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Sample records for puts strong constraints

  1. Distance and slope constraints: adaptation and variability in golf putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Gonçalo; Couceiro, Micael S; Barreiros, João; Clemente, Filipe M; Mendes, Rui; Martins, Fernando M

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to understand the adaptation to external constraints and the effects of variability in a golf putting task. We describe the adaptation of relevant variables of golf putting to the distance to the hole and to the addition of a slope. The sample consisted of 10 adult male (33.80 ± 11.89 years), volunteers, right handed and highly skilled golfers with an average handicap of 10.82. Each player performed 30 putts at distances of 2, 3 and 4 meters (90 trials in Condition 1). The participants also performed 90 trials, at the same distances, with a constraint imposed by a slope (Condition 2). The results indicate that the players change some parameters to adjust to the task constraints, namely the duration of the backswing phase, the speed of the club head and the acceleration at the moment of impact with the ball. The effects of different golf putting distances in the no-slope condition on different kinematic variables suggest a linear adjustment to distance variation that was not observed when in the slope condition.

  2. Households facing constraints. Fuel poverty put into context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Ute [ISG Business School, Paris (France); Meier, Helena [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2014-02-15

    The present paper discusses the concept of fuel poverty taking into account the arbitrages made by households when they are facing economic constraints. Fuel poverty is still lacking a common definition throughout Europe: while the UK and France have (different) official definitions, there is still no definition in a country like Germany, or at the European level. Where definitions exist, they often consider that fuel poor households have high energy needs. The possibility of being fuel poor even without having high energy needs and the various arbitrage possibilities of households - i.e. to under-spend and use too little energy - are not systematically discussed. Our paper tries to fill that gap by putting fuel poverty into the larger context of constraints faced by households. Based on a graphical analysis, it shows that different situations of fuel poverty might occur. It results in the identification of two distinct fuel poverty problems: an ''energy inequality'' problem, reflected by the fact that some households pay disproportionately high energy bills, and an ''energy affordability'' problem that can affect a larger share of the population. It finally explores the two types of fuel poverty for European countries and discusses policy implications.

  3. Households facing constraints. Fuel poverty put into context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Ute; Meier, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The present paper discusses the concept of fuel poverty taking into account the arbitrages made by households when they are facing economic constraints. Fuel poverty is still lacking a common definition throughout Europe: while the UK and France have (different) official definitions, there is still no definition in a country like Germany, or at the European level. Where definitions exist, they often consider that fuel poor households have high energy needs. The possibility of being fuel poor even without having high energy needs and the various arbitrage possibilities of households - i.e. to under-spend and use too little energy - are not systematically discussed. Our paper tries to fill that gap by putting fuel poverty into the larger context of constraints faced by households. Based on a graphical analysis, it shows that different situations of fuel poverty might occur. It results in the identification of two distinct fuel poverty problems: an ''energy inequality'' problem, reflected by the fact that some households pay disproportionately high energy bills, and an ''energy affordability'' problem that can affect a larger share of the population. It finally explores the two types of fuel poverty for European countries and discusses policy implications.

  4. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  5. Putting lexical constraints in context into the visual-world paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Jared M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Trueswell, John C

    2008-06-01

    Prior eye-tracking studies of spoken sentence comprehension have found that the presence of two potential referents, e.g., two frogs, can guide listeners toward a Modifier interpretation of Put the frog on the napkin... despite strong lexical biases associated with Put that support a Goal interpretation of the temporary ambiguity (Tanenhaus, M. K., Spivey-Knowlton, M. J., Eberhard, K. M. & Sedivy, J. C. (1995). Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension. Science, 268, 1632-1634; Trueswell, J. C., Sekerina, I., Hill, N. M. & Logrip, M. L. (1999). The kindergarten-path effect: Studying on-line sentence processing in young children. Cognition, 73, 89-134). This pattern is not expected under constraint-based parsing theories: cue conflict between the lexical evidence (which supports the Goal analysis) and the visuo-contextual evidence (which supports the Modifier analysis) should result in uncertainty about the intended analysis and partial consideration of the Goal analysis. We reexamined these put studies (Experiment 1) by introducing a response time-constraint and a spatial contrast between competing referents (a frog on a napkin vs. a frog in a bowl). If listeners immediately interpret on the... as the start of a restrictive modifier, then their eye movements should rapidly converge on the intended referent (the frog on something). However, listeners showed this pattern only when the phrase was unambiguously a Modifier (Put the frog that's on the...). Syntactically ambiguous trials resulted in transient consideration of the Competitor animal (the frog in something). A reading study was also run on the same individuals (Experiment 2) and performance was compared between the two experiments. Those individuals who relied heavily on lexical biases to resolve a complement ambiguity in reading (The man heard/realized the story had been...) showed increased sensitivity to both lexical and contextual constraints in the put-task; i

  6. Line-of-sight effects in strong lensing: putting theory into practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, Simon; Welschen, Cyril; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: simon.birrer@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: cyril.welschen@student.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    We present a simple method to accurately infer line of sight (LOS) integrated lensing effects for galaxy scale strong lens systems through image reconstruction. Our approach enables us to separate weak lensing LOS effects from the main strong lens deflector. We test our method using mock data and show that strong lens systems can be accurate probes of cosmic shear with a precision on the shear terms of ± 0.003 (statistical error) for an HST-like dataset. We apply our formalism to reconstruct the lens COSMOS 0038+4133 and its LOS. In addition, we estimate the LOS properties with a halo-rendering estimate based on the COSMOS field galaxies and a galaxy-halo connection. The two approaches are independent and complementary in their information content. We find that when estimating the convergence at the strong lens system, performing a joint analysis improves the measure by a factor of two compared to a halo model only analysis. Furthermore the constraints of the strong lens reconstruction lead to tighter constraints on the halo masses of the LOS galaxies. Joint constraints of multiple strong lens systems may add valuable information to the galaxy-halo connection and may allow independent weak lensing shear measurement calibrations.

  7. Strong CMB constraint on P-wave annihilating dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng An

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider a dark sector consisting of dark matter that is a Dirac fermion and a scalar mediator. This model has been extensively studied in the past. If the scalar couples to the dark matter in a parity conserving manner then dark matter annihilation to two mediators is dominated by the P-wave channel and hence is suppressed at very low momentum. The indirect detection constraint from the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually thought to be absent in the model because of this suppression. In this letter we show that dark matter annihilation via bound state formation occurs through the S-wave and hence there is a constraint on the parameter space of the model from the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  8. Strong binary pulsar constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Blas, Diego; Yunes, Nicolás; Barausse, Enrico

    2014-04-25

    Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of general relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry, which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.

  9. Strong Binary Pulsar Constraints on Lorentz Violation in Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas; Barausse, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.

  10. Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Biesiada, Marek; Godlowski, Wlodzimierz

    2012-01-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D ds /D s from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future

  11. Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Biesiada, Marek [Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Godlowski, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: baodingcaoshuo@163.com, E-mail: panyu@cqupt.edu.cn, E-mail: biesiada@us.edu.pl, E-mail: godlowski@uni.opole.pl, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)

    2012-03-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D{sub ds}/D{sub s} from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future.

  12. A note on the CFT origin of the strong constraint of DFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, André; Blumenhagen, Ralph; Lüst, Dieter; Rennecke, Felix

    2014-01-01

    In double field theory, motivated by its field theoretic consistency, the level matching condition is generalized to the so-called strong constraint. In this note, it is investigated what the two-dimensional conformal field theory origin of this constraint is. Initially treating the left- and right-movers as independent, we compute the torus partition function as well as a generalized Virasoro-Shapiro amplitude. In non-compact directions the strong constraint arises from the factorization of the Virasoro-Shapiro amplitude over physical states as determined by the modular invariant partition function. From the same argument, along internal toroidal directions, no analogous constraint arises

  13. Strong Helioseismic Constraints on Weakly-Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfonov, Alan

    The extraordinary accuracy of helioseismic data allows detailed theoretical studies of solar plasmas. The necessity to produce solar models matching the experimental results in accuracy imposes strong constrains on the equations of state of solar plasmas. Several discrepancies between the experimental data and models have been successfully identified as the signatures of various non-ideal phenomena. Of a particular interest are questions of the position of the energy levels and the continuum edge and of the effect of the excited states in the solar plasma. Calculations of energy level and continuum shifts, based on the Green function formalism, appeared recently in the literature. These results have been used to examine effects of the shifts on the thermodynamic quantities. A comparison with helioseismic data has shown that the calculations based on lower-level approximations, such as the static screening in the effective two-particle wave equation, agree very well with the experimental data. However, the case of full dynamic screening produces thermodynamic quantities inconsistent with observations. The study of the effect of different internal partition functions on a complete set of thermodynamic quantities has revealed the signature of the excited states in the MHD (Mihalas, Hummer, Dappen) equation of state. The presence of exited states causes a characteristic 'wiggle' in the thermodynamic quantities due to the density-dependent occupation probabilities. This effect is absent if the ACTEX (ACTivity EXpansion) equation of state is used. The wiggle has been found to be most prominent in the quantities sensitive to density. The size of this excited states effect is well within the observational power of helioseismology, and very recent inversion analyses of helioseismic data seem to indicate the presence of the wiggle in the sun. This has a potential importance for the helioseismic determination of the helium abundance of the sun.

  14. Harnessing the uncertainty monster: Putting quantitative constraints on the intergenerational social discount rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Freeman, Mark C.; Mann, Michael E.

    2017-09-01

    There is broad consensus among economists that unmitigated climate change will ultimately have adverse global economic consequences, that the costs of inaction will likely outweigh the cost of taking action, and that social planners should therefore put a price on carbon. However, there is considerable debate and uncertainty about the appropriate value of the social discount rate, that is the extent to which future damages should be discounted relative to mitigation costs incurred now. We briefly review the ethical issues surrounding the social discount rate and then report a simulation experiment that constrains the value of the discount rate by considering 4 sources of uncertainty and ambiguity: Scientific uncertainty about the extent of future warming, social uncertainty about future population and future economic development, political uncertainty about future mitigation trajectories, and ethical ambiguity about how much the welfare of future generations should be valued today. We compute a certainty-equivalent declining discount rate that accommodates all those sources of uncertainty and ambiguity. The forward (instantaneous) discount rate converges to a value near 0% by century's end and the spot (horizon) discount rate drops below 2% by 2100 and drops below previous estimates by 2070.

  15. Strong constraints on self-interacting dark matter with light mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringmann, Torsten; Walia, Parampreet

    2017-04-01

    Coupling dark matter to light new particles is an attractive way to combine thermal production with strong velocity-dependent self-interactions. Here we point out that in such models the dark matter annihilation rate is generically enhanced by the Sommerfeld effect, and we derive the resulting constraints from the Cosmic Microwave Background and other indirect detection probes. For the frequently studied case of s-wave annihilation these constraints exclude the entire parameter space where the self-interactions are large enough to address the small-scale problems of structure formation.

  16. Strong constraints on self-interacting dark matter with light mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringmann, Torsten; Walia, Parampreet [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Physics; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Coupling dark matter to light new particles is an attractive way to combine thermal production with strong velocity-dependent self-interactions. Here we point out that in such models the dark matter annihilation rate is generically enhanced by the Sommerfeld effect, and we derive the resulting constraints from the Cosmic Microwave Background and other indirect detection probes. For the frequently studied case of s-wave annihilation these constraints exclude the entire parameter space where the self-interactions are large enough to address the small-scale problems of structure formation.

  17. A Strongly and Superlinearly Convergent SQP Algorithm for Optimization Problems with Linear Complementarity Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Jinbao; Li Jianling; Mo Xingde

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a kind of optimization problem with linear complementarity constraints, and presents a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm for solving a stationary point of the problem. The algorithm is a modification of the SQP algorithm proposed by Fukushima et al. [Computational Optimization and Applications, 10 (1998),5-34], and is based on a reformulation of complementarity condition as a system of linear equations. At each iteration, one quadratic programming and one system of equations needs to be solved, and a curve search is used to yield the step size. Under some appropriate assumptions, including the lower-level strict complementarity, but without the upper-level strict complementarity for the inequality constraints, the algorithm is proved to possess strong convergence and superlinear convergence. Some preliminary numerical results are reported

  18. A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, T; Liberati, S; Mattingly, D

    2003-08-28

    Special relativity asserts that physical phenomena appear the same to all unaccelerated observers. This is called Lorentz symmetry and relates long wavelengths to short ones: if the symmetry is exact it implies that space-time must look the same at all length scales. Several approaches to quantum gravity, however, suggest that there may be a microscopic structure of space-time that leads to a violation of Lorentz symmetry. This might arise because of the discreteness or non-commutivity of space-time, or through the action of extra dimensions. Here we determine a very strong constraint on a type of Lorentz violation that produces a maximum electron speed less than the speed of light. We use the observation of 100-MeV synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula to improve the previous limit by a factor of 40 million, ruling out this type of Lorentz violation, and thereby providing an important constraint on theories of quantum gravity.

  19. Constraints on γ and strong phases from B → πK decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Fleischer, Robert

    2001-01-01

    As we pointed out recently, the neutral decays B d → π - + K± and B d → π 0 K may provide non-trivial bounds on the CKM angle γ. Here we reconsider this approach in the light of recent CLEO data, which look very interesting. In particular, the results for the corresponding CP-averaged branching ratios are in favour of strong constraints on γ, where the second quadrant is preferred. Such a situation would be in conflict with the standard analysis of the unitarity triangle. Moreover, constraints on a CO-conserving strong phase δ n are in favour of a negative value of cosδ n , which would be in conflict with the factorization expectation. In addition, there seems to be an interesting discrepancy with the bounds that are implied by the charged B → πK system: whereas these decays favour a range for γ that is similar to that of the neutral modes, they point towards a positive value of cosδ c , which would be in conflict with the expectation of equal signs for cosδ n and cosδ c . (author)

  20. Constraints on γ and strong phases from B → πK decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, A.J.

    2000-08-01

    As we pointed out recently, the neutral decays B d → π -+ K ± and B d → π 0 K may provide non-trivial bounds on the CKM angle γ. Here we reconsider this approach in the light of recent CLEO data, which look very interesting. In particular, the results for the corresponding CP-averaged branching ratios are in favour of strong constraints on γ, where the second quadrant is preferred. Such a situation would be in conflict with the standard analysis of the unitarity triangle. Moreover, constraints on a CP-conserving strong phase δ n are in favour of a negative value of cos δ n , which would be in conflict with the factorization expectation. In addition, there seems to be an interesting discrepancy with the bounds that are implied by the charged B → π K system: whereas these decays favour a range for γ that is similar to that of the neutral modes, they point towards a positive value of cos δ c , which would be in conflict with the expectation of equal signs for cos δ n and cos δ c . (orig.)

  1. Oblique S and T constraints on electroweak strongly-coupled models with a light Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pich, A. [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Rosell, I. [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y de la Computación,Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera,c/ Sant Bartomeu 55, E-46115 Alfara del Patriarca, València (Spain); Sanz-Ciller, J.J. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física Teórica,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid - CSIC,c/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-28

    Using a general effective Lagrangian implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU(2){sub L}⊗SU(2){sub R}→SU(2){sub L+R}, we present a one-loop calculation of the oblique S and T parameters within electroweak strongly-coupled models with a light scalar. Imposing a proper ultraviolet behaviour, we determine S and T at next-to-leading order in terms of a few resonance parameters. The constraints from the global fit to electroweak precision data force the massive vector and axial-vector states to be heavy, with masses above the TeV scale, and suggest that the W{sup +}W{sup −} and ZZ couplings of the Higgs-like scalar should be close to the Standard Model value. Our findings are generic, since they only rely on soft requirements on the short-distance properties of the underlying strongly-coupled theory, which are widely satisfied in more specific scenarios.

  2. Strong Constraints to the Putative Planet Candidate around VB 10 Using Doppler Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Thompson, Ian B.; Osip, David J.; Debes, John H.

    2010-03-01

    We present new radial velocity (RV) measurements of the ultra-cool dwarf VB 10, which was recently announced to host a giant planet detected with astrometry. The new observations were obtained using optical spectrographs (MIKE/Magellan and ESPaDOnS/CFHT) and cover 65% of the reported period of 270 days. The nominal precision of the new Doppler measurements is about 150 m s-1 while their standard deviation is 250 m s-1. However, there are indications that such a larger variation is due to uncontrolled systematic errors. We apply least-squares periodograms to identify the most significant signals and evaluate their false alarm probabilities (FAPs). We show that this method is the proper generalization to astrometric data because (1) it mitigates the coupling of the orbital parameters with the parallax and proper motion, and (2) it permits a direct generalization to include nonlinear Keplerian parameters in a combined fit to astrometry and RV data. Our analysis of the astrometry alone uncovers the reported 270 day period and an even stronger signal at ~50 days. We estimate the uncertainties in the parameters using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Although the new data alone cannot rule out the presence of a candidate, when combined with published RV measurements, the FAPs of the best solutions grow to unacceptable levels strongly suggesting that the observed astrometric wobble is not due to an unseen companion. The new measurements put an upper limit of m sin i ~ 2.5 m jup for a companion with a period shorter than one year and moderate eccentricities. Based on observations collected with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck

  3. A note on the relation between strong and M-stationarity for a class of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Henrion, R.; Surowiec, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 423-434 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints * S-stationary points * M-stationary points * Frechet normal cone * limiting normal cone Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-a note on the relation between strong and m-stationarity for a class of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints.pdf

  4. Strong Constraints on Cosmological Gravity from GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, T.; Bellini, E.; Ferreira, P. G.; Lagos, M.; Noller, J.; Sawicki, I.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of an electromagnetic counterpart (GRB 170817A) to the gravitational-wave signal (GW170817) from the merger of two neutron stars opens a completely new arena for testing theories of gravity. We show that this measurement allows us to place stringent constraints on general scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, while allowing us to place an independent bound on the graviton mass in bimetric theories of gravity. These constraints severely reduce the viable range of cosmological models that have been proposed as alternatives to general relativistic cosmology.

  5. STRONG TIDAL DISSIPATION IN SATURN AND CONSTRAINTS ON ENCELADUS' THERMAL STATE FROM ASTROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainey, Valéry; Desmars, Josselin; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Emelyanov, Nicolai; Remus, Françoise; Karatekin, Özgür; Charnoz, Sébastien; Mathis, Stéphane; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe; Tobie, Gabriel; Zahn, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tidal interactions between Saturn and its satellites play a crucial role in both the orbital migration of the satellites and the heating of their interiors. Therefore, constraining the tidal dissipation of Saturn (here the ratio k 2 /Q) opens the door to the past evolution of the whole system. If Saturn's tidal ratio can be determined at different frequencies, it may also be possible to constrain the giant planet's interior structure, which is still uncertain. Here, we try to determine Saturn's tidal ratio through its current effect on the orbits of the main moons, using astrometric data spanning more than a century. We find an intense tidal dissipation (k 2 /Q = (2.3 ± 0.7) × 10 –4 ), which is about 10 times higher than the usual value estimated from theoretical arguments. As a consequence, eccentricity equilibrium for Enceladus can now account for the huge heat emitted from Enceladus' south pole. Moreover, the measured k 2 /Q is found to be poorly sensitive to the tidal frequency, on the short frequency interval considered. This suggests that Saturn's dissipation may not be controlled by turbulent friction in the fluid envelope as commonly believed. If correct, the large tidal expansion of the moon orbits due to this strong Saturnian dissipation would be inconsistent with the moon formations 4.5 Byr ago above the synchronous orbit in the Saturnian subnebulae. But it would be compatible with a new model of satellite formation in which the Saturnian satellites formed possibly over a longer timescale at the outer edge of the main rings. In an attempt to take into account possible significant torques exerted by the rings on Mimas, we fitted a constant rate da/dt on Mimas' semi-major axis as well. We obtained an unexpected large acceleration related to a negative value of da/dt = –(15.7 ± 4.4) × 10 –15 AU day –1 . Such acceleration is about an order of magnitude larger than the tidal deceleration rates observed for the other moons. If not coming from an

  6. Advanced parallel strategy for strongly coupled fast transient fluid-structure dynamics with dual management of kinematic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Simulating fast transient phenomena involving fluids and structures in interaction for safety purposes requires both accurate and robust algorithms, and parallel computing to reduce the calculation time for industrial models. Managing kinematic constraints linking fluid and structural entities is thus a key issue and this contribution promotes a dual approach over the classical penalty approach, introducing arbitrary coefficients in the solution. This choice however severely increases the complexity of the problem, mainly due to non-permanent kinematic constraints. An innovative parallel strategy is therefore described, whose performances are demonstrated on significant examples exhibiting the full complexity of the target industrial simulations. (authors)

  7. Scale hierarchy in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity: strong constraint from synchrotron radiation in the Crab Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Stefano; Maccione, Luca; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2012-10-12

    Hořava-Lifshitz gravity models contain higher-order operators suppressed by a characteristic scale, which is required to be parametrically smaller than the Planck scale. We show that recomputed synchrotron radiation constraints from the Crab Nebula suffice to exclude the possibility that this scale is of the same order of magnitude as the Lorentz breaking scale in the matter sector. This highlights the need for a mechanism that suppresses the percolation of Lorentz violation in the matter sector and is effective for higher-order operators as well.

  8. PDF constraints and extraction of the strong coupling constant from the inclusive jet cross section at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The recent CMS measurement of the inclusive jet cross section at 7~TeV extends the accessible phase space in jet transverse momentum up to 2 TeV and ranges up to 2.5 in absolute jet rapidity. At the same time the experimental uncertainties are smaller than in previous publications such that these data constrain the parton distribution functions of the proton, notably for the gluon at high fractions of the proton momentum, and provide valuable input to determine the strong coupling at high momentum scales. The impact on the extraction of the parton distribution functions is investigated. Using predictions from theory at next-to-leading order, complemented with electroweak corrections, the strong coupling constant is determined from the inclusive jet cross section to be $\\alpha_S(M_Z) = 0.1185 \\pm 0.0019\\,\\mathrm{(exp.)} \\pm 0.0028\\,\\mathrm{(\\mathrm{PDF})} \\pm 0.0004\\,\\mathrm{(\\mathrm{NP})} ^{+0.0055}_{-0.0022}\\,\\mathrm{(\\mathrm{scale})}$, which is in agreement with the world average.

  9. THE SYSTEMATICS OF STRONG LENS MODELING QUANTIFIED: THE EFFECTS OF CONSTRAINT SELECTION AND REDSHIFT INFORMATION ON MAGNIFICATION, MASS, AND MULTIPLE IMAGE PREDICTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Traci L.; Sharon, Keren, E-mail: tljohn@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Until now, systematic errors in strong gravitational lens modeling have been acknowledged but have never been fully quantified. Here, we launch an investigation into the systematics induced by constraint selection. We model the simulated cluster Ares 362 times using random selections of image systems with and without spectroscopic redshifts and quantify the systematics using several diagnostics: image predictability, accuracy of model-predicted redshifts, enclosed mass, and magnification. We find that for models with >15 image systems, the image plane rms does not decrease significantly when more systems are added; however, the rms values quoted in the literature may be misleading as to the ability of a model to predict new multiple images. The mass is well constrained near the Einstein radius in all cases, and systematic error drops to <2% for models using >10 image systems. Magnification errors are smallest along the straight portions of the critical curve, and the value of the magnification is systematically lower near curved portions. For >15 systems, the systematic error on magnification is ∼2%. We report no trend in magnification error with the fraction of spectroscopic image systems when selecting constraints at random; however, when using the same selection of constraints, increasing this fraction up to ∼0.5 will increase model accuracy. The results suggest that the selection of constraints, rather than quantity alone, determines the accuracy of the magnification. We note that spectroscopic follow-up of at least a few image systems is crucial because models without any spectroscopic redshifts are inaccurate across all of our diagnostics.

  10. The Initial Mass Function in the Nearest Strong Lenses from SNELLS: Assessing the Consistency of Lensing, Dynamical, and Spectroscopic Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Smith, Russell J. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, University of Durham, South Road, Durham (United Kingdom); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Villaume, Alexa [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter, E-mail: anewman@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present new observations of the three nearest early-type galaxy (ETG) strong lenses discovered in the SINFONI Nearby Elliptical Lens Locator Survey (SNELLS). Based on their lensing masses, these ETGs were inferred to have a stellar initial mass function (IMF) consistent with that of the Milky Way, not the bottom-heavy IMF that has been reported as typical for high- σ ETGs based on lensing, dynamical, and stellar population synthesis techniques. We use these unique systems to test the consistency of IMF estimates derived from different methods. We first estimate the stellar M {sub *}/ L using lensing and stellar dynamics. We then fit high-quality optical spectra of the lenses using an updated version of the stellar population synthesis models developed by Conroy and van Dokkum. When examined individually, we find good agreement among these methods for one galaxy. The other two galaxies show 2–3 σ tension with lensing estimates, depending on the dark matter contribution, when considering IMFs that extend to 0.08 M {sub ⊙}. Allowing a variable low-mass cutoff or a nonparametric form of the IMF reduces the tension among the IMF estimates to <2 σ . There is moderate evidence for a reduced number of low-mass stars in the SNELLS spectra, but no such evidence in a composite spectrum of matched- σ ETGs drawn from the SDSS. Such variation in the form of the IMF at low stellar masses ( m ≲ 0.3 M {sub ⊙}), if present, could reconcile lensing/dynamical and spectroscopic IMF estimates for the SNELLS lenses and account for their lighter M {sub *}/ L relative to the mean matched- σ ETG. We provide the spectra used in this study to facilitate future comparisons.

  11. Cordierite-bearing strongly peraluminous Cebre Rhyolite from the eastern Sakarya Zone, NE Turkey: Constraints on the Variscan Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Külekçi, Elif; Aydınçakır, Emre; Kandemir, Raif; Cihat Alçiçek, M.; Pecha, Mark E.; Sünnetçi, Kadir

    2017-05-01

    The Cebre Rhyolite with an outcropping area up to 12 km2 is one of the rare extrusions in the Variscan basement of the Sakarya Zone. The unit consists of high-K calc alkaline rhyolites (SiO2 = 74-82 wt.%). Abundant phenocrysts of quartz and K-feldspar are accompanied by subordinate cordierite phenocrysts, rare muscovite microphenocrysts and biotite microcrysts set in a fine-grained groundmass. Three types of rock fragments (xenoliths) have been recognized; (i) porphyritic, (ii) equigranular hypabyssal and (iii) hypocrystalline fragments. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Cebre Rhyolite was extruded at 332.8 ± 4.38 Ma, which post-dates the Variscan low temperature metamorphism and pre-dates the emplacement of I-type granitic intrusions (325-303 Ma).The samples are strongly peraluminous with A/CNK values ranging from 1.48 to 2.95 and A/NK from 1.49 to 2.99. They have very high K2O (3.72-7.42 wt.%) and Al2O3 (10.77-14.11 wt.%) contents, but very low CaO (0.02-0.21 wt.%), Na2O (0.05-0.78 wt.%) and MgO (0.3-0.21 wt.%) contents. The samples show geochemical affinity with the upper continental crust, e.g., enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; K, Rb, U, Th, Pb), depletion of high field strength elements (HFSEs; Nb, Ta, Ti), Sr, P and Eu, but ԐNd(t) values (- 3.06 to - 8.75) and isotope ratios of Sr(t)(87Sr/86Sr = 0.70499-0.70915) and Pb(t) (206Pb/204Pb = 16.41-17.570, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.54-15.59, 208Pb/204Pb = 36.20-37.22) are similar to those of the lower crust. Geochemical and isotope data indicate that the Cebre Rhyolite was generated by melting of metapelitic rocks with some addition of intermediate metaigneous derived magma. As a geodynamic model, we propose that the Variscan Orogeny in Turkey was occurred by collision of Gondwana with an arc/terrane separated from the southern margin of Laurussia. This collision was followed shortly after by splitting of oceanic lithosphere into two pieces and sinking down into asthenosphere. Rapid upwelling of

  12. High-precision 2MASS JHK{sub s} light curves and other data for RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450 + 001501: Strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Róbert; Ivezić, Željko; Kiss, László L.; Kolláth, Zoltán [Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Jones, Lynne; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: rszabo@konkoly.hu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss an extensive data set for the non-Blazhko ab-type RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450+001501, including optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz light curves and spectroscopic data, LINEAR and Catalina Sky Survey unfiltered optical light curves, and infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W1 and W2 light curves. Most notable is that light curves obtained by 2MASS include close to 9000 photometric measures collected over 3.3 yr and provide an exceedingly precise view of near-infrared variability. These data demonstrate that static atmosphere models are insufficient to explain multiband photometric light-curve behavior and present strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models for RR Lyrae stars. It is a challenge to modelers to produce theoretical light curves that can explain data presented here, which we make publicly available.

  13. A brief introduction to the strong CP problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dan-di; Melbourne Univ., Parkville

    1991-09-01

    The present status of the strong CP problem is briefly reviewed in a heuristic way. A crisis in EDMN calculation is explained. The equation of vacuum alignment obtained by the author and collaborators last year put a constraint on strong CP parameters. Thus the strong CP will be forced to vanish in one of the three scenarios characterized by axion, zero quark mass, and vanishing quark condensate. 12 refs

  14. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  15. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  16. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  17. Put order picking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the warehouse is very important logistic component of the supply chain, where order-picking systems have important role. Due to the significant impact on logistics performance permanent goals are to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of these systems. To achieve these goals, there are different researches, and their success is determined by the achieved performances. Performances order picking process are dependent on the applied technology concepts of order-picking system, as well as the ways in which it is organized and managed. In addition to the standard conceptions (the man to good and good to the man is one of the newer, so-called. 'put' system - the inverse order-picking. The aim of this paper is to describe this concept, point out its core strengths and weaknesses and provide a basis that may be of importance in the development of warehouse technological solutions and application of this order-picking systems concept.

  18. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  19. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  20. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  1. Constraints on parton distribution functions and extraction of the strong coupling constant from the inclusive jet cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-06-26

    The inclusive jet cross section for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7$~\\mathrm{TeV}$ was measured by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0$~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. The measurement covers a phase space up to 2$~\\mathrm{TeV}$ in jet transverse momentum and 2.5 in absolute jet rapidity. The statistical precision of these data leads to stringent constraints on the parton distribution functions of the proton. The data provide important input for the gluon density at high fractions of the proton momentum and for the strong coupling constant at large energy scales. Using predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, complemented with electroweak corrections, the constraining power of these data is investigated and the strong coupling constant at the Z boson mass $M_{\\mathrm{Z}}$ is determined to be $\\alpha_S(M_{\\mathrm{Z}}) = 0.1185 \\pm 0.0019\\,(\\mathrm{exp})\\,^{+0.0060}_{-0.0037}\\,(\\mathrm{theo})$, which is in a...

  2. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  3. A new approach to the study of Gold Putting | Dias | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to apply non-linear techniques in the analysis of golf putting performance. How players adapt to the variability that emerges from the putting execution and how they self-organize their performance toward the task constraints was investigated. The sample consisted of 10 adult male golfers ...

  4. Putting Emotional Intelligence To Work

    CERN Document Server

    Ryback, David

    2012-01-01

    Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work offers a new paradigm of communication for the 21st-century workplace. Beginning with the thoughts of communication pioneer Carl Rogers, this book covers the origins and history of emotional intelligence, why it is essential at this point in the changing marketplace, how to delegate and negotiate more effectively, and how to change yourself to become a more effective player. An EQ (Emotional Quotient) survey helps you determine where you are on the scale of executive intelligence. Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work leaves you with a greater understand

  5. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  6. Heating being put into service

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The SMB-SE group would like to inform you that, the central heating will start this year, on Monday 3 October 2016, and will be progressively and depending on the weather forecast put into service throughout. All buildings will have heating within the following few days. Thank you for your understanding. The CERN heating team SMB-SE

  7. ICRP putting wealth before health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in recommended dose limits for radiation workers set by the International Commission for Radiological Protection do not go far enough. The ICRP has put industry profitability before worker safety, and their recommendations should not be the basis for UK or European law. (author)

  8. Solar constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate tests of the theory of stellar structure and evolution are available from the Sun's observations. The solar constraints are reviewed, with a special attention to the recent progress in observing global solar oscillations. Each constraint is sensitive to a given region of the Sun. The present solar models (standard, low Z, mixed) are discussed with respect to neutrino flux, low and high degree five-minute oscillations and low degree internal gravity modes. It appears that actually there do not exist solar models able to fully account for all the observed quantities. (Auth.)

  9. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  10. The constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    There are considerable incentives for the use of nuclear in preference to other sources for base load electricity generation in most of the developed world. These are economic, strategic, environmental and climatic. However, there are two potential constraints which could hinder the development of nuclear power to its full economic potential. These are public opinion and financial regulations which distort the nuclear economic advantage. The concerns of the anti-nuclear lobby are over safety, (especially following the Chernobyl accident), the management of radioactive waste, the potential effects of large scale exposure of the population to radiation and weapons proliferation. These are discussed. The financial constraint is over two factors, the availability of funds and the perception of cost, both of which are discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Supergravity constraints on monojets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the standard model, supplemented by N = 1 minimal supergravity, all the supersymmetric particle masses can be expressed in terms of a few unknown parameters. The resulting mass relations, and the laboratory and the cosmological bounds on these superpartner masses are used to put constraints on the supersymmetric origin of the CERN monojets. The latest MAC data at PEP excludes the scalar quarks, of masses up to 45 GeV, as the origin of these monojets. The cosmological bounds, for a stable photino, excludes the mass range necessary for the light gluino-heavy squark production interpretation. These difficulties can be avoided by going beyond the minimal supergravity theory. Irrespective of the monojets, the importance of the stable γ as the source of the cosmological dark matter is emphasized

  12. Portfolios with nonlinear constraints and spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, Adrienn; Kondor, I.

    1999-12-01

    In a recent paper Galluccio, Bouchaud and Potters demonstrated that a certain portfolio problem with a nonlinear constraint maps exactly onto finding the ground states of a long-range spin glass, with the concomitant nonuniqueness and instability of the optimal portfolios. Here we put forward geometric arguments that lead to qualitatively similar conclusions, without recourse to the methods of spin glass theory, and give two more examples of portfolio problems with convex nonlinear constraints.

  13. Putting science on the agenda

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The job of CERN Director-General comes with a lot of responsibility, and that’s particularly true today. We’re living through a period of unique circumstances for science. Positive indicators, such as a renewal of interest in physical sciences at the University level and unprecedented public interest in the LHC, are aligning with storm clouds in the form of a prolonged economic crisis that will put downward pressure on everyone’s budgets.   That means that science has to make its voice heard if it’s to preserve support, and if it wants to be in a position to play the role it must in navigating the major societal challenges of our time. For that reason, I have been a fairly rare sight at CERN of late. Last week, I was in Davos for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. It was my second time at Davos, and I used the opportunity to argue that science should be more closely linked to the political thread of the meeting. I think my argument was he...

  14. Putting the spiritual into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia von Boguslawski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine how Rudolf Steiner’s anthroposophical ideas were reflected and put into practice in the lives of the Finnish couple Olly (Olga Donner (1881–1956, neé Sinebrychoff and Uno Donner (1872–1958. They encountered anthroposophy in 1913 and subsequently embraced it as the guiding principle of their lives. Through a close examination of these two people we aim to shed light on how a new worldview like anthroposophy, which was gaining followers in early twentieth-century Finland, was also a manifestation of wider changes in religious culture in Europe. Our perspective could be described as biographical in the sense that it has been characterised by Simone Lässig (2008: 11 who writes that ‘the reconstruction of individual life courses helps to discover more about the context – for example, about daily rituals, pious practices, or kinship relationship’. Thus, the biographical perspective serves as a tool for grasping how something as deeply personal as an anthroposophical worldview was understood and practised, not only by Olly and Uno Donner, but also by a larger group of people who in the early twentieth century were looking for new ways to make sense of the surrounding world.

  15. Putting It All Together: Incorporating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall E. Osborne, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Views of critical thinking were culled from the literature and developed into a scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL model that was implemented into the Internet course, “The Politics and Psychology of Hatred.” Assessment of student course postings demonstrated a strong relationship between interpersonal skills (referred to in the curriculum as “course etiquette” and advancement on the levels of critical thinking. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Sensorimotor Rhythm Neurofeedback Enhances Golf Putting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Yang; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been related to automaticity during skilled action execution. However, few studies have bridged the causal link between SMR activity and sports performance. This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance. We hypothesized that preelite golfers would exhibit enhanced putting performance after SMR NFT. Sixteen preelite golfers were recruited and randomly assigned into either an SMR or a control group. Participants were asked to perform putting while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, both before and after intervention. Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.

  17. Putting leadership back into strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Cynthia A

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades an infusion of economics has lent the study of strategy much needed theory and empirical evidence. Strategy consultants, armed with frameworks and techniques, have stepped forward to help managers analyze their industries and position their companies for strategic advantage. Strategy has come to be seen as an analytical problem to be solved. But, says Montgomery, the Timken Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, the benefits of this rigorous approach have attendant costs: Strategy has become a competitive game plan, separate from the company's larger sense of purpose. The CEO's unique role as arbiter and steward of strategy has been eclipsed. And an overemphasis on sustainable competitive advantage has obscured the importance of making strategy a dynamic tool for guiding the company's development over time. For any company, intelligent guidance requires a clear sense of purpose, of what makes the organization truly distinctive. Purpose, Montgomery says, serves as both a constraint on activity and a guide to behavior. Creativity and insight are key to forging a compelling organizational purpose; analysis alone will never suffice. As the CEO--properly a company's chief strategist--translates purpose into practice, he or she must remain open to the possibility that the purpose itself may need to change. Lou Gerstner did this in the 1990s, when he decided that IBM would evolve to focus on applying technology rather than on inventing it. So did Steve Jobs, when he rescued Apple from a poorly performing strategy and expanded the company into attractive new businesses. Watching over strategy day in and day out is the CEO's greatest opportunity to shape the firm as well as outwit the competition.

  18. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  19. Mobility and Position Error Analysis of a Complex Planar Mechanism with Redundant Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qipeng; Li, Gangyan

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays mechanisms with redundant constraints have been created and attracted much attention for their merits. The mechanism of the redundant constraints in a mechanical system is analyzed in this paper. A analysis method of Planar Linkage with a repetitive structure is proposed to get the number and type of constraints. According to the difference of applications and constraint characteristics, the redundant constraints are divided into the theoretical planar redundant constraints and the space-planar redundant constraints. And the calculation formula for the number of redundant constraints and type of judging method are carried out. And a complex mechanism with redundant constraints is analyzed of the influence about redundant constraints on mechanical performance. With the combination of theoretical derivation and simulation research, a mechanism analysis method is put forward about the position error of complex mechanism with redundant constraints. It points out the direction on how to eliminate or reduce the influence of redundant constraints.

  20. Constraint solving for direct manipulation of features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, D.; Oliveira, P.; Noort, A.; Bidarra, R.

    2006-01-01

    In current commercial feature modeling systems, support for direct manipulation of features is not commonly available. This is partly due to the strong reliance of such systems on constraints, but also to the lack of speed of current constraint solvers. In this paper, an approach to the optimization

  1. Putting an end to nuclear energy: why and how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This short book demonstrates the necessity and possibility to put an end to nuclear energy. First, it sweeps away the fallacious reasoning of nuclear supporters, like the energy independence, the safety and security aspects, the electricity cost, the greenhouse gases abatement. Then, it replaces the ending of nuclear energy in the more general framework of a worldwide energy transition, with its constraints and risks, which has become a necessity considering the geographical disparities of energy consumption. According to the author, the particular energy situation of France would lead the country to isolation and to an energy impasse while other worldwide and regional scenarios exist which would lead to exit the crisis and to reach a new energy civilization. Finally, a reasoned scenario of nuclear energy exit is proposed for France which is based on other power generation means. Such an energy transition will require some political and social conditions which are discussed. (J.S.)

  2. Strong Constraints on Aerosol-Cloud Interactions from Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Gettelman, Andrew; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Allan, Richard P.; Karset, Inger Helene H.; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; hide

    2017-01-01

    Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide, which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014-2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets - consistent with expectations - but had no discernible effect on other cloud properties. The reduction in droplet size led to cloud brightening and global-mean radiative forcing of around minus 0.2 watts per square metre for September to October 2014. Changes in cloud amount or cloud liquid water path, however, were undetectable, indicating that these indirect effects, and cloud systems in general, are well buffered against aerosol changes. This result will reduce uncertainties in future climate projections, because we are now able to reject results from climate models with an excessive liquid-water-path response.

  3. Putting Opportunism in the Back Seat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Weber, Libby

    2013-01-01

    TCE and its applications in management research put more emphasis on opportunism than on bounded rationality. By augmenting the bounded rationality assumption to include interpretive limitations, we show that there are sources of costly conflict that are not rooted in opportunism. Moreover, we show...

  4. THE IDIOM OF KRIVI PUT KOD SENJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Čilaš Šimpraga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The idiom of Krivi Put kod Senja is part of West-Štokavian dialect. The basics of phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexical characteristics of idiom are considered in this article. Research confirmed common features with idioms of Bunjevo beyond Velebit’s part of hinterland of Senj.

  5. Multicultural Education Course Put into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which two teachers who have previously taken a multicultural education course put into practice multicultural teaching in a first grade afterschool program. Banks' five dimensions of multicultural education are used as the theoretical framework for analyzing past research on multicultural education courses and for…

  6. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  7. Big meeting puts the case for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    It was a workshop on a scale to match the ultimate goal. When some 500 physicists met in Aachen, Germany, in October to put the research case for the proposed Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the turnout was among the biggest attendances of the year

  8. Strong Pictures Get the Point across: Teens Put Life (and Art) up on a Billboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Teens have issues! They talk about suicide and war. They experiment with drugs, drinking and smoking. Their lives may have been touched by abuse, gangs, or guns. Young people worry about these issues and many others as they work out their emerging identities and race toward their futures. This article discusses how the teachers in Voyager House…

  9. Putting Opportunism in the Back Seat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Weber, Libby

    2013-01-01

    TCE and its applications in management research put more emphasis on opportunism than on bounded rationality. By augmenting the bounded rationality assumption to include interpretive limitations, we show that there are sources of costly conflict that are not rooted in opportunism. Moreover, we show...... that bounded rationality may drive opportunism. All hierarchal forms are inherently subject to specific bounded-rationality-based conflicts, thus have different capacities to mitigate bounded-rationality-based transaction costs....

  10. Peculiarities in the distribution of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars: constraints on evolutionary scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Lortet, M.-C.; Pitault, A.

    1981-01-01

    The re-examination of the spatial distribution of 158 Wolf-Rayet stars in the Galaxy may help to define different breeds of Wolf-Rayet stars and put constraints on possible evolutionary scenarios. (Auth.)

  11. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  12. Cosmological constraints on Brans-Dicke theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilez, A; Skordis, C

    2014-07-04

    We report strong cosmological constraints on the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory of gravity using cosmic microwave background data from Planck. We consider two types of models. First, the initial condition of the scalar field is fixed to give the same effective gravitational strength Geff today as the one measured on Earth, GN. In this case, the BD parameter ω is constrained to ω>692 at the 99% confidence level, an order of magnitude improvement over previous constraints. In the second type, the initial condition for the scalar is a free parameter leading to a somewhat stronger constraint of ω>890, while Geff is constrained to 0.981theory and are valid for any Horndeski theory, the most general second-order scalar-tensor theory, which approximates the BD theory on cosmological scales. In this sense, our constraints place strong limits on possible modifications of gravity that might explain cosmic acceleration.

  13. How much expert knowledge is it worth to put in conceptual hydrological models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Manuel; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2017-04-01

    Both modellers and experimentalists agree on using expert knowledge to improve our conceptual hydrological simulations on ungauged basins. However, they use expert knowledge differently for both hydrologically mapping the landscape and parameterising a given hydrological model. Modellers use generally very simplified (e.g. topography-based) mapping approaches and put most of the knowledge for constraining the model by defining parameter and process relational rules. In contrast, experimentalists tend to invest all their detailed and qualitative knowledge about processes to obtain a spatial distribution of areas with different dominant runoff generation processes (DRPs) as realistic as possible, and for defining plausible narrow value ranges for each model parameter. Since, most of the times, the modelling goal is exclusively to simulate runoff at a specific site, even strongly simplified hydrological classifications can lead to satisfying results due to equifinality of hydrological models, overfitting problems and the numerous uncertainty sources affecting runoff simulations. Therefore, to test to which extent expert knowledge can improve simulation results under uncertainty, we applied a typical modellers' modelling framework relying on parameter and process constraints defined based on expert knowledge to several catchments on the Swiss Plateau. To map the spatial distribution of the DRPs, mapping approaches with increasing involvement of expert knowledge were used. Simulation results highlighted the potential added value of using all the expert knowledge available on a catchment. Also, combinations of event types and landscapes, where even a simplified mapping approach can lead to satisfying results, were identified. Finally, the uncertainty originated by the different mapping approaches was compared with the one linked to meteorological input data and catchment initial conditions.

  14. Parameter study of high-β tokamak reactors with circular and strongly elongated cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, H.

    1977-05-01

    A simplified reactor model is used to study the influence of critical β-values on economy parameters and dimensions of possible long time pulsed tokamak reactors. Various betas deduced from stability and equilibrium MHD theory are introduced and put into the scaling in context with technological constraints, as maximum B-field, core constraint, maximum wall loading a.o. The plasma physical concepts treated comprise circular and strongly elongated cross section and approximated FCT equilibria. The computational results are presented as plots of possible economy parameter ranges (magnet energy, wall loading, volumina, investment costs per unit power) dependent on β for suitably chosen hierarchies of the constraints. - A burn time reduction by the build ups of α-pressure may be possible for the pressure profile sensitive high-β equilibria (FCT). Burn times in the 1O sec range, resulting from simple estimates, would about cancel the economic advantages of reactors with high-β equilibria compared to a β = 5% standardreactor (UWMAK I). (orig.) [de

  15. Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda

    2009-01-01

    Financing constraints are one of the biggest concerns impacting potential entrepreneurs around the world. Given the important role that entrepreneurship is believed to play in the process of economic growth, alleviating financing constraints for would-be entrepreneurs is also an important goal for policymakers worldwide. We review two major streams of research examining the relevance of financing constraints for entrepreneurship. We then introduce a framework that provides a unified perspecti...

  16. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  17. Results on stabilization of nonlinear systems under finite data-rate constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De

    2004-01-01

    We discuss in this paper a result concerning the stabilization problem of nonlinear systems under data-rate constraints using output feedback. To put the result in a broader context, we shall first review a number of recent contributions on the stabilization problem under data-rate constraints when

  18. Putting the sun to work in Sacramento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    At dawn this morning, the sun went to work for customers of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The largest photovoltaic (PV) power plant in the world, adjacent to the closed nuclear power plant at Rancho Seco, generated enough electricity for over a thousand customers, rooftop solar water heaters lowered thousands of residential electric bills and rooftop PV systems turned hundreds of Sacramento homes into mini power plants. SMUD, in partnership with their customers-owners, is leading the way in putting the sun to work today. SMUD plans to have at least half of its energy come from energy efficiency, existing hydroelectric plants and renewable resources in this decade. SMUD expects investments made in solar power today to provide its customer-owners with substantial long-term energy, environmental and community benefits. This article describes some of SMUD's efforts

  19. "Danish women put up with less"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leine, Marie; Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    2018-01-01

    women put up with less”—and that the report was, in effect, invalid. In this article we outline the discursive space that emerges when the mass media seeks to tackle symptoms of inequality in Denmark. We argue that the ideology of gender equality comes to construct a dominant discourse, which silences...... symptoms of inequality. Thereby, gendered violence in Denmark is rendered invisible in public awareness.......Denmark is a country that has been heralded for its high levels of gender equality for decades. One would have expected, then, that the recent EU report that ranked Denmark as the EU-member country with the highest occurrence of physical violence towards women would have created a public uproar...

  20. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2011-01-11

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  1. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-02-21

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  2. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  3. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  4. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  5. Institutional opportunities and constraints to biomass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, R.; Finnell, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines a number of institutional opportunities and constraints applicable to biomass as well as other renewable energy technologies. Technological progress that improves performance or increases system efficiencies can open doors to deployment; however, market success depends on overcoming the institutional challenges that these technologies will face. It can be far more difficult to put into place the necessary institutional mechanisms which will drive these commercialization efforts. The keys to the successful implementation of energy technologies and, in particular, biomass power technologies, are issues that can be categorized as: (1) regulatory; (2) financial; (3) infrastructural; and (4) perceptual. (author)

  6. Putting a Stop to Smoky Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    It can be easy to lose sight of the benefits of quitting when a strong craving for a cigarette hits. You might start to lose your focus on staying smokefree. There is no good reason to smoke. You know this.

  7. Axion-like particles: possible hints and constraints from the high-energy Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The high-energy Universe is potentially a great laboratory for searching new light bosons such as axion-like particles (ALPs). Cosmic sources are indeed the scene of violent phenomena that involve strong magnetic field and/or very long baselines, where the effects of the mixing of photons with ALPs could lead to observable effects. Two examples are archetypal of this fact, that are the Universe opacity to gamma-rays and the imprints of astrophysical magnetic turbulence in the energy spectra of high-energy sources. In the first case, hints for the existence of ALPs can be proposed whereas the second one is used to put constraints on the ALP mass and coupling to photons

  8. Fundamental constraints on some event data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    A modified version of Searle's theory of the structure of human action has been explained and applied to man machine interaction. The comprehensiveness of the theory has been demonstrated, in particular its explanation of human performance and that its consistency with current theories of human error for which it provides an overall setting. The importance of the mental component of human error is highlighted and the constraints that this puts on the collection analysis and use of human error data. Examples have been given to illustrate and apply the theory ranging from considerations of the tenuousness of the link between safety goals and data to simple valve operations. Two approaches which recognise the constraints shown by the theory have been explained. (orig./DG)

  9. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  10. Route constraints model based on polychromatic sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xianjun; Cai, Chao; Wang, Houjun; Li, Dongwu

    2018-03-01

    With the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology, the fields of its application are constantly expanding. The mission planning of UAV is especially important, and the planning result directly influences whether the UAV can accomplish the task. In order to make the results of mission planning for unmanned aerial vehicle more realistic, it is necessary to consider not only the physical properties of the aircraft, but also the constraints among the various equipment on the UAV. However, constraints among the equipment of UAV are complex, and the equipment has strong diversity and variability, which makes these constraints difficult to be described. In order to solve the above problem, this paper, referring to the polychromatic sets theory used in the advanced manufacturing field to describe complex systems, presents a mission constraint model of UAV based on polychromatic sets.

  11. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  12. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  13. Tourism's collapse puts Gambian women at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, M S

    1995-06-01

    Despite efforts of the Gambian government, which established a ministry in 1981 that would tackle gender issues, improve women's health, and promote empowerment, women are underrepresented in government and business, and 84% are illiterate. Child mortality is among the highest in Africa; 134 children per 1000 die before their fifth birthday. In the mid-1980s austerity measures adopted by the World Bank and IMF left the ministry without funds. Rice and vegetable production, the main source of income for women, fell in the 1990s. In 1994, paddy production dropped 23% from the previous year; this was due to a lack of technical and financial assistance. The collapse of tourism with Capt. Yahya Jammeh's seizure of power has put prostitutes catering to tourists out of work, but women who have lost jobs in the hotel industry may be pushed into local prostitution to survive. The impact of this on the HIV/AIDS epidemic is unclear. Although Gambia is one of the world's most aid-dependent countries (more than a quarter of the GNP before the coup), corruption and mismanagement in the nongovernmental sector is widespread. The director of the Women in Development Programme, a $15m World Bank project, was forced to resign over allegations of fraud. The political process sidelines women; only village chiefs, who are traditionally men, are allowed to vote when new heads are elected.

  14. Constraint qualifications and optimality conditions for optimization problems with cardinality constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, Michal; Kanzow, Ch.; Schwartz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2016), s. 353-377 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/1309; GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Cardinality constraints * Constraint qualifications * Optimality conditions * KKT conditions * Strongly stationary points Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/cervinka-0461165.pdf

  15. Resources, constraints and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Schröder, A.

    2018-01-01

    Human and financial resources as well as organisational capabilities are needed to overcome the manifold constraints social innovators are facing. To unlock the potential of social innovation for the whole society new (social) innovation friendly environments and new governance structures

  16. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-01-01

    . The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application

  17. Dynamics and causality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Manoelito M. de

    2001-04-01

    The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Causality in field theory are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equation, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away with deep implications to the nature of physicals interactions. (author)

  18. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  19. Selection of new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.

    2003-01-01

    The selected new constraints should be consistent with the scale of concern i.e. be expressed roughly as fractions or multiples of the average annual background. They should take into account risk considerations and include the values of the currents limits, constraints and other action levels. The recommendation is to select four leading values for the new constraints: 500 mSv ( single event or in a decade) as a maximum value, 0.01 mSv/year as a minimum value; and two intermediate values: 20 mSv/year and 0.3 mSv/year. This new set of dose constraints, representing basic minimum standards of protection for the individuals taking into account the specificity of the exposure situations are thus coherent with the current values which can be found in ICRP Publications. A few warning need however to be noticed: There is no more multi sources limit set by ICRP. The coherence between the proposed value of dose constraint (20 mSv/year) and the current occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/year is valid only if the workers are exposed to one single source. When there is more than one source, it will be necessary to apportion. The value of 1000 mSv lifetimes used for relocation can be expressed into annual dose, which gives approximately 10 mSv/year and is coherent with the proposed dose constraint. (N.C.)

  20. Quality Risk Management: Putting GMP Controls First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kevin; Greene, Anne; Zwitkovits, Michael; Calnan, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    to be any control that is put in place to assure product quality and regulatory compliance. This improved approach is also based on how the detectability of risks is assessed. This is important because when producing medicines, it is not always good practice to place a high reliance upon detection-type controls in the absence of an adequate level of assurance in the manufacturing process that leads to the finished medicine.

  1. Misconceptions and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, M.; Mahon, R.

    2005-01-01

    In theory, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to a wide variety of invertebrate pests. However, in practice, the approach has been successfully applied to only a few major pests. Chapters in this volume address possible reasons for this discrepancy, e.g. Klassen, Lance and McInnis, and Robinson and Hendrichs. The shortfall between theory and practice is partly due to the persistence of some common misconceptions, but it is mainly due to one constraint, or a combination of constraints, that are biological, financial, social or political in nature. This chapter's goal is to dispel some major misconceptions, and view the constraints as challenges to overcome, seeing them as opportunities to exploit. Some of the common misconceptions include: (1) released insects retain residual radiation, (2) females must be monogamous, (3) released males must be fully sterile, (4) eradication is the only goal, (5) the SIT is too sophisticated for developing countries, and (6) the SIT is not a component of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) strategy. The more obvious constraints are the perceived high costs of the SIT, and the low competitiveness of released sterile males. The perceived high up-front costs of the SIT, their visibility, and the lack of private investment (compared with alternative suppression measures) emerge as serious constraints. Failure to appreciate the true nature of genetic approaches, such as the SIT, may pose a significant constraint to the wider adoption of the SIT and other genetically-based tactics, e.g. transgenic genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Lack of support for the necessary underpinning strategic research also appears to be an important constraint. Hence the case for extensive strategic research in ecology, population dynamics, genetics, and insect behaviour and nutrition is a compelling one. Raising the competitiveness of released sterile males remains the major research objective of the SIT. (author)

  2. A Call-Put Duality for Perpetual American Options

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    International audience; It is well known that in models with time-homogeneous local volatility functions and constant interest and dividend rates, the European Put prices are transformed into European Call prices by the simultaneous exchanges of the interest and dividend rates and of the strike and spot price of the underlying. This paper investigates such a Call Put duality for perpetual American options. It turns out that the perpetual American Put price is equal to the perpetual American C...

  3. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  4. Model-independent cosmological constraints from growth and expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Shafieloo, Arman; Kim, Hyungjin

    2018-05-01

    Reconstructing the expansion history of the Universe from Type Ia supernovae data, we fit the growth rate measurements and put model-independent constraints on some key cosmological parameters, namely, Ωm, γ, and σ8. The constraints are consistent with those from the concordance model within the framework of general relativity, but the current quality of the data is not sufficient to rule out modified gravity models. Adding the condition that dark energy density should be positive at all redshifts, independently of its equation of state, further constrains the parameters and interestingly supports the concordance model.

  5. Neutrons put the brakes on stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Katynna

    2006-01-01

    Don't you hate it when you're driving along, put your foot on the brake and feel that juddering feeling through the pedal? It happens when the disc brake rotors become distorted through normal use of the brakes. To the car manufacturing industry it's called r unout , and is a multimillion dollar warranty problem each year. Not to mention a pain for drivers! Dr Maurice Ripley and Dr Oliver Kirstein from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) wanted to figure out whether runout is caused by residual stresses from the manufacturing process or by normal use of the brake, so they decided to test and compare a used and new brake disc. 'To picture what metal looks like at the atomic level, imagine spheres stacked evenly around each other in all three dimensions,' explained Kirstein. T he spheres represent atoms in the metal and the structure is called a metallic lattice.' We're familiar with the idea that metal expands when it gets hot - the atoms get excited with the heat and have the energy to move further away from each other, so spaces between the atoms in the lattice get larger. 'When parts of the metal are heated up and cool down at different rates, you may end up with a distorted lattice with some parts expanded and others not,' explained Kirstein. 'This unevenness in the lattice creates residual stress.' While a bunch of methods were available to test the discs, Kirstein and Ripley picked neutrons from ANSTO's HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) as their tool of choice. 'Neutrons allow us to look at the inside of the metal without damaging it,' said Kirstein. 'They can penetrate through the iron, so we were able to take measurements at a series of points at different depths through the brake disc.' Word around the car industry is that when residual stresses are relaxed through heating of the brake disc during use, the discs could potentially distort, causing the runout and that juddering feeling. But everyone was clueless as to what

  6. Occupational dose constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The revision process of the international radiological protection regulations has resulted in the adoption of new concepts, such as practice, intervention, avoidable and restriction of dose (dose constraint). The latter deserving of special mention since it may involve reducing a priori of the dose limits established both for the public and to individuals occupationally exposed, values that can be further reduced, depending on the application of the principle of optimization. This article aims to present, with clarity, from the criteria adopted to define dose constraint values to the public, a methodology to establish the dose constraint values for occupationally exposed individuals, as well as an example of the application of this methodology to the practice of industrial radiography

  7. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  8. Research on engineering-oriented constraints conflict detection in collaborative design of wire harness technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoping; HE Honglin; XU Benzhu

    2012-01-01

    Engineering-oriented constraint of harness technology has much information and project information presents progressive changes along with the design. Therefore, how to handle conflict resolution quickly is a problem to be solved. Process model of con- flict detection is put forward according to characteristics of harness technology design engineering-oriented constraint, and then two problems of how to conduct conflict positioning and judgment of constraint rules are introduced in this paper. Afterwards in this pa- per, constraint information directed acyclic graph is established by classified project constraint information to solve the conflict posi- tioning problem; solution of constraint satisfaction problem is applied to realize judgment problem of constraint rules. Finally, exam- ple is used to analyze the method in this paper to further verify the correctness and effectiveness of this method.

  9. Constraints from proton decay in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontaris, G.K.; Tamvakis, K. (Ioannina Univ. (Greece). Theoretical Physics Div.)

    1991-05-16

    We discuss the constraints the emerge from the existence of dimension-5 baryon-violating operators in the flipped SU(5) x U(1) superstring model. These are constraints on matter field assignments and on singlet VEV values. Although baryon-violating dimension-5 operators that appear as quintic non-renormalizable terms vanish as has been proven before and as we verify here, effective dimension-5 operators resulting from Higgs exchange put non-trivial but feasible constraints on the model. Constraints are also extracted from the presence of higher order non-renormalizable terms that generate such operators which do not a priori vanish. (orig.).

  10. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  11. Effect of Putting Grip on Eye and Head Movements During the Golf Putting Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the effect of three different putting grips (conventional, cross-hand, and one-handed on variations in eye and head movements during the putting stroke. Seven volunteer novice players, ranging in age from 21 to 22 years, participated in the study. During each experimental session, the subject stood on a specially designed platform covered with artificial turf and putted golf balls towards a standard golf hole. The three different types of grips were tested at two distances: 3 and 9 ft. For each condition, 20 putts were attempted. For each putt, data were recorded over a 3-s interval at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Eye movements were recorded using a helmet-mounted eye movement monitor. Head rotation about an imaginary axis through the top of the head and its center-of-rotation was measured by means of a potentiometer mounted on a fixed frame and coupled to the helmet. Putter-head motion was measured using a linear array of infrared phototransistors embedded in the platform. The standard deviation (STD, relative to the initial level was calculated for eye and head movements over the duration of the putt (i.e., from the beginning of the backstroke, through the forward stroke, to impact. The averaged STD for the attempted putts was calculated for each subject. Then, the averaged STDs and other data for the seven subjects were statistically compared across the three grip conditions. The STD of eye movements were greater (p < 0.1 for conventional than cross-hand (9 ft and one-handed (3 and 9 ft grips. Also, the STD of head movements were greater (p < 0.1; 3 ft for conventional than cross-hand and one-handed grips. Vestibulo-ocular responses associated with head rotations could be observed in many 9 ft and some 3 ft putts. The duration of the putt was significantly longer (p < 0.05; 3 and 9 ft for the one-handed than conventional and cross-hand grips. Finally, performance, or percentage putts made, was

  12. Ring power balance observing plasma stability constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.B.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Ring power balance is performed for an E-ring stabilized tandem mirror reactor, taking into account constraints imposed by plasma stability. The two most important criteria are the stability of the core interchange and hot electron interchange modes. The former determines the ring thickness, the latter determines the minimum hot electron temperature; both quantities are important for power balance. The combination of the hot electron interchange constraint and the fact that the barrier density is low places the operating point on the synchrotron dominated branch of power balance. The reference case considered here requires a reasonable 34 MW of heating power deposited in the rings. We also have examined the sensitivity of the required ring power on uncertainties in the numerical coefficients of the stability constraints. We have found that the heating power is strongly affected

  13. Constraints on Dbar uplifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwis, S.P. de

    2016-01-01

    We discuss constraints on KKLT/KKLMMT and LVS scenarios that use anti-branes to get an uplift to a deSitter vacuum, coming from requiring the validity of an effective field theory description of the physics. We find these are not always satisfied or are hard to satisfy.

  14. Ecosystems emerging. 5: Constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patten, B. C.; Straškraba, Milan; Jorgensen, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 222, č. 16 (2011), s. 2945-2972 ISSN 0304-3800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : constraint * epistemic * ontic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380011002274

  15. Constraints and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie

    2017-01-01

    groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...

  16. Putting Health Back Into Health Insurance Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Pavel; Baker, Tom

    2014-08-01

    What are the barriers to voluntary take-up of high-deductible plans? We address this question using a large-scale employer survey conducted after an open-enrollment period in which a new high-deductible plan was first introduced. Only 3% of the employees chose this plan, despite the respondents' recognition of its financial advantages. Employees who believed that the high-deductible plan provided access to top physicians in the area were three times more likely to choose it than employees who did not share this belief. A framed field experiment using a similar choice menu showed that displaying additional financial information did not increase high-deductible plan take-up. However, when plans were presented as identical except for the deductible, respondents were highly likely to choose the high-deductible plan, especially in a two-way choice. These results suggest that informing plan choosers about high-deductible plans' health access provisions may affect choice more strongly than focusing on their financial advantages. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  18. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  19. Graphical constraints: a graphical user interface for constraint problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Nelson Manuel Marques

    2015-01-01

    A constraint satisfaction problem is a classical artificial intelligence paradigm characterized by a set of variables (each variable with an associated domain of possible values), and a set of constraints that specify relations among subsets of these variables. Solutions are assignments of values to all variables that satisfy all the constraints. Many real world problems may be modelled by means of constraints. The range of problems that can use this representation is very diverse and embrace...

  20. Distance Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodirsky, Manuel; Dalmau, Victor; Martin, Barnaby; Pinsker, Michael

    We study the complexity of constraint satisfaction problems for templates Γ that are first-order definable in ({ Z}; {suc}), the integers with the successor relation. Assuming a widely believed conjecture from finite domain constraint satisfaction (we require the tractability conjecture by Bulatov, Jeavons and Krokhin in the special case of transitive finite templates), we provide a full classification for the case that Γ is locally finite (i.e., the Gaifman graph of Γ has finite degree). We show that one of the following is true: The structure Γ is homomorphically equivalent to a structure with a certain majority polymorphism (which we call modular median) and CSP(Γ) can be solved in polynomial time, or Γ is homomorphically equivalent to a finite transitive structure, or CSP(Γ) is NP-complete.

  1. Constraint-based scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  2. Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Kirsch, J.

    1981-05-01

    We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)

  3. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  4. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  5. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  6. Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding for ESL learners struggling with reading. ... are intended to open up for debate a topic of critical importance to the country's education system. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Your Summer Fun Print version Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun Summer ... adults involve the use of alcohol. 1 Swimmers can get in over their heads. Alcohol impairs judgment ...

  8. Putting Knowledge to Work: Collaborating, Influencing and Learning ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Download PDF ... Putting Knowledge to Work explores how the brains of such ... She previously worked with Statistics Canada, Graybridge Malkam, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, and Human Resources and Skills ...

  9. Combined constraints on holographic bosonic technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Primulando, Reinard

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model of strong electroweak symmetry breaking in which the expectation value of an additional, possibly composite, scalar field is responsible for the generation of fermion masses. The dynamics of the strongly coupled sector is defined and studied via its holographic dual, and does not correspond to a simple, scaled-up version of QCD. We consider the bounds from perturbative unitarity, the S parameter, and the mass of the Higgs-like scalar. We show that the combination of these constraints leaves a relatively limited region of parameter space viable, and suggests the qualitative features of the model that might be probed at the LHC.

  10. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint. This pr...

  11. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    and occasionally non-binding credit constraints. Easier credit access increases the likelihood that constraints become slack in the face of expansionary shocks, while contractionary shocks are further amplified due to tighter constraints. As a result, busts gradually become deeper than booms. Based...

  12. Quiet Eye Training Facilitates Competitive Putting Performance in Elite Golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10 ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious. PMID:21713182

  13. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  14. Searching for genomic constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lio` , P [Cambridge, Univ. (United Kingdom). Genetics Dept.; Ruffo, S [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria. Dipt. di Energetica ` S. Stecco`

    1998-01-01

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call `genomic constraints` from the rules that depend on the `external natural selection` acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour.

  15. Searching for genomic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lio', P.; Ruffo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call 'genomic constraints' from the rules that depend on the 'external natural selection' acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour

  16. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  17. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  18. Balancing Structural and Temporal Constraints in Multitasking Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Salvucci, Dario D.; Kujala, Tuomo

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that when people multitask, both the subtask structure and the temporal constraints of the component tasks strongly influence people’s task-switching behavior. In this paper, we propose an integrated theoretical account and associated computational model that aims to quantify how people balance structural and temporal constraints in everyday multitasking. We validate the theory using data from an empirical study in which drivers performed a vi...

  19. Bureaucratic Dilemmas: Civil servants between political responsiveness and normative constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Grønnegård; Opstrup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between political executives and civil servants rests on a delicate balance between political responsiveness and the duty of civil servants and ministers to respect legal and other normative constraints on executive authority. In Danish central government, this balance is stressed...... by norms that define the correct behavior when the civil service provides ministers with political advice and assistance. Organizational factors strongly influence civil servants’ behavior when they have to balance responsiveness against constraints on their role as political advisers. Moreover, civil...

  20. Constraints on stellar evolution from pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    Consideration of the many types of intrinsic variable stars, that is, those that pulsate, reveals that perhaps a dozen classes can indicate some constraints that affect the results of stellar evolution calculations, or some interpretations of observations. Many of these constraints are not very strong or may not even be well defined yet. In this review we discuss only the case for six classes: classical Cepheids with their measured Wesselink radii, the observed surface effective temperatures of the known eleven double-mode Cepheids, the pulsation periods and measured surface effective temperatures of three R CrB variables, the delta Scuti variable VZ Cnc with a very large ratio of its two observed periods, the nonradial oscillations of our sun, and the period ratios of the newly discovered double-mode RR Lyrae variables. Unfortunately, the present state of knowledge about the exact compositions; mass loss and its dependence on the mass, radius, luminosity, and composition; ;and internal mixing processes, as well as sometimes the more basic parameters such as luminosities and surface effective temperatures prevent us from applying strong constraints for every case where currently the possibility exists

  1. Cluster-cluster correlations and constraints on the correlation hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.; Gott, J. R., III

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that galaxies cluster around clusters at least as strongly as they cluster around galaxies imposes constraints on the hierarchy of correlation amplitudes in hierachical clustering models. The distributions which saturate these constraints are the Rayleigh-Levy random walk fractals proposed by Mandelbrot; for these fractal distributions cluster-cluster correlations are all identically equal to galaxy-galaxy correlations. If correlation amplitudes exceed the constraints, as is observed, then cluster-cluster correlations must exceed galaxy-galaxy correlations, as is observed.

  2. Dusty tails of evaporating exoplanets. I. Constraints on the dust composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, R.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Recently, two exoplanet candidates have been discovered, KIC 12557548b and KOI-2700b, whose transit profiles show evidence of a comet-like tail of dust trailing the planet, thought to be fed by the evaporation of the planet’s surface. Aims. We aim to put constraints on the composition of

  3. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  4. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  5. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... temporal ccp by developing a process calculus called ntcc. The ntcc calculus generalizes the tcc model, the latter being a temporal ccp model for deterministic and synchronouss timed reactive systems. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc, ntcc...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  6. The Perpetual American Put Option for Jump-Diffusions

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.

    2010-01-01

    -This is the author's version of the article"The Perpetual American Put Option for Jump-Diffusions" Energy Systems pp 493-507. We solve a specific optimal stopping problem with an infinite time horizon, when the state variable follows a jump-diffusion. The novelty of the paper is related to the inclusion of a jump component in this stochastic process. Under certain conditions, our solution can be interpreted as the price of an American perpetual put option. We characterize the continuation...

  7. Constraints on stellar evolution from pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Consideration of the many types of intrinsic variable stars, that is, those that pulsate, reveals that perhaps a dozen classes can indicate some constraints that affect the results of stellar evolution calculations, or some interpretations of observations. Many of these constraints are not very strong or may not even be well defined yet. The author discusses the case for six classes: classical Cepheids with their measured Wesselink radii, the observed surface effective temperatures of the known eleven double-mode Cepheids, the pulsation periods and measured surface effective temperatures of three R CrB variables, the delta Scuti variable VZ Cnc with a very large ratio of its two observed periods, the nonradial oscillations of the Sun, and the period ratios of the newly discovered double-mode RR Lyrae variables. (Auth.)

  8. The Dark Side of Strongly Coupled Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of dark matter search experiments on the different candidates emerging from the minimal quasi-conformal strong coupling theory with fermions in the adjoint representation. For one candidate, the current limits of CDMS exclude a tiny window of masses around 120 GeV. We...... also investigate under what circumstances the newly proposed candidate composed of a -2 negatively charged particle and a $^4He^{+2}$ can explain the discrepancy between the results of the CDMS and DAMA experiments. We found that this type of dark matter should give negative results in CDMS, while...

  9. Social Constraints on Animate Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...

  10. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  11. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  12. Modifier constraint in alkali borophosphate glasses using topological constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zeng, Huidan, E-mail: hdzeng@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jiang, Qi [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Donghui [Unifrax Corporation, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States); Chen, Guorong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Chen, Jianding [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, composition-dependent properties of glasses have been successfully predicted using the topological constraint theory. The constraints of the glass network are derived from two main parts: network formers and network modifiers. The constraints of the network formers can be calculated on the basis of the topological structure of the glass. However, the latter cannot be accurately calculated in this way, because of the existing of ionic bonds. In this paper, the constraints of the modifier ions in phosphate glasses were thoroughly investigated using the topological constraint theory. The results show that the constraints of the modifier ions are gradually increased with the addition of alkali oxides. Furthermore, an improved topological constraint theory for borophosphate glasses is proposed by taking the composition-dependent constraints of the network modifiers into consideration. The proposed theory is subsequently evaluated by analyzing the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature in alkali borophosphate glasses. This method is supposed to be extended to other similar glass systems containing alkali ions.

  13. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  14. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  15. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  16. Flexible Multilingual Education: Putting Children's Needs First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the benefits of multilingual education that puts children's needs and interests above the individual languages involved. It advocates flexible multilingual education, which builds upon children's actual home resources and provides access to both the local and global languages that students need for their educational and…

  17. Bounds for the American perpetual put on a stock index

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, V.

    2001-01-01

    Let us consider n stocks with dependent price processes each following a geometric Brownian motion. We want to investigate the American perpetual put on an index of those stocks. We will provide inner and outer boundaries for its early exercise region by using a decomposition technique for optimal stopping.

  18. Some particular problems put by operating experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candiotti, C.; Mabeix, R.; Uguen, R.

    1960-01-01

    On basis of a six years experience in operating research reactors, the authors explain, first, the difference in their utilization between these piles and another similar ones and, after, in consequence, they set off corresponding servitudes. These servitudes put very particular problems in operating itself, maintenance, modifications or additions on these apparatus. (author) [fr

  19. "Big Bang"test put off until May 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "First tests in a scientific project aimed at solving mysteries of the universe and the "Big Bang" which created it have been put off from November to late april or early May next year, an official said yesterday." (2/3 page)

  20. PUTTING COMMUNICATION FRONT AND CENTER IN INSTITUTIONAL THEORY AND ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.P.; Durand, R.; Fiss, P.C.; Lammers, J.C.; Vaara, E.

    2015-01-01

    We conceptualize the roots of cognitive, linguistic, and communicative theories of institutions and outline the promise and potential of a stronger communication focus for institutional theory. In particular, we outline a theoretical approach that puts communication at the heart of theories of

  1. Iterative Schemes for Convex Minimization Problems with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Chuan Ceng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first introduce and analyze one implicit iterative algorithm for finding a solution of the minimization problem for a convex and continuously Fréchet differentiable functional, with constraints of several problems: the generalized mixed equilibrium problem, the system of generalized equilibrium problems, and finitely many variational inclusions in a real Hilbert space. We prove strong convergence theorem for the iterative algorithm under suitable conditions. On the other hand, we also propose another implicit iterative algorithm for finding a fixed point of infinitely many nonexpansive mappings with the same constraints, and derive its strong convergence under mild assumptions.

  2. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  3. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  4. Observational constraints on interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnewisser, G.

    1984-01-01

    The author points out presently existing observational constraints in the detection of interstellar molecular species and the limits they may cast on our knowledge of interstellar chemistry. The constraints which arise from the molecular side are summarised and some technical difficulties encountered in detecting new species are discussed. Some implications for our understanding of molecular formation processes are considered. (Auth.)

  5. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  6. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  7. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...

  8. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  9. Phloem physics: mechanisms, constraints, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H

    2018-04-13

    Plants have evolved specialized vascular tissues for the distribution of energy, water, nutrients, and for communication. The phloem transports sugars from photosynthetic source regions (e.g. mature leaves) to sugar sinks (e.g. developing tissues such as buds, flowers, roots). Moreover, chemical signals such as hormones, RNAs and proteins also move in the phloem. Basic physical processes strongly limit phloem anatomy and function. This paper provides an overview of recent research and perspectives on phloem biomechanics and the physical constraints relevant to sugar transport in plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  11. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  12. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  13. Low energy p anti p strong interactions: theoretical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Several of the frontier problems in low energy nucleon-antinucleon phenomenology are addressed. Spin observables and dynamical selection rules in N anti N annihilation are used as examples of phenomena which offer particularly strong constraints on theoretical models, formulated either in terms of meson and baryon exchange or as effective operators in a non-perturbative quark-gluon picture. 24 refs

  14. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  15. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge

    2015-06-01

    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency.

  16. The role of anxiety in golf putting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Ian; MacNamara, Aine; Shafat, Amir; Dunphy, Orla; Murphy, Sinead; O'Connor, Kenneth; Ryan, Tara; Waldron, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed INTRODUCTION: Anxiety???s influence on performance continues to be one of the main research interests for sport psychologists (Hanin, 2000). It is apparent, though, that there is a lack of empirical research characterising the multi-disciplinary effect of anxiety on sports performance. The current study aimed to ascertain biomechanical (accuracy, movement variability) and psychological (anxiety) markers to determine how anxiety affects golf putting. METHOD: 22 healthy s...

  17. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  18. Black hole constraints on the running-mass inflation model

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Samuel M; Grivell, Ian J; Liddle, Andrew R

    2000-01-01

    The running-mass inflation model, which has strong motivation from particle physics, predicts density perturbations whose spectral index is strongly scale-dependent. For a large part of parameter space the spectrum rises sharply to short scales. In this paper we compute the production of primordial black holes, using both analytic and numerical calculation of the density perturbation spectra. Observational constraints from black hole production are shown to exclude a large region of otherwise...

  19. Strongly trapped points and the cosmic censorship hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that singularities predicted by one of the theorems of Hawking cannot be naked. This result supports the validity of the cosmic censorship hypothesis put forward by Penrose. The condition that only singularities predicted by Hawking's singularity theorem occur in space-time is shown to be related to the condition that all singularities in space-time should be of Tipler's strong-curvature type

  20. Socio-economic Constraints Women Face When Running Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They helped their wives technically, business decision, encouragement and financial support as indicated by a strong positive relationship (correlation coefficient = 0.7) between the roles of the husbands and married women business performance. The main constraints that hindered women business were paying school ...

  1. Machine tongues. X. Constraint languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, D.

    Constraint languages and programming environments will help the designer produce a lucid description of a problem domain, and then of particular situations and problems in it. Early versions of these languages were given descriptions of real world domain constraints, like the operation of electrical and mechanical parts. More recently, the author has automated a vocabulary for describing musical jazz phrases, using constraint language as a jazz improviser. General constraint languages will handle all of these domains. Once the model is in place, the system will connect built-in code fragments and algorithms to answer questions about situations; that is, to help solve problems. Bugs will surface not in code, but in designs themselves. 15 references.

  2. Fluid convection, constraint and causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955

  3. Strongly coupled models at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, Maikel de

    2014-10-01

    In this thesis strongly coupled models where the Higgs boson is composite are discussed. These models provide an explanation for the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking including a solution for the hierarchy problem. Strongly coupled models provide an alternative to the weakly coupled supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model and lead to different and interesting phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This thesis discusses two particular strongly coupled models, a composite Higgs model with partial compositeness and the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity - a composite model with collective symmetry breaking. The phenomenology relevant for the LHC is covered and the applicability of effective operators for these types of strongly coupled models is explored. First, a composite Higgs model with partial compositeness is discussed. In this model right-handed light quarks could be significantly composite, yet compatible with experimental searches at the LHC and precision tests on Standard Model couplings. In these scenarios, which are motivated by flavour physics, large cross sections for the production of new resonances coupling to light quarks are expected. Experimental signatures of right-handed compositeness at the LHC are studied, and constraints on the parameter space of these models are derived using recent results by ATLAS and CMS. Furthermore, dedicated searches for multi-jet signals at the LHC are proposed which could significantly improve the sensitivity to signatures of right-handed compositeness. The Littlest Higgs model with T-parity, providing an attractive solution to the fine-tuning problem, is discussed next. This solution is only natural if its intrinsic symmetry breaking scale f is relatively close to the electroweak scale. The constraints from the latest results of the 8 TeV run at the LHC are examined. The model's parameter space is being excluded based on a combination of electroweak precision observables, Higgs precision

  4. Experimental constraints on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, K.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; De Haas, J.C.M.; James, R.A.; Makowski, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of the cross-field energy transport in magnetic confinement experiments in a manner applicable to the accurate assessment of future machine performance continues to be a challenging goal. Experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak in the areas of dimensionless scaling and non-diffusive transport represent progress toward this goal. Dimensionless scaling shows how beneficial the increase in machine size and magnetic field is for future devices. The experiments on DIII-D are the first to determine separately the electron and ion scaling with normalized gyroradius ρ * ; the electrons scale as expected from gyro-Bohm class theories, while the ions scale consistent with the Goldston empirical scaling. This result predicts an increase in transport relative to Bohm diffusion as ρ * decreases in future devices. The existence of distinct ρ * scalings for ions and electrons cautions against a physical interpretation of one-fluid or global analysis. The second class of experiments reported here are the first to demonstrate the existence of non-diffusive energy transport. Electron cyclotron heating was applied at the half radius; the electron temperature profile remains substantially peaked. Power balance analysis indicates that heat must flow in the direction of increasing temperature, which is inconsistent with purely diffusive transport. The dynamics of electron temperature perturbations indicate the presence in the heat flux of a term dependent on temperature rather than its gradient. These two observations strongly constrain the types of models which can be applied to cross-field heat transport

  5. Carbon dioxide removal and tradeable put options at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Andrew; Coffman, D.’Maris

    2018-05-01

    Options are derivative contracts that give the purchaser the right to buy (call options) or sell (put options) a given underlying asset at a particular price at a future date. The purchaser of a put option may exercise the right to sell the asset to the issuer at any point in the future before the expiration of the contract. These rights may be contracted directly between two parties (i.e. over-the-counter), or may be sold publicly on formal exchanges, such as the Chicago Board Options Exchange. If the latter, they are called tradeable put options (TPOs) because they can be bought and sold by third-parties via a secondary market. The World Bank has a Pilot Auction Facility for methane and carbon mediation which uses TPOs in carbon-relevant markets, giving producers (of e.g. forest restoration) a floor price for their product [1]. This enables long-term producer planning. We discuss the potentially broader use of these options contracts in carbon dioxide removal (CDR) markets generally and at scale. We conclude that they can, if priced correctly, encourage rapid investment both in CDR technology and in operational capacity. TPOs could do this without creating the same type of systemic risk associated with other instruments (e.g. long-dated futures). Nevertheless, the widespread use of such instruments potentially creates novel risks. These include the political risk of premature closure [2] (conventionally rendered as ‘counting your chickens before they are hatched’) and the economic risk of overpaying for carbon removal services. These instruments require careful structuring, and do not inoculate the CDR market against regulatory disruption, or political pressure. Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of TPO markets in CDR, but we urge caution in respect of identified risks.

  6. Can operations put the MPS into an unsafe state?

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, L

    2011-01-01

    During the 2010 run, the MPS have been additionally stressed by the commissioning of operational procedures and systems tests. As requested by the MPS external review committee, human factors have to be further minimized and discipline reinforced when increasing the stored beam energies towards and beyond the 2010 target of 30 MJ. This talk will present a synthesis of the Evian discussion on MPS and human factors, with an emphasis on the tools and procedures to be put in place for the 2011 run in order to ensure the machine safety during standard beam operation and after periods of machine developments or technical stops.

  7. The Human Dimension: Putting the Person into Personalised Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Rob

    2017-04-01

    Technological advances enabling us to personalise medical interventions at the biological level must be matched by parallel advances in how we support the informed choices essential to patient and public participation. We cannot take participation for granted. To be truly personalised, medicine must take account of the perceptions and capabilities that shape participation. To do this, we need a better understanding of how people perceive personalised medicine and how they judge its value and risks. To realise the promise of 4P medicine we need to personalise at the psychosocial as well as biological dimension, putting the person into personalised medicine.

  8. Putting computational modeling at the fingertips of bench biologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgard, Markus

    Communication is key in successful collaborations between theoretical and experimental life scientists. In our line of work we integrate physiological and systems-level data of cell factories with constraint-based Modeling approaches to predict suitable targets for metabolic engineering. The most......-level programming environment Mathematica and an open source metabolic modeling package (MASS Toolbox) to quickly prototype maps and other interactive widgets. In the long term, we would like to make those publicly accessible using open web technologies....

  9. Reliability of an experimental method to analyse the impact point on a golf ball during putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ashley K; Mitchell, Andrew C S; Hughes, Gerwyn

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability of an experimental method identifying the location of the impact point on a golf ball during putting. Forty trials were completed using a mechanical putting robot set to reproduce a putt of 3.2 m, with four different putter-ball combinations. After locating the centre of the dimple pattern (centroid) the following variables were tested; distance of the impact point from the centroid, angle of the impact point from the centroid and distance of the impact point from the centroid derived from the X, Y coordinates. Good to excellent reliability was demonstrated in all impact variables reflected in very strong relative (ICC = 0.98-1.00) and absolute reliability (SEM% = 0.9-4.3%). The highest SEM% observed was 7% for the angle of the impact point from the centroid. In conclusion, the experimental method was shown to be reliable at locating the centroid location of a golf ball, therefore allowing for the identification of the point of impact with the putter head and is suitable for use in subsequent studies.

  10. Transfer of mechanical energy during the shot put

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażkiewicz Michalina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter. Statistically significant transfer was found in the study group between the following segments: Right Knee – Right Hip (p = 0.0035, Left Hip - Torso (p = 0.0201, Torso – Right Shoulder (p = 0.0122 and Right Elbow – Right Wrist (p = 0.0001. Furthermore, the results of cluster analysis showed that the kinetic chain used during the final shot acceleration movement had two different models. Differences between the groups were revealed mainly in the energy generated by the hips and trunk.

  11. Putting Reusability First: A Paradigm Switch in Remote Laboratories Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Vérot

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new devices brought online thanks to our Collaborative Remote Laboratories framework. Whereas previous devices integrated in our remote laboratory belongs to the domain of electronics, such as Vector Network Analyzers, the devices at the concern in this paper are, on one hand, an antenna workbench, and on the other, an homemade switching device, which embeds several electronic components. Because the middleware and framework for our environment were designed to be reusable, we wanted to put it to the test by integrating new and different devices in our Online Engineering catalog. After presenting the devices to be put online, we will expose the software development efforts required in regards to the reusability of the solution. As a consequence, the expose work and results tend to make the Online Engineering software architects to think reusability first, breaking with the current trends to implement Remote Labs one after the other, without much reusability, apart the capitalized experience. In this, we defend a paradigm switch in our current engineering approaches for Remote Laboratories implementations: Reusability should be thought first.

  12. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  13. Data assimilation with inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, W. C.

    If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.

  14. Putting social impact assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCombes, Lucy, E-mail: l.mccombes@leedsbeckett.ac.uk [International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH), Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Macaulay Hall 103, Leeds LS6 3QS (United Kingdom); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Professor of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Evers, Yvette, E-mail: y.evers@tft-earth.org [The Forest Trust, Chemin de Chantavril 2, 1260 Nyon (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    The discourse on the social impacts of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social impacts into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social impact assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social impacts on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social impacts of tourism. • Our adapted Social impact Assessment (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context.

  15. Putting social impact assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombes, Lucy; Vanclay, Frank; Evers, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    The discourse on the social impacts of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social impacts into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social impact assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social impacts on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social impacts of tourism. • Our adapted Social impact Assessment (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context

  16. Constraint on a Varying Proton-Electron Mass Ratio 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Murphy, M.T.; Withmore, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large

  17. Correlation-based decimation in constraint satisfaction problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Saburo; Mezard, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We study hard constraint satisfaction problems using some decimation algorithms based on mean-field approximations. The message-passing approach is used to estimate, beside the usual one-variable marginals, the pair correlation functions. The identification of strongly correlated pairs allows to use a new decimation procedure, where the relative orientation of a pair of variables is fixed. We apply this novel decimation to locked occupation problems, a class of hard constraint satisfaction problems where the usual belief-propagation guided decimation performs poorly. The pair-decimation approach provides a significant improvement.

  18. Development of an OLAP Based Fuzzy Logic System for Supporting Put Away Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.Chung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In today`s rapidly changing and globally volatile world, manufacturers pay strong efforts on conducting lean production, outsourcing their components, and management on the complex supply chain. Warehouse management plays a vital role to be a successful player in the any kinds of industry which put-away process is a key activity that brings significant influence and challenges to warehouse performance. In this dynamic operating environment, minimizing the operation mistakes and providing accurate real time inventory information to stakeholder become the basic requirements to be an order qualifier. An OLAP based intelligent system called Fuzzy Storage Assignment System (FSAS is proposed to increase availability of decision support data and convert the human knowledge into system for tackling the storage location assignment problem (SLAP. To validate the feasibility of this proposed system, a prototype will be worked out for a third party logistics company.

  19. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  20. Dynamical dark energy: Current constraints and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Amol; Ishak, Mustapha; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2005-09-01

    We consider how well the dark energy equation of state w as a function of redshift z will be measured using current and anticipated experiments. We use a procedure which takes fair account of the uncertainties in the functional dependence of w on z, as well as the parameter degeneracies, and avoids the use of strong prior constraints. We apply the procedure to current data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the supernova searches, and obtain results that are consistent with other analyses using different combinations of data sets. The effects of systematic experimental errors and variations in the analysis technique are discussed. Next, we use the same procedure to forecast the dark energy constraints achievable by the end of the decade, assuming 8 years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and realistic projections for ground-based measurements of supernovae and weak lensing. We find the 2σ constraints on the current value of w to be Δw0(2σ)=0.20, and on dw/dz (between z=0 and z=1) to be Δw1(2σ)=0.37. Finally, we compare these limits to other projections in the literature. Most show only a modest improvement; others show a more substantial improvement, but there are serious concerns about systematics. The remaining uncertainty still allows a significant span of competing dark energy models. Most likely, new kinds of measurements, or experiments more sophisticated than those currently planned, are needed to reveal the true nature of dark energy.

  1. A Developing Country Puts A Halt To Foreign Overfishing

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, P.

    2003-01-01

    Foreign fishing fleets drastically overfished the waters off Namibia before that country gained independence in 1990, according to Paul Nichols, Special Adviser to the Namibian Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources. Since then, the Government has taken strong regulatory actions that have brought overfishing under control and allowed depleted fish stocks to rebuild while gaining strong support for the policy among Namibia's commercial fishers.

  2. Electrical constraints on electronic components: syntheses of the ETTC'97 and RADECS 97 congress activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carel, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of systems and their hardening against electromagnetic (IEMN, lightning, strong radio and radar fields..) and radiative environments impose severe manufacturing constraints in competition with other functional constraints, like thermal constraints and weight, and operational constraints (maintenance, availability). This paper is a summary of the main topics discussed during the ETTC and RADECS 1997 congresses. The outstanding facts concern: the non-disturbance of components (hyper-frequency EMC and high fields), the non-destruction of components (hardening against electromagnetic pulses), the civil domain, the numerical simulations, the integrity of electronic card signals, and the reliability of components. (J.S.)

  3. Model-based control strategies for systems with constraints of the program type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzębowska, Elżbieta

    2006-08-01

    The paper presents a model-based tracking control strategy for constrained mechanical systems. Constraints we consider can be material and non-material ones referred to as program constraints. The program constraint equations represent tasks put upon system motions and they can be differential equations of orders higher than one or two, and be non-integrable. The tracking control strategy relies upon two dynamic models: a reference model, which is a dynamic model of a system with arbitrary order differential constraints and a dynamic control model. The reference model serves as a motion planner, which generates inputs to the dynamic control model. It is based upon a generalized program motion equations (GPME) method. The method enables to combine material and program constraints and merge them both into the motion equations. Lagrange's equations with multipliers are the peculiar case of the GPME, since they can be applied to systems with constraints of first orders. Our tracking strategy referred to as a model reference program motion tracking control strategy enables tracking of any program motion predefined by the program constraints. It extends the "trajectory tracking" to the "program motion tracking". We also demonstrate that our tracking strategy can be extended to a hybrid program motion/force tracking.

  4. Condensation with two constraints and disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, J.; Mangeolle, L.

    2018-04-01

    We consider a set of positive random variables obeying two additive constraints, a linear and a quadratic one; these constraints mimic the conservation laws of a dynamical system. In the simplest setting, without disorder, it is known that such a system may undergo a ‘condensation’ transition, whereby one random variable becomes much larger than the others; this transition has been related to the spontaneous appearance of non linear localized excitations in certain nonlinear chains, called breathers. Motivated by the study of breathers in a disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we study different instances of this problem in presence of a quenched disorder. Unless the disorder is too strong, the phase diagram looks like the one without disorder, with a transition separating a fluid phase, where all variables have the same order of magnitude, and a condensed phase, where one variable is much larger than the others. We then show that the condensed phase exhibits various degrees of ‘intermediate symmetry breaking’: the site hosting the condensate is chosen neither uniformly at random, nor is it fixed by the disorder realization. Throughout the article, our heuristic arguments are complemented with direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0417] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY.... Add Sec. 165.T09-0417 as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock...

  6. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  7. Putting conflict management into practice: a nursing case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Cristina García

    2006-04-01

    This paper is intended to put knowledge in conflict management into practice through reflecting on a nursing case study. Nursing organizations are particularly vulnerable to conflict as the context of nurses' work may be difficult and stressful. Power conflict is argued to be an important source of tension within nursing units. Learning to manage conflict at an early stage is therefore crucial to the effective functioning of nursing organizations. A nursing case study that illustrates power conflict in an oncology nursing unit is displayed and reflection on conflict management from the case is provided. There is no appropriate or inappropriate strategy to deal with conflict. However, detecting initial symptoms of conflict and adopting the most effective behaviour to conflict resolution is essential in nursing units. Further nursing education in conflict management for staff nurses and nurse managers is greatly needed.

  8. Launch Velocities in Successful Golf Putting: An Analytical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Mahoney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study is concerned with the special case of a putted ball intersecting a standard golf hole at its diameter. The velocity of the ball at the initial rim of the hole is termed the launch velocity and depending upon its value the ball may either be captured or it may escape capture by jumping over the hole. The critical value of the launch velocity (V is such that lesser values result in capture while greater values produce escape. Purpose: Since the value of the V entered prominently in some theoretical studies of putting, the aim of the current study is to provide an original re-evaluation of V and to contrast our results with existing results. Method: This analytical analysis relies on trigonometry in conjunction with Newtonian mechanics and the mathematics of projectiles. The results of a recent study into the mathematics of a bouncing ball which included the notions of restitution and friction were also employed in the analysis. Results: If bouncing and slipping do not occur when the ball hits the far rim of the hole our analysis produces a value of V of 1.356 m/s. When bouncing and slipping are present we find that V is at least 1.609 m/s but increases beyond this value as slipping and friction become greater. Useful relations which relate the dynamics and geometry of the ball to V are provided. Conclusion: Since ambient conditions may influence the extent of bounce and slippage we conjecture that the value of V is not unique.

  9. Climate-smart conservation: putting adaption principles into practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bruce A.; Glick, Patty; Edelson, Naomi; Staudt, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Climate change already is having significant impacts on the nation’s species and ecosystems, and these effects are projected to increase considerably over time. As a result, climate change is now a primary lens through which conservation and natural resource management must be viewed. How should we prepare for and respond to the impacts of climate change on wildlife and their habitats? What should we be doing differently in light of these climatic shifts, and what actions continue to make sense? Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice offers guidance for designing and carrying out conservation in the face of a rapidly changing climate. Addressing the growing threats brought about or accentuated by rapid climate change requires a fundamental shift in the practice of natural resource management and conservation. Traditionally, conservationists have focused their efforts on protecting and managing systems to maintain their current state, or to restore degraded systems back to a historical state regarded as more desirable. Conservation planners and practitioners will need to adopt forward-looking goals and implement strategies specifically designed to prepare for and adjust to current and future climatic changes, and the associated impacts on natural systems and human communities—an emerging discipline known as climate change adaptation. The field of climate change adaptation is still in its infancy. Although there is increasing attention focused on the subject, much of the guidance developed to date has been general in nature, concentrating on high-level principles rather than specific actions. It is against this backdrop that this guide was prepared as a means for helping put adaptation principles into practice, and for moving adaptation from planning to action.

  10. Hadronic EDM constraints on orbifold GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisano, Junji; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Nagai, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    We point out that the null results of the hadronic electric dipole moment (EDM) searches constrain orbifold grand unified theories (GUTs), where the GUT symmetry and supersymmetry (SUSY) are both broken by boundary conditions in extra dimensions and it leads to rich fermion and sfermion flavor structures. A marginal chromoelectric dipole moment (CEDM) of the up quark is induced by the misalignment between the CP violating left- and right-handed up-type squark mixings, in contrast to the conventional four-dimensional SUSY GUTs. The up quark CEDM constraint is found to be as strong as those from charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) searches. The interplay between future EDM and LFV experiments will probe the structures of the GUTs and the SUSY breaking mediation mechanism

  11. Astrophysical constraints on Planck scale dissipative phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Stefano; Maccione, Luca

    2014-04-18

    The emergence of a classical spacetime from any quantum gravity model is still a subtle and only partially understood issue. If indeed spacetime is arising as some sort of large scale condensate of more fundamental objects, then it is natural to expect that matter, being a collective excitation of the spacetime constituents, will present modified kinematics at sufficiently high energies. We consider here the phenomenology of the dissipative effects necessarily arising in such a picture. Adopting dissipative hydrodynamics as a general framework for the description of the energy exchange between collective excitations and the spacetime fundamental degrees of freedom, we discuss how rates of energy loss for elementary particles can be derived from dispersion relations and used to provide strong constraints on the base of current astrophysical observations of high-energy particles.

  12. Strong constraints on cosmological gravity from GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, T.; Bellini, E.; Ferreira, P.G.; Lagos, M.; Noller, J.; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 25 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 251301. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000437 Grant - others:OP VVV - CoGraDS(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000437 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alternative gravity theories, * dark energy * graviational waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  13. NO EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: STRONG CONSTRAINTS FROM THE JVLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam –1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ☉ . These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs ∼> 1000 M ☉ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  14. No Evidence for Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters: Strong Constraints from the JVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-05-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam-1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ⊙. These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs >~ 1000 M ⊙ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  15. Robust Constraints and Novel Gamma-Ray Signatures of Dark Matter That Interacts Strongly With Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2018-02-08

    Due to shielding, direct detection experiments are in some cases insensitive to dark matter candidates with very large scattering cross sections with nucleons. In this paper, we revisit this class of models, and derive a simple analytic criterion for conservative but robust direct detection limits. While large spin-independent cross sections seem to be ruled out, we identify potentially viable parameter space for dark matter with a spin-dependent cross section with nucleons in the range of $10^{-27} {\\rm cm}^2 < \\sigma_{{\\rm DM}-p} < 10^{-24} \\, {\\rm cm}^{2}$. With these parameters, cosmic-ray scattering with dark matter in the extended halo of the Milky Way could generate a novel and distinctive gamma-ray signal at high galactic latitudes. Such a signal could be observable by Fermi or future space-based gamma-ray telescopes.

  16. Strong constraint on modelled global carbon uptake using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, Natasha; Maignan, Fabienne; Bacour, Cédric; Lewis, Philip; Peylin, Philippe; Guanter, Luis; Köhler, Philipp; Gómez-Dans, Jose; Disney, Mathias

    2018-01-31

    Accurate terrestrial biosphere model (TBM) simulations of gross carbon uptake (gross primary productivity - GPP) are essential for reliable future terrestrial carbon sink projections. However, uncertainties in TBM GPP estimates remain. Newly-available satellite-derived sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data offer a promising direction for addressing this issue by constraining regional-to-global scale modelled GPP. Here, we use monthly 0.5° GOME-2 SIF data from 2007 to 2011 to optimise GPP parameters of the ORCHIDEE TBM. The optimisation reduces GPP magnitude across all vegetation types except C4 plants. Global mean annual GPP therefore decreases from 194 ± 57 PgCyr -1 to 166 ± 10 PgCyr -1 , bringing the model more in line with an up-scaled flux tower estimate of 133 PgCyr -1 . Strongest reductions in GPP are seen in boreal forests: the result is a shift in global GPP distribution, with a ~50% increase in the tropical to boreal productivity ratio. The optimisation resulted in a greater reduction in GPP than similar ORCHIDEE parameter optimisation studies using satellite-derived NDVI from MODIS and eddy covariance measurements of net CO 2 fluxes from the FLUXNET network. Our study shows that SIF data will be instrumental in constraining TBM GPP estimates, with a consequent improvement in global carbon cycle projections.

  17. Constraint elimination in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Likins, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    Large space structures (LSSs) and other dynamical systems of current interest are often extremely complex assemblies of rigid and flexible bodies subjected to kinematical constraints. A formulation is presented for the governing equations of constrained multibody systems via the application of singular value decomposition (SVD). The resulting equations of motion are shown to be of minimum dimension.

  18. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  19. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  20. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity...

  1. Financial Constraints: Explaining Your Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of educating library patrons about the library's finances and the impact of budget constraints and the escalating cost of serials on materials acquisition. Steps that can be taken in educating patrons by interpreting and publicizing financial information are suggested. (MES)

  2. Putting an end to nuclear energy: why and how; En finir avec le nucleaire: pourquoi et comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard

    2011-10-06

    This short book demonstrates the necessity and possibility to put an end to nuclear energy. First, it sweeps away the fallacious reasoning of nuclear supporters, like the energy independence, the safety and security aspects, the electricity cost, the greenhouse gases abatement. Then, it replaces the ending of nuclear energy in the more general framework of a worldwide energy transition, with its constraints and risks, which has become a necessity considering the geographical disparities of energy consumption. According to the author, the particular energy situation of France would lead the country to isolation and to an energy impasse while other worldwide and regional scenarios exist which would lead to exit the crisis and to reach a new energy civilization. Finally, a reasoned scenario of nuclear energy exit is proposed for France which is based on other power generation means. Such an energy transition will require some political and social conditions which are discussed. (J.S.)

  3. Astrophysical constraints on singlet scalars at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    We consider the viability of new heavy gauge singlet scalar particles at colliders such as the LHC . Our original motivation for this study came from the possibility of a new heavy particle of mass ~ TeV decaying significantly into two photons at colliders, such as LHC, but our analysis applies more broadly. We show that there are significant constraints from astrophysics and cosmology on the simplest UV complete models that incorporate such new particles and its associated collider signal. The simplest and most obvious UV complete model that incorporates such signals is that it arises from a new singlet scalar (or pseudo-scalar) coupled to a new electrically charged and colored heavy fermion. Here we show that these new fermions (and anti-fermions) would be produced in the early universe, then form new color singlet heavy mesons with light quarks, obtain a non-negligible freeze-out abundance, and remain in kinetic equilibrium until decoupling. These heavy mesons possess interesting phenomenology, dependent on their charge, including forming new bound states with electrons and protons. We show that a significant number of these heavy states would survive for the age of the universe and an appreciable number would eventually be contained within the earth and solar system. We show that this leads to detectable consequences, including the production of highly energetic events from annihilations on earth, new spectral lines, and, spectacularly, the destabilization of stars. The lack of detection of these consequences rules out such simple UV completions, putting pressure on the viability of such new particles at LHC . To incorporate such a scalar would require either much more complicated UV completions or even further new physics that provides a decay channel for the associated fermion.

  4. Astrophysical constraints on singlet scalars at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali, E-mail: mark.hertzberg@tufts.edu, E-mail: ali@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We consider the viability of new heavy gauge singlet scalar particles at colliders such as the LHC . Our original motivation for this study came from the possibility of a new heavy particle of mass ∼ TeV decaying significantly into two photons at colliders, such as LHC, but our analysis applies more broadly. We show that there are significant constraints from astrophysics and cosmology on the simplest UV complete models that incorporate such new particles and its associated collider signal. The simplest and most obvious UV complete model that incorporates such signals is that it arises from a new singlet scalar (or pseudo-scalar) coupled to a new electrically charged and colored heavy fermion. Here we show that these new fermions (and anti-fermions) would be produced in the early universe, then form new color singlet heavy mesons with light quarks, obtain a non-negligible freeze-out abundance, and remain in kinetic equilibrium until decoupling. These heavy mesons possess interesting phenomenology, dependent on their charge, including forming new bound states with electrons and protons. We show that a significant number of these heavy states would survive for the age of the universe and an appreciable number would eventually be contained within the earth and solar system. We show that this leads to detectable consequences, including the production of highly energetic events from annihilations on earth, new spectral lines, and, spectacularly, the destabilization of stars. The lack of detection of these consequences rules out such simple UV completions, putting pressure on the viability of such new particles at LHC . To incorporate such a scalar would require either much more complicated UV completions or even further new physics that provides a decay channel for the associated fermion.

  5. Can strong gravitational lensing constrain dark energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seokcheon; Ng, K.-W.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of the angular diameter distances from the source to the lens, D ds , and to the observer at present, D s , for various dark energy models. It is well known that the difference of D s s between the models is apparent and this quantity is used for the analysis of Type Ia supernovae. However we investigate the difference between the ratio of the angular diameter distances for a cosmological constant, (D ds /D s ) Λ , and that for other dark energy models, (D ds /D s ) other , in this paper. It has been known that there is lens model degeneracy in using strong gravitational lensing. Thus, we investigate the model independent observable quantity, Einstein radius (θ E ), which is proportional to both D ds /D s and velocity dispersion squared, σ v 2 . D ds /D s values depend on the parameters of each dark energy model individually. However, (D ds /D s ) Λ -(D ds /D s ) other for the various dark energy models, is well within the error of σ v for most of the parameter spaces of the dark energy models. Thus, a single strong gravitational lensing by use of the Einstein radius may not be a proper method to investigate the property of dark energy. However, better understanding to the mass profile of clusters in the future or other methods related to arc statistics rather than the distances may be used for constraints on dark energy

  6. Planck constraints on holographic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l ∼> 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l ≅ 20-40 found in the ΛCDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2σ CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H 0 = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms −1 Mpc −1 ) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between Ω m h 3 and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of χ 2 Plank+WP+HST −χ 2 Plank+WP is 7.8 in the ΛCDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding Δχ 2 is equal to 6.4, 3.5 and 4.1, respectively. As a comparison

  7. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  8. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  9. Ensemble Kalman filtering in presence of inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Kalman filtering is presence of constraints is an active area of research. Based on the Gaussian assumption for the probability-density functions, it looks hard to bring in extra constraints in the formalism. On the other hand, in geophysical systems we often encounter constraints related to e.g. the underlying physics or chemistry, which are violated by the Gaussian assumption. For instance, concentrations are always non-negative, model layers have non-negative thickness, and sea-ice concentration is between 0 and 1. Several methods to bring inequality constraints into the Kalman-filter formalism have been proposed. One of them is probability density function (pdf) truncation, in which the Gaussian mass from the non-allowed part of the variables is just equally distributed over the pdf where the variables are alolwed, as proposed by Shimada et al. 1998. However, a problem with this method is that the probability that e.g. the sea-ice concentration is zero, is zero! The new method proposed here does not have this drawback. It assumes that the probability-density function is a truncated Gaussian, but the truncated mass is not distributed equally over all allowed values of the variables, but put into a delta distribution at the truncation point. This delta distribution can easily be handled with in Bayes theorem, leading to posterior probability density functions that are also truncated Gaussians with delta distributions at the truncation location. In this way a much better representation of the system is obtained, while still keeping most of the benefits of the Kalman-filter formalism. In the full Kalman filter the formalism is prohibitively expensive in large-scale systems, but efficient implementation is possible in ensemble variants of the kalman filter. Applications to low-dimensional systems and large-scale systems will be discussed.

  10. Putting a cap on causality violations in causal dynamical triangulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, Jan; Loll, Renate; Westra, Willem; Zohren, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The formalism of causal dynamical triangulations (CDT) provides us with a non-perturbatively defined model of quantum gravity, where the sum over histories includes only causal space-time histories. Path integrals of CDT and their continuum limits have been studied in two, three and four dimensions. Here we investigate a generalization of the two-dimensional CDT model, where the causality constraint is partially lifted by introducing branching points with a weight g s , and demonstrate that the system can be solved analytically in the genus-zero sector. The solution is analytic in a neighborhood around weight g s = 0 and cannot be analytically continued to g s = ∞, where the branching is entirely geometric and where one would formally recover standard Euclidean two-dimensional quantum gravity defined via dynamical triangulations or Liouville theory

  11. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable...... and ownership of formal constraints played a crucial role in defining their influence on creativity – along with the tacit constraints held by the designers. The designers were found to be highly constraint focused, and four main creative strategies for constraint manipulation were observed: blackboxing...

  12. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  13. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  14. Grammatical constraints on phonological encoding in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jordana R; Goldrick, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    To better understand the influence of grammatical encoding on the retrieval and encoding of phonological word-form information during speech production, we examine how grammatical class constraints influence the activation of phonological neighbors (words phonologically related to the target--e.g., MOON, TWO for target TUNE). Specifically, we compare how neighbors that share a target's grammatical category (here, nouns) influence its planning and retrieval, assessed by picture naming latencies, and phonetic encoding, assessed by word productions in picture names, when grammatical constraints are strong (in sentence contexts) versus weak (bare naming). Within-category (noun) neighbors influenced planning time and phonetic encoding more strongly in sentence contexts. This suggests that grammatical encoding constrains phonological processing; the influence of phonological neighbors is grammatically dependent. Moreover, effects on planning times could not fully account for phonetic effects, suggesting that phonological interaction affects articulation after speech onset. These results support production theories integrating grammatical, phonological, and phonetic processes.

  15. Inflationary magnetogenesis with added helicity: constraints from non-Gaussianities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprini, Chiara; Chiara Guzzetti, Maria; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2018-06-01

    In previous work (Caprini and Sorbo 2014 J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. JCAP10(2014)056), two of us have proposed a model of inflationary magnetogenesis based on a rolling auxiliary field able both to account for the magnetic fields inferred by the (non) observation of gamma-rays from blazars, and to start the galactic dynamo, without incurring in any strong coupling or strong backreaction regime. Here we evaluate the correction to the scalar spectrum and bispectrum with respect to single-field slow-roll inflation generated in that scenario. The strongest constraints on the model originate from the non-observation of a scalar bispectrum. Nevertheless, even when those constraints are taken into consideration, the scenario can successfully account for the observed magnetic fields as long as the energy scale of inflation is smaller than GeV, under some conditions on the slow roll of the auxiliary scalar field.

  16. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f ( R ) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  17. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Sakstein, Jeremy, E-mail: clare.burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: jeremy.sakstein@port.ac.uk [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f ( R ) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  18. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation epitomizes three years of research guided by the research question: how can we conceptualize creative self-binding as a resource in art and design processes? Concretely, the dissertation seeks to offer insight into the puzzling observation that highly skilled creative...... practitioners sometimes freely and intentionally impose rigid rules, peculiar principles, and other kinds of creative obstructions on themselves as a means to spur momentum in the process and reach a distinctly original outcome. To investigate this the dissertation is composed of four papers (Part II) framed...... of analysis. Informed by the insight that constraints both enable and restrain creative agency, the dissertation’s main contention is that creative self- binding may profitably be conceptualized as the exercise of self-imposed creativity constraints. Thus, the dissertation marks an analytical move from vague...

  19. Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    When the neutrino mass eigenstate ν 2 is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

  20. Training in virtual environments: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskaliuk, Johannes; Bertram, Johanna; Cress, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Virtual training environments are used when training in reality is challenging because of the high costs, danger, time or effort involved. In this paper we argue for a theory-driven development of such environments, with the aim of connecting theory to practice and ensuring that the training provided fits the needs of the trained persons and their organisations. As an example, we describe the development of VirtualPolice (ViPOL), a training environment for police officers in a federal state of Germany. We provided the theoretical foundation for ViPOL concerning the feeling of being present, social context, learning motivation and perspective-taking. We developed a framework to put theory into practice. To evaluate our framework we interviewed the stakeholders of ViPOL and surveyed current challenges and limitations of virtual training. The results led to a review of a theory-into-practice framework which is presented in the conclusion. Feeling of presence, social context, learning motivation and perspective-taking are relevant for training in virtual environments. The theory-into-practice framework presented here supports developers and trainers in implementing virtual training tools. The framework was validated with an interview study of stakeholders of a virtual training project. We identified limitations, opportunities and challenges.

  1. Putting science at the heart of European policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    One year ago, the incoming European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker shocked the scientific world by scrapping the post of Chief Scientific Advisor. This week, the Commission made amends by launching a well-considered Scientific Advisory Mechanism (SAM) that not only puts science back at the heart of policy, but does so in a much more structured and robust way than conferring such responsibility on a single individual.     The SAM has two independent strands: an advisory group of seven scientists, and funding through the Horizon 2020 programme for national academies and learned societies to network and collaborate on policy issues. Both are backed up by a secretariat at Commission headquarters in Brussels. When Mr Juncker scrapped the role of Chief Scientific Advisor, it was against a backdrop of sometimes vitriolic attacks on the incumbent, Anne Glover, due to her outspoken views on GMOs. Mr Juncker’s move was seen by some as simply giving in to a powerful lob...

  2. Case studies in control putting theory to work

    CERN Document Server

    Juričić, Đani

    2013-01-01

    Case Studies in Control presents a framework to facilitate the use of advanced control concepts in real systems based on two decades of research and over 150 successful applications for industrial end-users from various backgrounds. In successive parts the text approaches the problem of putting the theory to work from both ends, theoretical and practical. The first part begins with a stress on solid control theory and the shaping of that theory to solve particular instances of practical problems. It emphasizes the need to establish by experiment whether a model-derived solution will perform properly in reality. The second part focuses on real industrial applications based on the needs and requirements of end-users. Here, the engineering approach is dominant but with theoretical input of varying degree depending on the particular process involved. Following the illustrations of the progress that can be made from either extreme of the well-known theory–practice divide, the text proceeds to a third part relate...

  3. Don’t put your family at risk

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    How easy is it to fall into the trap of cyber-criminals? Get one’s online banking password stolen? Lose photos to third parties? It's easier than you think. One single click to open a malicious attachment or a malicious web page is sufficient to put your family at risk.   Sometimes adversaries even call you in order to get their malicious job done. Once their malware is installed on your home computer, it records all your activity, monitors your online banking activities, steals your passwords, activates your computer’s microphone and camera, and sends all that data back to the adversary. This person can now do whatever they want: take money from your bank account, order books with your Amazon password, deface your Facebook profiles, send strange messages to your peers, or post the captured images of your daughter in front of the computer on dodgy web sites. Not only can you lose (lots of!) money, but having strange messages sent on your b...

  4. Putting Qumran, Jesus and his movement into relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After referring briefly to the fantasies regarding the origins of Christianity as elicited by the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 (Dupont-Sommer, Allegro, Thiering, the purpose of the contribution is to put the Jesus movement into relief in the context of first-century Judaism. The identity of the Qumranites is argued to be Essene scribes. The identity, ideology and practices of the latter are compared with those of Jesus of Nazareth and the movement he elicited using the following rubrics: (1 Jesus, the teacher of righteousness and the powers that be; (2 asceticism versus itinerary charismaticism; (3 caring versus lack of caring for the sick, poor and marginalised; (4 elitist priests and scribes versus lower-class peasants; (5 the interpretation of the law; (6 religious and daily practices (baptism, ritual meal, sacrifice, prayer, community of possessions, scribal activity; (7 religious views or ideology (kingdom of God, the new covenant, light and darkness, politics. The result is a picture of Jesus (with his focus on human suffering in sharp relief versus Qumran and facets of the early church.

  5. Putting your human resource department to work for you.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, C R

    1991-06-01

    As a staff function, human resources is organized as a service activity. Service activities render no patient care; they do not advance the work of the organization. However, they support the performance of the organization's work and in a practical sense become necessary. For example, if a pure service, such as building maintenance, did not exist, the facility's physical plant would gradually self-destruct. Similarly, without human resources to see to the maintenance of the work force, the overall suitability and capability of that work force will steadily erode. Recognize human resources for what it is--an essential service function required to help the organization run as efficiently as possible. Learn what the HR department does, and especially learn why the department does what it does. Provide input to the human resource department. Forge a continuing working relationship with the HR department, making it clear that you expect service from this essential service department. Challenge the HR department to do more, to do better, and to continually improve service--and put the human resource department to work for you and your employees.

  6. Putting equity center stage: challenging evidence-free reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Margaret; Dahlgren, Göran; McIntyre, Di

    2007-01-01

    Do we have an "evidence-free zone" around the health sector reforms that have taken place over the past few decades? Certainly, many of the policy prescriptions have been based on ideology and assumptions about the likely impact of policies, rather than evidence-based. The provision of health care is increasingly treated as a commodity that can be subjected to the same prescription as other goods: privatization, competition, deregulation, decentralization. Evidence has slowly emerged over the 1990s and early 2000s on the adverse effects of these policy prescriptions on equity, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, but a shift in policy is barely perceptible. There is a need for a fresh approach that puts equity center stage. A gap that must be filled is on the "demand" or "need" side: in particular, the impact of policy changes on families and communities. This article is the first in a series of eight articles that present the findings of studies that attempt to fill this gap, helping to develop a more evidence-based approach to equity and health sector policy from the users'/potential patients' perspective.

  7. Putting informed and shared decision making into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Grams, Garry; Lamarre, Amanda

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the practice, experiences and views of motivated and trained family physicians as they attempt to implement informed and shared decision making (ISDM) in routine practice and to identify and understand the barriers they encounter. Patient involvement in decision making about their health care has been the focus of much academic activity. Although significant conceptual and experimental work has been done, ISDM rarely occurs. Physician attitudes and lack of training are identified barriers. Qualitative analysis of transcripts of consultations and key informant group interviews. Six family physicians received training in the ISDM competencies. Audiotapes of office consultations were made before and after training. Transcripts of consultations were examined to identify behavioural markers associated with each competency and the range of expression of the competencies. The physicians attended group interviews at the end of the study to explore experiences of ISDM. The physicians liked the ISDM model and thought that they should put it into practice. Evidence from transcripts indicated they were able to elicit concerns, ideas and expectations (although not about management) and agree an action plan. They did not elicit preferences for role or information. They sometimes offered choices. They had difficulty achieving full expression of any of the competencies and integrating ISDM into their script for the medical interview. The study also identified a variety of competency-specific barriers. A major barrier to the practice of ISDM by motivated physicians appears to be the need to change well-established patterns of communication with patients.

  8. Macroscopic constraints on string unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.R.

    1989-03-01

    The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs

  9. Financial Constraints and Franchising Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Uwe Kuhn; Francine Lafontaine; Ying Fan

    2013-01-01

    We study how the financial constraints of agents affect the behavior of principals in the context of franchising. We develop an empirical model of franchising starting with a principal-agent framework that emphasizes the role of franchisees' collateral from an incentive perspective. We estimate the determinants of chains' entry (into franchising) and growth decisions using data on franchised chains and data on local macroeconomic conditions. In particular, we use collateralizable housing weal...

  10. Analysis of Space Tourism Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Space tourism appears today as a new Eldorado in a relatively near future. Private operators are already proposing services for leisure trips in Low Earth Orbit, and some happy few even tested them. But are these exceptional events really marking the dawn of a new space age ? The constraints associated to the space tourism are severe : - the economical balance of space tourism is tricky; development costs of large manned - the technical definition of such large vehicles is challenging, mainly when considering - the physiological aptitude of passengers will have a major impact on the mission - the orbital environment will also lead to mission constraints on aspects such as radiation, However, these constraints never appear as show-stoppers and have to be dealt with pragmatically: - what are the recommendations one can make for future research in the field of space - which typical roadmap shall one consider to develop realistically this new market ? - what are the synergies with the conventional missions and with the existing infrastructure, - how can a phased development start soon ? The paper proposes hints aiming at improving the credibility of Space Tourism and describes the orientations to follow in order to solve the major hurdles found in such an exciting development.

  11. Isocurvature constraints on portal couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Nurmi, Sami; Vaskonen, Ville [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O.Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.kainulainen@jyu.fi, E-mail: sami.t.nurmi@jyu.fi, E-mail: tommi.tenkanen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: ville.vaskonen@jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-06-01

    We consider portal models which are ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model, and confront them with observational constraints on dark matter abundance and isocurvature perturbations. We assume the hidden sector to contain a real singlet scalar s and a sterile neutrino ψ coupled to s via a pseudoscalar Yukawa term. During inflation, a primordial condensate consisting of the singlet scalar s is generated, and its contribution to the isocurvature perturbations is imprinted onto the dark matter abundance. We compute the total dark matter abundance including the contributions from condensate decay and nonthermal production from the Standard Model sector. We then use the Planck limit on isocurvature perturbations to derive a novel constraint connecting dark matter mass and the singlet self coupling with the scale of inflation: m {sub DM}/GeV ∼< 0.2λ{sub s}{sup 3/8} ( H {sub *}/10{sup 11} GeV){sup −3/2}. This constraint is relevant in most portal models ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model and containing light singlet scalar fields.

  12. Dynamics and constraints of the Dissipative Liouville Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Basilakos, Spyros; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Plionis, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we investigate the properties of the FLRW flat cosmological models in which the cosmic expansion of the Universe is affected by a dilaton dark energy (Liouville scenario). In particular, we perform a detailed study of these models in the light of the latest cosmological data, which serves to illustrate the phenomenological viability of the new dark energy paradigm as a serious alternative to the traditional scalar field approaches. By performing a joint likelihood analysis of the recent supernovae type Ia data (SNIa), the differential ages of passively evolving galaxies, and the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) traced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we put tight constraints on the main cosmological parameters. Furthermore, we study the linear matter fluctuation field of the above Liouville cosmological models. In this framework, we compare the observed growth rate of clustering measured from the optical galaxies with those predicted by the current Liouville models. Performing vari...

  13. Tunisian Rearing facility a first year production constraints and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfali, M.M; Ben Salah, H.; Caceres, C.; Raies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Tunisian Medfly rearing facility is located in the north of the country in a small city named Sidi Thabet, near the capital. This facility was designed for rearing the Medfly Genetic Sexing strain (GSS). The facility has been started operations in 2003 in order to release sterile males under 6000 hectares in the north east of the country in the Cap Bon Peninsula. This programme is supported by the Tunisian government, IAEA and FAO. Male only production was not stable for the four first months, due to some constraints. The production is stabilising by the time, after the tune fine off all rearing procedures and adjustment of the environmental control system. Quality control procedures (QC) were put for each procedure of the production from eggs to adult following the procedures established in the International FAO/IAEA/USDA Fruit Flies Quality control Manual

  14. Constraints on cosmic superstrings from Kaluza-Klein emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaux, Jean-François

    2012-07-06

    Cosmic superstrings interact generically with a tower of light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. We study the production of KK particles by cosmic superstring loops, and show that it is constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis. We study the resulting constraints in the parameter space of the underlying string theory model and highlight their complementarity with the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments.

  15. Constraints on cosmic opacity and beyond the standard model physics from cosmological distance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avgoustidis, Anastasios [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Burrage, Clare [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max Planck Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany); Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul, E-mail: a.avgoustidis@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: clare.burrage@desy.de, E-mail: redondo@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [ICREA and Institute for Sciences of the Cosmos (ICC), University of Barcelona, IEEC, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2010-10-01

    We update constraints on cosmic opacity by combining recent SN Type Ia data with the latest measurements of the Hubble expansion at redshifts between 0 and 2. The new constraint on the parameter ε parametrising deviations from the luminosity-angular diameter distance relation (d{sub L} = d{sub A}(1+z){sup 2+ε}), is ε = −0.04{sub −0.07}{sup +0.08} (2-σ). For the redshift range between 0.2 and 0.35 this corresponds to an opacity Δτ < 0.012 (95% C.L.), a factor of 2 stronger than the previous constraint. Various models of beyond the standard model physics that predict violation of photon number conservation contribute to the opacity and can be equally constrained. In this paper we put new limits on axion-like particles, including chameleons, and mini-charged particles.

  16. Constraints on cosmic opacity and beyond the standard model physics from cosmological distance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avgoustidis, Anastasios [DAMTP, CMS, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Centre for Theoretical Cosmology; Burrage, Clare [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Barcelona Univ., IEEC (ES). ICREA and Inst. for Sciences of the Cosmos (ICC)

    2010-04-15

    We update constraints on cosmic opacity by combining recent SN Type Ia data compilation with the latest measurements of the Hubble expansion at redshifts between 0 and 2. The new constraint on the parameter {epsilon} parametrising deviations from the luminosity-angular diameter distance relation (d{sub L}=d{sub A}(1+z){sup 2+{epsilon}}), is {epsilon}=-0.04{sub -0.07}{sup +0.08} (2-{sigma}). For the redshift range between 0.2 and 0.35 this corresponds to an opacity {delta}{tau}<0.012 (95% C.L.), a factor of 2 stronger than the previous constraint. Various models of beyond the standard model physics that predict violation of photon number conservation contribute to the opacity and can be equally constrained. In this paper we put new limits on axion-like particles, including chameleons, and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  17. Constraints on cosmic opacity and beyond the standard model physics from cosmological distance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avgoustidis, Anastasios; Redondo, Javier; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2010-04-01

    We update constraints on cosmic opacity by combining recent SN Type Ia data compilation with the latest measurements of the Hubble expansion at redshifts between 0 and 2. The new constraint on the parameter ε parametrising deviations from the luminosity-angular diameter distance relation (d L =d A (1+z) 2+ε ), is ε=-0.04 -0.07 +0.08 (2-σ). For the redshift range between 0.2 and 0.35 this corresponds to an opacity Δτ<0.012 (95% C.L.), a factor of 2 stronger than the previous constraint. Various models of beyond the standard model physics that predict violation of photon number conservation contribute to the opacity and can be equally constrained. In this paper we put new limits on axion-like particles, including chameleons, and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  18. Relaxations of semiring constraint satisfaction problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. In this framework preferences can be associated with tuples of values of the variable domains...

  19. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  20. The quark gluon plasma: Lattice computations put to experimental test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    convenience is due to asymptotic freedom in QCD; at scales much larger than ΛQCD ... For T CTc strongly interacting matter is in the confined phase. ..... particle pictures give a qualitative description of static quantities such as S, E or χ, not far.

  1. Transmission and capacity pricing and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusco, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which discussed the following issues regarding the North American electric power industry: (1) capacity pricing transmission constraints, (2) nature of transmission constraints, (3) consequences of transmission constraints, and (4) prices as market evidence. Some solutions suggested for pricing constraints included the development of contingent contracts, back-up power in supply regions, and new line capacity construction. 8 tabs., 20 figs

  2. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  3. Experimental constraints on theories of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiments on the high-T c superconductors have begun to narrow the possible theoretical explanations of the phenomenon. Experimental evidence on the size, structure and symmetry of the charge carriers will be reviewed; evidence for and against strong coupling; and, recent results on a search for direct evidence of magnetic signature in the coupling mechanism will be presented. The authors show how these experiments impose strong constraints on the theories of these superconductors. A new type of experiment is also discussed which appears capable of identifying the true nature of the coupling mechanism if the superconductors prove to be BCS-like in nature

  4. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and constraints is often described in the literature either in rather imprecise, general concepts or in relation to very specific domains. Cross-domain and cross-disciplinary takes on how the handling of constraints influences creative activities are rare. In t......-disciplinary research into the ambiguous role of constraints in creativity....

  5. Learning and Parallelization Boost Constraint Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are a powerful way to abstract and represent academic and real-world problems from both artificial intelligence and operations research. A constraint satisfaction problem is typically addressed by a sequential constraint solver running on a single processor. Rather than construct a new, parallel solver, this work…

  6. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world"

  7. Putting informed and shared decision making into practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Grams, Garry; LaMarre, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To investigate the practice, experiences and views of motivated and trained family physicians as they attempt to implement informed and shared decision making (ISDM) in routine practice and to identify and understand the barriers they encounter. Background  Patient involvement in decision making about their health care has been the focus of much academic activity. Although significant conceptual and experimental work has been done, ISDM rarely occurs. Physician attitudes and lack of training are identified barriers. Design  Qualitative analysis of transcripts of consultations and key informant group interviews. Settings and participants  Six family physicians received training in the ISDM competencies. Audiotapes of office consultations were made before and after training. Transcripts of consultations were examined to identify behavioural markers associated with each competency and the range of expression of the competencies. The physicians attended group interviews at the end of the study to explore experiences of ISDM. Results  The physicians liked the ISDM model and thought that they should put it into practice. Evidence from transcripts indicated they were able to elicit concerns, ideas and expectations (although not about management) and agree an action plan. They did not elicit preferences for role or information. They sometimes offered choices. They had difficulty achieving full expression of any of the competencies and integrating ISDM into their script for the medical interview. The study also identified a variety of competency‐specific barriers. Conclusion  A major barrier to the practice of ISDM by motivated physicians appears to be the need to change well‐established patterns of communication with patients. PMID:17083559

  8. Putting Personal Knowledge Management under the Macroscope of Informing Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a novel Personal Knowledge Management (PKM concept and prototype system. The system’s objective is to aid life-long-learning, resourcefulness, creativity, and teamwork of individuals throughout their academic and professional life and as contributors and beneficiaries of organizational and societal performance. Such a scope offers appealing and viable opportunities for stakeholders in the educational, professional, and developmental context. To further validate the underlying PKM application design, the systems thinking techniques of the transdiscipline of Informing Science (IS are employed. By applying Cohen’s IS-Framework, Leavitt’s Diamond Model, the IS-Meta Approach, and Gill’s and Murphy’s Three Dimensions of Design Task Complexity, the more specific KM models and methodologies central to the PKMS concept are aligned, introduced, and visualized. The extent of this introduction offers an essential overview, which can be deepened and broadened by using the cited URL and DOI links pointing to the available resources of the author’s prior publications. The paper emphasizes the differences of the proposed meme-based PKM System compared to its traditional organizational document-centric counterparts as well as its inherent complementing synergies. As a result, it shows how the system is closing in on Vannevar Bush’s still unfulfilled vison of the ‘Memex’, an as-close-as-it-gets imaginary ancestor celebrating its 70th anniversary as an inspiring idea never realized. It also addresses the scenario recently put forward by Levy which foresees a decentralizing revolution of knowledge management that gives more power and autonomy to individuals and self-organized groups. Accordingly, it also touches on the PKM potential in terms of Kuhn’s Scientific Revolutions and Disruptive Innovations.

  9. Biophysical investigation of type A PutAs reveals a conserved core oligomeric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korasick, David A. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Singh, Harkewal [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Pemberton, Travis A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Luo, Min [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Dhatwalia, Richa [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Tanner, John J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA

    2017-08-01

    Many enzymes form homooligomers, yet the functional significance of self-association is seldom obvious. Herein, we examine the connection between oligomerization and catalytic function for proline utilization A (PutA) enzymes. PutAs are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze both reactions of proline catabolism. Type A PutAs are the smallest members of the family, possessing a minimal domain architecture consisting of N-terminal proline dehydrogenase and C-terminal l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase modules. Type A PutAs form domain-swapped dimers, and in one case (Bradyrhizobium japonicum PutA), two of the dimers assemble into a ring-shaped tetramer. Whereas the dimer has a clear role in substrate channeling, the functional significance of the tetramer is unknown. To address this question, we performed structural studies of four-type A PutAs from two clades of the PutA tree. The crystal structure of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus PutA covalently inactivated by N-propargylglycine revealed a fold and substrate-channeling tunnel similar to other PutAs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that Bdellovibrio PutA is dimeric in solution, in contrast to the prediction from crystal packing of a stable tetrameric assembly. SAXS studies of two other type A PutAs from separate clades also suggested that the dimer predominates in solution. To assess whether the tetramer of B. japonicum PutA is necessary for catalytic function, a hot spot disruption mutant that cleanly produces dimeric protein was generated. The dimeric variant exhibited kinetic parameters similar to the wild-type enzyme. These results implicate the domain-swapped dimer as the core structural and functional unit of type A PutAs.

  10. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of ricestrong>

    Mariafe N. Calingacion

    Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits

  11. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  12. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... a specialised version of each clause. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. The specialisation procedure can be repeated to yield further specialisation. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraint theory...

  13. Nuclear energy and external constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, R.; Thiriet, L.

    1983-01-01

    The structural factors of this crisis probably predominate over factors arising out the economic situation, even if explanations vary in this respect. In this article devoted to nuclear energy, a possible means of Loosering external constraints the current international economic environment is firstly outlined; the context in which the policies of industrialized countries, and therefore that of France, must be developed. An examination of the possible role of energy policies in general and nuclear policies in particular as an instrument of economic policy in providing a partial solution to this crisis, will then enable to quantitatively evaluate the effects of such policies at a national level [fr

  14. Finding Mass Constraints Through Third Neutrino Mass Eigenstate Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolli, Nakul; de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we aim to constrain the decay parameter for the third neutrino mass utilizing already accepted constraints on the other mixing parameters from the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS). The main purpose of this project is to determine the parameters that will allow the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) to observe a decay parameter with some statistical significance. Another goal is to determine the parameters that JUNO could detect in the case that the third neutrino mass is lighter than the first two neutrino species. We also replicate the results that were found in the JUNO Conceptual Design Report (CDR). By utilizing Χ2-squared analysis constraints have been put on the mixing angles, mass squared differences, and the third neutrino decay parameter. These statistical tests take into account background noise and normalization corrections and thus the finalized bounds are a good approximation for the true bounds that JUNO can detect. If the decay parameter is not included in our models, the 99% confidence interval lies within The bounds 0s to 2.80x10-12s. However, if we account for a decay parameter of 3x10-5 ev2, then 99% confidence interval lies within 8.73x10-12s to 8.73x10-11s.

  15. Muscular power, neuromuscular activation, and performance in shot put athletes at preseason and at competition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, Thomas A; Terzis, Gerasimos; Boudolos, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Georgios

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in shot put performance, muscular power, and neuromuscular activation of the lower extremities, between the preseason and the competition period, in skilled shot put athletes using the rotational technique. Shot put performance was assessed at the start of the pre-season period as well as after 12 weeks, at the competition period, in nine shot putters. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right vastus lateralis muscle was recorded during all shot put trials. Maximum squat strength (1RM) and mechanical parameters during the countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force platform were also determined at pre-season and at competition period. Shot put performance increased 4.7% (p phase was increased significantly (p training period. Shot put performance was significantly related with muscular power and takeoff velocity during the CMJ, at competition period (r = 0.66, p competition period.

  16. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  17. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  19. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  20. Cosmographic constraints from The Raychaudhuri Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Crislane S.; Santos, Janilo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: There is nowadays a great debate about the mechanism behind the observed cosmic acceleration. In the absence of a fundamental new physical theory, capable of joining the macro and the microphysics, a number of cosmological scenarios have been risen presupposing the existence of new fields in nature, such as quintessence scalar field and Chaplygin gas, for example. The aim of these cosmological models is indeed to derive a smooth function H(z), the so called Hubble function, which describes the expansion history of the universe, and as a further step to confront predictions with the observations. However, there is a direct method to map the expansion history of the universe in a model independent way. Recently it has been shown that luminous red galaxies can provide us with direct measurements of the expansion rate H(z) using differential age techniques. Indeed, at the moment we have only 11 estimates of H(z) lying in the redshift interval 0.1 ≤ z ≥ 1.75; however, in the near future, it is expected ∼ 1, 000 values of the Hubble function. In this way, cosmography is becoming a promising branch in cosmology. Here we investigate and discuss the use of the Raychaudhury equation as a cosmographic description and relate the expansion rate Θ of a congruence of world lines with the evolution of the Hubble function H(z). As is well known, the Raychaudhury equation is central to the understanding of gravitational attraction in astrophysics and cosmology. Our assumptions are that the underlying geometry of the universe is a flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker one and that gravity has an attractive effect. For a comoving observer we find that the expansion rate of a congruence is given by Θ = -3/2(1 + z)dH{sup 2}/dz, which we use to compare with the computed derivatives of H(z) measurements. We use this equation in order to put constraints in the parameters of the cosmological models of quintessence scalar field and Chaplygin gas. (author)

  1. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. The science of golf putting a complete guide for researchers, players and coaches

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the motor performance and biomechanics of golf putting, providing methodologies, studies and approaches to this concept. Presenting outcomes of research published over the past six years, it offers guidelines from a scientifically oriented perspective, and employs new technologies and mathematical methods to assess golf putting. The chapters cover aspects such as pendulum-like motion in sports, setting up the experimental design, and performance metrics for putting variables. Paving the way for an improved understanding of what leads to failure and success in golf putting, this book offers an invaluable reference source for sports scientists, engineers and mathematicians, as well as golfers.

  3. CHANDRA CLUSTER COSMOLOGY PROJECT III: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER CONSTRAINTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Burenin, R. A.; Voevodkin, A.; Ebeling, H.; Hornstrup, A.; Nagai, D.; Quintana, H.

    2009-01-01

    Chandra observations of large samples of galaxy clusters detected in X-rays by ROSAT provide a new, robust determination of the cluster mass functions at low and high redshifts. Statistical and systematic errors are now sufficiently small, and the redshift leverage sufficiently large for the mass function evolution to be used as a useful growth of a structure-based dark energy probe. In this paper, we present cosmological parameter constraints obtained from Chandra observations of 37 clusters with (z) = 0.55 derived from 400 deg 2 ROSAT serendipitous survey and 49 brightest z ∼ 0.05 clusters detected in the All-Sky Survey. Evolution of the mass function between these redshifts requires Ω Λ > 0 with a ∼5σ significance, and constrains the dark energy equation-of-state parameter to w 0 = -1.14 ± 0.21, assuming a constant w and a flat universe. Cluster information also significantly improves constraints when combined with other methods. Fitting our cluster data jointly with the latest supernovae, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and baryonic acoustic oscillation measurements, we obtain w 0 = -0.991 ± 0.045 (stat) ±0.039 (sys), a factor of 1.5 reduction in statistical uncertainties, and nearly a factor of 2 improvement in systematics compared with constraints that can be obtained without clusters. The joint analysis of these four data sets puts a conservative upper limit on the masses of light neutrinos Σm ν M h and σ 8 from the low-redshift cluster mass function.

  4. A strong electroweak phase transition from the inflaton field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Vaskonen, Ville [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O.Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2016-09-22

    We study a singlet scalar extension of the Standard Model. The singlet scalar is coupled non-minimally to gravity and assumed to drive inflation, and also couple sufficiently strongly with the SM Higgs field in order to provide for a strong first order electroweak phase transition. Requiring the model to describe inflation successfully, be compatible with the LHC data, and yield a strong first order electroweak phase transition, we identify the regions of the parameter space where the model is viable. We also include a singlet fermion with scalar coupling to the singlet scalar to probe the sensitivity of the constraints on additional degrees of freedom and their couplings in the singlet sector. We also comment on the general feasibility of these fields to act as dark matter.

  5. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  6. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  7. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  8. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  9. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  10. Thermomechanical constraints and constitutive formulations in thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate three classes of constraints in a thermoelastic body: (i a deformation-temperature constraint, (ii a deformation-entropy constraint, and (iii a deformation-energy constraint. These constraints are obtained as limits of unconstrained thermoelastic materials and we show that constraints (ii and (iii are equivalent. By using a limiting procedure, we show that for the constraint (i, the entropy plays the role of a Lagrange multiplier while for (ii and (iii, the absolute temperature plays the role of Lagrange multiplier. We further demonstrate that the governing equations for materials subject to constraint (i are identical to those of an unconstrained material whose internal energy is an affine function of the entropy, while those for materials subject to constraints (ii and (iii are identical to those of an unstrained material whose Helmholtz potential is affine in the absolute temperature. Finally, we model the thermoelastic response of a peroxide-cured vulcanizate of natural rubber and show that imposing the constraint in which the volume change depends only on the internal energy leads to very good predictions (compared to experimental results of the stress and temperature response under isothermal and isentropic conditions.

  11. Long distance communication in the human brain: timing constraints for inter-hemispheric synchrony and the origin of brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO ABOITIZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of corpus callosum fiber composition reveals that inter-hemispheric transmission time may put constraints on the development of inter-hemispheric synchronic ensembles, especially in species with large brains like humans. In order to overcome this limitation, a subset of large-diameter callosal fibers are specialized for fast inter-hemispheric transmission, particularly in large-brained species. Nevertheless, the constraints on fast inter-hemispheric communication in large-brained species can somehow contribute to the development of ipsilateral, intrahemispheric networks, which might promote the development of brain lateralization.

  12. From physical dose constraints to equivalent uniform dose constraints in inverse radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieke, Christian; Bortfeld, Thomas; Niemierko, Andrzej; Nill, Simeon

    2003-01-01

    Optimization algorithms in inverse radiotherapy planning need information about the desired dose distribution. Usually the planner defines physical dose constraints for each structure of the treatment plan, either in form of minimum and maximum doses or as dose-volume constraints. The concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was designed to describe dose distributions with a higher clinical relevance. In this paper, we present a method to consider the EUD as an optimization constraint by using the method of projections onto convex sets (POCS). In each iteration of the optimization loop, for the actual dose distribution of an organ that violates an EUD constraint a new dose distribution is calculated that satisfies the EUD constraint, leading to voxel-based physical dose constraints. The new dose distribution is found by projecting the current one onto the convex set of all dose distributions fulfilling the EUD constraint. The algorithm is easy to integrate into existing inverse planning systems, and it allows the planner to choose between physical and EUD constraints separately for each structure. A clinical case of a head and neck tumor is optimized using three different sets of constraints: physical constraints for all structures, physical constraints for the target and EUD constraints for the organs at risk, and EUD constraints for all structures. The results show that the POCS method converges stable and given EUD constraints are reached closely

  13. Metric approach to quantum constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P; Gustavsson, Anna C T

    2009-01-01

    A framework for deriving equations of motion for constrained quantum systems is introduced and a procedure for its implementation is outlined. In special cases, the proposed new method, which takes advantage of the fact that the space of pure states in quantum mechanics has both a symplectic structure and a metric structure, reduces to a quantum analogue of the Dirac theory of constraints in classical mechanics. Explicit examples involving spin-1/2 particles are worked out in detail: in the first example, our approach coincides with a quantum version of the Dirac formalism, while the second example illustrates how a situation that cannot be treated by Dirac's approach can nevertheless be dealt with in the present scheme.

  14. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  15. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  16. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  17. Cosmographic Constraints and Cosmic Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Capozziello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reproducing dark energy effects is reviewed here with particular interest devoted to cosmography. We summarize some of the most relevant cosmological models, based on the assumption that the corresponding barotropic equations of state evolve as the universe expands, giving rise to the accelerated expansion. We describe in detail the ΛCDM (Λ-Cold Dark Matter and ωCDM models, considering also some specific examples, e.g., Chevallier–Polarsky–Linder, the Chaplygin gas and the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati cosmological model. Finally, we consider the cosmological consequences of f(R and f(T gravities and their impact on the framework of cosmography. Keeping these considerations in mind, we point out the model-independent procedure related to cosmography, showing how to match the series of cosmological observables to the free parameters of each model. We critically discuss the role played by cosmography, as a selection criterion to check whether a particular model passes or does not present cosmological constraints. In so doing, we find out cosmological bounds by fitting the luminosity distance expansion of the redshift, z, adopting the recent Union 2.1 dataset of supernovae, combined with the baryonic acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background measurements. We perform cosmographic analyses, imposing different priors on the Hubble rate present value. In addition, we compare our results with recent PLANCK limits, showing that the ΛCDM and ωCDM models seem to be the favorite with respect to other dark energy models. However, we show that cosmographic constraints on f(R and f(T cannot discriminate between extensions of General Relativity and dark energy models, leading to a disadvantageous degeneracy problem.

  18. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  19. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  20. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  1. Constraint Embedding for Multibody System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a constraint embedding approach for the handling of local closure constraints in multibody system dynamics. The approach uses spatial operator techniques to eliminate local-loop constraints from the system and effectively convert the system into tree-topology systems. This approach allows the direct derivation of recursive O(N) techniques for solving the system dynamics and avoiding the expensive steps that would otherwise be required for handling the closedchain dynamics. The approach is very effective for systems where the constraints are confined to small-subgraphs within the system topology. The paper provides background on the spatial operator O(N) algorithms, the extensions for handling embedded constraints, and concludes with some examples of such constraints.

  2. Use of dose constraints in public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tageldein, Amged

    2015-02-01

    An overview of the dose constraints in public exposures has been carried out in this project. The establishment, development and the application of the concept of dose constraints are reviewed with regards to public exposure. The role of dose constraints in the process of optimization of radiation protection was described and has been showed that the concept of the dose constraints along with many other concept of radiation protection is widely applied in the optimization of exposure to radiation. From the beginning of the establishment of dose constraints as a concept in radiation protection, the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published a number of documents that provides detailed application related to radiation protection and safety of public exposure from ionizing radiation. This work provides an overview of such publications and related documents with special emphasis on optimization of public exposure using dose constraints. (au)

  3. Causality constraints in conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Thomas; Jain, Sachin; Kundu, Sandipan [Department of Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, New York (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂ϕ){sup 4} coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning operators.

  4. Observational Constraints on Quark Matter in Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We study the observational constraints of mass and redshift on the properties of the equation of state (EOS) for quark matter in compact stars based on the quasi-particle description. We discuss two scenarios: strange stars and hybrid stars. We construct the equations of state utilizing an extended MIT bag model taking the medium effect into account for quark matter and the relativistic mean field theory for hadron matter. We show that quark matter may exist in strange stars and in the interior of neutron stars. The bag constant is a key parameter that affects strongly the mass of strange stars. The medium effect can lead to the stiffer hybrid-star EOS approaching the pure hadronic EOS, due to the reduction of quark matter, and hence the existence of heavy hybrid stars. We find that a middle range coupling constant may be the best choice for the hybrid stars being compatible with the observational constraints.

  5. Invisible Z′ and dark matter: LHC vs LUX constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Mambrini, Yann; Tytgat, Michel H.G.; Zaldívar, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    We consider a simple, yet generic scenario in which a new heavy Z′ gauge boson couples both to SM fermions and to dark matter. In this framework we confront the best LHC limits on an extra gauge boson Z′ to the constraints on couplings to dark matter from direct detection experiments. In particular we show that the LHC searches for resonant production of dileptons and the recent exclusion limits obtained by the LUX collaboration give complementary constraints. Together, they impose strong bounds on the invisible branching ratio and exclude a large part of the parameter space for generic Z′ models. Our study encompasses many possible Z′ models, including SSM, E 6 -inspired or B-L scenario

  6. Perpetual American put options in a level-dependent volatility model

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We find the explicit value of perpetual American put options in the constant elasticity of variance model using the concept of smooth fit. We show that the price is increasing in the volatility and convex in the underlying stock price. Moreover, as the model converges to the standard Black and Scholes model, the value of the put is shown to approach the `correct' limit.

  7. Marketing support of putting on the own trade marks in the retail sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsova S.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the practical experience of putting own trade mark by the domestic enterprise on the food market of Ukraine. The author has investigated the marketing strategy of putting on the own trade mark and evaluated its results for the enterprise, formed and implemented to the practice the measures for evaluating the attractiveness of company’s own trade mark.

  8. Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li

    2014-01-01

    -hoc and statistically based methods. In this paper, we show experiments of implementing different approaches to CWSP in the framework of CHR Grammars [Christiansen, 2005] that provides a constraint solving approach to language analysis. CHR Grammars are based upon Constraint Handling Rules, CHR [Frühwirth, 1998, 2009......], which is a declarative, high-level programming language for specification and implementation of constraint solvers....

  9. Stability Constraints for Robust Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. S. Ottoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for the robust stabilization of systems controlled by MPC strategies. Uncertain SISO linear systems with box-bounded parametric uncertainties are considered. The proposed approach delivers some constraints on the control inputs which impose sufficient conditions for the convergence of the system output. These stability constraints can be included in the set of constraints dealt with by existing MPC design strategies, in this way leading to the “robustification” of the MPC.

  10. Some cosmological constraints on gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures, a review is made of various constraints cosmology may place on gauge theories. Particular emphasis is placed on those constraints obtainable from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, with only brief mention made of Big Bang Baryosynthesis. There is also a considerable discussion of astrophysical constraints on masses and lifetimes of neutrinos with specific mention of the 'missing mass (light)' problem of galactic dynamics. (orig./HSI)

  11. Generalized Pauli constraints in small atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Christian; Altunbulak, Murat; Knecht, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    investigations have found evidence that these constraints are exactly saturated in several physically relevant systems, e.g., in a certain electronic state of the beryllium atom. It has been suggested that, in such cases, the constraints, rather than the details of the Hamiltonian, dictate the system......'s qualitative behavior. Here, we revisit this question with state-of-the-art numerical methods for small atoms. We find that the constraints are, in fact, not exactly saturated, but that they lie much closer to the surface defined by the constraints than the geometry of the problem would suggest. While...

  12. Production Team Maintenance: Systemic Constraints Impacting Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Terry

    1997-01-01

    .... Identified constraints included: integrating the PTM positioning strategy into the AMC corporate strategic planning process, manpower modeling simulator limitations, labor force authorizations and decentralization...

  13. Toward an automaton Constraint for Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the idea of using finite automata to implement new constraints for local search (this is already a successful technique in constraint-based global search. We show how it is possible to maintain incrementally the violations of a constraint and its decision variables from an automaton that describes a ground checker for that constraint. We establish the practicality of our approach idea on real-life personnel rostering problems, and show that it is competitive with the approach of [Pralong, 2007].

  14. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  15. Putting Encyclopaedia Knowledge into Structural Form: Finite State Transducers Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Vesna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In biology and functional genomics in particular, understanding the dependence and interplay between different genome and ecological characteristics of organisms is a very challenging problem. There are some public databases which combine this kind of information, but there is still much more information about microbes and other organisms that reside in unstructured and semi-structured documents, such as encyclopaedias. In this paper we present a method for extracting information from semi-structured resources, such as encyclopaedias, based on finite state transducers, consisting of two clearly distinguished phases. The first phase strongly relies on the analysis of the document structure and it is used for locating records of data in the text. The second phase is based on the finite state transducers created for extracting the data, which can be modified so as to achieve the preferred efficiency and it is used for extracting the particular characteristic from the text. We show how the two phase method is applied to the text of the encyclopaedia “Systematic Bacteriology”. A fully structured database with genotype and phenotype characteristics of organisms has been created from the encyclopaedia unstructured descriptions.

  16. Population growth to put pressure on some food supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Continued high population growth in developing countries is likely to lead to intense pressure to produce more rice, according to estimates from the Manila-based International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Ms. Mercedita Sombilla, a research scientist with IRRI, said that the projected increase in Asia's population will be the major force in accelerating demand for rice. According to various issues of the ESCAP Population Data Sheet, the population of the region will have increased from 3.3 billion in 1995 to almost 4.6 billion in 2020. The greatest growth in demand is expected to come from the lower-income countries of Asia, such as Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Philippines, and Viet Nam, she said. However, in terms of overall food supplies, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) estimates that food supplies will be sufficient. "Expecting reasonably strong productivity growth to be sustainable, no global food crisis seems likely to occur" between now and 2020, the organization stated in its report entitled "The World in 2020: Towards a New Global Age". full text

  17. Putting a Stop to di-Higgs Modifications

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian; Stolarski, Daniel; Verhaaren, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Pair production of Higgs bosons at hadron colliders is an enticing channel to search for new physics. New colored particles that couple strongly to the Higgs, such as those most often called upon to address the hierarchy problem, provide well motivated examples in which large enhancements of the di-Higgs rate are possible, at least in principle. However, in such scenarios the di-Higgs production rate is tightly correlated with the single Higgs production rate and, since the latter is observed to be SM-like, one generally expects that only modest enhancements in di-Higgs production are allowed by the LHC Run 1 data. We examine the contribution of top squarks (stops) in a simplified supersymmetry model to di-Higgs production and find that this general expectation is indeed borne out. In particular, the allowed deviations are typically small, but there are tuned regions of parameter space where expectations based on EFT arguments break down in which order 100% enhancements to the di-Higgs production rate are pos...

  18. 40 Years of Research Put p53 in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Virginie; Nguyen Van Long, Flora; Diaz, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1979, p53 has shown multiple facets. Initially the tumor suppressor p53 protein was considered as a stress sensor able to maintain the genome integrity by regulating transcription of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. However, it rapidly came into light that p53 regulates gene expression to control a wider range of biological processes allowing rapid cell adaptation to environmental context. Among them, those related to cancer have been extensively documented. In addition to its role as transcription factor, scattered studies reported that p53 regulates miRNA processing, modulates protein activity by direct interaction or exhibits RNA-binding activity, thus suggesting a role of p53 in regulating several layers of gene expression not restricted to transcription. After 40 years of research, it appears more and more clearly that p53 is strongly implicated in translational regulation as well as in the control of the production and activity of the translational machinery. Translation control of specific mRNAs could provide yet unsuspected capabilities to this well-known guardian of the genome.

  19. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  20. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  1. Structure formation cosmic rays: Identifying observational constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Shocks that arise from baryonic in-fall and merger events during the structure formation are believed to be a source of cosmic rays. These "structure formation cosmic rays" (SFCRs would essentially be primordial in composition, namely, mostly made of protons and alpha particles. However, very little is known about this population of cosmic rays. One way to test the level of its presence is to look at the products of hadronic reactions between SFCRs and the ISM. A perfect probe of these reactions would be Li. The rare isotope Li is produced only by cosmic rays, dominantly in αα → 6Li fusion reactions with the ISM helium. Consequently, this nuclide provides a unique diagnostic of the history of cosmic rays. Exactly because of this unique property is Li affected most by the presence of an additional cosmic ray population. In turn, this could have profound consequences for the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis: cosmic rays created during cosmic structure formation would lead to pre-Galactic Li production, which would act as a "contaminant" to the primordial 7Li content of metalpoor halo stars. Given the already existing problem of establishing the concordance between Li observed in halo stars and primordial 7Li as predicted by the WMAP, it is crucial to set limits to the level of this "contamination". However, the history of SFCRs is not very well known. Thus we propose a few model-independent ways of testing the SFCR species and their history, as well as the existing lithium problem: 1 we establish the connection between gamma-ray and Li production, which enables us to place constraints on the SFCR-made lithium by using the observed Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background (EGRB; 2 we propose a new site for testing the primordial and SFCR-made lithium, namely, low-metalicity High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs, which retain the pre-Galactic composition without any significant depletion. Although using one method alone may not give us strong constraints, using them in

  2. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  3. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  4. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  5. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  6. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  7. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  8. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  9. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  10. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  11. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  12. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  13. Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempa, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.

  14. Linear determining equations for differential constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptsov, O V

    1998-01-01

    A construction of differential constraints compatible with partial differential equations is considered. Certain linear determining equations with parameters are used to find such differential constraints. They generalize the classical determining equations used in the search for admissible Lie operators. As applications of this approach equations of an ideal incompressible fluid and non-linear heat equations are discussed

  15. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  16. Freedom and constraint analysis and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Boer, Steven; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijaard, Jacob Philippus; Jonker, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    Many mathematical and intuitive methods for constraint analysis of mechanisms have been proposed. In this article we compare three methods. Method one is based on Grüblers equation. Method two uses an intuitive analysis method based on opening kinematic loops and evaluating the constraints at the

  17. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has ...

  18. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  19. Modifier constraints in alkali ultraphosphate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, B.P.; Mauro, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    In applying the recently introduced concept of cationic constraint strength [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 214501 (2014)] to bond constraint theory (BCT) of binary phosphate glasses in the ultraphosphate region of xR2O-(1-x)P2O5 (with x ≤ 0.5 and R = {Li, Na, Cs}), we demonstrate that a fundamental limitat...

  20. Specifying Dynamic and Deontic Integrity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Meyer, John-Jules; Weigand, Hans

    In the dominant view of knowledge bases (KB's), a KB is a set of facts (atomic sentences) and integrity constraints (IC's). An IC is then a sentence which must at least be consistent with the other sentences in the KB, This view obliterates the distinction between, for example, the constraint that

  1. Redesigned purification yields a fully functional PutA protein dimer from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E D; Wood, J M

    1992-06-25

    Proline utilization by Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium requires expression of genes putP (encoding a proline transporter) and putA. Genetic data indicate that the PutA protein is both put repressor and a respiratory chain-linked dehydrogenase. We report a redesigned purification procedure as well as the physical characteristics and biological activities of the PutA protein purified from E. coli. The purified protein was homogeneous as determined by electrophoresis performed under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. Its N-terminal sequence corresponded to that predicted by the DNA sequence. We showed copurification of proline and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase activities. Purified PutA protein bound put DNA in vitro in an electrophoretic band-shift assay and it could be reconstituted to inverted membrane vesicles, yielding proline dehydrogenase activity. The Stokes radius and Svedberg coefficient of the protein were determined to be 7.1 nm and 9.9 S, respectively. These hydrodynamic data revealed that the protein in our preparation was dimeric with a molecular mass of 293 kDa and that it had an irregular shape indicated by the friction factor (f/f0) of 1.6.

  2. Application of vertex and mass constraints in track-based alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoraal, J.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Borghi, S.; Cattaneo, M.; Chiapolini, N.; Conti, G.; Deissenroth, M.; Dupertuis, F.; Eijk, R. van der; Fave, V.; Gersabeck, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hutchcroft, D.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Lambert, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    The software alignment of planar tracking detectors using samples of charged particle trajectories may lead to global detector distortions that affect vertex and momentum resolution. We present an alignment procedure that constrains such distortions by making use of samples of decay vertices reconstructed from two or more trajectories and putting constraints on their invariant mass. We illustrate the method by using a sample of invariant-mass constrained vertices from D 0 →K − π + decays to remove a curvature bias in the LHCb spectrometer

  3. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  4. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  5. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  6. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  7. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  8. Solar system constraints on disformal gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to ℳ ∼> 100 eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology

  9. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    ), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than......This paper studies how short-sale constraints affect the informational efficiency of market prices and the link between prices and economic activity. I show that under short-sale constraints security prices contain less information. However, short-sale constraints increase the informativeness...... the price of an asset the bank holds. I show that short-selling constraints in the financial market lead to the revival of self-fulfilling beliefs about the beliefs and actions of others, and create multiple equilibria. In the equilibrium where agents rely more on public information (i.e., the price...

  10. Revisiting the simplicity constraints and coherent intertwiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, Maite; Livine, Etera R

    2011-01-01

    In the context of loop quantum gravity and spinfoam models, the simplicity constraints are essential in that they allow one to write general relativity as a constrained topological BF theory. In this work, we apply the recently developed U(N) framework for SU(2) intertwiners to the issue of imposing the simplicity constraints to spin network states. More particularly, we focus on solving on individual intertwiners in the 4D Euclidean theory. We review the standard way of solving the simplicity constraints using coherent intertwiners and we explain how these fit within the U(N) framework. Then we show how these constraints can be written as a closed u(N) algebra and we propose a set of U(N) coherent states that solves all the simplicity constraints weakly for an arbitrary Immirzi parameter.

  11. Hamiltonian constraint in polymer parametrized field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laddha, Alok; Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a generally covariant reformulation of two-dimensional flat spacetime free scalar field theory known as parametrized field theory was quantized using loop quantum gravity (LQG) type ''polymer'' representations. Physical states were constructed, without intermediate regularization structures, by averaging over the group of gauge transformations generated by the constraints, the constraint algebra being a Lie algebra. We consider classically equivalent combinations of these constraints corresponding to a diffeomorphism and a Hamiltonian constraint, which, as in gravity, define a Dirac algebra. Our treatment of the quantum constraints parallels that of LQG and obtains the following results, expected to be of use in the construction of the quantum dynamics of LQG: (i) the (triangulated) Hamiltonian constraint acts only on vertices, its construction involves some of the same ambiguities as in LQG and its action on diffeomorphism invariant states admits a continuum limit, (ii) if the regulating holonomies are in representations tailored to the edge labels of the state, all previously obtained physical states lie in the kernel of the Hamiltonian constraint, (iii) the commutator of two (density weight 1) Hamiltonian constraints as well as the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket converge to zero in the continuum limit defined by diffeomorphism invariant states, and vanish on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat, (iv) the rescaled density 2 Hamiltonian constraints and their commutator are ill-defined on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat despite the well-definedness of the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket there, (v) there is a new habitat which supports a nontrivial representation of the Poisson-Lie algebra of density 2 constraints.

  12. New Constraints on Dark Matter Effective Theories from Standard Model Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    We consider an effective field theory for a gauge singlet Dirac dark matter (DM) particle interacting with the Standard Model (SM) fields via effective operators suppressed by the scale $\\Lambda \\gtrsim 1$ TeV. We perform a systematic analysis of the leading loop contributions to spin-independent (SI) DM--nucleon scattering using renormalization group evolution between $\\Lambda$ and the low-energy scale probed by direct detection experiments. We find that electroweak interactions induce operator mixings such that operators that are naively velocity-suppressed and spin-dependent can actually contribute to SI scattering. This allows us to put novel constraints on Wilson coefficients that were so far poorly bounded by direct detection. Constraints from current searches are comparable to LHC bounds, and will significantly improve in the near future. Interestingly, the loop contribution we find is maximally isospin violating even if the underlying theory is isospin conserving.

  13. Spacecraft reorientation control in presence of attitude constraint considering input saturation and stochastic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Ye, Dong; Sun, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shijie

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel feedback control law for spacecraft to deal with attitude constraint, input saturation, and stochastic disturbance during the attitude reorientation maneuver process. Applying the parameter selection method to improving the existence conditions for the repulsive potential function, the universality of the potential-function-based algorithm is enhanced. Moreover, utilizing the auxiliary system driven by the difference between saturated torque and command torque, a backstepping control law, which satisfies the input saturation constraint and guarantees the spacecraft stability, is presented. Unlike some methods that passively rely on the inherent characteristic of the existing controller to stabilize the adverse effects of external stochastic disturbance, this paper puts forward a nonlinear disturbance observer to compensate the disturbance in real-time, which achieves a better performance of robustness. The simulation results validate the effectiveness, reliability, and universality of the proposed control law.

  14. Strongly coupled models with a Higgs-like boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pich, A.; Rosell, I.; Sanz-Cillero, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Considering the one-loop calculation of the oblique S and T parameters, we have presented a study of the viability of strongly-coupled scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking with a light Higgs-like boson. The calculation has been done by using an effective Lagrangian, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the estimation. Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models with massive resonances are not in conflict with experimental constraints on these parameters and the recently observed Higgs-like resonance. So there is room for these models, but they are stringently constrained. The vector and axial-vector states should be heavy enough (with masses above the TeV scale), the mass splitting between them is highly preferred to be small and the Higgs-like scalar should have a WW coupling close to the Standard Model one. It is important to stress that these conclusions do not depend critically on the inclusion of the second Weinberg sum rule. (authors)

  15. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lewitus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the

  16. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-08-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  17. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  18. Few-body hypernuclear constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first hyperfragment in a balloon flown emulsion stack some two score years ago, physicists have worked to understand how the addition of the strangeness degree of freedom alters the picture of nuclei and the baryon-baryon force. Because the Λ and Σ masses differ markedly from that of the proton and neutron, SU (3) symmetry is broken. How it is broken is a question of importance to the fundamental understanding of the baryon-baryon interaction. New dynamical symmetries, forbidden by the Pauli principle in conventional nuclei, appear. Three-body forces play a more significant role. A binding anomaly in A = 5 as well as a possible spin inversion between ground and excited states in A = 4 appear. Surprisingly narrow structure near the threshold for Σ production has been reported in the 4 He (K - , π - ) spectrum while no corresponding structure is observed in the companion 4 He(K - , π + ) spectrum; this has been interpreted as evidence for a Σ 4 He bound state. Finally, the reported observation of ΛΛ-hypernuclei, in particular ΛΛ 6 He, bears directly upon the possibilities for the prediction of a bound H particle--the S = -2 dibaryon. Although it is not feasible to invert the analysis and determine the interaction from the data on few-body systems, it is possible to utilize these data to constrain the models, provided one is careful. The author will explore briefly the constraints which the few-body data impose and the level of understanding that has been achieved

  19. Valuing put options on single stock futures: Does the put-call parity relationship hold in the South African derivatives market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Biebuyck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to determine whether mispricing of options on single stock futures is present in the South African derivatives market. The valuation of options on single stock futures is considered through the put-call parity relationship. The theoretical fair values obtained, are compared to the actual market values over a period of three years, that is, from 2009 to 2011. Only put options are considered in this research.The results show that arbitrage put option opportunities do present themselves for the chosen shares. The actual put options were found to be underpriced in 5 out of 6 (83% of the cases considered over the evaluation periods chosen. The mispricing was significant for both the BHP Billiton options with 100% and in the case of Sasol options (66% of the time. Whether profitable arbitrage opportunities is possible, will depend on the magnitude of the mispricing and the transaction fees payable. Further, more extensive research may help identify tendencies which may be of use for the formulation of arbitrage strategies

  20. Energetic and ecological constraints on population density of reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneche, D R; Kulbicki, M; Floeter, S R; Friedlander, A M; Allen, A P

    2016-01-27

    Population ecology has classically focused on pairwise species interactions, hindering the description of general patterns and processes of population abundance at large spatial scales. Here we use the metabolic theory of ecology as a framework to formulate and test a model that yields predictions linking population density to the physiological constraints of body size and temperature on individual metabolism, and the ecological constraints of trophic structure and species richness on energy partitioning among species. Our model was tested by applying Bayesian quantile regression to a comprehensive reef-fish community database, from which we extracted density data for 5609 populations spread across 49 sites around the world. Our results indicate that population density declines markedly with increases in community species richness and that, after accounting for richness, energetic constraints are manifested most strongly for the most abundant species, which generally are of small body size and occupy lower trophic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that, at the global scale, factors associated with community species richness are the major drivers of variation in population density. Given that populations of species-rich tropical systems exhibit markedly lower maximum densities, they may be particularly susceptible to stochastic extinction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Tie Points Extraction for SAR Images Based on Differential Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Jin, G.; Xu, Q.; Zhang, H.

    2018-04-01

    Automatically extracting tie points (TPs) on large-size synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is still challenging because the efficiency and correct ratio of the image matching need to be improved. This paper proposes an automatic TPs extraction method based on differential constraints for large-size SAR images obtained from approximately parallel tracks, between which the relative geometric distortions are small in azimuth direction and large in range direction. Image pyramids are built firstly, and then corresponding layers of pyramids are matched from the top to the bottom. In the process, the similarity is measured by the normalized cross correlation (NCC) algorithm, which is calculated from a rectangular window with the long side parallel to the azimuth direction. False matches are removed by the differential constrained random sample consensus (DC-RANSAC) algorithm, which appends strong constraints in azimuth direction and weak constraints in range direction. Matching points in the lower pyramid images are predicted with the local bilinear transformation model in range direction. Experiments performed on ENVISAT ASAR and Chinese airborne SAR images validated the efficiency, correct ratio and accuracy of the proposed method.

  2. TIE POINTS EXTRACTION FOR SAR IMAGES BASED ON DIFFERENTIAL CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatically extracting tie points (TPs on large-size synthetic aperture radar (SAR images is still challenging because the efficiency and correct ratio of the image matching need to be improved. This paper proposes an automatic TPs extraction method based on differential constraints for large-size SAR images obtained from approximately parallel tracks, between which the relative geometric distortions are small in azimuth direction and large in range direction. Image pyramids are built firstly, and then corresponding layers of pyramids are matched from the top to the bottom. In the process, the similarity is measured by the normalized cross correlation (NCC algorithm, which is calculated from a rectangular window with the long side parallel to the azimuth direction. False matches are removed by the differential constrained random sample consensus (DC-RANSAC algorithm, which appends strong constraints in azimuth direction and weak constraints in range direction. Matching points in the lower pyramid images are predicted with the local bilinear transformation model in range direction. Experiments performed on ENVISAT ASAR and Chinese airborne SAR images validated the efficiency, correct ratio and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. New constraints on inflation from the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, William H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Riotto, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    The recent data from the BOOMERANG and MAXIMA-1 balloon flights have marked the beginning of the precision era of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. We investigate the observational constraints from the current CMB anisotropy measurements on the simplest inflation models, characterized by a single scalar field φ, in the parameter space consisting of scalar spectral index n S and tensor/scalar ratio r. If we include constraints on the baryon density from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), we show that the favored inflationary models have a negligible tensor amplitude and a red tilt, with a best fit of n S ≅0.93, which is consistent with the simplest small-field inflation models, but rules out large-field models at the 1σ level. Without including BBN constraints, a broader range of models is consistent with the data. The best fit (assuming negligible reionization) is a scale-invariant spectrum, n S ≅1, which includes large-field and hybrid scenarios. Large-field models (such as those typical of the chaotic inflation scenario) with a tilt n S <0.9 are strongly disfavored in all cases

  4. Putting solid household waste to sustainable use: a case study in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia da Silva; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto

    2012-12-01

    The management of solid residues has, in recent decades, been a source of concern for public administrators the world over. Experiments in the sustainable use of such residues are highly relevant in social and environmental terms, stimulating widespread interest and debate, with considerable research going into sustainability projects. In many areas, however, adequate public funding for sustainable-use projects is hard to come by. One of the major reasons for this is that public authorities, particularly in times of financial constraints, are reluctant to invest in undertakings in which the economic returns are difficult to quantify. Official scrutiny of the expenditures of public authorities is also normally heavily influenced by cost-benefit analyses. The specific objective of this article is to show that putting solid domestic residue (household solid waste) to sustainable use is capable of generating economic returns, as well as environmental benefits for society as a whole. These economic returns can be set out in financial statements, which may, in turn, be used to justify expenditures by public authorities on sustainable-use projects and as a basis for further investment in such incentives. We drew on the findings of existing research into sustainable use, undertaken by the Municipal Urban Cleaning Company in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to establish a conceptual framework for setting out the economic results of the collection of household solid waste.

  5. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  6. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  7. India's nuclear power programme and constraints encountered in its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.; Srinivasan, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power development in India is based on the natural uranium fuelled pressurised heavy water reactors. However, in order to acquire early experience in operation and maintenance of nuclear power stations, India's first atomic power station comprised of two units of boiling water reactors. Subsequent nuclear power stations currently in operation or under construction employ natural uranium heavy water reactors and each of the stations is a two reactor installation. While the first two nuclear power stations employ reactors with an output of 235 MW. 500 MW heavy water reactors are visualised for the period beyond 1985. The first nuclear power station was essentially fully imported; the second nuclear power station which employs heavy water reactors already has a significant contribution of equipment manufactured in India. For the third nuclear power station and the subsequent one, practically all equipment is being manufactured indigenously. The nuclear power station at Narora is in a seismic region and hence the design is substantially more advanced than the ones at the earlier sites and also employs concepts which will be used in the 500 MW reactors. Efforts are being made in the country to integrate power generation systems into larger regional grids and eventually into a national grid; however, the distributed nature of power generation at present and other infrastructural limitations still favour small and medium size plants only. The paper brings out the efforts put in over the last ten years in establishing capability for design and manufacture of all equipment and systems required for nuclear power plants. A major constraint in expanding the nuclear power capacity is naturally related to the competing demands on available national resources. The paper also discusses other constraints than purely technological and financial and describes how efforts are being made to overcome these contraints

  8. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  9. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  10. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  11. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  12. Providing strong Security and high privacy in low-cost RFID networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Mathieu; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the dissemination of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags is getting larger and larger, the requirement for strong security and privacy is also increasing. Low-cost and ultra-low-cost tags are being implemented on everyday products, and their limited resources constraints the security...

  13. Precision determination of the strong coupling constant within a global PDF analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Richard D.; Carrazza, Stefano; Debbio, Luigi Del; Forte, Stefano; Kassabov, Zahari; Rojo, Juan; Slade, Emma; Ubiali, Maria

    2018-01-01

    We present a determination of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ based on the NNPDF3.1 determination of parton distributions, which for the first time includes constraints from jet production, top-quark pair differential distributions, and the $Z$ $p_T$ distributions using exact NNLO

  14. IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ EFL WRITING ABILITY THROUGH “PUT YOURSELF IN THE PICTURE” STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Lukman Syafii

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This Action research was intended to improve the students’ EFL writing ability through “Put Yourself in the Picture” strategy. This research involved 33 first year managemen major of students A of Muhammadiyah University of Ponorogo in the academic year 2015/2016. This research was conducted in two cycles by following the procedures of the action research, namely, planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. Each cycle of the research encompassed three meetings. The data of the research were gathered through observation checklists, field notes, questionnaire, and portfolio. The findings of research showed that “Put Yourself in the Picture” strategy has proven effectively to improve the student’ writing ability. The improvement could be seen from the increase of the students’ average writing score. Besides, “Put Yourself in the Picture” strategy can increase the students’ participation during the process of writing. Key words: “Put Yourself in the Picture” strategy, writing ability

  15. The ICRP Proposed Maximum Public Dose Constraints of o.3 mSv/y: a Major Issue for the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Coates, R.

    2004-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently developing a new set of Recommendations on Radiological Protection. A value of 0.3mSv/y for the maximum public dose constraint has been discussed by ICRP. This value represents a major concern for the nuclear industry at large. The primary issue arises from the lack of any new scientific evidence on public health effects from ionising radiation to support, in practice, the proposed reduction by about a factor of 3 (from 1 to 0.3 mSv/y) of the upper bound value for public dose impact from a nuclear activity or site. Such a change would create a de facto limit on public exposure from specific sources at a dose level of about one tenth of average natural background and an even smaller fraction of the typical range of background exposures and exposures from medical sources. This cannot be justified on public health grounds. The WNA supports ICRP's renewed intention, as expressed at the NEA-ICRP Stakeholder Forum in Lanzarote (April 2003), to retain the concept of a public dose limit at 1 mSv/y. We strongly believe that the current system comprising of the dose limit and the ALARA Principle provides the necessary flexibility and tools for regulators to address all situations in all countries. The WNA consider that the question of setting an upper bound dose constraint (below 1 mSv/y) at the country/site specific level is best left for discussion and agreement between the local stakeholders rather than at an international level. When considering the potential practical implications of a maximum dose constraint, it is important to look beyond the very low off-site dose impacts (on the public) resulting from annual routine radioactive discharges of nuclear industrial sites. There are many off-site and on-site practical situations, related to public exposures (both workers and the public) and worker classification as well as activities such transportation, decommissioning and site remediation, for

  16. The ICRP Proposed Maximum Public Dose Constraints of o.3 mSv/y: a Major Issue for the Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Coates, R.

    2004-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently developing a new set of Recommendations on Radiological Protection. A value of 0.3mSv/y for the maximum public dose constraint has been discussed by ICRP. This value represents a major concern for the nuclear industry at large. The primary issue arises from the lack of any new scientific evidence on public health effects from ionising radiation to support, in practice, the proposed reduction by about a factor of 3 (from 1 to 0.3 mSv/y) of the upper bound value for public dose impact from a nuclear activity or site. Such a change would create a de facto limit on public exposure from specific sources at a dose level of about one tenth of average natural background and an even smaller fraction of the typical range of background exposures and exposures from medical sources. This cannot be justified on public health grounds. The WNA supports ICRP's renewed intention, as expressed at the NEA-ICRP Stakeholder Forum in Lanzarote (April 2003), to retain the concept of a public dose limit at 1 mSv/y. We strongly believe that the current system comprising of the dose limit and the ALARA Principle provides the necessary flexibility and tools for regulators to address all situations in all countries. The WNA consider that the question of setting an upper bound dose constraint (below 1 mSv/y) at the country/site specific level is best left for discussion and agreement between the local stakeholders rather than at an international level. When considering the potential practical implications of a maximum dose constraint, it is important to look beyond the very low off-site dose impacts (on the public) resulting from annual routine radioactive discharges of nuclear industrial sites. There are many off-site and on-site practical situations, related to public exposures (both workers and the public) and worker classification as well as activities such transportation, decommissioning and site remediation

  17. Constraint Handling Rules with Binders, Patterns and Generic Quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, J.

    2017-01-01

    Constraint Handling Rules provide descriptions for constraint solvers. However, they fall short when those constraints specify some binding structure, like higher-rank types in a constraint-based type inference algorithm. In this paper, the term syntax of constraints is replaced by λ-tree syntax, in

  18. The perpetual American put option for jump-diffusions with applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we solve an optimal stopping problem with an infinite time horizon, when the state variable follows a jump-diffusion. Under certain conditions our solution can be interpreted as the price of an American perpetual put option, when the underlying asset follows this type of process. We present several examples demonstrating when the solution can be interpreted as a perpetual put price. This takes us into a study of how to risk adjust jump-diffusions. One key observatio...

  19. Choosing put option parameters based on quantiles from the distribution of portfolio value

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Peter Newton

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how a put option changes the probability distribution of portfolio value. The paper extends the model introduced in Bell (2014) by allowing both the quantity and strike price to vary. I use the 5% quantile from the portfolio distribution to measure riskiness and compare different put options. I report a so-called ‘quantile surface’ that shows the quantile across different combinations of quantity and strike price. I find that it is possible to maximize the quantile by ...

  20. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Levin, Eugene [Departemento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,and Centro Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Avda. Espana 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Department of Particle Physics, Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2016-08-04

    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.

  1. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene; Lublinsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.

  2. Liquidity Constraints and Fiscal Stabilization Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Mark Strøm

    It is often claimed that the presence of liquidity constrained households enhances the need for and the effects of fi…scal stabilization policies. This paper studies this in a model of a small open economy with liquidity constrained households. The results show that the consequences of liquidity...... constraints are more complex than previously thought: The optimal stabilization policy in case of productivity shocks is independent of the liquidity constraints, and the presence of liquidity constraints tends to reduce the need for an active policy stabilizing productivity shocks....

  3. Use of dose constraints for occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaijage, Tunu

    2015-02-01

    The use of dose constraints for occupational exposure was reviewed in this project. The role of dose constraints as used in optimization of protection of workers was described. Different issues to be considered in application of the concept and challenges associated with their implementation were also discussed. The situation where dose constraints could be misinterpreted to dose limits is also explained as the two are clearly differentiated by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103. Moreover, recommendations to all parties responsible for protection and safety of workers were discussed. (au)

  4. Constraint satisfaction problems CSP formalisms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ghedira, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    A Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) consists of a set of variables, a domain of values for each variable and a set of constraints. The objective is to assign a value for each variable such that all constraints are satisfied. CSPs continue to receive increased attention because of both their high complexity and their omnipresence in academic, industrial and even real-life problems. This is why they are the subject of intense research in both artificial intelligence and operations research. This book introduces the classic CSP and details several extensions/improvements of both formalisms a

  5. Expressing Model Constraints Visually with VMQL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    ) for specifying constraints on UML models. We examine VMQL's usability by controlled experiments and its expressiveness by a representative sample. We conclude that VMQL is less expressive than OCL, although expressive enough for most of the constraints in the sample. In terms of usability, however, VMQL......OCL is the de facto standard language for expressing constraints and queries on UML models. However, OCL expressions are very difficult to create, understand, and maintain, even with the sophisticated tool support now available. In this paper, we propose to use the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL...

  6. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  7. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  8. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  9. Enhancing the control of force in putting by video game training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fery, Y A; Ponserre, S

    2001-10-10

    Even if golf video games provide no proprioceptive afferences on actual putting movement, they may give sufficient substitutive visual cues to enhance force control in this skill. It was hypothesized that this usefulness requires, however, two conditions: the video game must provide reliable demonstrations of actual putts, and the user must want to use the game to make progress in actual putting. Accordingly, a video game was selected on the basis of its fidelity to the real-world game. It allowed two different methods of adjusting the virtual player's putting force in order to hole a putt: an analogue method that consisted of focusing on the virtual player's movement and a symbolic method that consisted of focusing on the movement of a gauge on a scale representing the virtual player's putting force. The participants had to use one of these methods with either the intention of making progress in actual putting or in a second condition to simply enjoy the game. Results showed a positive transfer of video playing to actual putting skill for the learning group and also, to a lesser degree, for the enjoyment group; but only when they used the symbolic method. Results are discussed in the context of how vision may convey force cues in sports video games.

  10. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  11. Critical constraints on chiral hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivukula, R.S.; Golden, M.; Simmons, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Critical dynamics constrains models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the scale of high-energy physics is far above 1 TeV. A big hierarchy requires the high-energy theory to have a second-order chiral phase transition, near which the theory is described by a low-energy effective Lagrangian with composite ''Higgs'' scalars. As scalar theories with more than one Φ 4 coupling can have a Coleman-Weinberg instability and a first-order transition, such dynamical EWSB models cannot always support a large hierarchy. If the large-N c Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model is a good approximation to the top-condensate and strong extended technicolor models, they will not produce acceptable EWSB

  12. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  13. Investment cash flow sensitivity and financing constraints : New evidence from Indian business group firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Qian, J.

    2011-01-01

    A controversy exists on the use of the investment–cash flow sensitivity as a measure of financing constraints of firms.Were-examine this controversy by analyzing firms affiliated to Indian business groups. We find a strong investment–cash flow sensitivity for both group-affiliated and independent

  14. Constraints and motivations related to fishing along the Lake Ontario coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Brincka; Diane M. Kuehn; Valerie Luzadis

    2012-01-01

    The number of nonresident anglers along the Lake Ontario coast has decreased over the past 15 years. Therefore, in order to sustain a strong sport fishing industry, local businesses and tourism promoters might want to tap into the large resident angler market group. This study examines resident anglers' social, environmental, and economic constraints/facilitators...

  15. Some technical constraints on possible Tokamak machines from next generation to reactor size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.

    1975-11-01

    A simplified consistent scaling of possible Tokamak reactors is set up in the power range of 0.1 - 10 GW. The influence of some important parameters on the scaling is shown and the role of some technical constraints is discussed. The scaling is evaluated for the two cases of a circular and a strongly elongated plasma section. (orig.) [de

  16. Constraint-induced movement therapy: some thoughts about theories and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Johanna H.

    2003-01-01

    Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) is a type of treatment for hemiparetic stroke patients in which the patient is strongly encouraged to use the affected arm. One way of doing this is to immobilise the unaffected arm. This treatment is meant to help patients overcome 'learned non-use'. The

  17. Dose constraints, what are they now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a source-related dose constraint was first introduced in ICPR publication 60. The idea was to provide a number that individual exposures from a single, specific source should not exceed, and below which optimisation of protection should take place. Dose constraints were applied to occupational and public exposures from practices. In order to simplify and clarify the ICRP's recommendations, the latest draft, RPO5, presents dose constraints again, and with the same meaning as in publication 60. However, the dose constraints are now applied in all situations, not just practices. This new approach does provide simplification, in that a single concept is applied to all types of exposures (normal situations, accident situations, and existing situations). However, the approach and numerical values that are selected by regulatory authorities for the application of the concept, particularly in normal situations which are also subject to dose limits, will be crucial to the implementation of the system of radiological protection. (author)

  18. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlerick, Michael

    2014-12-01

    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. institutional and resource constraints that inhibit contractor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Keywords: Institutions; small-scale contractor performance; sugar industry. ABSTRACT ..... diverse cultural settings, women, specifically widowed or single women, have a .... constraints on business growth, such as the work limitations placed.

  20. Constraint theory multidimensional mathematical model management

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, George J

    2017-01-01

    Packed with new material and research, this second edition of George Friedman’s bestselling Constraint Theory remains an invaluable reference for all engineers, mathematicians, and managers concerned with modeling. As in the first edition, this text analyzes the way Constraint Theory employs bipartite graphs and presents the process of locating the “kernel of constraint” trillions of times faster than brute-force approaches, determining model consistency and computational allowability. Unique in its abundance of topological pictures of the material, this book balances left- and right-brain perceptions to provide a thorough explanation of multidimensional mathematical models. Much of the extended material in this new edition also comes from Phan Phan’s PhD dissertation in 2011, titled “Expanding Constraint Theory to Determine Well-Posedness of Large Mathematical Models.” Praise for the first edition: "Dr. George Friedman is indisputably the father of the very powerful methods of constraint theory...

  1. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  2. Automated constraint placement to maintain pile shape

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei; Keyser, John

    2012-01-01

    structure. Next, for stabilizing the structure, we pick suitable objects from those passing the equilibrium analysis and then restrict their DOFs by managing the insertion of constraints on them. The method is suitable for controlling stacking behavior

  3. CONSTRAINTS TO USE OF MOBILE TELEPHONY FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Constraints, mobile telephony, frequency, farmers and telecommunications service ... efficient sharing of agricultural information ... calls on the mobile phone without the need .... adequate training on the use of mobile .... Job Market.

  4. Modernizing China's Military: Opportunities and Constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crane, Keith; Cliff, Roger; Medeiros, Evan; Mulvenon, James; Overholt, William

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess future resource constraints on, and potential domestic economic and industrial contributions to, the ability of the Chinese military to become a significant threat to U.S. forces by 2025...

  5. Optimal capital stock and financing constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Saltari, Enrico; Giuseppe, Travaglini

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that financing constraints affect the optimal level of capital stock even when the financing constraint is ineffective. This happens when the firm rationally anticipates that access to external financing resources may be rationed in the future. We will show that with these expectations, the optimal investment policy is to invest less in any given period, thereby lowering the desired optimal capital stock in the long run.

  6. Credit Constraints, Political Instability, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Herrala; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between credit constraints, political instability, and capital accumulation using a novel approach based on Kiyotaki and Moore’s (1997) theoretical framework. Drawing on a unique firm-level data set from Middle-East and North Africa (MENA), empirical findings point to a large and significant effect of credit conditions on capital accumulation and suggest that continued political unrest worsens credit constraints. The results support the view that financ...

  7. Cyclic labellings with constraints at two distances

    OpenAIRE

    Leese, R; Noble, S D

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by problems in radio channel assignment, we consider the vertex-labelling of graphs with non-negative integers. The objective is to minimise the span of the labelling, subject to constraints imposed at graph distances one and two. We show that the minimum span is (up to rounding) a piecewise linear function of the constraints, and give a complete specification, together with associated optimal assignments, for trees and cycles.

  8. Future Cosmological Constraints From Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Anthony; Weltman, Amanda; Gaensler, B. M.; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Witzemann, Amadeus

    2018-03-01

    We consider the possible observation of fast radio bursts (FRBs) with planned future radio telescopes, and investigate how well the dispersions and redshifts of these signals might constrain cosmological parameters. We construct mock catalogs of FRB dispersion measure (DM) data and employ Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, with which we forecast and compare with existing constraints in the flat ΛCDM model, as well as some popular extensions that include dark energy equation of state and curvature parameters. We find that the scatter in DM observations caused by inhomogeneities in the intergalactic medium (IGM) poses a big challenge to the utility of FRBs as a cosmic probe. Only in the most optimistic case, with a high number of events and low IGM variance, do FRBs aid in improving current constraints. In particular, when FRBs are combined with CMB+BAO+SNe+H 0 data, we find the biggest improvement comes in the {{{Ω }}}{{b}}{h}2 constraint. Also, we find that the dark energy equation of state is poorly constrained, while the constraint on the curvature parameter, Ω k , shows some improvement when combined with current constraints. When FRBs are combined with future baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data from 21 cm Intensity Mapping, we find little improvement over the constraints from BAOs alone. However, the inclusion of FRBs introduces an additional parameter constraint, {{{Ω }}}{{b}}{h}2, which turns out to be comparable to existing constraints. This suggests that FRBs provide valuable information about the cosmological baryon density in the intermediate redshift universe, independent of high-redshift CMB data.

  9. Multisensor Distributed Track Fusion AlgorithmBased on Strong Tracking Filter and Feedback Integration1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGuo-Sheng; WENCheng-Lin; TANMin

    2004-01-01

    A new multisensor distributed track fusion algorithm is put forward based on combiningthe feedback integration with the strong tracking Kalman filter. Firstly, an effective tracking gateis constructed by taking the intersection of the tracking gates formed before and after feedback.Secondly, on the basis of the constructed effective tracking gate, probabilistic data association andstrong tracking Kalman filter are combined to form the new multisensor distributed track fusionalgorithm. At last, simulation is performed on the original algorithm and the algorithm presented.

  10. Strong field interaction of laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The Review covers recent progress in laser-matter interaction at intensities above 10 18 W cm -2 . At these intensities electrons swing in the laser pulse with relativistic energies. The laser electric field is already much stronger than the atomic fields, and any material is instantaneously ionized, creating plasma. The physics of relativistic laser-plasma is highly non-linear and kinetic. The best numerical tools applicable here are particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, which provide the most fundamental plasma model as an ensemble of charged particles. The three-dimensional (3D) PIC code Virtual Laser-Plasma Laboratory runs on a massively parallel computer tracking trajectories of up to 10 9 particles simultaneously. This allows one to simulate real laser-plasma experiments for the first time. When the relativistically intense laser pulses propagate through plasma, a bunch of new physical effects appears. The laser pulses are subject to relativistic self-channelling and filamentation. The gigabar ponderomotive pressure of the laser pulse drives strong currents of plasma electrons in the laser propagation direction; these currents reach the Alfven limit and generate 100 MG quasistatic magnetic fields. These magnetic fields, in turn, lead to the mutual filament attraction and super-channel formation. The electrons in the channels are accelerated up to gigaelectronvolt energies and the ions gain multi-MeV energies. We discuss different mechanisms of particle acceleration and compare numerical simulations with experimental data. One of the very important applications of the relativistically strong laser beams is the fast ignition (FI) concept for the inertial fusion energy (IFE). Petawatt-class lasers may provide enough energy to isochorically ignite a pre-compressed target consisting of thermonuclear fuel. The FI approach would ease dramatically the constraints on the implosion symmetry and improve the energy gain. However, there is a set of problems to solve before the FI

  11. Generalized Pauli constraints in small atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Christian; Altunbulak, Murat; Knecht, Stefan; Lopes, Alexandre; Whitfield, James D.; Christandl, Matthias; Gross, David; Reiher, Markus

    2018-05-01

    The natural occupation numbers of fermionic systems are subject to nontrivial constraints, which include and extend the original Pauli principle. A recent mathematical breakthrough has clarified their mathematical structure and has opened up the possibility of a systematic analysis. Early investigations have found evidence that these constraints are exactly saturated in several physically relevant systems, e.g., in a certain electronic state of the beryllium atom. It has been suggested that, in such cases, the constraints, rather than the details of the Hamiltonian, dictate the system's qualitative behavior. Here, we revisit this question with state-of-the-art numerical methods for small atoms. We find that the constraints are, in fact, not exactly saturated, but that they lie much closer to the surface defined by the constraints than the geometry of the problem would suggest. While the results seem incompatible with the statement that the generalized Pauli constraints drive the behavior of these systems, they suggest that the qualitatively correct wave-function expansions can in some systems already be obtained on the basis of a limited number of Slater determinants, which is in line with numerical evidence from quantum chemistry.

  12. University Course Timetabling using Constraint Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shahmoradi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available University course timetabling problem is a challenging and time-consuming task on the overall structure of timetable in every academic environment. The problem deals with many factors such as the number of lessons, classes, teachers, students and working time, and these are influenced by some hard and soft constraints. The aim of solving this problem is to assign courses and classes to teachers and students, so that the restrictions are held. In this paper, a constraint programming method is proposed to satisfy maximum constraints and expectation, in order to address university timetabling problem. For minimizing the penalty of soft constraints, a cost function is introduced and AHP method is used for calculating its coefficients. The proposed model is tested on department of management, University of Isfahan dataset using OPL on the IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio platform. A statistical analysis has been conducted and shows the performance of the proposed approach in satisfying all hard constraints and also the satisfying degree of the soft constraints is on maximum desirable level. The running time of the model is less than 20 minutes that is significantly better than the non-automated ones.

  13. How a Guaranteed Annual Income Could Put Food Banks Out of Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal Conservative government recently began phasing in a plan to raise the age of eligibility for Old Age Security from 65 to 67. But a more sensible move for improving the effectiveness of Canada’s social safety-net system may be to actually lower the age below 65 and rely strictly on an income test instead, regardless of age. The government could go a lot further toward the reduction of poverty in Canada by building on the success of its income supports for seniors, and making them available to poor Canadians of all ages. Canada can boast of having one of the lowest rates for poverty among seniors in the world, largely due to its guaranteed income programs for those 65 years and older. When low-income Canadians turn 65 years old and leave behind low-paying, often unstable jobs, their poverty levels drop substantially. What a guaranteed income provides, that their vulnerable job situation did not, is a form of protection against budget shocks — a sudden volatility in income or expenses without the access to savings or credit to smooth things out until stability returns. A guaranteed income provides a kind of “disaster insurance” that can protect someone in a crisis situation from going without necessities such as food or even shelter. Statistics show that the rate of Canadians experiencing “food insecurity” — that is, lack of access to food because of financial constraints — is half that among Canadians aged 65 to 69 years than it is among those aged 60 to 64. Self-reported rates of physical and mental health improve markedly as well after lowincome Canadians move from low-wage, insecure employment to a guaranteed income at the age of 65. That dramatic shift in physical and mental health indicates that expanding guaranteed income programs to younger Canadians is more than a simple cost calculation: there are potential savings to be found as poorer Canadians, given a guaranteed income, become healthier and therefore reduce

  14. Reduction Of Constraints For Coupled Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszewski, F.; Edwards, T.

    2009-01-01

    The homogeneity constraint was implemented in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to help ensure that the current durability models would be applicable to the glass compositions being processed during DWPF operations. While the homogeneity constraint is typically an issue at lower waste loadings (WLs), it may impact the operating windows for DWPF operations, where the glass forming systems may be limited to lower waste loadings based on fissile or heat load limits. In the sludge batch 1b (SB1b) variability study, application of the homogeneity constraint at the measurement acceptability region (MAR) limit eliminated much of the potential operating window for DWPF. As a result, Edwards and Brown developed criteria that allowed DWPF to relax the homogeneity constraint from the MAR to the property acceptance region (PAR) criterion, which opened up the operating window for DWPF operations. These criteria are defined as: (1) use the alumina constraint as currently implemented in PCCS (Al 2 O 3 (ge) 3 wt%) and add a sum of alkali constraint with an upper limit of 19.3 wt% (ΣM 2 O 2 O 3 constraint to 4 wt% (Al 2 O 3 (ge) 4 wt%). Herman et al. previously demonstrated that these criteria could be used to replace the homogeneity constraint for future sludge-only batches. The compositional region encompassing coupled operations flowsheets could not be bounded as these flowsheets were unknown at the time. With the initiation of coupled operations at DWPF in 2008, the need to revisit the homogeneity constraint was realized. This constraint was specifically addressed through the variability study for SB5 where it was shown that the homogeneity constraint could be ignored if the alumina and alkali constraints were imposed. Additional benefit could be gained if the homogeneity constraint could be replaced by the Al 2 O 3 and sum of alkali constraint for future coupled operations processing based on projections from Revision 14 of

  15. Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin

    Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

  16. Small Scale Yielding Correction of Constraint Loss in Small Sized Fracture Toughness Test Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Maan Won; Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Fracture toughness data in the ductile-brittle transition region of ferritic steels show scatter produced by local sampling effects and specimen geometry dependence which results from relaxation in crack tip constraint. The ASTM E1921 provides a standard test method to define the median toughness temperature curve, so called Master Curve, for the material corresponding to a 1T crack front length and also defines a reference temperature, T 0 , at which median toughness value is 100 MPam for a 1T size specimen. The ASTM E1921 procedures assume that high constraint, small scaling yielding (SSY) conditions prevail at fracture along the crack front. Violation of the SSY assumption occurs most often during tests of smaller specimens. Constraint loss in such cases leads to higher toughness values and thus lower T 0 values. When applied to a structure with low constraint geometry, the standard fracture toughness estimates may lead to strongly over-conservative estimates. A lot of efforts have been made to adjust the constraint effect. In this work, we applied a small-scale yielding correction (SSYC) to adjust the constraint loss of 1/3PCVN and PCVN specimens which are relatively smaller than 1T size specimen at the fracture toughness Master Curve test

  17. Adaptive Neural Network Control for Nonlinear Hydraulic Servo-System with Time-Varying State Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Min Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neural network control problem is addressed for a class of nonlinear hydraulic servo-systems with time-varying state constraints. In view of the low precision problem of the traditional hydraulic servo-system which is caused by the tracking errors surpassing appropriate bound, the previous works have shown that the constraint for the system is a good way to solve the low precision problem. Meanwhile, compared with constant constraints, the time-varying state constraints are more general in the actual systems. Therefore, when the states of the system are forced to obey bounded time-varying constraint conditions, the high precision tracking performance of the system can be easily realized. In order to achieve this goal, the time-varying barrier Lyapunov function (TVBLF is used to prevent the states from violating time-varying constraints. By the backstepping design, the adaptive controller will be obtained. A radial basis function neural network (RBFNN is used to estimate the uncertainties. Based on analyzing the stability of the hydraulic servo-system, we show that the error signals are bounded in the compacts sets; the time-varying state constrains are never violated and all singles of the hydraulic servo-system are bounded. The simulation and experimental results show that the tracking accuracy of system is improved and the controller has fast tracking ability and strong robustness.

  18. How Does Pricing of Day-ahead Electricity Market Affect Put Option Pricing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raouf Sheybani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, impacts of day-ahead market pricing on behavior of producers and consumers in option and day-ahead markets and on option pricing are studied. To this end, two comprehensive equilibrium models for joint put option and day-ahead markets under pay-as-bid and uniform pricing in day-ahead market are presented, respectively. Interaction between put option and day-ahead markets, uncertainty in fuel price, day-ahead market pricing, and elasticity of consumers to strike price, premium price, and day-ahead price are taken into account in these models. By applying the presented models to a test system impact of day-ahead market pricing on equilibrium of joint put option and day-ahead markets are studied.

  19. Putting to a bigger hole: Golf performance relates to perceived size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K.; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    When engaged in a skilled behaviour such as occurs in sports, people's perceptions relate optical information to their performance. In current research we demonstrate the effects of performance on size perception in golfers. We found golfers who played better judged the hole to be bigger than golfers who did not play as well (Study 1). In follow-up laboratory experiments, participants putted on a golf mat from a location near or far from the hole then judged the size of the hole. Participants who putted from the near location perceived the hole to be bigger than participants who putted from the far location. Our results demonstrate that perception is influenced by the perceiver's current ability to act effectively in the environment. PMID:18567258

  20. Fuzzy Constraint-Based Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menq-Wen Lin; K. Robert Lai; Ting-Jung Yu

    2005-01-01

    Conflicts between two or more parties arise for various reasons and perspectives. Thus, resolution of conflicts frequently relies on some form of negotiation. This paper presents a general problem-solving framework for modeling multi-issue multilateral negotiation using fuzzy constraints. Agent negotiation is formulated as a distributed fuzzy constraint satisfaction problem (DFCSP). Fuzzy constrains are thus used to naturally represent each agent's desires involving imprecision and human conceptualization, particularly when lexical imprecision and subjective matters are concerned. On the other hand, based on fuzzy constraint-based problem-solving, our approach enables an agent not only to systematically relax fuzzy constraints to generate a proposal, but also to employ fuzzy similarity to select the alternative that is subject to its acceptability by the opponents. This task of problem-solving is to reach an agreement that benefits all agents with a high satisfaction degree of fuzzy constraints, and move towards the deal more quickly since their search focuses only on the feasible solution space. An application to multilateral negotiation of a travel planning is provided to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our framework.

  1. Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p 2 can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainly makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.

  2. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bakosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N nonnegative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires a set of fluctuating variables to be nonnegative and (if appropriately normalized sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the nonnegativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraints are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  3. Faddeev-Jackiw quantization and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos-Neto, J.; Wotzasek, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent Letter, Faddeev and Jackiw have shown that the reduction of constrained systems into its canonical, first-order form, can bring some new insight into the research of this field. For sympletic manifolds the geometrical structure, called Dirac or generalized bracket, is obtained directly from the inverse of the nonsingular sympletic two-form matrix. In the cases of nonsympletic manifolds, this two-form is degenerated and cannot be inverted to provide the generalized brackets. This singular behavior of the sympletic matrix is indicative of the presence of constraints that have to be carefully considered to yield to consistent results. One has two possible routes to treat this problem: Dirac has taught us how to implement the constraints into the potential part (Hamiltonian) of the canonical Lagrangian, leading to the well-known Dirac brackets, which are consistent with the constraints and can be mapped into quantum commutators (modulo ordering terms). The second route, suggested by Faddeev and Jackiw, and followed in this paper, is to implement the constraints directly into the canonical part of the first order Lagrangian, using the fact that the consistence condition for the stability of the constrained manifold is linear in the time derivative. This algorithm may lead to an invertible two-form sympletic matrix from where the Dirac brackets are readily obtained. This algorithm is used in this paper to investigate some aspects of the quantization of constrained systems with first- and second-class constraints in the sympletic approach

  4. Strong interactions and electromagnetism in low-energy hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, B.

    2002-10-01

    In the present work, we study various aspects of the entanglement of the strong and electromagnetic interactions as it is manifest in low-energy hadron physics. In the framework of chiral perturbation theory, two aspects are investigated: the test of the structure of baryons as probed by external electromagnetic currents, and the modification of reactions mediated by the strong interactions in the presence of internal (virtual) photons. In the first part of this work, we study the electromagnetic form factors of nucleons and the ground state baryon octet, as well as strangeness form factors of the nucleon. Emphasis is put on the comparison of a new relativistic scheme for the calculation of loop diagrams to the heavy-baryon formalism, and on the convergence of higher-order corrections in both schemes. The new scheme is shown to yield both a phenomenologically more successful description of the data and better convergence behaviour. In the second part, we study isospin violation in pion-kaon scattering as mediated by virtual photon effects and the light quark mass difference. This investigation is of particular importance for the extraction of scattering lengths from measurements of lifetime and energy levels in pion-kaon atoms. The isospin breaking corrections are shown to be small and sufficiently well under control. (orig.)

  5. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: volker.metag@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de. Abstract. .... constraints on hadronic spectral functions but cannot predict their detailed shape. Hadronic ..... nuclear medium, despite a cut on low momentum ω-mesons: pω ≤ 500 MeV/c. A.

  6. Finding the strong CP problem at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agnolo, Raffaele Tito, E-mail: dagnolo@ias.edu; Hook, Anson

    2016-11-10

    We show that a class of parity based solutions to the strong CP problem predicts new colored particles with mass at the TeV scale, due to constraints from Planck suppressed operators. The new particles are copies of the Standard Model quarks and leptons. The new quarks can be produced at the LHC and are either collider stable or decay into Standard Model quarks through a Higgs, a W or a Z boson. We discuss some simple but generic predictions of the models for the LHC and find signatures not related to the traditional solutions of the hierarchy problem. We thus provide alternative motivation for new physics searches at the weak scale. We also briefly discuss the cosmological history of these models and how to obtain successful baryogenesis.

  7. The Potentials of a Strong Social Housing Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates ethnic minority concentration within social housing and the potentials of a strong social housing sector through an analysis of the housing careers of Somalis and Turks in Copenhagen. In a Danish context, the two ethnic groups differ greatly with respect to migration history......, socio-economic resources and family characteristics as well as distribution between tenures. It is therefore interesting to study whether these differences lead to differences in housing market choices and constraints. The majority of the interviewed Somalis and Turks made their housing careers within...... the social housing sector, which to the interviewees offered good housing options and possibilities for shaping their own housing careers. The majority of the Somalis perceived paying interest as being incompatible with Islam. Renting thus allowed them to adhere to their religious beliefs. The advantages...

  8. Local particle flux reversal under strongly sheared flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Newman, D.E.; Ware, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The advection of electron density by turbulent ExB flow with linearly varying mean yields a particle flux that can reverse sign at certain locations along the direction of magnetic shear. The effect, calculated for strong flow shear, resides in the density-potential cross phase. It is produced by the interplay between the inhomogeneities of magnetic shear and flow shear, but subject to a variety of conditions and constraints. The regions of reversed flux tend to wash out if the turbulence consists of closely spaced modes of different helicities, but survive if modes of a single helicity are relatively isolated. The reversed flux becomes negligible if the electron density response is governed by electron scales while the eigenmode is governed by ion scales. The relationship of these results to experimentally observe flux reversals is discussed

  9. Finding the strong CP problem at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Hook, Anson

    2016-11-01

    We show that a class of parity based solutions to the strong CP problem predicts new colored particles with mass at the TeV scale, due to constraints from Planck suppressed operators. The new particles are copies of the Standard Model quarks and leptons. The new quarks can be produced at the LHC and are either collider stable or decay into Standard Model quarks through a Higgs, a W or a Z boson. We discuss some simple but generic predictions of the models for the LHC and find signatures not related to the traditional solutions of the hierarchy problem. We thus provide alternative motivation for new physics searches at the weak scale. We also briefly discuss the cosmological history of these models and how to obtain successful baryogenesis.

  10. Strong lensing of gravitational waves as seen by LISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, M; Sesana, A; Bleuler, A; Jetzer, Ph; Volonteri, M; Begelman, M C

    2010-12-17

    We discuss strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from the merging of massive black hole binaries in the context of the LISA mission. Detection of multiple events would provide invaluable information on competing theories of gravity, evolution and formation of structures and, possibly, constraints on H0 and other cosmological parameters. Most of the optical depth for lensing is provided by intervening massive galactic halos, for which wave optics effects are negligible. Probabilities to observe multiple events are sizable for a broad range of formation histories. For the most optimistic models, up to ≲ 4 multiple events with a signal to noise ratio ≳ 8 are expected in a 5-year mission. Chances are significant even for conservative models with either light (≲ 60%) or heavy (≲ 40%) seeds. Because of lensing amplification, some intrinsically too faint signals are brought over threshold (≲ 2 per year).

  11. Relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on Taiwanese breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Hsueh-wen; Dong, Yin-Han

    2013-04-30

    Participation in leisure activities strongly associates with health and well-being. Little research has explored the relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities. The purposes of this study are: 1) to investigate constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities and participation in leisure activities; 2) to investigate the differences between preferences for leisure activities and actual participation by breastfeeding mothers; 3) to segment breastfeeding mothers with similar patterns, using a cluster analysis based on the delineated participation in leisure activities and leisure preferences; 4) to explore any differences between clusters of breastfeeding mothers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding behaviours and leisure constraints. This study has a cross-sectional design using an online survey conducted among mothers having breastfeeding experiences of more than four months. The questionnaire includes demographic variables, breastfeeding behaviours, preferences for leisure activities participation, and constraints on leisure activities. Collection of data occurred between March and July 2011, producing 415 valid responses for analysis. For breastfeeding mothers, this study identifies constraints on breastfeeding related to leisure activities in addition to the three traditional factors for constraints in the model. This study demonstrates that reports of constraints related to children, family, and nursing environments are the most frequent. Breastfeeding mothers in Taiwan participate regularly in family activities or activities related to their children. Cluster analysis classified breastfeeding mothers into Action and Contemplation groups, and found that mothers within the latter group participate less in leisure activities and experienced more constraints related to breastfeeding. Implications provide a developmental design for public

  12. Constraints on the production of primordial magnetic seeds in pre-big bang cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperini, M., E-mail: gasperini@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, Via G. Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    We study the amplification of the electromagnetic fluctuations, and the production of 'seeds' for the cosmic magnetic fields, in a class of string cosmology models whose scalar and tensor perturbations reproduce current observations and satisfy known phenomenological constraints. We find that the condition of efficient seeds production can be satisfied and compatible with all constraints only in a restricted region of parameter space, but we show that such a region has significant intersections with the portions of parameter space where the produced background of relic gravitational waves is strong enough to be detectable by aLIGO/Virgo and/or by eLISA.

  13. Constraints on the production of primordial magnetic seeds in pre-big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, M.

    2017-06-01

    We study the amplification of the electromagnetic fluctuations, and the production of "seeds" for the cosmic magnetic fields, in a class of string cosmology models whose scalar and tensor perturbations reproduce current observations and satisfy known phenomenological constraints. We find that the condition of efficient seeds production can be satisfied and compatible with all constraints only in a restricted region of parameter space, but we show that such a region has significant intersections with the portions of parameter space where the produced background of relic gravitational waves is strong enough to be detectable by aLIGO/Virgo and/or by eLISA.

  14. Selective constraints in experimentally defined primate regulatory regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gaffney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in gene regulation may be important in evolution. However, the evolutionary properties of regulatory mutations are currently poorly understood. This is partly the result of an incomplete annotation of functional regulatory DNA in many species. For example, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, a major component of eukaryotic regulatory architecture, are typically short, degenerate, and therefore difficult to differentiate from randomly occurring, nonfunctional sequences. Furthermore, although sites such as TFBSs can be computationally predicted using evolutionary conservation as a criterion, estimates of the true level of selective constraint (defined as the fraction of strongly deleterious mutations occurring at a locus in regulatory regions will, by definition, be upwardly biased in datasets that are a priori evolutionarily conserved. Here we investigate the fitness effects of regulatory mutations using two complementary datasets of human TFBSs that are likely to be relatively free of ascertainment bias with respect to evolutionary conservation but, importantly, are supported by experimental data. The first is a collection of almost >2,100 human TFBSs drawn from the literature in the TRANSFAC database, and the second is derived from several recent high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with genomic microarray (ChIP-chip analyses. We also define a set of putative cis-regulatory modules (pCRMs by spatially clustering multiple TFBSs that regulate the same gene. We find that a relatively high proportion ( approximately 37% of mutations at TFBSs are strongly deleterious, similar to that at a 2-fold degenerate protein-coding site. However, constraint is significantly reduced in human and chimpanzee pCRMS and ChIP-chip sequences, relative to macaques. We estimate that the fraction of regulatory mutations that have been driven to fixation by positive selection in humans is not significantly different from zero. We also find

  15. Latin hypercube sampling with inequality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, B.; Petelet, M.; Asserin, O.; Loredo, A.

    2010-01-01

    In some studies requiring predictive and CPU-time consuming numerical models, the sampling design of the model input variables has to be chosen with caution. For this purpose, Latin hypercube sampling has a long history and has shown its robustness capabilities. In this paper we propose and discuss a new algorithm to build a Latin hypercube sample (LHS) taking into account inequality constraints between the sampled variables. This technique, called constrained Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS), consists in doing permutations on an initial LHS to honor the desired monotonic constraints. The relevance of this approach is shown on a real example concerning the numerical welding simulation, where the inequality constraints are caused by the physical decreasing of some material properties in function of the temperature. (authors)

  16. Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, S.; Maccione, L.

    2009-09-01

    We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)

  17. WMAP constraints on the Cardassian model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.A.; Sen, S.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the constraints on the Cardassian model using the recent results from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe for the locations of the peaks of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy spectrum. We find that the model is consistent with the recent observational data for a certain range of the model parameter n and the cosmological parameters. We find that the Cardassian model is favored compared to the ΛCDM model for a higher spectral index (n s ≅1) together with a lower value of the Hubble parameter h (h≤0.71). But for smaller values of n s , both ΛCDM and Cardassian models are equally favored. Also, irrespective of supernova constraints, CMB data alone predict the current acceleration of the Universe in this model. We have also studied the constraint on σ 8 , the rms density fluctuations at the 8h -1 Mpc scale

  18. Some general constraints on identical band symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.; Strayer, M.R.; Wu, C.; Feng, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    We argue on general grounds that nearly identical bands observed for superdeformation and less frequently for normal deformation must be explicable in terms of a symmetry having a microscopic basis. We assume that the unknown symmetry is associated with a Lie algebra generated by terms bilinear in fermion creation and annihilation operators. Observed features of these bands and the general properties of Lie groups are then used to place constraints on acceptable algebras. Additional constraints are placed by assuming that the collective spectrum is associated with a dynamical symmetry, and examining the subgroup structure required by phenomenology. We observe that requisite symmetry cannot be unitary, and that the simplest known group structures consistent with these minimal criteria are associated with the Ginocchio algebras employed in the fermion dynamical symmetry model. However, our arguments are general in nature, and we propose that they imply model-independent constraints on any candidate explanation for identical bands

  19. Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)

  20. Constraints and spandrels of interareal connectomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail

    2016-12-01

    Interareal connectomes are whole-brain wiring diagrams of white-matter pathways. Recent studies have identified modules, hubs, module hierarchies and rich clubs as structural hallmarks of these wiring diagrams. An influential current theory postulates that connectome modules are adequately explained by evolutionary pressures for wiring economy, but that the other hallmarks are not explained by such pressures and are therefore less trivial. Here, we use constraint network models to test these postulates in current gold-standard vertebrate and invertebrate interareal-connectome reconstructions. We show that empirical wiring-cost constraints inadequately explain connectome module organization, and that simultaneous module and hub constraints induce the structural byproducts of hierarchies and rich clubs. These byproducts, known as spandrels in evolutionary biology, include the structural substrate of the default-mode network. Our results imply that currently standard connectome characterizations are based on circular analyses or double dipping, and we emphasize an integrative approach to future connectome analyses for avoiding such pitfalls.

  1. Effective constraint algebras with structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the result that fluctuations and higher moments of a state, by themselves, do not imply quantum corrections in structure functions of constrained systems. Moment corrections are isolated from other types of quantum effects, such as factor-ordering choices and regularization, by introducing a new condition with two parts: (i) having a direct (or faithful) quantization of the classical structure functions, (ii) free of factor-ordering ambiguities. In particular, it is assumed that the classical constraints can be quantized in an anomaly free way, so that properties of the resulting constraint algebras can be derived. If the two-part condition is not satisfied, effective constraints can still be evaluated, but quantum effects may be stronger. Consequences for canonical quantum gravity, whose structure functions encode space–time structure, are discussed. In particular, deformed algebras found in models of loop quantum gravity provide reliable information even in the Planck regime. (paper)

  2. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper addresses this gap. The and six case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper sheds light on the types of constraints generated by the relevant constraint generators. The paper shows that in the cases studied......Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands. During a design process a retail designer has to consider various constraint generators such as stakeholder interests, physical limitations and restrictions. Obviously the architectural site, legislators...... and landlords need to be considered as well as the interest of the client and brand owner. Furthermore the users need to be taken into account in order to develop an interesting and functional shopping and working environments. Finally, suppliers and competitors may influence the design with regard...

  3. Constraints on particle dark matter from cosmic-ray antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, N.; Vittino, A.; Maccione, L.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic-ray antiprotons represent an important channel for dark matter indirect-detection studies. Current measurements of the antiproton flux at the top of the atmosphere and theoretical determinations of the secondary antiproton production in the Galaxy are in good agreement, with no manifest deviation which could point to an exotic contribution in this channel. Therefore, antiprotons can be used as a powerful tool for constraining particle dark matter properties. By using the spectrum of PAMELA data from 50 MV to 180 GV in rigidity, we derive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross section (or decay rate, for decaying dark matter) for the whole spectrum of dark matter annihilation (decay) channels and under different hypotheses of cosmic-rays transport in the Galaxy and in the heliosphere. For typical models of galactic propagation, the constraints are strong, setting a lower bound on the dark matter mass of a ''thermal'' relic at about 40–80 GeV for hadronic annihilation channels. These bounds are enhanced to about 150 GeV on the dark matter mass, when large cosmic-rays confinement volumes in the Galaxy are considered, and are reduced to 3–4 GeV for annihilation to light quarks (no bound for heavy-quark production) when the confinement volume is small. Bounds for dark matter lighter than few tens of GeV are due to the low energy part of the PAMELA spectrum, an energy region where solar modulation is relevant: to this aim, we have implemented a detailed solution of the transport equation in the heliosphere, which allowed us not only to extend bounds to light dark matter, but also to determine the uncertainty on the constraints arising from solar modulation modelling. Finally, we estimate the impact of soon-to-come AMS-02 data on the antiproton constraints

  4. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, H.; Ulrich, S.; Bangert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities q(\\hat{d}, \\hat{v}) of covering a specific target volume fraction \\hat{v} with a certain dose \\hat{d} . Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target volume objectives.

  5. A method for regulating strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For an oscillating system, large amplitude indicates strong vibration energy. In this article, modal interaction is used as a useful means to regulate strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A method is put forward to migrate and dissipate vibration energy based on modal interaction. By means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis, it is proven that internal resonance can be successfully established between modes of the flexible arm and the vibration absorber. Through examples and analyses, it is verified that this control method is effective in regulating strong vibration energy and can be used to suppress strong nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.

  6. Judgement of Design Scheme Based on Flexible Constraint in ICAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The conception of flexible constraint is proposed in the paper. The solution of flexible constraint is in special range, and maybe different in different instances of same design scheme. The paper emphasis on how to evaluate and optimize a design scheme with flexible constraints based on the satisfaction degree function defined on flexible constraints. The conception of flexible constraint is used to solve constraint conflict and design optimization in complicated constraint-based assembly design by the PFM parametrization assembly design system. An instance of gear-box design is used for verifying optimization method.

  7. q-Virasoro constraints in matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelin, Anton [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala university,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Zabzine, Maxim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala university,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-03-20

    The Virasoro constraints play the important role in the study of matrix models and in understanding of the relation between matrix models and CFTs. Recently the localization calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories produced new families of matrix models and we have very limited knowledge about these matrix models. We concentrate on elliptic generalization of hermitian matrix model which corresponds to calculation of partition function on S{sup 3}×S{sup 1} for vector multiplet. We derive the q-Virasoro constraints for this matrix model. We also observe some interesting algebraic properties of the q-Virasoro algebra.

  8. Constraints on reusability of learning objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Jensen, Anne Skov

    2010-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to discuss some didactic constraints on the use and reuse of digital modular learning objects. Engineering education is used as the specific context of use with examples from courses in introductory electronics and mathematics. Digital multimedia and modular learning....... Constraints on reuse arise from the nature of conceptual understanding in higher education and the functionality of learning objects within present technologies. We will need didactic as well as technical perspectives on learning objects in designing for understanding....

  9. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tran, David [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy

    2012-05-15

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  10. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN

    2012-05-01

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  11. Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Lafond, Manuel; El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family   G . But is a given set   C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for   G ? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where   C does not necessarily involve a ...

  12. Strong first order electroweak phase transition in the CP-conserving 2HDM revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, P.; Krause, M.; Mühlleitner, M.; Wittbrodt, J.; Wlotzka, A.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson by the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS has marked a milestone for particle physics. Yet, there are still many open questions that cannot be answered within the Standard Model (SM). For example, the generation of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe through baryogenesis can only be explained qualitatively in the SM. A simple extension of the SM compatible with the current theoretical and experimental constraints is given by the 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) where a second Higgs doublet is added to the Higgs sector. We investigate the possibility of a strong first order electroweak phase transition in the CP-conserving 2HDM type I and type II where either of the CP-even Higgs bosons is identified with the SM-like Higgs boson. The renormalisation that we apply on the loop-corrected Higgs potential allows us to efficiently scan the 2HDM parameter space and simultaneously take into account all relevant theoretical and up-to-date experimental constraints. The 2HDM parameter regions found to be compatible with the applied constraints and a strong electroweak phase transition are analysed systematically. Our results show that there is a strong interplay between the requirement of a strong phase transition and collider phenomenology with testable implications for searches at the LHC.

  13. Strong first order electroweak phase transition in the CP-conserving 2HDM revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basler, P.; Krause, M.; Mühlleitner, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wittbrodt, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wlotzka, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-02-23

    The discovery of the Higgs boson by the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS has marked a milestone for particle physics. Yet, there are still many open questions that cannot be answered within the Standard Model (SM). For example, the generation of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe through baryogenesis can only be explained qualitatively in the SM. A simple extension of the SM compatible with the current theoretical and experimental constraints is given by the 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) where a second Higgs doublet is added to the Higgs sector. We investigate the possibility of a strong first order electroweak phase transition in the CP-conserving 2HDM type I and type II where either of the CP-even Higgs bosons is identified with the SM-like Higgs boson. The renormalisation that we apply on the loop-corrected Higgs potential allows us to efficiently scan the 2HDM parameter space and simultaneously take into account all relevant theoretical and up-to-date experimental constraints. The 2HDM parameter regions found to be compatible with the applied constraints and a strong electroweak phase transition are analysed systematically. Our results show that there is a strong interplay between the requirement of a strong phase transition and collider phenomenology with testable implications for searches at the LHC.

  14. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Włodarczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence, short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  15. Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattingly, David M.; Maccione, Luca; Galaverni, Matteo; Liberati, Stefano; Sigl, Günter

    2010-01-01

    We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E 2 M Pl 2 ) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter η ν . We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10 19 eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10 17 eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as η ν ∼ −4 on the neutrino LV parameter, depending on how LV is distributed among neutrino mass states. Constraints on η ν < 0 can in principle be obtained with this strategy, but they require a more detailed modeling of how LV affects the neutrino sector

  16. A taste of dark matter. Flavour constraints on pseudoscalar mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Matthew J.; McCabe, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Dark matter interacting via the exchange of a light pseudoscalar can induce observable signals in indirect detection experiments and experience large self-interactions while evading the strong bounds from direct dark matter searches. The pseudoscalar mediator will however induce flavour-changing interactions in the Standard Model, providing a promising alternative way to test these models. We investigate in detail the constraints arising from rare meson decays and fixed target experiments for different coupling structures between the pseudoscalar and Standard Model fermions. The resulting bounds are highly complementary to the information inferred from the dark matter relic density and the constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis. We discuss the implications of our findings for the dark matter self-interaction cross section and the prospects of probing dark matter coupled to a light pseudoscalar with direct or indirect detection experiments. In particular, we find that a pseudoscalar mediator can only explain the Galactic Centre excess if its mass is above that of the B mesons, and that it is impossible to obtain a sufficiently large direct detection cross section to account for the DAMA modulation.

  17. Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, David M. [New Hamshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States); Maccione, Luca [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Galaverni, Matteo [INAF-IASF Bologna (Italy); Liberati, Stefano [INFN, Trieste (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2009-11-15

    We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter {eta}{sub {nu}}. We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10{sup 19} eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10{sup 17} eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as {eta}{sub {nu}} Constraints on {eta}{sub {nu}}<0 can in principle be obtained with this strategy, but they require a more detailed modeling of how LV affects the neutrino sector. (orig.)

  18. The influence of end constraints on smooth pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, G.; Spence, J.

    1981-01-01

    With present trends in the power industries towards higher operating temperatures and pressures, problems associated with the design and safety assessment of pipework systems have become increasingly complex. Within such systems, the importance of smooth pipe bends is well established. The work which will be presented will attempt to clarify the situation and unify the results. An analytical solution of the problem of a linear elastic smooth pipe bend with end constraints under in-plane bending will be presented. The analysis will deal with constraints in the form of flanged tangents of any length. The analysis employs the theorem of minimum total potential energy with suitable kinematically admissible displacements in the form of Fourier series. The integrations and minimisation were performed numerically, thereby permitting the removal of several of the assumptions made by previous authors. Typical results for flexibilities will be given along with comparisons with other works. The differences in some earlier theory are clarified and other more recent work using different solution techniques is substantiated. The bend behaviour is shown to be strongly influenced by the pipe bend parameter, the bend angle, the tangent pipe length and the bend/cross-sectional radius ratio. (orig./GL)

  19. E-ELT constraints on runaway dilaton scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, M. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Calabrese, E. [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: m.martinelli@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: erminia.calabrese@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: carlos.martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofìsica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-11-01

    We use a combination of simulated cosmological probes and astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant α, as expected from the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), to constrain the class of string-inspired runaway dilaton models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We consider three different scenarios for the dark sector couplings in the model and discuss the observational differences between them. We improve previously existing analyses investigating in detail the degeneracies between the parameters ruling the coupling of the dilaton field to the other components of the universe, and studying how the constraints on these parameters change for different fiducial cosmologies. We find that if the couplings are small (e.g., α{sub b} = α{sub V} ∼ 0) these degeneracies strongly affect the constraining power of future data, while if they are sufficiently large (e.g., α{sub b} ∼> 10{sup −5}−α{sub V} ∼> 0.05, as in agreement with current constraints) the degeneracies can be partially broken. We show that E-ELT will be able to probe some of this additional parameter space.

  20. Constraints on GUTS with Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A popular assumption introduced by Coleman and Weinberg is that the elementary Higgs scalars of a gauge theory are massless at the tree level; the symmetry breakdown is then entirely due to quantum radiative corrections. In grand unified theories (GUTS), this assumption becomes particularly attractive. Many GUTS have intermediate mass scales [scales of symmetry breaking between baryon number generation and SU(2) x U(1) breaking], and it is attractive to apply the Coleman-Weinberg assumption to all stages of symmetry breaking after baryon number generation. In this paper, it is shown that most such GUTS are phenomenologically unacceptable. The reason is that as the universe cools, at each scale of symmetry breaking there will be a phase transition; if the symmetry is broken a la Coleman-Weinberg, this transition is strongly first order and thus generates entropy, decreasing the previously generated baryon number to entropy ratio by a large, and perhaps unacceptable amount. The entropy generated in a general intermediate mass scale transition is calculated, and the severe constraints that any Coleman-Weinberg-type GUT with intermediate mass scales must satisfy (in order to avoid excessive entropy generation) are found. Turning to specific models, it is shown that all intermediate mass scale transitions associated with SO(10) do not satisfy these constraints; the Coleman-Weinberg form of these transitions is inconsistent with cosmological observations and is thus phenomenologically unacceptable. (orig.)

  1. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczak, Marcin; Heldner, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  2. When clusters collide: constraints on antimatter on the largest scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Observations have ruled out the presence of significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe on scales ranging from the solar system, to the Galaxy, to groups and clusters of galaxies, and even to distances comparable to the scale of the present horizon. Except for the model-dependent constraints on the largest scales, the most significant upper limits to diffuse antimatter in the Universe are those on the ∼Mpc scale of clusters of galaxies provided by the EGRET upper bounds to annihilation gamma rays from galaxy clusters whose intracluster gas is revealed through its x-ray emission. On the scale of individual clusters of galaxies the upper bounds to the fraction of mixed matter and antimatter for the 55 clusters from a flux-limited x-ray survey range from 5 × 10 −9 to −6 , strongly suggesting that individual clusters of galaxies are made entirely of matter or of antimatter. X-ray and gamma-ray observations of colliding clusters of galaxies, such as the Bullet Cluster, permit these constraints to be extended to even larger scales. If the observations of the Bullet Cluster, where the upper bound to the antimatter fraction is found to be −6 , can be generalized to other colliding clusters of galaxies, cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter will be excluded on scales of order ∼20 Mpc (M∼5×10 15 M sun )

  3. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...

  4. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare…

  5. Case Study: Puttin' on the Ritz: How to Put Science into Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2017-01-01

    There are multiple ways to put science into a case. This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses different ways of presenting science in case studies.

  6. On the Perpetual American Put Options for Level Dependent Volatility Models with Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Erhan

    2007-01-01

    We prove that the perpetual American put option price of level dependent volatility model with compound Poisson jumps is convex and is the classical solution of its associated quasi-variational inequality, that it is $C^2$ except at the stopping boundary and that it is $C^1$ everywhere (i.e. the smooth pasting condition always holds).

  7. Clipboard: Putting T cells to sleep: a new paradigm for immune ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-11-13

    Nov 13, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. Clipboard: Putting T cells to sleep: a new paradigm for immune evasion by persistent viruses. Shweta Dubey Shahid Jameel. Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 497-501 ...

  8. Lurking on the Internet: A Small-Group Assignment that Puts a Human Face on Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph; Judge, Abigail M.; Wiss, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Lurking on the Internet aims to put a human face on psychopathology for the abnormal psychology course. Student groups are assigned major diagnostic categories and instructed to search the Internet for discussion forums, individual blogs, or YouTube videos where affected individuals discuss their symptoms and lives. After discussing the ethics of…

  9. Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Cock, M.J.W.; Brodeur, J.; Barratt, B.I.P.; Bigler, F.; Bolckmans, K.; Haas, F.; Mason, P.G.; Parra, J.R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to

  10. From third degree to third generation interrogation strategies: putting science into the art of criminal interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    tacitly suggest that a confession is the fastest and best way to end the interrogation .73 71 Ibid...Kelly, and Miller found approximately 45 percent of civilian interrogators use it as well.292 Because this percentage suggests the technique is...TO THIRD-GENERATION INTERROGATION STRATEGIES: PUTTING SCIENCE INTO THE ART OF CRIMINAL INTERVIEWING by Desmond S. O’Neill March 2017

  11. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  12. Effects of physical randomness training on virtual and laboratory golf putting performance in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, T C; Lamb, P F

    2018-06-01

    External randomness exists in all sports but is perhaps most obvious in golf putting where robotic putters sink only 80% of 5 m putts due to unpredictable ball-green dynamics. The purpose of this study was to test whether physical randomness training can improve putting performance in novices. A virtual random-physics golf-putting game was developed based on controlled ball-roll data. Thirty-two subjects were assigned a unique randomness gain (RG) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0-times real-world randomness. Putter face kinematics were measured in 5 m laboratory putts before and after five days of virtual training. Performance was quantified using putt success rate and "miss-adjustment correlation" (MAC), the correlation between left-right miss magnitude and subsequent right-left kinematic adjustments. Results showed no RG-success correlation (r = -0.066, p = 0.719) but mildly stronger correlations with MAC for face angle (r = -0.168, p = 0.358) and clubhead path (r = -0.302, p = 0.093). The strongest RG-MAC correlation was observed during virtual training (r = -0.692, p golf putting kinematics. Adaptation to external physical randomness during virtual training may therefore help golfers adapt to external randomness in real-world environments.

  13. Don't Get Rode Hard and Put Away Wet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Back in the old days, some folks reckoned an equine was just a disposable tool to get their jobs done. They might ride a horse hard, so it was sweaty, panting, and broken down. When done they would throw it out to pasture without proper grooming. This is probably the origin of the expression to "get rode hard and put away wet." As…

  14. Web life: Faraday's Cage Is Where You Put Schrödinger's Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Faraday's Cage Is Where You Put Schrödinger's Cat (FCIWYPSC) is a blog written by Cherish Bauer-Reich, who is pursuing a PhD in geophysics at the University of Minnesota while also working part-time as a research engineer at North Dakota State University (NDSU), some 250 miles away.

  15. A note on the pricing of the perpetual American capped power put option

    OpenAIRE

    Sakagami, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We give an explicit solution to the perpetual American capped power put option pricing problem in the Black-Scholes-Merton Model. The approach is mainly based on free-boundary formulation and verification. For completeness we also give an explicit solution to the perpetual American standard power (≥1) option pricing problem.

  16. Putting a Price Tag on the Common Core: How Much Will Smart Implementation Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Regenstein, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English language arts and mathematics represent a sea change in standards-based reform and their implementation is the movement's next--and greatest--challenge. Yet, while most states have now set forth implementation plans, these tomes seldom address the crucial matter of cost. Putting a Price Tag on the…

  17. Flipping the Educational System: Putting Teachers at the Heart of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneyber, René

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an initiative led by two classroom teachers from the Netherlands to put teachers back at the centre of the educational process. The article argues that the educational system has become inverted, with those who are most influential (teachers) having the least opportunity to influence. The challenge is to "flip the…

  18. Access to data and material for research: Putting empirical evidence into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to put into critical perspective the empirical findings on secrecy and withholding in research. In other words, by taking existing empirical literature into account, it is intended that a crucial question is answered: Is secrecy and withholding in research harmful or

  19. ALICE TPC gas system is the first of the LHC experiments to be put on line

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Picture 01 : the Physics Department's DT1 gas systems team in their laboratory. Picture 02 : Chilo Garabatos (ALICE) and Stefan Haider (PH-DT1-GS) in front of the gas system for the ALICE TPC which has just been put on line.

  20. Regularity of the exercise boundary for American put options on assets with discrete dividends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdain, B.; Vellekoop, M.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the regularity of the optimal exercise boundary for the American Put option when the underlying asset pays a discrete dividend at a known time td during the lifetime of the option. The ex-dividend asset price process is assumed to follow Black-Scholes dynamics and the dividend amount is a

  1. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  2. Performance and Kinematic Differences in Putting Between Healthy and Disabled Elite Golfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryc Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Golfers with disability are limited in the execution of the full golf swing, but their performance in putting may be comparable because this stroke does not demand significant strength, balance and range of motion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare putting performance, kinetic and kinematic consistency between golfers with different disabilities and healthy athletes. The participants consisted of three disabled athletes (perinatal cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, below knee lower limb amputee and three healthy golfers (age 34 ± 4.5 years, body height 178 ± 3.3 cm, body mass 83 ± 6.2 kg. The golfers’ movements were recorded by active 3D markers for kinematic analyses; the subjects performed 10 trials of a 6 m putting task while standing on separate force platforms placed under each lower limb. Putting performance was measured by the distance of the final ball position to the centre of the hole. ANOVA analyses did not show any differences in clubhead speed and total ball distance from the hole. The consistency of those two parameters expressed by the coefficient of variation (CV was CV = 0.5% or better in both groups for clubhead speed and ranged from CV = 0.40 to 0.61% in healthy and CV = 0.21 to 0.55% in disabled athletes for total error distance. The main effect ANOVA showed differences in weight shift, hip and shoulder kinematics (p < 0.05 between healthy players and all players with disability. All disabled athletes shifted their weight toward the healthy side (towards the healthy lower limb and alternated the end of the swing. The player with below knee amputation had the lowest range of motion in the shoulder joint during the putting stroke. The players with perinatal cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis had the largest range of motion in the hips. Putting performance of disabled golfers was similar to healthy athletes. During training of disabled players, coaches should pay attention to the specificity of a

  3. A MAGNIFIED GLANCE INTO THE DARK SECTOR: PROBING COSMOLOGICAL MODELS WITH STRONG LENSING IN A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaña, Juan; Motta, V.; Cárdenas, Victor H.; Verdugo, T.; Jullo, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we constrain four alternative models to the late cosmic acceleration in the universe: Chevallier–Polarski–Linder (CPL), interacting dark energy (IDE), Ricci holographic dark energy (HDE), and modified polytropic Cardassian (MPC). Strong lensing (SL) images of background galaxies produced by the galaxy cluster Abell 1689 are used to test these models. To perform this analysis we modify the LENSTOOL lens modeling code. The value added by this probe is compared with other complementary probes: Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We found that the CPL constraints obtained for the SL data are consistent with those estimated using the other probes. The IDE constraints are consistent with the complementary bounds only if large errors in the SL measurements are considered. The Ricci HDE and MPC constraints are weak, but they are similar to the BAO, SN Ia, and CMB estimations. We also compute the figure of merit as a tool to quantify the goodness of fit of the data. Our results suggest that the SL method provides statistically significant constraints on the CPL parameters but is weak for those of the other models. Finally, we show that the use of the SL measurements in galaxy clusters is a promising and powerful technique to constrain cosmological models. The advantage of this method is that cosmological parameters are estimated by modeling the SL features for each underlying cosmology. These estimations could be further improved by SL constraints coming from other galaxy clusters

  4. Mineral supply constraints necessitate a global policy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund

    2016-04-01

    Adoption on 12 December 2015 of The Paris Agreement, the first universal climate agreement, suggests that nations will invest in infrastructures for renewable energy sources paving the way to a global low-carbon society. These large-scale changes will require vast amounts of metals and minerals. Regardless of whether known supplies are enough to meet demand in the near future, efforts must be made now to forestall unpredictable yet inevitable supply shortages in the decades to come, shortages that would dramatically impact the building of additional generation and distribution capacity, and deployment of low-carbon technology. But in response to the current downturn in commodity prices, the global mining industry is downsizing and reducing investment in the new exploration, putting at risk future security of supply. Mining and climate change are inextricably linked; the new adaptive technologies needed to tackle climate change depend on extraction of minerals and metals. An interdisciplinary group supported by the International Union of Geological Sciences, the International Council for Science Unions and UNESCO proposes measures to avert the looming minerals crisis that is developing in the context of current recycling capacity and exploration trends. Our immediate goal is to stimulate discussion of supply constraints using available data on mineral reserves. We build on recent discussions of supply risk and criticality with a focus on the source of primary resources over the next two to three decades when the availability of metals for recycling will remain low. Current massive production of iron ore and other such commodities despite record low prices indicates a failure of the traditional supply and demand constraints. Broader discussions of metal and mineral supply beyond current criticality are needed given the pace of technological and demographic change as well as rapid development spurts. Furthermore, accessible mineral deposits are irregularly distributed

  5. Non-thermal axion dark radiation and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2016-07-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism presents a neat solution to the strong CP problem. As a by-product, it provides an ideal dark matter candidate, ''the axion'', albeit with a tiny mass. Axions therefore can act as dark radiation if excited with large momenta after the end of inflation. Nevertheless, the recent measurement of relativistic degrees of freedom from cosmic microwave background radiation strictly constrains the abundance of such extra relativistic species. We show that ultra-relativistic axions can be abundantly produced if the Peccei-Quinn field was initially displaced from the minimum of the potential. This in lieu places an interesting constraint on the axion dark matter window with large decay constant which is expected to be probed by future experiments. Moreover, an upper bound on the reheating temperature can be placed, which further constrains the thermal history of our Universe.

  6. Energy in the Mediterranean: status, perspectives, constraints, and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faid, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    In its first part, this report comments the differences between the north and the south of the Mediterranean Sea in terms of energy consumption, highlights the fact that energy resources are mainly located in the South and that energy flows are corresponding to a stronger demand by the North, and shows the high potential of renewable energies for this region. Then, it analyses the various concerns and constraints which can be noticed: uncertain supplies on a fluctuating market, a strong dependence on diesel and petrol, an unequal access to electricity, a high sensitivity to climatic change. The third part aims at demonstrating that energy could play a major role in the project of Mediterranean Union. Several potential themes are identified: development of North-South partnerships, status of hydrocarbon supply platform, potential development of the petrochemical industry, development of local markets, promotion of sustainable development, diversification of energy supply with the nuclear energy

  7. LHC constraints on gauge boson couplings to dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Hibbs, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Collider searches for energetic particles recoiling against missing transverse energy allow to place strong bounds on the interactions between dark matter (DM) and standard model particles. In this article we update and extend LHC constraints on effective dimension-7 operators involving DM and electroweak gauge bosons. A concise comparison of the sensitivity of the mono-photon, mono-W, mono-Z, mono-W/Z, invisible Higgs-boson decays in the vector boson fusion mode and the mono-jet channel is presented. Depending on the parameter choices, either the mono-photon or the mono-jet data provide the most stringent bounds at the moment. We furthermore explore the potential of improving the current 8 TeV limits at 14 TeV. Future strategies capable of disentangling the effects of the different effective operators involving electroweak gauge bosons are discussed as well.

  8. Solar constraints on new couplings between electromagnetism and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, S.K.; Preuss, O.; Haugan, M.P.; Gandorfer, A.; Povel, H.P.; Steiner, P.; Stucki, K.; Bernasconi, P.N.; Soltau, D.

    2004-01-01

    The unification of quantum field theory and general relativity is a fundamental goal of modern physics. In many cases, theoretical efforts to achieve this goal introduce auxiliary gravitational fields, ones in addition to the familiar symmetric second-rank tensor potential of general relativity, and lead to nonmetric theories because of direct couplings between these auxiliary fields and matter. Here, we consider an example of a metric-affine gauge theory of gravity in which torsion couples nonminimally to the electromagnetic field. This coupling causes a phase difference to accumulate between different polarization states of light as they propagate through the metric-affine gravitational field. Solar spectropolarimetric observations are reported and used to set strong constraints on the relevant coupling constant k: k 2 2

  9. Reduction of Constraints: Applicability of the Homogeneity Constraint for Macrobatch 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is used to determine the acceptability of each batch of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This control system imposes several constraints on the composition of the contents of the SME to define acceptability. These constraints relate process or product properties to composition via prediction models. A SME batch is deemed acceptable if its sample composition measurements lead to acceptable property predictions after accounting for modeling, measurement and analytic uncertainties. The baseline document guiding the use of these data and models is ''SME Acceptability Determination for DWPF Process Control (U)'' by Brown and Postles [1996]. A minimum of three PCCS constraints support the prediction of the glass durability from a given SME batch. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is reviewing all of the PCCS constraints associated with durability. The purpose of this review is to revisit these constraints in light of the additional knowledge gained since the beginning of radioactive operations at DWPF and to identify any supplemental studies needed to amplify this knowledge so that redundant or overly conservative constraints can be eliminated or replaced by more appropriate constraints

  10. Effect of plastic prestrain on the crack tip constraint of pipeline steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikrem, P.A.; Zhang, Z.L.; Nyhus, B.

    2007-01-01

    Before and during operation, pipelines may suffer from plastic pre-deformation due to accidental loading, cold bending and ground movement. Plastic prestrain not only modifies steel's yield and flow properties but also influences its fracture performance. This paper focuses on the effect of prestrain history on crack driving force and crack tip constraint. A single-edge notched tension specimen has been selected for the study and the crack is assumed to exist before a prestrain history was applied. The results show that prestrain history has a strong effect on the crack tip stress field. A new parameter has been proposed to characterize the prestrain-induced crack tip constraint. For the same crack tip opening displacement level, prestrain history will elevate the crack tip stress field. The prestrain-induced constraint decreases with the increase of loading

  11. Loosening Psychometric Constraints on Educational Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    In response to an argument by Baird, Andrich, Hopfenbeck and Stobart (2017), Michael Kane states that there needs to be a better fit between educational assessment and learning theory. In line with this goal, Kane will examine how psychometric constraints might be loosened by relaxing some psychometric "rules" in some assessment…

  12. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  13. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  14. Domain general constraints on statistical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2011-01-01

    All theories of language development suggest that learning is constrained. However, theories differ on whether these constraints arise from language-specific processes or have domain-general origins such as the characteristics of human perception and information processing. The current experiments explored constraints on statistical learning of patterns, such as the phonotactic patterns of an infants' native language. Infants in these experiments were presented with a visual analog of a phonotactic learning task used by J. R. Saffran and E. D. Thiessen (2003). Saffran and Thiessen found that infants' phonotactic learning was constrained such that some patterns were learned more easily than other patterns. The current results indicate that infants' learning of visual patterns shows the same constraints as infants' learning of phonotactic patterns. This is consistent with theories suggesting that constraints arise from domain-general sources and, as such, should operate over many kinds of stimuli in addition to linguistic stimuli. © 2011 The Author. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Constraint-Referenced Analytics of Algebra Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Scot M.; White, Tobin F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the constraint-referenced analytics tool for monitoring algebra learning activities presented here came from the desire to firstly, take a more quantitative look at student responses in collaborative algebra activities, and secondly, to situate those activities in a more traditional introductory algebra setting focusing on…

  16. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  17. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  18. Primordial black holes survive SN lensing constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Clesse, Sébastien; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    It has been claimed in [arxiv:1712.02240] that massive primordial black holes (PBH) cannot constitute all of the dark matter (DM), because their gravitational-lensing imprint on the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae (SN) would be incompatible with present observations. In this note, we critically review those constraints and find several caveats on the analysis. First of all, the constraints on the fraction α of PBH in matter seem to be driven by a very restrictive choice of priors on the cosmological parameters. In particular, the degeneracy between Ωm and α was ignored and thus, by fixing Ωm, transferred the constraining power of SN magnitudes to α. Furthermore, by considering more realistic physical sizes for the type-Ia supernovae, we find an effect on the SN lensing magnification distribution that leads to significantly looser constraints. Moreover, considering a wide mass spectrum of PBH, such as a lognormal distribution, further softens the constraints from SN lensing. Finally, we find that the fraction of PBH that could constitute DM today is bounded by fPBH < 1 . 09(1 . 38) , for JLA (Union 2.1) catalogs, and thus it is perfectly compatible with an all-PBH dark matter scenario in the LIGO band.

  19. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...

  20. Constraint-induced movement therapy after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, G.; Veerbeek, J.M.; van Wegen, E.E.H.; Wolf, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) was developed to overcome upper limb impairments after stroke and is the most investigated intervention for the rehabilitation of patients. Original CIMT includes constraining of the non-paretic arm and task-oriented training. Modified versions also apply