WorldWideScience

Sample records for puts health claims

  1. Claiming health in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Health-related information is increasingly used on food products to convey their benefits. Health claims as a subcategory of these messages link the beneficial component, functions or health outcomes with specific products. For consumers, health claims seem to carry the message of increased...... healthiness, but not necessarily making the product more appealing. The wording of the claim seems to have little impact on claim perception, yet the health image of carrier products is important. From consumer-related factors the relevance and attitudes towards functional foods play a role, whereas socio...... the information, but we still know relatively little about consumer understanding of the message content in claims and even less about the assessment of personal relevance of the claimed benefits. In future studies more emphasis should be put on including contextual influences and realistic conditions...

  2. Consumer Health: CAM Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Don't take all CAM claims at face value. Do your homework when considering CAM therapies. By ... dose of skepticism. Federal Trade Commission. http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0167-miracle-health-claims. Accessed ...

  3. Health Claims Data Warehouse (HCDW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Health Claims Data Warehouse (HCDW) will receive and analyze health claims data to support management and administrative purposes. The Federal Employee Health...

  4. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  5. Nordic scepticism towards health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine that you are shopping in a supermarket and find a package of pork chops labelled "omega-3 added" or that the yogurt "contains phosphatidylserine, which can improve your memory"; would you buy these pork chops or this yogurt? Most Nordic consumers would choose products without health claims....

  6. Probiotics and prebiotics: health claim substantiation

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Seppo; van Loveren, Henk

    2012-01-01

    ‘Probiotics’ and ‘prebiotics’ by definition should have health benefits. Health claims on microorganisms proposed as probiotics and probiotic stimulating agents (prebiotics) suggest that there is a relationship between the specific food and maintaining good health or that the food can reduce the risk of a disease. The Health Claim Regulation in European Union aims at a level consumer protection. Thereby, health claim assessment focuses on defining the probiotics and prebiotics, assessing the ...

  7. Perception of health claims among Nordic consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Boztug, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    . Claims were constructed from an underlying universe combining different active ingredients (familiar, unfamiliar), type of claim (combination of information about ingredient, physiological function and health benefit), framing (positive, negative) and use of qualifier (with, without 'may'). Across pairs......Health claim perception was investigated by a web-based instrument with a sample of 4612 respondents in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden). Respondents decided which of a pair of claims sounded better, was easier to understand, and was more convincing in their opinion......, the claims differed in the health benefit addressed (cardiovascular health, dementia, bodyweight). Results showed that respondents could be grouped into two roughly equally sized classes that differed in the type of claim preferred: one class prefers 'long' claims that give the full story consisting...

  8. Putting Technology Into Youth Mental Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E. Montague

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although young people aged 16 to 25 are particularly susceptible to mental ill-health, they are difficult to engage in ongoing treatment. Meanwhile, young people are more engaged with digital technologies than ever before, with the Internet and mobile technologies reaching ubiquity in young lives. Despite this, it is unclear from the literature how young people’s high technology use may be harnessed for the better management of youth mental health problems in face-to-face treatment. To explore young people’s opinions on how technology can be used for treatment engagement and as a complement to mental health treatment, a total of 21 participants aged 16 to 25 years were consulted in two focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, with consensus coding by two independent raters. Participants were positive about the integration of technology into youth mental health practice, but indicated that identifying the client’s preferred technology was the most reliable means of engagement. They reported already using technology as an informal complement to treatment, and asserted that formal technology integration must have a clear benefit to treatment while not replacing face-to-face time. Technology use to provide support beyond discharge and between sessions was suggested as a useful means for continuity of care and to prevent relapse. While various technologies were described as engaging, easy-to-access, informative, and empowering, their benefits are not yet being harnessed in youth health services to their full potential. More research is required to better understand how to best put technology into youth mental health practice.

  9. Perception of health claims among Nordic consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Boztug, Yasemin;

    2009-01-01

    Health claim perception was investigated by a web-based instrument with a sample of 4612 respondents in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden). Respondents decided which of a pair of claims sounded better, was easier to understand, and was more convincing in their opinio...

  10. Determinants of consumer understanding of health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Scholderer, Joachim; Rogeaux, Michel

    2011-01-01

    as safe, risky or other. In addition to the open questions on claim understanding, respondents rated a number of statements on claim interpretation for agreement and completed scales on interest in healthy eating, attitude to functional foods, and subjective knowledge on food and health. Results showed...... that respondents with a positive attitude to functional foods are more likely to be classified as riskywith regard to their claim understanding, whereas respondents with negative or neutral attitudes are more likely to be classified into the other category. Implications for testing claim understanding...

  11. European consumers and health claims: attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Kolka, Magdalena; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    .... But do consumers understand and trust health claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour...

  12. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed.

  13. Consumer perceptions of nutrition and health claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van H.C.M.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2007-01-01

    The number of food products containing extra or reduced levels of specific ingredients (e.g. extra calcium) that bring particular health benefits (e.g. stronger bones) is still increasing. Nutrition- and health-related (NH) claims promoting these ingredient levels and their health benefit differ in

  14. Issues surrounding health claims for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

    2008-06-01

    Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices.

  15. Putting women's health in the picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) Workshop for the Production of Video Script on Women's Health was organized by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and JOICFP and held in Japan from November 29, through December 4, 1993. It produced 4 different prototypes for use in Asia that reflected the range of women's health issues and cultural differences involved. Representatives of family planning (FP) associations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), IEC experts, and health officials from both government and NGOs attended. Dr. Shizuko Sasaki spoke about various legal issues of women's health in Japan, while Colleen Cording spoke concerning the impact of social and policy changes on women's lives and health in New Zealand. Participants were then divided into 4 groups for discussion of target populations and their needs. 4 sets of illustrations were designed to stimulate discussion by instructors and were presented with 10-15 min scripts. The 4 videos included Christie and Me, Proud to Be a Girl, One Day at the Beach, and Happy to Be Me. The 1st film features a uterus as narrator who explains menstruation, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and contraception; the 2nd focuses on positive self images for girls; the 3rd, on a range of sexual topics discussed during a couple's seaside stroll; and the 4th, on a woman's love of self and cycle of life from puberty to old age. Participants are expected to produce similar material with adaptations to their specific countries from these prototypes. Participants also discussed their experiences in women's health education and methods of distributing and marketing educational materials.

  16. Updates on nutrition and health claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Perales-Albert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is concern about the influence of social determinants related to advertising, communication and information on the selection of food for healthy eating and safe. From this point of view, Spain created the European Regulation 1924/2006 (ER1924/2006, its aim is to ensure and promote access to safe food that benefit health and prevent information received by consumers is inaccurate, ambiguous or misleading. The aims of regulation are to prevent nutritional and attributed health claims to food without reason or if there is sufficient scientific evidence. In this sense, a group of professionals from the University of Alicante in December 2012 performed the First Day of Food and Nutrition, organized by the Center Alinua of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, related to updates on nutrition and health claims and its implications public health.By the interest and importance of this topic, this is a summary of the position papers from agents involved: consumers, government, food business, the gremial’s dietitian, the Academy and public health.

  17. Health and Stress Management and Mental-health Disability Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Haines, Victor Y; Harvey, Steve; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie; Durand, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the associations between health and stress management (HSM) practices and mental-health disability claims. Data from the Salveo study was collected during 2009-2012 within 60 workplaces nested in 37 companies located in Canada (Quebec) and insured by a large insurance company. In each company, 1 h interviews were conducted with human resources managers in order to obtain data on 63 HSM practices. Companies and workplaces were sorted into the low-claims and high-claims groups according to the median rate of the population of the insurer's corporate clients. Logistic regression adjusted for design effect and multidimensional scaling was used to analyse the data. After controlling for company size and economic sector, task design, demands control, gratifications, physical activity and work-family balance were associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. Further analyses revealed three company profiles that were qualified as laissez-faire, integrated and partially integrated approaches to HSM. Of the three, the integrated profile was associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. The results of this study provide evidence-based guidance for a better control of mental-health disability claims. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  19. USAGE OF FOOD HEALTH CLAIMS AND RELATED CONSUMER UNDERSTANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima KHURSHID

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies in various countries have been conducted in the context of effect of food health claims onto consumer health and purchase behavior. Health claim messages vary from country to country; but overall consumers view these claims as useful. Generally it is observed that consumers prefer short and concise health claim messages as compared to more long and complex ones. Moreover consumers are of the viewpoint that health claims are more effective if supported and approved by government. Foods with health claims are viewed healthier by consumers, but in some cases consumers may get discouraged by health claims when they are unable to properly comprehend the intended message of nutrition claims. Consumers remain vague between distinguishing health claims, content and structure-function of nutrients. Furthermore there is past evidence that in few instances consumers have improved their dietary choices and knowledge regarding health concern because of use of health claims by manufacturers and governing bodies. This study is a review of contemporary health claim practices in the global upfront.

  20. Health claims in Europe: probiotics and prebiotics as case examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loveren, Henk; Sanz, Yolanda; Salminen, Seppo

    2012-01-01

    Health claims regarding foods imply a relationship between a specific food and maintenance of good health, or that food can reduce the risk of disease. Health claim legislation in the European Union sets out from the concept of consumer protection. Health claim assessment focuses on defining given foods, assessing their health relationship, and evaluating relevant studies with an emphasis on controlled human intervention research. Challenges include the focus of claims on healthy populations, although most intervention studies have been conducted among patients. A further problem attends the risk reduction claim, which requires changes in generally accepted biomarkers reflecting the risk of disease. Scientific assessment and guidance documents direct the development of health claims both in Europe and elsewhere. Experience from completed assessments should make it possible to provide consumers with reliable claims to help them make healthier choices and develop lifestyles supporting long-term well-being.

  1. European consumers and health claims: attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Kolka, Magdalena; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-05-01

    Health claims on food products are often used as a means to highlight scientifically proven health benefits associated with consuming those foods. But do consumers understand and trust health claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour. A majority of studies investigated selective product-claim combinations, with ambiguous findings apart from consumers' self-reported generic interest in health claims. There are clear indications that consumer responses differ substantially according to the nature of carrier product, the type of health claim, functional ingredient used or a combination of these components. Health claims tend to be perceived more positively when linked to a product with an overall positive health image, whereas some studies demonstrate higher perceived credibility of products with general health claims (e.g. omega-3 and brain development) compared to disease risk reduction claims (e.g. bioactive peptides to reduce risk of heart disease), others report the opposite. Inconsistent evidence also exists on the correlation between having a positive attitude towards products with health claims and purchase intentions. Familiarity with the functional ingredient and/or its claimed health effect seems to result in a more favourable evaluation. Better nutritional knowledge, however, does not automatically lead to a positive attitude towards products carrying health messages. Legislation in the European Union requires that the claim is understood by the average consumer. As most studies on consumers' understanding of health claims are based on subjective understanding, this remains an area for more investigation.

  2. Perceived relevance and foods with health-related claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, M.; Lampila, P.; Shepherd, R.

    2012-01-01

    consumers’ responses to health claims that either promise to reduce a targeted disease risk or improve well-being in comparison to other types of health-related messages, and how attitudes towards nutritionally healthy eating, functional food and previous experience relating to products with health claims...... affect the consumers’ perceptions of nutrition and health claims. The data (N = 2385) were collected by paper and pencil surveys in Finland, the UK, Germany and Italy on a target group of consumers over 35 year old, solely or jointly responsible for the family’s food shopping. The results showed...... by health claims consumers also need to have a positive attitude towards functional food products....

  3. Health claims made on multivitamin and mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovičić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic purpose of health claims is consumers' benefit by providing information about healthy eating habits. It is necessary for health claims to be scientifically substantiated and truthful. Health claims should not attribute to food the property of preventing, treating or curing a human disease. Use of health claims should be followed by a statement indicating the importance of a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this research was to examine the compliance of health claims made on multivitamin and mineral dietary supplements' labels on the Serbian market with national regulation concerning health safety of dietary products.Methods: An assessment of labels of MVMs was done in two privately owned pharmacies in Novi Sad, Serbia in August 2010.Results: In total, 48 MVMs were sampled and 22 health claims were detected. Seven out of 22 health claims were in compliance with the national regulation. The main reason for health claims on foreign MVMs not to be compliant with the regulation in Serbia was inadequate or nonexistent translation of original labels.Conclusion: Detected use of terms such as "prevention", "treatment" and "indications" on vitamin and mineral dietary supplements' labels is both forbidden and misleading to consumers. Coupled with inadequate or nonexistent translation of the labels, it leads to a low level of protection of Serbian consumers. It is necessary to establish an effective monitoring system for dietary supplements' labeling on a national scale in order toprotect consumers and their wellbeing.

  4. Ultra-processed family foods in Australia: nutrition claims, health claims and marketing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulker, Claire Elizabeth; Scott, Jane Anne; Pollard, Christina Mary

    2017-07-17

    To objectively evaluate voluntary nutrition and health claims and marketing techniques present on packaging of high-market-share ultra-processed foods (UPF) in Australia for their potential impact on public health. Cross-sectional. Packaging information from five high-market-share food manufacturers and one retailer were obtained from supermarket and manufacturers' websites. Ingredients lists for 215 UPF were examined for presence of added sugar. Packaging information was categorised using a taxonomy of nutrition and health information which included nutrition and health claims and five common food marketing techniques. Compliance of statements and claims with the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code and with Health Star Ratings (HSR) were assessed for all products. Almost all UPF (95 %) contained added sugars described in thirty-four different ways; 55 % of UPF displayed a HSR; 56 % had nutrition claims (18 % were compliant with regulations); 25 % had health claims (79 % were compliant); and 97 % employed common food marketing techniques. Packaging of 47 % of UPF was designed to appeal to children. UPF carried a mean of 1·5 health and nutrition claims (range 0-10) and 2·6 marketing techniques (range 0-5), and 45 % had HSR≤3·0/5·0. Most UPF packaging featured nutrition and health statements or claims despite the high prevalence of added sugars and moderate HSR. The degree of inappropriate or inaccurate statements and claims present is concerning, particularly on packaging designed to appeal to children. Public policies to assist parents to select healthy family foods should address the quality and accuracy of information provided on UPF packaging.

  5. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... claim, to FDA's satisfaction, to be safe and lawful under the applicable food safety provisions of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  6. Ginger and its health claims: molecular aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, M Tauseef

    2011-05-01

    Recent research has rejuvenated centuries-old traditional herbs to cure various ailments by using modern tools like diet-based therapy and other regimens. Ginger is one of the classic examples of an herb used for not only culinary preparations but also for unique therapeutic significance owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory potential. The pungent fractions of ginger, namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and volatile constituents like sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, are mainly attributed to the health-enhancing perspectives of ginger. This review elucidates the health claims of ginger and the molecular aspects and targets, with special reference to anticancer perspectives, immunonutrition, antioxidant potential, and cardiovascular cure. The molecular targets involved in chemoprevention like the inhibition of NF-κB activation via impairing nuclear translocation, suppresses cIAP1 expression, increases caspase-3/7 activation, arrests cell cycle in G2 + M phases, up-regulates Cytochrome-c, Apaf-1, activates PI3K/Akt/I kappaB kinases IKK, suppresses cell proliferation, and inducts apoptosis and chromatin condensation. Similarly, facts are presented regarding the anti-inflammatory response of ginger components and molecular targets including inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis and suppression of 5-lipoxygenase. Furthermore, inhibition of phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are also discussed. The role of ginger in reducing the extent of cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, and digestive problems has also been described in detail. Although, current review articles summarized the literature pertaining to ginger and its components. However, authors are still of the view that further research should be immediately carried out for meticulousness.

  7. Health foods and foods with health claims in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohama, Hirobumi; Ikeda, Hideko; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi

    2006-04-03

    The terms 'nutraceuticals' and 'dietary or food supplements' are not very popular in Japan as compared to most of other countries. However, the concept of 'functional foods', which benefits the structure and function of the human body, is known as a result of research studies initiated on the health benefits of foods in 1984. The Ministry of Education organized a national research and development project to evaluate the functionalities of various foods. Researchers from diverse scientific fields succeeded to define new functions of food, successfully incorporating the previously recognized functions of nutrition, sensory/satisfaction and physiological effects of ingredients in foods. Some of the food manufacturers and distributors unfortunately capitalized on such food functionalities to promote 'health foods' by claiming drug-like effects and violating laws. In 1991, the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) now as the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) introduced a 'foods for specified health uses' (FOSHU) system, for the control of such exaggerated and misleading claims. The other reason for such enforcement is due to an increase in the population of elderly people and lifestyle-related diseases that include obesity, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In 2001, a new regulatory system, 'foods with health claims' (FHC) with a 'foods with nutrient function claims' (FNFC) system and newly established FOSHU was introduced. In addition, MHLW has changed the existing FOSHU, FNFC and other systems in 2005. Such changes include the new subsystems of FOSHU such as (1) standardized FOSHU, (2) qualified FOSHU and (3) disease risk reduction claims for FOSHU. In the present chapter, two guidelines that require good manufacturing practice (GMP) and self-investigative systems for ensuring the safety of raw materials used for products in the dosage forms such as capsules, tablets, etc. have been discussed

  8. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M; Luning, Pieternel

    2005-06-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their combined suitability for functional food positioning. The results show that consumers tend to prefer functional food concepts that primarily communicate disease-related health benefits in carriers with a healthy image or health positioning history. Study 2 examines health claim format and systematically varies the way in which specific health benefits are being communicated to the consumer. Two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format. Also, it includes the individual difference variable of 'regulatory focus' and the health status of the respondent to explore how these factors impact health claim evaluation. The results show that consumer evaluations primarily differ to the extent that health claims are personally relevant in addressing an experienced disease state. Framing is important, but its effect differs by health benefit. No strong effects for consumers' regulatory focus were found. Underlying mechanisms of these effects and their implications for the development of functional foods are discussed.

  9. Health claims as communication tools that enhance brand loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade a strong consumer interest has emerged for food products with health protecting or enhancing properties. In this connection, health claims are used as communication tools conveying the health message of a product and further constituting the means of a brand's differentiation...... strategy. Brands carrying a health claim are thus expected to have an advantage over their counterparts. In this study, we aim to investigate whether health claims, with emphasis on the low-fat claims, can act as a means to improve the performance of brands and further enhance their loyalty levels. Based...... on stated preference data using a purchase intention scale (i.e. Juster Scale), a set of Brand Performance Measures (BPMs) are empirically estimated to describe the market structure of two dairy product categories and their respective sub-categories that were defined according to health-related attributes...

  10. Health claims as communication tools that enhance brand loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2011-01-01

    strategy. Brands carrying a health claim are thus expected to have an advantage over their counterparts. In this study, we aim to investigate whether health claims, with emphasis on the low-fat claims, can act as a means to improve the performance of brands and further enhance their loyalty levels. Based......: a) fat content; b) enrichment; and c) way of processing. Then, the Dirichlet model's fit to the empirical data is examined, leading to the theoretical estimation of loyalty measures. Findings suggest that, on average, brands with a low-fat claim perform better in the market compared with their high......-fat counterparts. Moreover, in comparison with other health-related attributes the fat content attribute exhibits slightly higher loyalty, signifying the importance of the "low-fat" claim as a means of communication....

  11. Altering health-pleasure trade-off via advertising claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, S.E.; Sasse, L.; Fenko, Anna; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; de Pelsmacker, P.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated whether and how advertising claims (taste vs. health benefit) influenced consumer taste perception and buying intentions of potato chips. Participants (N=154) were exposed to the front of the product package and were invited to taste the product. Taste benefit claims lead to

  12. Health claims on foods: challenge for clinical research companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi Sarkkinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Nutrition and Health Claim Regulation 1924/2006/EC, together with EFSA guidances on the scientific requirements for different type of health claims, is setting the basis for health claim substantiation in the EU. Aim The aim of this presentation is to bring up the key challenges that the food industry and clinical research organizations are facing when meeting these requirements. Results and discussion Key issues in clinical research planning to meet the requirements set for the health claim substantiation are: (1 Selection of right outcome markers since the selection of outcome marker defines actually the formulation of the health claim to be used on food or food ingredient. (2 Selection of right target population since that determines the target consumer group for the food with a health claim. (3 Selection of dose regime and food matrices used since these largely determine the conditions set for the use of the health claim. One of the major challenges in health claim substantiation is the deviant approach to risk factors or biomarkers. From the regulation point of view, a single risk factor approach is emphasized, but from the clinical and scientific point of view the pattern of different risk markers or biomarkers could, in some cases, be a more relevant choice to reflect the final health outcome. This is especially the case in the nutrition and health area because we are often dealing with weak but multiple health effects of certain food items or ingredients. Also the lack of validated well-established biomarkers potent to be affected by diet is a challenge in health claim substantiation.The selection of right target population is often a compromise between choosing a more potential target group to obtain efficacy (i.e. risk factors elevated vs. patient groups and choosing a rationale to generalize the results to wider population (target consumer group.The selection of optimal dosing regime and matrices for a clinical study is

  13. Health promotion in sexual health 2: how to put theory into practice and empower clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jayne

    This is the second in a two-part unit on health promotion in sexual health. Part 1 outlined various theories and models on the issue. This part examines the factors that contribute towards successful health promotion, such as an effective communication style. It outlines how nurses can put health-promotion theory, competencies and guidance into practice.

  14. The EU health claim regulation in international comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims are voluntary claims on food indicating favourable nutritional content or health benefits of the food. Nutrition and health claims on food are increasingly regulated in the world market. This process is accompanied by intensive stakeholder discussions on the possible...... impact on consumer protection and food marketing effectiveness. This article reviews literature on regulations in the major food markets in comparison with the EU regulation. The focus is on identifying characteristics of regulations that are expected to have an impact on consumer protection and food...... marketing. The EU regulation is regarded as focusing relatively strongly on precaution and consumer understanding. The extent to which this hampers food innovations is in dispute. It is suggested that using marketing measures in favour of scientifically approved claims as well as stakeholder cooperation...

  15. The EU health claim regulation in international comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims are voluntary claims on food indicating favourable nutritional content or health benefits of the food. Nutrition and health claims on food are increasingly regulated in the world market. This process is accompanied by intensive stakeholder discussions on the possible...... impact on consumer protection and food marketing effectiveness. This article reviews literature on regulations in the major food markets in comparison with the EU regulation. The focus is on identifying characteristics of regulations that are expected to have an impact on consumer protection and food...... marketing. The EU regulation is regarded as focusing relatively strongly on precaution and consumer understanding. The extent to which this hampers food innovations is in dispute. It is suggested that using marketing measures in favour of scientifically approved claims as well as stakeholder cooperation...

  16. Codex recommendations on the scientific basis of health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossklaus, Rolf

    2009-12-01

    Within the framework of Codex Alimentarius, attempts are being made at international level to establish guidelines for use of nutrition and health claims. An important issue that has to be addressed is the process of scientific substantiating of claims on foods. To provide an insight into the current step procedure of the proposed draft recommendations on the scientific basis of health claims. These Codex recommendations are intended to facilitate governments' own evaluation of health claims made by the industry. Review of comments of governments, observers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and relevant references to the proposed draft recommendations of the last sessions of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Food for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU). A literature search was performed using the PubMed database. Several proposed draft recommendations on the scientific substantiation of health claims have been considered and amended by the CCNFSDU in recent years but the work is not yet complete. The current work draws on the work of FUFOSE and PASSCLAIM and also on that of WHO and FDA. Given the important role of Codex in food safety, the draft recommendations emphasize circumstances where additional evaluation of safety or nutritional safety needs to be considered. High quality human intervention studies are the prime evidence needed to substantiate claims but there is recognition that, in some cases, only observational studies may be available. Animal and in vitro studies will also be evaluated as part of the totality of the evidence. It has been suggested that the recommendations should include re-evaluation of claims after a certain time period, or if new evidence calls into question the scientific validity underpinning the claims. Setting out a common approach for the substantiation of health claims is an important step in the use of health claims around the world. There is a need to reflect emerging as well as consensus science. The substantiating

  17. Nutrition labelling, marketing techniques, nutrition claims and health claims on chip and biscuit packages from sixteen countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; Lock, Karen; Kelishadi, Roya; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Marcilio, Claudia S; Iqbal, Romaina; Dehghan, Mahshid; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K

    2016-04-01

    Food packages were objectively assessed to explore differences in nutrition labelling, selected promotional marketing techniques and health and nutrition claims between countries, in comparison to national regulations. Cross-sectional. Chip and sweet biscuit packages were collected from sixteen countries at different levels of economic development in the EPOCH (Environmental Profile of a Community's Health) study between 2008 and 2010. Seven hundred and thirty-seven food packages were systematically evaluated for nutrition labelling, selected promotional marketing techniques relevant to nutrition and health, and health and nutrition claims. We compared pack labelling in countries with labelling regulations, with voluntary regulations and no regulations. Overall 86 % of the packages had nutrition labels, 30 % had health or nutrition claims and 87 % displayed selected marketing techniques. On average, each package displayed two marketing techniques and one health or nutrition claim. In countries with mandatory nutrition labelling a greater proportion of packages displayed nutrition labels, had more of the seven required nutrients present, more total nutrients listed and higher readability compared with those with voluntary or no regulations. Countries with no health or nutrition claim regulations had fewer claims per package compared with countries with regulations. Nutrition label regulations were associated with increased prevalence and quality of nutrition labels. Health and nutrition claim regulations were unexpectedly associated with increased use of claims, suggesting that current regulations may not have the desired effect of protecting consumers. Of concern, lack of regulation was associated with increased promotional marketing techniques directed at children and misleadingly promoting broad concepts of health.

  18. Functional food health claims must be supported by sound science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.; Mennen, L.; Hendriks, H.

    2009-01-01

    Alwine Kardinnal, Louise Mennen, and Henk Hendriks share their views on the way scientific evidence for a health claim can be obtained and use weight management to demonstrate different approaches. Weight management products are used to explain the steps that need to be taken to obtain approval for

  19. General health assessment in refugees claiming to have been tortured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draminsky Petersen, Hans; Christensen, Maria Elisabeth; Kastrup, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    General health assessment of refugees claiming to have been previously exposed to torture takes place in a psychological atmosphere affected by the difficult situation of the refugee. Thirty-one refugees, mainly from the Middle East and Africa, were assessed as regards their physical and mental...

  20. Scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuexin

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the procedures involved in scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China. The definition of a functional food is discussed, in addition to the factors that led to its modification in 2005. The framework of administration includes the regulation of functional foods, steps involved in submission of dossiers, the safety control system for raw materials and products, and technical procedures for testing and evaluation. Scientific evidence required for a claim includes evidence from product tests in addition to evidence resulting from complete scientific literature searches relative to the food material or component in question. Currently, the 4 main rules for functional food assessment in China include 1) functional assessment procedures; 2) standard toxicological assessment; 3) regulations on nutrient supplements; and 4) standard analytical methods for functional components. The current situation for functional foods in China is analyzed, including a discussion of the distribution of the 27 currently allowed functional food health claims. The effectiveness of functional foods and health claims for improving health relies largely on the motivation and education of the public to be able to make good choices.

  1. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary a

  2. The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, S.; Kuljanic, N.; Wills, J.M.; Pravst, I.; Kaur, A.; Raats, M.M.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Verbeke, W.; Grunert, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and t

  3. Putting public health ethics into practice: A systematic framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg eMarckmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that public health practice raises ethical issues that require a different approach than traditional biomedical ethics. Several frameworks for public health ethics have been proposed, however, none of them provides a practice-oriented combination of the two necessary components: (1 A set of normative criteria based on an explicit ethical justification and (2 a structured methodological approach for applying the resulting normative criteria to concrete public health issues. Building on prior work in the field and integrating valuable elements of other approaches to public health ethics, we present a systematic ethical framework that shall guide professionals in planning, conducting, and evaluating public health interventions.Based on a coherentist model of ethical justification, the proposed framework contains (1 an explicit normative foundation with five substantive criteria and seven procedural conditions to guarantee a fair decision process, and (2 a six-step methodological approach for applying the criteria and conditions to the practice of public health and health policy. The framework explicitly ties together ethical analysis and empirical evidence, thus striving for evidence-based public health ethics. It shall provide normative guidance to those who analyze the ethical implications of public health practice including academic ethicists, health policy makers, health technology assessment bodies, and public health professionals.It will enable those who implement a public health intervention and those affected by it (i.e. the target population to critically assess whether and how the required ethical considerations have been taken into account. Thereby, the framework can contribute to assuring the quality of ethical analysis in public health. Whether the presented framework will be able to achieve its goals has to be determined by evaluating its practical application.

  4. Holistic health promotion: putting the art into nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally

    2007-05-01

    The role of the arts in health care and health promotion is enjoying belated attention as a way of promoting people's mental health and well-being. Canterbury Christ Church University offers a course which examines how nurses can use the arts to enhance the health care experience for both staff and patients. The Holistic Health Promotion course is compulsory for all final year pre-registration Bachelor degree students in Adult and Child Nursing. The content and process of the course are described, and the findings from the evaluation data are discussed. Through the use of autobiographical literature, active learning in the classroom, visiting speakers and visits within the local community, the course provides a positive learning experience for many students and broadens their perceptions of how to carry out mental, emotional and spiritual health promotion.

  5. Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to antioxidants, oxidative damage and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) t to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to antioxidants, oxidative damage and cardiovascular health. This guidance has been drawn from scientific...... opinions of the NDA Panel on such health claims. Thus, this guidance document represents the views of the NDA Panel based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims in these areas. It is not intended that the document should include an exhaustive list of beneficial effects...

  6. Nutrition labelling, marketing techniques, nutrition claims and health claims on chip and biscuit packages from sixteen countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; Lock, Karen; Kelishadi, Roya; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Marcilio, Claudia S; Iqbal, Romaina; Dehghan, Mahshid; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K

    2016-01-01

    Food packages were objectively assessed to explore differences in nutrition labelling, selected promotional marketing techniques and health and nutrition claims between countries, in comparison to national regulations. Cross-sectional...

  7. Multi-stage methodology to detect health insurance claim fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marina Evrim; Nagarur, Nagen

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare costs in the US, as well as in other countries, increase rapidly due to demographic, economic, social, and legal changes. This increase in healthcare costs impacts both government and private health insurance systems. Fraudulent behaviors of healthcare providers and patients have become a serious burden to insurance systems by bringing unnecessary costs. Insurance companies thus develop methods to identify fraud. This paper proposes a new multistage methodology for insurance companies to detect fraud committed by providers and patients. The first three stages aim at detecting abnormalities among providers, services, and claim amounts. Stage four then integrates the information obtained in the previous three stages into an overall risk measure. Subsequently, a decision tree based method in stage five computes risk threshold values. The final decision stating whether the claim is fraudulent is made by comparing the risk value obtained in stage four with the risk threshold value from stage five. The research methodology performs well on real-world insurance data.

  8. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkers, G.T.; Vos, de W.M.; Brummer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Health claims for probiotics are evaluated by the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies of the European Food Safety Authority. Despite a substantial amount of basic and clinical research on the beneficial effects of probiotics, all of the evaluated claim applications thus far have

  9. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkers, G.T.; Vos, de W.M.; Brummer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Health claims for probiotics are evaluated by the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies of the European Food Safety Authority. Despite a substantial amount of basic and clinical research on the beneficial effects of probiotics, all of the evaluated claim applications thus far have rece

  10. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010

  11. Motivation outweighs ability in explaining European consumers’ use of health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Yung; Grunert, Klaus G.; Hoefkens, Christine

    2017-01-01

    is driven by an interest in healthy eating. Participants with greater health claim-related knowledge tended to be more able but less motivated to process health claims. There were no substantial differences in the tested model between countries that had regulation for health claims prior to 2006 and those......Health claims promise health benefits beyond basic nutrition, but their impact on food choices is largely determined by consumers’ motivation and ability to process these claims. This study investigates the role of consumers’ motivation and ability to process health claims as well as attitudinal......, France, Denmark, Greece, and Lithuania (n = 5337). Structural equation modelling was used to simultaneously estimate the strength and direction of effects between motivation and ability to process, various determinants, and two components of health claim use. Motivation to process emerged as a key...

  12. Nutrition and health claims on healthy and less-healthy packaged food products in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Haya H; Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition and health claims are displayed to influence consumers' food choices. This study assessed the extent and nature of nutrition and health claims on the front-of-pack of 'healthy' and 'less-healthy' packaged foods in New Zealand. Foods from eight categories, for which consumption may affect the risk of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases, were selected from the 2014 Nutritrack database. The internationally standardised International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy was used to classify claims on packages. The Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC) was used to classify products as 'healthy' or 'less healthy'. In total, 7526 products were included, with 47 % (n 3557) classified as 'healthy'. More than one-third of products displayed at least one nutrition claim and 15 % featured at least one health claim on the front-of-pack. Claims were found on one-third of 'less-healthy' products; 26 % of those products displayed nutrition claims and 7 % featured health claims. About 45 % of 'healthy' products displayed nutrition claims and 23 % featured health claims. Out of 7058 individual claims, the majority (69 %) were found on 'healthy' products. Cereals displayed the greatest proportion of nutrition and health claims (1503 claims on 564 products), of which one-third were displayed on 'less-healthy' cereals. Such claims could be misleading consumers' perceptions of nutritional quality of foods. It needs to be explored how current regulations on nutrition and health claims in New Zealand could be further strengthened (e.g. using the NPSC for nutrition claims, including general health claims as per the INFORMAS taxonomy) to ensure consumers are protected and not misled.

  13. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product concepts. Positive attitudes towards functional foods and familiarity with the concrete functional product category boosted the claim type and product ratings, whereas perceived control over own health and perceiving functional foods as a marketing scam decreased all product concept's appeal.

  14. Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body—as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU—do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  15. Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hoefkens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body — as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU — do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed.

  16. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity......, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other...... two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product...

  17. Identification of ovarian cancer symptoms in health insurance claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Sean M; Diehr, Paula H; Andersen, M Robyn; Goff, Barbara A; Tyree, Patrick T; Lafferty, William E

    2010-03-01

    Women with ovarian cancer have reported abdominal/pelvic pain, bloating, difficulty eating or feeling full quickly, and urinary frequency/urgency prior to diagnosis. We explored these findings in a general population using a dataset of insured women aged 40-64 and investigated the potential effectiveness of a routine review of claims data as a prescreen to identify women at high risk for ovarian cancer. Data from a large Washington State health insurer were merged with the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry for 2000-2004. We estimated the prevalence of symptoms in the 36 months prior to diagnosis for early and late-stage ovarian cancer cases and for two comparison groups. The potential performance of a passive screener that would flag women with two or more visits for any of the symptoms in the previous 2-month period was examined. Of the 223,903 insured women, 161 had incident cases of ovarian cancer. Both early and late-stage patients had a higher prevalence of abdominal/pelvic pain and bloating than the comparison groups, primarily in the 3 months before diagnosis. The passive screener had a sensitivity of 0.31 and specificity of 0.83 and usually identified women right before diagnosis. Assuming an average cost of $500 per false positive, the screener would be considered cost-effective if the true positives had an average increase of 8.5 years of life expectancy. These results support previous findings that ovarian cancer symptoms were reported in health insurance claims and were more prevalent before diagnosis, but the symptoms may occur too close to the diagnosis date to provide useful diagnostic information. The passive screening approach should be reevaluated in the future using electronic medical records; if found to be effective, the method may be potentially useful for other incident diseases.

  18. Motivation outweighs ability in explaining European consumers’ use of health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Yung; Grunert, Klaus G; Hoefkens, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Health claims promise health benefits beyond basic nutrition, but their impact on food choices is largely determined by consumers’ motivation and ability to process these claims. This study investigates the role of consumers’ motivation and ability to process health claims as well as attitudinal......, France, Denmark, Greece, and Lithuania (n = 5337). Structural equation modelling was used to simultaneously estimate the strength and direction of effects between motivation and ability to process, various determinants, and two components of health claim use. Motivation to process emerged as a key...... determinant of European consumers’ use of health claims. Ability to process impacted claim use to a much smaller extent, but was strongly and positively influenced by the motivation to process. In order to be motivated, consumers are required to experience a need for health-related information, which in turn...

  19. Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to antioxidants, oxidative damage and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) t to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to antioxidants, oxidative damage and cardiovascular health. This guidance has been drawn from scientific...

  20. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Brandenburger; Marc Birringer

    2015-01-01

    Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC) 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Thr...

  1. 45 CFR 162.1101 - Health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction. 162.1101 Section 162.1101 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claims or Equivalent Encounter Information §...

  2. Generic and product-specific health claim processes for functional foods across global jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, Stephanie; Vanstone, Catherine A; Antoine, Jean-Michel; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-06-01

    Worldwide consumer interest in functional foods and their potential health benefits has been increasing over the past 10 y. To respond to this interest, regulatory bodies have developed guidelines for assessing health claims on functional foods. The objective of this article is to investigate the type and amount of evidence needed in various jurisdictions on a worldwide basis to substantiate both generic and product-specific health claims. Two types of health claims were examined using separate case studies. Analysis of generic health claims was highlighted by (n-3) fatty acids and their relation to heart health; whereas examination of product-specific health claims was conducted using probiotics and their association with gastrointestinal well-being. Results showed a common core for use of convincing high-quality human data, especially in the form of randomized controlled trials (RCT), but there was significant variability in the type and amount of scientific evidence needed to substantiate health claims, both generic and product specific, across different jurisdictions. Product-specific claims tended to use human RCT as the main basis for claims, whereas generic claims tended to base their statements on a wider spectrum of literature.

  3. The Functional Foods Dossier: Building Solid Health Claims. How to prepare the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional food. Practical Industrial guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Korver, O.; Kühn, M.C.; Richardson, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This practical book explains to the industry manager all the special aspects related to the preparation of the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional foods (science, legislation, communication, product development).

  4. A qualitative study exploring high school students' understanding of, and attitudes towards, health information and claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Leila; Desha, Laura N; Del Mar, Chris B; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to health claims, particularly in the media and social media, is pervasive, and the information conveyed is often inaccurate, incomplete or misleading. Some young people of high school ages are already making decisions about using readily available health interventions (such as sports drinks and beauty products).Although previous research has assessed adults' understanding of health claims, no research has examined this issue in young adults who are attending high school. To explore high school students' understanding of, and attitudes towards, concepts relevant to assessing health information and claims. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 27 Australian high school students. Responses were recorded, transcribed and a thematic analysis performed. Three themes emerged as follows: (i) Variability in sources of health information and claims, and general understanding of their creation and accuracy of content, (ii) The use of substitute indicators to assess health information and claims and make judgements about their trustworthiness, (iii) Uncertainty about, and literal interpretation of, the language of health claims. Despite general scepticism of health claims and admitted uncertainty of research terminology, many students were generally convinced. Students had poor understanding about how health claims are generated and tended to rely on substitute indicators, such as endorsements, when evaluating the believability of claims. School students' lack of awareness of basic health research processes and methods of assessing the accuracy of health information and claims makes them vulnerable to distorted and misleading health information. This restricts their ability to make informed health decisions - a skill that increases in importance as they become adults. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers...... two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product...... concepts. Positive attitudes towards functional foods and familiarity with the concrete functional product category boosted the claim type and product ratings, whereas perceived control over own health and perceiving functional foods as a marketing scam decreased all product concept's appeal....

  6. Do consumers prefer foods with nutrition and health claims? Results of a purchase simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, U.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution reports findings of a close-to-realistic purchase simulation for foods labelled with nutrition and health claims. The results show that products with a claim are clearly preferred, but that the determining factors of choice differ between the food categories. Choice was positive...... effects for different food categories. Further determinants which exercised a positive influence were product involvement, health-related food involvement, extent of information search and the presumption that the claim is scientifically proven....

  7. Country Differences in the History of Use of Health Claims and Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Fernandez, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Health-related claims and symbols are intended as aids to help consumers make informed and healthier food choices but they can also stimulate the food industry to develop food that goes hand in hand with a healthier lifestyle. In order to better understand the role that health claims and symbols...... currently have and in the future potentially can have, the objective of the CLYMBOL project (“Role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour”, Grant no 311963) is to investigate consumers’ understanding of health claims and symbols, and how they affect purchasing and consumption [1......]. As part of this endeavour, it is important to understand the history of use of claims and symbols in Europe. What have consumers been exposed to and how were these health-related messages used and discussed among the public? In this study, we interviewed key stakeholders across Europe about how health...

  8. Health and nutrition content claims on websites advertising infant formula available in Australia: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nina J; Gribble, Karleen D

    2017-10-01

    The use of health and nutrition content claims in infant formula advertising is restricted by many governments in response to WHO policies and WHA resolutions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such prohibited claims could be observed in Australian websites that advertise infant formula products. A comprehensive internet search was conducted to identify websites that advertise infant formula available for purchase in Australia. Content analysis was used to identify prohibited claims. The coding frame was closely aligned with the provisions of the Australian and New Zealand Food Standard Code, which prohibits these claims. The outcome measures were the presence of health claims, nutrition content claims, or references to the nutritional content of human milk. Web pages advertising 25 unique infant formula products available for purchase in Australia were identified. Every advertisement (100%) contained at least one health claim. Eighteen (72%) also contained at least one nutrition content claim. Three web pages (12%) advertising brands associated with infant formula products referenced the nutritional content of human milk. All of these claims appear in spite of national regulations prohibiting them indicating a failure of monitoring and/or enforcement. Where countries have enacted instruments to prohibit health and other claims in infant formula advertising, the marketing of infant formula must be actively monitored to be effective. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Impact of health-related claims on the perception of other product attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Lampila, Piritta; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    2010-01-01

    New EU legislation (EU Regulation 1924/2006) will allow a number of nutrition and health claims in food products. The objective of this research was to study how health claims affect consumers' perception of other product attributes. A survey with a total of 4612 respondents from the Nordic count...

  10. 75 FR 69469 - Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration Organization, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 34174). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration..., applicable to workers of Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration...

  11. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is one...

  12. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content, plaque... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental...

  13. Simulating Welfare Effects of Europe’s Nutrition and Health Claims regulation: the Italian Yogurt Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.; Huang, R.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    With the enactment of Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006, 20 December 2006, ‘On nutrition and health claims made on foods’ several health claims can no longer be used on food products in European markets. We simulate the overall impact of the regulation on consumers and producers using the Italian yogurt

  14. Reducing medical claims cost to Ghana's National Health Insurance scheme: a cross-sectional comparative assessment of the paper- and electronic-based claims reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiah-Boateng, Eric; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Dsane-Selby, Lydia; Andoh-Adjei, Francis-Xavier; Otoo, Nathaniel; Akweongo, Patricia; Aikins, Moses

    2017-02-06

    A robust medical claims review system is crucial for addressing fraud and abuse and ensuring financial viability of health insurance organisations. This paper assesses claims adjustment rate of the paper- and electronic-based claims reviews of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana. The study was a cross-sectional comparative assessment of paper- and electronic-based claims reviews of the NHIS. Medical claims of subscribers for the year, 2014 were requested from the claims directorate and analysed. Proportions of claims adjusted by the paper- and electronic-based claims reviews were determined for each type of healthcare facility. Bivariate analyses were also conducted to test for differences in claims adjustments between healthcare facility types, and between the two claims reviews. The electronic-based review made overall adjustment of 17.0% from GHS10.09 million (USD2.64 m) claims cost whilst the paper-based review adjusted 4.9% from a total of GHS57.50 million (USD15.09 m) claims cost received, and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in claims cost adjustment rate between healthcare facility types by the electronic-based (p = 0.0656) and by the paper-based reviews (p = 0.6484). The electronic-based review adjusted significantly higher claims cost than the paper-based claims review. Scaling up the electronic-based review to cover claims from all accredited care providers could reduce spurious claims cost to the scheme and ensure long term financial sustainability.

  15. Why the European Food Safety Authority was right to reject health claims for probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B

    2012-06-01

    Probiotics are microbes that are claimed to promote health and well-being when added to foods. However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has so far advised negatively about health claims for probiotics. Companies and scientists have protested against these rejections, sometimes in vigorous language. I argue that EFSA could not have acted differently, given EU regulations and the lack of convincing evidence for some of the claimed effects of probiotics on human health and well-being. One EU regulation that makes it hard to demonstrate the benefits of probiotics is the prohibition of medical claims, i.e. claims that a food prevents or cures a disease. If this prohibition did not exist, manufacturers of nutritional treatments might circumvent the costly procedures required for drugs, and market their products to ill people without thorough proof that they are effective and safe. However, the prohibition is also a legal fiction, because promotion of health and prevention of disease is largely the same thing. EFSA has recently indicated that it will allow health claims based on the ability of probiotics to reduce infections. To a certain extent, this abolishes the distinction between health claims and medical claims. It remains to be seen if probiotics producers can convince EFSA that their products prevent or cure infections and other diseases in humans.

  16. Motivation outweighs ability in explaining European consumers' use of health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Hung, Yung; Hieke, Sophie

    Introduction: Health claims promise health benefits beyond basic nutrition, but their impact on food choices is largely determined by consumers’ motivation and ability to process these claims. Objectives: This study aimed at investigating the role of consumers’ motivation and ability to process...... European countries: United Kingdom, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia, Czech Republic, France, Denmark, Greece and Lithuania (n=5,337). Structural equation modelling was used to simultaneously estimate the strength and direction of relationships between motivation and ability to process, various...... determinants, and use of health claims. Results: Motivation to process emerged as a key determinant of European consumers’ use of health claims. Ability to process impacted claim use to a much smaller extent, but was strongly influenced by the motivation to process. In order to be motivated, consumers...

  17. Country differences in the history of use of health claims and symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Fernandez, Laura;

    2016-01-01

    claims have been regulated in their country, how health symbols have been and currently are being treated, what form of monitoring there is or should be and how both health claims and symbols have been debated in the public opinion. In 26 European Union (EU) Member States, opinions from 53 key informants...... currently have and in the future potentially can have, the objective of the CLYMBOL project (“Role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour”, Grant no 311963) is to investigate consumers’ understanding of health claims and symbols, and how they affect purchasing and consumption [1.......e. how to apply the EU Regulation (No 1924/2006) with regards to wording issues, the evaluation process at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the status of various claims and the nutrient profile modelling to be introduced in Europe....

  18. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, Ger T; de Vos, Willem M; Brummer, Robert-Jan; Morelli, Lorenzo; Corthier, Gerard; Marteau, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Health claims for probiotics are evaluated by the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies of the European Food Safety Authority. Despite a substantial amount of basic and clinical research on the beneficial effects of probiotics, all of the evaluated claim applications thus far have received a negative opinion. With the restrictions on the use of clinical endpoints, validated biomarkers for gut health and immune health in relation to reduction in disease risk are needed. Clear-cut criteria for design as well as evaluation of future studies are needed. An open dialogue between basic and clinical scientists, regulatory authorities, food and nutrition industry, and consumers could bridge the gap between science and marketing of probiotics.

  19. FDA's health claim review: whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula and atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Carolyn S; Yamini, Sedigheh; Trumbo, Paula R

    2012-08-01

    In this review, we explain how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used its evidence-based review system to evaluate the scientific evidence for a qualified health claim for 100% whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula (W-PHF) and reduced risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). The labeling of health claims, including qualified health claims, on conventional foods and dietary supplements require premarket approval by the FDA. Health claims characterize the relationship between a substance (food or food component) and disease (eg, cancer or cardiovascular disease) or health-related condition (eg, hypertension). To determine whether sufficient evidence exists to support the qualified health claim, the FDA evaluated human intervention studies that evaluated the role of W-PHF in reducing the risk of AD. The FDA concluded there is little to very little evidence, respectively, to support a qualified health claim concerning the relationship between intake of W-PHF and a reduced risk of AD in partially breastfed and exclusively formula-fed infants throughout the first year after birth and up to 3 years of age. In addition, the FDA required a warning statement be displayed along with the health claim to indicate to consumers that partially hydrolyzed infant formulas are not hypoallergenic and should not be fed to infants who are allergic to milk or to infants with existing milk allergy symptoms.

  20. Nutrition and health claims in products directed at children via television in Spain in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Bosqued-Estefanía, María José; Damián, Javier; López-Jurado, Lázaro; Moya-Geromini, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    To describe the use of nutrition and health claims in products directed at children via television in Spain and to analyse their nutrient profile. A cross-sectional study of television food advertisements over 7 days in five Spanish television channels popular among children. The products were classified as core, non-core or miscellaneous, and as either healthy or less healthy, according to the United Kingdom Nutrient Profile Model. We registered all claims contained on the product (packaging and labelling) and its advertisement. We calculated the frequency distributions of health and nutrition claims. During the 420hours of broadcasting, 169 food products were identified, 28.5% in the dairy group and 60.9% in the non-core category. A total of 53.3% of products contained nutrition claims and 26.6% contained health claims; 62.2% of the products with claims were less healthy. Low-fat dairy products were the food category containing the highest percentage of health and nutrition claims. Over half of all food products marketed to children via television in Spain made some type of nutrition or health claim. Most of these products were less healthy, which could mislead Spanish consumers. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Medicalisation of food advertising: Nutrition and health claims in magazine food advertisements 1900-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2009-01-01

    Food advertising increasingly portrays food as a type of medicine. A content analysis of magazine food advertisements in 1990 through 2008 shows that this was manifested with time more in the (a) nutrition claims and (b) health claims made in food advertisements, as well as the (c) food groups and (

  2. Country Differences in the History of Use of Health Claims and Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Fernandez, Laura

    2016-01-01

    in national health status due to the introduction of claims and symbols on food products) and economic aspects including sales, return on investment and reputation measurements. Public debates were said to have evolved around the topics of consumer understanding of claims, acceptance as well as trust...

  3. Medicalisation of food advertising: Nutrition and health claims in magazine food advertisements 1900-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2009-01-01

    Food advertising increasingly portrays food as a type of medicine. A content analysis of magazine food advertisements in 1990 through 2008 shows that this was manifested with time more in the (a) nutrition claims and (b) health claims made in food advertisements, as well as the (c) food groups and (

  4. Do consumers prefer foods with nutrition and health claims? Results of a purchase simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, U.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution reports findings of a close-to-realistic purchase simulation for foods labelled with nutrition and health claims. The results show that products with a claim are clearly preferred, but that the determining factors of choice differ between the food categories. Choice was positively...... influenced by perception of healthiness of the product and negatively influenced by selection of the habitually chosen brand, whilst age, gender and credibility of the claim were of no importance. Both low price-level of the product with a claim and scepticism towards texts on food products had contrariwise...

  5. Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to gut and immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to gut and immune function. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions of the NDA Panel on such health...... claims. Thus, this guidance document represents the views of the NDA Panel based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims in these areas. It is not intended that the document will include an exhaustive list of beneficial effects and studies/outcome measures which...

  6. Health risk factors as predictors of workers' compensation claim occurrence and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Atherly, Adam; Dally, Miranda J; Fang, Hai; vS Brockbank, Claire; Tenney, Liliana; Goetzel, Ron Z; Jinnett, Kimberly; Witter, Roxana; Reynolds, Stephen; McMillen, James; Newman, Lee S

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the predictive relationships between employee health risk factors (HRFs) and workers' compensation (WC) claim occurrence and costs. Methods Logistic regression and generalised linear models were used to estimate the predictive association between HRFs and claim occurrence and cost among a cohort of 16 926 employees from 314 large, medium and small businesses across multiple industries. First, unadjusted (HRFs only) models were estimated, and second, adjusted (HRFs plus demographic and work organisation variables) were estimated. Results Unadjusted models demonstrated that several HRFs were predictive of WC claim occurrence and cost. After adjusting for demographic and work organisation differences between employees, many of the relationships previously established did not achieve statistical significance. Stress was the only HRF to display a consistent relationship with claim occurrence, though the type of stress mattered. Stress at work was marginally predictive of a higher odds of incurring a WC claim (pdemographics, organisational factors, HRFs and WC claims. PMID:27530688

  7. Assessment of administrative claims data for public health reporting of Salmonella in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn; Garman, Katie; Jones, Timothy F; Dunn, John; Jones, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In the USA, approximately 4% of the estimated 1 million Salmonella infections occurring annually are reported to public health. Administrative claims data from large health insurance companies capture disease-specific data which could potentially enhance public health surveillance. To determine the utility of medical claims data for public health reporting of Salmonella, we assessed medical claims data from BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee (BCBST) members compared to Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) surveillance data. BCBST Salmonella cases diagnosed during 2007-2011 were matched to TDH Salmonella cases reported during the same time period. Matches and non-matches were validated using medical records. Of the 450 BCBST cases identified, 72% matched TDH cases. All culture-confirmed BCBST cases were reported to TDH. Non-matched BCBST cases included clinical diagnoses which were culture negative or not tested. Our findings indicate administrative claims data are not currently a viable mechanism for enhancing routine reporting of Salmonella infections.

  8. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-AQ66 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... amendment to the interim final rules (76 FR 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... rule with request for comments entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules...

  9. The role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hieke, Sophie; Cascanette, Tamara; Pravst, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are a convenient tool when it comes to the marketing of foods and they should, in theory, support consumers in making informed food choices, ideally in choosing healthier food products. However, not much is known about their actual impact on consumer behaviour. CLYMBOL...... (“The Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”) is an EU-funded project aiming to study how health claims and symbols influence consumer understanding, purchase and consumption behaviour. During a 4-year period, a wide range of research studies have been conducted across Europe......, in order to analyse European consumer behaviour in the context of health claims and symbols. Results of the studies will provide a basis for recommendations for stakeholders such as policy makers, the food industry and consumer and patient organisations....

  10. Nutrition and health claims in products directed at children via television in Spain in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Over half of all food products marketed to children via television in Spain made some type of nutrition or health claim. Most of these products were less healthy, which could mislead Spanish consumers.

  11. Putting Health Education on the Public Health Map in Canada--The Role of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Sandra; Hayos, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The health education profession has developed over recent years garnering national and international attention. Canada's evolving health education perspective emphasizing the concept of health literacy within the broader public health system reflects the need for trained, competent and skilled health educators designing, implementing and…

  12. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Brandenburger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis was made of the nutrition and health claims regulation regarding small and medium-sized companies in the European food and drink market. Results: The findings of this study indicated that the European Union did a step in the right direction. Most companies defined the decent competition, the simplified trade within the inner-European market, and the consumer protection as positive aspects. The biggest threat is seen in false investment conditioned by the limited research and development budgets, especially of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the cost intensive scientific evaluation to reach an authorized health claim. Conclusions: Overall, there are several strengths and opportunities speaking for SMEs and health claims in the near future. The most promising ones are the publishing of the new European Union Register of Nutrition and Health Claims and the learning effects that will occur. The biggest threat is, and will remain to be, false investment and the possible loss of a lot of money. Nevertheless, health claims for small and medium-sized enterprises will inevitably be the future to keep the European food and drink market competitive.

  13. Medicalisation of food advertising. Nutrition and health claims in magazine food advertisements 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Food advertising increasingly portrays food as a type of medicine. A content analysis of magazine food advertisements in 1990 through 2008 shows that this was manifested with time more in the (a) nutrition claims and (b) health claims made in food advertisements, as well as the (c) food groups and (d) media genres to which nutrition and health claims in food advertising pertained. This so-called "medicalisation" of food advertising may promote images of the body and mind as malfunctioning unless remedied by the use of--advertised--products.

  14. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence......BASIS. Of the 222 defined article 14 claims, 21 pertain to plants or plant-based bioactive compounds, of which 19 are in eBASIS. Conclusions: There is extensive overlap between eBASIS and the submitted health claims that relate to plant-based bioactive compounds. EuroFIR eBASIS is a useful tool for regulators...... to independently check completeness of health claims applications relating to phytochemicals and is a potentially valuable resource to assist claimants in the compilation of dossiers on functional foods and health claims. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, S101-S107; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.219...

  15. Nutrition function, health and related claims on packaged Australian food products--prevalence and compliance with regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Yeatman, Heather; Ridges, Leisa; Houston, Annalie; Rafferty, Jillianan; Ridges, Anna; Roesler, Leisa; Sobierajski, Megan; Spratt, Bronwyn

    2006-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are currently reviewing the regulations governing nutrition function, health and related claims on foods. Health claims currently are not permitted on food labels, with one exception. The aim of this study was to describe the use of such claims on packaged food for sale in Australia (excluding nutrient content claims) prior to any changes to the regulations, and measure compliance with existing regulations. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 7850 products (including multiple pack sizes of individual foods) in 47 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2003. A total of 2098 nutrition function, health or related claims and 12 therapeutic claims were recorded. Fourteen percent of products carried some sort of claim. If nutrient function and general health maintenance claims are excluded, 8.1% of products carried a health or related claim. Using the claims categorisation proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand for a new standard on claims, general-level claims were found on 9.8% of products and high-level and therapeutic claims (illegal at the time) on 1.2%. The food categories with the highest proportion of products carrying claims were sports drinks (92%), energy drinks (84%), sports bars (57%) and breakfast cereals (54%). 118 high-level and therapeutic claims did not conform to current food standards and there were many general-level claims for ingredient benefits that were unlikely to be able to be scientifically substantiated. The results of this survey suggest that more than 5% of claims were not complying with the current regulations and that the standards were not being fully enforced. To be effective, the new standard will need to be accompanied by clear guidelines for manufacturers on requirements for substantiating claims. Comprehensive education and enforcement frameworks also will be needed, to reduce the number of illegal or apparently unsubstantiated claims.

  16. 76 FR 46684 - Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Disallowance of Claims for FFP and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...-AQ32 Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Disallowance of Claims for FFP and Technical... within that time period; make conforming changes to the Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program... the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) to jointly fund State efforts to initiate and expand...

  17. 77 FR 31499 - Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Disallowance of Claims for FFP and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ...-AQ32 Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Disallowance of Claims for FFP and Technical...; make conforming changes to the Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) disallowance... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  18. Health claims on functional foods: the Japanese regulations and an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Toshio

    2003-12-01

    The Japanese scientific academic community defined 'functional food' early in the 1980s. That is, functional foods are those that have three functions. The primary function is nutrition. The secondary function is a sensory function or sensory satisfaction. The third is the tertiary function, which is physiological. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) set up 'Foods for Specified Health Use' (FOSHU) in 1991 as a regulatory system to approve the statements made on food labels concerning the effect of the food on the human body. Food products applying for approval by FOSHU are scientifically evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and safety by the Council of Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Hygiene under the MHLW. The regulatory range of FOSHU was broadened in 2001 to accept the forms of capsules and tablets in addition to those of conventional foods. FOSHU increased the total to about 330 items in January 2003. The MHLW enacted a new regulatory system, 'Foods with Health Claims', in April 2001, which consists of the existing FOSHU system and the newly established 'Foods with Nutrient Function Claims' (FNFC). Under the FNFC, twelve vitamins (vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, E, D, biotin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and niacin) and two minerals (Ca and Fe) are standardized. Examples of claims regarding these substances are as follows: 'Calcium is a nutrient which is necessary to form bones and teeth'; 'Vitamin D is a nutrient which promotes calcium absorption in the gut intestine and aids in the formation of bones.' The upper and lower levels of the daily consumption of these nutrients are also determined. The labelling of functional foods should always be based on scientific evidence and be in harmony with international standards. The nutrient-function claim was adopted in the guidelines for nutrition claims by the Codex Alimentarius in 1997. The claims of the Japanese FNFC are equivalent to the nutrient function claims standardized by the

  19. New challenges in the use of nutrition and health claims on milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Pollak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available By the Croatian accession to the European Union, a legal framework related to the use of nutrition and health claims on foods was adopted, as well as rules on informing consumers about food. Since milk and dairy products are traditionally positioned as healthy and nutritionally valuable products, adjusting to the new legislation is challenging for the dairy industry. After the evaluation process of health claims for nutrients naturally present in milk and dairy products, as well as those added in the production process, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA confirmed the beneficial effect of many active substances and established their recommended doses and effects. By the adoption of Commission Regulation (EU No 432/2012 of 16 May 2012 a list of permitted health claims made on foods other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children’s development and health was established. Also claims related to the impact of specific nutrients on the development and health of children were authorised by certain EU regulations. Nutrients in milk and dairy products related to nutrition and health claims are calcium, vitamin D, protein, yogurt culture, but also some active substances that are added to products such as different types of fibre, phytosterols and omega-3 fatty acids. By development of dairy products with special characteristics, such as those for specific population groups, it is possible to add nutrition claims which, for example, indicate a low energy value. This paper presents possibilities of application of nutrition and health claims on different types of products.

  20. An evaluation of the International Monetary Fund's claims about public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; Gilmore, Anna; Batniji, Rajaie; Ooms, Gorik; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Hammonds, Rachel; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund's recent claims concerning its impact on public health are evaluated against available data. First, the IMF claims that health spending either does not change or increases with IMF-supported programs, but there is substantial evidence to the contrary. Second, the IMF claims to have relaxed strict spending requirements in response to the 2008-9 financial crisis, but there is no evidence supporting this claim, and some limited evidence from the Center for Economic Policy Research contradicting it. Third, the IMF states that wage ceilings on public health are no longer part of its explicit conditionalities to poor countries, as governments can choose how to achieve public spending targets; but in practice, ministers are left with few viable alternatives than to reduce health budgets to achieve specific IMF-mandated targets, so the result effectively preserves former policy. Fourth, the IMF's claim that it has increased aid to poor countries also seems to be contradicted by its policies of diverting aid to reserves, as well as evidence that a very small fraction of the Fund's new lending in response to the financial crisis has reached poor countries. Finally, the IMF's claim that it follows public health standards in tobacco control contrasts with its existing policies, which fail to follow the guidelines recommended by the World Bank and World Health Organization. The authors recommend that the IMF (1) become more transparent in its policies, practices, and data to allow improved independent evaluations of its impact on public health (including Health Impact Assessment) and (2) review considerable public health evidence indicating a negative association between its current policies and public health outcomes.

  1. STOPPING DECEPTIVE HEALTH CLAIMS: THE NEED FOR A PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION UNDER FEDERAL LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Diane; Schwartz, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This Article offers a thorough analysis of an important public health issue, namely how to confront the growing problem of deceptive claims regarding foods and dietary supplements, including increasingly prevalent but unverifiable claims. The authors call for the creation of a limited private right of action under the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Act for deceptive health-related claims for these products. The proposal responds to the growing market for these products and the inadequacy of current laws and enforcement actions to prevent such claims. In crafting the limited private right of action, the authors attempt to enhance consumer protection without undermining federal agency primacy in enforcement. The Article ends with an appendix setting forth proposed language for a statutory amendment to the FTC Act incorporating the authors' proposal.

  2. Assessment of health claims, content, and safety of herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Verhagen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Regulation 1924/2006 states that all health claims made on foods need to be substantiated scientifically. Objective: To apply the PASSCLAIM criteria for the scientific substantiation of health claims on foods to herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba. Evaluation of three selected claimed health effects for G. biloba (improvement of blood circulation, improvement of symptoms of old age, and improvement of memory was achieved through review of publicly available scientific data. A total of 35 human intervention studies were evaluated. Commercially available products claimed to contain mainly G. biloba (N=29 were randomly sampled in the Netherlands and analyzed for their content on ginkgo extract. Also, a toxicological risk assessment was performed. Results: The three selected health claims investigated could not be substantiated. This was mainly because of a lack of data from studies in healthy volunteers. In most studies results performed with a 24% standardized G. biloba extract were described. However, our chemical analysis showed that 25 of the 29 sampled products did not contain the required minimum 24% standardized extract. Moreover, in most preparations the content of substances typical for G. biloba did not conform to what was declared on the label. Since toxicity data for G. biloba are very limited, a safety limit could not be established. Conclusions : Evidence is lacking for three health claims of herbal products with G. biloba. Neither safety nor efficacy can be guaranteed at the recommended daily dose. The multidisciplinary approach described in this paper provides good insight into issues that are relevant for the evaluation of health claims for herbal food supplements.

  3. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A.; Egan, Bernadette M.; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  4. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A; Egan, Bernadette M; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-03-03

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL ("Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour"). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%-27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children's development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%-1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging.

  5. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hieke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”. The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9% of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%, followed by health claims (29% and health-related ingredient claims (6%. The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims, followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%. Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1% of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim. The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging.

  6. Impact of health claims in prebiotic-enriched breads on purchase intent, emotional response and product liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Katie L; Miah, Emma M; Morris, Gordon A; Morris, Cecile

    2014-03-01

    The impact of health claims on purchase intent, emotional response and liking has never been previously reported. In this study, prebiotic-enriched bread was used as a model functional food. Purchase intent, emotional response and liking were investigated in three phases: (1) focus groups were used to gauge consumer perception of health claims and functional foods, (2) the impact of health claims on purchase intent and emotional responses were measured using an online survey (n = 122) and (3) hedonic ratings on bread rolls presented with or without any associated claims were obtained (n = 100). A cluster analysis of the purchase intent data identified two clusters of consumers who were either receptive or non-receptive to health claims. Receptive and non-receptive consumers significantly differed in the emotions they reported with respect to the claims. The hedonic ratings did not significantly differ between the breads tasted with or without health claims.

  7. The role of involvement in the choice of foods with nutrition and health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    Claims are gaining in importance as a tool of communication in the growing sector of health-related foods. In order to target the right consumers, it is crucial to determine their key characteristics. A realistically designed choice experiment aims at analysing the role of various determinants...... of choice for foods with claims. Logistic regression reveals that while product-involvement plays only a minor role, health-related food-involvement appears to be a better explanatory factor than e.g. sociodemographic variables. It is concluded that items measuring the latter type of involvement might...... be helpful for practical market research in the area of health-related foods....

  8. 21 CFR 101.72 - Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... osteoporosis. 101.72 Section 101.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....72 Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. (a) Relationship between calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. An inadequate intake of calcium or calcium and vitamin D contributes to low...

  9. Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to gut and immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to gut and immune function. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions of the NDA Panel on such health...

  10. Effects of different health claim presentation formats on attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Mesovic, V.

    Nutrition information and health claims have the capacity to help consumers choosing healthier food products. Increasing the efficacy of health cues by optimising the presentation format has recently received increasing attention. Psychological vision research has identified a number of factors w...

  11. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers.

  12. General guidance for stakeholders on the evaluation of Article 13.1, 13.5 and 14 health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    to nutrition and health claims, and establishes rules governing the Community authorisation of health claims made on foods. This general guidance is a combined and updated version of two previous briefing documents (frequently asked question document related to the assessment of Article 14 and 13.5 health......The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to provide general guidance for stakeholders on the evaluation of Article 13.1, 13.5 and 14 health claims of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 which harmonises the provisions that relate...... claim applications, and a briefing document for Member States and the European Commission on the evaluation of Article 13.1 health claims). This guidance document summarises the general principles applied by the NDA Panel in the evaluation of health claims, and covers issues such as the totality...

  13. 21 CFR 101.70 - Petitions for health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted is in a foreign language, it shall be accompanied by an accurate and complete English translation... relationship between the substance in a food to a disease or health-related condition that is justified by the... rejection of any report from an authoritative scientific body of the U.S. Government. If filed, the date...

  14. Effects of different health claim presentation formats on attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Mesovic, V.

    saliency and package clutter on attention and choice, allowing a direct comparison of the relative effect size for each of these four factors on attention and choice likelihood. The organic logo was chosen as a suitable health claim for this study, as consumers were repeatedly shown to perceive...... it as a very strong health cue (Orquin & Scholderer, 2011). The manipulation of the organic claim’s presentation format was integrated in a discrete choice experiment for fruit yoghurt products, where respondents were required to trade off the product attributes brand, aroma, fat content, organic claim......, keyhole logo and price. Simulating a natural choice from a retail shelf, choice alternatives were presented as graphical product mock-ups. In a within-subject design, the presentation format of the organic claim was manipulated across the choice sets to assess the effect of presentation format on product...

  15. Consumer understanding and use of health claims: the case of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Mariani, Angela; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    As widely acknowledged functional foods (FFs) may contribute to improve human health due to the presence of specific components useful for their protective action against several diseases. However it is essential that consumers are able to comprehend and assess the properties of FFs health claims play a central role in helping consumers to select among food alternatives, beyond providing protection against unsupported or misleading statements about foods properties. At the same time health claims are the main marketing tool that the food industry could use to differentiate FFs from other products. Clearly, massive investments in research and development are necessary to enter the FF market segment, together with the possibility to protect innovation through patents. Current paper aims to examine factors influencing consumer understanding and use of food health claims on FFs, as well as providing several indications for developers, marketers and policy makers. After a brief review of the literature the results of a quantitative survey conducted online on 650 Italian consumers are presented. Results show that consumer use and understanding of health claims on FFs depend on different variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and confidence with nutrition information but also wording and variables related specifically to the product. Furthermore, different segments with a diverse degree of use and understanding of health claims have been identified. Therefore, to boost market growth, more efforts are needed by policy makers and marketers to provide better information on nutrition and health aspects of FF using an approach capable to ensure truthful, significant and clear information. Finally some recent patents related to the FFs market with specific regard to components and/or functionality investigated in the current paper are reviewed.

  16. Are organic consumers preferring or avoiding foods with nutrition and health claims?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Maroschek, Nicole; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Consumers of organic food name health motives as an important driver of their choice. Interestingly, triggering health motives in food choice is exactly the reason why nutrition and health claims have been developed for the communication of functional food. Thus, both product concepts have similar...... consumer purchase motives in common. Organic food and functional food are, however, often described as contradictory rather than complementary in amongst others the concept of health. Functional food tends to be perceived as ‘unnatural’ by consumers. So far, it has not been researched how consumers react...... to a combination of both product concepts. A realistically designed purchase simulation was conducted with 210 organic consumers in Germany. Five organic products in three different categories were offered, unobtrusively altered so that they showed a nutrition, health or risk reduction claim on two products...

  17. Medicare claims data as public use files: a new tool for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Erkan; Korda, Holly; Haffer, Samuel Chris; Sennett, Cary

    2014-01-01

    Claims data are an important source of data for public health surveillance but have not been widely used in the United States because of concern with personally identifiable health information and other issues. We describe the development and availability of a new set of public use files created using de-identified health care claims for fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, including individuals 65 years and older and individuals with disabilities younger than 65 years, and their application as tools for public health surveillance. We provide an overview of these files and their attributes; a review of beneficiary de-identification procedures and implications for analysis; a summary of advantages and limitations for use of the public use files for surveillance, alone and in combination with other data sources; and discussion and examples of their application for public health surveillance using examples that address chronic conditions monitoring, hospital readmissions, and prevalence and expenditures in diabetes care.

  18. The role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, Sophie; Cascanette, Tamara; Pravst, Igor; Kaur, Asha; Trijp, Van Hans; Verbeke, Wim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2016-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are a convenient tool when it comes to the marketing of foods and they should, in theory, support consumers in making informed food choices, ideally in choosing healthier food products. However, not much is known about their actual impact on consumer behaviour. CLYMBOL

  19. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....78 Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (a) Relationship between substances in diets low... affect the risk of cancer. Risk factors include a family history of a specific type of cancer, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity, ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, exposure...

  20. Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-Time Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Austin, S. Bryn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Characterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years. Design: Comparative content analysis design was used to analyze 95 hours of Spanish-language and 72 hours…

  1. 77 FR 9842 - Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification... phytosterols and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), in a manner that is consistent with FDA's February 14... use of a health claim regarding reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) for phytosterol...

  2. Potentially Deceptive Health Nutrition-Related Advertising Claims: The Role of Inoculation in Conferring Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia M.; Miller, Claude H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition-related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design: Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects…

  3. Potentially Deceptive Health Nutrition-Related Advertising Claims: The Role of Inoculation in Conferring Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia M.; Miller, Claude H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition-related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design: Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects…

  4. The role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, Sophie; Cascanette, Tamara; Pravst, Igor; Kaur, Asha; Trijp, Van Hans; Verbeke, Wim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2016-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are a convenient tool when it comes to the marketing of foods and they should, in theory, support consumers in making informed food choices, ideally in choosing healthier food products. However, not much is known about their actual impact on consumer behaviour. CLYMBOL (

  5. Telehealth Delivery of Mental Health Services: An Analysis of Private Insurance Claims Data in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fernando A; Rampa, Sankeerth; Trout, Kate E; Stimpson, Jim P

    2017-09-01

    This study characterizes telehealth claims for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services by using national private claims data. Telehealth-related mental health service claims were identified with private claims data from 2009 to 2013. These data-provided by the Health Care Cost Institute-included claims from Aetna, Humana, and UnitedHealth for more than 50 million individuals per year. In 2009-2013, there were 13,480 MH/SA telehealth provider claims out of 3,986,159 claims, with the majority of telehealth claims submitted by psychiatrists. For telehealth services, there was a decreasing trend for average reimbursements ($54.61 in 2009 to $43.28 in 2013). Average reimbursements for telehealth claims were half those for nontelehealth claims. Reimbursements for nine of the top 10 telehealth services were lower in 2015 dollars than for the same services provided during face-to-face treatment. Widespread adoption and use of costly telehealth technologies for mental health services may be limited by low reimbursements for telehealth services.

  6. Black pepper and health claims: a comprehensive treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Saeed, Farhan; Ahmed, Waqas

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, spices have been an integral part of human diets and commerce. Recently, the widespread recognition of diet-health linkages bolsters their dietary importance. The bioactive components present in them are of considerable significance owing to their therapeutic potential against various ailments. They provide physiological benefits or prevent chronic ailment in addition to the fundamental nutrition and often included in the category of functional foods. Black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) is an important healthy food owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and gastro-protective modules. Black pepper, with piperine as an active ingredient, holds rich phytochemistry that also includes volatile oil, oleoresins, and alkaloids. More recently, cell-culture studies and animal modeling predicted the role of black pepper against number of maladies. The free-radical scavenging activity of black pepper and its active ingredients might be helpful in chemoprevention and controlling progression of tumor growth. Additionally, the key alkaloid components of Piper Nigrum, that is, piperine assist in cognitive brain functioning, boost nutrient's absorption and improve gastrointestinal functionality. In this comprehensive treatise, efforts are made to elucidate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, gastro-protective, and antidepressant activities of black pepper. Moreover, the synergistic interaction of black pepper with different drugs and nutrients is the limelight of the manuscript. However, the aforementioned health-promoting benefits associated with black pepper are proven in animal modeling. Thus, there is a need to conduct controlled randomized trials in human subjects, cohort studies, and meta-analyses. Such future studies would be helpful in recommending its application in diet-based regimens to prevent various ailments.

  7. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  8. Some pain, no gain: experiences with the no-claim rebate in the Dutch health care system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Holland; N.J.A. van Exel (Job); F.T. Schut (Erik); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTo contain expenditures in an increasingly demand driven health care system, in 2005 a no-claim rebate was introduced in the Dutch health insurance system. Since demand-side cost sharing is a very controversial issue, the no-claim rebate was launched as a consumer friendly bonus system t

  9. The EU health claims regulation: impact on the marine lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Carole

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available European Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 applies to all types of pre-packed foods for the final consumer, including food intended to supply hospitals, canteens and similar mass caterers, bearing nutrition and health claims. Commercial communications (labelling, presentation or advertising of foods, trade names and other brand names which may be construed as nutrition or health claims are covered by the Regulation. Since the date it was brought into force (1st July 2007, all nutrition and health claims for food products must be authorised prior to the marketing of the products, either by means of a nominative evaluation procedure or a generic evaluation. In light of the provisions of the new Regulation and the transitional measures in effect, what is the future of lipid ‘health communication’ and more particularly of marine lipid communication? For certain lipids of marine origin (e.g., EPA, DHA, etc. play an unquestionable nutritional – not to say health – role in the human diet, a fact which is widely accepted by the scientific community.

  10. An analysis of the warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding misleading health outcomes claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the number and type of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotional violations.Methods: Two reviewers downloaded, printed and independently evaluated warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers from years 2003-2008. Misleading claims were broadly classified as clinical, Quality-of-Life (QoL, and economic claims. Clinical claims included claims regarding unsubstantiated efficacy, safety and tolerability, superiority, broadening of indication and/or omission of risk information. QoL claims included unsubstantiated quality of life and/or health-related quality of life claims. Economic claims included any form of claim made on behalf of the pharmaceutical companies related to cost superiority of or cost savings from the drug compared to other drugs in the market.Results: In the 6-year study period, 65 warning letters were issued by FDA, which contained 144 clinical, three QoL, and one economic claim. On an average, 11 warning letters were issued per year. Omission of risk information was the most frequently violated claim (30.6% followed by unsubstantiated efficacy claims (18.6%. Warning letters were primarily directed to manufacturers of cardiovascular (14.6%, anti-microbial (14.6%, and CNS (12.5% drugs. Majority of the claims referenced in warning letters contained promotional materials directed to physicians (57%. Conclusion: The study found that misleading clinical outcome claims formed the majority of the promotional violations, and majority of the claims were directed to physicians. Since inadequate promotion of medications may lead to irrational prescribing, the study emphasizes the importance of disseminating reliable, credible, and scientific information to patients, and more importantly, physicians to protect public health.

  11. An analysis of the warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding misleading health outcomes claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Satabdi; Patel, Harshali K; Sansgiry, Sujit S

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the number and type of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotional violations. Two reviewers downloaded, printed and independently evaluated warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers from years 2003-2008. Misleading claims were broadly classified as clinical, Quality-of-Life (QoL), and economic claims. Clinical claims included claims regarding unsubstantiated efficacy, safety and tolerability, superiority, broadening of indication and/or omission of risk information. QoL claims included unsubstantiated quality of life and/or health-related quality of life claims. Economic claims included any form of claim made on behalf of the pharmaceutical companies related to cost superiority of or cost savings from the drug compared to other drugs in the market. In the 6-year study period, 65 warning letters were issued by FDA, which contained 144 clinical, three QoL, and one economic claim. On an average, 11 warning letters were issued per year. Omission of risk information was the most frequently violated claim (30.6%) followed by unsubstantiated efficacy claims (18.6%). Warning letters were primarily directed to manufacturers of cardiovascular (14.6%), anti-microbial (14.6%), and CNS (12.5%) drugs. Majority of the claims referenced in warning letters contained promotional materials directed to physicians (57%). The study found that misleading clinical outcome claims formed the majority of the promotional violations, and majority of the claims were directed to physicians. Since inadequate promotion of medications may lead to irrational prescribing, the study emphasizes the importance of disseminating reliable, credible, and scientific information to patients, and more importantly, physicians to protect public health.

  12. Influence of package and health-related claims on perception and sensory acceptability of snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Vinícius Rodrigues Arruda; Freitas, Tamara Beatriz de Oliveira; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Della Lucia, Suzana Maria; Melo, Laura Fernandes; Minim, Valéria Paula Rodrigues; Bressan, Josefina

    2017-11-01

    Concerns for health can lead to healthier food choices, especially if the consumer is well informed. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of package and health-related claims on Brazilian consumers' acceptance of snack bars. In order to evaluate package attributes, in focus groups discussions, 19 consumers chose the most important factors that influence their purchase decisions. Next, 102 consumers evaluated six commercial brands of snack bars in a three-session acceptance test: the first with no information about the product, the second containing the product package and the third with information on health-related claims associated with consumption of the bar. In general, package attributes, price and flavor were the most important factors that influence the purchase of snack bars. Health claims positively influenced consumer acceptance, but information concerning the absence of gluten and lactose did not significantly alter sensory acceptance. The presence of omega-3s, sugars, preservatives, flavorings and colorings have the potential to improve acceptability, because they were able to raise the acceptance of the seed bar, removing it from the rejection region. Protein and nut bars are not well known to the general public and the lower mean acceptance of the seed and protein bars demonstrated the need for sensorial improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A call to action on women's health: putting corporate CSR standards for workplace health on the global health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, David; MacDonald, Shawn; Rodehau, Carolyn

    2016-11-04

    Business operates within a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) system that the global health community should harness to advance women's health and related sustainable development goals for workers and communities in low- and middle-income countries. Corporations and their vast networks of supplier companies, particularly in manufacturing and agribusiness, employ millions of workers, increasingly comprised of young women, who lack access to health information, products and services. However, occupational safety and health practices focus primarily on safety issues and fail to address the health needs, including reproductive health, of women workers. CSR policy has focused on shaping corporate policies and practices related to the environment, labor, and human rights, but has also ignored the health needs of women workers. The authors present a new way for global health to understand CSR - as a set of regulatory processes governed by civil society, international institutions, business, and government that set, monitor, and enforce emerging standards related to the role of business in society. They call this the CSR system. They argue that the global health community needs to think differently about the role of corporations in public health, which has been as "partners," and that the global health practitioners should play the same advocacy role in the CSR system for corporate health policies as it does for government and international health policies.

  14. Some pain, no gain: experiences with the no-claim rebate in the Dutch health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J; Van Exel, N J A; Schut, F T; Brouwer, W B F

    2009-10-01

    To contain expenditures in an increasingly demand driven health care system, in 2005 a no-claim rebate was introduced in the Dutch health insurance system. Since demand-side cost sharing is a very controversial issue, the no-claim rebate was launched as a consumer friendly bonus system to reward prudent utilization of health services. Internationally, the introduction of a mandatory no-claim rebate in a social health insurance scheme is unprecedented. Consumers were entitled to an annual rebate of 255 eruos if no claims were made. During the year, all health care expenses except for GP visits and maternity care were deducted from the rebate until the rebate became zero. In this article, we discuss the rationale of the no-claim rebate and the available evidence of its effect. Using a questionnaire in a convenience sample, we examined people's knowledge, attitudes, and sensitivity to the incentive scheme. We find that only 4% of respondents stated that they would reduce consumption because of the no-claim rebate. Respondents also indicated that they were willing to accept a high loss of rebate in order to use a medical treatment. However, during the last month of the year many respondents seemed willing to postpone consumption until the next year in order to keep the rebate of the current year intact. A small majority of respondents considered the no-claim rebate to be unfair. Finally, we briefly discuss why in 2008 the no-claim rebate was replaced by a mandatory deductible.

  15. Between credit claiming and blame avoidance: the changing politics of priority-setting for Korea's National Health Insurance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minah; Reich, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Priority-setting involves diverse parties with intense and often conflicting interests and values. Still, the political aspects of priority-setting are largely unexplored in the literature on health policy. In this paper, we examine how policy makers in Korea changed their strategies as the policy context for priority setting changed from only expanding benefits to a double burden of benefit expansion plus cost containment. This analysis shows that priority-setting is a profoundly political process. The policy context shapes how policy makers choose their political strategies. In particular, we find that policy makers sway between "credit claiming" and "blame avoidance" strategies. Korean policy makers resorted to three types of political strategies when confronted with a double burden of benefit expansion and cost containment: delegating responsibility to other institutions (agency strategies), replacing judgment-based decisions with automatic rules (policy strategies), and focusing on the presentation of how decisions are made (presentational strategies). The paper suggests implications for future studies on priority-setting in the Korean health care system and in other countries that face similar challenges, and concludes that Korean policy makers need to put more effort into developing transparent and systematic priority-setting processes, especially in times of double burden of benefit expansion and cost containment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Creating Unidimensional Global Measures of Physician Practice Quality Based on Health Insurance Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, Grant R; Carle, Adam C; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2017-06-01

    To explore the extent to which commonly used claims-based process quality indicators can be used to create an internally valid global composite measure of physician practice quality. Health insurance claims data (October 2007-May 2010) from 134 physician practices in Seattle, WA. We use confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis to develop theory- and empirically driven internally valid composite measures based on 19 quality indicators. Health insurance claims data from nine insurance companies and self-funded employers were collected and aggregated by third-party organization. Our results did not support a single global measure using the entire set of quality indicators. We did identify an acceptable multidimensional model (RMSEA = 0.059; CFI = 0.934; TLI = 0.910). The four dimensions in our data were diabetes, depression, preventive care, and generic drug prescribing. Our study demonstrates that commonly used process indicators can be used to create a small set of useful composite measures. However, the lack of an internally valid single unidimensional global measure has important implications for policy approaches meant to improve quality by rewarding "high-quality physicians." © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Claims on Consumer Perceptions about Food Products' Healthfulness and Helpfulness for Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Verrill, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate effect of low-carbohydrate claims on consumer perceptions about food products' healthfulness and helpfulness for weight management. Design: Experiment in which participants were randomly assigned 1 of 12 front-of-package claim conditions on bread or a frozen dinner. Seven of the 12 conditions also included Nutrition Facts (NF)…

  18. Good for your health? An analysis of the requirements for scientific substantiation in European health claims regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Todt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the various types of evidence, as well as their relative importance in European health claims regulation, in order to analyze the consequences for consumer protection of the requirements for scientific substantiation in this regulation. Materials and methods. Qualitative analysis of various documents relevant to the regulatory process, particularly as to the implications of the standards of proof for the functional food market, as well as consumer behavior. Results. European regulation defines a hierarchy of evidence that turns randomized controlled trials into a necessary and sufficient condition for health claim autho- rizations. Conclusions. Consumer protection can be interpreted in different manners. High standards of proof protect consumers from false information about the health outcomes of functional foods, while lower standards lead to more, albeit less accurate information about such outcomes being available to consumers.

  19. Do Health Claims and Front-of-Pack Labels Lead to a Positivity Bias in Unhealthy Foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Zenobia; Pettigrew, Simone; Dixon, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Ball, Kylie; Hughes, Clare

    2016-12-02

    Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies, corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts) that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim) and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), and the Health Star Rating (HSR)). Positivity bias was assessed via measures of perceived healthiness, global evaluations (incorporating taste, quality, convenience, etc.) and willingness to buy. On the whole, health claims did not produce a positivity bias, while FoPLs did, with the DIG being the most likely to elicit this bias. The HSR most frequently led to lower ratings of unhealthy foods than the DIG and MTL, suggesting that this FoPL has the lowest risk of creating an inaccurate positivity bias in unhealthy foods.

  20. Nutrition issues in Codex: health claims, nutrient reference values and WTO agreements: a conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J; Hathcock, John; Jukes, David; Richardson, David P; Calder, Philip C; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike; Nicklas, Theresa; Mühlebach, Stefan; Kwon, Oran; Lewis, Janine; Lugard, Maurits J F; Prock, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Codex documents may be used as educational and consensus materials for member governments. Also, the WTO SPS Agreement recognizes Codex as the presumptive international authority on food issues. Nutrient bioavailability is a critical factor in determining the ability of nutrients to provide beneficial effects. Bioavailability also influences the quantitative dietary requirements that are the basis of nutrient intake recommendations and NRVs. Codex, EFSA and some national regulatory authorities have established guidelines or regulations that will permit several types of health claims. The scientific basis for claims has been established by the US FDA and EFSA, but not yet by Codex. Evidence-based nutrition differs from evidence-based medicine, but the differences are only recently gaining recognition. Health claims on foods may provide useful information to consumers, but many will interpret the information to mean that they can rely upon the food or nutrient to eliminate a disease risk. NRVs are designed to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the nutritive values of foods, helping to illustrate how specific foods fit into the overall diet. The INL-98 and the mean of adult male and female values provide NRVs that are sufficient when used as targets for individual intakes by most adults. WTO recognizes Codex as the primary international authority on food issues. Current regulatory schemes based on recommended dietary allowances are trade restrictive. A substantial number of decisions by the EFSA could lead to violation of WTO agreements.

  1. Health claims and other health-related statements in the labeling and advertising of alcohol beverages (99R-199P). Final rule, Treasury decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-03

    TTB is amending the regulations to prohibit the appearance on labels or in advertisements of any health-related statement, including a specific health claim, that is untrue in any particular or tends to create a misleading impression. A specific health claim on a label or in an advertisement is considered misleading unless the claim is truthful and adequately substantiated by scientific evidence; properly detailed and qualified with respect to the categories of individuals to whom the claim applies; adequately discloses the health risks associated with both moderate and heavier levels of alcohol consumption; and outlines the categories of individuals for whom any levels of alcohol consumption may cause health risks. In addition, TTB will consult with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as needed, on the use of specific health claims on labels. If FDA determines that a specific health claim is a drug claim that is not in compliance with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, TTB will not approve the use of such statement on a label. Health-related statements that are not specific health claims or health-related directional statements will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if they tend to mislead consumers. The final rule provides that health-related directional statements (statements that direct or refer consumers to a third party or other source for information regarding the effects on health of alcohol consumption) will be presumed misleading unless those statements include a brief disclaimer advising consumers that the statement should not encourage consumption of alcohol for health reasons, or some other appropriate disclaimer to avoid misleading consumers. TTB believes that the final regulations will ensure that labels and advertisements do not contain statements or claims that would tend to mislead the consumer about the significant health consequences of alcohol consumption.

  2. Putting the whole grain puzzle together: health benefits associated with whole grains--summary of American Society for Nutrition 2010 Satellite Symposium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Harnack, Lisa; Liu, Rui Hai; McKeown, Nicola; Seal, Chris; Liu, Simin; Fahey, George C

    2011-01-01

    The symposium "Putting the Whole Grain Puzzle Together: Health Benefits Associated with Whole Grains" sponsored by the ASN brought together researchers to review the evidence regarding the health benefits associated with whole grains...

  3. Applying the FDA definition of whole grains to the evidence for cardiovascular disease health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moura, Fabiana F; Lewis, Kara D; Falk, Michael C

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. FDA defines whole grains as consisting of the intact, ground, cracked, or flaked fruit of the grains whose principal components, the starchy endosperm, germ, and bran, are present in the same relative proportions as they exist in the intact grain. We evaluated the effect of applying the FDA definition of whole grains to the strength of scientific evidence in support of claims for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We concluded that using the FDA definition for whole grains as a selection criterion is limiting, because the majority of existing studies often use a broader meaning to define whole grains. When considering only whole grain studies that met the FDA definition, we found insufficient scientific evidence to support a claim that whole grain intake reduces the risk of CVD. However, a whole grain and reduced risk of CVD health claim is supported when using a broader concept of whole grain to include studies that considered intake of fiber-rich bran and germ as well as whole grain. This type of analysis is complicated by diversity in nutrients and bioactive components among different types of whole grains.

  4. PUTTING A BAND-AID ON A CORPSE: INCENTIVES FOR NURSES IN THE INDIAN PUBLIC HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit V.; Glennerster, Rachel; Duflo, Esther

    2009-01-01

    The public Indian health care system is plagued by high staff absence, low effort by providers, and limited use by potential beneficiaries who prefer private alternatives. This artice reports the results of an experiment carried out with a district administration and a nongovernmental organization (NGO). The presence of government nurses in government public health facilities (subcenters and aid-posts) was recorded by the NGO, and the government took steps to punish the worst delinquents. Initially, the monitoring system was extremely effective. This shows that nurses are responsive to financial incentives. But after a few months, the local health administration appears to have undermined the scheme from the inside by letting the nurses claim an increasing number of “exempt days.” Eighteen months after its inception, the program had become completely ineffective. PMID:20182650

  5. Kickbacks, self-referrals, and false claims: the hazy boundaries of health-care fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    The fraud and abuse laws that govern conduct related to the federal health-care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, impose broad and complex limitations on billing practices and financial relationships among providers. Given the potential consequences of engaging in fraudulent behavior, it is crucial that physicians appreciate the types of activities that may run afoul of these laws. This article summarizes the major aspects of the fraud laws that are most likely to have a daily impact on physician practice: the Civil False Claims Act, the Medicare and Medicaid Anti-Kickback Statute, and the so-called Stark Law prohibition on physician self-referrals.

  6. Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2014-11-01

    A number of individuals and organizations have considerable influence over the selection of global health priorities and strategies. For some that influence derives from control over financial resources. For others it comes from expertise and claims to moral authority-what can be termed, respectively, epistemic and normative power. In contrast to financial power, we commonly take for granted that epistemic and normative forms of power are legitimate. I argue that we should not; rather we should investigate the origins of these forms of power, and consider under what circumstances they are justly derived.

  7. Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Shiffman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of individuals and organizations have considerable influence over the selection of global health priorities and strategies. For some that influence derives from control over financial resources. For others it comes from expertise and claims to moral authority—what can be termed, respectively, epistemic and normative power. In contrast to financial power, we commonly take for granted that epistemic and normative forms of power are legitimate. I argue that we should not; rather we should investigate the origins of these forms of power, and consider under what circumstances they are justly derived.

  8. Functional Foods Examined: The Health Claims Being Made for Food Products and the Need for Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This report examines food products which claim, or imply, that they possess a health or\\ud nutritional benefit to the consumer. These include the recently-promoted ‘functional’ foods —\\ud such as those with added bacterial cultures, fish oils or soluble polysaccharides supposedly of\\ud benefit to the eater — as well as foods which have for some time been promoting themselves as\\ud having the benefit of added nutrients or being a rich source of certain nutrients.\\ud That a food product should ...

  9. Putting the Assessment into Practice: Applications of Climate and Health Data and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, J. M.; Morris, J.; Luber, G.

    2016-12-01

    The USGCRP Climate and Health Assessment represents the most up to date synthesis of the scientific literature on the health impacts of climate change in the United States. One of its key messages is that climate change is already affecting the health of people in the United States and around the world, and these impacts are likely to become more extensive over time. Another key message is that all Americans have some degree of vulnerability to the health impacts of climate change at some point in their lives. Conclusions as significant as those call for measures to translate current knowledge into specific actions to protect populations and enhance resilience to the health impacts of climate change. This presentation will summarize efforts underway across the federal government to apply research results and climate and health data to enhancing the resilience of populations. These efforts include the development of early warning systems and other applications of predictive models of weather and climate-related health hazards; partnerships with health professional societies to help translate the assessment's findings into specific recommendations for health professionals; and the development of educational materials to help enhance the resilience of students and their families by enhancing their understanding of the connections between climate, climate change and health.

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin and oral health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) has been asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to draft guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin, and oral health. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions...... of the NDA Panel on such health claims. Thus, this guidance document represents the views of the NDA Panel based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims in these areas. It is not intended that the document should include an exhaustive list of beneficial effects and studies...

  11. Putting the "M" back in the Maternal and Child Health Bureau: reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Michael C; Highsmith, Keisher; de la Cruz, David; Atrash, Hani K

    2015-07-01

    Maternal mortality and severe morbidity are on the rise in the United States. A significant proportion of these events are preventable. The Maternal Health Initiative (MHI), coordinated by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau at the Health Resources and Services Administration, is intensifying efforts to reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in the U.S. Through a public-private partnership, MHI is taking a comprehensive approach to improving maternal health focusing on five priority areas: improving women's health before, during and beyond pregnancy; improving the quality and safety of maternity care; improving systems of maternity care including both clinical and public health systems; improving public awareness and education; and improving surveillance and research.

  12. Spurious claims for health-care products: an experimental approach to evaluating current UK legislation and its implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Leslie B; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The lay media, and especially the Internet, contain many misleading claims for health products which have previously been inadequately regulated by consumer law. This was an experimental interventional survey within a consumer health-care setting. Three health products were chosen on the basis of being widely available on the UK market and having no available evidence of effectiveness. Twelve volunteers submitted 39 complaints to Consumer Direct (UK portal for the regulator Trading Standards) regarding false health claims, and 36 complaints were followed up for a maximum of 4.8 months. The mean time from submission of complaints to Consumer Direct to acknowledgement by the relevant Trading Standards office was 13 days. There were no responses from Trading Standards for 22% of complaints. At the end of the study one supplier had amended their website following Trading Standards advice, but did not stop all health claims. Another stopped advertising their product on the Internet and the third continued the health claims unchanged. EU directive 2005/29/EC is largely ineffective in preventing misleading health claims for consumer products in the UK.

  13. Administrative "health courts" for medical injury claims: the federal constitutional issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, E Donald; Narayan, Sanjay A; Nasmith, Moneen S

    2008-08-01

    Our article analyzes whether the federal government may constitutionally supplant a traditional system of common-law trials before state judges and juries with new federal institutions designed by statute for compensating victims of medical injuries. Specifically, this article examines the federal constitutional issues raised by various proposals to replace traditional medical malpractice litigation in state courts with a federal system of administrative "health courts." In doing so, we address the following constitutional issues: 1. Is there federal authority to preempt state law (the commerce clause and spending clause issues)? 2. May jurisdiction be created in non-article 3 tribunals, and may claims be decided without trial by jury (the separation of powers and Seventh Amendment issues)? 3. Would pilot programs that require some claims to be pursued in a federal administrative forum while other claimants are left to pursue traditional state tort law remedies be constitutional (the equal protection issue)? The article concludes that a federal compensation system through administrative health courts should be constitutional provided the statute is appropriately drafted and that appropriate factual findings are made concerning the benefits to patients and the public as well as to doctors and their insurers.

  14. Putting your money where your mouth is: parents' valuation of good oral health of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaire, J H; van Exel, N J A; van Loveren, C; Brouwer, W B F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the parental willingness to invest in good oral health for their child in terms of money and time and to relate this to oral health related knowledge and behavioral aspects. 290 parents of 6-year-old children, participating in a RCT on caries preventive strategies in The Netherlands were asked to provide information on education, oral health habits, dietary habits, knowledge on dental topics, willingness to pay and perceived resistance against investing in preventive oral health actions for their children. Despite the fact that parents overall valued oral health for their child highly, still 12% of the parents were unwilling to spend any money, nor to invest any time by brushing their children's teeth to maintain good oral health for their child. Additionally, they indicated that they were unwilling to visit the dentist for preventive measures more than once a year. These children may certainly be considered at higher risk of developing oral diseases because worse oral hygiene habits and dietary habits were found in this group. Given the results, it may be necessary to differentiate in allocating caries prevention programmes to target parents or (school-based) children directly.

  15. Putting people first: A primary health care success in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlassoff Carol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Report, 2008, contains a global review of primary health care on the 30th anniversary of the Declaration of Alma-Ata. The period covered by the study reported on here corresponds with that of the Report, allowing for a comparison of achievements and challenges in one primary health care centre vis-a-vis the WHO standards. Materials and Methods: This study uses qualitative and quantitative data from a rural primary care facility in Western Maharashtra, collected over three decades. It analyzes the four groups of reforms defined by WHO in the context of the achievements and challenges of the study facility. Results: According to the WHO Report, health systems in developing countries have not responded adequately to people′s needs. However, our in-depth observations revealed substantial progress in several areas, including in family planning, safe deliveries, immunization and health promotion. Satisfaction with services in the study area was high. Conclusion: Adequate primary health care is possible, even when all recommended WHO reforms are not fully in place.

  16. Health Care Service Utilization of Dementia Patients before and after Institutionalization: A Claims Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Hao, Yi; Holle, Rolf; Graessel, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based and institutional dementia care has been compared in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal information on the effect of institutionalization on health care service utilization is sparse. Methods We analyzed claims data from 651 dementia patients via Generalized Estimation Equations to assess health care service utilization profiles and corresponding expenditures from four quarters before to four quarters after institutionalization. Results In all domains, utilization increased in the quarter of institutionalization. Afterwards, the use of drugs, medical aids, and non-physician services (e.g., occupational therapy and physiotherapy) remained elevated, but use of in- and outpatient treatment decreased. Cost of care showed corresponding profiles. Conclusion Institutional dementia care seems to be associated with an increased demand for supportive services but not necessarily for specialized medical care. PMID:25337076

  17. Health Care Service Utilization of Dementia Patients before and after Institutionalization: A Claims Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Schwarzkopf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based and institutional dementia care has been compared in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal information on the effect of institutionalization on health care service utilization is sparse. Methods: We analyzed claims data from 651 dementia patients via Generalized Estimation Equations to assess health care service utilization profiles and corresponding expenditures from four quarters before to four quarters after institutionalization. Results: In all domains, utilization increased in the quarter of institutionalization. Afterwards, the use of drugs, medical aids, and non-physician services (e.g., occupational therapy and physiotherapy remained elevated, but use of in- and outpatient treatment decreased. Cost of care showed corresponding profiles. Conclusion: Institutional dementia care seems to be associated with an increased demand for supportive services but not necessarily for specialized medical care.

  18. Using "big data" to capture overall health status: properties and predictive value of a claims-based health risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Modrek, Sepideh; Kubo, Jessica; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual's overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of "big data," researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such "health risk score," the DxCG Intelligence tool. We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996-2011 (N = 14,161). We examine the risk score's association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score's association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury. We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers.

  19. Using "big data" to capture overall health status: properties and predictive value of a claims-based health risk score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hamad

    Full Text Available Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual's overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of "big data," researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such "health risk score," the DxCG Intelligence tool.We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996-2011 (N = 14,161. We examine the risk score's association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score's association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury.We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers.

  20. Driving a more effective health care market by putting consumers behind the wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, T R

    2001-01-01

    In any other rational market, the consumer drives demand, and the provider responds with products and services aimed at meeting individual needs. This rational market does not exist in today's group health care system. The ramifications are significant: declining consumer and provider satisfaction, out-of-control costs, a rising uninsured population, and growing employer burdens. Turning this chaotic world around requires a more active and informed consumer. Transformation is under way with solutions like Sageo, a new e-business from Hewitt Associates that is revolutionizing the way health care benefits are offered, selected, and administered. For companies that offer Sageo's services, their employees and retirees gain direct access to health care coverage and content, enabling them to research, select, and enroll in the appropriate package based on their individual needs.

  1. Put the Family Back in Family Health History: A Multiple-Informant Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jielu; Marcum, Christopher S; Myers, Melanie F; Koehly, Laura M

    2017-05-01

    An accurate family health history is essential for individual risk assessment. This study uses a multiple-informant approach to examine whether family members have consistent perceptions of shared familial risk for four common chronic conditions (heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension) and whether accounting for inconsistency in family health history reports leads to more accurate risk assessment. In 2012-2013, individual and family health histories were collected from 127 adult informants of 45 families in the Greater Cincinnati Area. Pedigrees were linked within each family to assess inter-informant (in)consistency regarding common biological family member's health history. An adjusted risk assessment based on pooled pedigrees of multiple informants was evaluated to determine whether it could more accurately identify individuals affected by common chronic conditions, using self-reported disease diagnoses as a validation criterion. Analysis was completed in 2015-2016. Inter-informant consistency in family health history reports was 54% for heart disease, 61% for Type 2 diabetes, 43% for high cholesterol, and 41% for hypertension. Compared with the unadjusted risk assessment, the adjusted risk assessment correctly identified an additional 7%-13% of the individuals who had been diagnosed, with a ≤2% increase in cases that were predicted to be at risk but had not been diagnosed. Considerable inconsistency exists in individual knowledge of their family health history. Accounting for such inconsistency can, nevertheless, lead to a more accurate genetic risk assessment tool. A multiple-informant approach is potentially powerful when coupled with technology to support clinical decisions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Putting health metrics into practice: using the disability-adjusted life year for strategic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfield, Kim; Smith, Brian; Gray, Rob; Ngamkitpaiboon, Lek; Vielot, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Implementing organizations are pressured to be accountable for performance. Many health impact metrics present limitations for priority setting; they do not permit comparisons across different interventions or health areas. In response, Population Services International (PSI) adopted the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted as its bottom-line performance metric. While international standards exist for calculating DALYs to determine burden of disease (BOD), PSI's use of DALYs averted is novel. It uses DALYs averted to assess and compare the health impact of its country programs, and to understand the effectiveness of a portfolio of interventions. This paper describes how the adoption of DALYs averted influenced organizational strategy and presents the advantages and constraints of using the metric. Health impact data from 2001-2011 were analyzed by program area and geographic region to measure PSI's performance against its goal of doubling health impact between 2007-2011. Analyzing 10 years of data permitted comparison with previous years' performance. A case study of PSI's Asia and Eastern European (A/EE) region, and PSI/Laos, is presented to illustrate how the adoption of DALYs averted affected strategic decision making. Between 2007-2011, PSI's programs doubled the total number of DALYs averted from 2002-2006. Most DALYs averted were within malaria, followed by HIV/AIDS and family planning (FP). The performance of PSI's A/EE region relative to other regions declined with the switch to DALYs averted. As a result, the region made a strategic shift to align its work with countries' BOD. In PSI/Laos, this redirection led to better-targeted programs and an approximate 50% gain in DALYs averted from 2009-2011. PSI's adoption of DALYs averted shifted the organization's strategic direction away from product sales and toward BOD. Now, many strategic decisions are based on "BOD-relevance," the share of the BOD that interventions can potentially address. This switch

  3. Consumers' attitudes, knowledge and consumption of products with nutrition and health claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the selected results of consumers' study of food products in Serbia. It focuses on the products with nutrition and health claims (NHCs and the analysis of the main consumers' characteristics which influence their awareness and knowledge about NHCs, their attitudes toward products with NHC and their purchase intentions. Different socio-demographic factors that influence consumers' behavior were investigated. Education, gender, age and income of the respondents are the key factors which influence awareness, knowledge and consumption. As those products are closely related to consumers' health, we presented the results based on the differences in health status of the respondents. Main findings show that the respondents with health problems do not consume those products as often as others, which is the outcome of a low level of nutrition knowledge. This represents a major restraining factor for the increase in consumption. After identifying the characteristics of demand, we have suggested some proposals for managers, aimed at overcoming the identified problems, and for government institutions so as to obtain a proactive approach to improving the overall health of the population.

  4. A proposed framework for an appropriate evaluation scheme for microorganisms as novel foods with a health claim in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Sylvie; Beaumont, Martin; Martín, Rebeca; Langella, Philippe; Braesco, Véronique; Thomas, Muriel

    2015-04-09

    This paper concerns the procedure and the scientific approach to obtain market authorization for a microorganism to be recognized as a novel food with a health claim. Microorganisms that have not been traditionally used during food production in Europe prior to 1997 are considered as novel foods, which should undergo an in-depth characterization and safety assessment before being authorized on the European market. If a novel food bacterium is claimed to provide a beneficial effect on health, these claims must also be investigated before they can be authorized. Some requirements to obtain novel food certification are shared with those required to obtain a health claim. Although regulation exists that deals with these issues for foods in general, bacteria in food raise a specific set of questions that are only minimally addressed in official documentation. We propose a framework and suggest a list of criteria that should be assessed to obtain marketing authorization and health claim for a bacterium in accordance with European health policy.

  5. Putting chronic disease on the map: building GIS capacity in state and local health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Casper, Michele; Tootoo, Joshua; Schieb, Linda

    2013-06-20

    Techniques based on geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely adopted and applied in the fields of infectious disease and environmental epidemiology; their use in chronic disease programs is relatively new. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention is collaborating with the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors and the University of Michigan to provide health departments with capacity to integrate GIS into daily operations, which support priorities for surveillance and prevention of chronic diseases. So far, 19 state and 7 local health departments participated in this project. On the basis of these participants' experiences, we describe our training strategy and identify high-impact GIS skills that can be mastered and applied over a short time in support of chronic disease surveillance. We also describe the web-based resources in the Chronic Disease GIS Exchange that were produced on the basis of this training and are available to anyone interested in GIS and chronic disease (www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/maps/GISX). GIS offers diverse sets of tools that promise increased productivity for chronic disease staff of state and local health departments.

  6. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... March 16, 2009: (1) Retail pharmacy drugs claims. The National Council for Prescription Drug Programs...) Retail pharmacy drug claims. The Telecommunication Standard Implementation Guide, Version D, Release 0... paragraph (a) of this section; and (ii) For retail pharmacy supplies and professional services claims, the...

  7. Nutrition Claims Influence Health Perceptions and Taste Preferences in Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldavini, Jessica; Crawford, Patricia; Ritchie, Lorrene D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether children perceive food with nutrition claims as healthier and tasting differently than those without claims. Methods: Fourth- and fifth-graders (n = 47) from 3 California schools participated. Two identical products (cookies, crackers, or juice) were placed in front of product packages, 1 with a nutrition claim, the…

  8. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  9. Concordance between patient self-reports and claims data on clinical diagnoses, medication use, and health system utilization in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shin Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance between claims records in the National Health Insurance Research Database and patient self-reports on clinical diagnoses, medication use, and health system utilization. METHODS: In this study, we used the data of 15,574 participants collected from the 2005 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. We assessed positive agreement, negative agreement, and Cohen's kappa statistics to examine the concordance between claims records and patient self-reports. RESULTS: Kappa values were 0.43, 0.64, and 0.61 for clinical diagnoses, medication use, and health system utilization, respectively. Using a strict algorithm to identify the clinical diagnoses recorded in claims records could improve the negative agreement; however, the effect on positive agreement and kappa was diverse across various conditions. CONCLUSION: We found that the overall concordance between claims records in the National Health Insurance Research Database and patient self-reports in the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey was moderate for clinical diagnosis and substantial for both medication use and health system utilization.

  10. Vaccination coverage among children in Germany estimated by analysis of health insurance claims data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Thorsten; Feig, Marcel; Eckmanns, Tim; Benzler, Justus; Siedler, Anette; Wichmann, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, the national routine childhood immunization schedule comprises 12 vaccinations. Primary immunizations should be completed by 24 mo of age. However, nationwide monitoring of vaccination coverage (VC) is performed only at school entry. We utilized health insurance claims data covering ~85% of the total population with the objectives to (1) assess VC of all recommended childhood vaccinations in birth-cohorts 2004–2009, (2) analyze cross-sectional (at 24 and 36 mo) and longitudinal trends, and (3) validate the method internally and externally. Counting vaccine doses in a retrospective cohort fashion, we assembled individual vaccination histories and summarized VC to nationwide figures. For most long-established vaccinations, VC at 24 mo was at moderate levels (~73–80%) and increased slightly across birth-cohorts. One dose measles VC was high (94%), but low (69%) for the second dose. VC with a full course of recently introduced varicella, pneumococcal, and meningococcal C vaccines increased across birth-cohorts from below 10% above 60%, 70%, and 80%, respectively. At 36 mo, VC had increased further by up to 15 percentage points depending on vaccination. Longitudinal analysis suggested a continued VC increase until school entry. Validation of VC figures with primary data showed an overall good agreement. In conclusion, analysis of health insurance claims data allows for the estimation of VC among children in Germany considering completeness and timeliness of vaccination series. This approach provides valid nationwide VC figures for all currently recommended pediatric vaccinations and fills the information gap between early infancy and late assessment at school entry. PMID:24192604

  11. Scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of an application for authorisation of a health claim (revision 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    ), or for the modification of an existing authorisation in accordance with Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. This guidance outlines: the information and scientific data which must be included in the application, the hierarchy of different types of data and study designs...... (reflecting the relative strength of evidence which may be obtained from different types of studies) and the key issues which should be addressed in the application to substantiate the health claim. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011....

  12. Power in global health agenda-setting: the role of private funding Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ruth E

    2015-03-04

    The editorial by Jeremy Shiffman, "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health", highlights the influence on global health priority-setting of individuals and organizations that do not have a formal political mandate. This sheds light on the way key functions in global health depend on private funding, particularly from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  13. Development of an algorithm for identifying rheumatoid arthritis in the Korean National Health Insurance claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Kwon, Jeong-Mi; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to develop an identification algorithm for validating the International Classification of Diseases-Tenth diagnostic codes for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database. An individual copayment beneficiaries program for rare and intractable diseases, including seropositive RA (M05), began in South Korea in July 2009. Patients registered in this system pay only 10 % of their total medical costs, but registration requires an official report from a doctor documenting that the patient fulfills the 1987 ACR criteria. We regarded patients registered in this system as gold standard RA and examined the validity of several algorithms to define RA diagnosis using diagnostic codes and prescription data. We constructed nine algorithms using two highly specific prescriptions (positive predictive value >90 % and specificity >90 %) and one prescription with high sensitivity (>80 %) and accuracy (>75 %). A total of 59,823 RA patients were included in this validation study. Among them, 50,082 (83.7 %) were registered in the individual copayment beneficiaries program and considered true RA. We tested nine algorithms that incorporated two specific regimens [biologics and leflunomide alone, methotrexate plus leflunomide, or more than 3 disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)] and one sensitive drug (any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), any DMARD, or any NSAID plus any DMARD). The algorithm that included biologics, more than 3 DMARDs, and any DMARD yielded the highest accuracy (91.4 %). Patients with RA diagnostic codes with prescription of biologics or any DMARD can be considered as accurate cases of RA in Korean NHI claims database.

  14. Claim Your Space: Leadership Development as a Research Capacity Building Goal in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha; Zizi, Freddy; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2017-01-01

    As the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) rises in settings with an equally high burden of infectious diseases in the Global South, a new sense of urgency has developed around research capacity building to promote more effective and sustainable public health and health care systems. In 2010, NCDs accounted for more than 2.06 million deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Available evidence suggests that the number of people in sub-Saharan Africa with hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, will increase by 68% from 75 million in 2008 to 126 million in 2025. Furthermore, about 27.5 million people currently live with diabetes in Africa, and it is estimated that 49.7 million people living with diabetes will reside in Africa by 2030. It is therefore necessary to centralize leadership as a key aspect of research capacity building and strengthening in the Global South in ways that enables researchers to claim their spaces in their own locations. We believe that building capacity for transformative leadership in research will lead to the development of effective and appropriate responses to the multiple burdens of NCDs that coexist with infectious diseases in Africa and the rest of the Global South. PMID:27037144

  15. The interplay of health claims and taste importance on food consumption and self-reported satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Morwitz, Vicki; Chandon, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that subtle health claims used by food marketers influence pre-intake expectations, but no study has examined how they influence individuals' post-consumption experience of satiety after a complete meal and how this varies according to the value placed on food taste. In two experiments, we assess how labeling a pasta salad as "healthy" or "hearty" influences self-reported satiety, consumption volume, and subsequent consumption of another food. Using MANOVA, Study 1 shows that individuals who report low taste importance consume less-yet feel just as satiated-when a salad is labeled "hearty" rather than "healthy." In contrast, for individuals with higher taste importance, consumption and self-reported satiety are correlated and are both higher when a salad is labeled as "hearty" versus "healthy." Study 2 primes taste importance, rather than measuring it, and replicates these findings for consumption, but not for self-reported satiety. There was no effect on the consumption of other foods in either study. Overall, our findings add to earlier work on the impact of health labels by showing that subtle food descriptions also influence post-intake experiences of satiety, but that the direction of the effects depends on taste importance and on the selection of direct or indirect measures of satiety.

  16. Consumers' Views Regarding Health Claims on Food Packages. Contextual Analysis by Means of Computer Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gunilla Svederberg

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown consumers to generally have only a limited understanding of the nutritional information on packaged-food labels. This suggests it is difficult for them to select properly between different foods on the basis of such information. As a basis for information on the requirements of groups of consumers, the present study aimed at investigating how, when presented with health claims and other nutritional information on the labels of food products, consumers' thinking about foods is affected by various background factors as well as by various types of food-related experiences. Semi-structured interviews of 30 consumers in Sweden—men and women aged 25 to 64, with and without food-related health problems—were carried out. The interviews were tape-recorded and were transcribed word-for-word. In the analysis of the interview data, the qualitative methodology of contextual analysis was utilised. For the purpose of method development, the computer programme Atlas.ti was used to support the analysis. The objective of this article is to show step by step how the analysis was carried out. In connection with the analysis, some results are presented. However, the focus in the article is on methodology. The conclusion drawn is that Atlas.ti has qualities that can facilitate the contextual analysis of the interview data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201109

  17. Consumers’ perception of symbols and health claims as health-related label messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrillo, E.; Fiszman, S.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    The package is the first contact between the food and the consumer and an excellent vehicle for communication with the consumer. Visual cues (symbols) on the package can be used to communicate health-related information. Although EU legislation provides for the use of symbols, there could be a st...

  18. 76 FR 49707 - Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease; Reopening of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... reconsider its proposed amendments to the phytosterols and risk of coronary heart disease health ] claim. The... December 8, 2010, proposing to amend regulations on plant sterol/ stanol esters and risk of coronary heart...

  19. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espehaug, Birgitte; Guttersrud, Øystein; Flottorp, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents’ abilities in critically appraising health claims. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents’ critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students’ knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to assess the certainty of the evidence. Results Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low. Conclusion Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant

  20. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  1. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  2. The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour: Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, S; Kuljanic, N; Wills, J M; Pravst, I; Kaur, A; Raats, M M; van Trijp, H C M; Verbeke, W; Grunert, K G

    2015-03-01

    Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. The objective of the European Union-funded project Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour (CLYMBOL) is to determine how health-related information provided through claims and symbols, in their context, can affect consumer understanding, purchase and consumption. To do this, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods are being used, including product sampling, sorting studies (i.e. how consumers categorise claims and symbols according to concepts such as familiarity and relevance), cross-country surveys, eye-tracking (i.e. what consumers look at and for how long), laboratory and in-store experiments, structured interviews, as well as analysis of population panel data. EU Member States differ with regard to their history of use and regulation of health claims and symbols prior to the harmonisation of 2006. Findings to date indicate the need for more structured and harmonised research on the effects of health claims and symbols on consumer behaviour, particularly taking into account country-wide differences and individual characteristics such as motivation and ability to process health-related information. Based on the studies within CLYMBOL, implications and recommendations for stakeholders such as policymakers will be provided.

  3. Perception and understanding of health claims on milk powder for children: A focus group study among mothers in Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Kuznesof, Sharron A; Seal, Chris J

    2016-10-01

    Health claim regulations and guidelines on food products have been established in some Southeast Asia (SEA) countries. Health claims on food products aim to help consumers make informed food choices to achieve a healthy diet. This study aimed to investigate the perception and understanding of health claims and the associated regulatory frameworks of SEA mothers using semi-structured focus groups conducted in Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand. Milk powder for children for three years and above was used as product focus. The mothers recognised and recalled some specific nutrients and food constituents by name but lacked full understanding of their function. The findings indicated that the mothers in all three countries trusted health claims made on the products which was, in part, explained by their trust in their governments and the international brand manufacturers. Their understanding of health claims was influenced by several factors such as their familiarity of the nutrient, previous knowledge of the nutrients, the perceived relevance of the nutrient, the use of scientific terms, the choice of words, and also the phrasing and length of the claims. Consumer education efforts via Public, Private Partnerships could be an approach to educate SEA consumers and help them to better understand health claims. The findings of this study may be relevant to different stakeholders such as local regulatory bodies, policy makers, food industry, academia and non-profit organisations that aim to effectively communicate health claims.

  4. The treatment patterns, efficacy, and safety of nab (®)-paclitaxel for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in the United States: results from health insurance claims analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Caihua; Li, Ling; Fraser, Cindy Duval; Ko, Amy; Corzo, Deyanira; Enger, Cheryl; Patt, Debra

    2015-01-01

    ...). This analysis was designed to characterize the treatment patterns, efficacy, and safety of nab-paclitaxel for MBC treatment using health claims data from US health plans associated with Optum. Women aged...

  5. PS2-15: Coding for Obesity in a Health Plan Claims Database

    OpenAIRE

    Shainline, Michael; Carter, Shelley; Von Worley, Ann; Gunter, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: The Centers for Disease Control estimated the obesity rate in New Mexico for 2008 to be 25.2%. Sources estimate the following associations between obesity and type 2 diabetes (80%); cardiovascular disease (70%); hypertension (26 %). Yet obesity is infrequently coded as a secondary diagnosis among providers submitting claims. This study examines the frequency with which obesity is documented on claims forms, the relationship between age, gender, and obesity coding, and the...

  6. Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group (GMIHRG): Mobilizing Allied Health Students and Community Partners to Put Data into Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Adrienne D; Spelke, Bridget; Julian, Zoë; Pinto, Meredith; Rochat, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Despite having an obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) workforce comparable to the national average, Georgia is ranked 50th in maternal mortality and 40th in infant mortality. The Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group (GMIHRG) was founded in 2010 to evaluate and address this paradox. Description In the several years since GMIHRG's inception, its graduate allied health student researchers and advisors have collaborated with community partners to complete several requisite research initiatives. Their initial work demonstrated that over half the Georgia areas outside metropolitan Atlanta lack adequate access to obstetric services, and their subsequent research evaluated the reasons for and the consequences of this maldistribution of obstetric providers. Assessment In order to translate their workforce and outcomes data for use in policymaking and programming, GMIHRG created reader-friendly reports for distribution to a wide variety of stakeholders and prepared concise, compelling presentations with targeted recommendations for change. This commitment to advocacy ultimately enabled them to: (a) inspire the Georgia Study Committees on Medicaid Reform and Medical Education, (b) influence Georgia General Assembly abortion bills, medical scholarship/loan legislation, and appropriations, and (c) motivate programming initiatives to improve midwifery education and perinatal regionalization in Georgia. Conclusion GMIHRG members have employed inventive research methods and maximized collaborative partnerships to enable their data on Georgia's maternal and infant outcomes and obstetric workforce to effectively inform state organizations and policymakers. With this unique approach, GMIHRG serves as a cost-efficient and valuable model for student engagement in the translation of research into advocacy efforts, policy change, and innovative programming.

  7. The contribution of bone scintigraphy in occupational health or medical insurance claims: a retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R.A.; Bondt, P. de [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Gent (Belgium); Dierckx, I. [Department of Radiology, St. Elisabeth Hospital Antwerpen (Belgium); Lambrecht, L. [Outpatient Internal Medicine Clinic, Gent (Belgium); Sadeleer, C. de [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Gent (Belgium)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, O.L.V. Hospital Geraardsbergen (Belgium)

    1999-08-01

    Patients with a suspicion of bone damage following an industrial or traffic accident are often referred for bone scintigraphy as part of an occupational health or medical insurance investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution and the potential role of bone scintigraphy compared with X-ray investigations in the aforementioned situation. To this end we evaluated 70 consecutive patients referred for bone scintigraphy during 1996 and 1997 by occupational health or medical insurance physicians. The most common reasons for referral were the exclusion of occult fractures of hands and feet, whiplash injuries, reflex sympathetic dystrophy or avascular necrosis, or the differentiation between an old and a recent vertebral fracture. X-rays were only available for comparative review of 53 patients, so only those were analysed. The results of bone scintigraphy were compared with X-rays, and their contribution and potential role in occupational health or medical insurance investigations assessed. In 31 out of the 53 patients investigated, bone scintigraphy findings concurred with X-rays as to the number and location of abnormalities. For 19 of the 53 patients, bone scintigraphy showed clinically relevant additional foci when compared with X-rays, predominantly involving lesions to hands/wrists and feet/ankles. Among these 19 patients, scintigraphic diagnoses were subsequently confirmed in ten cases by means of X-ray or computed tomography. In four patients, supplementary radiological investigations revealed no abnormalities, and in five patients no further investigations were undertaken. Finally, in three of the 53 patients, X-rays revealed bone damage (burst fractures) whilst the corresponding bone scintigraphy was negative, thus excluding recent injury. In conclusion, in 22 patients, representing 42% of the cases analysed, bone scintigraphy was conclusive compared with X-ray imaging in the final diagnosis and in this way in detecting occult or excluding

  8. Hearing Impairment Affects Dementia Incidence. An Analysis Based on Longitudinal Health Claims Data in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Thomas; Teipel, Stefan; Óvári, Attila; Kilimann, Ingo; Witt, Gabriele; Doblhammer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed an association between hearing impairment and dementia. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence in a longitudinal study, and whether ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist care, care level, institutionalization, or depression mediates or moderates this pathway. The present study used a longitudinal sample of 154,783 persons aged 65 and older from claims data of the largest German health insurer; containing 14,602 incident dementia diagnoses between 2006 and 2010. Dementia and hearing impairment diagnoses were defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes. We used a Kaplan Meier estimator and performed Cox proportional hazard models to explore the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence, controlling for ENT specialist care, care level, institutionalization, and depression. Gender, age, and comorbidities were controlled for as potential confounders. Patients with bilateral (HR = 1.43, pdementia incidence than patients without hearing impairment. We found no significant effect for unilateral hearing impairment and other diseases of the ear. The effect of hearing impairment was only partly mediated through ENT specialist utilization. Significant interaction between hearing impairment and specialist care, care level, and institutionalization, respectively, indicated moderating effects. We discuss possible explanations for these effects. This study underlines the importance of the association between hearing impairment and dementia. Preserving hearing ability may maintain social participation and may reduce the burden associated with dementia. The particular impact of hearing aid use should be the subject of further investigations, as it offers potential intervention on the pathway to dementia.

  9. Characterization and stability studies of bioactive compounds and food matrices as evidence in support of health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferrero, Carolina; Sáiz-Abajo, María-José

    2015-07-01

    The characterization and stability evaluation of food and food constituents (chemical active ingredient/microorganism) for which nutrition or health claims want to be requested are essential for the success of an application to EFSA. This work reviews the requirements that must be fulfilled for a full characterization of the active substance, comprising origin, elaboration, or extraction method, and chemical/microbiological composition, using validated analytical methods. The review focuses not only on establishing the specifications of the final active ingredient or food but also on ensuring homogeneity between batches. In addition, the article discusses the methodologies and conditions of the stability studies that need to be performed on food and food constituents to verify that the relevant compounds--chemical and microbiological active ingredients--will get to the consumer in the intended state and concentration to accomplish the claimed health effect over shelf life.

  10. HEALTH INFO SANTE ANNUAL DEDUCTIBLE AND REIMBURSEMENT CLAIMS: HINTS FOR USE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Information from the CHIS Board and the Personnel DivisionOne should bear in mind that the annual deductible is an amount (currently CHF 100) charged automatically by the Administrator of the scheme for every adult aged 18 and above. This is what happens: The amount is deducted annually for all medical services received over a calendar year.It is triggered by the date of the treatment and not by the date of the bill nor that of the reimbursement claim.In other words, if you receive medical treatment in December for the first time in a given year, the CHF 100 will be deducted from the claim for that treatment. So, except for urgent cases, it would be better to wait till the following month, thus avoiding one annual deductible.It is also worth remembering that the cost of processing our reimbursement claims - and there were 55, 000 in 1998 - is part of the cost of our insurance.Help keep administrative costs down : do not submit reimbursement claims for amounts less than the annual deductible unless your claims...

  11. Nutrient Content Claims: How They Impact Perceived Healthfulness of Fortified Snack Foods and the Moderating Effects of Nutrition Facts Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Irina A; Nan, Xiaoli; Verrill, Linda

    2017-08-18

    Nutrient content claims (NCCs) may inflate perceived healthfulness of nutritionally poor foods. The aim of this study is to experimentally test the effects of NCCs on consumers' perceptions of fortified snack foods in terms of the presence of both healthful and less healthful nutrients, as well as their intentions to consume such products. It also explores the potential moderating effects of reading Nutrition Facts Labels (NFL) on the influence of NCCs. Data for this study were collected through a web-based experiment (N = 5,076). Results indicated that the presence of an NCC on a fortified snack food product increased perceived healthfulness of that product, perceptions of the presence of healthful nutrients, and intentions to consume the product. The presence of NCCs also decreased perceptions of the presence of certain less healthful nutrients. Reading the NFL had mixed effects on the impact of NCCs.

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to physical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to physical performance. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions of the NDA Panel on such health...... claims. Thus, this guidance document represents the views of the NDA Panel based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims in this area. It is not intended that the document should include an exhaustive list of beneficial effects and studies/outcome measures which...

  13. Resolving Malpractice Claims after Tort Reform: Experience in a Self-Insured Texas Public Academic Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M; Harding, Molly Colvard; Thomas, Eric J

    2016-12-01

    To describe the litigation experience in a state with strict tort reform of a large public university health system that has committed to transparency with patients and families in resolving medical errors. Secondary data collected from The University of Texas System, which self-insures approximately 6,000 physicians at six health campuses across the state. We obtained internal case management data for all medical malpractice claims closed during 1 year before and 6 recent years following the enactment of state tort reform legislation. We retrospectively reviewed information about malpractice claimants, malpractice claims, and the process and outcome of dispute resolution. We accessed an internal case management database, supplemented by both electronic and paper records compiled by the university's Office of General Counsel. Closed claims dropped from 244 in 2001-2002 to an annual mean of 96 in 2009-2015, closures following lawsuits from 136 in 2001-2002 to an annual mean of 28 in 2009-2015, and paid claims from 60 in 2001 to an annual mean of 20 in 2009-2015. Patterns of resolution suggest efforts by the university to provide some compensation to injured patients in cases that were no longer economically viable for plaintiffs' lawyers to litigate. The percentage of payments relating to cases in which lawsuits had been filed decreased from 82 percent in 2001-2002 to 47 percent in 2009-2012 and again to 29 percent in 2012-2015, although most paid claimants were represented by attorneys. Unrepresented patients received payment in 13 cases closed in 2009-2012 (22 percent of payments; mean amount $60,566) and in 24 cases closed in 2012-2015 (41 percent of payments; mean amount $109,410). Even after tort reform, however, claims that resulted in payment remained slow to resolve, which was worsened for claimants subject to Medicare secondary payer rules. Strict confidentiality became a more common condition of settlement, although restrictions were subsequently relaxed

  14. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... factors may affect the risk of cancer. Risk factors include a family history of a specific type of cancer, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity, ultraviolet or ionizing radiation,...

  15. 76 FR 9525 - Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Coronary Heart Disease AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Extension of enforcement... of coronary heart disease (CHD), in a manner that is consistent with FDA's February 14, 2003, letter... supplement products with claims regarding free phytosterols and heart disease that were marketed prior to...

  16. HEALTH INFO SANTÉ – REMINDER ANNUAL DEDUCTIBLE AND REIMBURSEMENT CLAIMS HINTS FOR USE

    CERN Multimedia

    CHIS Board

    2000-01-01

    Information from the CHIS Board and the Human Resources Division:Annual deductible and reimbursement claims: hints for useOne should bear in mind that the annual deductible is an amount (currently CHF 100) charged automatically by the Administrator of the scheme for every adult aged 18 and above. This is what happens: The amount is deducted annually for all medical services received over a calendar year.It is triggered by the date of the treatment and neither by the date of the bill nor that of the reimbursement claim.In other words, if you receive medical treatment in December for the first time in a given year, the CHF 100 will be deducted from the claim for that treatment. So, except for urgent cases, it would be better to wait till the following month, thus avoiding one annual deductible.It is also worth remembering that the cost of processing our reimbursement claims - and there were 54, 000 in 1999 - is part of the cost of our insurance.Help keep administrative costs down: do not submit reimbursement cl...

  17. Application of nutrient profiling in nutrition claims and health claims%营养素度量法在营养和健康声称中的应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婧; 张立实; 杨月欣

    2011-01-01

    随着膳食与健康关系研究的深入,食品的健康效应越来越受到重视,营养和健康声称作为向消费者提供食品健康效应的说明部分,成为政府、非政府组织、企业和消费者关注的热点.营养素度量法作为一个评价食品营养特性的方法,对食品给予了综合评价,有助于规范食品的营养和健康声称.本文就营养素度量模型在营养和健康声称中的应用情况作一综述.%With the increasing realization of the relationship between diet and health, people pay more and more attention to the health effects of food. Nutrition claims and health claims, which present consumers the health effects of the food,become a hot issue and ignite the interest of governments, non-governmental organizations, companies as well as consumers.As an approach of evaluating nutritional characteristics of foods, nutrient profiling is able to give food an overall conclusion,thus regulating nutrition claims and health claims. An overview of applying nutrient profiling in these areas is presented.

  18. Knowledge and networks - key sources of power in global health: Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Walt, Gill

    2015-02-01

    Shiffman rightly raises questions about who exercises power in global health, suggesting power is a complex concept, and the way it is exercised is often opaque. Power that is not based on financial strength but on knowledge or experience, is difficult to estimate, and yet it may provide the legitimacy to make moral claims on what is, or ought to be, on global health agendas. Twenty years ago power was exercised in a much less complex health environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) was able to exert its authority as world health leader. The landscape today is very different. Financial resources for global health are being competed for by diverse organisations, and power is diffused and somewhat hidden in such a climate, where each organization has to establish and make its own moral claims loudly and publicly. We observe two ways which allow actors to capture moral authority in global health. One, through power based on scientific knowledge and two, through procedures in the policy process, most commonly associated with the notion of broad consultation and participation. We discuss these drawing on one particular framework provided by Bourdieu, who analyses the source of actor power by focusing on different sorts of capital. Different approaches or theories to understanding power will go some way to answering the challenge Shiffman throws to health policy analysts. We need to explore much more fully where power lies in global health, and how it is exercised in order to understand underlying health agendas and claims to legitimacy made by global health actors today.

  19. Randomised controlled trials cited in pharmaceutical advertisements targeting New Zealand health professionals: do they support the advertising claims and what is the risk of bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Alison; Parkin, Lianne

    2015-09-04

    To determine whether pharmaceutical advertisement claims targeting health professionals were supported by the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) cited in the advertisements, and to assess the risk of bias in those trials. Pharmaceutical advertisements were obtained from New Zealand Doctor and Pharmacy Today for the period July 2013 to June 2014. All claims made regarding efficacy, safety, and indications were identified and RCTs cited to substantiate these claims were examined. A claim was defined as supported by an RCT if the conclusions drawn in the paper were consistent with the claim. The quality of the RCT was assessed separately, using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. In 25 (19%) of the 133 instances in which an RCT was cited, the published paper did not support the promotional claim. Moreover, there were only 10 (8%) instances in which the claim was supported by an RCT with a low risk of bias. Of the 78 cited RCTs, only 14% had a low risk of bias, while 49% had an unclear risk and 37% had a high risk. A high proportion of advertisements failed to meet New Zealand regulatory requirements that claims "are valid and have been substantiated".

  20. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD accounts for more than a third (37% of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954 from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI. Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954 and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs (p Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees.

  1. Comparison of electronic laboratory reports, administrative claims, and electronic health record data for acute viral hepatitis surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Dicker, Joshua; Klompas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance systems for acute hepatitis are limited: clinician reporting is insensitive and electronic laboratory reporting is nonspecific. Insurance claims and electronic health records are potential alternative sources. To compare the utility of laboratory data, diagnosis codes, and electronic health record combination data (current and prior viral hepatitis studies, liver function tests, and diagnosis codes) for acute hepatitis A and B surveillance. Retrospective chart review. Massachusetts ambulatory practice serving 350 000 patients per year. All patients seen between 1990 and 2008. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of immunoglobulin M (IgM), International Classification of Disease-Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes, and combination electronic health record data for acute hepatitis A and B. During the study period, there were 111 patients with positive hepatitis A IgMs, 154 with acute hepatitis A ICD-9 codes, and 77 with positive IgM and elevated liver function tests. On review, 79 cases were confirmed. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were 100% and 71% (95% confidence interval, 62%-79%) for IgM, 94% (92%-100%) and 48% (40%-56%) for ICD-9 codes and 97% (92%-100%) and 100% (96%-100%) for combination electronic health record data. There were 14 patients with positive hepatitis B core IgMs, 2564 with acute hepatitis B ICD-9 codes, and 125 with suggestive combinations of electronic health record data. Acute hepatitis B was confirmed in 122 patients. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were 9.4% (5.2%-16%) and 86% (60%-98%) for hepatitis B core IgM, 73% (65%-80%) and 3.6% (2.9%-4.4%) for ICD-9 codes, and 96% (91%-99%) and 98% (94%-99%) for electronic health record data. Laboratory surveillance using IgM tests overestimates the burden of acute hepatitis A and underestimates the burden of acute hepatitis B. Claims data are subject to many false positives. Electronic health record data are both sensitive and predictive

  2. Qualified health claim for whole-grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: an evidence-based review by the US Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Sedigheh; Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this review is to explain how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used its evidence-based review system to evaluate the scientific evidence for a qualified health claim on the role of whole-grain consumption in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. The labeling of health claims, including qualified health claims, on conventional foods and dietary supplements requires premarket approval by the FDA. Health claims characterize the relationship between a substance (food or food component) and a disease (eg, diabetes or cardiovascular disease) or a health-related condition (eg, hypertension). This review describes the FDA's evaluation of intervention and observational studies that characterize a relationship between whole grains and type 2 diabetes. This evidence-based review provides very limited evidence to support a health claim of a relationship between intake of whole grains and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Life Sciences Institute 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  3. Consumers' Exposure to Nutrition and Health Claims on Pre-Packed Foods: Use of Sales Weighting for Assessing the Food Supply in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita

    2015-11-12

    Insights into the use of health-related information on foods are important for planning studies about the effects of such information on the consumer's understanding, purchasing, and consumption of foods, and also support further food policy decisions. We tested the use of sales data for weighting consumers' exposure to health-related labeling information in the Slovenian food supply. Food labeling data were collected from 6342 pre-packed foods available in four different food stores in Slovenia. Consumers' exposure was calculated as the percentage of available food products with particular food information in the food category. In addition, 12-month sales data were used to calculate sales weighted exposure as a percentage of sold food products with certain food information in the food category. The consumer's in-store and sales-weighted exposure to nutrition claims was 37% and 45%, respectively. Exposure to health claims was much lower (13%, 11% when sales-weighted). Health claims were mainly found in the form of general non-specific claims or function claims, while children's development and reduction of disease risk claims were present on only 0.1% and 0.2% of the investigated foods, respectively. Sales data were found very useful for establishing a reliable estimation of consumers' exposure to information provided on food labels. The high penetration of health-related information on food labels indicates that careful regulation of this area is appropriate. Further studies should focus on assessing the nutritional quality of foods labeled with nutrition and health claims, and understanding the importance of such labeling techniques for consumers' food preferences and choices.

  4. Positive and Negative Aspects of Food with Health Claims in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Developments in food science and technology have accelerated the production and availability of health foods. Although consumers may acquire health benefits from some products, they may also suffer adverse health effects and economic losses. Unlike medicine, which is administered by health professionals, foods are chosen directly by the consumer and can be used at their own discretion. Food labeling plays a major role in providing consumers with proper information when choosing the desired products; however, the food labeling system is complex and inadequately understood by consumers. Moreover, there are some products that do not follow food labeling laws and contain ingredients that have not undergone proper effectiveness and safety evaluations. With the increasing popularity of health foods, it is becoming more important to ensure that they are effective and safely used. The biggest concern is that some consumers may mistake health foods for medicines that can cure or prevent diseases. The main reason that consumers are confused and misled is due to the vast amount of information that is available. This paper provides an overview of the following four approaches that we have taken in order to develop countermeasures against health foods being used improperly by consumers: (1) conducting a survey of actual health food use; (2) collecting data on adverse events suspected to be caused by health foods, and evaluating the causal relationship with methods suited to investigating health foods; (3) examining the safety of natural ingredients used in health foods; and (4) constructing an online database that compiles information on the safety and effectiveness of health foods and/or ingredients, and sharing such information with consumers and health professionals.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function. The scope of the applications was proposed to fall under health claims based on newly developed scientific evidence. The Panel considers that the food constituent......, glycaemic carbohydrates, which is the subject of the health claims, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. Maintenance of normal brain function is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function has already been...

  6. Putting different price tags on the same health condition: re-evaluating the well-being valuation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; van den Berg, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Many recent writings in health policy have proposed that health be valued directly and in monetary terms using the new well-being valuation method. Yet there is no clear consensus on what the best measure of individual's experience may be for the evaluation process. To shed light on this issue, monetary values for a number of health problems are compared across different well-being measures within the same UK data set. We find that, whilst there is strong internal consistency of health impacts within each well-being measure, hugely different monetary valuations are obtained for the same health problem across different well-being measures. Our results, although should only viewed as illustrative, call for economists to rethink about which measure of well-being or experienced utility to be used in the well-being valuation method, should the approach ever be implemented in real policy contexts.

  7. Power in Global Health Agenda-Setting: The Role of Private Funding; Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E. Levine

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The editorial by Jeremy Shiffman, “Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health”, highlights the influence on global health priority-setting of individuals and organizations that do not have a formal political mandate. This sheds light on the way key functions in global health depend on private funding, particularly from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  8. Examining the "liberal media" claim: journalists' views on politics, economic and social policy (including health care), and media coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, D

    1999-01-01

    The conservative critique of the news media rests on two general propositions: journalists hold views that are to the left of the public, and journalists frame news content in a way that accentuates these left perspectives. Previous research has revealed persuasive evidence against the latter claim, but the validity of the former claim has often been taken for granted. This research project examined the supposed left orientation of media personnel by surveying Washington-based journalists who cover national politics and/or economic policy at U.S. outlets. The findings include: (1) On select issues from corporate power and trade to Social Security and Medicare to health care and taxes, journalists are actually more conservative than the general public. (2) Journalists are mostly centrist in their political orientation. (3) The minority of journalists who do not identify with the "center" are more likely to identify with the "right" when it comes to economic issues and to identify with the "left" when it comes to social issues. (4) Journalists report that "business-oriented news outlets" and "major daily newspapers" provide the highest quality coverage of economic policy issues, while "broadcast network TV news" and "cable news services" provide the worst.

  9. Claim Your Space: Leadership Development as a Research Capacity Building Goal in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha; Zizi, Freddy; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    As the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) rises in settings with an equally high burden of infectious diseases in the Global South, a new sense of urgency has developed around research capacity building to promote more effective and sustainable public health and health care systems. In 2010, NCDs accounted for more than 2.06 million deaths…

  10. Putting the Whole Grain Puzzle Together: Health Benefits Associated with Whole Grains—Summary of American Society for Nutrition 2010 Satellite Symposium123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Harnack, Lisa; Hai Liu, Rui; McKeown, Nicola; Seal, Chris; Liu, Simin; Fahey, George C.

    2011-01-01

    The symposium “Putting the Whole Grain Puzzle Together: Health Benefits Associated with Whole Grains” sponsored by the ASN brought together researchers to review the evidence regarding the health benefits associated with whole grains. Current scientific evidence indicates that whole grains play an important role in lowering the risk of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, and also contribute to body weight management and gastrointestinal health. The essential macro- and micronutrients, along with the phytonutrients present in whole grains, synergistically contribute to their beneficial effects. Current evidence lends credence to the recommendations to incorporate whole grain foods into a healthy diet and lifestyle program. The symposium also highlighted the need for further research to examine the role of whole grain foods in disease prevention and management to gain a better understanding of their mechanisms of action. PMID:21451131

  11. Putting the whole grain puzzle together: health benefits associated with whole grains--summary of American Society for Nutrition 2010 Satellite Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Harnack, Lisa; Liu, Rui Hai; McKeown, Nicola; Seal, Chris; Liu, Simin; Fahey, George C

    2011-05-01

    The symposium "Putting the Whole Grain Puzzle Together: Health Benefits Associated with Whole Grains" sponsored by the ASN brought together researchers to review the evidence regarding the health benefits associated with whole grains. Current scientific evidence indicates that whole grains play an important role in lowering the risk of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, and also contribute to body weight management and gastrointestinal health. The essential macro- and micronutrients, along with the phytonutrients present in whole grains, synergistically contribute to their beneficial effects. Current evidence lends credence to the recommendations to incorporate whole grain foods into a healthy diet and lifestyle program. The symposium also highlighted the need for further research to examine the role of whole grain foods in disease prevention and management to gain a better understanding of their mechanisms of action.

  12. Using “Big Data” to Capture Overall Health Status: Properties and Predictive Value of a Claims-Based Health Risk Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Modrek, Sepideh; Kubo, Jessica; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Cullen, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual’s overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of “big data,” researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such “health risk score,” the DxCG Intelligence tool. Methods We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996–2011 (N = 14,161). We examine the risk score’s association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score’s association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury. Results and Conclusions We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers. PMID:25951622

  13. Expectations in the field of the internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-03-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users' online and offline practices and contexts.

  14. Putting the world as classroom: an application of the inequalities imagination model in nursing and health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Louise; Proctor, Peggy; Jewell, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the description of an educational initiative, the Interdisciplinary Population Health Project (IPHP) conducted in the academic year of 2006-2007 with a group of nursing and health care students. Inspired by population health, community development, critical pedagogy, and the inequalities imagination model, students participated in diverse educational activities to become immersed in the everyday life of an underserved urban neighborhood. A sample of convenience composed of 158 students was recruited from 4 health disciplines in a Western Canadian university. Data were collected using a modified version of the Parsell and Bligh's Readiness of Health Care Students for Interprofessional Learning Scale. A one group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the outcomes of the IPHP. Paired t tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to compare the responses of students from different academic programs to determine if there were differences across disciplines. Findings suggest that students' readiness to work in interprofessional teams did not significantly change over the course of their participation in the IPHP. However, the inequalities imagination model may be useful to enhance the quality and the effectiveness of fieldwork learning activities as a means of educating culturally and socially conscious nurses and other health care professionals of the future.

  15. Predictive validation of modeled health technology assessment claims: lessons from NICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsey, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The use of cost-effectiveness modeling to prioritize healthcare spending has become a key foundation of UK government policy. Although the preferred method of evaluation-cost-utility analysis-is not without its critics, it represents a standard approach that can arguably be used to assess relative value for money across a range of disease types and interventions. A key limitation of economic modeling, however, is that its conclusions hinge on the input assumptions, many of which are derived from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses that cannot be reliably linked to real-world performance of treatments in a broader clinical context. This means that spending decisions are frequently based on artificial constructs that may project costs and benefits that are significantly at odds with those that are achievable in reality. There is a clear agenda to carry out some form of predictive validation for the model claims, in order to assess not only whether the spending decisions made can be justified post hoc, but also to ensure that budgetary expenditure continues to be allocated in the most rational way. To date, however, no timely, effective system to carry out this testing has been implemented, with the consequence that there is little objective evidence as to whether the prioritization decisions made are actually living up to expectations. This article reviews two unfulfilled initiatives that have been carried out in the UK over the past 20 years, each of which had the potential to address this objective, and considers why they failed to deliver the expected outcomes.

  16. "Whose data is it anyway?" The implications of putting small area-level health and social data online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exeter, Daniel John; Rodgers, Sarah; Sabel, Clive Eric

    2013-01-01

    Data from electronic patient management systems, routine national health databases, and social administrative systems have increased significantly over the past decade. These data are increasingly used to create maps and analyses communicating the geography of health and illness. The results...... of these analyses can be easily disseminated on the web often without due consideration for the identification, access, ethics, or governance, of these potentially sensitive data. Lack of consideration is currently proving a deterrent to many organisations that might otherwise provide data to central repositories...... for invaluable social science and medical research. We believe that exploitation of such data is needed to further our understanding of the determinants of health and inequalities. Therefore, we propose a geographical privacy-access continuum framework, which could guide data custodians in the efficient...

  17. Membership theory, rationalism, and the claim to adequacy in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, H S

    1997-01-01

    The immediate, practical purpose of this paper is to discuss and elaborate upon the concept of adequacy, especially when applicable to an understanding of the social work role in health policy making. The relevant topics under the general category of adequacy are (1) the perception and definition of the citizen/client; (2) the concept of rationality in health planning broken down into conditionality and prioritization, and (3) the concept of adequacy itself. Each will be addressed from the standpoint of recent experience and what may be done in the future to clarify and rationalize each. Clarity about clients, about rational approaches to policy making and planning, leading to a clear idea about adequacy in health care are presented as the indispensable elements in social work. Conditionality and prioritization are significant because no society will bring within equal reach of all members the benefits of health care, which usually means that health care is not rendered arbitrarily but as a result, among other things, of rational planning.

  18. Putting Regulatory Data to Work at the Service of Public Health: Utilizing Data Collected Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collects information from states on intended use and impairment of each water body. We explore the feasibility of using these data, collected for regulatory purposes, for public health analyses. Combining E...

  19. Nutrition issues in Codex: Health claims, nutrient reference values and WTO agreements: A conference report

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous workshop had reviewed the development of the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) and its central role in protecting the health of consumers and ensuring fair practices in international food trade. This workshop further reviewed how Codex promotes harmonization and consensus by promoting the coordi...

  20. Do health claims add value? the role of functionality, effectiveness and brand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Viscecchia, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    European functional food manufacturers experience high costs of production, marketing and compliance with Regulation EC No. 1924/2006, requiring high premiums to recover these costs. We review the literature on consumers' acceptance of health-enhancing food products and identify three factors pot

  1. Treatment patterns and health care resource utilization associated with dalfampridine extended release in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective claims database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amy Guo,1 Michael Grabner,2 Swetha Rao Palli,2 Jessica Elder,1 Matthew Sidovar,1 Peter Aupperle,1 Stephen Krieger3 1Acorda Therapeutics Inc., Ardsley, New York, NY, USA; 2HealthCore Inc., Wilmington, DE, USA; 3Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for MS, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: Although previous studies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of dalfampridine extended release (D-ER tablets in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, there are limited real-world data on D-ER utilization and associated outcomes in patients with MS. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment patterns, budget impact, and health care resource utilization (HRU associated with D-ER use in a real-world setting. Methods: A retrospective claims database analysis was conducted using the HealthCore Integrated Research DatabaseSM. Adherence (measured by medication possession ratio, or [MPR] and persistence (measured by days between initial D-ER claim and discontinuation or end of follow-up were evaluated over 1-year follow-up. Budget impact was calculated as cost per member per month (PMPM over the available follow-up period. D-ER and control cohorts were propensity-score matched on baseline demographics, comorbidities, and MS-related resource utilization to compare walking-impairment-related HRU over follow-up. Results: Of the 2,138 MS patients identified, 1,200 were not treated with D-ER (control and 938 were treated with D-ER. Patients were aged 51 years on average and 74% female. Approximately 82.6% of D-ER patients were adherent (MPR >80%. The estimated budget impact range of D-ER was $0.014–$0.026 PMPM. Propensity-score-matched D-ER and controls yielded 479 patients in each cohort. Postmatching comparison showed that the D-ER cohort was associated with fewer physician (21.5% vs 62.4%, P<0.0001 and other outpatient visits (22.8% vs 51.4%, P<0.0001 over the 12-month follow-up. Changes in HRU from follow

  2. "It puts a human face on the researched"--A qualitative evaluation of an Indigenous health research governance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Chelsea; Foley, Wendy; Askew, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Inala Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Jury for Health Research, and evaluate its usefulness as a model of Indigenous research governance within an urban Indigenous primary health care service from the perspectives of jury members and researchers. Informed by a phenomenological approach and using narrative inquiry, a focus group was conducted with jury members and key informant interviews were undertaken with researchers who had presented to the Community Jury in its first year of operation. The jury was a site of identity work for researchers and jury members, providing an opportunity to observe and affirm community cultural protocols. Although researchers and jury members had differing levels of research literacy, the jury processes enabled respectful communication and relationships to form, which positively influenced research practice, community aspirations and clinical care. The jury processes facilitated transformative research practice among researchers and resulted in transference of power from researchers to the jury members, to the mutual benefit of both. Ethical Indigenous health research practice requires an engagement with Indigenous peoples and knowledge at the research governance level, not simply as subjects or objects of research. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Data-driven identification of co-morbidities associated with rheumatoid arthritis in a large US health plan claims database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Noah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In drug development, it is important to have an understanding of the full spectrum of co-morbidities to be expected in the group of patients with the disease of interest. It is usually a challenge to identify the less common events associated with the target disease, even if these events are severe. The purpose of this study is to identify co-morbidities associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA as compared with a control group, using a large health care database. Methods Marketscan US claims database was used for this retrospective cohort study. Selected were records of persons aged at least 16 Y with at least two claims for RA, and with active insurance status on June 30,2007. The control group had at least two claims for eczema/dermatitis. Controls were matched by age, gender and insurance status (Medicare or not. All co-morbidities with an ICD9 diagnostic code were identified in the RA and control groups, during a one-year window. Relative risks (RRs were calculated. Diagnoses were rank-ordered by magnitude of RR. Codes covering RA and arthropathy were excluded. In order to get stable estimates, rank-ordering was performed for diagnoses occurring in at least 20 persons in the control group. Results Records were selected of 62,681 persons with RA (mean age was 59.0 Y, with 73.8% female, Medicare-covered 35%. A total of 6897 different ICD9 diagnostic codes were recorded, with 2220 codes in at least 20 persons of the control group [listed with Relative Risk]. Apart from joint/bone related conditions, strong associations with RA (RR > 3 were found for Adverse effect medicinal and biological substance not elsewhere classified, Unspecified adverse effect drug properly administered, Idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis, Osteomyelitis, Immune deficiency, Elevated sedimentation rate, Tuberculin test reaction abnormal or positive, Anemia and Cushing syndrome. Conclusions Data on a large number (> 60,000 of patients with a diagnosis of RA

  4. Danish Claims Data Indicators for Electronic Feedback in Oral-Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Kasper; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Listl, Stefan

    Objectives: As part of the “Added Value for Oral Care” (ADVOCATE) project; this subproject aims to construct a preliminary set of indicators of dental clinic service delivery profiles, to be used in a pilot “dashboard.” The dashboard will provide feedback and mirror information about dental care...... were constructed. See Table 1. Combinations of the indicators gave relative measures of the mutual preventive/diagnostic/treatment profiles. For instance ICPS/extractions =(16%/6%)=2.7. Conclusions: The indicators are considered suitable for use in an electronic feedback system for the individual oral...... and universal character. With time the feedback system maybe further developed to adjust for oral health risk status, socioeconomic factors, and patient reported oral health and treatment outcomes, to make the comparisons more relevant. The ADVOCATE project (www.advocateoralhealth.com) has received funding from...

  5. Reviewing the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006: What do we know about its challenges and potential impact on innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, Stefanie; Khedkar, Sukhada; Ciliberti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Health claims potentially represent an opportunity for firms to engage in product differentiation and thereby induce investment into R&D and innovation in the food sector. The Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 (NHCR) aims at protecting and promoting innovation as one of its objectives. However, existing studies indicate that this regulation may create several challenges for innovation in the food sector. To this end, we review the challenges related to the NHCR (Article 13.1) and its impact on innovation. Extant literature suggests that companies face challenges related to changing list of ingredients, missing transparency, wording of claims, limited financial resources, limited R&D resources, switching product categories and abandoning the functional foods sector. Moreover, current studies imply that so far the NHCR (in specific Article 13.1) does not seem to encourage innovation in the EU food sector.

  6. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  7. Health Canada's evaluation of the use of glycemic index claims on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Alfred; Dumais, Lydia; Barber, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a system that ranks foods according to the blood glucose-increasing potential of servings of foods that provide the same amount of available carbohydrate. The GI was originally developed as a tool for carbohydrate exchange in the dietary management of glycemia in persons with diabetes, and studies have generally supported modest benefits of low-GI diets in this population. Despite inconsistent results for the utility of the GI in the nondiabetic population, there is some interest in its universal application on food labels to assist consumers in making food choices that would help them meet their dietary goals. The objective of this review was to evaluate the usefulness of including the GI values of foods as part of the information on food labels in Canada. Health Canada's assessment identified 3 areas of concern with respect to GI labeling: 1) the GI measure has poor accuracy and precision for labeling purposes; 2) as a ratio, the GI does not vary in response to the amount of food consumed and the partial replacement of available carbohydrates with unavailable carbohydrates, whereas the glycemic response does; and 3) an unintended focus on the GI for food selection could lead to food choices that are inconsistent with national dietary guidelines. Hence, Health Canada's current opinion is that the inclusion of the GI value on the label of eligible food products would be misleading and would not add value to nutrition labeling and dietary guidelines in assisting consumers to make healthier food choices.

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allerg ies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations. This guidance has been drawn from scientific...

  9. Non-clinical toxicity studies on bioactive compounds within the framework of nutritional and health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana Gloria; Arbillaga, Leire; López de Cerain, Adela

    2015-07-01

    The growing presence of products on the market with added value in terms of health makes essential their regulation and harmonization in critical aspects such as safety. The toxicology applied to the bioactive compounds should demonstrate the absence of toxic effects at doses advised for consumption, as well as evaluate the potential toxic effects in the assumption that the products are used in quantities superior to those recommended. The specific strategy should be defined case by case; therefore, prior to any toxicological development, it is essential to study all the information regarding the bioactive compounds (BACs) characterization, nutridynamics and nutrikinetics, that is available. In this guideline, a general strategy to be applied in the development of BACs is proposed. It includes a first in vitro phase to discard genotoxicity and endocrine effects and a second in vivo phase with different possibilities regarding the duration and the extension of the studies.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to caffeine and increased alertness pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from SmithKline Beecham Limited, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to caffeine and increased alertness. The food constituent, caffeine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Increased alertness might be a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on caffeine and increased alertness, in the general adult population, for products containing at least 75 mg of caffeine per serving, has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. In the present application, the applicant proposed that, in order to bear the claim, a product should contain at least 40 mg of caffeine per serving. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that most studies which measured reaction time in various cognitive tasks found no effect of caffeine at doses < 75 mg. In the particular dose range between 40 and < 75 mg, no effect of caffeine was found on the majority of outcome measures of reaction time. The Panel notes that the majority of studies with caffeine doses of 75 mg or higher showed a significant reduction in measures of reaction time. On the basis of the evidence provided, the Panel reiterates its previous conclusion that, in order to bear the claim, a product should contain at least 75 mg caffeine per serving. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of caffeine and increased alertness under the conditions of use proposed by the applicant.

  11. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality claims. 716.55 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.55 Confidentiality claims. (a)(1... clearly identify the material subject to the claim. (3) Any respondent may assert a confidentiality claim...

  12. Bidirectional Exchanges of Medical Students Between Institutional Partners in Global Health Clinical Education Programs: Putting Ethical Principles into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Robert; Kellett, Anne; Peluso, Michael J

    One-third of US medical students participate in global health (GH) education, and approximately one-quarter of US medical schools have structured programs that offer special recognition in GH. GH clinical electives (GHCEs) are opportunities for students to experience a medical system and culture different from their own. GHCEs are administered through institutional affiliation agreements, often between an institution in a high-income country (HIC) and one in a low- or middle-income country (LMIC). Although these agreements suggest the exchange of students in both directions, GHCEs are traditionally characterized by students from HICs traveling to LMICs. The goal of this study was to investigate the availability of opportunities for students from LMICs participating in GHCEs at partner institutions in HICs and to describe the costs of these opportunities for students from LMICs. We conducted a web-based search of 30 US institutions previously identified as having structured programs in GH. We determined which of these schools have programs that accept medical students from international schools for GHCEs, as well as the administrative requirements, types of fees, and other costs to the international student based on information available on the web. Descriptive statistics were employed for the quantitative analysis of costs. We found that, although the majority of US institutions with structured GH programs sending students to sites abroad accept international students at their sites in the United States, nearly one-fifth of programs do not offer such opportunities for bidirectional exchange. We also characterized the substantial costs of such experiences, because this can represent a significant barrier for students from LMICs. Access to GHCEs in US partner institutions should be an important underlying ethical principle in the establishment of institutional partnerships. The opportunities available to and experiences of students from LMIC partner institutions are

  13. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2014-09-01

    This study applies the concepts of health halos and unhealthy = tasty intuition to examine how the different health and nutrition-related (HNR) appeal types interact with different food product types compared with taste claims. The experiment investigated the impact of benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance HNR appeals compared with that of taste appeals on different food types. The authors found that although respondents evaluated food ads with the two HNR appeals as less risky/more beneficial and healthier than food ads with a taste claim, the respondents showed better ad-related evaluations on the HNR appeals for perceivably healthy food and on taste appeal for perceivably unhealthy food. The findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for health food marketing and public health policy.

  14. Medicare Part D Claims Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page contains information on Part D claims data for the purposes of research, analysis, reporting, and public health functions. These data will also be used to...

  15. Glycemic index claims on food labels: review of Health Canada's evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, T M S

    2013-12-01

    Recently Health Canada (HC) published its opinion that including glycemic index (GI) values on food labels would be misleading and not add value to nutrition labeling and dietary guidelines to help consumers make healthier food choices. Important areas of concern were identified by HC, but the discussion of them is scientifically invalid. HC concluded that GI has poor precision for labeling purposes based on incorrect application of the standard deviation. In fact, GI methodology is precise enough to distinguish, with high probability, low-GI (GI ≤ 55) from high-GI (GI ≥ 70) foods and to pass the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Nutrition Compliance Test procedure. HC rightly concluded that GI does not respond to portion size, whereas glycemic response does, but no valid evidence was provided to support the assertion that a lower-GI food could have a higher glycemic response. HC's focus on glycemic response could promote a low-carbohydrate diet inconsistent with nutrition recommendations. HC correctly concluded that GI is unresponsive to the replacement of available- with unavailable-carbohydrate but this is irrelevant to GI labeling. HC is rightly concerned about promoting unhealthy low-GI foods; however, this could be avoided by prohibiting GI labeling on such foods. Therefore, HC has provided neither a helpful nor scientifically valid evaluation of GI for labeling purposes but has contributed to the wealth of misinformation about GI in the literature. Currently, Canadian consumers only have access to unregulated and misleading information about GI; well-crafted guidelines for GI labeling would provide consumers accurate information about GI and help them make healthier food choices.

  16. Trajectories of health care service utilization and differences in patient characteristics among adults with specific chronic pain: analysis of health plan member claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruetsch C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Charles Ruetsch,1 Joseph Tkacz,1 Peter G Kardel,1 Andrew Howe,2 Helen Pai,2 Bennett Levitan31Health Analytics, LLC, Columbia, Maryland, 2Janssen Research & Development, Raritan, New Jersey, 3Janssen Research & Development, Titusville, New Jersey, USAIntroduction: The lack of consistency surrounding the diagnosis of chronic non-cancer pain, treatment approaches, and patient management suggests the need for further research to better characterize the chronic non-cancer pain population.Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of health care service utilization of chronic non-cancer pain patients and describe the characteristic differences between trajectory groups.Patients and methods: This study utilized the MarketScan claims databases. A total of 71,392 patients diagnosed with either low back pain or osteoarthritis between 2006 and 2009 served as the study sample. Each subject's claims data were divided into three time periods around an initial diagnosis date: pre-period, post-Year 1, and post-Year 2. Subjects were categorized as either high (H or low (L cost at each post period, resulting in the creation of four trajectory groups based on the post-Year 1 and 2 cost pattern: H-H, H-L, L-H, and L-L. Multivariate statistical tests were used to predict and discriminate between trajectory group memberships.Results: The H-H, L-H, and H-L groups each utilized significantly greater pre-period high-cost venue services, post-Year 1 outpatient services, and post-Year 1 opioids compared to the L-L group (P <0.001. Additionally, the H-H and L-H groups displayed elevated Charlson comorbidity index scores compared with the L-L group (P <0.001, with each showing increased odds of having both opioid dependence and cardiovascular disease diagnoses (P <0.01.Conclusion: This study identified patient characteristics among chronic pain patients that discriminated between different levels of post-index high-cost venue service

  17. The effectiveness of risk communication regarding drug safety information: a nationwide survey by the Japanese public health insurance claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Hiromi; Nakano, Shun; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Tohkin, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of warning letters published by the pharmaceutical regulatory agency in Japan on communication of drug safety and risk by quantitative analysis of the national health insurance claims database (NHICD). We then explored what factors may have affected risk communication. We measured the implementation rate of the hepatitis virus-monitoring test among methotrexate (MTX)-treated patients; a warning letter had been issued regarding the use of MTX, as it apparently activates the hepatitis virus. Data from the NHICD, which include 99·3% of Japanese residents, were used. A total of 4,933,481 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (January-June, 2010) were the focus of this study. The implementation rate of the hepatitis virus-monitoring test increased from 1·4% before to 1·8% after the warning letter announcement. Logistic regression analysis suggested that the installation of a drug information management room is one of the important factors affecting risk communication. Further analysis revealed that the hepatitis virus monitoring rates in hospitals without drug information management rooms increased from 2·3% to 4·1% due to the issue of the warning letter. The warning letter from the regulatory agency plays an important role in risk communication in hospitals without drug information management rooms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and improves stools frequency. The food that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of B. longum LA 101, L...

  19. Estimating the Ratio of Patients with a Certain Disease Between Hospitals for the Allocation of Patients to Clinical Trials Using Health Insurance Claims Data in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toshihiro; Mihara, Naoki; Murata, Taizo; Shimai, Yoshie; Okada, Katsuki; Manabe, Shiro; Matsumura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In clinical trials, investigating the ratio of patients with each disease who are treated in a hospital is important for determining the number of patients who are allocated to hospitals. The Japanese health insurance claims data includes standardized disease and medicine data. However, the disease data has some problems in terms of reliability, because the healed diseases are sometimes not deleted or because a disease that a patient does not actually have is registered to claim the cost of the examination. On the other hand, therapeutic medicines are administered to target particular diseases. In this study, we developed a system for estimating the number of patients with each disease using the disease data and the therapeutic medicine data. We converted the ICD-10 code to a 4-grade classification code so that we could predict the diseases in the shallow layer (e.g. gastrointestinal disease) when it was difficult to predict the precise diseases in the deep layer (e.g. gastric ulcers). A table showing the disease code and the corresponding therapeutic medicine code was provided by the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center (JAPIC). We calculated the disease probability score from the diseases and therapeutic medicines and recorded the predicted disease. For the system evaluation, we used the health insurance claims data from Osaka University Hospital for January 2015. A total of 58,526 diseases were predicted from the health insurance claims data of 18,393 patients. One hundred twenty patients were randomly extracted for use in a chart review that was performed by an expert physician. Two hundred twenty-four of 329 predicted diseases, were correctly predicted; 56 were reasonably predicted, and 49 were incorrectly predicted. The main disease was correctly predicted in 71 patients. In conclusion, we could estimate the number of patients with each disease using the health insurance claims data with a certain degree of accuracy.

  20. Long-acting bronchodilator use after hospitalization for COPD: an observational study of health insurance claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker CL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Christine L Baker,1 Kelly H Zou,1 Jun Su21Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA; 2Boehringer-Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT, USABackground: Treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with long-acting bronchodilator (LABD medications is recommended by the 2014 Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines. The primary objective of this study was to examine LABD prescription fills after a COPD-related hospitalization.Methods: This retrospective observational study used claims from Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases. Patients (age ≥40, commercial; age ≥65, Medicare supplemental had a first hospitalization with a primary COPD diagnosis between April 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011 (index hospitalization and were continuously enrolled for 1 year before and 9 months after hospitalization. Patients were categorized according to pre-index and/or post-index pharmacy claims.Results: A total of 27,738 patients had an index hospitalization and met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of those, 19,783 patients had COPD as a primary or secondary diagnosis during the year before index hospitalization and were included in the analysis. Approximately one quarter of the patients (26.32% did not fill a prescription for an LABD or short-acting bronchodilator both 90 days before and 90 days after hospitalization. During the 90-day pre-index period, 40.57% of patients filled an LABD (with or without a short-acting bronchodilator prescription. Over half of the patients (56.88% filled an LABD prescription at some point during the 180-day post-index period, but, of those, a significantly greater proportion of patients filled an LABD prescription in the 1- to 90-day post-index period than in the 91- to 180-day post-index period (51.27% versus 43.66%; P<0.0001.Conclusion: A significant proportion of COPD patients in this study did not fill an LABD prescription before hospitalization for

  1. Knowledge and Networks – Key Sources of Power in Global Health Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hanefeld

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiffman rightly raises questions about who exercises power in global health, suggesting power is a complex concept, and the way it is exercised is often opaque. Power that is not based on financial strength but on knowledge or experience, is difficult to estimate, and yet it may provide the legitimacy to make moral claims on what is, or ought to be, on global health agendas. Twenty years ago power was exercised in a much less complex health environment. The World Health Organization (WHO was able to exert its authority as world health leader. The landscape today is very different. Financial resources for global health are being competed for by diverse organisations, and power is diffused and somewhat hidden in such a climate, where each organization has to establish and make its own moral claims loudly and publicly. We observe two ways which allow actors to capture moral authority in global health. One, through power based on scientific knowledge and two, through procedures in the policy process, most commonly associated with the notion of broad consultation and participation. We discuss these drawing on one particular framework provided by Bourdieu, who analyses the source of actor power by focusing on different sorts of capital. Different approaches or theories to understanding power will go some way to answering the challenge Shiffman throws to health policy analysts. We need to explore much more fully where power lies in global health, and how it is exercised in order to understand underlying health agendas and claims to legitimacy made by global health actors today.

  2. Use of electronic medical records (EMR for oncology outcomes research: assessing the comparability of EMR information to patient registry and health claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau EC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Edmund C Lau1, Fionna S Mowat1, Michael A Kelsh1,*, Jason C Legg2, Nicole M Engel-Nitz3, Heather N Watson1, Helen L Collins2, Robert J Nordyke4,5, Joanna L Whyte21Exponent, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 3i3 Innovus, Eden Prairie, MN, USA; 4PriceSpective LLC, El Segundo, CA, USA; 5Department of Health Services, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA*Now at Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAbstract: Electronic medical records (EMRs are used increasingly for research in clinical oncology, epidemiology, and comparative effectiveness research (CER.Objective: To assess the utility of using EMR data in population-based cancer research by comparing a database of EMRs from community oncology clinics against Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER cancer registry data and two claims databases (Medicare and commercial claims.Study design and setting: Demographic, clinical, and treatment patterns in the EMR, SEER, Medicare, and commercial claims data were compared using six tumor sites: breast, lung/bronchus, head/neck, colorectal, prostate, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. We identified various challenges in data standardization and selection of appropriate statistical procedures. We describe the patient and clinic inclusion criteria, treatment definitions, and consideration of the administrative and clinical purposes of the EMR, registry, and claims data to address these challenges.Results: Sex and 10-year age distributions of patient populations for each tumor site were generally similar across the data sets. We observed several differences in racial composition and treatment patterns, and modest differences in distribution of tumor site.Conclusion: Our experience with an oncology EMR database identified several factors that must be considered when using EMRs for research purposes or generalizing results to the US cancer population. These factors were related primarily to evaluation of treatment patterns, including

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies; Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to collagen hydrolysate and maintenance of joints pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    . The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence and including a request for the protection of proprietary data. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is collagen hydrolysate. The Panel considers that the collagen......, three intervention studies in humans, one animal study, two in vitro studies, and two bioavailability studies as pertinent to the claim. The narrative review did not contain any primary data which were pertinent to the claim. One of the human studies was conducted in patients while another study...

  4. Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH): A Streamlined, Systematic, Phased Approach for Determining "What Works" in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Wayne B; Crawford, Cindy; Hilton, Lara; Elfenbaum, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Answering the question of "what works" in healthcare can be complex and requires the careful design and sequential application of systematic methodologies. Over the last decade, the Samueli Institute has, along with multiple partners, developed a streamlined, systematic, phased approach to this process called the Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH™). The SEaRCH process provides an approach for rigorously, efficiently, and transparently making evidence-based decisions about healthcare claims in research and practice with minimal bias. SEaRCH uses three methods combined in a coordinated fashion to help determine what works in healthcare. The first, the Claims Assessment Profile (CAP), seeks to clarify the healthcare claim and question, and its ability to be evaluated in the context of its delivery. The second method, the Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL(©)), is a streamlined, systematic review process conducted to determine the quantity, quality, and strength of evidence and risk/benefit for the treatment. The third method involves the structured use of expert panels (EPs). There are several types of EPs, depending on the purpose and need. Together, these three methods-CAP, REAL, and EP-can be integrated into a strategic approach to help answer the question "what works in healthcare?" and what it means in a comprehensive way. SEaRCH is a systematic, rigorous approach for evaluating healthcare claims of therapies, practices, programs, or products in an efficient and stepwise fashion. It provides an iterative, protocol-driven process that is customized to the intervention, consumer, and context. Multiple communities, including those involved in health service and policy, can benefit from this organized framework, assuring that evidence-based principles determine which healthcare practices with the greatest promise are used for improving the public's health and wellness.

  5. Miracle Health Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delaying proven treatment can have serious consequences. The truth is that no single device, remedy, or treatment can treat all types of cancer. All cancers are different, and no one treatment ...

  6. Claiming Copernicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-12-01

    The reputations of scientific heroes shift constantly, modified by politicians as well as by historians. Now that the Scientific Revolution has been reappraised, Nicolas Copernicus is portrayed as a friend of the Catholic Church rather than a scientific martyr. As a German-speaking Pole he has been claimed as a figure of national historical importance by both Germany and Poland, and since the early 20th century has been an important symbol of Polish independence.

  7. Development of a low fat fresh pork sausage based on chitosan with health claims: impact on the quality, functionality and shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Deborah S; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; do Nascimento, Bárbara M S; Monteiro, Maria J; Madruga, Marta S; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2015-08-01

    A low fat fresh pork sausage based on chitosan was developed with the objective of obtaining a new functional meat product with improved properties and health claims promoting cholesterol reduction. Sausages were formulated with chitosan (2%, w/w) and different fat levels (5%, 12.5% and 20%, w/w). The results indicated that incorporation of 2% chitosan into produced pork sausages with health claims of reduction of cholesterol is technologically feasible. In addition, the chitosan reduced the microbial growth, revealing interesting fat and water absorption capacities, reduced lipid oxidation, provided greater stability in terms of colorimetric parameters and promoted positive firmer texture and gumminess. The reduction of fat content to levels of 5% was positively achieved with the incorporation of chitosan. Sensorial analysis showed that panelists did not detect any significant difference in taste and any unfavorable effect on the sausage appearance as a consequence of chitosan addition and variation of fat.

  8. Impact of a Comprehensive Workplace Hand Hygiene Program on Employer Health Care Insurance Claims and Costs, Absenteeism, and Employee Perceptions and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Arbogast, James W.; Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Jarvis, William R.; Harpster-Hagen, Amanda; Hughes, Jillian; Parker, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a multimodal hand hygiene intervention program in reducing health care insurance claims for hygiene preventable infections (eg, cold and influenza), absenteeism, and subjective impact on employees. Methods: A 13.5-month prospective, randomized cluster controlled trial was executed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer in strategic workplace locations and personal use (intervention group) and brief hand hygiene education (both group...

  9. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopade Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to hyaluronic acid and protection of the skin against dehydration pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to hyaluronic acid and protection of the skin against dehydration. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, hyaluronic acid, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of the skin against dehydration, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of hyaluronic acid and protection of the skin against dehydration.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to ♀EFAX™ and reduction of menstrual discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to ♀EFAX™ and reduction of menstrual discomfort. The food, ♀EFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil and is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of menstrual discomfort, is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of ♀EFAX™ and reduction of menstrual discomfort.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following applications from Dextro Energy GmbH & Co. KG, submitted for the authorisation of health claims pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function. The scope of the applications was proposed to fall under health...

  13. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bifidobacterium bifidum CNCM I-3426 and defence against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a health claim related to Bifidobacterium bifidum CNCM I-3426 and defence against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is B. bifidum CNCM I-3426. The Panel considers that B. bifidum CNCM I-3426 is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers...

  14. Critical thinking in Norwegian upper secondary biology education: The cases of complementary-alternative-medicine and health claims in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Pettersen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available By definition, complementary alternative medicine (CAM treatments are not scientifically proven. Scientific deficient health claiming news seems to flourish in the media. The aims of this questionnaire study was to explore: (1 attitudes towards CAM among 3rd year students of the health sciences in Norway, who either have immersed themselves in the 2nd and 3rd year upper secondary biology courses, or taken the 1st year compulsory natural science course, exclusively, and (2 these students’ skills in requesting for scientific information in highly deficient health news briefs. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of positive attitude towards the use of CAM treatments between the two health sciences student categories, and most students in both categories “failed” in the test set out to measure their skills in requesting for scientific information in four highly scientific deficient health news briefs. The results suggest that teaching of the Norwegian upper secondary biology courses does probably not contribute extensively to pupils’ development of scepticism towards CAM, and skills in evaluating health claims, scientifically.

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to phaseolamine and reduction in body weight (ID 1701) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to phaseolamine and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glycaemic carbohydrates and contribution to normal cognitive function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Dextro Energy GmbH & Co. KG, submitted for the authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver...... an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to glycaemic carbohydrates and contribution to normal cognitive function. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The Panel considers that the food constituent...

  17. Medicare Hospital Spending by Claim

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Also known as Medicare Spending per Beneficiary (MSPB) Spending Breakdowns by Claim Type file. The data displayed here show average spending levels during...

  18. Utilization of evidence-based treatment in elderly patients with chronic heart failure: using Korean Health Insurance claims database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ju-Young

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure accounts for a great deal of the morbidity and mortality in the aging population. Evidence-based treatments include angiotensin-2 receptor blockers (ARBs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists. Underutilization of these treatments in heart failure patients were frequently reported, which could lead to increase morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of evidence-based treatments and their related factors for elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Methods This is retrospective observational study using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. We identified prescription of evidence based treatment to elderly patients who had been hospitalized for chronic heart failure between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2006. Results Among the 28,922 elderly patients with chronic heart failure, beta-blockers were prescribed to 31.5%, and ACE-I or ARBs were prescribed to 54.7% of the total population. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that the prescription from outpatient clinic (prevalent ratio, 4.02, 95% CI 3.31–4.72, specialty of the healthcare providers (prevalent ratio, 1.26, 95% CI, 1.12–1.54, residence in urban (prevalent ratio, 1.37, 95% CI, 1.23–1.52 and admission to tertiary hospital (prevalent ratio, 2.07, 95% CI, 1.85–2.31 were important factors associated with treatment underutilization. Patients not given evidence-based treatment were more likely to experience dementia, reside in rural areas, and have less-specialized healthcare providers and were less likely to have coexisting cardiovascular diseases or concomitant medications than patients in the evidence-based treatment group. Conclusions Healthcare system factors, such as hospital type, healthcare provider factors, such as specialty, and patient factors, such as comorbid cardiovascular disease, systemic disease with

  19. 42 CFR 456.722 - Electronic claims management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic claims management system. 456.722... Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.722 Electronic claims management system... electronic claims management (ECM) system to perform on-line, real-time (that is, immediate)...

  20. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...

  1. A review of the systematic review process and its applicability for use in evaluating evidence for health claims on probiotic foods in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Julie; King, Sarah; Guarner, Francisco; Hill, Colin; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-02-08

    This paper addresses the use of systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the strength of evidence for health benefits of probiotic foods, especially relating to health claim substantiation in the European Union. A systematic review is a protocol-driven, transparent and replicable approach, widely accepted in a number of scientific fields, and used by many policy-setting organizations to evaluate the strength of evidence to answer a focused research question. Many systematic reviews have been published on the broad category of probiotics for many different outcomes. Some of these reviews have been criticized for including poor quality studies, pooling heterogeneous study results, and not considering publication bias. Well-designed and -conducted systematic reviews should address such issues. Systematic reviews of probiotics have an additional challenge - rarely addressed in published reviews - in that there must be a scientifically sound basis for combining evidence on different strains, species or genera. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is increasingly adopting the systematic review methodology. It remains to be seen how health claims supported by systematic reviews are evaluated within the EFSA approval process. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies deems randomized trials to be the best approach to generating evidence about the effects of foods on health outcomes. They also acknowledge that systematic reviews (with or without meta-analyses) are the best approach to assess the totality of the evidence. It is reasonable to use these well-established methods to assess objectively the strength of evidence for a probiotic health claim. Use of the methods to combine results on more than a single strain or defined blend of strains will require a rationale that the different probiotics are substantively similar, either in identity or in their mode of action.

  2. Exploring the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006: What is the impact on innovation in the EU food sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Sukhada; Bröring, Stefanie; Ciliberti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Literature suggests that despite its positive aim of promoting innovation, the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 (NHCR) may bring along several compliance challenges, which might affect innovation in the EU food sector. This study investigates the challenges faced by companies to comply with the NHCR (specifically Article 13.1) and their impact on innovation. To this end, we conducted an online survey with 105 companies involved in the EU food sector. Results indicate that companies perceive wording of claims, missing transparency and limited financial resources as major challenges to comply with the NHCR (Article 13.1). Companies reported not to have increased their R&D expenditure or innovation activities after the NHCR (Article 13.1) was implemented. Thus, this study highlights specific compliance challenges related to the NHCR (Article 13.1) and indicates that currently, the regulation does not seem to have fostered innovation in the EU food sector.

  3. Estudio de declaraciones nutricionales y saludables en el etiquetado de leches fermentadas Study of nutrition and health claims on labelling of fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montero Marín

    2006-06-01

    addition to yogurt, new varieties of milk products fermented by bifidobacteria or other Lactobacillus species have been introduced. The nutritional importance of these products, together with the likely beneficial effects of the fermentative strains, has propitiated labelling with nutritinal and health claims. Present regulations do not specifically regulate these wordings and a proposal for a European Regulation for standardization of these claims is currently under elaboration. Objectives: To study the nutrition and health claims on labelling of fermented milk products taking into account current legislation, the proposal for a European Regulation and the related literature. To compare labelling on yogurt with that of other fermented milk products, in relation to these claims. Results: Ninety-four percent of the studied labelling has nutritional information. Nutritional claims have ben found on 38%, of which 20% have mentioned fat content, 12% calcium content, although 26% have less than 15% of the RDA, 7% mention dietary fiber content. Health claims has been presented in 32% of the studied labelling. Conclusions: Health claims have been more frequently found in fermented milk products other than yogurt, most of them mentioning the prebiotic or probiotic properties.A lack of information to consumers has been observed concerning the necessary amounts to be consumed and the real benefit provided by the product. Nutrition claims in products with normal content of certaint nutrients have been found; this fact might create confusion as regards to really enriches foods.

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “increasing faecal bulk”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. The Panel considers that sugar beet fibre is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed......Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Sugar beet fibre increases faecal bulk”. In order to bear the claim a food should be at least “high in fibre” as per...

  5. Effects of the Informed Health Choices podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about treatment effects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semakula, Daniel; Nsangi, Allen; Oxman, Andrew D; Oxman, Matt; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Morelli, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Kaseje, Margaret; Chalmers, Iain; Fretheim, Atle; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2017-07-22

    As part of the Informed Health Choices project, we developed a podcast called The Health Choices Programme to help improve the ability of people to assess claims about the benefits and harms of treatments. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about the effects of treatments. We did this randomised controlled trial in central Uganda. We recruited parents of children aged 10-12 years who were in their fifth year of school at 35 schools that were participating in a linked trial of the Informed Health Choices primary school resources. The parents were randomly allocated (1:1), via a web-based random number generator with block sizes of four and six, to listen to either the Informed Health Choices podcast (intervention group) or typical public service announcements about health issues (control group). Randomisation was stratified by parents' highest level of formal education attained (primary school, secondary school, or tertiary education) and the allocation of their children's school in the trial of the primary school resources (intervention vs control). The primary outcome, measured after listening to the entire podcast, was the mean score and the proportion of parents with passing scores on a test with two multiple choice questions for each of nine key concepts essential to assessing claims about treatments (18 questions in total). We did intention-to-treat analyses. This trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201606001676150. We recruited parents between July 21, 2016, and Oct 7, 2016. We randomly assigned 675 parents to the podcast group (n=334) or the public service announcement group (n=341); 561 (83%) participants completed follow-up. The mean score for parents in the podcast group was 67·8% (SD 19·6) compared with 52·4% (17·6) in the control group (adjusted mean difference 15·5%, 95% CI 12·5-18·6; ppodcast group, 203 (71%) of

  6. Put Your Hands Together

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-24

    In this podcast, learn how to help stop the spread of infection and stay healthy. It's easy when you 'Put Your Hands Together.'.  Created: 3/24/2011 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID) and National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/24/2011.

  7. Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. This opinion applies to sugar beet fibre naturally present in foods and to those forms added to foods...... that decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time may be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided four human studies as pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that no conclusion can be drawn from three studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim owing to methodological...

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “Femilub” and maintenance of vaginal moisture pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on a health claim related to “Femilub®” and maintenance of vaginal moisture. The food that is the subject of the health claim, “Femilub®”, which is a combination of macadamia oil, borage oil, perilla oil, d‑α‑tocopherol and biotin, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of vaginal...

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight (ID 643, 677, 1614) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is medium-chain triglycerides. In the context of the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claims is medium-chain fatty acids, which should replace long-chain fatty acids...... in triglycerides in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that the food constituent, medium-chain fatty acids, which is the subject of the health claims, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is “weight management”. The target population is assumed...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Clasado Limited, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Malta, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. The food constituent, Bimuno® GOS, a mixture of β-galacto-oligosaccharides, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduce bloating, flatulence and abdominal pain. These effects can be described collectively as abdominal discomfort” and the target population proposed by the applicant is the general adult population. Reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort is a beneficial physiological effect. A health claim on Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort has already been assessed by the Panel with an unfavourable outcome. The supplementary information submitted by the applicant in this application did not provide evidence that could be used for the scientific substantiation of this claim.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucosamine and maintenance of joints pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to glucosamine and maintenance of joints. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is glucosamine, which is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “contributes to the protection of joint cartilage exposed...... periods of three months can predict net changes in collagen type II in joint cartilage. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of glucosamine and maintenance of joints. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011...

  12. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous-capillary permeability pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Omikron Italia S.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous-capillary permeability. The food that is a subject of the health claim, a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal venous-capillary permeability, is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and the maintenance of normal venous-capillary permeability.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous tone pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Omikron Italia S.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous tone. The food that is a subject of the health claim, a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal venous tone, is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and the maintenance of normal venous tone.

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to caffeine and increased alertness pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to caffeine and increased alertness. The food constituent, caffeine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Increased alertness might be a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on caffeine and increased...... alertness, in the general adult population, for products containing at least 75 mg of caffeine per serving, has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. In the present application, the applicant proposed that, in order to bear the claim, a product should contain at least 40 mg...... of caffeine per serving. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that most studies which measured reaction time in various cognitive tasks found no effect of caffeine at doses caffeine was found on the majority of outcome...

  15. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2012-01-01

    Following an application from Barry Callebaut Belgium nv, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Cocoa flavanols are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “help maintain end...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2012-01-01

    Following an application from Barry Callebaut Belgium nv, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Cocoa flavanols are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “help maintain end...

  17. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides.

  18. Powerful Concepts in Global Health Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Engebretsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we emphasize the importance of questioning the global validity of significant concepts underpinning global health policy. This implies questioning the concept of global health as such and accepting that there is no global definition of the global. Further, we draw attention to ‘quality’ and ‘empowerment’ as examples of world-forming concepts. These concepts are exemplary for the gentle and quiet forms of power that underpin our reasoning within global health.

  19. Assessing comorbidity using claims data: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Warren, Joan L; Legler, Julie M

    2002-08-01

    Comorbidity, additional disease beyond the condition under study that increases a patient's total burden of illness, is one dimension of health status. For investigators working with observational data obtained from administrative databases, comorbidity assessment may be a useful and important means of accounting for differences in patients' underlying health status. There are multiple ways of measuring comorbidity. This paper provides an overview of current approaches to and issues in assessing comorbidity using claims data, with a particular focus on established indices and the SEER-Medicare database. In addition, efforts to improve measurement of comorbidity using claims data are described, including augmentation of claims data with medical record, patient self-report, or health services utilization data; incorporation of claims data from sources other than inpatient claims; and exploration of alternative conditions, indices, or ways of grouping conditions. Finally, caveats about claims data and areas for future research in claims-based comorbidity assessment are discussed. Although the use of claims databases such as SEER-Medicare for health services and outcomes research has become increasingly common, investigators must be cognizant of the limitations of comorbidity measures derived from these data sources in capturing and controlling for differences in patient health status. The assessment of comorbidity using claims data is a complex and evolving area of investigation.

  20. Assessment of malignancy risk in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with intramuscular interferon beta-1a: retrospective evaluation using a health insurance claims database and postmarketing surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomgren G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gary Bloomgren, Bjørn Sperling, Kimberly Cushing, Madé WentenBiogen Idec Inc., Weston, MA, USABackground: Intramuscular interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a, a multiple sclerosis (MS therapy that has been commercially available for over a decade, provides a unique opportunity to retrospectively assess postmarketing data for evidence of malignancy risk, compared with relatively limited data available for more recently approved therapies. Postmarketing and claims data were analyzed to determine the risk of malignancy in MS patients treated with intramuscular IFNβ-1a.Materials and methods: The cumulative reporting rates of suspected adverse drug reactions coded to malignancy in the intramuscular IFNβ-1a global safety database were compared with malignancy incidence rates in the World Health Organization GLOBOCAN database. In addition, using data from a large US claims database, the cumulative prevalence of malignancy in MS patients treated with intramuscular IFNβ-1a was compared with non-MS population controls, MS patients without intramuscular IFNβ-1a use, and untreated MS patients. Mean follow-up was approximately 3 years for all groups, ie, 3.1 years for the intramuscular IFNβ-1a group (range 0.02–6.0 years, 2.6 years for non-MS population controls (range 0–6.0 years, 2.6 years for the intramuscular IFNβ-1a nonuse group (range 0.01–6.0 years, and 2.4 years for the untreated MS group (range 0.01–6.0 years.Results: An estimated 402,250 patients received intramuscular IFNβ-1a during the postmarketing period. Cumulative reporting rates of malignancy in this population were consistent with GLOBOCAN incidence rates observed within the general population. The claims database included 12,894 MS patients who received intramuscular IFNβ-1a. No significant difference in malignancy prevalence was observed in intramuscular IFNβ-1a users compared with other groups.Conclusion: Results from this evaluation provide no evidence of an increased risk of

  1. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims. A claim is cognizable under this subpart if...

  2. Utilization and Expenditure of Hospital Admission in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder: National Health Insurance Claims Database Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Hung, Wen-Jiu; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lai, Chia-Im

    2011-01-01

    There were not many studies to provide information on health access and health utilization of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study describes a general profile of hospital admission and the medical cost among people with ASD, and to analyze the determinants of medical cost. A retrospective study was employed to analyze…

  3. Analysis of NHSLA claims in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan H; Jamil, Wiqqas; Lynn, Sam Mathew; Khan, Osman H; Markland, Kate; Giddins, Grey

    2012-05-01

    National Health Service (NHS) statistics in the United Kingdom demonstrate an increase in clinical negligence claims over the past 30 years. Reasons for this include elements of a cultural shift in attitudes toward the medical profession and the growth of the legal services industry. This issue affects medical and surgical health providers worldwide.The authors analyzed 2117 NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) orthopedic surgery claims between 1995 and 2001 with respect to these clinical areas: emergency department, outpatient care, surgery (elective or trauma operations), and inpatient care. The authors focused on the costs of settling and defending claims, costs attributable to clinical areas, common causes of claims, and claims relating to elective or trauma surgery. Numbers of claims and legal costs increased most notably in surgery (elective and trauma) and in the emergency department. However, claims are being defended more robustly. The annual cost for a successful defense has remained relatively stable, showing a slight decline. The common causes of claims are postoperative complication; wrong, delayed, or failure of diagnosis; inadequate consent; and wrong-site surgery. Certain surgical specialties (eg, spine and lower-limb surgery) have the most claims made during elective surgery, whereas upper-limb surgery has the most claims made during trauma surgery.The authors recommend that individual trusts liaise with orthopedic surgeons to devise strategies to address areas highlighted in our study. Despite differences in health care systems worldwide, the underlying issues are common. With improved understanding, physicians can deliver the service they promise their patients.

  4. Are You Putting Me On?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王花枝

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of phrases built on the word “put”, such as put by, put for, put across, put over and so forth. The expression“putting one on”is among them. You tell a person something that he finds difficult to believe, and he may look at you closely and ask:“Are you putting me on?”He does-n蒺t think you are serious. Perhaps, you are joking with him, teasing him, try-ing to test his reaction(反应).The expression “putting one on”is closest to the phrase “to put one over on a person”, meaning to trick, to de...

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous-capillary permeability pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous-capillary permeability. The food that is a subject of the health claim, a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal...... the consumption of a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and the maintenance of normal venous-capillary permeability....

  6. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous tone pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous tone. The food that is a subject of the health claim, a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal venous tone...... of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and the maintenance of normal venous tone....

  7. Frequent Users of Hospital Emergency Departments in Korea Characterized by Claims Data from the National Health Insurance: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hoon Woo

    Full Text Available The Korean National Health Insurance, which provides universal coverage for the entire Korean population, is now facing financial instability. Frequent emergency department (ED users may represent a medically vulnerable population who could benefit from interventions that both improve care and lower costs. To understand the nature of frequent ED users in Korea, we analyzed claims data from a population-based national representative sample. We performed both bivariate and multivariable analyses to investigate the association between patient characteristics and frequent ED use (4+ ED visits in a year using claims data of a 1% random sample of the Korean population, collected in 2009. Among 156,246 total ED users, 4,835 (3.1% were frequent ED users. These patients accounted for 14% of 209,326 total ED visits and 17.2% of $76,253,784 total medical expenses generated from all ED visits in the 1% data sample. Frequent ED users tended to be older, male, and of lower socio-economic status compared with occasional ED users (p < 0.001 for each. Moreover, frequent ED users had longer stays in the hospital when admitted, higher probability of undergoing an operative procedure, and increased mortality. Among 8,425 primary diagnoses, alcohol-related complaints and schizophrenia showed the strongest positive correlation with the number of ED visits. Among the frequent ED users, mortality and annual outpatient department visits were significantly lower in the alcohol-related patient subgroup compared with other frequent ED users; furthermore, the rate was even lower than that for non-frequent ED users. Our findings suggest that expanding mental health and alcohol treatment programs may be a reasonable strategy to decrease the dependence of these patients on the ED.

  8. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  9. Sex Differences in the Treatment and Outcome of Korean Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae-Seok; Kang, Hee-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evidence showing higher acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality rates among female compared with male inpatients has stimulated interest in whether this disparity is the result of biological factors or differences in the provision of healthcare services. We investigated the impact of sex on in-hospital mortality rates due to AMI, and evaluated the contribution of differences in the delivery of optimal medical services for AMI. We retrospectively constructed a dataset of 85,329 new patients admitted to Korean hospitals with AMI between 2003 and 2007 from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database. We used the claims database to provide information about treatment after admission or death for each patient. Proportionally more female than male patients aged 65 years or older had complications; however, proportionally fewer female patients underwent invasive procedures. Female patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than males (21.2% vs 14.6%, odds ratio [OR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52–1.64). The probability of death within 30 days after admission remained higher for females than males after adjusting for demographic characteristics and severity (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.13). After additionally adjusting for invasive and medical management, the probability of death within 30 days did not differ between males and females (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.99–1.08). A similar trend was revealed by an additional analysis of patients according to younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) age groups. The higher in-hospital mortality rates after AMI in Korean female patients was associated with a lower procedure rate. Evidence indicating that AMI symptoms differ according to sex highlights the need for health policies and public education programs that raise awareness of sex-related differences in early AMI symptoms to increase the incidence of appropriate early treatment in females. PMID:26334894

  10. Discontinuation of thyroid hormone treatment among children in the United States with congenital hypothyroidism: findings from health insurance claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosse Scott D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone treatment in children with congenital hypothyroidism can prevent intellectual disability. Guidelines recommend that children diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism through newborn screening remain on treatment to at least 3 years of age, after which a trial off therapy can determine which children have transient hypothyroidism. The purpose of this study was to describe the rate at which children with congenital hypothyroidism in the United States discontinue thyroid hormone treatment in early childhood. Methods Retrospective analysis of the 2002-2006 MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters research databases and the 2001-2005 MarketScan Multi-State Medicaid databases. Children were classified as having congenital hypothyroidism based on billing codes and having filled a prescription for thyroid hormone treatment. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis was used to determine discontinuation rates. Results There were a total of 412 Medicaid-enrolled children and 292 privately-insured children with presumed congenital hypothyroidism included in this study. The overall birth prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism across both datasets was about 1 per 2,300. By 36 months, the percentage who had discontinued thyroid replacement treatment was 38% (95% Confidence Interval: 32%-44%. Medicaid-enrolled children had a more rapid decline in the first 24 months of treatment compared to those with private insurance (P = 0.02. Conclusions More than one-third of children treated for congenital hypothyroidism discontinued treatment within 36 months, which is inconsistent with current guidelines. It is not known how many of these children required continued treatment or experience adverse effects from discontinuation. These findings emphasize the critical need for follow-up systems to monitor the outcome of newborn screening.

  11. Health system responsiveness and chronic disease care - What is the role of disease management programs? An analysis based on cross-sectional survey and administrative claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttger, Julia; Blümel, Miriam; Linder, Roland; Busse, Reinhard

    2017-07-01

    Health system responsiveness is an important aspect of health systems performance. The concept of responsiveness relates to the interpersonal and contextual aspects of health care. While disease management programs (DMPs) aim to improve the quality of health care (e.g. by improving the coordination of care), it has not been analyzed yet whether these programs improve the perceived health system responsiveness. Our study aims to close this gap by analyzing the differences in the perceived health system responsiveness between DMP-participants and non-participants. We used linked survey- and administrative claims data from 7037 patients with coronary heart disease in Germany. Of those, 5082 were enrolled and 1955 were not enrolled in the DMP. Responsiveness was assessed with an adapted version of the WHO responsiveness questionnaire in a postal survey in 2013. The survey covered 9 dimensions of responsiveness and included 17 items for each, GP and specialist care. Each item had five answer categories (very good - very bad). We handled missing values in the covariates by multiple imputation and applied propensity score matching (PSM) to control for differences between the two groups (DMP/non-DMP). We used Wilcoxon-signed-rank and McNemar test to analyze differences regarding the reported responsiveness. The PSM led to a matched and well balanced sample of 1921 pairs. Overall, DMP-participants rated the responsiveness of care more positive. The main difference was found for the coordination of care at the GP, with 62.0% of 1703 non-participants reporting a "good" or "very good" experience, compared to 69.1% of 1703 participants (p < 0.001). The results of our study indicate an overall high responsiveness for CHD-care, as well for DMP-participants as for non-participants. Yet, the results also clearly indicate that there is still a need to improve the coordination of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to FRUIT UP® and a reduction of post-prandial blood glucose responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from WILD-Valencia SAU, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Spain, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to FRUIT UP® and a reduction of post-prandial blood glucose responses. The Panel considers that the food, FRUIT UP®, and the food (i.e. glucose, sucrose) that FRUIT UP® should replace in foods or beverages are both sufficiently characterised in relation...

  13. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “Femilub®” and maintenance of vaginal moisture pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to “Femilub®” and maintenance of vaginal moisture. The food that is the subject of the health claim, “Femilub®”, which is a combination of macadamia oil, borage oil, perilla oil, d‑α‑tocopherol and biotin, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of vaginal moisture, is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of “Femilub®” and maintenance of vaginal moisture.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Kemin Foods LC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight. The food constituent, Slendesta® Potato Extract, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, a reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight individuals. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that all four human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim did not show an effect of Slendesta® Potato Extract on the reduction of body weight. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to cytidine 5-diphosphocholine and maintenance of normal vision pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Omikron Italia S.r.l. submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to cytidine 5-diphosphocholine and maintenance of normal vision. The Panel considers that the food constituent cytidine 5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicoline, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal vision, is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from the three narrative reviews and the eight human intervention studies provided by the applicant for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of CDP-choline and maintenance of normal vision.

  16. Put on My Shoes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast encourages increased physical activity to the tune of original music.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/29/2007.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and risk of falling pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and risk of falling. Vitamin D (D2 and D3) is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in the risk of falling among men and women 60 years of age and older is beneficial to human health by reducing the risk of bone fractures. Daily vitamin D supplementation...... as the primary outcome. Statistical pooling of the data from these randomised controlled trials consistently shows a significant reduction in the risk of falling. The available data do not provide information about the lowest effective dose of vitamin D needed to obtain the claimed effect. On the basis...... of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the intake of vitamin D and a reduction in the risk of falling. In order to obtain the claimed effect, 800 I.U. (20 g) of vitamin D from all sources should be consumed daily. The target population...

  18. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific opinion on niacin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to niacin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism. The Panel considers that niacin, the food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal energy......-yielding metabolism is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel has previously assessed a claim on niacin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism with a favourable outcome. The target population was the general population. The Panel considers that the role of niacin in contributing to normal energy......-yielding metabolism applies to all ages, including infants and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of niacin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism. The following wording reflects...

  19. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal thyroid function pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal thyroid function. The food constituent, iodine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal thyroid function is a beneficial physiological effect for infants and young children. A claim on iodine and normal thyroid function in the general population has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of iodine on normal thyroid function applies to all ages, including infants and young children (from birth to three years. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of iodine and contribution to normal thyroid function.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content of caffeoylquinic acids, trigonelline and N-methylpyridinium, and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21 and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. Coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content...... intervention study showed that daily consumption of coffee C21 (750 ml/day) for four weeks decreased spontaneous DNA strand breaks in habitual coffee drinkers after coffee withdrawal over the previous four weeks, but that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided......, and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which coffee (including coffee C21) could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content of caffeoylquinic acids, trigonelline...

  1. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  2. 42 CFR 431.972 - Claims sampling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Estimating Improper Payments in Medicaid and CHIP § 431.972 Claims sampling procedures. (a) Claims universe... been if the claim had not been denied) through Title XIX (Medicaid) or Title XXI (CHIP). (2) The State...

  3. Economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation compared with other ablation techniques in women with menorrhagia: a retrospective analysis with German health claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischoff-Everding C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Bischoff-Everding,1 Ruediger Soeder,2 Benno Neukirch3 1HGC GesundheitsConsult GmbH, Duesseldorf, Germany; 2Gynecological Joint Practice, Mainz, Germany; 3Faculty of Health Care, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Sciences, Krefeld, Germany Objective: To evaluate the economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation (RFA compared with other ablation techniques for the treatment of menorrhagia.Methods: Using German health claims data, women meeting defined inclusion criteria for the intervention group (RFA were selected. A comparable control group (other endometrial ablations was established using propensity score matching. These two groups were compared during the quarter of treatment (QoT and a follow-up of 2 years for the following outcomes: costs during QoT and during follow-up, repeated menorrhagia diagnoses during follow-up and necessary retreatments during follow-up. Results: After performing propensity score matching, 50 cases could be allocated to the intervention group, while 38 were identified as control cases. Patients in the RFA group had 5% fewer repeat menorrhagia diagnoses (40% vs 45%; not significant and 5% fewer treatments associated with recurrent menorrhagia (6% vs 11%; not significant than cases in the control group. During the QoT, the RFA group incurred €578 additional costs (€2,068 vs €1,490; ns. However, during follow-up, the control group incurred €1,254 additional costs (€4,561 vs €5,815; ns, with medication, outpatient physician consultations, and hospitals costs being the main cost drivers. However, none of the results were statistically significant. Conclusion: Although RFA was more cost-intensive in the QoT compared with other endometrial ablation techniques, an average total savings of €676 was generated during the follow-up period. While having evidence that RFA is clinically equivalent to other endometrial ablation procedures, we generated indications that

  4. Linking primary study data with administrative and claims data in a German cohort study on work, age, health and work participation: is there a consent bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, C; Swart, E; Robra, B-P; March, S

    2017-09-01

    We analysed the degree and impact of consent bias in the prospective study 'leben in der Arbeit (lidA)' after linking primary interview data with claims data from German statutory health insurance funds as well as with administrative data provided by the German Federal Employment Agency. Prospective cohort study. Within two study waves (2011, 2014) primary data were collected based on computer-assisted personal interviews. During interview informed consent to data linkage was obtained. We used binary logistic regression analyses with participants' consent for record linkage as the dependent variable calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for independent variables. Several sociodemographic, socio-economic and work-related factors were modelled as potential determinants of consent. A total of 4244 participants took part in both waves. After excluding invalid consent, 4178 participants were included in the analysis. About 3918 (93.8%) of these participants gave their consent to link their primary data with data from at least one source. Within regression analyses only moderate bias was found due to region of residence, apprenticeship, professional affiliations, income and number of diseases. Participants from former West Germany were less likely to have their study data linked with both data sources (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.42-0.96]) than those from the former East Germany. Participants with no information on income were more likely to refuse consent to both data sources compared to the reference group (net income: under EUR 1000; OR 0.15 [95% CI 0.08-0.30]). Respondents with two (OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.06-1.77]) or three and more diseases (OR 1.30 [95% CI 1.02-1.66]) diagnosed by a doctor agreed more frequently to linking both data sources than participants without disease. There is just a small proportion of variance in consenting explained by the models (R(2): 0.063-0.085). Also, only small changes of factors' prevalence were observed in

  5. DoD Did Not Negotiate Rates With Overseas Health Care Providers and Generally Paid Claims as Billed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    liquidate its assets and pay $99.9 million in restitution to the U.S. Government. In 2004, TMA officials implemented cost containment measures over...Supplemental Health Insurance Plans ,” February 10, 2006 $0 $5,000,000 $10,000,000 $15,000,000 $20,000,000 $25,00,0000 FY 2012FY 2011FY 2010FY 2009...by law for private insurance plans , such as TRICARE. The Assistant Secretary stated that DHA would have no leverage to negotiate rates lower than

  6. 小议put on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓迪

    2011-01-01

    put on可以表达多种含义,现将其主要用法总结如下。 1.穿上;戴上。例如:Nancy put on her coat and went out 南希穿上大衣出去了。 2.涂;抹;擦。例如:Lucy was putting on her makeup in front of the mirror.

  7. Putting HR outsourcing into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the time-consuming responsibility of human resources (HR) management, a growing number of medical practices are outsourcing their HR to professional employer organizations (PEOs) so they can concentrate on their core business. A PEO functions as an HR department-minus the high overhead-managing daily administrative tasks such as payroll processing and related tax filings, employee benefits, and workers' compensation coverage and claims resolution. PEOs help physicians' offices keep up with the piles of paperwork that never seem to shrink, freeing doctors to focus on patient care and building their practice. Because of their volume buying power, PEOs are able to offer employees of small medical practices big-company benefits-everything from health, dental, and vision coverage to long-term disability insurance and tuition assistance. A fledgling industry only a decade ago, HR outsourcing has morphed into a blossoming industry. Enlisting the services of a PEO is now considered de rigueur in many small business circles.

  8. Treatment Gap in the National Health-screening Program in Korea: Claim-based Follow-up of Statin Use for Sustained Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eunmi; Shin, Dong Wook; Yang, Hyung-kook; Yun, Jae Moon; Chun, So Hyun; Suh, Beomseok; Lee, Hyejin; Son, Ki Young; Cho, BeLong

    2015-09-01

    Participation in a screening program by itself may not improve clinical outcomes. Treatment gaps in the program may limit its full benefit. We evaluated statin prescription rates for subjects with sustained hypercholesterolemia to assess the treatment gaps in the National Health Screening Program (NHSP) in Korea. A retrospective, random cohort was established among National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) members. Finally, we examined 465,499 individuals who attended the NHSP from 2003 to 2010 without any history of dyslipidemia, statin prescription, or hospitalization for cardiovascular events until the end of 2002. The subsequent statin prescription rates were identified from the NHIC medical service claim database from 2003 to 2011. Descriptive data and odds ratio from multivariate logistic analyses on statin prescription rates and the corresponding correlations were evaluated. The NHSP detected 114,085 (24.5%) cases of newly diagnosed hypercholesterolemia. However, only 8.6% of these received statin prescription within 6 months of diagnosis. For cases of sustained hypercholesterolemia determined in the next screening visit by the NHSP, the statin prescription rate increased, but only to 12.2%. Statin prescriptions were more common among females, older individuals, and hypertension or diabetes patients. Furthermore, the statin prescription rates had increased over the study period. The NHSP exhibited low statin prescription rate which has been improving. For the NHSP to be effective, it would be worthwhile to decrease the gap between the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia and the following treatment.

  9. Myths and memes about single-payer health insurance in the United States: a rebuttal to conservative claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyman, John P

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen the rapid growth of private think tanks within the neoconservative movement that conduct "policy research" biased to their own agenda. This article provides an evidence-based rebuttal to a 2002 report by one such think tank, the Dallas-based National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA), which was intended to discredit 20 alleged myths about single-payer national health insurance as a policy option for the United States. Eleven "myths" are rebutted under eight categories: access, cost containment, quality, efficiency, single-payer as solution, control of drug prices, ability to compete abroad (the "business case"), and public support for a single-payer system. Six memes (self-replicating ideas that are promulgated without regard to their merits) are identified in the NCPA report. Myths and memes should have no place in the national debate now underway over the future of a failing health care system, and need to be recognized as such and countered by experience and unbiased evidence.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Fuko Pharma Ltd, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment. The food constituent, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “help to maintain normal defecation during antibiotic treatment” and the target population proposed by the applicant is “healthy outpatient adults and children on oral antibiotic treatment”. Maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that the information submitted from five out of seven human intervention studies is insufficient to allow a full scientific evaluation, and that these studies have important methodological limitations. No conclusions could be drawn from these studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The remaining two human intervention studies, from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim, did not show an effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the incidence of diarrhoea resulting from antibiotic treatment. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment.

  11. Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) , Medicare Claims data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2003 forward. CMS compiles claims data for Medicare and Medicaid patients across a variety of categories and years. This includes Inpatient and Outpatient claims,...

  12. FSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the ne rvous system, including psycholog ical functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the nervous system, including psychological functions. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions...

  13. Health care resource use and costs associated with possible side effects of high oral corticosteroid use in asthma: a claims-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luskin AT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Allan T Luskin,1 Evgeniya N Antonova,2 Michael S Broder,3 Eunice Y Chang,3 Theodore A Omachi,2 Dennis K Ledford4 1HealthyAirways, Madison, WI, 2Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, 3Partnership for Health Analytic Research, LLC, Beverly Hills, CA, 4Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, James A. Haley Veterans’ Hospital, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Background: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of possible oral corticosteroid (OCS-related side effects and health care resource use and costs in patients with asthma.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, matched-cohort, retrospective study using a commercial claims database. Adults with asthma diagnosis codes and evidence of asthma medication use were studied. Patients with high OCS use (≥30 days of OCS annually were divided into those who did versus those who did not experience OCS-related possible side effects. Their health care resource use and costs were compared using linear regression or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for age, sex, geographic region, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease status.Results: After adjustment, high OCS users with possible side effects were more likely to have office visits (23.0 vs 19.6; P<0.001 and hospitalizations (0.44 vs 0.22; P<0.001 than those without possible side effects. Emergency department visits were similar between the groups. High OCS users with possible side effects had higher adjusted total annual mean health care costs ($25,168 than those without such side effects ($21,882; P=0.009.Conclusion: Among high OCS users, patients with possible OCS-related side effects are more likely to use health care services than those without such side effects. Although OCS may help control asthma and manage exacerbations, OCS side effects may result in additional health care resource use and costs, highlighting the need

  14. Incidence and mortality of hip fracture among the elderly population in South Korea: a population-based study using the National Health Insurance claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Won-Jung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of epidemiologic information on osteoporotic hip fractures hampers the development of preventive or curative measures against osteoporosis in South Korea. We conducted a population-based study to estimate the annual incidence of hip fractures. Also, we examined factors associated with post-fracture mortality among Korean elderly to evaluate the impact of osteoporosis on our society and to identify high-risk populations. Methods The Korean National Health Insurance (NHI claims database was used to identify the incidence of hip fractures, defined as patients having a claim record with a diagnosis of hip fracture and a hip fracture-related operation during 2003. The 6-month period prior to 2003 was set as a 'window period,' such that patients were defined as incident cases only if their first record of fracture was observed after the window period. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to investigate the relationship between survival time and baseline patient and provider characteristics available from the NHI data. Results The age-standardized annual incidence rate of hip fractures requiring operation over 50 years of age was 146.38 per 100,000 women and 61.72 per 100,000 men, yielding a female to male ratio of 2.37. The 1-year mortality was 16.55%, which is 2.85 times higher than the mortality rate for the general population (5.8% in this age group. The risk of post-fracture mortality at one year is significantly higher for males and for persons having lower socioeconomic status, living in places other than the capital city, not taking anti-osteoporosis pharmacologic therapy following fracture, or receiving fracture-associated operations from more advanced hospitals such as general or tertiary hospitals. Conclusion This national epidemiological study will help raise awareness of osteoporotic hip fractures among the elderly population and hopefully motivate public health policy makers to develop effective national

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to chitosan and reduction in body weight (ID 679, 1499), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4663), reduction of intestinal transit time (ID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to chitosan and reduction in body weight, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, reduction of intestinal transit time and reduction of inflammation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...... of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is chitosan. The Panel considers that chitosan is sufficiently characterised....

  16. "You Cannot Collect Data Using Your Own Resources And Put It On Open Access": Perspectives From Africa About Public Health Data-Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anane-Sarpong, Evelyn; Wangmo, Tenzin; Ward, Claire Leonie; Sankoh, Osman; Tanner, Marcel; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-07-25

    Data-sharing is a desired default in the field of public health and a source of much ethical deliberation. Sharing data potentially contributes the largest, most efficient source of scientific data, but is fraught with contextual challenges which make stakeholders, particularly those in under-resourced contexts hesitant or slow to share. Relatively little empirical research has engaged stakeholders in discussing the issue. This study sought to explore relevant experiences, contextual, and subjective explanations around the topic to provide a rich and detailed presentation of what it means to different stakeholders and contexts to share data and how that can guide practice and ethical guidance. A qualitative design involving interviews was undertaken with professionals working in public health institutions endowed with data (HDSS), ethics committees, and advisory agencies which help shape health research in Africa. A descriptive form of thematic analysis was used to summarize results into six key themes: (1) The role of HDSSs in research using public health data and data-sharing; (2) Ownership and funding are critical factors influencing data-sharing; (3) Other factors discourage data-sharing; (4) Promoting and sustaining data-sharing; (5) Ethical guidance structures; and (6) Establishing effective guidance. The themes reveal factors regarding the willingness or not to share and an intricate ethical system that current discourse could reflect. Many of the concerns resonate with the literature, but a whole other gamut of people and process issues; commitments, investments, careers, and the right ethical guidance are needed to realize a sustainable goal of reaching 'share' as a default. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Inpatient Claims PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Inpatient Public Use Files (PUF) named CMS 2008 BSA Inpatient Claims PUF with information from 2008 Medicare...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat while maintaining lean body mass in the context...... and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims are sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of body and visceral fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in the context......-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet....

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucosamine and maintenance of normal joint cartilage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to glucosamine, formulated as glucosamine sulphate or hydrochloride, and maintenance of normal joint cartilage. Glucosamine is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “contributes to the maintenance of normal joint cartilage”. The target population as proposed by the applicant...... to studies in patients with osteoarthritis, in healthy subjects, in animals and in vitro as being pertinent to the health claim. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that no human studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn on the effect of dietary glucosamine...... on the maintenance of cartilage in individuals without osteoarthritis, and that the evidence provided in the in vitro and animal studies in support of the biological plausibility for a possible contribution of dietary glucosamine to the maintenance of joint cartilage in humans is weak. The Panel concludes...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium logum LA 10, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and reducing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and reducing intestinal discomfort. The food that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of B. longum LA 101, L...

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, Bimuno® GOS, which is a mixture of β‑galacto-oligosaccharides produced through conversion of lactose by enzymes from Bifidobacterium...

  2. Using Health Care Claims Data to Assess the Prevalence of Hodgkin Lymphoma and Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jay; Siegartel, Lisa R; Lingohr-Smith, Melissa; Menges, Brandy; Makenbaeva, Dinara

    2017-02-01

    Although most patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) respond to primary therapy, some patients experience relapses or are refractory to treatment (RR-HL). The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of HL and RR-HL in the United States by using a large health care claims database. Patients with ≥1 diagnosis for HL between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014 (prevalence assessment period), in the MarketScan Commercial and Medicare databases were identified. RR-HL patients were identified as any HL patient with any record for either an autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or brentuximab vedotin (BV) treatment between January 1, 2010, and September 30, 2014 (entire study period). Prevalence rates of HL and RR-HL were calculated as the number of patients with HL or RR-HL divided by the total number of persons with insurance enrollment during the prevalence assessment period (January 1, 2013-September 30, 2014) in the MarketScan databases. Age- and sex-specific prevalence rates for HL and RR-HL were estimated. The estimated prevalence rates based on the claims database analysis were applied to the US national population estimates from the US Census Bureau to project the national prevalence of HL and RR-HL in the United States. Of persons with any insurance enrollment in the MarketScan databases during the prevalence assessment period (N = 58,968,235), 24,812 (0.04%) were identified as having HL (mean age, 48.6 years) between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014. Of this HL population, 712 (2.87%) were identified as RR-HL patients, with 432 (1.74%) having received ASCT, 199 (0.80%) having received BV, and 81 (0.33%) having received both ASCT and BV treatments during the study period. According to the national projection according to the US Census population estimate, the overall number of persons with HL in the United States was estimated at 149,615 (469.2 per 1 million) in 2014, with 2.72% (N = 4077; 12.8 per 1 million) having RR

  3. Demanda infantil por serviços de saúde mental: sinal de crise Juvenile claim on mental health care: sign of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Boarini

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é o resultado de uma reflexão sobre o significado histórico da alta demanda infantil aos serviços de saúde mental na rede pública de saúde. Através da literatura produzida sobre o tema infância, buscamos recuperar aspectos concernentes à sua constituição enquanto produção social. Pontuamos a existência de uma crise para a infância - enquanto categoria histórica - na pós-modernidade e destacamos algumas rupturas presentes no "pensar" sobre a infância. Ao nos referirmos a todas as crianças como "crianças em si"², negamos que a grande maioria delas são tratadas como "crianças tão somente"³ ou seja, apenas pelo dado da maturação biológica. Identificamos que tal crise, para as "crianças tão somente" - pertencentes às classes populares - não é exclusiva da era pós-moderna.This study is a result of the reflection on the historical meaning of the high juvenile claim on mental health care in public health care units. Through literature about childhood subject, we attempted to recover aspects concerning to its formation since social production. We point out the existence of a childhood crisis - while historical category - in post modern times and we emphasise the presence of some breaks in that childhood reflection. When referring to all children as "children as a whole"4, we deny that most of them are treated as "children by themselves", for instance, just by their biological maturation. We identified that such crisis in "children by themselves"5 - from working classes - does not belong exclusively to the post-modern times.

  4. Putting Integrated Systems Health Management Capabilities to Work: Development of an Advanced Caution and Warning System for Next-Generation Crewed Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum with calcium phosphoryl oligosaccharides and maintenance of tooth mineralisation (ID 337) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to sugar-free chewing gum with calcium phosphoryl oligosaccharides and maintenance of tooth mineralisation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received...... from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is calcium phosphoryl oligosaccharides. In the context of the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food, which is the subject of the health claim is sugar-free chewing gum...

  6. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to ♀EFAX™ and reduction of menstrual discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to ♀EFAX™ and reduction of menstrual discomfort. The food, ♀EFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil and is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of menstrual discomfort, is a beneficial...... physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of ♀EFAX™ and reduction of menstrual discomfort. © European...

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food, monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect......, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations has already been assessed with a favourable outcome at daily intakes of 10 mg monacolin K from any red...... on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Hassia Mineralquellen GmbH & Co KG, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention. The Panel considers that Rosbacher drive®, which contains natural mineral water plus grape juice, lemon juice, pomegranate juice, elderberry juice, isomaltulose, sucrose, fructose syrup, caffeine, ascorbic acid and natural flavourings, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, increased attention, is a beneficial physiological effect. The single study which was carried out with Rosbacher drive® was an open-label, non-randomised sequential study and the study did not report on any outcomes of attention. No conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Rosbacher drive® and increased attention.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to KF2BL20 and maintenance of normal hair pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to KF2BL20, which is a combination of keratin, copper, zinc, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and D-biotin, and maintenance of normal hair. The Panel considers that KF2BL20 is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “helps to reinforce hair strength and normal hair function and contributes to reduce hair loss”. The target population proposed by the applicant is healthy adults in the general population. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal hair is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant identified one single arm study as being pertinent to the health claim. The Panel notes that this study was uncontrolled and considers that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of KF2BL20 and maintenance of normal hair.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Italsur srl, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The Panel considers that barley soup “Orzotto”, which is a vegetable mix containing pearled barley, Tuscan Black cabbage, potatoes, “blu savoy” cabbage, purple carrots, “bi coloured” spinach, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, onions, red and yellow celery and parsley, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to krill oil and maintenance of joint comfort pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to krill oil and maintenance of joint comfort. The Panel considers that krill oil is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “helps to improve the comfort of sensitive joints”. The Panel considers that maintenance of joint comfort is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant identified one human intervention study as being pertinent to the health claim. The Panel notes that chronic inflammation was an inclusion criterion of the study, that a significant number of the patients recruited were reported to have confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or of both cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis, and that the WOMAC osteoarthritis questionnaire was administered only to patients with arthritic disease (osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The Panel also notes that no evidence which could justify the extrapolation of the results, obtained in patients with joint diseases characterised by chronic inflammation, to the target population, subjects without chronic joint diseases, was provided by the applicant. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of krill oil and maintenance of joint comfort.

  13. Linked Patient-Reported Outcomes Data From Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Recruited on an Open Internet Platform to Health Care Claims Databases Identifies a Representative Population for Real-Life Data Analysis in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risson, Valery; Ghodge, Bhaskar; Bonzani, Ian C; Korn, Jonathan R; Medin, Jennie; Saraykar, Tanmay; Sengupta, Souvik; Saini, Deepanshu; Olson, Melvin

    2016-09-22

    An enormous amount of information relevant to public health is being generated directly by online communities. To explore the feasibility of creating a dataset that links patient-reported outcomes data, from a Web-based survey of US patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) recruited on open Internet platforms, to health care utilization information from health care claims databases. The dataset was generated by linkage analysis to a broader MS population in the United States using both pharmacy and medical claims data sources. US Facebook users with an interest in MS were alerted to a patient-reported survey by targeted advertisements. Eligibility criteria were diagnosis of MS by a specialist (primary progressive, relapsing-remitting, or secondary progressive), ≥12-month history of disease, age 18-65 years, and commercial health insurance. Participants completed a questionnaire including data on demographic and disease characteristics, current and earlier therapies, relapses, disability, health-related quality of life, and employment status and productivity. A unique anonymous profile was generated for each survey respondent. Each anonymous profile was linked to a number of medical and pharmacy claims datasets in the United States. Linkage rates were assessed and survey respondents' representativeness was evaluated based on differences in the distribution of characteristics between the linked survey population and the general MS population in the claims databases. The advertisement was placed on 1,063,973 Facebook users' pages generating 68,674 clicks, 3719 survey attempts, and 651 successfully completed surveys, of which 440 could be linked to any of the claims databases for 2014 or 2015 (67.6% linkage rate). Overall, no significant differences were found between patients who were linked and not linked for educational status, ethnicity, current or prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT) treatment, or presence of a relapse in the last 12 months. The frequencies of the

  14. Linked Patient-Reported Outcomes Data From Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Recruited on an Open Internet Platform to Health Care Claims Databases Identifies a Representative Population for Real-Life Data Analysis in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodge, Bhaskar; Bonzani, Ian C; Korn, Jonathan R; Medin, Jennie; Saraykar, Tanmay; Sengupta, Souvik; Saini, Deepanshu; Olson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Background An enormous amount of information relevant to public health is being generated directly by online communities. Objective To explore the feasibility of creating a dataset that links patient-reported outcomes data, from a Web-based survey of US patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) recruited on open Internet platforms, to health care utilization information from health care claims databases. The dataset was generated by linkage analysis to a broader MS population in the United States using both pharmacy and medical claims data sources. Methods US Facebook users with an interest in MS were alerted to a patient-reported survey by targeted advertisements. Eligibility criteria were diagnosis of MS by a specialist (primary progressive, relapsing-remitting, or secondary progressive), ≥12-month history of disease, age 18-65 years, and commercial health insurance. Participants completed a questionnaire including data on demographic and disease characteristics, current and earlier therapies, relapses, disability, health-related quality of life, and employment status and productivity. A unique anonymous profile was generated for each survey respondent. Each anonymous profile was linked to a number of medical and pharmacy claims datasets in the United States. Linkage rates were assessed and survey respondents’ representativeness was evaluated based on differences in the distribution of characteristics between the linked survey population and the general MS population in the claims databases. Results The advertisement was placed on 1,063,973 Facebook users’ pages generating 68,674 clicks, 3719 survey attempts, and 651 successfully completed surveys, of which 440 could be linked to any of the claims databases for 2014 or 2015 (67.6% linkage rate). Overall, no significant differences were found between patients who were linked and not linked for educational status, ethnicity, current or prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT) treatment, or presence of a relapse in

  15. 9 CFR 56.6 - Presentation of claims for indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims for indemnity. 56.6 Section 56.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.6 Presentation of claims for indemnity. Claims for the...

  16. 9 CFR 52.4 - Presentation of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims. 52.4 Section 52.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PSEUDORABIES § 52.4 Presentation of claims. (a) When swine have been destroyed under § 52.2(a), any claim...

  17. 42 CFR 430.40 - Deferral of claims for FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 45 CFR part 16. ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deferral of claims for FFP. 430.40 Section 430.40... Medicaid Payments § 430.40 Deferral of claims for FFP. (a) Requirements for deferral. Payment of a claim...

  18. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to carbohydrate solutions and maintenance of physical performance during endurance exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to carbohydrate solutions and maintenance of physical performance during endurance exercise. The food, which is proposed by the applicant to be the subject of the health claim, is “carbohydrate solutions...... were provided by the applicant for the scientific substantiation of this health claim. The Panel considers that these meta-analyses cannot be used to substantiate a claim on the effect of carbohydrate solutions on the maintenance of physical performance during endurance exercise as compared to water......Following an application from the British Specialist Nutrition Association Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to lactose and increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention (ID 668) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to lactose and increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is lactose. The Panel considers that lactose is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “calcium absorption”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. The Panel notes...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to linoleic acid (LA) in combination with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and reduction of ocular dryness (ID 4274) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to linoleic acid (LA) in combination with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and reduction of ocular dryness. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from...... Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claims is linoleic acid in combination with gamma-linolenic acid. The Panel considers that the food constituents, linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid, are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “ocular...

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals (ID 646, 1224, 1238, 1339

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims...... and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is lactose, which should be “decreased” or “reduced” in foods in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that lactose is sufficiently characterised...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fats and “function of the cell membrane” (ID 622, 2900, 2911) and normal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (ID 670, 2902) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to fats and “function of the cell membrane” and normal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is fats. The Panel considers that fats are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effects....

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to arabinoxylan produced from wheat endosperm and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 830) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of a health...... claim in relation to arabinoxylan produced from wheat endosperm and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from...... Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is “wheat grain fibre”. From the references and information provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituent that is responsible for the claimed effect is arabinoxylan from wheat endosperm...

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to calcium and potassium and maintenance of normal acid-base balance (ID 400, 407) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to calcium and potassium and maintenance of normal acid-base balance. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claims are calcium and potassium. The Panel considers that calcium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “calcium contributes to acid/base balance within metabolism” and “mineral/potassium: key function...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health cla...... the dietary intake of carbonate or bicarbonate salts of sodium or potassium and maintenance of normal bone....... claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium. The Panel considers that carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “acid...

  6. Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    1992) (claim based on insertion and removal of elbow prosthesis more than two years before filing claims barred by SOL); but see Jastremski v...States, 957 F.2d 108 (4th Cir. 1992) (operator of mobile lounge at Dulles Airport is not U.S. employee, but independent contractor); Bird v. United

  7. Olive oil polyphenols: A quantitative method by high-performance liquid-chromatography-diode-array detection for their determination and the assessment of the related health claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciutelli, Massimo; Marconi, Shara; Boarelli, Maria Chiara; Caprioli, Giovanni; Sagratini, Gianni; Ballini, Roberto; Fiorini, Dennis

    2017-01-20

    In order to assess if an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) can be acknowledged with the health claim related to olive oil polyphenols (Reg. EU n.432/2012), a new method to quantify these species in EVOO, by means of liquid-liquid extraction followed by HPLC-DAD/MS/MS of the hydroalcoholic extract, has been developed and validated. Different extraction procedures, different types of reverse-phase analytical columns (Synergi Polar, Spherisorb ODS2 and Kinetex) and eluents have been tested. The chromatographic column Synergi Polar (250×4.6mm, 4μm), never used before in this kind of application, provided the best results, with water and methanol/isopropanol (9/1) as eluents. The method allows the quantification of the phenolic alcohols tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, the phenolic acids vanillic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, secoiridoids derivatives, the lignans, pinoresinol and acetoxypinoresinol and the flavonoids luteolin and apigenin. The new method has been applied to 20 commercial EVOOs belonging to two different price range categories (3.78-5.80 euros/L and 9.5-25.80 euros/L) and 5 olive oils. The obtained results highlight that acetoxypinoresinol, ferulic acid, vanillic acid and the total non secoiridoid phenolic substances resulted to be significantly higher in HEVOOs than in LEVOOs (P=0.0026, 0.0217, 0.0092, 0.0003 respectively). For most of the samples analysed there is excellent agreement between the results obtained by applying the HPLC method adopted by the International Olive Council and the results obtained by applying the presented HPLC method. Results obtained by HPLC methods have been also compared with the ones obtained by the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How does sex affect the care dependency risk one year after stroke? A study based on claims data from a German health insurance fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Deutschbein, Johannes; Nolte, Christian H; Kohler, Martin; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Schenk, Liane

    2017-09-01

    The study explores the association between sex and care dependency risk one year after stroke. The study uses claims data from a German statutory health insurance fund. Patients were included if they received a diagnosis of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke between 1 January and 31 December 2007 and if they survived for one year after stroke and were not dependent on care before the event (n = 1851). Data were collected over a one-year period. Care dependency was defined as needing substantial assistance in activities of daily living for a period of at least six months. Geriatric conditions covered ICD-10 symptom complexes that characterize geriatric patients (e.g. urinary incontinence, cognitive deficits, depression). Multivariate regression analyses were performed. One year after the stroke event, women required nursing care significantly more often than men (31.2% vs. 21.3%; odds ratio for need of assistance: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.36-2.07). Adjusted for age, the odds ratio decreased by 65.7% to 1.23 (n.s.). Adjusted for geriatric conditions, the odds ratio decreased further and did not remain significant (adjusted OR: 1.18 (CI: 0.90-1.53). It may be assumed that women have a higher risk of becoming care-dependent after stroke than men because they are older and suffer more often from geriatric conditions such as urinary incontinence at onset of stroke. Preventive strategies should therefore focus on geriatric conditions in order to reduce the post-stroke care dependency risk for women.

  9. Medication adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus: does physician drug dispensing enhance quality of care? Evidence from a large health claims database in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Carola A; Reich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background The drug-dispensing channel is a scarcely explored determinant of medication adherence, which is considered as a key indicator for the quality of care among patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the difference in adherence between diabetes patients who obtained their medication directly from a prescribing physician (physician dispensing [PD]) or via a pharmacy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large health care claims database from 2011 to 2014. Patients with diabetes of all ages and receiving at least one oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) prescription were included. We calculated patients’ individual adherence to OADs defined as the proportion of days covered (PDC), which was measured over 1 year after patient identification. Good adherence was defined as PDC ≥80%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the PDC and the dispensing channel (PD, pharmacy). Results We identified a total of 10,430 patients prescribed drugs by a dispensing physician and 16,292 patients receiving drugs from a pharmacy. Medication adherence was poor in both patient groups: ~40% of the study population attained good adherence to OADs. We found no significant impact of PD on the adherence level in diabetes patients. Covariates associated significantly with good adherence were older age groups, male sex, occurrence of comorbidity and combined diabetes drug therapy. Conclusion In conclusion, adherence to antihyperglycemic medication is suboptimal among patients with diabetes. The results of this study provide evidence that the dispensing channel does not have an impact on adherence in Switzerland. Certainly, medication adherence needs to be improved in both supply settings. Physicians as well as pharmacists are encouraged to develop and implement useful tools to increase patients’ adherence behavior. PMID:27695299

  10. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  11. Examining Fluoroquinolone Claims Among Gonorrhea-Associated Prescription Drug Claims, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Carroll, Danya S; Gift, Thomas L

    2015-11-01

    After the release of CDC's revised gonorrhea treatment guidelines in April 2007, a study reported the declining use of fluoroquinolones to treat gonorrhea among health departments participating in the Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Network. In this study, we examine the proportion of fluoroquinolone claims among gonorrhea-associated prescription drug claims from a large insurance database from 2000 through 2010. We extracted drug claims associated with gonorrhea diagnosis claims from the MarketScan database for 2000-2010 and calculated the proportion of the drug claims for fluoroquinolones on a monthly basis. We then used an interrupted time series analysis to investigate trend characteristics of fluoroquinolone claims before and after the gonorrhea treatment guidelines were revised in April 2007. Although there was a monthly decline in the proportion of fluoroquinolone claims before April 2007 (-0.11 percentage points, pfluoroquinolones after April 2007, implying a gradual permanent decline over the analytic period. Our results are consistent with the findings of the previous study and indicate a gradual and permanent decline (over the analytic period) in the proportion of fluoroquinolone claims among gonorrhea-associated prescription drug claims. However, because this is a convenience sample of claims data, these findings cannot be generalized to the entire privately insured population in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Long-Term Effectiveness of a Multifactorial Fall and Fracture Prevention Program in Bavarian Nursing Homes: An Analysis Based on Health Insurance Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; Lindlbauer, Ivonne; Rapp, Kilian; Becker, Clemens; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-06-01

    Femoral fractures are frequently consequences of falls in nursing homes and are associated with considerable costs and unfavorable outcomes such as immobility and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effectiveness of a multifactorial fall and fracture prevention program in nursing homes in terms of reducing femoral fractures. Retrospective cohort study. Nursing homes. Health insurance claims data for 2005-2013 including 85,148 insurants of a sickness fund (Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse Bayern), aged 65 years or older and living in 802 nursing homes in Bavaria, Germany. The fall prevention program was implemented stepwise in 4 time-lagged waves in almost 1,000 nursing homes in Bavaria, Germany, and was financially supported by a Bavarian statutory health insurance for the initial period of 3 years after implementation. The components of Bavarian Fall and Fracture Prevention Program were related to the staff (education), to the residents (progressive strength and balance training, medication, hip protectors), and suggested environmental adaptations as well as fall documentation and feedback on fall statistics. Data were used to create an unbalanced panel data set with observations per resident and quarterly period. We designed each wave to have 9 quarters (2.25 years) before implementation and 15 quarters (3.75 years) as follow-up period, respectively. Time trend-adjusted logistic generalized estimating equations were used to examine the impact of implementation of the fall prevention program on the likelihood of femoral fractures, controlling for resident and nursing home characteristics. The analysis took into account that the fall prevention program was implemented in 4 time-lagged waves. The implementation of the fall prevention program was not associated with a significant reduction in femoral fractures. Only a transient reduction of femoral fractures in the first wave was observed. Patient characteristics were positively

  13. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and contribution to softening of stools pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and contribution to softening of stools. The food constituent, beta-palmitate, that is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to softening of stools is a beneficial physiological effect for infants. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that, out of two human intervention studies with important methodological limitations, one suggested a stool-softening effect of beta-palmitate whereas the second did not, that one animal study did not support a stool-softening effect of beta-palmitate, and that the evidence provided for a mechanism by which beta-palmitate could contribute to the softening of stools is weak. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of beta-palmitate and softening of stools.

  14. Put numbers on the sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    exposure of humans, to the local impacts associated with physical transformation of land and extraction of water. Chemicals can cause toxic impacts to humans and ecosystems on all scales. All these impacts need to be quantified if we want to put numbers on sustainability. The life cycle perspective...... on products and systems and the coverage of all relevant environmental impacts are combined in Life cycle assessment (LCA) which is introduced in the talk as the tool to put numbers on environmental sustainability. The basics of LCA are introduced, current applications are presented and a discussion of its...

  15. Putting Emotional Intelligence To Work

    CERN Document Server

    Ryback, David

    2012-01-01

    Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work offers a new paradigm of communication for the 21st-century workplace. Beginning with the thoughts of communication pioneer Carl Rogers, this book covers the origins and history of emotional intelligence, why it is essential at this point in the changing marketplace, how to delegate and negotiate more effectively, and how to change yourself to become a more effective player. An EQ (Emotional Quotient) survey helps you determine where you are on the scale of executive intelligence. Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work leaves you with a greater understand

  16. Putting Problems Behind You Helps Physical Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Merritt; McKinney; 金月湖

    2001-01-01

    “圆满人生”只是一种祈盼和祝愿。自古人生谁无痛?本文作者是一位美国人,他列举了以下人生痛苦:such as the death of a close friend or relative, rape, incest(乱伦),a home fire or a painful break-up,这里所列仅人生痛苦之一隅而已。但是,你如何对待这些人生之苦?是铭记于心,并时时“重温”,使之成为open memories?还是彻底封存,置于脑后,使之成为closed memories?读罢本文,你也许会幡然醒悟。因为open memories有如下罪状: Students who had open memories of traumatic events scored lower on questionnaires measuring self-confidence than students with closed memories of traumatic events or students who had never experienced trauma. Students with open memories also reported more trips to the doctor. 常读此类文章,我的辨证思维也会有所长进。比如,文中的这句写地何等好啊: But bringing closure to a past event does not necessarily mean that you have to be brutally honest with yourself. Beike said that people often remember events somewhat differently than how they actually happened.】

  17. EFSA NDA Panel ( EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno ® GOS and reducing gastro - intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. The food constituent, Bimuno® GOS, a mixture of β-galacto-oligosaccharides, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant...... is “reduce bloating, flatulence and abdominal pain. These effects can be described collectively as abdominal discomfort” and the target population proposed by the applicant is the general adult population. Reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort is a beneficial physiological effect. A health claim on Bimuno......® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort has already been assessed by the Panel with an unfavourable outcome. The supplementary information submitted by the applicant in this application did not provide evidence that could be used for the scientific substantiation of this claim. © European Food...

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21 and reduction of spontaneous DNA strand breaks pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    additional human studies investigated coffees other than coffee C21. Two of these had no control group and a third study did not assess spontaneous DNA strand breaks. No conclusions could be drawn from these human studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The fourth study did not show an effect......Following an application from Tchibo GmbH, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... to coffee C21 and reduction of spontaneous DNA strand breaks. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is coffee C21, which is sufficiently characterised. The claimed...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to acetic acid and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1447) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to acetic acid and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders...... characterised. The claimed effect is “helps maintain vascular health”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the clarifications provided by Member States, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. The Panel considers...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucose and contribution to energy-yielding metabolism pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to glucose and “contributes to normal muscle function”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is glucose, which is sufficiently characterised......Following an application from Dextro Energy GmbH & Co. KG, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health....... The claimed effect is “contributes to normal muscle function”. The proposed target population is healthy, active, as well as endurance trained, men and women. The Panel notes that the claimed effect refers to the contribution of the food constituent to energy-yielding metabolism in active individuals. Energy...

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucose and contribution to energy-yielding metabolism pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to glucose and “contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism during exercise”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is glucose, which......Following an application from Dextro Energy GmbH & Co. KG, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism during exercise”. The proposed target population is healthy, active, as well as endurance trained, men and women. The Panel notes that the claimed effect refers to the contribution of the food constituent...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to decrease swollen legs” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to decrease swollen legs”. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. Upon EFSA’s request for clarification, the applicant stated that the claimed effect was “helps to decrease...

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion Part I on the substantiation of health claims related to various food(s)/food constituent(s) not supported by pertinent human data (ID 411, 559, 1174, 1184, 1197, 1380, 1409, 1656, 1667, 1670, 1763, 1767, 1806, 1884

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to various food(s)/food constituent(s) not supported by pertinent human data. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fruits and/or vegetables (ID 1212, 1213, 1214, 1217, 1218, 1219, 1301, 1425, 1426, 1427, 1428, 1429, 1430) and to the “Mediterranean diet” (ID 1423) pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to fruits and/or vegetables and to the “Mediterranean diet”. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Preservation ® and “ rapid recovery of cellular activity post stress ” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to Preservation® and “rapid recovery of cellular activity post stress”. The Panel considers that Preservation®, which contains an extract of prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “rapid recovery of cellular activity...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies; Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to creatine and increased attention (ID 1524) and improvement of memory (ID 1528) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to creatine and increased attention and improvement of memory. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...

  7. Heating being put into service

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The SMB-SE group would like to inform you that, the central heating will start this year, on Monday 3 October 2016, and will be progressively and depending on the weather forecast put into service throughout. All buildings will have heating within the following few days. Thank you for your understanding. The CERN heating team SMB-SE

  8. Putting Motor Resonance in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Perceiving another person's actions changes the spatial perspective people use to describe objects in a scene, possibly because seeing human action induces people to map the actions, including their spatial context, to their own body and motor representations [Lozano, S. C., Hard, B. M., & Tversky, B. (2007). Putting action in perspective.…

  9. Putting Pow into Art Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Jay; Packer, Todd

    2004-01-01

    How would you like to put some "Pow!" into your art instruction? A lesson in comic books--history, design, story, and production--can make your classes come alive. The authors present a new approach to using comics to build artistic skills and involve students in art appreciation. Why Comics? Many art teachers have students who say, "I hate art!"…

  10. Putting food on the table

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candel, J.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Putting food on the table: the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security Jeroen Candel Food security concerns and arguments have made a revival in European Union (EU) governance since the 2007-8 and 2010 global food price crises. This renaissa

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment. The food constituent, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “help to maintain...... human intervention studies, from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim, did not show an effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the incidence of diarrhoea resulting from antibiotic treatment. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been...... established between the consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium alginate and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 1868, 1881) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to sodium alginate and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to L-ornithine and contribution to the regulation of the urea cycle (ID 4270) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of a health...... claim in relation to L-ornithine and contribution to the regulation of the urea cycle. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 2750) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function (ID 603, 653) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucose and contribution to energy-yielding metabolism pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to glucose and “contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is glucose, which is sufficiently......Following an application from Dextro Energy GmbH & Co. KG, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...

  17. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures.

  18. Closed Claim Query File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This file is used to hold information about disability claims that have been closed and have been selected for sampling.Sampling is the process whereby OQR reviews...

  19. SSA Disability Claim Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset includes fiscal year data for initial claims for SSA disability benefits that were referred to a state agency for a disability determination. Specific...

  20. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to ?native chicory inulin? and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from BENEO-Orafti S.A., submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency. The food constituent that is a subject of a claim is “native chicory inulin”. The Panel considers that “native chicory inulin”, a non-fractionated mixture of monosaccharides (< 10%, disaccharides, inulin-type fructans and inulin extracted from chicory, with a mean DP ≥ 9, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency (provided that it does not result in diarrhoea is a beneficial physiological effect. Six studies involving 86 subjects consistently showed that consumption of “native chicory inulin” at an amount of at least 12 g/day increases stool frequency. The Panel also notes the plausible mechanisms by which inulin and inulin-type fructans in “native chicory inulin” could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Chicory inulin contributes to maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency”. In order to obtain the claimed effect, 12 g of “native chicory inulin” should be consumed daily.

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides including galactooligosaccharides, oligofructose, polyfructose and inulin” and “increase in calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides including galacto-oligosaccharides, oligofructose, polyfructose and inulin” and “increase in calcium absorption”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health...... claim referring to children’s development and health. The food constituents that are proposed by the applicant to be the subject of the health claim are “non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides including galacto-oligosaccharides, oligofructose, polyfructose and inulin”. Upon requests by EFSA...... for clarification on the food constituent, the applicant did not clarify the food constituent that is the subject of the health claim. The Panel considers that the food constituents, “non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides including galacto-oligosaccharides, oligofructose, polyfructose and inulin”, which...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a hea......Following an application from Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation...... of a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth. Iron is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “reduction of excessive hair loss”. The target population proposed by the applicant is non-menopausal women, aged between 19 and 49...

  3. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Wheat Polar Lipid Extract and protection of the skin against dehydration pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following an application from Extraction Purification Innovation France, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Wheat Polar Lipid Extract and protection of the skin against dehydration. The Panel considers that Wheat Polar Lipid Extract is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “contributes to improve skin hydration”. The target population proposed by the applicant is healthy adults with skin dryness. The Panel considers that protection of the skin against dehydration is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant identified one published and two unpublished human intervention studies as being pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from one uncontrolled pilot study, nor from one study which was not carried out with the food which is the subject of the claim. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human intervention study reported an effect of consumption of Wheat Polar Lipid Extract on transepidermal water loss and skin water-holding capacity, but that the outcome of the study lacked plausibility given the limitations in the study design, and that the evidence provided in support of a mechanism was weak. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Wheat Polar Lipid Extract and protection of the skin against dehydration.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to EffEXT™ and maintenance of normal joint mobility pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to EffEXT™ and maintenance of normal joint mobility. The Panel considers that EffEXT™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “contributes to support joint flexibility”. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal joint mobility is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant identified one human intervention study as being pertinent to the health claim. The Panel notes that chronic inflammation was an inclusion criterion of the study, that a significant number of the patients recruited were reported to have confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or of both cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis, and that the WOMAC osteoarthritis questionnaire was administered only to patients with arthritic disease (osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The Panel also notes that no evidence which could justify the extrapolation of the results, obtained in patients with joint diseases characterised by chronic inflammation, to the target population, subjects without chronic joint diseases, was provided by the applicant. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of EffEXT™ and maintenance of normal joint mobility.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from InQpharm Europe Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight individuals. The applicant identified a total of four human intervention studies which investigated the effects of the aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight as being pertinent to the claim. No conclusions could be drawn from two of these four studies. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human intervention study showed an effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean in reducing body weight when consumed for 12 weeks, that the reduction in body weight was mostly through a reduction in body fat and that the effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight was supported by a second study of shorter duration. However, the Panel also took into account that the first study was at risk of bias, that the supportive study suffered from methodological limitations and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight.

  6. Putting food on the table

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Putting food on the table: the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security Jeroen Candel Food security concerns and arguments have made a revival in European Union (EU) governance since the 2007-8 and 2010 global food price crises. This renaissance of food security has been accompanied by increasing awareness among scholars and policymakers about high degrees of complexity, uncertainty, controversy, and cross-scale dynamics surrounding food security as well as consequent ...

  7. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed...... effect, maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim....... A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  9. FSA Panel on Di etetic Products, Nutrition and Allergie s (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to drain the body in case of water accumulation” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to drain the body in case of water accumulation”. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “helps to drain the body in case......” was a beneficial physiological effect in the context of “a normal venous circulation in the legs”. The applicant acknowledged that this claim referred to the same physiological function of the body as another health claim application on Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow....... The Panel considers that maintenance of normal venous blood flow is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow has already been assessed by the Panel with an unfavourable outcome. The reference provided by the applicant...

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed...... effect, maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim....... A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides....

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 532) and maintenance, of normal bone (ID 642, 697, 1552) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subjects of the health claims are “omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (GLA)”, “gamma-linolenic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid (GLA+EPA)”, and “evening primrose oil...... and fish oil”. From the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituents that are the subject of the claims are the n-6 fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in evening primrose oil and the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium phosphate and increase in endurance performance (ID 318, 2887) and increase in endurance capacity (ID 318, 2887) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to sodium phosphate and increase in endurance performance and increase in endurance capacity. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is sodium phosphate. The Panel considers that sodium phosphate is sufficiently characterised....

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 680) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA...... has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds. The Panel considers that OPCs from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds are sufficiently characterised...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (LGG) and “gastro-intestinal health” (ID 906) and maintenance of tooth mineralisation (ID 3018) pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (LGG) and “gastrointestinal health” and maintenance of tooth mineralisation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has...... received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (LGG). The Panel considers that L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (LGG) is sufficiently characterised....

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus AY/CSL (LMG P-17224) and Streptococcus thermophilus 9Y/CSL (LMG P-17225) and “beneficial modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a health claim related to a combination of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus AY/CSL (LMG P-17224) and Streptococcus thermophilus 9Y/CSL (LMG P-17225) and “beneficial modulation of intestinal microflora”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim referring to children......’s development and health. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus AY/CSL (LMG P-17224) and S. thermophilus 9Y/CSL (LMG P-17225), has not been sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “beneficial modulation of the intestinal...... that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the food constituent, the combination of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus AY/CSL (LMG P-17224) and S. thermophilus 9Y/CSL (LMG P-17225), and a beneficial physiological effect related to “beneficial modulation...

  16. The claim from adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas Sobirk

    2002-08-01

    In this article several justifications of what I call 'the claim from adoption' are examined. The claim from adoption is that, instead of expending resources on bringing new children into the world using reproductive technology and then caring for these children, we ought to devote these resources to the adoption and care of existing destitute children. Arguments trading on the idea that resources should be directed to adoption instead of assisted reproduction because already existing people can benefit from such a use of resources whereas we cannot benefit individuals by bringing them into existence are rejected. It is then argued that a utilitarian argument proposed by Christian Munthe that supports the claim from adoption in some situations should be rejected because the support it offers does not extend to certain situations in which it seems morally obvious that resources should be expended on adoption rather than assisted reproduction. A version of the Priority View improves upon Munthe's utilitarianism by supporting the claim from adoption in the cases in which Munthe's argument failed. Some allegedly counterintuitive implications of the Priority View are then discussed, and it is concluded that the Priority View is more plausible than utilitarianism. In a concluding section on policy issues it is argued that, even though the claim from adoption can be justified in a variety of situations, it does not follow that, in these situations, governments should direct resources away from assisted reproduction and towards adoption.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to non digestible carbohydrates and a reduction of post prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Beneo-Orafti SA, Sensus BV and Cosucra-Groupe Warcoing SA, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS from inulin and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. Non-digestible carbohydrates including FOS are resistant to hydrolysis and absorption in the small intestine and do not contribute to post-prandial glycaemia. This opinion applies to non-digestible carbohydrates (e.g. non-starch polysaccharides, resistant oligosaccharides and resistant starch which should replace sugars in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that the food constituent, non-digestible carbohydrates, which is the subject of the health claim, and the food constituent (i.e. sugars that non-digestible carbohydrates should replace in foods or beverages, are both sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses might be a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that consumption of non-digestible carbohydrates results in reduced post-prandial blood glucose (and insulinaemic responses compared with the consumption of sugars on a weight-by-weight basis owing to the non-digestibility in the small intestine and to a decrease in the amount of available carbohydrates, and that the consumption of foods/drinks in which non-digestible carbohydrates replaced sugars induced lower post-prandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than sugar-containing foods/drinks. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of foods/beverages containing non

  18. Public Claims: A Legal Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Budak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order for a claim to exist, the host there has to be two parties. In case of public claims one of the parties is the state, special provincial administration and municipalities; while the debtor consists of the natural and legal persons. The definition of public claims is provided by The Procedure Law of Collection of Public Claims. One claims, the quality of the public claims not cause any, may be excluded from the scope of Law No. 6183. All the claims of public administration are not public claims. However, any private claim can have the security of a public claim. For this reason the criteria used to define a public claim differ. Arrangements, which can render a public claim a privileged claim, exist in the relevant Code. The aim of this study is to define the concept of public claim expressed in the relevant code and to determine the conditions under which a claim not stated in the Code can be considered a public claim in the light of court decisions.

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight (ID 643, 677, 1614) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article ...

  20. Repeat workers' compensation claims: risk factors, costs and work disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collie Alex

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of our study was to describe factors associated with repeat workers' compensation claims and to compare the work disability arising in workers with single and multiple compensation claims. Methods All initial injury claims lodged by persons of working age during a five year period (1996 to 2000 and any repeat claims were extracted from workers' compensation administrative data in the state of Victoria, Australia. Groups of workers with single and multiple claims were identified. Descriptive analysis of claims by affliction, bodily location, industry segment, occupation, employer and workplace was undertaken. Survival analysis determined the impact of these variables on the time between the claims. The economic impact and duration of work incapacity associated with initial and repeat claims was compared between groups. Results 37% of persons with an initial claim lodged a second claim. This group contained a significantly greater proportion of males, were younger and more likely to be employed in manual occupations and high-risk industries than those with single claims. 78% of repeat claims were for a second injury. Duration between the claims was shortest when the working conditions had not changed. The initial claims of repeat claimants resulted in significantly (p lower costs and work disability than the repeat claims. Conclusions A substantial proportion of injured workers experience a second occupational injury or disease. These workers pose a greater economic burden than those with single claims, and also experience a substantially greater cumulative period of work disability. There is potential to reduce the social, health and economic burden of workplace injury by enacting prevention programs targeted at these workers.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus casei DG CNCM I-1572 and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 2949, 3061, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to Lactobacillus cas...... DG CNCM I-1572 and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, Lactobacillus casei DG CNCM I-1572, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation (ID 485), maintenance of tooth mineralisation (ID 486, 562, 1181), reduction of dental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation, maintenance of tooth mineralisation, reduction of dental plaque, and defence against pathogens in the middle ear. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claims is sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol. The Panel considers that sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol...

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies ), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Yestimun ® and defence against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract pursuant to Article 13(5) of R egulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to Yestimun® and defence against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract. The food that is the subject of the health claim, Yestimun®, which consists of (1,3)-(1,6)-β-D-glucans from brewer’s yeast cell wall, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, defence...... established between the consumption of Yestimun® ((1,3)-(1,6)-β-D-glucans from brewer’s yeast cell wall) and defence against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to formulated palm and oat oil emulsion and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight (ID 577) and maintenance of body weight after weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to formulated palm and oat oil emulsion and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight and maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...... of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is formulated palm and oat oil emulsion. The Panel considers that formulated palm and oat oil emulsion is sufficiently...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225) and improving immune defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 896), and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225) and improving immune defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225). The Panel considers that Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Sc ientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vichy Catalan carbonated natural mineral water and reduction of post - prandial lip a emic response pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Vichy Catalan carbonated natural mineral water and reduction of post-prandial lipaemic response. The food, Vichy Catalan carbonated natural mineral water, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect...... carbonated natural mineral water on the reduction of post-prandial lipaemic response. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Vichy Catalan carbonated natural mineral water and reduction of post-prandial lipaemic response. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  7. Aprender de lo sucedido. Análisis de las quejas presentadas ante la Comisión Nacional de Arbitraje Médico Learning from experience. User's dissatisfaction with health services through claims brought to Conamed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydel Valdés-Salgado

    2001-10-01

    structure, process, and outcomes were also identified for each defendant institution. Claims vary by sex, age, and socio-economic levels. Conclusions. Claims brought to Conamed are useful indicators of users' dissatisfaction. Our results are consistent with other papers about users' satisfaction and quality of health care. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  8. Women Claimed Right to participate in Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1900s, when Western women were just starting to fight for their rights to participate in government and political affairs, China’s women, who had just broken away from a feudal monarchy, also claimed that they wanted to participate in government and political affairs.In 1912, the Revolution of 1911, led by Sun Yat-sen-pioneer of China’s democratic revolution-overthrew the last feudal monarchy and the bourgeois Republic of China was founded. The women following sun Yat-sen were to put into action their demand to participate in government and political affairs.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from BENEO-Orafti S.A., submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Chicory inulin contributes...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “L-tug lycopene” and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Lycotec Ltd, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... the risk of CHD. The Panel notes that the unpublished studies submitted to support the claim were exploratory in nature and insufficient information was provided to allow the scientific evaluation of these studies. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between...

  11. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  12. GlyEFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Product s, Nutrition and Allergies), 20 13 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glycaemic carbohydrates and recovery of normal muscle function (contraction) after stren uous exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Aptonia, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to glycaemic carbohydrates and recovery of normal muscle function (contraction) after strenuous exercise. The food constituent, glycaemic carbohydrates, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. Recovery...... of normal muscle function (contraction) after strenuous exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. Based on the well-established role of glycaemic carbohydrates (consumed especially in the first hours following strenuous exercise) on the replenishment of skeletal muscle glycogen stores, which leads...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to acetyl-L-carnitine and contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 1432) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to acetyl-L-carnitine and contribution to normal cognitive function. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of acetyl-L-carnitine and contribution to normal cognitive function....

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1404) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure....

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 781), pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to fructo-oligosaccharides and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro...

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to xanthan gum and changes in bowel function (ID 837) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to xanthan gum and changes in bowel function. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health....... No human studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of xanthan gum and changes in bowel function....

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk (ID 819, 822) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders....... In the context of the clarifications provided by Member States and the references provided, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to the improvement of bowel function by increasing faecal bulk. The Panel considers that an increase in faecal bulk may be a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing...

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts. The scientific...... substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC...... 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845). The Panel considers that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “vaginal health/flora”. The target population is assumed...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to “αS1-casein tryptic hydrolysate” and alleviation of psychological stress (ID 656, 1819, 4253) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to “αS1-casein tryptic hydrolysate” and alleviation of psychological stress. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...... to calm mind”, “mental state and performance”, and “stress”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings and from the references provided, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to alleviation of psychological stress. The Panel considers...

  20. Handbook of Veterinary Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    11. I recoend disapproval of this claim due to lack of proof of causa - tion by the USAF. At the time this report is being written, there is no...alleged that nonsterile surgical technique resulted in peritonitis and subsequent lack of appetite, and that the latter resulted in bloody diarrhea, anemia

  1. 日本高龄者护理理念的提出及其新视点%Putting forward the concept of health care for older people in Japan and its new viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霞

    2015-01-01

    由于经济发展水平的不断提高,健康自立并充满活力的高龄者也在不断的增加。因此,能否充分地对高龄者进行护理就成为衡量社会进步一种标准。护理不仅是对身体的护理,还包括精神护理、心理护理、社会护理等全方位的护理行为。对日本的护理理念的提出过程及新视点进行了研究,希望能为我国的高龄者护理提供政策性的参考,以应对中国高龄化社会所带来的挑战。%Due to the continuous improvement of the level of economic development,health and vigor of the elderly are constantly increasing. Therefore,the ability to care for the elderly has become a standard of social progress.. Nursing is not only the physical care,but also mental care,psychological care,social care and other nursing behavior. Of Japanese nursing concept put forward process and a new viewpoint was studied,the hope for China's elderly care provides policy reference. To deal with China's aging society brings challenges.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications ?fat free?, ?low in sugars?, ?high protein?, ?source of calcium? and ?source of vitamin D? for nutrition claims and maintenance of lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Federación Nacional de Industrias Lácteas (FeNIL, submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Spain, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and maintenance of lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet. The Panel considers that the food that is the subject of the claim, fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims, is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that maintenance of lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and maintenance of lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 661, 1831, 1832, 2891, further assessment) pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, pursuant to Article 13.1 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP......) and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim, the tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood pressure, is a beneficial physiological effect...

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to spermidine and prolongation of the growing phase (anagen) of the hair cycle pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Giuliani S.p.A., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related......, and that it could be considered to affect the general population. From the evidence provided by the applicant the Panel considers that the claimed effect is related to the treatment of pathological conditions leading to shortening of the anagen phase of hair growth. The Panel concludes that the claimed effect...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow. The Panel considers that the food constituent, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal venous blood flow, is a beneficial physiological effect...... and did not measure venous blood flow, the Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from these studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract...

  6. EFSA Panel on Di etetic Products, Nutrition and Allergie s (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim relate d to OXY 280 and reduction of body weight pur suant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Actina, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... relative to the placebo, and that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel notes that no studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause...

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “slowly digestible starch in starch-containing foods” and “reduction of postprandial glycaemic responses” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Kraft Foods Europe, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... claim related to “slowly digestible starch in starch-containing foods” and “reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses”. The food constituent, “slowly digestible starch (SDS)”, as defined by the applicant in applying an appropriate method (such as the method developed by Englyst et al. (1996; 1999......)), which is the subject of the health claim, and the comparator food constituent, “rapidly digestible starch (RDS)”, as defined by the applicant, are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (as long as post...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to choline and “development of brain” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... population is infants and young children from birth to three years of age. Taking into account that no evidence was provided for an effect of dietary choline deficiency in the normal development of the brain in infants and young children, the Panel considers that the claimed effect, “development of brain......” for infants and young children from birth to three years in relation to dietary choline, is not sufficiently defined for a scientific evaluation. The Panel considers that the claimed effect is general and non-specific, and does not refer to any specific health claim as required by Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006....

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to citrulline-malate and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    the human study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. A health claim on citrulline-malate and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise has already been assessed by the Panel with an unfavourable outcome. The additional information submitted by the applicant did not provide evidence...... on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to citrulline-malate and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise. The Panel considers that citrulline-malate is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “improved recovery from muscle fatigue”. Faster recovery...... function. The evidence provided by the applicant did not establish that a faster reduction of blood lactate concentrations through a dietary intervention leads to faster recovery from muscle fatigue by contributing to the restoration of muscle function after exercise. No conclusions could be drawn from...

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood (ID 4276) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...... or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claim is cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). The Panel considers that whereas the food, cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), is not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect evaluated in this opinion, the food constituents, caffeine...... that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood....

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to melatonin and reduction of sleep onset latency (ID 1698, 1780, 4080) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is melatonin. The Panel considers...... that melatonin is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “sleep-wake cycle regulation”, “relaxation” and “sleep patterns”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings and the clarifications from Member States and the references provided......, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to the reduction of sleep onset latency (time taken to fall asleep). The Panel considers that reduction of sleep onset latency might be a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that a meta-analysis of controlled...

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the modification of the authorisation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endotheliumdependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of the authorisation of a health claim related to “cocoa flavanols help maintain the elasticity of blood vessels, which contributes to normal blood flow”, pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. The modification concerns an extension of the authorised conditions of use of the claim to a high......-flavanols (HF) cocoa extract to be consumed in capsules, tablets or added to “other foods, including beverages”. Cocoa flavanols, which are the subject of the health claim, have been sufficiently characterised. Maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a beneficial physiological effect....... The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of cocoa flavanols in the HF cocoa extract (i.e. in capsules or tablets) and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In order to obtain the claimed effect, 200 mg of cocoa flavanols should...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    using a higher dose of potassium citrate did not show an effect on bone mineral density. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the dietary intake of potassium or sodium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal...... claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...... from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are sodium and potassium salts of citric acid. The Panel considers that sodium and potassium salts of citric acid are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “acid-base balance and bone health”. The target...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of plant sterols and Cholesternorm®mix and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of plant sterols and Cholesternorm®mix and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food which is the subject of the health claim is a combination of plant sterols (free and in esterified form) and Cholesternorm...... to the claimed effect. Reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. A reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. The Panel notes that no evidence was provided that plant sterols or constituents other than plant sterols...... in Cholesternorm®mix, which have a role in the claimed effect, could reasonably be expected to have an effect on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations at the proposed conditions of use. The Panel notes that no human interventions studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific...

  15. Putting dental mercury pollution into perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D W

    2004-08-28

    This paper deals with the issue of amalgam waste from dental offices. The aim is to put into perspective the very small contribution of dental mercury to the overall volume of mercury discharged into the environment each year. While the amount discharged from dental offices is very small compared to other sources, the amount discharged into the environment from amalgam fillings in people's mouths is estimated as less than 2% of the amount from dental offices. At least 50% of mercury in the environment comes from natural sources. The major source of man-made mercury pollution is the industrial burning of fossil fuels. It is important to distinguish between inorganic mercury and organic mercury in terms of the impact on the health of the population.

  16. 45 CFR 149.320 - Universe of claims that must be submitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Universe of claims that must be submitted. 149.320 Section 149.320 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH... Universe of claims that must be submitted. (a) Claims submitted for an early retiree, as defined in §...

  17. Analyzing claims by game theory and claim cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cong-wei; TANG Yao-gang; LIU Zhan-hong

    2006-01-01

    In managing an international project, claims are very important. In this paper, a complete information dynamic game model is designed; with the Nash equilibrium values, the huge influence of claim cost on claim strategy is testified and the importance of claims to both sides of a contract especially the contractor is elucidated. Claim chances are also discussed with game theory. At last, from the angle of a repeated game and by comparison with Pareto optimization and Nash equilibrium values, it is concluded that the best payoff can be obtained with a honest attitude and through cooperation between companies.

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following an application from Barry Callebaut Belgium nv, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Cocoa flavanols are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “help maintain endothelium-...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following an application from Barry Callebaut Belgium nv, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Cocoa flavanols are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “help maintain endothelium-...

  1. 9 CFR 55.5 - Presentation of claims for indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims for indemnity. 55.5 Section 55.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.5 Presentation of claims...

  2. 42 CFR 60.39 - Death and disability claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Death and disability claims. 60.39 Section 60.39... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.39 Death and disability claims. (a) Death. The Secretary... death. (b) Disability. (1) The Secretary will discharge a borrower's liability on the loan in...

  3. 42 CFR 457.212 - Disallowance of claims for FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Reconsideration procedures. The reconsideration procedures are those set forth in 45 CFR part 16. (d... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disallowance of claims for FFP. 457.212 Section 457...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.212 Disallowance of claims for FFP. (a) Notice of...

  4. 42 CFR 457.210 - Deferral of claims for FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reconsideration in accordance with 45 CFR part 16. ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deferral of claims for FFP. 457.210 Section 457.210...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.210 Deferral of claims for FFP. (a) Requirements for...

  5. 42 CFR 430.42 - Disallowance of claims for FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reconsideration procedures are those set forth in 45 CFR part 16 for Medicaid and for many other programs... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disallowance of claims for FFP. 430.42 Section 430... Medicaid Payments § 430.42 Disallowance of claims for FFP. (a) Notice of disallowance and of right...

  6. Putting science on the agenda

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The job of CERN Director-General comes with a lot of responsibility, and that’s particularly true today. We’re living through a period of unique circumstances for science. Positive indicators, such as a renewal of interest in physical sciences at the University level and unprecedented public interest in the LHC, are aligning with storm clouds in the form of a prolonged economic crisis that will put downward pressure on everyone’s budgets.   That means that science has to make its voice heard if it’s to preserve support, and if it wants to be in a position to play the role it must in navigating the major societal challenges of our time. For that reason, I have been a fairly rare sight at CERN of late. Last week, I was in Davos for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. It was my second time at Davos, and I used the opportunity to argue that science should be more closely linked to the political thread of the meeting. I think my argument was he...

  7. Strategies on Short-term Health Insurance Claims Risk Management Life Insurance Company%寿险公司短期健康险理赔风险管理对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张懿

    2014-01-01

    Health insurance business in the life insurance market is in a slow development compared with other types of insurance, and there are diverse potential risks in its claiming due to the factors such as the unwilling cooperation of medical institutions and other third parties and over-treatment of patients. Hence, the insurance companies has always kept a high loss ratio on this type of insurance business. It is very necessary to carry out the risk management on the claims process and make up relevant strategies. Within the improvable domain, the companies can reduce the needless losses resulting from risks in claims links and the loss ratio, raise the renewal ratio of insurance, and make favorable benefits.%我国人身保险市场上的健康保险业务与其他险种相比发展缓慢,且在理赔时往往因医疗机构等第三方配合度低、患者过度治疗等因素存在各类理赔风险隐患,使得保险公司在这一险种业务上的赔付率过高。因此,对理赔过程进行风险管理并制定相应对策是非常必要的。在可改进的范围内,公司可以减少因理赔各环节风险因素可能带来的不必要赔付,降低赔付率,提高续保率,创造良好的收益。

  8. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to decrease swollen legs” pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to decrease swollen legs”. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. Upon EFSA’s request for clarification, the applicant stated that the claimed effect was “helps to decrease swollen legs”, and that the beneficial physiological effect could be related to “helps to refine legs”. In the context of the references provided for the scientific substantiation of the claim, and in particular of the human intervention study which was conducted with the food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, the Panel notes that the claim refers to the reduction of peripheral oedema in the context of chronic clinical conditions (e.g. chronic venous insufficiency where the reduction of peripheral oedema is a therapeutic target for the treatment of the condition. The Panel considers that the reduction of peripheral oedema in the context of chronic clinical conditions is a therapeutic target for the treatment of the condition and does not comply with the criteria laid down in Regulation (EC No 1924/2006.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations.

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced amounts of sodium and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 336, 705, 1148, 1178, 1185, 1420) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health cla...... or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subjects of the health claims are “sodium/salt”, “low sodium/salt and/or increased potassium”, “food reduced/low in/free of sodium/salt and/or increased potassium”, “breads with salt content of...

  11. National preventive plan: putting stewardship into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Federici

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO-European region Tallin-Charter, Stewardship (S is on the health agenda of many European countries and in particular of those involved in the devolution of powers, as is the case of Italy. Many observers agree that, in such cases, both the configuration and the application of state authority in the health sector should be realigned so as to achieve desired policy objectives.We present an experience of what could be meant by S in practice, applied to the field of planning preventive interventions.The Italian National Preventive Plan 2010-2012 is a comprehensive Plan dealing with many areas of prevention. For all these areas, the main health objectives, the specific regional goals and the intervention - called “central" actions- that the Ministry of Health (MoH is in charge of carrying out in order to support regional preventive programs, are stated in this Plan. In order to carry out its task, the MoH has referred to the model of stewardship and has reconsidered its role. Therefore, the MoH has matched the sub-functions of S according to the model outlined by Travis et al, and the prior actions that have been proposed by local and national governments, as the main aspects of how to deal with the governance of prevention. Overall, we experienced that the S framework is a suitable and helpful tool to tackle what the challenge of national planning, in the scenario of devolution, is. In doing so, we have learnt some practical lessons about the running of the system and about how to plan according to stewardship, in particular.Among these, given that the steward’s most specific responsibility in planning is to assure stewardship, a sound capacity building is needed as a cornerstone in evolving the culture of the NHS. Furthermore, in order to put this effectively into practice, the Steward must be able to measure S functions, and putting in practice a S model needs international comparison and cultural growth....

  12. Power and Priorities: The Growing Pains of Global Health; Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ann Grépin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shiffman has argued that some actors have a great deal of power in global health, and that more reflection is needed on whether such forms of power are legitimate. Global health is a new and evolving field that builds upon the historical fields of public and international health, but is more multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary in nature. This article argues that the distribution of power in some global health institutions may be limiting the contributions of all researchers in the field

  13. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Natural Alternative International, Inc. (NAI, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is beta-alanine, which is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that an increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that only one out of 11 pertinent human intervention studies (including 14 pertinent outcomes from which conclusions could be drawn showed an effect of beta-alanine on physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of beta-alanine and an increase in physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise.

  14. Putting culture in the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sairanen, Raija; Richardson, Eileen; Kelly, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and the method of designing a framework for a European curriculum to promote intercultural competence in health care students. The background relating to the migration of people into and across Europe is cited as the factor driving the ne...

  15. The effect of pre-existing health conditions on the cost of recovery from road traffic injury: insights from data linkage of medicare and compensable injury claims in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Hahn, Youjin; McClure, Roderick J

    2016-04-29

    Comorbidity is known to affect length of hospital stay and mortality after trauma but less is known about its impact on recovery beyond the immediate post-accident care period. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pre-existing health conditions in the cost of recovery from road traffic injury using health service use records for 1 year before and after the injury. Individuals who claimed Transport Accident Commission (TAC) compensation for a non-catastrophic injury that occurred between 2010 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia and who provided consent for Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) linkage were included (n = 738) in the analysis. PBS and MBS records dating from 12 months prior to injury were provided by the Department of Human Services (Canberra, Australia). Pre-injury use of health service items and pharmaceuticals were considered to indicate pre-existing health condition. Bayesian Model Averaging techniques were used to identify the items that were most strongly correlated with recovery cost. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the impact of these items on the cost of injury recovery in terms of compensated ambulance, hospital, medical, and overall claim cost. Out of the 738 study participants, 688 used at least one medical item (total of 15,625 items) and 427 used at least one pharmaceutical item (total of 9846). The total health service cost of recovery was $10,115,714. The results show that while pre-existing conditions did not have any significant impact on the total cost of recovery, categorical costs were affected: e.g. on average, for every anaesthetic in the year before the accident, hospital cost of recovery increased by 24 % [95 % CI: 13, 36 %] and for each pathological test related to established diabetes, hospital cost increased by $10,407 [5466.78, 15346.28]. For medical costs, each anaesthetic led to $258 higher cost [174.16, 341.16] and every prescription of drugs

  16. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted for authorisation of a claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations.

  17. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Claims Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is committed to increasing access to its Medicare claims data through the release of de-identified data files available for public use. They contain...

  18. EFSA ND A Panel ( EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and “ reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the d evelopment of attention difficulties in children with ADHD - like symptoms ” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a health claim related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms”. The food constituent, EPA, which is the subject...... population (i.e. children with ADHD). The Panel concludes that the claimed effect relates to the treatment of a disease, and that therefore the health claim does not comply with the criteria laid down in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...... of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms. These children are also characterised by less...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to EffEXT™ and “helps to support joint function by maintaining low levels of plasma C-reactive protein” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... related to EffEXT™ and “helps to support joint function by maintaining low levels of plasma C‑reactive protein”. The Panel considers that EffEXT™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “helps to support joint function by maintaining low levels of plasma...... C-reactive protein”. The Panel notes that the claim refers to a reduction of inflammation indicated by a lowered concentration of plasma C-reactive protein. Whether or not reduction of inflammatory markers is considered beneficial depends on the context in which a claim is made. In the context...

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific opinion on biotin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked......-yielding metabolism applies to all ages, including infants and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of biotin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism. The following wording reflects...... the scientific evidence: ‘Biotin contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism.’ The target population is infants and young children up to three years of age....

  1. The Politics of Researching Global Health Politics; Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rushton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications ?fat free?, ?low in sugars?, ?high protein?, ?source of calcium? and ?source of vitamin D? for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Federación Nacional de Industrias Lácteas (FeNIL, submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Spain, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet. The food that is the subject of the claim is fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims. The Panel considers that fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims are sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of body and visceral fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to folate and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 176) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to folate and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders...... and supplements) were collected by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effects relationship has not been established between the dietary intake of folate and maintenance of normal blood pressure....

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and reduction of calculus formation (ID 1309) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of a claim on the use of sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and the reduction of calculus formation at sites which are most important for dental health (e.g. gingival margin or between teeth). On the basis of the data presented......, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the use of sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and reduction of calculus formation at sites which are most important for dental health....... claims in relation to free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and reduction of calculus formation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to spermidine and contribution to normal hair growth (ID 1705) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to spermidine and contribution to normal hair growth. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health....... On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of spermidine and contribution to normal hair growth....

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to ribose and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 4226) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to ribose and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... conducted after intense intermittent training. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of ribose and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise....

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucose and contribution to energy-yielding metabolism pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Dextro Energy GmbH & Co. KG submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... claim related to glucose and “it is metabolised within body’s normal energy metabolism”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is glucose, which is sufficiently...... in energy-yielding metabolism as a source of energy. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the intake of glucose and contribution to energy-yielding metabolism. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “glucose contributes to energy...

  8. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to SYNBIO®, a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502®, and maintenance of normal defecation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to SYNBIO®, a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502®, and maintenance of normal defecation. The Panel considers that the food, SYNBIO®, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised...... for an effect of SYNBIO® on the maintenance of normal defecation in humans, studies which investigated the presence of L. rhamnosus IMC 501® and L. paracasei IMC 502® in the faeces of participants who consumed foods enriched with these strains were not considered by the Panel. The Panel concludes that a cause...

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the raw fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4041) and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to the raw fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated...

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Symbiosal® and lowering of blood pressure and reduced risk of hypertension pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Symbiosal® and lowering of blood pressure and reduced risk of hypertension. The Panel considers that the food, Symbiosal®, which is the subject of the health claim, and the food, table salt, which Symbiosal® should replace, are sufficiently characterised...... in blood pressure when Symbiosal® was consumed instead of table salt for eight weeks in the context of a salt-restricted diet, but that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided, that the animal studies did not support the results of the human study...

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Rhodiola rosea L. extract and reduction of mental fatigue pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to Rhodiola rosea L.extract and reduction of mental fatigue. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is a dry powder extract of Rhodiola rosea L., which is standardised for its content of rosavins and salidroside. The Panel considers that Rhodiola rosea L...... proposed by the applicant is healthy adults in situations of fatigue and stress. The Panel considers that reduction of mental fatigue is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant identified two published human intervention studies as pertinent to the health claim. These studies were carried out.......extract and reduction of mental fatigue....

  13. Knowledge, Politics and Power in Global Health Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Wallace Brown

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article agrees with recent arguments suggesting that normative and epistemic power is rife within global health policy and provides further examples of such. However, in doing so, it is argued that it is equally important to recognize that global health is, and always will be, deeply political and that some form of power is not only necessary for the system to advance, but also to try and control the ways in which power within that system operates. In this regard, a better focus on health politics can both expose illegitimate sources of power, but also provide better recommendations to facilitate deliberations that can, although imperfectly, help legitimate sources of influence and power.

  14. Dermatological legal claims in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sachiko; Isogawa, Naoyuki; Ushiro, Shin; Ayuzawa, Junko; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-07-01

    Health-care safety management has recently been highlighted for patient safety. However, specialist-based risks in clinical settings have hardly been discussed in Japan so far. A review of dermatological legal claims may delineate these risks. This study examined court precedents from the databases "Courts in Japan" and LEX/DB. Thirty-four dermatology-related civil cases were found from 1968-2006. Of the 34 cases, 32 (94%) were judged and two (6%) were retried. Of these 32 cases, 11 (34%) were appealed to higher courts. Among the 34 litigations, the defendants of eight (23%) were dermatology specialists, 20 (59%) were non-dermatologists and six (18%) of unknown specialty. The defendants' negligence was determined at either level in court in 25 of the 34 cases. The negligence in these 25 cases was categorized into five groups: (i) delayed diagnosis (none); (ii) complication during diagnosis procedure (one, 4%); (iii) inappropriate treatment (nine, 36%); (iv) complication during treatment procedure (10, 40%); and (v) insufficient informed consent (five, 20%). The present study may help to improve strategies for health-care safety management in the dermatological field in Japan.

  15. Putting Safety in the Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Jean O’Keeffe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS, patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a communicating builds knowledge, (b experiencing situations guides decisions, (c adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  16. Putting Safety in the Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Jean O’Keeffe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS, patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a communicating builds knowledge, (b experiencing situations guides decisions, (c adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  17. Professional liability claims against dentists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moscoso Matus, Karla; Smok Vásquez, Pía

    2015-01-01

    .... To determine the magnitude and frequency of professional liability claims against dentists. A retrospective analysis of the Medical Liability Unit of the Legal Medical Service of Chile database...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Transitech® and improvement of bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Vivatech, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Transitech® and improvement of bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food. The food, Transitech®, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, improvement of bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food, is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel considered that the one study that investigated the claimed effect did not show an effect of Transitech® on bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Transitech® and improvement of bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food.

  19. 42 CFR 426.310 - LCD and NCD reviews and individual claim appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false LCD and NCD reviews and individual claim appeals... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS General Provisions for the Review of LCDs and NCDs § 426.310 LCD and NCD reviews and individual claim appeals. (a) LCD and NCD reviews are distinct from the claims appeal...

  20. Putting bugs to the blush

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Summeren-Wesenhagen, Philana V; Marienhagen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid-derived phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, or stilbenes are secondary plant metabolites which serve as pigments and scent compounds or provide protection against environmental stress. Due to their antioxidant properties they also have been widely recognized for their benefit on human health. Traditionally, such compounds are extracted from their natural plant sources, but this approach is limited by low abundance and environmental, seasonal as well as regional variations in yield. Chemical synthesis is not a true alternative for the large scale production of more complex phenylpropanoid-derived substances since chemical synthesis becomes commercially unfeasible as the structural complexity of these plant natural products increases. In the last years, many biosynthetic pathways for plant natural products have been elucidated through the advancements in DNA sequencing technologies. In combination with new recombinant DNA technologies this technical progress opens the door toward the functional integration of full biosynthetic pathways for the synthesis of phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid-derived compounds in microorganisms. We believe that this approach has great potential to provide sufficient quantities of the desired plant natural product from cheap and renewable resources. This commentary highlights recent advances in the microbial production of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds with an emphasis on flavonoids and stilbenes. PMID:23851446

  1. Tourism's collapse puts Gambian women at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, M S

    1995-06-01

    Despite efforts of the Gambian government, which established a ministry in 1981 that would tackle gender issues, improve women's health, and promote empowerment, women are underrepresented in government and business, and 84% are illiterate. Child mortality is among the highest in Africa; 134 children per 1000 die before their fifth birthday. In the mid-1980s austerity measures adopted by the World Bank and IMF left the ministry without funds. Rice and vegetable production, the main source of income for women, fell in the 1990s. In 1994, paddy production dropped 23% from the previous year; this was due to a lack of technical and financial assistance. The collapse of tourism with Capt. Yahya Jammeh's seizure of power has put prostitutes catering to tourists out of work, but women who have lost jobs in the hotel industry may be pushed into local prostitution to survive. The impact of this on the HIV/AIDS epidemic is unclear. Although Gambia is one of the world's most aid-dependent countries (more than a quarter of the GNP before the coup), corruption and mismanagement in the nongovernmental sector is widespread. The director of the Women in Development Programme, a $15m World Bank project, was forced to resign over allegations of fraud. The political process sidelines women; only village chiefs, who are traditionally men, are allowed to vote when new heads are elected.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following an application from Barry Callebaut Belgium nv, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Cocoa flavanols are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “help maintain endothelium-dependent vasodilation which contributes to healthy blood flow”. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general healthy adult population. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that cocoa flavanols consumed for 12 weeks have been shown to increase fasting ED-FMD significantly in the target population in one human intervention study, that in another study the effect was dose-dependent and occurred after one week of consumption, that the effect was supported by two additional studies, and that it was also observed in two out of three studies in patients under pharmacological treatment for coronary artery disease, although the mechanisms by which regular consumption of cocoa flavanols may induce a sustained effect on fasting ED-FMD are unknown. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Cocoa flavanols help maintain endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which contributes to normal blood flow”. In order to obtain the claimed effect, 200 mg of cocoa flavanols should be consumed daily. This amount could be provided by 2.5 g of high-flavanol cocoa powder or 10 g of high-flavanol dark chocolate, both of which can be

  3. An examination of structure-function claims in dietary supplement advertising in the U.S.: 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Rosemary J; Eisenberg, Matthew D; Cantor, Jonathan H

    2017-01-21

    Dietary supplement advertising cannot claim a causal link between the product and the treatment, prevention, or cure of a disease unless manufacturers seek approval from the FDA for a health claim. Manufacturers can make structure-function (S-F) claims without FDA approval linking a supplement to a body function or system using words such as "may help" or "promotes." These S-F claims are examined in this study in order to determine whether they mimic health claims for which the FDA requires stricter scientific evidence. Data include S-F claims in supplement advertisements (N=6179) appearing in US nationally circulated magazines (N=137) from 2003 to 2009. All advertisements were comprehensively coded for S-F claims, seals of approval, and other claims of guarantee. S-F claims associate supplements with a wide variety of health conditions, many of which are serious diseases and/or ailments. A significant number of the specific verbs used in these S-F claims are indicative of disease treatment/cure effects, thereby possibly mimicking health claims to the average consumer. The strength of the clinical associations made are largely unsubstantiated in the medical literature. Claims that a product is "scientifically proven" or "guaranteed" were largely unsubstantiated by clinical literature. Ads carrying externally validating seals of approval were highly prevalent. S-F claims that strongly mimic FDA-prohibited health claims are likely to create confusion in interpretation and possible public health concerns are discussed.

  4. The corporatization of community pharmacy:implications for service provision, the public health function, and pharmacy's claims to professional status in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Joe; Langley, Christopher A.; Wilson, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmacy has experienced both incomplete professionalization and deprofessionalization. Since the late 1970s, a concerted attempt has been made to re-professionalize pharmacy in the United Kingdom (UK) through role extension—a key feature of which has been a drive for greater pharmacy involvement in public health. However, the continual corporatization of the UK community pharmacy sector may reduce the professional autonomy of pharmacists and may threaten to constrain attempts at r...

  5. The corporatization of community pharmacy: implications for service provision, the public health function, and pharmacy's claims to professional status in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Joseph; Langley, Christopher A; Wilson, Keith A

    2009-12-01

    Pharmacy has experienced both incomplete professionalization and deprofessionalization. Since the late 1970s, a concerted attempt has been made to re-professionalize pharmacy in the United Kingdom (UK) through role extension-a key feature of which has been a drive for greater pharmacy involvement in public health. However, the continual corporatization of the UK community pharmacy sector may reduce the professional autonomy of pharmacists and may threaten to constrain attempts at reprofessionalization. The objectives of the research: to examine the public health activities of community pharmacists in the UK; to explore the attitudes of community pharmacists toward recent relevant UK policy and barriers to the development of their public health function; and, to investigate associations between activity, attitudes, and the type of community pharmacy worked in (eg, supermarket, chain, independent). A self-completion postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of practicing community pharmacists, stratified for country and sex, within Great Britain (n=1998), with a follow-up to nonresponders 4 weeks later. Data were analyzed using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) (v12.0). A final response rate of 51% (n=1023/1998) was achieved. The level of provision of emergency hormonal contraception on a patient group direction, supervised administration of medicines, and needle-exchange schemes was lower in supermarket pharmacies than in the other types of pharmacy. Respondents believed that supermarkets and the major multiple pharmacy chains held an advantageous position in terms of attracting financing for service development despite suggesting that the premises of such pharmacies may not be the most suitable for the provision of such services. A mixed market in community pharmacy may be required to maintain a comprehensive range of pharmacy-based public health services and provide maximum benefit to all patients. Longitudinal monitoring is recommended to ensure that

  6. Ocular Dominance and Handedness in Golf Putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kristine; Guillon, Michel; Naroo, Shehzad A

    2015-10-01

    In golf, the impact of eye-hand dominance on putting performance has long been debated. Eye-hand dominance is thought to impact how golfers judge the alignment of the ball with the target and the club with the ball, as well as how golfers visualize the line of the putt when making decisions about the force needed to hit the ball. Previous studies have all measured ocular dominance in primary gaze only, despite golfers spending a significant amount of their time in a putting stance (bent at the hips, head tilted down). Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess ocular dominance in both primary gaze (aligning the ball with the target) and putting gaze (addressing the ball and aligning the club). This study investigated measuring pointing ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions on 31 golfers (14 amateur, 7 club professionals, and 10 top professionals). All players were right-handed golfers, although one reported having no hand dominance and one reported being strongly left hand dominant. The results showed that (1) primary and putting gaze ocular dominances are not equal, nor are they predictive of each other; (2) the magnitude of putting ocular dominance is significantly less than the magnitude of primary gaze ocular dominance; (3) ocular dominance is not correlated with handedness in either primary or putting gaze; and (4) eye-hand dominance is not associated with increased putting skill, although ocular dominance may be associated with increased putting success. It is important that coaches assess golfers' ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions to ensure they have the most accurate information upon which to base their vision strategy decisions.

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to non-digestible carbohydrates and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Beneo-Orafti SA, Sensus BV and Cosucra-Groupe Warcoing SA, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA......) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) from inulin and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. Non-digestible carbohydrates including FOS are resistant to hydrolysis and absorption in the small intestine and do...... not contribute to post-prandial glycaemia. This opinion applies to non-digestible carbohydrates (e.g. non-starch polysaccharides, resistant oligosaccharides and resistant starch) which should replace sugars in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that the food constituent...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to AlphaGOS® and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    physiological effect. A claim on non-digestible carbohydrates and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. The previous evaluation, including the proposed wording and the conditions of use, also applies to this application. The Panel......Following an application from Olygose, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to AlphaGOS® and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. Non-digestible carbohydrates, including α-galacto-oligosaccharides in AlphaGOS®, are resistant to hydrolysis and absorption in the small intestine and therefore do not contribute to post-prandial glycaemia...

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal thyroid function pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal thyroid function. The food constituent, iodine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal thyroid function is a beneficial physiological effect for infants and young children....... A claim on iodine and normal thyroid function in the general population has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of iodine on normal thyroid function applies to all ages, including infants and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes...

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 939

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and defence against...... pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, defence against pathogenic gastro...... and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms....

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.), “tri......-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect...

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to selenium and protection of DNA, proteins a nd lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to selenium and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage. The Panel considers that selenium is sufficiently characterised. Protection of body cells and molecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids from...... oxidative damage is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel has previously assessed a claim on selenium and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage with a favourable outcome. The target population was the general population. The Panel considers that the role of selenium...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to lutein and maintenance of normal vision (ID 1603, 1604, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to lutein and mainte......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to lutein...... into account that one human intervention study in healthy subjects did not show an effect of lutein on visual acuity or glare sensitivity, that the results of this study were inconsistent as regards contrast sensitivity, and that the evidence provided for a mechanism by which lutein could exert the claimed...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum CNCM I-3470 and alleviation of psychological stress (ID 938

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to a combination...... of Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CNCM I-3470 and alleviation of psychological stress and “maintains the balance of healthy microbiota that helps to strengthen the natural defence”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims, a combination of L....... helveticus CNCM I-1722 and B. longum subsp. longum CNCM I-3470, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, alleviation of psychological stress, is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation...

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA® in the semi-hard Edam-type „heart cheese‟ of Harmony™” and maintenance of normal blood pressure pursuant to Article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA® in the semi-hard Edam-type “heart cheese” of Harmony™” and maintenance of normal blood pressure (BP). The food constituent L. plantarum TENSIA®, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised...... exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA®in the semi-hard Edam-type “heart cheese” of Harmony™ and maintenance of normal blood pressure........ The Panel considers that the maintenance of normal blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided 47 references which did not address the effects of L. plantarum TENSIA® on BP. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from these references for the scientific...

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to flaxseed oil and vitamin E and maintenance of the skin permeability barrier function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim....... The applicant identified two published human intervention studies as being pertinent to the health claim. Owing to the very limited information provided regarding key methodological aspects, and to the important limitations of the statistical analysis performed, the Panel considers that no conclusions can...... be drawn from these studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of flaxseed oil and vitamin E and maintenance of the skin permeability barrier function...

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to polydextrose and changes in bowel function (ID 784), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract (ID 784), decreasing, potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 785) and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 784) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to polydextrose and changes in bowel function, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort. The scientific substantiation......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is polydextrose. The Panel considers...

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and “nutrient tasks and interactions” (ID 574), increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention, (ID 606), and maintenance of normal bone (ID 607) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). The Panel considers that n-3 PUFAs are sufficiently characterised....... claims in relation to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and “nutrient tasks and interactions”, increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention, and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...

  19. (ID 1688), contribution to normal muscle function (ID 1685), and “immune system” (ID 1689, 1919, 1980) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to astaxanthin and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage (ID 1687, 1979), defence against Helicobacter pylori (ID 1686), contribution to normal spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to astaxanthin and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage, defence against Helicobacter pylori, contribution to normal spermatogenesis, contribution to normal muscle function, and “immune system”. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is astaxanthin. The Panel considers that astaxanthin is sufficiently characterised....

  20. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

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    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Minami Nutrition Health BVBA, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-like symptoms”. The food constituent, EPA, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms. These children are also characterised by less hyperactivity and/or coexisting oppositional behaviour”. Upon a request by EFSA for clarification, the applicant indicated that the disease was ADHD, which is classified as such in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, that the risk factor for the disease was an elevated AA/EPA ratio in blood, and that the target population for the claim was children with diagnosis of ADHD. The Panel considers that the evidence provided does not establish that reducing the AA/EPA ratio reduces the risk of ADHD in children, and considers that the target population is a diseased population (i.e. children with ADHD. The Panel concludes that the claimed effect relates to the treatment of a disease, and that therefore the health claim does not comply with the criteria laid down in Regulation (EC No 1924/2006.