episodic (96% with migraine) and 439 with chronic headache (87% with migraine). Low education and household income was more common in chronic headache sufferers and in persons with severe headache disability. Somatic symptom prevalence and severity was greater in persons with chronic headache and with severe headache-related disability. Significant correlation was observed between PHQ-9 and PHQ-15 scores (r = 0.62). Chronic headache, severe disability, and high somatic symptom severity were associated with major depressive disorder (OR = 25.1, 95% CI: 10.9 to 57.9), and this relationship was stronger in the subgroup with a diagnosis of migraine (OR = 31.8, 95% CI: 12.9 to 78.5). High somatic symptom severity is prevalent in women with chronic and severely disabling headaches. Synergistic relationship to major depression exists for high somatic symptom severity, chronic headache, and disabling headache, suggesting a psychobiological underpinning of these associations.

  9. [Impact of rural or urban areas on disability after a stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Barrio, M Ángeles; Herce-Martínez, M Begoña; Valiñas-Sieiro, Florita; Mariscal-Pérez, Natividad; López-Cunquero, M Ángeles; Cubo-Delgado, Esther

    2013-01-01

    To assess the residual disability in a sample of patients after suffering a first episode of a stroke and to compare the disability of those patients who live in rural areas with those living in urban areas. An observational, longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 patients from a Neurology Unit, affected by cerebrovascular accident. The following factors were assessed: sociodemographic and environmental factors, co-morbidity, functional status, disability, depression and anxiety, and quality of life. The different clinical and demographic variables were compared after admission to the unit, at hospital discharge, and 3 months afterwards. Regression analyses were also carried out in order to study the association between the clinical and sociodemographic factors, and post-stroke disability. Compared to their previous clinical state, after suffering a stroke patients showed a higher rate of co-morbidity (P<.0001), disability (P<.0001), depression (P=.002), and a poorer quality of life (P=.013). The difference between patients coming from rural and urban areas was not statistically significant in terms of disability, quality of life, anxiety, depression, or co-morbidity. The level of disability, depression and co-morbidity that patients showed after suffering a stroke was similar to the results obtained in other studies. As a novel feature, there were no differences between patients living in rural areas after suffering a stroke and those living in urban areas, as regards disability, depression, or co-morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 38134 - Final Priorities; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program-Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Final Priorities; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Disability...; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRP)--Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional Centers (formerly the...

  11. Explaining heterogeneity in disability associated with current major depressive disorder: effects of illness characteristics and comorbid mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, E; Verboom, C E; Penninx, B W J H; Nolen, W A; Ormel, J

    2010-12-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with disability, some persons do function well despite their illness. Aim of the present study was to examine the effect of illness characteristics and comorbid mental disorders on various aspects of disability among persons with a current MDD episode. Data were derived from 607 participants with a current MDD based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Severity was assessed via the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms self-report (IDS-SR). For disability three outcome measures were used: World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS) disability and its 7 dimensions, days out of role, and work absence. Using multiple regression analysis the effects of MDD characteristics and comorbid mental disorders were estimated. The IDS-SR score was the best predictor of all disability outcomes. Of the comorbid mental disorders, agoraphobia was significantly associated with overall disability. Collectively, all illness characteristics accounted for 43% of variance in WHODAS disability, 13% in days out of role and 10% in work absence, suggesting substantial unexplained variance. Only self-report measures of disability were used. There were no assessments of other diagnoses than depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders. Although heterogeneity in disability of persons with current MDD is partially explained by illness characteristics of MDD (especially symptom severity) and comorbid mental disorders, most of the variance is not accounted for. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Households facing constraints. Fuel poverty put into context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Ute [ISG Business School, Paris (France); Meier, Helena [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2014-02-15

    The present paper discusses the concept of fuel poverty taking into account the arbitrages made by households when they are facing economic constraints. Fuel poverty is still lacking a common definition throughout Europe: while the UK and France have (different) official definitions, there is still no definition in a country like Germany, or at the European level. Where definitions exist, they often consider that fuel poor households have high energy needs. The possibility of being fuel poor even without having high energy needs and the various arbitrage possibilities of households - i.e. to under-spend and use too little energy - are not systematically discussed. Our paper tries to fill that gap by putting fuel poverty into the larger context of constraints faced by households. Based on a graphical analysis, it shows that different situations of fuel poverty might occur. It results in the identification of two distinct fuel poverty problems: an ''energy inequality'' problem, reflected by the fact that some households pay disproportionately high energy bills, and an ''energy affordability'' problem that can affect a larger share of the population. It finally explores the two types of fuel poverty for European countries and discusses policy implications.

  13. Skilful Practice in the Zhuangzi: Putting the Narratives in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan VÁVRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zhuangzi, like many other early Chinese texts, is a composite work consisting of relatively short textual units. Despite its composite nature, the Zhuangzi is often approached as a philosophical work, which (at least in part or parts can be viewed as philosophically coherent. As a result, the Zhuangzi as a whole (or several wholes is usually taken (at least implicitly as the context in which all the textual units are read and understood. In contrast, this paper explores alternative ways to establish context for individual textual units in the Zhuangzi. The famous short narratives about skilful practice (often introducing the idea of perfect craftsmanship are taken as an example, and the possible contexts are examined along two lines of inquiry: 1 the narratives are read within their immediate context of the textual unit; 2 the vocabulary used in the narratives is checked against other textual units in the Zhuangzi where the vocabulary appears. The paper argues that diverse contexts can be established for seemingly similar narratives. The narratives about skilful practice are viewed as a literary device that can be used in various contexts for various purposes. The paper thus demonstrates that the received Zhuangzi can be read as a process of putting shared narratives and terms in contexts and using them for different ends. The paper concludes by suggesting that the proposed reading highlights and retains meanings that are necessarily obscured by any reading that establishes the whole Zhuangzi as the primary context.

  14. Putting Qumran, Jesus and his movement into relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available After referring briefly to the fantasies regarding the origins of Christianity as elicited by the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 (Dupont-Sommer, Allegro, Thiering, the purpose of the contribution is to put the Jesus movement into relief in the context of first-century Judaism. The identity of the Qumranites is argued to be Essene scribes. The identity, ideology and practices of the latter are compared with those of Jesus of Nazareth and the movement he elicited using the following rubrics: (1 Jesus, the teacher of righteousness and the powers that be; (2 asceticism versus itinerary charismaticism; (3 caring versus lack of caring for the sick, poor and marginalised; (4 elitist priests and scribes versus lower-class peasants; (5 the interpretation of the law; (6 religious and daily practices (baptism, ritual meal, sacrifice, prayer, community of possessions, scribal activity; (7 religious views or ideology (kingdom of God, the new covenant, light and darkness, politics. The result is a picture of Jesus (with his focus on human suffering in sharp relief versus Qumran and facets of the early church.

  15. Putting science at the heart of European policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    One year ago, the incoming European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker shocked the scientific world by scrapping the post of Chief Scientific Advisor. This week, the Commission made amends by launching a well-considered Scientific Advisory Mechanism (SAM) that not only puts science back at the heart of policy, but does so in a much more structured and robust way than conferring such responsibility on a single individual.     The SAM has two independent strands: an advisory group of seven scientists, and funding through the Horizon 2020 programme for national academies and learned societies to network and collaborate on policy issues. Both are backed up by a secretariat at Commission headquarters in Brussels. When Mr Juncker scrapped the role of Chief Scientific Advisor, it was against a backdrop of sometimes vitriolic attacks on the incumbent, Anne Glover, due to her outspoken views on GMOs. Mr Juncker’s move was seen by some as simply giving in to a powerful lob...

  16. Don’t put your family at risk

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    How easy is it to fall into the trap of cyber-criminals? Get one’s online banking password stolen? Lose photos to third parties? It's easier than you think. One single click to open a malicious attachment or a malicious web page is sufficient to put your family at risk.   Sometimes adversaries even call you in order to get their malicious job done. Once their malware is installed on your home computer, it records all your activity, monitors your online banking activities, steals your passwords, activates your computer’s microphone and camera, and sends all that data back to the adversary. This person can now do whatever they want: take money from your bank account, order books with your Amazon password, deface your Facebook profiles, send strange messages to your peers, or post the captured images of your daughter in front of the computer on dodgy web sites. Not only can you lose (lots of!) money, but having strange messages sent on your b...

  17. Case studies in control putting theory to work

    CERN Document Server

    Juričić, Đani

    2013-01-01

    Case Studies in Control presents a framework to facilitate the use of advanced control concepts in real systems based on two decades of research and over 150 successful applications for industrial end-users from various backgrounds. In successive parts the text approaches the problem of putting the theory to work from both ends, theoretical and practical. The first part begins with a stress on solid control theory and the shaping of that theory to solve particular instances of practical problems. It emphasizes the need to establish by experiment whether a model-derived solution will perform properly in reality. The second part focuses on real industrial applications based on the needs and requirements of end-users. Here, the engineering approach is dominant but with theoretical input of varying degree depending on the particular process involved. Following the illustrations of the progress that can be made from either extreme of the well-known theory–practice divide, the text proceeds to a third part relate...

  18. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  19. Rethinking disability: the social model of disability and chronic disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goering, Sara

    2015-01-01

    .... The social model of disability, by contrast, distinguishes between impairment and disability, identifying the latter as a disadvantage that stems from a lack of fit between a body and its social environment...

  20. Disability and the Services for the Disabled in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Cambaz Ulas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey there are approximately 8.5 million (% 12.3 disabled people. While the ratio of orthopedic, visual, auditory, speech, and talking disabilities and mental disability is 2.6%, the ratio of the people who have chronic diseases is 9.7% In our country, by the beginning of 1982 Constitution, there have been a lot of legal regulations. If the services for disabled persons considered as social security-related legislation for care, healthcare, education, employment and practices; the legal regulation on the year 2005 (The Disability Law no. 5378 has covered many blankness and also evolved the services to the disabled people. However, despite these recent legal regulation it is questionable that if the services for the disabled are adequate or not. In this review, the services, which offered to the disabled people, are evaluated as the topics mentioned above. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 483-488

  1. Integration of Religion and Spirituality With Social Work Practice in Disability Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masateru Higashida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the integration of religion and spirituality (RS into disability issues from the perspective of social work in Sri Lanka. Participant observation was applied in the model administrative division of the national community-based rehabilitation (CBR program in Anuradhapura from February 2013 to January 2015. Theravada Buddhists constitute more than 99% of the population in the area studied. The participation opportunities included group activities, home visits to disabled people, and informal interviews with stakeholders. This study used the author’s field notes, which were based on the participant observation. By applying qualitative analysis, episodes and narratives were summarized into two main categories: RS-related activities and secondary RS-related phenomena. We found that the possible functions of RS practices, by disabled people and the other stakeholders, were alternative education, promotion of participation, and a sense of unity. These findings suggest that integration can be the practice to reconstruct RS aspects in disability issues.

  2. Detecting individual sites subject to episodic diversifying selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Murrell

    Full Text Available The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated.

  3. Detecting Individual Sites Subject to Episodic Diversifying Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ben; Wertheim, Joel O.; Moola, Sasha; Weighill, Thomas; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2012-01-01

    The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME) that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated. PMID:22807683

  4. Differences between Depression Episodes of Bipolar Disorder I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Inanc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 Fieve and Dunner made the distinction between hypomania and mania as hypomania does not usually cause social and occupational impair-ment and hospitalization is not needed, moreover patients do not experience psychosis. Bipolar disorder type I is defined by the presence of manic and depressive episodes and differs from Bipolar disorder type II characterized with hipomanic and depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder type I and II do not differ in their depressive episodes. It is still point of contention whether bipolar type II is a variant of bipolar disorder type I or is positioned on the spectrum between bipolar type I and unipolar disorder. Even there are some similarities in characteristics of depressive episodes and outcome features of different bipolar disorder subtypes, there are differences that can be useful in differential diagnosis and treatment. This paper aims to focus on those differences between bipolar disorder type I and II.

  5. The development of episodic foresight: emerging concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Judith A; Mayhew, Estelle M Y; Prabhakar, Janani

    2011-01-01

    Episodic foresight is here defined as the ability to project oneself into the future and mentally simulate situations and outcomes. Tasks used to study the development of episodic foresight in young children are reviewed and compared to tasks used to study other future-oriented abilities (planning, delay of gratification, and prospective memory) in the same age-group. We argue for the importance of accounting for and minimizing the role of other cognitive demands in research tasks. Because episodic foresight is an emerging ability in young children, more research needs to be directed at the contexts in which it emerges and the extent to which episodic foresight is part of a growing ability for mental representation.

  6. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  7. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  8. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  9. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  10. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  11. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  12. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  13. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  14. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  15. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  16. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  17. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  18. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  19. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  20. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  1. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  2. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  3. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  4. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  5. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  6. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  7. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  8. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  9. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  10. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  11. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  12. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  13. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  14. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  15. Depression and quality of life in first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renwick, Laoise

    2012-07-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has gained recognition as a valid measure of outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study aimed to determine the influence of specific groups of depressive symptoms on separate domains of subjectively appraised QOL.

  16. Episode-Based Payment, Evaluating the Impact on Chronic...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Policy makers are interested in aggregating fee-for-service reimbursement into episode-based bundle payments, hoping it will lead to greater efficiency in the...

  17. Episodic Memory Decline in Huntington's Disease, A Binding Deficit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Caillaud, M.; Fasotti, L.; Verny, C.; Allain, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by episodic memory deterioration. Objective: Our paper investigates the cognitive mechanisms that might underlie this decline. To this aim, we tested two executive hypotheses, the binding and the inhibition hypotheses. Methods: Fifteen HD patien

  18. Familial episodic ataxia: a model for migrainous vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Joanna C; Baloh, Robert W

    2009-05-01

    Familial episodic ataxias are inherited channelopathies that manifest as episodes of vertigo and ataxia triggered by emotional stress and physical exertion. Mutations in two neuronal ion-channel genes KCNA1 and CACNA1A abundantly expressed in the cerebellum account for the majority of the identified cases of episodic ataxia. Overlapping features between episodic ataxia and the more common recurrent vertigo and ataxia syndromes, particularly those associated with migraine, suggest shared underlying mechanisms. Altered neuronal excitability in the brain and inner ear could contribute to the central and peripheral features of migrainous vertigo. Given the familial aggregation of migraine and migrainous vertigo, our objective was to identify predisposing genetic factors. Preliminary findings demonstrate that migrainous vertigo is genetically heterogeneous and complex. Efforts are ongoing to perform genomewide association studies to identify risk alleles for migrainous vertigo, which may also be relevant to migraine in general.

  19. Aging, episodic memory feeling-of-knowing, and frontal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchay, C; Isingrini, M; Espagnet, L

    2000-04-01

    Groups of normal old and young adults made episodic memory feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments and took 2 types of episodic memory tests (cued recall and recognition). Neuropsychological tests of executive and memory functions thought to respectively involve the frontal and medial temporal structures were also administered. Age differences were observed on the episodic memory measures and on all neuropsychological tests. Compared with young adults, older adults performed at chance level on FOK accuracy judgments. Partial correlations indicated that a composite measure of frontal functioning and FOK accuracy were closely related. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the composite frontal functioning score accounted for a large proportion of the age-related variance in FOK accuracy. This finding supports the idea that the age-related decline in episodic memory FOK accuracy is mainly the result of executive or frontal limitations associated with aging.

  20. Oxygen Reactivity of PutA from Helicobacter Species and Proline-Linked Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Navasona; Becker, Donald F.

    2006-01-01

    Proline is converted to glutamate in two successive steps by the proline utilization A (PutA) flavoenzyme in gram-negative bacteria. PutA contains a proline dehydrogenase domain that catalyzes the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidation of proline to Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and a P5C dehydrogenase domain that catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of P5C to glutamate. Here, we characterize PutA from Helicobacter hepaticus (PutAHh) and Helicobacter pylori (PutAHp) to pro...

  1. Episodes from the Early History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboe, Asger

    The author does not attempt to give a general survey of early astronomy; rather, he chooses to present a few "episodes" and treats them in detail. However, first he provides the necessary astronomical background in his descriptive account of what you can see when you look at the sky with the naked eye, unblinkered by received knowledge, but with curiosity and wit. Chapter 1 deals with the arithmetical astronomy of ancient Mesopotamia where astronomy first was made an exact science. Next are treated Greek geometrical models for planetary motion, culminating in Ptolemy's equant models in his Almagest. Ptolemy does not assign them absolute size in this work, but, as is shown here, if we scale the models properly, they will yield good values, not only of the directions to the planets, but of the distances to them, as well. Thus one can immediately find the dimensions of the Copernican System from parameters in the Almagest - we have evidence that Copernicus did just that. Further, Islamic astronomers' modifications of Ptolemy's models by devices using only uniform circular motion are discussed, as are Copernicus's adoption of some of them. finally, it is made precise which bothersome problem was resolved by the heliocentric hypothesis, as it was by the Tychonic arrangement. Next, the Ptolemaic System, the first cosmological scheme to incorporate quantitative models, is described as Ptolemy himself did it in a recenlty recovered passage from his Planetary Hypotheses. Here he does assign absolute size to his models in order to fit them into the snugly nested spherical shells that made up his universe. This much maligned system was, in fact, a harmonious construct that remained the basis for how educated people thought of their world for a millennium and a half. Finally, after a brief review of the geometry of the ellipse, the author gives an elementary derivation of Kepler's equation, and shows how Kepler solved it, and further proves that a planet moves very nearly

  2. Phenomenology of future-oriented mind-wandering episodes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non-future-oriented mind-wandering episodes. In the present study, we used multilevel exploratory factor analyses (MEFA) to examine the factorial structure of various phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering, and we then investigated whether future-oriented mind-wandering episodes differ from o...

  3. Phenomenology of future-oriented mind-wandering episodes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiate between future-oriented and non-future-oriented mind-wandering episodes. In the present study, we used multilevel exploratory factor analyses to examine the factorial structure of various phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering, and we then investigated whether future-oriented mind-wandering episodes differ from other cla...

  4. Phenomenology of future-oriented mind-wandering episodes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non-future-oriented mind-wandering episodes. In the present study, we used multilevel exploratory factor analyses to examine the factorial structure of various phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering, and we then investigated whether future-oriented mind-wandering episodes differ from other cl...

  5. Prose recall and amnesia: more implications for the episodic buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, P A; Isaac, C L; Mayes, A R

    2005-01-01

    Baddeley and Wilson [Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, F. B. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia 40, 1737-1743.] have argued that their finding of a positive association between amnesics' immediate prose recall scores and their scores on measures of executive function and fluid intelligence supports the view that an episodic buffer exists. However, the pattern of data from amnesics tested in our laboratory presented some problems for this conceptualisation of the episodic buffer.

  6. Premorbid Personality and Insight in First-Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Maria S.; Garcia-Jalon, Elena; Gilleen, James K.; David, Anthony S.; Peralta MD, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Insight in psychosis and schizophrenia is considered a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon. Premorbid personality is regarded by some authors as part of the substrate to many psychiatric phenomena, but it is not clear if this applies to insight. Aim: To examine longitudinal relationships between personality traits and insight dimensions in first-episode psychosis. Methods: One hundred consecutive antipsychotic-naïve first-episode nonaffective psychotic patients admitted to hospital...

  7. REDEFINING ENSO EPISODES BASED ON CHANGED CLIMATE REFERENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-yan; ZHAI Pan-mao; REN Fu-min

    2005-01-01

    Through studying changes in ENSO indices relative to change of climate reference from 1961~1990 to 1971~2000, the study generated new standards to define ENSO episodes and their intensities. Then according to the new climate references and new index standards, ENSO episodes and their intensities for the period 1951 -2003 have been classified. Finally, an analysis has been performed comparing the new characteristics with the old ones for ENSO period, peak values and intensities.

  8. Commentary on measuring disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Howard H

    2013-09-01

    This is a commentary on 5 articles in this issue of Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation that report on several related studies of new approaches to measuring disability. The project was grounded in theory, beginning with the development of a conceptual framework enhanced by a literature review and expert consultation within and outside of the Social Security Administration. The investigators then used item response theory to develop test items, which they organized into computer adaptive testing instruments and tested them for their psychometric properties. All in all, it is a groundbreaking set of studies and an enormously valuable contribution to the field. Hopefully it will also be tested as an alternative approach to assessing disability in the Social Security Administration disability benefits programs.

  9. Madness as disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-12-01

    How does society imagine mental illness? Does this shift radically over time and with different social attitudes as well as scientific discoveries about the origins and meanings of mental illness? What happens when we begin to think about mental illness as madness, as a malleable concept constantly shifting its meaning? We thus look at the meanings associated with 'general paralysis of the insane' in the nineteenth century and autism today in regard to disability. In this case study we examine the claims by scholars such as the anthropologist Emily Martin and the psychiatrist Kay Jamison as to the relationship between mental illness, disability and creativity. Today, the health sciences have become concerned with mental illness as a form of disability. How does this change the meaning of madness for practitioners and patients? © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Disability, Disorder, and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organizations International Classification of Diseases is the most important diagnostic tool, worldwide, to ensure that people with intellectual and developmental disabilities receive the supports they need to live richer, fuller lives. And yet, the ICD has naming conventions that create a conundrum for the field, requiring that all “conditions” in the ICD be named as a “disorder.” This article discusses the effect of naming on how people with intellectual disability are perceived by others and how they perceive themselves. The importance of continuing to move the field toward the adoption of functional/person-environment fit models of disability is discussed. “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.”William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, 1–2) PMID:23537360

  11. Disability and 'care'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how the ‘care’ of able-bodied employees and managers (observers) affects their relationships with colleagues with cerebral palsy. Disability researchers have established that ‘help’ and ‘care’ may cause feelings of dependency with the recipient. However, few workplace studies...... have investigated the potential negative consequences of ‘caring for’ colleagues with disabilities. Through open-ended interviews conducted in 2013 in 13 Danish work organizations with 13 employees with cerebral palsy and 62 observers, the study examines how the relational aspect of ‘care’ may result...... in relationships between colleagues of ‘parent–child’ or ‘helper–helpless’. The study thus clarifies the inherent contradictions embedded in the dynamics of organizational behaviour in relation to employees with disabilities, namely that workplaces may hire a person with physical limitations (perhaps to deflect...

  12. Physical Disability and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Harry

    1965-01-01

    Motivating the physically handicapped individual to assist in his own rehabilitation is a complex problem. Difficulties in motivation are often based on disturbances in body image, which in turn are related both to the premorbid personality and the handicap. Treatment must be directed at the body image as well as the physical disability. Emotional disturbance following body injury should be expected and its absence is abnormal. Adequate rehabilitation entails a consideration of the effect of the rehabilitation process on the disabled person. The patient's basic abilities must be used to improve motivation. Rehabilitation procedures must focus on practical ways of coping with everyday life. Physical disability can mobilize underlying inferiority feelings and increase the need for dependency. Judicious use must be made of success and frustration in the rehabilitation program. PMID:14296008

  13. Functional neuroimaging of semantic and episodic musical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Hervé

    2005-12-01

    The distinction between episodic and semantic memory has become very popular since it was first proposed by Tulving in 1972. So far, very few neuropsychological, psychophysical, and imaging studies have related to the mnemonic aspects of music, notably on the long-term memory features, and practically nothing is known about the functional anatomy of long-term memory for music. Numerous functional imaging studies have shown that retrieval from semantic and episodic memory is subserved by distinct neural networks. For instance, the HERA model (hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry) ascribes to the left prefrontal cortex a preferential role in the encoding process of episodic material and the recall of semantic information, while the right prefrontal cortex would preferentially operate in the recall of episodic information. However, these results were essentially obtained with verbal and visuo-spatial material. We have done a study to determine the neural substrates underlying the semantic and episodic components of music using familiar and nonfamiliar melodic tunes. Two distinct patterns of activations were found: bilateral activation of the middle and superior frontal areas and precuneus for episodic memory, and activation of the medial and orbital frontal cortex bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and the anterior part of the left middle and superior temporal gyri for semantic memory. We discuss these findings in light of the available neuropsychological data obtained in brain-damaged subjects and functional neuroimaging studies.

  14. Subjective Experience of Episodic Memory and Metacognition: A Neurodevelopmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine eSouchay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing. We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different neurodevelopmental disorders there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process.

  15. Modeling HIV-1 drug resistance as episodic directional selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Murrell

    Full Text Available The evolution of substitutions conferring drug resistance to HIV-1 is both episodic, occurring when patients are on antiretroviral therapy, and strongly directional, with site-specific resistant residues increasing in frequency over time. While methods exist to detect episodic diversifying selection and continuous directional selection, no evolutionary model combining these two properties has been proposed. We present two models of episodic directional selection (MEDS and EDEPS which allow the a priori specification of lineages expected to have undergone directional selection. The models infer the sites and target residues that were likely subject to directional selection, using either codon or protein sequences. Compared to its null model of episodic diversifying selection, MEDS provides a superior fit to most sites known to be involved in drug resistance, and neither one test for episodic diversifying selection nor another for constant directional selection are able to detect as many true positives as MEDS and EDEPS while maintaining acceptable levels of false positives. This suggests that episodic directional selection is a better description of the process driving the evolution of drug resistance.

  16. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  17. Putting Personal Knowledge Management under the Macroscope of Informing Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a novel Personal Knowledge Management (PKM concept and prototype system. The system’s objective is to aid life-long-learning, resourcefulness, creativity, and teamwork of individuals throughout their academic and professional life and as contributors and beneficiaries of organizational and societal performance. Such a scope offers appealing and viable opportunities for stakeholders in the educational, professional, and developmental context. To further validate the underlying PKM application design, the systems thinking techniques of the transdiscipline of Informing Science (IS are employed. By applying Cohen’s IS-Framework, Leavitt’s Diamond Model, the IS-Meta Approach, and Gill’s and Murphy’s Three Dimensions of Design Task Complexity, the more specific KM models and methodologies central to the PKMS concept are aligned, introduced, and visualized. The extent of this introduction offers an essential overview, which can be deepened and broadened by using the cited URL and DOI links pointing to the available resources of the author’s prior publications. The paper emphasizes the differences of the proposed meme-based PKM System compared to its traditional organizational document-centric counterparts as well as its inherent complementing synergies. As a result, it shows how the system is closing in on Vannevar Bush’s still unfulfilled vison of the ‘Memex’, an as-close-as-it-gets imaginary ancestor celebrating its 70th anniversary as an inspiring idea never realized. It also addresses the scenario recently put forward by Levy which foresees a decentralizing revolution of knowledge management that gives more power and autonomy to individuals and self-organized groups. Accordingly, it also touches on the PKM potential in terms of Kuhn’s Scientific Revolutions and Disruptive Innovations.

  18. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability....... To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...

  19. Supporting Young Children with Disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathleen Hebbeler; Donna Spiker

    2016-01-01

    ...? To begin with, Kathleen Hebbeler and Donna Spiker write, identifying children with delays and disabilities to receive specialized services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act poses several challenges...

  20. Theorising Disability: Beyond Common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Handley, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article seeks to introduce the topic of disability to political theory via a discussion of some of the literature produced by disability theorists. The author argues that these more radical approaches conceptualise disability in ways that conflict with ‘common-sense’ notions of disability that tend to underpin political theoretical considerations of the topic. Furthermore, the author suggests that these more radical conceptualisations have profound implications for current debates on soc...

  1. Disability Inclusion in the Workplace

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-28

    People with disabilities in America are twice as likely to be unemployed than people without disabilities – a fact that can be eliminated. Dr. Shannon Griffin-Blake tells us how we can give people with disabilities an opportunity to thrive in the workforce.  Created: 12/28/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 12/28/2016.

  2. A model for developing disability confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cancelliere, Sara

    2017-05-15

    Many clinicians, educators, and employers lack disability confidence which can affect their interactions with, and inclusion of people with disabilities. Our objective was to explore how disability confidence developed among youth who volunteered with children who have a disability. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews (16 without a disability, 14 with disabilities), with youth aged 15-25. We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, thematic approach. We identified four main themes that led to the progression of disability confidence including: (1) "disability discomfort," referring to lacking knowledge about disability and experiencing unease around people with disabilities; (2) "reaching beyond comfort zone" where participants increased their understanding of disability and became sensitized to difference; (3) "broadened perspectives" where youth gained exposure to people with disabilities and challenged common misperceptions and stereotypes; and (4) "disability confidence" which includes having knowledge of people with disabilities, inclusive, and positive attitudes towards them. Volunteering is one way that can help to develop disability confidence. Youth with and without disabilities both reported a similar process of developing disability confidence; however, there were nuances between the two groups. Implications for Rehabilitation The development of disability confidence is important for enhancing the social inclusion of people with disabilities. Volunteering with people who have a disability, or a disability different from their own, can help to develop disability confidence which involves positive attitudes, empathy, and appropriate communication skills. Clinicians, educators, and employers should consider promoting working with disabled people through such avenues as volunteering or service learning to gain disability confidence.

  3. Caring for the Disabled Employee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    . The paper’s aim is to develop the scant previous research conducted on the relationship between work conditions and disability (Hyde 2000, Barnes & Mercer 2005). Disability studies have praised either a medical model approach, placing people with disabilities and their impairment in the forefront...

  4. Disability Studies and Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John

    2011-01-01

    This article promotes the field of disability studies as a valuable resource for expanding art education's concept of disability and as a promising venue for interdisciplinary dialogue. While art education has persistently supported special education since its inception, disability advocacy has advanced in the past two decades toward…

  5. Supporting Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Spiker, Donna

    2016-01-01

    What do we know about young children with delays and disabilities, and how can we help them succeed in prekindergarten through third grade? To begin with, Kathleen Hebbeler and Donna Spiker write, identifying children with delays and disabilities to receive specialized services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act poses several…

  6. [Are intravenous immunoglobulins useful in severe episodes of autoimmune hemolytic anemia?: Comparative results in 21 episodes from a single centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Fernández, Juan José; Flores Ballester, Elena; González Martínez, María; Arévalo-Serrano, Juan; Tamayo Martín, Ana Teresa; Burgaleta Alonso de Ozalla, Carmen

    2013-09-07

    To analyze haemolytic episodes in patients with warm antibody autoimmune haemolytic anemia (AIHA) and compare corticosteroids treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) (group A) or without IVIG (group B). Observational study that includes 21 haemolytic episodes occurred in 17 patients (9 males and 12 females), with a median age of 59 years (26-82). In group A, 8 episodes received IGIV + corticosteroids and in group B, 12 episodes received only corticosteroids and one rituximab. Hemoglobin (Hb) value at diagnosis was 1.8 g/dl lower (95% confidence interval: 0.6 to 3.1; P = .007) in group A, with a median Hb of 6.3g/dl in this group vs 7.9 g/dl in group B. There were non-significant differences in red blood cells transfusion (50 vs 23%; P > .20) and global increase of Hb values (7.3 vs 5.6; P > .20). Overall hematological responses were similar: 88 vs 92% (P > .20). Hematological response achieved in more severe episodes with the use of IVIG was similar to non-severe episodes treated without IVIG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...

  8. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene

    2009-01-01

    PROBLEM: This study estimated the hazard ratio for disability pension retirement (DPR) for persons who have experienced a work injury causing absence lasting at least one day after the accidental injury occurred and to estimate the fraction of DPR attributable to work injuries. METHODS: A total...

  9. Othering, ableism and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    in 13 different work organisations. The primary finding of the study is that observers spontaneously refer to other ‘different’ people (e.g., transvestites, homosexuals, immigrants) when talking about a colleague with impairments. This finding suggests that disability is simultaneously a discursive...

  10. Youth with Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Kooiker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Jeugd met beperkingen. Taking part in society in an ordinary way is not self-evident for children and young people with a physical or intellectual disability. They often encounter more obstacles in going to school, finding a job and in their leisure time than other people of their o

  11. Dyslexia: Disability or Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Redford, a veteran 5th grade teacher, addresses the question of whether, in the case of students with dyslexia, "it's time to ditch the disability classification and replace it with more positive language that embraces and appreciates [the condition] as a 'neurodifference' instead." Her answer is no--at least in the current education…

  12. Youth with Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Kooiker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Jeugd met beperkingen. Taking part in society in an ordinary way is not self-evident for children and young people with a physical or intellectual disability. They often encounter more obstacles in going to school, finding a job and in their leisure time than other people of their o

  13. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  14. Learning disabilities and school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimrodt, Sheryl L; Lipkin, Paul H

    2011-08-01

    After completing this article, readers should be able to:1. Articulate a systematic medical approach to the child who has school failure or suspected learning disability.2. Compare and contrast learning disability from other related conditions that may affect a child's school function.3. Identify key historic factors recognized during developmental surveillance for children who have learning disabilities.4. List key school and community resources for advising parents about the evaluation,treatment, and prognosis of a child who has a learning disability.5. Outline a medical home management plan for children who have learning disabilities.

  15. Relationship between low back pain, disability, MR imaging findings and health care provider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Estanislao; Molla, Enrique; Costa, Salvador; Montijano, Ruben [Clinica Quiron, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Marti-Bonmati, Luis [Clinica Quiron, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Vega, Maria [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Bautista, Daniel [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Department of Preventive Medicine, Valencia (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    To determine the association between the self-report of pain and disability and findings on lumbar MR images, and to compare two different health care providers in Spanish patients with low back pain (LBP). Cross-sectional A total of 278 patients, 137 men and 141 women aged 44{+-}14 years submitted with low back pain (LBP) were studied. One hundred and nine patients were from the National Health System (NHS) and 169 from private practice. Patients with previous discitis, surgery, neoplasm or traumatic episodes were excluded. Every patient completed a disability questionnaire with six core items, providing a score of disability from 2 to 28. All patients had sagittal spin-echo T1 and turbo spin-echo T2, axial proton-density and MR myelography weighted images. MR images of the two most affected disc levels were read, offering an MR imaging score from 0 to 30. Patients with a combination of LBP and sciatica showed the highest levels of disability (p=0.002). MR imaging scores only correlated with pain interference with normal work (p=0.04), but not with other disability questions. Patients from the NHS showed greater disability scores than private ones (p=0.001) and higher MR imaging scores (p=0.01). In patients with LBP, MR imaging only correlates with pain interference with work but not with other disability questions. Differences are found between private and NHS patients, the latter being more physically affected. (orig.)

  16. Theory of mind development can withstand compromised episodic memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jennifer S; Braverman, Anna; Gilboa, Asaf; Stuss, Donald T; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2012-12-01

    As humans, we are consciously aware of unobservable mental states, including our own during episodic memory and other people's by having a "theory of mind" (ToM). Episodic memory and ToM are closely related: they share a neural substrate and emerge close in time in ontogenetic development. This relationship is central to prominent child development and cognitive neuroscience theories of ToM, but its causal nature has not been tested empirically. The current study examined whether normal episodic memory development is necessary for normal ToM development. To investigate this, we tested H.C., a young woman with impaired episodic memory development due to early hippocampal damage, on a wide range of ToM measures. H.C.'s performance was indistinguishable from that of controls on all tests of ToM suggesting that, contrary to theoretical claims in the literature, normal episodic memory development and hippocampal function are not essential for the development of ToM.

  17. Emotional maltreatment and depression: prospective prediction of depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Iacoviello, Brian M; Whitehouse, Wayne G

    2009-01-01

    Most research to date on the role of maltreatment experiences in depression has focused on physical and sexual maltreatment. However, several researchers have theorized that emotional maltreatment may be more strongly linked to depression. Furthermore, prospective studies in this area are lacking. This study addressed these issues by examining whether experiences of current emotional maltreatment predicted the development of new prospective episodes of major (MD) or minor depression (MiD), and the subtype of hopelessness depression (HD) in young adults. It also assessed whether current emotional maltreatment from peers and from authority figures separately predicted the occurrence of depressive episodes. One hundred and sixty-five participants from the Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Project were followed prospectively for 2.5 years. Current emotional maltreatment and new depressive episodes were assessed with life event and diagnostic interviews administered every 6 weeks. Greater overall emotional maltreatment predicted shorter time to onset of new MD, MiD, and HD episodes. Peer- and authority-perpetrated emotional maltreatment separately predicted shorter time to development of new HD episodes. Greater emotional maltreatment in young adults prospectively predicts onset of depression, particularly HD. These findings highlight the importance of adult emotional maltreatment experiences in determining targets for prevention and treatment. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Neural modeling of episodic memory: encoding, retrieval, and forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Subagdja, Budhitama; Tan, Ah-Hwee; Starzyk, Janusz A

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a neural model that learns episodic traces in response to a continuous stream of sensory input and feedback received from the environment. The proposed model, based on fusion adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, extracts key events and encodes spatio-temporal relations between events by creating cognitive nodes dynamically. The model further incorporates a novel memory search procedure, which performs a continuous parallel search of stored episodic traces. Combined with a mechanism of gradual forgetting, the model is able to achieve a high level of memory performance and robustness, while controlling memory consumption over time. We present experimental studies, where the proposed episodic memory model is evaluated based on the memory consumption for encoding events and episodes as well as recall accuracy using partial and erroneous cues. Our experimental results show that: 1) the model produces highly robust performance in encoding and recalling events and episodes even with incomplete and noisy cues; 2) the model provides enhanced performance in a noisy environment due to the process of forgetting; and 3) compared with prior models of spatio-temporal memory, our model shows a higher tolerance toward noise and errors in the retrieval cues.

  19. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  20. Disability as infra-critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how disability can work analytically as a ‘critique from within’. Our case is the accommodation of citizens with disabilities during the voting process in Denmark. Here disability makes explicit how Danish democracy is produced as disability rubs up against implicit......, normalized and mundane infrastructures and practices. We investigate disability as critique in this sense of affording a both analytic and practical ‘breakup’. To do so, we promote a ‘compositionist’ post-actor-network theory approach to disability and to polling and investigate what entry-point for critique...... and we examine parts of the historical background for the production of authority in the context of managing disability as exception during polling. In doing so we point out that as the organization of electoral processes evolves, new potentialities for infra-critique also emerge....

  1. Disability management outcomes in the Ontario long-term care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, C A; Kalcevich, C; Steenstra, I A; Smith, P; Amick, B

    2010-12-01

    Optimal disability management practices supporting early and safe return-to-work involve the workplace adoption of formal policies and procedures to ensure the quality of disability management outcomes. In the Canadian province of Ontario, there are approximately 60,000 health care workers in 600 licensed facilities providing long-term residential care to approximately 75,000 elderly residents. Workers in this sector are exposed to high biomechanical demands arising from care-giving tasks and have a substantial risk of work-related disability. Over the period 2000-2006, many long-term care facilities in Ontario adopted disability management practices that encourage modified work arrangements. The objective of this study was to describe differences in modified work arrangements and disability outcomes in long-term care facilities in Ontario. Measures of disability episode outcomes are described for a representative sample of 32 Ontario long-term care facilities for two consecutive years 2005 and 2006. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of facilities, a survey of a representative sample of caregivers and administrative records from the provincial workers' compensation agency. A total of 28,747 days of disability attributed to work-related conditions were experienced by 3,271 full-time equivalent staff in 2005 (28,034 days in 2006). Average total disability days were 922 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2005 and 889 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2006. Disability compensation expenditures, measured as wage replacement benefits received by disabled workers, were estimated to be $72,332 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2005 and $64,619 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2006. On average, approximately 60% of all disability days were managed by modified duty arrangements and the proportion of total disability days managed by modified duty arrangements for each facility was correlated between the two observation years. Across facilities

  2. Facilitating Description and Selection of Learning Paths: the learning path specification put to the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José

    2008-01-01

    Jansen, J. (2008). Facilitating Description and Selection of Learning Paths: the learning path specification put to the test. Presentation at the Otec Colloquium. April, 2008, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  3. The science of golf putting a complete guide for researchers, players and coaches

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the motor performance and biomechanics of golf putting, providing methodologies, studies and approaches to this concept. Presenting outcomes of research published over the past six years, it offers guidelines from a scientifically oriented perspective, and employs new technologies and mathematical methods to assess golf putting. The chapters cover aspects such as pendulum-like motion in sports, setting up the experimental design, and performance metrics for putting variables. Paving the way for an improved understanding of what leads to failure and success in golf putting, this book offers an invaluable reference source for sports scientists, engineers and mathematicians, as well as golfers.

  4. Facilitating Description and Selection of Learning Paths: the learning path specification put to the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José

    2008-01-01

    Jansen, J. (2008). Facilitating Description and Selection of Learning Paths: the learning path specification put to the test. Presentation at the Otec Colloquium. April, 2008, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  5. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan;

    2014-01-01

    -episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ...... symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Complex aspects of social cognition explained 24% of the variance in the patient group. The other principal components consisted mainly of aspects of simple perception of theory of mind. Neurocognition and clinical symptoms only explained a minor proportion of the variance......, and clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical...

  6. The Structure of Cognition: Attentional Episodes in Mind and Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, John

    2013-01-01

    Cognition is organized in a structured series of attentional episodes, allowing complex problems to be addressed through solution of simpler subproblems. A “multiple-demand” (MD) system of frontal and parietal cortex is active in many different kinds of tasks, and using data from neuroimaging, electrophysiology, neuropsychology, and cognitive studies of intelligence, I propose a core role for MD regions in assembly of the attentional episode. Monkey and human data show dynamic neural coding of attended information across multiple MD regions, with rapid communication within and between regions. Neuropsychological and imaging data link MD function to fluid intelligence, explaining some but not all “executive” deficits after frontal lobe lesions. Cognitive studies link fluid intelligence to goal neglect, and the problem of dividing complex task requirements into focused parts. Like the innate releasing mechanism of ethology, I suggest that construction of the attentional episode provides a core organizational principle for complex, adaptive cognition. PMID:24094101

  7. Patient satisfaction with treatment in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Ulrik; Simonsen, Erik; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine first-episode psychotic patients' satisfaction with elements of a comprehensive 2-year treatment program. Subjects and method: The TIPS (Early Treatment and Intervention in Psychosis) project provided a 2-year treatment program consisting of milieu therapy (inpatient), individ......Purpose: To examine first-episode psychotic patients' satisfaction with elements of a comprehensive 2-year treatment program. Subjects and method: The TIPS (Early Treatment and Intervention in Psychosis) project provided a 2-year treatment program consisting of milieu therapy (inpatient...... in satisfaction for specific interventions. In this sample of first-episode psychosis patients, there was general satisfaction with treatments based on one-to-one relationships while multi-family group intervention was consistently valued less enthusiastically....

  8. Atrial high-rate episodes and stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camm, A John; Simantirakis, Emmanuel; Goette, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    While the benefit of oral anticoagulants (OACs) for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is well established, it is not known whether oral anticoagulation is indicated in patients with atrial high-rate episodes (AHRE) recorded on a cardiac implantable electronic device......, sometimes also called subclinical AF, and lasting for at least 6 min in the absence of clinically diagnosed AF. Clinical evidence has shown that short episodes of rapid atrial tachycarrhythmias are often detected in patients presenting with stroke and transient ischaemic attack. Patients with AHRE have...... a higher likelihood of suffering from subsequent strokes, but their stroke rate seems lower than in patients with diagnosed AF, and not all AHRE episodes correspond to AF. The prognostic and pathological significance of AHRE is not yet fully understood. Clinical trials of OAC therapy are being conducted...

  9. Observing Episodic Coronal Heating Events Rooted in Chromospheric Activity

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Scott W

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a multi-wavelength study of episodic plasma injection into the corona of AR 10942. We exploit long-exposure images of the Hinode and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft to study the properties of faint, episodic, "blobs" of plasma that are propelled upward along coronal loops that are rooted in the AR plage. We find that the source location and characteristic velocities of these episodic upflow events match those expected from recent spectroscopic observations of faint coronal upflows that are associated with upper chromospheric activity, in the form of highly dynamic spicules. The analysis presented ties together observations from coronal and chromospheric spectrographs and imagers, providing more evidence of the connection of discrete coronal mass heating and injection events with their source, dynamic spicules, in the chromosphere.

  10. Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aboel Fetouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.

  11. Individuals with episodic amnesia are not stuck in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Kwan, Donna; Steindam, Chloe; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2014-05-01

    The metaphor that individuals with episodic amnesia due to hippocampal damage are "stuck in time" persists in science, philosophy, and everyday life despite mounting evidence that episodic amnesia can spare many central aspects of temporal consciousness. Here we describe some of this evidence, focusing specifically on KC, one of the most thoroughly documented and severe cases of episodic amnesia on record. KC understands the concept of time, knows that it passes, and can orient himself with respect to his personal past and future. He expresses typical attitudes toward his past and future, and he is able to make future-regarding decisions. Theories claiming that the hippocampus plays an essential role in temporal consciousness need to be revised in light of these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinician feedback on using episode groupers with Medicare claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Fred; Caplan, Craig; Levy, Jesse M; Cohen, Marty; Leonard, James; Caldis, Todd; Mueller, Curt

    2010-01-01

    CMS is investigating techniques that might help identify costly physician practice patterns. One method presently under evaluation is to compare resource use for certain episodes of care using commercially available episode grouping software. Although this software has been used by the private sector to classify insured individuals' medical claims into episodes of care, it has never been used with fee-for-service Medicare claims except in the studies by the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and CMS. This study reviews and reports on clinician feedback on the most obvious and important decisions that must be faced by Medicare to use grouped claims data as the foundation for a physician performance measurement system. The panel reactions show the importance of bringing persons with clinical knowledge into the development process. The clinician feedback confirms that additional research is needed.

  13. Property content guides children's memory for social learning episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Anne E; Kalish, Charles W; Alibali, Martha W

    2014-05-01

    How do children's interpretations of the generality of learning episodes affect what they encode? In the present studies, we investigated the hypothesis that children encode distinct aspects of learning episodes containing generalizable and non-generalizable properties. Two studies with preschool (N=50) and young school-aged children (N=49) reveal that their encoding is contingent on the generalizability of the property they are learning. Children remembered generalizable properties (e.g., morphological or normative properties) more than non-generalizable properties (e.g., historical events or preferences). Conversely, they remembered category exemplars associated with non-generalizable properties more than category exemplars associated with generalizable properties. The findings highlight the utility of remembering distinct aspects of social learning episodes for children's future generalization.

  14. A bird-brain view of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, N C; Martinez-Gonzalez, D

    2011-09-12

    In humans, the hippocampus plays a critical role in the formation of episodic memories. Although non-human animals are unable to report whether they also re-experience past events, at least some birds and mammals exhibit 'episodic-like' memory characterized by an ability to recall what happened where and when. In mammals, the hippocampus interacts closely with virtually the entire neocortex to form episodic-like memories. The hippocampus receives highly processed information from high-order association areas, and thereby the rest of the neocortex. Distinct neurophysiological hippocampal rhythms (theta and sharp-wave ripples) coordinate activity between the hippocampus and high-order association areas during the encoding and retrieval of information contributing to episodic-like memories. Although recent studies have demonstrated that food hoarding birds are able to remember what food they hid where and when, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies suggest that there may be a fundamental difference between episodic-like memory in birds and mammals. In contrast to the mammalian hippocampus, the avian hippocampus only receives visual and olfactory input; most high-order association areas in the avian brain involved in performing functions similar to those performed by neocortical association areas do not project to the hippocampus or structures providing it with direct input. Consistent with this neuroanatomical difference, mammalian-like rhythms involved in communicating between the hippocampus and neocortical high-order association areas have not been found in birds. Collectively, this suggests that information contributing to episodic-like memory is more limited and processed in a different manner in birds when compared to mammals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with First Episode Febrile Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawat, Indar Kumar; Singh, Jitender; Dawman, Lesa; Singh, Amitabh

    2016-05-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the single most common type of seizure seen in children between 6 months to 5 years of age. The purpose of our study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures, which would help in the better management and preventive measures in children at risk for FS episodes. To evaluate the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures in Indian children. This was a hospital based, case control study. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first FS episode in children. Seventy (70) children between age 6 months to 5 years with their first episode of FS were compared with 70 children with fever but without seizures based on various risk factors. The mean age was 24.90±16.11 months in cases and 26.34±16.93 months in controls. Male: female ratio was 2:1. A positive family history was found in 31.4% of first degree and 11.4% in second degree relatives. Mean maximum temperature was 102.06±1.1°F and URI (upper respiratory infection) was most common cause of fever. Antenatal complication was significantly higher in the case group. RBC (Red Blood Cells) indices like lower mean haemoglobin, MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume), MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration) and higher RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) values were seen in patients. Serum sodium, Serum calcium and random blood sugar values of the cases were significantly lower than those of controls (pfebrile seizures, peak body temperature, underlying cause of fever, antenatal complications, low serum calcium, sodium, blood sugar and microcytic hypochromic anaemia are the risk factors associated with the occurrence of first episode of febrile seizure and, thus, preventive measures in removing these risk factors could lead to a decrease in incidence of FS.

  16. Sympathetic activation and baroreflex function during intradialytic hypertensive episodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvora Rubinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of intradialytic increases in blood pressure are not well defined. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of autonomic nervous system activation during intradialytic hypertensive episodes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Continuous interbeat intervals (IBI and systolic blood pressure (SBP were monitored during hemodialysis in 108 chronic patients. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes defined as a period of at least 10 mmHg increase in SBP between the beginning and the end of a dialysis session or hypertension resistant to ultrafiltration occurring during or immediately after the dialysis procedure, were detected in 62 out of 113 hemodialysis sessions. SBP variability, IBI variability and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS in the low (LF and high (HF frequency ranges were assessed using the complex demodulation technique (CDM. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes were associated with an increased (n = 45 or decreased (n = 17 heart rate. The maximal blood pressure was similar in both groups. In patients with increased heart rate the increase in blood pressure was associated with marked increases in SBP and IBI variability, with suppressed BRS indices and enhanced sympatho-vagal balance. In contrast, in those with decreased heart rate, there were no significant changes in the above parameters. End-of-dialysis blood pressure in all sessions associated with hypertensive episode was significantly higher than in those without such episodes. In logistic regression analysis, predialysis BRS in the low frequency range was found to be the main predictor of intradialytic hypertension. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data point to sympathetic overactivity with feed-forward blood pressure enhancement as an important mechanism of intradialytic hypertension in a significant proportion of patients. The triggers of increased sympathetic activity during hemodialysis remain to be determined. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes

  17. Temporal Clustering and Sequencing in Short-Term Memory and Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…

  18. Temporal Clustering and Sequencing in Short-Term Memory and Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…

  19. Risk factors for respiratory work disability in a cohort of pulp mill workers exposed to irritant gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén Kjell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between chronic respiratory diseases and work disability has been demonstrated a number of times over the past 20 years, but still little is known about work disability in occupational cohorts of workers exposed to respiratory irritants. This study investigated job or task changes due to respiratory problems as an indicator of work disability in pulp mill workers occupationally exposed to irritants. Methods Data about respiratory symptoms and disease diagnoses, socio-demographic variables, occupational exposures, gassing episodes, and reported work changes due to respiratory problems were collected using a questionnaire answered by 3226 pulp mill workers. Information about work history and departments was obtained from personnel files. Incidence and hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The incidence of respiratory work disability among these pulp mill workers was 1.6/1000 person-years. The hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were increased for workers reporting gassings (HR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 and for those reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis, when analyzed in the same model. Conclusions This cohort study of pulp mill workers found that irritant peak exposure during gassing episodes was a strong predictor of changing work due to respiratory problems, even after adjustment for asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis.

  20. Electrophysiological measures of episodic memory control and memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, E L; Herron, J E

    2006-10-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) index processes that occur before, during and after retrieval of information from episodic memory. In this selective review we provide a loose theoretical framework within which retrieval processes operating at these different stages can be considered. We go on to describe how ERPs have been employed in order to index processes operating at each of these stages. These data have contributed to current understanding of the processes that are engaged around the time of episodic memory retrieval, and also illustrate the potential that ERPs have for understanding in detail how memory retrieval processes changes in populations with memory impairments.

  1. CPEB3 is associated with human episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Christian; Spalek, Klara; Aerni, Amanda; Demougin, Philippe; Müller, Ariane; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2009-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) proteins are crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory in model organisms. A highly conserved, mammalian-specific short intronic sequence within CPEB3 has been identified as a ribozyme with self-cleavage properties. In humans, the ribozyme sequence is polymorphic and harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism that influences cleavage activity of the ribozyme. Here we show that this variation is related to performance in an episodic memory task and that the effect of the variation depends on the emotional valence of the presented material. Our data suggest a role for human CPEB3 in human episodic memory.

  2. Case study of first episode schizophrenia in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Kristopher A; Agarkar, Smita

    2017-08-01

    Patients with first-episode psychosis of peripartum onset commonly prove to have a mood-disorder diathesis; however, a proportion of cases represent first-episode schizophrenia. We present such a case and discuss the clinical relevance of recognizing this small but important population of new mothers. These patients are at considerable risk of misdiagnosis, resulting in ineffective maintenance therapy, poorer recovery of function, and development of treatment resistance. Accurate diagnosis in the peripartum period will impact treatment decisions and long-term therapy. Clinicians need to be vigilant, especially during maintenance therapy, to identify these patients and ensure appropriate antipsychotic therapy is provided.

  3. Episodic reinforcement learning control approach for biped walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Duško

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid dynamic control approach to the realization of humanoid biped robotic walk, focusing on the policy gradient episodic reinforcement learning with fuzzy evaluative feedback. The proposed structure of controller involves two feedback loops: a conventional computed torque controller and an episodic reinforcement learning controller. The reinforcement learning part includes fuzzy information about Zero-Moment- Point errors. Simulation tests using a medium-size 36-DOF humanoid robot MEXONE were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  4. CPEB3 is associated with human episodic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vogler

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB proteins are crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory in model organisms. A highly conserved, mammalian-specific short intronic sequence within CPEB3 has been identified as a ribozyme with self-cleavage properties. In humans the ribozyme sequence is polymorphic and harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism which influences cleavage activity of the ribozyme. Here we show that this variation is related to performance in an episodic memory task and that the effect of the variation depends on the emotional valence of the presented material. Our data support a role for human CPEB3 in human episodic memory.

  5. Episodic ataxia type 1: a neuronal potassium channelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakulendran, Sanjeev; Schorge, Stephanie; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Hanna, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Episodic ataxia type 1 is a paroxysmal neurological disorder characterized by short-lived attacks of recurrent midline cerebellar dysfunction and continuous motor activity. Mutations in KCN1A, the gene encoding Kv1.1, a voltage-gated neuronal potassium channel, are associated with the disorder. Although rare, the syndrome highlights the fundamental features of genetic ion-channel diseases and serves as a useful model for understanding more common paroxysmal disorders, such as epilepsy and migraine. This review examines our current understanding of episodic ataxia type 1, focusing on its clinical and genetic features, pathophysiology, and treatment.

  6. [Disability, autism and neurodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the emergence of the neurodiversity movement in the context of studies about disabilities and the political organization of disabled people. The neurodiversity movement is organized by the so-called high functioning autists, who believe that autism is not a disease to be treated and, if possible, cured. It is instead a human difference that has to be respected just like other differences (sexual, racial, among others). The activists of the neurodiversity movement oppose the groups of parents of autistic children and professionals seeking for a cure for autism. This article presents the arguments of the pro- and anti-cure groups and analyzes both positions as well as their impact upon the field of health and the development of public policies for autists.

  7. Prostitution, disability and prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-06-01

    Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception.

  8. Disabling Radiological Dispersal Terror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M

    2002-11-08

    Terror resulting from the use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) relies upon an individual's lack of knowledge and understanding regarding its significance. Disabling this terror will depend upon realistic reviews of the current conservative radiation protection regulatory standards. It will also depend upon individuals being able to make their own informed decisions merging perceived risks with reality. Preparation in these areas will reduce the effectiveness of the RDD and may even reduce the possibility of its use.

  9. 20 CFR 718.204 - Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and total disability due to pneumoconiosis. 718.204... MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY...

  10. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above.

  12. Implementation of a disability management policy in a large healthcare employer: a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Cameron A; Skivington, Kathryn; Lay, Morgan; Lifshen, Marni; Etches, Jacob; Chambers, Andrea

    2017-06-17

    This study describes the process and outcomes of the implementation of a strengthened disability management policy in a large Canadian healthcare employer. Key elements of the strengthened policy included an emphasis on early contact, the training of supervisors and the integration of union representatives in return-to-work (RTW) planning. The study applied mixed methods, combining a process evaluation within the employer and a quasi-experimental outcome evaluation between employers for a 3-year period prior to and following policy implementation in January 2012. Staff in the implementation organisation (n=4000) and staff in a peer group of 29 large hospitals (n=1 19 000). Work disability episode incidence and duration. Both qualitative and quantitative measures of the implementation process were predominantly positive. Over the 6-year observation period, there were 624 work disability episodes in the organisation and 8604 in the comparison group of 29 large hospitals. The annual per cent change in episode incidence in the organisation was -5.6 (95% CI -9.9 to -1.1) comparable to the annual per cent change in the comparison group: -6.2 (-7.2 to -5.3). Disability episode durations also declined in the organisation, from a mean of 19.4 days (16.5, 22.3) in the preintervention period to 10.9 days (8.7, 13.2) in the postintervention period. Reductions in disability durations were also observed in the comparison group: from a mean of 13.5 days (12.9, 14.1) in the 2009-2011 period to 10.5 days (9.9, 11.1) in the 2012-2014 period. The incidence of work disability episodes and the durations of work disability declined strongly in this hospital sector over the 6-year observation period. The implementation of the organisation's RTW policy was associated with larger reductions in disability durations than observed in the comparison group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  13. Episodic ataxia type 1 without episodic ataxia: the diagnostic utility of nerve excitability studies in individuals with KCNA1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Veronica; Wraige, Elizabeth; Lascelles, Karine; Bostock, Hugh

    2013-10-01

    Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is caused by mutations in the KCNA1 gene encoding the fast potassium channel Kv1.1 and is characterized clinically by brief episodes of ataxia and continuous and spontaneous motor unit activity. Atypical presentations, in which the predominant manifestation is related to the peripheral nervous system, may lead to the diagnosis being missed or delayed, with the potential risk of individuals receiving inappropriate or unnecessary investigations and treatment. We present a case of a 15-year-old female with EA1 who had never had episodes of ataxia, and whose hand movements were initially thought to represent a tremor. Genetic screening for KCNA1 mutations was precipitated by the results of the nerve excitability studies (TROND protocol), which showed changes typical of reduced fast potassium channel conductance. This case highlights the utility of nerve excitability studies in identifying individuals with KCNA1 mutations. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  14. 75 FR 22767 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Project (DRRP)--Transition to... Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by NIDRR. Specifically, this...

  15. 77 FR 24934 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Proposed Priority--National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project (DRRP)--Employment of Individuals With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...

  16. 77 FR 40601 - Final Priority: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program; Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Final Priority: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program; Disability Rehabilitation Research Project; Employment of Individuals With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of Special Education...: 84.133A-1. Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR...

  17. 75 FR 21278 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)--Disability and Rehabilitation...-Level Characteristics Related to Employment Among Individuals With Disabilities Catalog of Federal... Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation...

  18. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  19. 43 CFR 2.84 - What information must I put in my Touhy Request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information must I put in my Touhy Request? 2.84 Section 2.84 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND... Responsibilities of Requesters § 2.84 What information must I put in my Touhy Request? Your Touhy Request must:...

  20. 47 CFR 95.408 - (CB Rule 8) How high may I put my antenna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (CB Rule 8) How high may I put my antenna? 95.408 Section 95.408 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL....408 (CB Rule 8) How high may I put my antenna? (a) Antenna means the radiating system...

  1. Muscular power, neuromuscular activation, and performance in shot put athletes at preseason and at competition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, Thomas A; Terzis, Gerasimos; Boudolos, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Georgios

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in shot put performance, muscular power, and neuromuscular activation of the lower extremities, between the preseason and the competition period, in skilled shot put athletes using the rotational technique. Shot put performance was assessed at the start of the pre-season period as well as after 12 weeks, at the competition period, in nine shot putters. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right vastus lateralis muscle was recorded during all shot put trials. Maximum squat strength (1RM) and mechanical parameters during the countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force platform were also determined at pre-season and at competition period. Shot put performance increased 4.7% (p put performance was significantly related with muscular power and takeoff velocity during the CMJ, at competition period (r = 0.66, p put performance. These results suggest that muscular power of the lower extremities is a better predictor of rotational shot put performance than absolute muscular strength in skilled athletes, at least during the competition period.

  2. 41 CFR 102-33.105 - What special requirements must we put into our CAS contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What special requirements must we put into our CAS contracts? 102-33.105 Section 102-33.105 Public Contracts and Property... to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.105 What special requirements must we put into our...

  3. 14 CFR 11.43 - What information must I put in my written comments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must I put in my written comments? 11.43 Section 11.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... information must I put in my written comments? (a) Your written comments must be in English and must...

  4. 36 CFR 1012.5 - What information must I put in my Touhy Request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must I put in my Touhy Request? 1012.5 Section 1012.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST LEGAL... information must I put in my Touhy Request? Your Touhy Request must: (a) Identify the employee or record;...

  5. SuchThatCast Episode 3: J.D. Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soraker, Johnny

    2012-01-01

    SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was

  6. Processing Depth and Episodic Retrieval: an fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Beratis, Ion

    2010-01-01

    Background. According to the reinstatement theory that stems from the transfer appropriate processing (TAP) and the encoding specificity principles, episodic retrieval involves reactivation of processes and, therefore, of brain regions that were active during encoding. Hence, if two encoding conditions engage different cognitive operations, qualitative differences are expected also to be present at the retrieval phase. Functional neuroimaging applications have detected qualitative differences...

  7. Differential Contributions of Language Skills to Children's Episodic Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemfuss, J. Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Theorists have identified language as a critical contributor to children's episodic memory development, yet studies linking language and memory have had mixed results. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms linking language and memory and to explain the previous mixed results. Sixty-four preschool children's receptive and productive…

  8. Memory's penumbra: episodic memory decisions induce lingering mnemonic biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Katherine; Sadanand, Arhanti; Davachi, Lila

    2012-07-27

    How do we decide if the people we meet and the things we see are familiar or new? If something is new, we need to encode it as a memory distinct from already stored episodes, using a process known as pattern separation. If familiar, it can be used to reactivate a previously stored memory, by a process known as pattern completion. To orchestrate these conflicting processes, current models propose that the episodic memory system uses environmental cues to establish processing biases that favor either pattern separation during encoding or pattern completion during retrieval. To assess this theory, we measured how people's memory formation and decisions are influenced by their recent engagement in episodic encoding and retrieval. We found that the recent encoding of novel objects improved subsequent identification of subtle changes, a task thought to rely on pattern separation. Conversely, recent retrieval of old objects increased the subsequent integration of stored information into new memories, a process thought to rely on pattern completion. These experiments provide behavioral evidence that episodic encoding and retrieval evoke lingering biases that influence subsequent mnemonic processing.

  9. Differential Contributions of Language Skills to Children's Episodic Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemfuss, J. Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Theorists have identified language as a critical contributor to children's episodic memory development, yet studies linking language and memory have had mixed results. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms linking language and memory and to explain the previous mixed results. Sixty-four preschool children's receptive and productive…

  10. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  11. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, delusi...

  12. Frequency of fever episodes related to febrile seizure recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); N.E. Jansen (Nichon); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the number of fever episodes as a risk factor for febrile seizure recurrence during the first 6 months after the last previous febrile seizure. In a 6-month follow-up study of 155 children, aged 3 months to 5 y, with a first or a recurrent febrile

  13. SuchThatCast Episode 3: J.D. Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Søraker, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was recen

  14. A Social Episode Model of Human Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Robert G.; Freeman, William M.

    1976-01-01

    A social episode model of sexual behavior is proposed with emphasis placed on arousal as a crucial variable. This model argues against a disease or deficiency concept of homosexuality. The authors hold a therapist should adequately respond to a valid sexual orientation request. (Author)

  15. Remember Bach: an investigation in episodic memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2005-12-01

    Emotional events are remembered better than nonemotional ones, especially after a long period of time. In this study, we investigated whether emotional music is kept better in episodic long-term memory than less emotional music and to which extent musical structure is important.

  16. Late postoperative episodic and constant hypoxaemia and associated ECG abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Rasmussen, Verner; von Jessen, F

    1990-01-01

    heart rate increased 16 beat min-1 (P less than 0.001) and mean oxygen saturation (SaO2) decreased 2.6% (P less than 0.001) after operation. Episodic oxygen desaturation to less than 80% occurred in four patients before operation, but in 13 patients after operation (P less than 0.05). ECG abnormalities...

  17. An Overview of ECCO (Episodic Communication Channels in Organization) Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilio, John, Jr.; Rudolph, Evan E.

    Based upon Keith Davis's 1952 Ohio State doctoral dissertation on Episodic Communication Channels in Organizations (ECCO), further testing with ECCO methodology has found this analytic procedure to be basically sound, though it has expected weaknesses. Using a working situation as an example, surveys were taken to test the qualities of…

  18. Disability: concepts and statistical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordana Baldassarre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The measurement and definition of disability is difficult due to its objective and subjective characteristics. In Italy, three different perspectives have been developed during the last 40 years. These various perspectives have had an effect, not only on how to measure disability, but also on policies to improve the social integration of people with disabilities.

    Methods: This paper examines the various conceptual models behind the definition of disability and the differences in the estimated number of persons with disabilities. In addition, it analyses in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, disability and health, the European and international initiatives undertaken to harmonize the definitions of disability.

    Discussion: There are various bodies and central government agencies that either have management data or carry out statistical systematic surveys and disability surveys. Statistically speaking, the worst aspect of this scenario is that it creates confusion and uncertainty among the end users of this data, namely the policy makers. At international level the statistical data on disability is scarcely comparable among countries, despite huge efforts on behalf of international organisations to harmonize classifications and definitions of disability.

    Conclusions: Statistical and administrative surveys provide information flows using a different definition and label based on a conceptual model that reflects the time period in which they were implemented. The use of different prescriptive definitions of disability produces different counts of persons with disabilities in Italy. For this reason it is important to interpret the data correctly and choose the appropriate cross section that best represents the population on which to focus attention.

  19. Report of Disability Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2011-01-01

    In order to inform the work of the Value for Money (VFM) Review of Disability Services, an Expert Reference Group was established comprising representatives from the DoH and HSE, disability agencies and representative groups. The Group conducted an extensive policy review and its Report is here. In essence, it proposes a reframing of disability services towards a model of individualised supports, underpinned by mainstreaming of all public services.   Click here to download PDF 1.67...

  20. Disability associated with mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Background: Disability associated with mental illness is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. The present study looks at some aspects of disability associated with 7 psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, dementia, and mental and behavioural disorders due to the use of alcohol. Aims: (i) To evaluate the nature and quantity of disabilities in the study groups; (ii) to compare the degree of ...

  1. Relation of eye dominance with performance and subjective ratings in golf putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yoshio; Lee, Mi-Sook

    2005-06-01

    Previous research has discussed the interaction of hand preference, eye dominance, and sport performance. In this study, the relation of eye dominance with performance and subjective ratings in golf putting was investigated. 47 right-handed Japanese students from a college of physical education putted 10 balls to a drawn circle 3 m away, each under right-handed and left-handed stance conditions. Putting performance was measured by the number of successful putts. After putting in each condition, they rated subjective visibility and feelings of hitting. Analyses indicated that right-eyed subjects had significantly better performance using the right-handed stance than the left-handed stance, whereas left-eyed subjects showed the opposite. Most subjective ratings were more positive with right-handed stance for both right-eyed and left-eyed subjects. These findings suggest that eye dominance could have some influence on putting performance of Japanese novice golfers.

  2. 20 CFR 416.1415 - Disability hearing-disability hearing officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability hearing-disability hearing... Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Reconsideration § 416.1415 Disability hearing—disability hearing officers. (a) General. Your disability hearing will be conducted by a disability hearing officer who was...

  3. Research methods with disabled populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Elizabeth; Anastas, Jeane

    2006-01-01

    Although social work and related fields need more research involving people with disabilities, such studies can pose special challenges due to lack of understanding of disability issues, the disempowerment and invisibility of many who are disabled, and communication barriers. This article discusses ways of eliminating bias and maintaining ethical safeguards when designing and conducting research on people with disabilities. Participatory action research, which engages those studied in the design and conduct of research, is discussed as a model, as is the use of qualitative methods. Recent methodological innovations in survey research with deaf populations are also described and illustrated.

  4. Clinical correlates of acute bipolar depressive episode with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldieraro, Marco Antonio; Sylvia, Louisa G; Dufour, Steven; Walsh, Samantha; Janos, Jessica; Rabideau, Dustin J; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin G; Bobo, William V; Friedman, Edward S; Gao, Keming; Tohen, Mauricio; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Kocsis, James H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2017-08-01

    Psychotic bipolar depressive episodes remain remarkably understudied despite being common and having a significant impact on bipolar disorder. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of depressed bipolar patients with current psychosis compared to those without psychosis. We used baseline data of a comparative effectiveness study of lithium and quetiapine for bipolar disorder (the Bipolar CHOICE study) to compare demographic, clinical, and functioning variables between those with and without psychotic symptoms. Of the 482 participants, 303 (62.9%) were eligible for the present study by meeting DSM-IV criteria for an acute bipolar depressive episode. Univariate analyses were conducted first, and then included in a model controlling for symptom severity. The sample was composed mostly of women (60.7%) and the mean age was 39.5±12.1 years. Psychosis was present in 10.6% (n=32) of the depressed patients. Psychotic patients had less education, lower income, and were more frequently single and unemployed. Psychosis was also associated with a more severe depressive episode, higher suicidality, more comorbid conditions and worse functioning. Most group differences disappeared when controlling for depression severity. Only outpatients were included and the presence of psychosis in previous episodes was not assessed. Psychosis during bipolar depressive episodes is present even in an outpatient sample. Psychotic, depressed patients have worse illness outcomes, but future research is necessary to confirm if these outcomes are only associated with the severity of the disorder or if some of them are independent of it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reasonable Adjustments in Assessment: Putting Law and Policy into Practice in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Joy; Dickson, Elizabeth; Webster, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Disability Standards for Education 2005 (Cth) require education providers to make reasonable adjustments in educational assessment so that students with disability can participate on the same basis as other students and be able to demonstrate what they know and can do. Reasonableness is governed by a determination of the balance of…

  6. Social interactions of students with disabilities who use augmentative and alternative communication in inclusive classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun-Ching; Carter, Erik W; Sisco, Lynn G

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the naturally occurring social interactions for students with disabilities who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in general education classrooms. We observed 16 students who used AAC and received services under the categories of autism or intellectual disability. Participants primarily interacted with their support personnel and infrequently conversed with peers despite often being in close proximity. Few interaction episodes were initiated by students who used AAC, and initiations to peers and adults appeared to serve somewhat different functions. Students with disabilities relied more heavily on facial expressions and gestures than on the use of their AAC devices. Recommendations for promoting interaction opportunities among students are offered, and future research directions are suggested.

  7. Work disability among workers with osteoarthritis of the knee: risks factors, assessment scales, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Maillette, Pascale; Coutu, Marie-France; Durand, Marie-José; Hagemeister, Nicola; Hébert, Luc J

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) among individuals active in the workforce will increase considerably in the next generation and a significant percentage of these individuals are expected to experience work disability because of this disease. The aim of this review was to summarize the existing knowledge on the following: (a) work disability risk factors; (b) reliable and valid work disability assessment tools; and (c) efficient interventions to reduce work disability in individuals with knee OA. An electronic document search using key words and MeSH terms was performed with various databases. Two independent investigators were tasked with the screening of articles and quality assessment. A critical appraisal of what is known was performed and recommendations for clinical practice and future research were formulated. The database search yielded 61 references. One article on risk factors, three related to assessment tools, and two on interventions were retained. Age and previous work absence episodes were found to be risk factors of workplace disability. The Work Limitation Questionnaire, the Work Instability Scale for Rheumatoid Arthritis, and the Workplace Activity Limitations Scale were psychometrically sound for the population studied. Education-based interventions seem to be more effective than conventional interventions in helping individuals with knee OA return to work faster, reduce the number of days absent from work, and improve their overall well-being. This review is the first to summarize the evidence on work disability risk factors, assessment tools, and interventions for this growing population and to show a critical gap in the existing knowledge.

  8. Gender-Based Correlation Profiles Among the Release Factors and Distance Thrown in Paralympic Seated Shot Put.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Davis, Ronald; Judge, Lawrence W; Kwon, Young-Hoo; Han, Kihoon; Kim, Jemin; Kim, Jaewoong; Kim, Jaehwa

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among release factors (speed, height, and angle) and distance thrown in Paralympic seated shot put. Forty-eight trials performed by 11 men and 5 women during the 2012 US Paralympic trials in track and field were analyzed. With both genders combined, release speed (r = .95, p < .01) and angle (r = .51, p < .01) showed significant correlations to distance thrown. Release speed (r = .94, p < .01) in men and all release factors (r = .60-.98, p < .02) in women showed significant correlations to distance. Release speed and angle were identified as important predictors of the distance, explaining over 89-96% of the variance in distance thrown. Unlike athletes without disability, seated shot-putters exhibited significant positive speed-angle correlations (combined: r = .37, p < .01; women: r = .57, p = .03). Application of these results should address a focus in training on generating speed through the release point with a consistent release angle.

  9. Attitudes Toward the Psychologically Disabled, Physically Disabled, and Nondisabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Carol A.; and Others

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes on nondisabled persons toward physically disabled, psychologically disabled and nondisabled persons. The type of impairment, physical, psychological or normal, degree of impairment, mild, severe, sex of stimulus person male, female and the sex of the subjects were the independent variables.…

  10. The Law's Understanding of Intellectual Disability as a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is differently yet validly described by different professions. Legal professionals find it most useful to consider ID as a disability rather than a disorder. Because the law regulates the actions of individuals in a society and the actions of society on an individual, the law's concern in dealing with a person with ID…

  11. Disabilities Information Flow: A Disabilities Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bin; Allison, Colin; Nicholl, J. Ross; Moodley, Luke; Roberts, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The Disabilities Information Flow (DIF) project at the University of St Andrews has sought to provide a means of efficiently managing all student disabilities information within the institution and provide appropriate role-based service interfaces for all staff who need to routinely interact with this information. This paper describes the software…

  12. The World Report on Disability and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Officer, Alana; Shakespeare, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The "World Report on Disability" was requested by the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO). Because disability is broader than health, WHO partnered with the World Bank. The "World Report" was published in 2011 and provides a comprehensive scientific analysis on the global situation…

  13. Emotional false memories in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD.

  14. Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Programs & Activities > Administration on Disabilities > AIDD Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AIDD) Realizing the ... AIDD has a new address and phone number: Administration for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Administration for Community ...

  15. A Reduction in Delay Discounting by Using Episodic Future Imagination and the Association with Episodic Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Kleinschmidt, Helena; Martin, Jason A.; Han, Ying; Thelen, Manuela; Meiberth, Dix; Jessen, Frank; Weber, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) refers to the phenomenon that individuals discount future consequences. Previous studies showed that future imagination reduces DD, which was mediated by functional connectivity between medial prefrontal valuation areas and a key region for episodic memory (hippocampus). Future imagination involves an initial period of construction and a later period of elaboration, with the more elaborative latter period recruiting more cortical regions. This study examined whether elaborative future imagination modulated DD, and if so, what are the underlying neural substrates. It was assumed that cortical areas contribute to the modulation effect during the later period of imagination. Since future imagination is supported by episodic memory capacity, we additionally hypothesize that the neural network underlying the modulation effect is related to individual episodic memory capacity. Twenty-two subjects received an extensive interview on personal future events, followed by an fMRI DD experiment with and without the need to perform elaborative future imagination simultaneously. Subjects' episodic memory capacity was also assessed. Behavioral results replicate previous findings of a reduced discount rate in the DD plus imagination condition compared to the DD only condition. The behavioral effect positively correlated with: (i) subjective value signal changes in midline brain structures during the initial imagination period; and (ii) signal changes in left prefrontoparietal areas during the later imagination period. Generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses reveal positive correlations between the behavioral effect and functional connectivity among the following areas: right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left hippocampus; left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) and left hippocampus; and left IPC and bilateral occipital cortices. These changes in functional connectivity are also associated with episodic memory capacity. A hierarchical

  16. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Obaid Al-Hamzawi

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE in the Iraqi general population.The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006-2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI.Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46% of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year.MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression.

  17. Just What Is the Disability Perspective on Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Tom

    2016-05-01

    In the helpful article "Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology," Joseph Stramondo adds to the critique of actually existing bioethics and explains why disability activists and scholars so often find fault with the arguments of bioethicists. He is careful not to stereotype either community-rightly, given that bioethicists endorse positions as disparate as utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, and feminist ethics, among others. Although Stramondo never explicitly mentions utilitarians or liberals, it seems probable that these are the main targets of his discontent. The disability community, as he concedes, is also a broad church. Yet for this reason, I do not believe that you can read off positions on bioethics questions from either disability embodiment or disability organization affiliation.

  18. Symptom severity and disability in psychiatric disorders: The U.S. Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Velázquez, R; Jokela, M; Rosenström, T H

    2017-11-01

    While most psychiatric diagnoses are based on simple counts of symptoms, some symptoms may be sign of a more severe mental syndrome than others. This calls for validated estimates of the relative severity specific symptoms imply within a disorder. We focused on four diagnostic disorders: Manic Episode (ME), Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Symptom-specific severity parameters were estimated, and validated by examining their association with levels of self-reported disability in daily activities over and above the number of symptoms. Data from the cohort study of the U.S. Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) was used, which comprises the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, National Survey of American Life, and the National Latino and Asian American Study. The four analytic datasets included respondents who endorsed disorder-specific pre-screening symptoms according to the World Mental Health Survey Initiative's version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Disability was measured using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Item Response Theory and Tobit models were implemented. For ME, PTSD, and GAD (not MDE) symptom severity based on psychometric Item Response Theory predicted disability outcomes after adjusting for symptom count. For PTSD, symptom count was not associated with disability. The analytic sample for each psychiatric disorder was based on a pre-selection stemming from index criteria (e.g. sadness or pleasure loss for MDE), which implies that our results are only generalizable to those individuals at risk rather than for the entire population. Additionally, we acknowledge that the use of unidimensional models is only one of the several options to model psychopathological constructs. The same number of symptoms may be related to different levels of disability, depending on the specific symptoms from which the person suffers. Diagnostic

  19. Stresses and Disability in Depression across Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmishtha S. Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression, though generally episodic, results in lasting disability, distress, and burden. Rising prevalence of depression and suicide in the context of epidemiological transition demands more attention to social dimensions like gender related stresses, dysfunction, and their role in outcome of depression. Cross-sectional and follow-up assessment of men and women with depression at a psychiatric tertiary centre was undertaken to compare their illness characteristics including suicidal ideation, stresses, and functioning on GAF, SOFAS, and GARF scales (N=107. We reassessed the patients on HDRS-17 after 6 weeks of treatment. Paired t-test and chi-square test of significance were used to compare the two groups, both before and after treatment. Interpersonal and marital stresses were reported more commonly by women (P<0.001 and financial stresses by men (P<0.001 though relational functioning was equally impaired in both. Women had suffered stresses for significantly longer duration (P=0.0038. Men had more impairment in social and occupational functioning compared to females (P=0.0062. History of suicide attempts was significantly associated with more severe depression and lower levels of functioning in case of females with untreated depression. Significant cross-gender differences in stresses, their duration, and types of dysfunction mandate focusing on these aspects over and above the criterion-based diagnosis.

  20. Psychiatric disorders and muscle tenderness in episodic and chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongini, Franco; Deregibus, Andrea; Rota, Eugenia

    2005-09-01

    This review first reports on the data concerning the relationship between migraine and personality traits and psychiatric disorders. The relationship between migraine and tenderness of the pericranial and cervical muscles is then discussed. In one study, a psychologic assessment was performed in 56 women with migraine, and the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered at baseline (T0) and after 6-7 years (T2). Frequency, severity and duration of migraine were recorded at T0, after treatment (T1) and at T2, and their relationship to the prevalence of depression, MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory data were examined. Pain parameters improved in all patients in T0-1, but were higher at T2 in patients with depression at T0. The patients whose migraine improved at T2 had significantly lower MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores at T0 and T2. Moreover, the prevalence of depression of the patients whose migraine improved at T2 was 37.5% at T0 and decreased to 12.5% at T2. The authors subsequently studied the function of the frontal lobe in 23 female patients previously treated for chronic migraine and 23 controls by applying three neuropsychologic tests (gambling task, tower of hanoi-3 and object alternation test). The patient group performed significantly worse on the tower of hanoi-3 and the object alternation test. In order to assess the extent to which muscle tenderness may relate to psychiatric disorders in patients with migraine and tension-type headache, diagnosed according International Headache Society criteria [2004], a psychologic assessment was performed and palpation tenderness scores calculated for the pericranial and cervical muscles in 459 patients. In total, 125 patients had frequent episodic migraine, 97 had chronic migraine, 82 had frequent episodic tension-type headache and chronic tension-type headache was present in 83. In a further 72 patients, both episodic migraine and