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Sample records for putative prebiotics increase

  1. Some putative prebiotics increase the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Pedersen, Anna Lovmand

    2009-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. However, contradicting results...

  2. Some putative prebiotics increase the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahtinen Sampo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. However, contradicting results on prevention of Salmonella infections with prebiotics have been published. The aim of the present study was to examine whether S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection in mice could be prevented by administration of dietary carbohydrates with different structures and digestibility profiles. BALB/c mice were fed a diet containing 10% of either of the following carbohydrates: inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligosaccharide, apple pectin, polydextrose or beta-glucan for three weeks prior to oral Salmonella challenge (107 CFU and compared to mice fed a cornstarch-based control diet. Results The mice fed with diets containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS or xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS had significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 numbers of S. Typhimurium SL1344 in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when compared to the mice fed with the cornstarch-based control diet. Significantly increased amounts (P < 0.01 of Salmonella were detected in ileal and fecal contents of mice fed with diets supplemented with apple pectin, however these mice did not show significantly higher numbers of S. Typhimyrium in liver, spleen and lymph nodes than animals from the control group (P < 0.20. The acute-phase protein haptoglobin was a good marker for translocation of S. Typhimurium in mice. In accordance with the increased counts of Salmonella in the organs, serum concentrations of haptoglobin were significantly increased in the mice fed with FOS or XOS (P < 0.001. Caecum weight was increased in the mice fed with FOS (P < 0.01, XOS (P < 0.01, or polydextrose (P < 0.001, and caecal pH was reduced in the mice fed with polydextrose (P < 0

  3. Some putative prebiotics increase the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Pedersen, Anna Lovmand

    2009-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. However, contradicting results...... on prevention of Salmonella infections with prebiotics have been published. The aim of the present study was to examine whether S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection in mice could be prevented by administration of dietary carbohydrates with different structures and digestibility profiles. BALB/c mice were fed a diet...

  4. Some putative prebiotics increase the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Pedersen, Anna Lovmand;

    2009-01-01

    : The mice fed with diets containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) or xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) had significantly higher (P spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when compared to the mice fed with the cornstarch-based control diet. Significantly...... increased amounts (P spleen and lymph nodes than animals from the control group (P

  5. An exploratory study into the putative prebiotic activity of fructans isolated from Agave angustifolia and the associated anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, Philip; Possemiers, Sam; Campbell, David; Oyarzábal, Iván Saldaña; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2013-08-01

    Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) model. The proximal, transverse and distal vessels were used to investigate fructan fermentation throughout the colon and to assess the alterations of the microbial composition and fermentation metabolites (short chain fatty acids and ammonia). The influence on bioactivity of the fermentation supernatant was assessed by MTT, Comet and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), respectively. Addition of Agave fructan to the SHIME model significantly increased (P Agave fructans. To conclude, branched Agave fructans show indications of prebiotic activity, particularly in relation to colon health by exerting a positive influence on gut barrier function, an important aspect of colon carcinogenesis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prebiotics for Prevention of Gut Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Ebersbach, Tine; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    It is our postulate that the field of prebiotic research has until now been characterized by a one-view-fits-all approach, implicating that if a putatively prebiotic compound is good for something, it is good for everything. One area where this implication has been proved insufficient regards...... the putative preventive effect of prebiotics against intestinal pathogenic bacteria. Although indeed most evidence on effects of prebiotics against infections is positive, some studies indicate that prebiotic carbohydrates cause increased susceptibility to specific gastrointestinal infections. Here, we review...... existing knowledge about the impact of prebiotics on infective agents in vitro and in vivo....

  7. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A; Chen, Irene A

    2012-05-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life.

  8. Prebiotics: why definitions matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-02-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term.

  9. Prebiotics: why definitions matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term. PMID:26431716

  10. A combined metabolomic and phylogenetic study reveals putatively prebiotic effects of high molecular weight arabino-oligosaccharides when assessed by in vitro fermentation in bacterial communities derived from humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulek, Karolina; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Schmidt, Line Rieck

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are defined by their selective stimulation of growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system in ways claimed to be beneficial for health. However, apart from the short chain fatty acids, little is known about bacterial metabolites created by fermentation...... plant structures. Additionally, the combination of qPCR and LC–MS revealed a number of other putative interactions between intestinal microbes and the oligosaccharides, which contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms behind prebiotic impact on human health....... of prebiotics, and the significance of the size of the oligosaccharides remains largely unstudied. By in vitro fermentations in human fecal microbial communities (derived from six different individuals), we studied the effects of high-mass (HA, >1 kDa), low-mass (LA,

  11. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected.

  12. Quantum Chemistry Meets Spectroscopy for Astrochemistry: Increasing Complexity toward Prebiotic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2015-05-19

    For many years, scientists suspected that the interstellar medium was too hostile for organic species and that only a few simple molecules could be formed under such extreme conditions. However, the detection of approximately 180 molecules in interstellar or circumstellar environments in recent decades has changed this view dramatically. A rich chemistry has emerged, and relatively complex molecules such as C60 and C70 are formed. Recently, researchers have also detected complex organic and potentially prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids, in meteorites and in other space environments. Those discoveries have further stimulated the debate on the origin of the building blocks of life in the universe. Many efforts continue to focus on the physical, chemical, and astrophysical processes by which prebiotic molecules can be formed in the interstellar dust and dispersed to Earth or to other planets.Spectroscopic techniques, which are widely used to infer information about molecular structure and dynamics, play a crucial role in the investigation of planetary atmosphere and the interstellar medium. Increasingly these astrochemical investigations are assisted by quantum-mechanical calculations of structures as well as spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties, such as transition frequencies and reaction enthalpies, to guide and support observations, line assignments, and data analysis in these new and chemically complicated situations. However, it has proved challenging to extend accurate quantum-chemical computational approaches to larger systems because of the unfavorable scaling with the number of degrees of freedom (both electronic and nuclear).In this Account, we show that it is now possible to compute physicochemical properties of building blocks of biomolecules with an accuracy rivaling that of the most sophisticated experimental techniques, and we summarize specific contributions from our groups. As a test case, we present the underlying computational machinery

  13. A Putative Human Pheromone, Androstadienone, Increases Cooperation between Men

    OpenAIRE

    Paavo Huoviala; Rantala, Markus J.

    2013-01-01

    Androstadienone, a component of male sweat, has been suggested to function as a human pheromone, an airborne chemical signal causing specific responses in conspecifics. In earlier studies androstadienone has been reported to increase attraction, affect subjects' mood, cortisol levels and activate brain areas linked to social cognition, among other effects. However, the existing psychological evidence is still relatively scarce, especially regarding androstadienone's effects on male behaviour....

  14. A putative human pheromone, androstadienone, increases cooperation between men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huoviala, Paavo; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-01-01

    Androstadienone, a component of male sweat, has been suggested to function as a human pheromone, an airborne chemical signal causing specific responses in conspecifics. In earlier studies androstadienone has been reported to increase attraction, affect subjects' mood, cortisol levels and activate brain areas linked to social cognition, among other effects. However, the existing psychological evidence is still relatively scarce, especially regarding androstadienone's effects on male behaviour. The purpose of this study was to look for possible behavioural effects in male subjects by combining two previously distinct branches of research: human pheromone research and behavioural game theory of experimental economics. Forty male subjects participated in a mixed-model, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. The participants were exposed to either androstadienone or a control stimulus, and participated in ultimatum and dictator games, decision making tasks commonly used to measure cooperation and generosity quantitatively. Furthermore, we measured participants' salivary cortisol and testosterone levels during the experiment. Salivary testosterone levels were found to positively correlate with cooperative behaviour. After controlling for the effects of participants' baseline testosterone levels, androstadienone was found to increase cooperative behaviour in the decision making tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that androstadienone directly affects behaviour in human males.

  15. A putative human pheromone, androstadienone, increases cooperation between men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavo Huoviala

    Full Text Available Androstadienone, a component of male sweat, has been suggested to function as a human pheromone, an airborne chemical signal causing specific responses in conspecifics. In earlier studies androstadienone has been reported to increase attraction, affect subjects' mood, cortisol levels and activate brain areas linked to social cognition, among other effects. However, the existing psychological evidence is still relatively scarce, especially regarding androstadienone's effects on male behaviour. The purpose of this study was to look for possible behavioural effects in male subjects by combining two previously distinct branches of research: human pheromone research and behavioural game theory of experimental economics. Forty male subjects participated in a mixed-model, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. The participants were exposed to either androstadienone or a control stimulus, and participated in ultimatum and dictator games, decision making tasks commonly used to measure cooperation and generosity quantitatively. Furthermore, we measured participants' salivary cortisol and testosterone levels during the experiment. Salivary testosterone levels were found to positively correlate with cooperative behaviour. After controlling for the effects of participants' baseline testosterone levels, androstadienone was found to increase cooperative behaviour in the decision making tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that androstadienone directly affects behaviour in human males.

  16. Overexpression of INCREASED CAMBIAL ACTIVITY, a putative methyltransferase, increases cambial activity and plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyunsook Kim; Mikiko Kojima; Daeseok Choi; Soyoung Park; Minami Matsui; Hitoshi Sakakibara; Ildoo Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Cambial activity is a prerequisite for secondary growth in plants; however, regulatory factors control ing the activity of the secondary meristem in radial growth remain elusive. Here, we identified INCREASED CAMBIAL ACTIVITY (ICA), a gene encoding a putative pectin methyltransferase, which could function as a modulator for the meristematic activity of fascicular and interfascicular cambium in Arabidopsis. An overexpressing transgenic line, 35S::ICA, showed accelerated stem elongation and radial thickening, resulting in increased accumulation of biomass, and increased levels of cytokinins (CKs) and gibberel ins (GAs). Expression of genes encoding pectin methylesterases involved in pectin modification together with pectin methyltransferases was highly induced in 35S::ICA, which might contribute to an increase of methanol emission as a byproduct in 35S::ICA. Methanol treatment induced the expression of GA-or CK-responsive genes and stimulated plant growth. Overal , we propose that ectopic expression of ICA increases cambial activity by regulating CK and GA homeostasis, and methanol emission, eventual y leading to stem elongation and radial growth in the inflorescence stem.

  17. Prebiotics: Definition and protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcheva, Rosica; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2016-02-01

    The increase in chronic metabolic and immunologic disorders in the modern society is linked to major changes in the dietary patterns. These chronic conditions are associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis where important groups of carbohydrate fermenting, short-chain fatty acids-producing bacteria are reduced. Dietary prebiotics are defined as a selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health. Application of prebiotics may then restore the gut microbiota diversity and activity. Unlike the previously accepted prebiotics definition, where a limited number of bacterial species are involved in the prebiotic activity, new data from community-wide microbiome analysis demonstrated a broader affect of the prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota. These new findings require a revision of the current definition. In addition, prebiotics may exert immunomodulatory effects through microbiota-independent mechanisms that will require future investigations involving germ-free animal disease models.

  18. Prebiotic and...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    _ Hashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic: A nondigestible food ingredient that benefits the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth and/ or activity of 1 or more indigenous prebiotic bacteria. Prebiotics can modify the intestinal flora and interact with the immune system of the host against specific pathogens. However clinical trials are currently limited and a beneficial effect of prebiotic in treatment acute diarrhea is still lacking. Prebiotics is not helpful to prevention of diarrhea. there is a paucity of data on the use of Prebiotics in the prevention of ADD (antibiotic – associated diarrhea. Probiotic: An oral supplement or a food product that contains a sufficient number of viable microorganisms to alter the micro flora of the host and has the potential for beneficial health effects. Result of published randomized controlled trials (RCT have indicated that there is modest benefit of giving probiotics in preventing acute gastroenteritis but have good therapeutic benefit in treatment of acute diarrhea. LGG is the most effective. Probiotics also more effective  when given early in the course of diarrhea and are most helpful for otherwise healthy children with watery diarrhea secondary to vial gastroenteritis but no invasive bacterial infection. Probitic can be use to reduce the incidence of ADD specially when started in initiate of treatment. Probiotics is associated with a significant reduced risk of diarrhea lasting more than 3 days.  

  19. A prebiotic fiber increases the formation and subsequent absorption of compound K following oral administration of ginseng in rats

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    Kyung-Ah Kim

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These results show that prebiotic diets, such as NUTRIOSE, may promote the metabolic conversion of ginsenosides to CK and the subsequent absorption of CK in the gastrointestinal tract and may potentiate the pharmacological effects of ginseng.

  20. Prebiotics in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, S; Balzer, A; Panchal, S K; Brown, L

    2014-06-01

    Obesity was probably rare in ancient times, with the current increase starting in the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century, and becoming much more widespread from about 1950, so concurrent with the increased consumption of carbohydrates from cereals in the Green Revolution. However, dietary components such as oligosaccharides from plants including cereals may improve health following fermentation to short-chain carboxylic acids in the intestine by bacteria which constitute of the microbiome. Such non-digestible and fermentable components of diet, called prebiotics, have been part of the human diet since at least Palaeolithic times, and include components of the cereals domesticated in the Neolithic Revolution. If consumption of these cereals has now increased, why is obesity increasing? One reason could be lowered prebiotic intake combined with increased intake of simple sugars, thus changing the bacteria in the microbiome. Processing of food has played an important role in this change of diet composition. Since obesity is a low-grade inflammation, changing the microbiome by increased consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats may lead to obesity via increased systemic inflammation. Conversely, there is now reasonable evidence that increased dietary prebiotic intake decreases inflammation, improves glucose metabolism and decreases obesity. Would widespread increases in prebiotics in the modern diet, so mimicking Palaeolithic or Neolithic nutrition, decrease the incidence and morbidity of obesity in our communities?

  1. A Prebiotic Synthesis of Pterins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R; Mompeán, Cristina; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta

    2015-09-21

    The genesis of life on Earth is a hypothesis of evolutionary science that can be, at least partially, tested experimentally. The prebiotic synthesis of cofactors or coenzymes is a poorly explored issue, likely because their formation under plausible prebiotic conditions is not clear. In this sense, it has been proposed that the cofactors are "molecular fossils" of an early phase of life. In contrast, Eschenmoser and Loewenthal suggested a prebiotic hydrocyanic origin of cofactor building blocks. In the present paper, the formation of a set of pterins from cyanide polymerizations is demonstrated, showing that the main structure of some cofactors can be prebiotically formed. Indeed, it was observed that aqueous aerosols additionally increase the relative composition for pterins in the insoluble NH4CN polymers synthesized. The novel identification of pterins in NH4CN polymers, together with the previous detection of other important biomonomers, indicates that cyanide polymerizations were essential in the early state of prebiotic chemistry.

  2. Prebiotics in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Rastall, Robert A

    2012-04-01

    A wealth of information has been gathered over the past 15 years on prebiotics through experimental, animal and human studies, with the aim to understand the mechanism of actions and elucidate their beneficial health effects to the human host. Significant amount of evidence exists for their ability to increase the bioavailability of minerals and stimulate the immune system, although there is less clear evidence so far for their prophylactic or therapeutic role in gastrointestinal infections. Moreover, the effect of the food delivery vehicle on the efficacy of prebiotics is an area that has been hardly investigated. Besides their beneficial effects, prebiotics influence the textural and organoleptic properties of the food products, such as dairy and baked products. To do this however, they need to be stable during food processing, in particular under conditions of high temperature and low pH.

  3. Prebiotics: application in bakery and pasta products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma Ishwarya, S; Prabhasankar, P

    2014-01-01

    The concept of functional foods has markedly moved toward gastrointestinal health. The prebiotic approach aims at achieving favorable milieu in the human gut by stimulating beneficial bacteria. Several food products act as substrates for the application of prebiotic substances and bakery products are one such category. The trend of increasing consumption of bakery products justifies the choice of using them as vehicles for delivering the prebiotic compounds. Apart from the health benefits, the prebiotic compounds also have nutritional and technological effects in the food matrix. In addition to increasing the fiber content, the candidate prebiotics also affect the rheology and final quality of bakery products. The prebiotic compounds are selected accordingly to confer desirable properties in the final product. The health advantages of prebiotics being well established, the technological advantages in bakery products such as bread and biscuits and extruded product such as pasta are discussed elaborately.

  4. Prebiotic fibres dose-dependently increase satiety hormones and alter Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in lean and obese JCR:LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    There is a growing interest in modulating gut microbiota with diet in the context of obesity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of prebiotics (inulin and oligofructose) on gut satiety hormones, energy expenditure, gastric emptying and gut microbiota. Male lean and obese JCR:LA-cp rats were randomised to either of the following: lean 0 % fibre (LC), lean 10 % fibre (LF), lean 20 % fibre (LHF), obese 0 % fibre (OC), obese 10 % fibre (OF) or obese 20 % fibre (OHF). Body composition, gastric emptying, energy expenditure, plasma satiety hormone concentrations and gut microbiota (using quantitative PCR) were measured. Caecal proglucagon and peptide YY mRNA levels were up-regulated 2-fold in the LF, OF and OHF groups and 3-fold in the LHF group. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in obese v. lean rats and decreased in the OHF group. Plasma ghrelin response was attenuated in the LHF group. Microbial species measured in the Bacteroidetes division decreased, whereas those in the Firmicutes increased in obese v. lean rats and improved with prebiotic intake. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus increased in the OHF v. OC group. Bacteroides and total bacteria negatively correlated with percentage of body fat and body weight. Enterobacteriaceae increased in conjunction with glucose area under the curve (AUC) and glucagon-like peptide-1 AUC. Bacteroides and total bacteria correlated positively with ghrelin AUC yet negatively with insulin AUC and energy intake (P < 0·05). Several of the mechanisms through which prebiotics act (food intake, satiety hormones and alterations in gut microbiota) are regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The combined effects of prebiotics may have therapeutic potential for obesity.

  5. Probiotics and prebiotics in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Yim, Elizabeth; Keri, Jonette E

    2014-10-01

    The rapid increase in the medical use of probiotics and prebiotics in recent years has confirmed their excellent safety profile. As immune modulators, they have been used in inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. We review the literature regarding the use of probiotics and prebiotics in dermatology. Probiotics and prebiotics appear to be effective in reducing the incidence of atopic dermatitis in infants, but their role in atopic dermatitis treatment is controversial. Their role in acne, wound healing, and photoprotection is promising, but larger trials are needed before a final recommendation can be made. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prebiotic Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  7. A combined metabolomic and phylogenetic study reveals putatively prebiotic effects of high molecular weight arabino-oligosaccharides when assessed by in vitro fermentation in bacterial communities derived from humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulek, Karolina; Vigsnaes, Louise Kristine; Schmidt, Line Rieck; Holck, Jesper; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Skov, Thomas Hjort; Meyer, Anne S; Licht, Tine Rask

    2014-08-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are defined by their selective stimulation of growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system in ways claimed to be beneficial for health. However, apart from the short chain fatty acids, little is known about bacterial metabolites created by fermentation of prebiotics, and the significance of the size of the oligosaccharides remains largely unstudied. By in vitro fermentations in human fecal microbial communities (derived from six different individuals), we studied the effects of high-mass (HA, >1 kDa), low-mass (LA, prebiotic impact on human health.

  8. Use of Prebiotics for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Szilagyi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of diet in both the pathogenesis and the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease is an evolving science. Disturbance of intestinal microflora (dysbiosis is putatively a key element in the environmental component causing inflammatory bowel disease. Prebiotics are among the dietary components used in an attempt to counteract dysbiosis. Such predominantly carbohydrate dietary components exert effects on the luminal environment by physicochemical changes through pH alteration, by production of short chain fatty acids and by selectively promoting putatively 'health-beneficial' bacteria. The present review elaborates on some of the background rationale and mechanisms on the use of prebiotics. Additionally, published animal and human trials are discussed.

  9. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  10. Management of metabolic syndrome through probiotic and prebiotic interventions

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    Rashmi H Mallappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder caused by a cluster of interrelated factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main precursor for metabolic syndrome that can be targeted in developing various therapies. With this view, several physical, psychological, pharmaceutical and dietary therapies have been proposed for the management of obesity. However, dietary strategies found more appropriate without any adverse health effects. Application of probiotics and prebiotics as biotherapeutics is the new emerging area in developing dietary strategies and many people are interested in learning the facts behind these health claims. Recent studies established the role of probiotics and prebiotics in weight management with possible mechanisms of improved microbial balance, decreased food intake, decreased abdominal adiposity and increased mucosal integrity with decreased inflammatory tone. Hence, the above "Pharmaco-nutritional" approach has been selected and extensively reviewed to gain thorough knowledge on putative mechanisms of probiotic and prebiotic action in order to develop dietary strategies for the management of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Over-expression of a putative oxidoreductase (UcpA) for increasing furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuan; Miller, Elliot N.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O' Neal

    2016-05-24

    The subject invention pertains to overexpression of a putative oxidoreductase (ucpA) for increasing furfural tolerance in genetically modified microorganisms. Genetically modified microorganisms capable of overexpressing UcpA are also provided. Increased expression of ucpA was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50%, and to permit the fermentation of sugars to products in the presence of 15 mM furfural.

  12. Influence of prebiotics on the human immune system (GALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodera, Pawel

    2008-06-01

    Prebiotics have great potential to improve human health in specific intestinal disorders. The knowledge about the influence of prebiotics on the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) for the improvement of human health is still growing. This paper reviews the latest evidence for the immunity-enhancing effects of prebiotics. Prebiotics, include inulin, fructooligosaccharides, mannosoligosaccharides, and arabinogalactans, are a therapeutic nutritional preparation used for the gut function favoring growth of normal bacterial flora and impedes growth of pathogenic organisms. There is convincing preliminary data to suggest that the consumption of prebiotics can modulate immune parameters in GALT, secondary lymphoid tissues and peripheral circulation. There is increasing evidence that the newly described prebiotics and innovative means of administration can modulate various properties of the immune system, including those of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Authors of recently published patents showed new mechanisms for immuno-modulation, and the ultimate impact on immunological health of prebiotics.

  13. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas,Yvan; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  14. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics.

  15. Use of Prebiotics for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Szilagyi

    2005-01-01

    The relevance of diet in both the pathogenesis and the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease is an evolving science. Disturbance of intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) is putatively a key element in the environmental component causing inflammatory bowel disease. Prebiotics are among the dietary components used in an attempt to counteract dysbiosis. Such predominantly carbohydrate dietary components exert effects on the luminal environment by physicochemical changes through pH alteration, by pro...

  16. Prebiotics as immunostimulants in aquaculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seong Kyu; Beck, Bo Ram; Kim, Daniel; Park, John; Kim, Jungjoon; Kim, Hyun Duk; Ringø, Einar

    2014-09-01

    Prebiotics are indigestible fibers that increase beneficial gut commensal bacteria resulting in improvements of the host's health. The beneficial effects of prebiotics are due to the byproducts generated from their fermentation by gut commensal bacteria. In this review, the direct effects of prebiotics on the innate immune system of fish are discussed. Prebiotics, such as fructooligosaccharide, mannanoligosaccharide, inulin, or β-glucan, are called immunosaccharides. They directly enhance innate immune responses including: phagocytic activation, neutrophil activation, activation of the alternative complement system, increased lysozyme activity, and more. Immunosaccharides directly activate the innate immune system by interacting with pattern recognition receptors (PRR) expressed on innate immune cells. They can also associate with microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to activate innate immune cells. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in innate immune cell activation need to be further explored. Many studies have indicated that immunosaccharides are beneficial to both finfish and shellfish.

  17. Prebiotic metabolic networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    A prebiotic origin of metabolism has been proposed as one of several scenarios for the origin of life. In their recent work, Ralser and colleagues (Keller et al, 2014) observe an enzyme‐free, metabolism‐like reaction network under conditions reproducing a possible prebiotic environment.

  18. Prebiotic metabolic networks?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A prebiotic origin of metabolism has been proposed as one of several scenarios for the origin of life. In their recent work, Ralser and colleagues (Keller et al, 2014) observe an enzyme‐free, metabolism‐like reaction network under conditions reproducing a possible prebiotic environment.

  19. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention.

  20. Increasing liana abundance and biomass in tropical forests: emerging patterns and putative mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests are experiencing large-scale structural changes, the most apparent of which may be the increase in liana (woody vine) abundance and biomass. Lianas permeate most lowland tropical forests, where they can have a huge effect on tree diversity, recruitment, growth and survival, which, i

  1. Stress increases putative gonadotropin inhibitory hormone and decreases luteinizing hormone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Geraghty, Anna C; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E; Kaufer, Daniela

    2009-07-07

    The subjective experience of stress leads to reproductive dysfunction in many species, including rodents and humans. Stress effects on reproduction result from multilevel interactions between the hormonal stress response system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and the hormonal reproductive system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. A novel negative regulator of the HPG axis known as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was recently discovered in quail, and orthologous neuropeptides known as RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs) have also been identified in rodents and primates. It is currently unknown, however, whether GnIH/RFRPs influence HPG axis activity in response to stress. We show here that both acute and chronic immobilization stress lead to an up-regulation of RFRP expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of adult male rats and that this increase in RFRP is associated with inhibition of downstream HPG activity. We also show that adrenalectomy blocks the stress-induced increase in RFRP expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 53% of RFRP cells express receptors for glucocorticoids (GCs), indicating that adrenal GCs can mediate the stress effect through direct action on RFRP cells. It is thought that stress effects on central control of reproduction are largely mediated by direct or indirect effects on GnRH-secreting neurons. Our data show that stress-induced increases in adrenal GCs cause an increase in RFRP that contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function. This novel insight into HPA-HPG interaction provides a paradigm shift for work on stress-related reproductive dysfunction and infertility, and indicates that future work on stress and reproductive system interactions must include investigation of the role of GnIH/RFRP.

  2. A Prebiotic Formula Improves the Gastrointestinal Bacterial Flora in Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides) on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on t...

  3. Microbiome of prebiotic-treated mice reveals novel targets involved in host response during obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Amandine; Lazarevic, Vladimir; Gaïa, Nadia; Johansson, Maria; Ståhlman, Marcus; Backhed, Fredrik; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Schrenzel, Jacques; François, Patrice; Cani, Patrice D

    2014-10-01

    The gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune disorders associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We previously demonstrated that prebiotic treatment may significantly improve host health by modulating bacterial species related to the improvement of gut endocrine, barrier and immune functions. An analysis of the gut metagenome is needed to determine which bacterial functions and taxa are responsible for beneficial microbiota-host interactions upon nutritional intervention. We subjected mice to prebiotic (Pre) treatment under physiological (control diet: CT) and pathological conditions (high-fat diet: HFD) for 8 weeks and investigated the production of intestinal antimicrobial peptides and the gut microbiome. HFD feeding significantly decreased the expression of regenerating islet-derived 3-gamma (Reg3g) and phospholipase A2 group-II (PLA2g2) in the jejunum. Prebiotic treatment increased Reg3g expression (by ∼50-fold) and improved intestinal homeostasis as suggested by the increase in the expression of intectin, a key protein involved in intestinal epithelial cell turnover. Deep metagenomic sequencing analysis revealed that HFD and prebiotic treatment significantly affected the gut microbiome at different taxonomic levels. Functional analyses based on the occurrence of clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) of proteins also revealed distinct profiles for the HFD, Pre, HFD-Pre and CT groups. Finally, the gut microbiota modulations induced by prebiotics counteracted HFD-induced inflammation and related metabolic disorders. Thus, we identified novel putative taxa and metabolic functions that may contribute to the development of or protection against the metabolic alterations observed during HFD feeding and HFD-Pre feeding.

  4. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael; Schrezenmeir, J

    2008-01-01

    According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii--with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7

  5. Prebiotics: an update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Functional foods or functional food ingredients exert a beneficial effect ... of chronic disease beyond their nutritive value (Ziemer .... tured by the oligosaccharides of breast milk, which is .... The nutritional properties of prebiotics are related di-.

  6. Prebiotics: the concept revisited

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberfroid, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    A prebiotic is "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-being and health...

  7. Protracted treatment with diazepam increases the turnover of putative endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine/. beta. -carboline recognition site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, M.; Mocchetti, I.; Ferrarese, C.; Guidotti, A.; Costa, E.

    1987-03-01

    DBI (diazepam-binding inhibitor) is a putative neuromodulatory peptide isolated from rat brain that acts on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine-Cl/sup -/ ionosphore receptor complex inducing ..beta..-carboline-like effects. The authors used a cDNA probe complementary to DBI mRNA and a specific antibody for rat DBI to study in rat brain how the dynamic state of DBI can be affected after protected (three times a day for 10 days) treatment with diazepam and chlordiazepoxide by oral gavage. Both the content of DBI and DBI mRNA increased in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex but failed to change in the hippocampus and striatum of rats receiving this protracted benzodiazepine treatment. Acute treatment with diazepam did not affect the dynamic state of brain DBI. An antibody was raised against a biologically active octadecaneuropeptide derived from the tryptic digestion of DBI. The combined HPLC/RIA analysis of rat cerebellar extracts carried out with this antibody showed that multiple molecular forms of the octadecaneuropeptide-like reactivity are present and all of them are increased in rats receiving repeated daily injections of diazepam. It is inferred that tolerance to benzodiazepines in associated with an increase in the turnover rate of DBI, which may be responsible for the ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid receptor desensitization that occurs after protracted benzodiazepine administration.

  8. The impact of probiotics and prebiotics on the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaenhammer, T.R.; Kleerebezem, M.; Kopp, M.V.; Rescigno, M.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are increasingly being added to foodstuffs with claims of health benefits. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are thought to have beneficial effects on the host, whereas prebiotics are ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal micro

  9. The impact of probiotics and prebiotics on the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaenhammer, T.R.; Kleerebezem, M.; Kopp, M.V.; Rescigno, M.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are increasingly being added to foodstuffs with claims of health benefits. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are thought to have beneficial effects on the host, whereas prebiotics are ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal

  10. Effects of prebiotics on immune system and cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Navidshad, Bahman; Liang, Juan Boo

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, use of prebiotics as feed and food additives has received increasing interest because of the beneficial effects of prebiotics on the health of animals and humans. One of the beneficial effects of prebiotics is stimulation of immune system, which can be direct or indirect through increasing population of beneficial microbes or probiotics, especially lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, in the gut. An important mechanism of action of probiotics and prebiotics, by which they can affect the immune system, is changing the expression of cytokines. The present review tried to summarize the findings of studies that investigated the effects of prebiotics on immune system with focusing on their effects on cytokine expression. Generally, most of reviewed studies indicated beneficial effects for prebiotics in terms of improving immune system, by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while reducing the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. However, most of studies mainly considered the indirect effects of prebiotics on the immune system (through changing the composition and population of gut microbiota), and their direct effects still need to be further studied using prebiotics with different degree of polymerization in different hosts.

  11. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  12. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  13. Prebiotic mechanisms, functions and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    In October 2012, a group of scientists met at the 10th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in Cork, Ireland to discuss issues surrounding prebiotics and their development. This article summarises outputs from the meeting. Various prebiotic defin...

  14. Effects of prebiotics on the infective potential of Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Tine

    affect the composition of the microbiota - among them prebiotics. Prebiotics are food ingredients that are non-digestible for the human body and therefore reach the large intestine in an intact form. In the large intestine the prebiotics selectively stimulate the growth of the beneficial rather than...... countries with a mortality of about 30%. The gut has a very important function in defending the host against infections with ingested pathogenic bacteria and there is increasing evidence that prebiotics can help strengthen this defense. This is done through stimulation of beneficial intestinal bacteria...... that release bacteriocins toxic for the pathogens, lower the pH to a level that is unfavourable for pathogenic bacteria and compete with the pathogen for nutrients and mucosal adhesion sites in the intestine. However, besides the microbiota dependent mechanisms increasing evidence suggest that prebiotics exert...

  15. A Prebiotic Formula Improves the Gastrointestinal Bacterial Flora in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months. In addition, total organic acids in the fecal samples significantly increased which improves the utilization of bifidus under acidic conditions after consumption of the 3-prebiotic formula. Therefore, using the formula enriched with prebiotic may maintain gut health in toddlers.

  16. Functional petit-suisse cheese: measure of the prebiotic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Saad, Susana M I; Gibson, Glenn R; Vulevic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Prebiotics and probiotics are increasingly being used to produce potentially synbiotic foods, particularly through dairy products as vehicles. It is well known that both ingredients may offer benefits to improve the host health. This research aimed to evaluate the prebiotic potential of novel petit-suisse cheeses using an in vitro fermentation model. Five petit-suisse cheese formulations combining candidate prebiotics (inulin, oligofructose, honey) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis) were tested in vitro using sterile, stirred, batch culture fermentations with human faecal slurry. Measurement of prebiotic effect (MPE) values were generated comparing bacterial changes through determination of maximum growth rates of groups, rate of substrate assimilation and production of lactate and short chain fatty acids. Fastest fermentation and high lactic acid production, promoting increased growth rates of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, were achieved with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese (made using starter+probiotics). Addition of probiotic strains to control cheese (made using just a starter culture) also resulted in high lactic acid production. Highest MPE values were obtained with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese, followed by addition of prebiotics and/or probiotics to a control cheese. Under the in vitro conditions used, cheese made with the combination of different prebiotics and probiotics resulted in the most promising functional petit-suisse cheese. The study allowed comparison of potentially functional petit-suisse cheeses and screening of preferred synbiotic potential for future market use.

  17. Prebiotic effects of inulin and oligofructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolida, S; Tuohy, K; Gibson, G R

    2002-05-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that target certain components within the microbiota of the human large intestine. Efficient prebiotics need to have a specific fermentation therein and thereby have the ability to alter the faecal microflora composition towards a more 'beneficial' community structure. This should occur by the stimulation of benign or potentially health promoting genera but not the harmful groups. Because of their positive attributes bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are the most frequent target organisms. Both inulin and oligofructose have been demonstrated to be effective prebiotics. This has been shown through both in vitro and in vivo assessments in different laboratories. Because of their recognised prebiotic properties, principally the selective stimulation of colonic bifidobacteria, both inulin and oligofructose are increasingly used in new food product developments. Examples include drinks, yoghurts, biscuits and table spreads. Because of the recognised inhibitory effects that bifidobacteria can exert against gut pathogens, one of the most important aspects of prebiotic ingestion is fortification of the gut flora to resist acute infections.

  18. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Marshall, John; Shen, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The chemical evolution hypothesis of Woese (1979), according to which prebiotic reactions occurred rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns was criticized by Scherer (1985). This paper proposes a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that answers Scherer's concerns and supports Woese's hypothesis. According to this mechanism, rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by, or synthesized during entry of meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust, would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and would be polymerized within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and evaporation of cloud drops.

  19. Prebiotic synthesis of histidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Yang, L.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    The prebiotic formation of histidine (His) has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazole-4-acetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.5% based on the ratio of His/erythrose. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now.

  20. Inulin: Potential prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Zdenka B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prebiotic factor, such as inulin, is able to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria selectively at the expense of more putrefactive bacteria. Chemical structure - Inulin has been defined as carbohydrate material consisting of â (2-1 fructosyl-fructose links. Physical and chemical properties - Chicory inulin is available as white, odourless powders. The taste is neutral or slightly sweet. Caloric value - The value of 1.5 kcal/g is generally used. Improvement of lipid metabolism - The consumption of fructans reduces serum triglycerides and sometimes also cholesterol in healthy volunteers who were hyperlipidemic. Modulation of gut microflora - Inulin induces effects on gut function, such as a reduction of intestinal pH, relief of constipation, increased stool weight and frequency. Intestinal acceptability - Osmotic effect leads to an increased presence of water in the colon. The second effect is caused by the fermentation products. Suitability for diabetics - Inulin has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Reduction of cancer risk - The production of toxic metabolites may be reduced by increasing the proportion of healthier colonic micro flora, which competes with pathogenic bacteria to reduce the levels of toxin and carcinogenic-producing enzymes. Increase in mineral absorption. The increase in calcium absorption did not negatively alter the absorption of other minerals. Food applications - Inulin improves organoleptic quality and a better-balanced nutritional composition. Perspectives - Fundamental mechanisms governing the nutritional benefits of inulin need to be further investigated. Conclusion. Inulin represents a key ingredient that offers new opportunities to food industry, which is constantly seeking well balanced, yet better tasting.

  1. Health benefits of prebiotic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Diederick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the various compounds that can act as prebiotic fibers: their structure, occurrence, production, and physiological effects (health effects) will be presented. The basis for the description is the latest definitions for dietary fibers and for prebiotics. Using as much as possible data from human studies, both the fiber and the prebiotic properties will be described of a variety of compounds. Based on the presented data the latest developments in the area of prebiotics, fibers and gut and immune health will be discussed in more detail as they show best what the potential impact of prebiotics on health of the human host might be.

  2. Prebiotics – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiboon Thammarutwasik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceuticals and functional foods have become an important tool for consumers to manage their health and wellness.Pre-, pro-, and synbiotics are a part of this group of products shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinalproblems and improve general health and well being. Prebiotics are polysaccharides that can withstand acidic and enzymaticdigestion in the small intestine and can be utilized by probiotics, and gut microflora, in the large intestine for their growth andactivities that benefit the host’s health, e.g., by enhancing the immunity and mineral absorption, preventing colon cancer andother gastrointestinal diseases, and lowering cholesterol. Prebiotics, e.g., inulin, oligofructose, oligolactose, and lactulose, occur naturally in many plants, or may be synthesized from starch or other carbohydrates using appropriate enzymes.A number of plants from southern Thailand, e.g., palm fruit (Borrassus flabellifer L., jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllusLam., young coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn., rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., jampadah (Artocarpus integer Merr., and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. contain a considerable amount of polysaccharides that have been shown to have prebiotic properties. Prebiotics may be used as ingredients in functional foods, or may be presented as nutraceuticals in the form of capsules, tablets or powder, sometimes together with probiotic cultures.

  3. PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS AND SYNBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta V. Chauhan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of Probiotics have been recognized and explored for over a century. Probiotics consist of bacteria or yeasts and can be considered functional foods that can re-colonize and restore the microflora symbiosis of the intestinal tract. Several health benefits associated with the Probiotics in various diseases includes Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD, Colon Cancer, Rotavirus-associated diarhoea, H.Pylori infection and Liver disease etc. Prebiotics are “non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon”. Dietary modulation of the gut microflora by Prebiotics is designed to improve health by stimulating numbers and/or activities of Probiotics like Bifidobacteria and Lactobacill.This review also discuss the results of randomized controlled clinical trials that used Prebiotics to treat IBD, Hypertension, Colon Cancer, Diabetes and Hepatic Encephalopathy as well as their potential applications. The combination of Probiotics and Prebiotics is known as Synbiotics. Recently Synbiotics have been proposed as a new therapeutic option in Pediatric surgery, Digestive organ surgery, Liver disease and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS. This article provides the overview of how Pro-, Pre- and Synbiotics contribute towards various health benefits.

  4. Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberfroid, Marcel; Gibson, Glenn R; Hoyles, Lesley; McCartney, Anne L; Rastall, Robert; Rowland, Ian; Wolvers, Danielle; Watzl, Bernhard; Szajewska, Hania; Stahl, Bernd; Guarner, Francisco; Respondek, Frederique; Whelan, Kevin; Coxam, Veronique; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Léotoing, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Meheust, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    ... academic and industry experts (in the ILSI Europe Prebiotic Expert Group and Prebiotic Task Force, respectively). It does not aim to propose a new de nition of a prebiotic nor to identify which food products are classi ed as prebiotic but rather to validate and expand the original idea of the prebiotic concept (that can be translated in ‘prebioti...

  5. A Critical Look at Prebiotics Within the Dietary Fiber Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Damen, Bram; Broekaert, Willem F; Verbeke, Kristin; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet.

  6. Prebiotic Evolution of Nitrogen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1999-01-01

    Support from this four year grant has funded our research on two general problems. One involves attempts to model the abiotic formation of simple source compounds for functional biomolecules, their concentration from dilute state in the hydrosphere and, in several cases, surface induced reactions to form precursor monomers for bioactive end products (refs. 1-5). Because of the pervasiveness and antiquity of phosphate based biochemistry and the catalytic activity of RNA we have exploring the hypothesis of an RNA World as an early stage in the emergence of life. This concept is now rather generally considered, but has been questioned due to the earlier lack of an experimentally demonstrated successful scheme for the spontaneous formation of ribose phosphate, the key backbone molecule in RNA. That impediment has now been removed. This has been achieved by demonstrating probable sources of activated (condensed) highly soluble and strongly sorbed phosphates in nature (Refs. 1,2) and effective condensation of aldehyde phosphates to form ribose phosphate in high yield (ref.6), thereby placing the RNA World concept on a somewhat safer experimental footing. Like all work in this field these experiments are oversimplifications that largely ignore competing side reactions with other compounds expected to be present. None the less our choice of experimental conditions aim at selective processes that eliminate interfering reactions. We have also sought to narrow the credibility gap by simulating geophysically and geochemically plausible conditions surrounding the putative prebiotic reactions.

  7. PREBIOTICS, INULIN AND BABY FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics play significant role in life support of microorganisms of human gastrointestinal tract, and normal functional state of intestinal biocenosis is sufficient condition for human health. Intestinal microbiocenosis is a component of regulation of proteins and lipids metabolism, vitamins synthesis, detoxication process in intestine, etc. prebiotics include a number of disaccharides (lactulose, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (inulin, cellulose, etc.. Fructose polymer — inulin — provides growth of bifido- and lactobacteria, improves metabolism and has immunomodulating activity. Formation of intestinal micro biocenosis in infant is provided by prebiotics of breast milk. Further state of micro biocenosis, which is necessary for growth and development of child, is determined by adequate intake of prebiotics from fruits, vegetables and cereals. It is reasonable to use special baby foods fortified with prebiotics (for example, inulin.Key words: prebiotics, intestinal microflora, inulin.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:121-125

  8. Prebiotic Matter in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Groen, J.

    2015-03-01

    A significant number of molecules that are used in contemporary biochemistry on Earth are found in interstellar and circumstellar regions as well as solar system environments. In particular small solar system bodies hold clues to processes that formed our solar system. Comets, asteroids, and meteorite delivered extraterrestrial material during the heavy bombardment phase ~3.9 billion years ago to the young planets, a process that made carbonaceous material available to the early Earth. In-depth understanding of the organic reservoir in different space environments as well as data on the stability of organic and prebiotic material in solar system environments are vital to assess and quantify the extraterrestrial contribution of prebiotic sources available to the young Earth.

  9. Designing future prebiotic fiber to target metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Nyman, Margareta; Fåk, Frida

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, is a growing epidemic worldwide, requiring new prevention strategies and therapeutics. The concept of prebiotics refers to selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host. Sequencing the gut microbiome and performing metagenomics has provided new knowledge of the significance of the composition and activity of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease. As knowledge of how a healthy gut microbiota is composed and which bacterial metabolites are beneficial increases, tailor-made dietary interventions using prebiotic fibers could be developed for individuals with MetS. In this review, we describe how dietary fibers alter short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the intrinsic and extrinsic effects of prebiotics on host metabolism. We focus on several key aspects in prebiotic research in relation to MetS and provide mechanistic data that support the use of prebiotic fibers in order to alter the gut microbiota composition and SCFA profiles. Further studies in the field should provide reliable mechanistic and clinical evidence for how prebiotics can be used to alleviate MetS and its complications. Additionally, it will be important to clarify the effect of individual differences in the gut microbiome on responsiveness to prebiotic interventions.

  10. Prebiotics as a modulator of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, A C; Reimer, R A

    2017-08-01

    This review highlights our current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity and the potential role for dietary manipulation of the gut microbiota with prebiotics in managing paediatric obesity. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial and is now known to include microbial dysbiosis in the gut. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which selectively modulate the number and/or composition of gut microbes. The goal of prebiotic consumption is to restore symbiosis and thereby confer health benefits to the host. There is convincing evidence that prebiotics can reduce adiposity and improve metabolic health in preclinical rodent models. Furthermore, there are several clinical trials in adult humans highlighting metabolic and appetite-regulating benefits of prebiotics. In paediatric obesity, however, there are very limited data regarding the potential role of prebiotics as a dietary intervention for obesity management. As the prevalence of paediatric obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities increases globally, interventions that target the progression of obesity from an early age are essential in slowing the obesity epidemic. This review emphasizes the need for further research assessing the role of prebiotics, particularly as an intervention in effectively managing paediatric obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  11. [Prebiotics in infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas.

  12. The impact of probiotics and prebiotics on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaenhammer, Todd R; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kopp, Matthias Volkmar; Rescigno, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are increasingly being added to foodstuffs with claims of health benefits. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are thought to have beneficial effects on the host, whereas prebiotics are ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal microorganisms. But can these products directly modulate immune function and influence inflammatory diseases? Here, Nature Reviews Immunology asks four experts to discuss these issues and provide their thoughts on the future application of probiotics as a disease therapy.

  13. FAO Technical meeting on prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineiro, Maya; Asp, Nils-Georg; Reid, Gregor; Macfarlane, Sandra; Morelli, Lorenzo; Brunser, Oscar; Tuohy, Kieran

    2008-09-01

    Recognizing the possible beneficial effect of prebiotics in food, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) convened a Technical meeting to start work on the evaluation of the functional and health properties of prebiotics. A group of international experts agreed on guidelines, recommended criteria, and methodology for conducting a systematic approach for the evaluation of prebiotics leading to its safe use in food. It was recommended that a full expert consultation be convened under the auspices of FAO. This work provides governments, industry, and consumers with scientific advice in relation to functional and health aspects of prebiotics and general guidance for the assessment of prebiotics in relation to their nutritional properties or safety. These guidelines may also be used by Member Countries and Codex Alimentarius to identify and define what data need to be available to accurately substantiate health and nutrition claims.

  14. Prebiotic cell membranes that survive extreme environmental pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shobhna; Berghaus, Melanie; Suladze, Saba; Prumbaum, Daniel; Grobelny, Sebastian; Degen, Patrick; Raunser, Stefan; Winter, Roland

    2014-08-04

    Attractive candidates for compartmentalizing prebiotic cells are membranes comprised of single-chain fatty acids. It is generally believed that life may have originated in the depth of the protoocean, that is, under high hydrostatic pressure conditions, but the structure and physical-chemical properties of prebiotic membranes under such conditions have not yet been explored. We report the temperature- and pressure-dependent properties of membranes composed of prebiotically highly-plausible lipids and demonstrate that prebiotic membranes could not only withstand extreme temperatures, but also serve as robust models of protocells operating in extreme pressure environments. We show that pressure not only increases the stability of vesicular systems but also limits their flexibility and permeability to solutes, while still keeping the membrane in an overall fluid-like and thus functional state. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Probiotics And Prebiotics As Feed Additive For Nonruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ban against using antibiotics has led to increase the use of alternative additive substances as antibiotic. The alternative additives that can be used as antibiotic are probiotic and prebiotic. Both components can be used separately or together as synbiotic. Probiotic and prebiotic can modulate the ecosytem of intestinal microflora that is potential to affect the health and performance of host. Probiotic and prebiotic have been widely used abroad because of their positive effects, but the research and the use of these components in Indonesia are limited, eventhough abundance of raw material that can be used are available. The research dealing with probiotic and prebiotic as additive is necessary to be improved to obtain the efficient and practical production method, which can be implemented to give an economic impact on livestock industry.

  16. European market developments in prebiotic- and probiotic-containing foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J

    1998-10-01

    A growing number of food manufacturers in western Europe are beginning to explore the commercial opportunities for foodstuffs containing health-promoting microbial food supplements (probiotics) and health-promoting non-digestible food ingredients (prebiotics). A prebiotic is considered to affect the host beneficially by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of naturally present or introduced bacterial species in the colon, also leading to a claimed improvement in host health. Increasingly, probiotics and prebiotics are used in combination, this being termed a synbiotic (Gibson & Roberfroid, 1995). Throughout European history, fermented milk products in particular have been considered beneficial to health, but only in recent years has there been scientific support for these beliefs. Issues considered important to the continuing development of this growing market are proof of safety, proof of efficacy, consumer education, market positioning, price and appropriate health claims strategies. Until recently, much of the innovation in the use of probiotics and prebiotics has been in the dairy cabinet, with an ever-growing number and range of 'health-promoting' yoghurts and yoghurt-type fermented milk being made available to the European consumer, a market which is currently estimated to be worth in excess of $US2 billion per annum (Hilliam et al. 1997). However, prebiotics are beginning to find increasing application outside the dairy sector, particularly in baked goods. A key driver behind the broadening application of prebiotics has been the pro-active stance taken by key prebiotic suppliers such as Beghin-Say, Orafti and Cosucra. To date, market activity in probiotic- and prebiotic-containing foods has centred around three health propositions, namely improving general gut health, lowering blood cholesterol and improving the body's natural defences.

  17. [Autochthonous microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Juan Evaristo

    2015-02-07

    The autochthonous microbiota is the community of microorganisms that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces. The symbiosis is, generally, mutualistic but it can become parasitic due to immune response alterations. The skin microbiota includes bacteria (95%), lipophilic fungi and mites. In the digestive apparatus, each cavity presents its own microbiota, which reaches its target organ during the perinatal period, originating complex and stable communities (homeostasis). The vaginal microbiota varies with the endocrine activity, significantly increasing during the fertile and pregnancy periods, when lactobacilli are the most abundant organisms. Four are the main benefits of the autochthonous microbiota: i) delivery of essential nutrients, such as vitamins and some amino acids; ii) utilization of undigestible diet components, the colonic microbiota degrades complex glycans and fulfils almost 20% of the calories present in a normal diet; iii) development of the immune system: the continuous contact with the immune system maintains it alert and in good shape to repel pathogens efficaciously and iv) microbial antagonism, hinders colonization of our mucosal surfaces by alochthonous, potentially pathogenic, organisms. This works through three mechanisms: colonization interference, production of antimicrobials and co-aggregation with the potential pathogens. The microbiota can, sporadically, produce damages: opportunistic endogenous infections and generation of carcinogenic compounds. Probiotics are "live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the consumer". Prebiotics are undigestible glycans that enhance the growth or activity of the intestinal microbiota, thus generating a health benefit. Synbiotics are mixes of probiotics and prebiotics that exert a synergistic health effect. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Probiotics and prebiotics associated with aquaculture: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Najeeb; Wu, Bin; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Mohsin, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    There is a rapidly growing literature, indicating success of probiotics and prebiotics in immunomodulation, namely the stimulation of innate, cellular and humoral immune response. Probiotics are considered to be living microorganisms administered orally and lead to health benefits. These Probiotics are microorganisms in sufficient amount to alter the microflora (by implantation or colonization) in specific host's compartment exerting beneficial health effects at this host. Nevertheless, Prebiotics are indigestible fiber which enhances beneficial commensally gut bacteria resulting in improved health of the host. The beneficial effects of prebiotics are due to by-products derived from the fermentation of intestinal commensal bacteria. Among the many health benefits attributed to probiotics and prebiotics, the modulation of the immune system is one of the most anticipated benefits and their ability to stimulate systemic and local immunity, deserves attention. They directly enhance the innate immune response, including the activation of phagocytosis, activation of neutrophils, activation of the alternative complement system, an increase in lysozyme activity, and so on. Prebiotics acting as immunosaccharides directly impact on the innate immune system of fish and shellfish. Therefore, both probiotics and prebiotics influence the immunomodulatory activity boosting up the health benefits in aquatic animals.

  19. Spontaneous nisin-resistant Listeria monocytogenes mutants with increased expression of a putative penicillin-binding protein and their sensitivity to various antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, A; Sørensen, K; Aarestrup, F M; Knøchel, S

    2001-01-01

    A concern regarding the use of bacteriocins, as for example the lantibiotic nisin, for biopreservation of certain food products is the possibility of resistance development and potential cross-resistance to antibiotics in the target organism. The genetic basis for nisin resistance development is as yet unknown. We analyzed changes in gene expression following nisin resistance development in Listeria monocytogenes 412 by restriction fragment differential display. The mutant had increased expression of a protein with strong homology to the glycosyltransferase domain of high-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), a histidine protein kinase, a protein of unknown function, and ClpB (putative functions from homology). The three former proteins had increased expression in a total of six out of 10 independent mutants originating from five different wild-type strains, indicating a prevalent nisin resistance mechanism under the employed isolation conditions. Increased expression of the putative PBP may affect the cell wall composition and thereby alter the sensitivity to cell wall-targeting compounds. The mutants had an isolate-specific increase in sensitivity to different beta-lactams and a slight decrease in sensitivity to another lantibiotic, mersacidin. A model incorporating these observations is proposed based on current knowledge of nisin's mode of action.

  20. Prebiotics and the health benefits of fiber: current regulatory status, future research, and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownawell, Amy M; Caers, Wim; Gibson, Glenn R; Kendall, Cyril W C; Lewis, Kara D; Ringel, Yehuda; Slavin, Joanne L

    2012-05-01

    First defined in the mid-1990s, prebiotics, which alter the composition and activity of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to improve health and well-being, have generated scientific and consumer interest and regulatory debate. The Life Sciences Research Organization, Inc. (LSRO) held a workshop, Prebiotics and the Health Benefits of Fiber: Future Research and Goals, in February 2011 to assess the current state of the science and the international regulatory environment for prebiotics, identify research gaps, and create a strategy for future research. A developing body of evidence supports a role for prebiotics in reducing the risk and severity of GI infection and inflammation, including diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcerative colitis as well as bowel function disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. Prebiotics also increase the bioavailability and uptake of minerals and data suggest that they reduce the risk of obesity by promoting satiety and weight loss. Additional research is needed to define the relationship between the consumption of different prebiotics and improvement of human health. New information derived from the characterization of the composition and function of different prebiotics as well as the interactions among and between gut microbiota and the human host would improve our understanding of the effects of prebiotics on health and disease and could assist in surmounting regulatory issues related to prebiotic use.

  1. Probiotics and prebiotics in periodontal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Rani Koduganti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a paradigm shift toward ecological and microbial community-based approach in understanding oral diseases. A marked improvement in gastrointestinal health has been reported after using probiotic bacteria and/or prebiotic supplements,which has prompted much interest in the use of this approach for oral applications. Treatment of periodontal disease in recent years has moved toward an antibiotic/antimicrobial model of disease management. With increase in the incidence of resistance to antibiotics, probiotics may be a promising area of research in periodontal therapy. This paper reviews the evidences for the use of probiotics or prebiotics for the prevention of dental caries or periodontal diseases, and also adresses the risk associated with their prolonged use. Many questions have been raised pertaining to the benefits of probiotic administration, as the role of probiotics in periodontics is still in infancy, and a complete understanding of the broad ecological changes induced in the mouth by probiotics or prebiotics is essential to assess their long-term consequences for oral health and disease.

  2. Towards microbial fermentation metabolites as markers for health benefits of prebiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, Kristin A.; Boobis, Alan R.; Chiodini, Alessandro; Edwards, Christine A.; Franck, Anne; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Nauta, Arjen; Raes, Jeroen; Tol, Van Eric A.F.; Tuohy, Kieran M.

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence on the bioactive, nutritional and putative detrimental properties of gut microbial metabolites has been evaluated to support a more integrated view of how prebiotics might affect host health throughout life. The present literature inventory targeted evidence for the

  3. Towards microbial fermentation metabolites as markers for health benefits of prebiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, Kristin A.; Boobis, Alan R.; Chiodini, Alessandro; Edwards, Christine A.; Franck, Anne; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Nauta, Arjen; Raes, Jeroen; Tol, Van Eric A.F.; Tuohy, Kieran M.

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence on the bioactive, nutritional and putative detrimental properties of gut microbial metabolites has been evaluated to support a more integrated view of how prebiotics might affect host health throughout life. The present literature inventory targeted evidence for the physiologic

  4. Identification of a positively evolving putative binding region with increased variability in posttranslational motifs in zonadhesin MAM domain 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlyn, Holger; Zischler, Hans

    2005-10-01

    Positive selection has been shown to be pervasive in sex-related proteins of many metazoan taxa. However, we are only beginning to understand molecular evolutionary processes on the lineage to humans. To elucidate the evolution of proteins involved in human reproduction, we studied the sequence evolution of MAM domains of the sperm-ligand zonadhesin in respect to single amino acid sites, solvent accessibility, and posttranslational modification. GenBank-data were supplemented by new cDNA-sequences of a representative non-human primate panel. Solvent accessibility predictions identified a probably exposed fragment of 30 amino acids belonging to MAM domain 2 (i.e., MAM domain 3 in mouse). The fragment is characterized by significantly increased rate of positively selected amino acid sites and exhibits high variability in predicted posttranslational modification, and, thus, might represent a binding region in the mature protein. At the same time, there is a significant coincidence of positively selected amino acid sites and non-conserved posttranslational motifs. We conclude that the binding specificity of zonadhesin MAM domains, especially of the presumed epitope, is achieved by positive selection at the level of single amino acid sites and posttranslational modifications, respectively.

  5. Prebiotic mechanisms, functions and applications - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatchford, P.; Ansell, J.; Godoy, M.R.C. de; Fahey, G.; Garcia-Mazcorro, J.F.; Gibson, G.R.; Goh, Y.J.; Hotchkiss, A.T.; Hutkins, R.; LaCroix, C.; Rastall, R.A.; Reimer, R.A.; Schoterman, M.; Van Sinderen, D.; Venema, K.; Whelan, K.

    2013-01-01

    In October 2012, a group of scientists met at the 10th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in Cork, Ireland to discuss issues surrounding prebiotics and their development. This article summarises outputs from the meeting. Various prebiotic

  6. Prebiotic mechanisms, functions and applications - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatchford, P.; Ansell, J.; Godoy, M.R.C. de; Fahey, G.; Garcia-Mazcorro, J.F.; Gibson, G.R.; Goh, Y.J.; Hotchkiss, A.T.; Hutkins, R.; LaCroix, C.; Rastall, R.A.; Reimer, R.A.; Schoterman, M.; Van Sinderen, D.; Venema, K.; Whelan, K.

    2013-01-01

    In October 2012, a group of scientists met at the 10th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in Cork, Ireland to discuss issues surrounding prebiotics and their development. This article summarises outputs from the meeting. Various prebiotic definit

  7. Prebiotic mechanisms, functions and applications - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatchford, P.; Ansell, J.; Godoy, M.R.C. de; Fahey, G.; Garcia-Mazcorro, J.F.; Gibson, G.R.; Goh, Y.J.; Hotchkiss, A.T.; Hutkins, R.; LaCroix, C.; Rastall, R.A.; Reimer, R.A.; Schoterman, M.; Van Sinderen, D.; Venema, K.; Whelan, K.

    2013-01-01

    In October 2012, a group of scientists met at the 10th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in Cork, Ireland to discuss issues surrounding prebiotics and their development. This article summarises outputs from the meeting. Various prebiotic definit

  8. Dietary prebiotics: Current status and new definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    In November 2008, a group of scientists met at the 6th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in London, Ontario. The aim was to discuss the functionality of prebiotics. As a result of this, it was decided that the prebiotic field as it stands is dom...

  9. Prebiotics and synbiotics: dietary strategies for improving gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbeck, Janina A; Maldonado-Gomez, Maria X; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Hutkins, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    A wide range of dietary carbohydrates, including prebiotic food ingredients, fermentable fibers, and milk oligosaccharides, are able to produce significant changes in the intestinal microbiota. These shifts in the microbial community are often characterized by increased levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. More recent studies have revealed that species of Faecalibacterium, Akkermansia, and other less well studied members may also be enriched. We review the implications of these recent studies on future design of prebiotics and synbiotics to promote gastrointestinal health. Investigations assessing the clinical outcomes associated with dietary modification of the gut microbiota have shown systemic as well as specific health benefits. Both prebiotic oligosaccharides comprised of a linear arrangement of simple sugars, as well as fiber-rich foods containing complex carbohydrates, have been used in these trials. However, individual variability and nonresponding study participants can make the outcome of dietary interventions less predictable. In contrast, synergistic synbiotics containing prebiotics that specifically stimulate a cognate probiotic provide additional options for personalized gut therapies. This review describes recent research on how prebiotics and fermentable fibers can influence the gut microbiota and result in improvements to human health.

  10. Prebiotics Activity of Laminaran Derived From Sargassum crassifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anies Chamidah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prebiotic activity based on the change in cell biomass of the probiotic strain after 24-h growth in the presence of Laminaran from Sargassum crassifolium with the methods of laminaran acid extract (LAE and laminaran modified extract (LME, inulin, or glucose-relative against the change in cell biomass of Escherichia coli FNCC 0091 grown under the same condition. Prebiotic activity was calculated for L. plantarum FNCC 0051 and Bifidobacterium longum FNCC 1081. The results showed that the increasing cell number of L. plantarum was higher in both substrates LAE and LME (0,58 and 2,03log cycle, whereas that of B. longum was lower. The higher prebiotic activity score obtained for L. plantarum and B. longum grown on LME were positive (0,26 and 0,96 log cycle, whereas the lowest score was for L. plantarum and B. longum grown on LAE, which were negative (-0,35 and -0,31 log cycle, but the higher prebiotic activity score was obtained for inulin (4,08 and 4,78 log cycle. It could be concluded that Laminaran Modified Extract (LME has potential as prebiotic source, but its potential was lower than inulin.

  11. Cost-effectiveness model for a specific mixture of prebiotics in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; van Aalderen, W M C; Boehm, G; Klaassen, D; Sprikkelman, A B; Nuijten, M J C

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the use of prebiotics for the primary prevention of atopic dermatitis in The Netherlands. A model was constructed using decision analytical techniques. The model was developed to estimate the health economic impact of prebiotic preventive disease management of atopic dermatitis. Data sources used include published literature, clinical trials and official price/tariff lists and national population statistics. The comparator was no supplementation with prebiotics. The primary perspective for conducting the economic evaluation was based on the situation in The Netherlands in 2009. The results show that the use of prebiotics infant formula (IMMUNOFORTIS(®)) leads to an additional cost of € 51 and an increase in Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) of 0.108, when compared with no prebiotics. Consequently, the use of infant formula with a specific mixture of prebiotics results in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of € 472. The sensitivity analyses show that the ICER remains in all analyses far below the threshold of € 20,000/QALY. This study shows that the favourable health benefit of the use of a specific mixture of prebiotics results in positive short- and long-term health economic benefits. In addition, this study demonstrates that the use of infant formula with a specific mixture of prebiotics is a highly cost-effective way of preventing atopic dermatitis in The Netherlands.

  12. Influence of different prebiotics and mode of their administration on broiler chicken performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, M; Stadnicka, K; Kozłowska, I; Abiuso, C; Tavaniello, S; Dankowiakowska, A; Sławińska, A; Maiorano, G

    2016-08-01

    In the post-antibiotics era, prebiotics are proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production. The goal of this study was to compare in ovo method of prebiotic delivery with in-water supplementation and with both methods combined (in ovo+in-water) in broiler chickens. Two trials were conducted. Trial 1 was carried out to optimize the doses of two prebiotics, DN (DiNovo®, extract of beta-glucans) and BI (Bi2tos, trans-galactooligosaccharides), for in ovo delivery. The estimated parameters were hatchability and bacteriological status of the newly hatched chicks. Prebiotics were dissolved in 0.2 ml of physiological saline, at the doses: 0.18, 0.88, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/embryo; control group (C) was injected in ovo with 0.2 ml of physiological saline. Trial 2 was conducted to evaluate effects of different prebiotics (DN, BI and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)) delivered in ovo, in-water and in a combined way (in ovo+in-water) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the Trial 1 indicated that the optimal dose of DN and BI prebiotics delivered in ovo, that did not reduce chicks' hatchability, was 0.88 mg/embryo (DN) and 3.5 mg/embryo (BI). Both prebiotics numerically increased number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in chicken feces (P>0.05). In Trial 2, all prebiotics (DN, BI and RFO) significantly increased BW gain compared with the C group (Pprebiotics delivery irrespective of method used. Injection of prebiotics in ovo combined with in-water supplementation did not express synergistic effects on broilers performance compared with in ovo injection only. Taken together, those results confirm that single in ovo prebiotics injection into the chicken embryo can successfully replace prolonged in-water supplementation post hatching.

  13. Prebiotics for the management of hyperbilirubinemia in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanian, Amir Mohammad; Barekatain, Behzad; Hoseinzadeh, Maryam; Salehimehr, Nima

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated if prebiotics have benefits for the management of hyperbilirubinemia in preterm neonates. Preterm neonates were entered into the study when enteral feeding volume met 30 mL/kg/day. They randomly received a mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosacarids/long-chain fructo-oligosacarids or distilled water (placebo) for 1 week. Total serum bilirubin level was measured by transcutaneous bilirubinometry. Stool frequency and meeting full enteral feeding during the study period were considered as secondary outcomes. Twenty-five neonates in each group completed the trial. Bilirubin level was decreased with the prebiotic (-1.3 ±  1.8 mg/dL, p = 0.004), but not placebo (-0.1 ± 3.3 mg/dL, p = 0.416). Peak bilirubin level was lower with the prebiotic than placebo (8.3 ± 1.7 versus 10.1 ± 2.2 mg/dL, p = 0.003). Stool frequency was increased with the prebiotic (0.7 ± 1.9 defecation/day, p = 0.014), but not with placebo (0.6 ±  1.5 defecation/day, p = 0.133). Average stool frequency (2.4 ±  0.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.5 defecation/day, p = 0.003) and frequently of meeting full enteral feeding (60% versus 16%, p = 0.002) were higher with the prebiotic than placebo. Prebiotic oligosaccharides increase stool frequency, improve feeding tolerance and reduce bilirubin level in preterm neonates and therefore can be efficacious for the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  14. Catalysis and prebiotic RNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, James P.

    1993-01-01

    The essential role of catalysis for the origins of life is discussed. The status of the prebiotic synthesis of 2',5'- and 3'5'-linked oligomers of RNA is reviewed. Examples of the role of metal ion and mineral catalysis in RNA oligomer formation are discussed.

  15. Prebiotic effects of a novel combination of galactooligosaccharides and maltodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, Sarka; Rada, Vojtech; Marounek, Milan; Nevoral, Jiri; Dušková, Dagmar; Bunesova, Vera; Vlkova, Eva; Zelenka, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Prebiotics are used for stimulating the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gut. However, it is very difficult to find a suitable prebiotic mixture that exclusively supports the growth of beneficial microbes such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. We tested the effects of a prebiotic mixture in vitro by incubating it with fecal samples and in vivo by administration of the prebiotic supplement to healthy adult volunteers, followed by analysis of their fecal microbiota. The effect of the oligosaccharides on bacterial metabolism was studied by analyzing short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in vitro and the SCFA pattern for the stool samples of volunteers. In the in vitro test, a higher proportion of bifidobacteria (25.77%) was seen in the total bacterial population after cultivation on a prebiotic mixture than on the control medium (7.94%). The gram-negative anaerobe count significantly decreased from 8.70 to 6.40 log CFU/g (from 35.21% to 0.60%) and the Escherichia coli count decreased from 7.41 to 6.27 log CFU/g (from 1.78% to 0.44%). Administration of a prebiotic mixture in vivo (9 g of galactooligosaccharides [GOS]+1 g of maltodextrins; daily for 5 days) significantly increased the fecal bifidobacterial count from 9.45 to 9.83 log CFU/g (from 40.80% to 53.85% of total bacteria) and reduced the E. coli count from 7.23 to 6.28 log CFU/g (from 55.35% to 45.06% of total bacteria). The mixture comprising GOS and maltodextrins thus exhibited bifidogenic properties, promoting the performance of bifidobacteria by boosting their growth and inhibiting the growth of undesirable bacteria.

  16. Recent researches on prebiotics for gut health in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santad Wichienchot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the food industries, several oligosaccharides have received increasing attention as key components for functional foods and nutraceutical products. Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides which have been shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinal problems and improve gut health and well-being. Recent researches much pay attention to find alternative sources, improve specific properties and proof on health benefits of these prebiotics. Methods: This is the summary of research works have been done by our research group on prebiotics and gut health in Thailand. These works aimed to study sources of prebiotics from fruits and vegetables in Thailand, production by enzymatic synthesis of prebiotics, purification by microbial fermentation and membrane technology and applications of the prebiotics in nutraceuticals and functional foods. Results: Among the 30 parts of 14 plants, six appear to have the highest potential for commercialization based on extract yield and the amount and type of indigestible oligosaccharides. These include dragon fruit, palm flesh, palm embryo, jackfruit flesh, jackfruit seed, and okra pod. At least three of them, dragon fruit, jackfruit flesh and seed, were confirmed on their prebiotic property by selectively in vitro colonic microflora fermentation in an artificial colon system. Among 52 LAB isolates for production of GOS, BFP32 showed highest intracellular β-galactosidase activity and GOS yield. It was identified as Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum by 16S rDNA sequencing. Composition of GOS consisted of oligosaccharides with having DP of 3, 4 and 5. A mixture of GOS was purified successful by sequential bacterial and yeast fermentation whereas nanofiltration could be used for partial purification. Prebiotic index (PI of the GOS produced was1.19 in batch culture. A crude extract from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. had transfructosylating activity for

  17. Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dan W; Greer, Frank R

    2010-12-01

    This clinical report reviews the currently known health benefits of probiotic and prebiotic products, including those added to commercially available infant formula and other food products for use in children. Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms that cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Use of probiotics has been shown to be modestly effective in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in (1) treating acute viral gastroenteritis in healthy children; and (2) preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in healthy children. There is some evidence that probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants (birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g), but more studies are needed. The results of RCTs in which probiotics were used to treat childhood Helicobacter pylori gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic ulcerative colitis, and infantile colic, as well as in preventing childhood atopy, although encouraging, are preliminary and require further confirmation. Probiotics have not been proven to be beneficial in treating or preventing human cancers or in treating children with Crohn disease. There are also safety concerns with the use of probiotics in infants and children who are immunocompromised, chronically debilitated, or seriously ill with indwelling medical devices. Prebiotics are supplements or foods that contain a nondigestible food ingredient that selectively stimulates the favorable growth and/or activity of indigenous probiotic bacteria. Human milk contains substantial quantities of prebiotics. There is a paucity of RCTs examining prebiotics in children, although there may be some long-term benefit of prebiotics for the prevention of atopic eczema and common infections in healthy infants. Confirmatory well-designed clinical research studies are necessary.

  18. Putative floral brood-site mimicry, loss of autonomous selfing, and reduced vegetative growth are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V

    2015-08-01

    The drivers of angiosperm diversity have long been sought and the flower-arthropod association has often been invoked as the most powerful driver of the angiosperm radiation. We now know that features that influence arthropod interactions cannot only affect the diversification of lineages, but also expedite or constrain their rate of extinction, which can equally influence the observed asymmetric richness of extant angiosperm lineages. The genus Asarum (Aristolochiaceae; ∼100 species) is widely distributed in north temperate forests, with substantial vegetative and floral divergence between its three major clades, Euasarum, Geotaenium, and Heterotropa. We used Binary-State Speciation and Extinction Model (BiSSE) Net Diversification tests of character state distributions on a Maximum Likelihood phylogram and a Coalescent Bayesian species tree, inferred from seven chloroplast markers and nuclear rDNA, to test for signal of asymmetric diversification, character state transition, and extinction rates of floral and vegetative characters. We found that reduction in vegetative growth, loss of autonomous self-pollination, and the presence of putative fungal-mimicking floral structures are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum. No significant difference in model likelihood was identified between symmetric and asymmetric rates of character state transitions or extinction. We conclude that the flowers of the Heterotropa clade may have converged on some aspects of basidiomycete sporocarp morphology and that brood-site mimicry, coupled with a reduction in vegetative growth and the loss of autonomous self-pollination, may have driven diversification within Asarum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-06-30

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways.

  20. Effects of prebiotics on mineral absorption: mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive evidence in experimental animals that prebiotics, such as inulin-type fructans, can increase the absorption of a variety of minerals, including calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc, and that they may act through several possible mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to discuss t...

  1. Histomorphometrical Study of the Prebiotic Effects on Intestine Morphology and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sayrafi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotic as alternative feed additive to an antibiotic growth promoter (bacitracin methylene disalicyate on the growth performance and morphometrical parameters of the small intestine of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 6 wk and each treatment contained four replicates (12 birds each. Dietary treatments were as follow: 1- Control (basal diet, 2- basal diet + antibiotic growth promoter and 3- basal diet + prebiotic. During the feeding experimental period, body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of the experiment, small intestine segments were sampled and routine histological laboratory methods containing fixation, dehydration, clearing and paraffin embedding were used. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy evaluation and the height and width of villi and depth of crypts were measured. The results showed that body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Prebiotic and antibiotic had significant (P < 0.05 effect on improvement of feed intake in 22 - 42 days and total period compared with the control. The addition of prebiotic or antibiotic increased the villus height in duodenum (P < 0.05 and prebiotic increased villus width of duodenum and ileum compared with other treatments. The duodenal crypt depth was increased by antibiotic compared with the prebiotic and control group. In conclusion, prebiotic can be used as a suitable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.

  2. Prebiotic inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides: definition, specificity, function, and application in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bridgette; Whelan, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible selectively fermented dietary fibers that specifically promote the growth of one or more bacterial genera in the gastrointestinal tract and thus provide health benefit to the host. The two most investigated prebiotics being the inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides. Prebiotic specificity is mediated through species-specific gene clusters within saccharolytic bacteria controlled by signaling sensors for various substrates. Prebiotic health benefits are attributed to immune regulation and bacterial metabolite production. In humans, prebiotic supplementation leads to increased growth of specific gut microbiota (e.g., bifidobacteria), immune modulation, and depending on the bacterial augmentation, short-chain fatty acid production. Irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease are gastrointestinal disorders associated with reductions in some gut bacteria and greater mucosal inflammation. Prebiotic supplementation studies have shown some promise at low doses for modulation of the gut bacteria and reduction of symptoms in IBS; however, larger doses may have neutral or negative impact on symptoms. Studies in Crohn's disease have not shown benefit to bacterial modulation or inflammatory response with prebiotic supplementation. Dietary restriction of fermentable carbohydrates (low FODMAP diet), which restricts some naturally occurring prebiotics from the diet, has shown efficacy in improving symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, but it lowers the numbers of some key gut microbiota. Further research is required on the effect of prebiotics in gastrointestinal disorders and, in particular, on their use in conjunction with the low FODMAP diet.

  3. Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggìa, Francesca; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno

    2010-07-31

    Recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases highlight the need for reducing bacterial pathogens in foods of animal origin. Animal enteric pathogens are a direct source for food contamination. The ban of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) has been a challenge for animal nutrition increasing the need to find alternative methods to control and prevent pathogenic bacterial colonization. The modulation of the gut microbiota with new feed additives, such as probiotics and prebiotics, towards host-protecting functions to support animal health, is a topical issue in animal breeding and creates fascinating possibilities. Although the knowledge on the effects of such feed additives has increased, essential information concerning their impact on the host are, to date, incomplete. For the future, the most important target, within probiotic and prebiotic research, is a demonstrated health-promoting benefit supported by knowledge on the mechanistic actions. Genomic-based knowledge on the composition and functions of the gut microbiota, as well as its deviations, will advance the selection of new and specific probiotics. Potential combinations of suitable probiotics and prebiotics may prove to be the next step to reduce the risk of intestinal diseases and remove specific microbial disorders. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the contribution of the gut microbiota to host well-being. Moreover, we review available information on probiotics and prebiotics and their application in animal feeding.

  4. How to Manipulate the Microbiota: Prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J; Michel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, human nutrition has evolved from the definition of our nutritional needs and the identification of ways to meet them, to the identification of food components that can optimise our physiological and psychological functions. This development, which aims to ensure the welfare, health and reduced susceptibility to disease during life, gave birth to the concept of "functional foods". In this context, there is an increasing interest in the physiological effects induced by the dense and diverse microbiota which inhabits the human colon and whose development depends on the fermentation of undigested food residues. Thus, much research aims at identifying ways to guide these impacts in order to benefit the health of the host. It is in this context that the concept of "prebiotics" was developed in the 1990s. Since then, prebiotics have stimulated extensive work in order to clarify their definition, their nature and their physiological properties in accordance with the evolution of knowledge on the intestinal microbiota. However many questions remain open about their specificities, their mechanism(s) of action and therefore the relevance of their current categorisation.

  5. The developing intestinal microbiome: probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The microbes in the human intestinal tract interact with the host to form a 'superorganism'. The functional aspects of the host microbe interactions are being increasingly scrutinized and it is becoming evident that this interaction in early life is critical for development of the immune system and metabolic function and aberrations may result in life-long health consequences. Evidence is suggesting that such interactions occur even before birth, where the microbes may be either beneficial or harmful, and possibly even triggering preterm birth. Mode of delivery, use of antibiotics, and other perturbations may have life-long consequences in terms of health and disease. Manipulating the microbiota by use of pro- and prebiotics may offer a means for maintenance of 'healthy' host microbe interactions, but over-exuberance in their use also has the potential to cause harm. Considerable controversy exists concerning the routine use of probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. This chapter will provide a brief overview of the developing intestinal microbiome and discuss the use of pro- and prebiotics in preterm infants.

  6. Toward a Personalized Approach in Prebiotics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Moul

    2017-01-01

    Recent characterization of the human microbiome and its influences on health have led to dramatic conceptual shifts in dietary bioactives research. Prebiotic foods that include many dietary fibers and resistant starches are perceived as beneficial for maintaining a healthy gut microbiota. This article brings forward some current perspectives in prebiotic research to discuss why reporting of individual variations in response to interventions will be important to discern suitability of prebiotics as a disease prevention tool. PMID:28134778

  7. Toward a Personalized Approach in Prebiotics Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moul Dey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent characterization of the human microbiome and its influences on health have led to dramatic conceptual shifts in dietary bioactives research. Prebiotic foods that include many dietary fibers and resistant starches are perceived as beneficial for maintaining a healthy gut microbiota. This article brings forward some current perspectives in prebiotic research to discuss why reporting of individual variations in response to interventions will be important to discern suitability of prebiotics as a disease prevention tool.

  8. Toward a Personalized Approach in Prebiotics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Moul

    2017-01-26

    Recent characterization of the human microbiome and its influences on health have led to dramatic conceptual shifts in dietary bioactives research. Prebiotic foods that include many dietary fibers and resistant starches are perceived as beneficial for maintaining a healthy gut microbiota. This article brings forward some current perspectives in prebiotic research to discuss why reporting of individual variations in response to interventions will be important to discern suitability of prebiotics as a disease prevention tool.

  9. Coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Swanson, Mercedes; Menger, Fredric M.

    2012-10-01

    Coacervates are colloidal systems that are comprised of two immiscible aqueous layers, the colloid-rich layer, so-called coacervate, and the colloid-poor layer, so-called equilibrium liquid. Although immiscible, the two phases are both water-rich. Coacervates are important for prebiotic chemistry, but also have various practical applications, notably as transport vehicles of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Our objectives are to explore the potential of coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors. Since the reaction medium in coacervates is water, this creates a challenge, since most organic reactants are not water-soluble. To overcome this challenge we are utilizing recent Green Chemistry examples of the organic reactions in water, such as the Passerini reaction. We have investigated this reaction in two coacervate systems, and report here our preliminary results.

  10. Attempted prebiotic synthesis of pseudouridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Pseudouridine is a modified base found in all tRNA and rRNA. Hence, it is reasonable to think that pseudouridine was important in the early evolution, if not the origin, of life. Since uracil reacts rapidly with formaldehyde and other aldehydes at the C-5 position, it is plausible that pseudouridine could be synthesized in a similar way by the reaction of the C-5 of uracil with the C-1 of ribose. The determining factor is whether the ribose could react with the uracil faster than ribose decomposes. However, both rates are determined by the amount of free aldehyde in the ribose. Various plausible prebiotic reactions were investigated and none showed pseudouridine above the detection limit (prebiotic conditions. Unless efficient non-biological catalysts for any of these reactions exist, pseudouridine would not have been synthesized to any significant extent without the use of biologically produced enzymes.

  11. Spectroscopy of Isolated Prebiotic Nucleobases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svadlenak, Nathan; Callahan, Michael P.; Ligare, Marshall; Gulian, Lisa; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Nachtigallova, Dana; Hobza, Pavel; deVries, Mattanjah

    2011-01-01

    We use multiphoton ionization and double resonance spectroscopy to study the excited state dynamics of biologically relevant molecules as well as prebiotic nucleobases, isolated in the gas phase. Molecules that are biologically relevant to life today tend to exhibit short excited state lifetimes compared to similar but non-biologically relevant analogs. The mechanism is internal conversion, which may help protect the biologically active molecules from UV damage. This process is governed by conical intersections that depend very strongly on molecular structure. Therefore we have studied purines and pyrimidines with systematic variations of structure, including substitutions, tautomeric forms, and cluster structures that represent different base pair binding motifs. These structural variations also include possible alternate base pairs that may shed light on prebiotic chemistry. With this in mind we have begun to probe the ultrafast dynamics of molecules that exhibit very short excited states and search for evidence of internal conversions.

  12. Oligosaccharides in infant formula: more evidence to validate the role of prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Zakharova, Irina; Dmitrieva, Yulia

    2015-05-14

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk.

  13. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-02-07

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits.

  14. Microbiota and prebiotics modulation of uremic toxin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Laetitia; Fouque, Denis

    2017-06-01

    Recent data have shown that the host-intestinal microbiota interaction is intrinsically linked with overall health. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) could influence intestinal microbiota and gut dysbiosis is also considered as a cause of progression of kidney disease. An increasing body of evidence indicates that dysbiosis is a key contributor of uremic retention solutes (URS) accumulating in patients with CKD. The discovery of the kidney-gut axis has created new therapeutic opportunities for nutritional intervention in order to prevent adverse outcomes. One of these strategies is prebiotics, which refers to nondigestible food ingredients or substances that beneficial affect growth and/or activity of limited health-promoting bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. The influence of prebiotics on the production and concentration of URS have been investigated in various animal and human CKD studies. However, to date, there is still paucity of high-quality intervention trials. Randomized controlled trials and adequately powered intervention studies are needed before recommending prebiotics in clinical practice. This review will outline the interconnection between CKD progression, dysbiosis and URS production and will discuss mechanisms of action and efficacy of prebiotics as a new CKD management tool, with a particular emphasis on URS generation.

  15. Can prebiotics and probiotics improve therapeutic outcomes for undernourished individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Paul O; Bindels, Laure B; Saulnier, Delphine M; Reid, Gregor; Nova, Esther; Holmgren, Kerstin; O'Toole, Paul W; Bunn, James; Delzenne, Nathalie; Scott, Karen P

    2014-01-01

    It has become clear in recent years that the human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining health and thus is an attractive target for clinical interventions. Scientists and clinicians have become increasingly interested in assessing the ability of probiotics and prebiotics to enhance the nutritional status of malnourished children, pregnant women, the elderly, and individuals with non-communicable disease-associated malnutrition. A workshop was held by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), drawing on the knowledge of experts from industry, medicine, and academia, with the objective to assess the status of our understanding of the link between the microbiome and under-nutrition, specifically in relation to probiotic and prebiotic treatments for under-nourished individuals. These discussions led to four recommendations:   (1) The categories of malnourished individuals need to be differentiated To improve treatment outcomes, subjects should first be categorized based on the cause of malnutrition, additional health-concerns, differences in the gut microbiota, and sociological considerations. (2) Define a baseline "healthy" gut microbiota for each category Altered nutrient requirement (for example, in pregnancy and old age) and individual variation may change what constitutes a healthy gut microbiota for the individual. (3) Perform studies using model systems to test the effectiveness of potential probiotics and prebiotics against these specific categories These should illustrate how certain microbiota profiles can be altered, as members of different categories may respond differently to the same treatment. (4) Perform robust well-designed human studies with probiotics and/or prebiotics, with appropriate, defined primary outcomes and sample size These are critical to show efficacy and understand responder and non-responder outcomes. It is hoped that these recommendations will lead to new approaches that

  16. Probiotics, prebiotics, and microencapsulation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarao, Loveleen Kaur; Arora, M

    2017-01-22

    The development of a suitable technology for the production of probiotics is a key research for industrial production, which should take into account the viability and the stability of the organisms involved. Microbial criteria, stress tolerance during processing, and storage of the product constitute the basis for the production of probiotics. Generally, the bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have been used as probiotics. Based on their positive qualities, probiotic bacteria are widely used in the production of food. Interest in the incorporation of the probiotic bacteria into other products apart from dairy products has been increasing and represents a great challenge. The recognition of dose delivery systems for probiotic bacteria has also resulted in research efforts aimed at developing probiotic food outside the dairy sector. Producing probiotic juices has been considered more in the recent years, due to an increased concern in personal health of consumers. This review focuses on probiotics, prebiotics, and the microencapsulation of living cells.

  17. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  18. Effect of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota of elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toward, Ruth; Montandon, Samantha; Walton, Gemma; Gibson, Glenn R

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbiota undergoes certain age related changes that may affect health. For example, above the age of 55-65 y, populations of bifidobacteria are known to decrease markedly. Bifidobacteria are known inhibitors of pathogenic microbes and a decrease in their activities may increase susceptibility to infections. There is therefore interest in trying to reverse their decline in aged persons. As the gut microbiota responds to dietary intervention, both probiotics and prebiotics have been tested in this regard. Probiotics are live microbes in the diet, whereas prebiotics are fermentable ingredients that specifically target components of the indigenous microbiota seen to be beneficial. We have published a recent paper demonstrating that prebiotic galactooligosaccharides can exert power effects upon bifidobacteria in the gut flora of elderly persons (both in vivo and in vitro). This addendum summarizes research that led up to this study and discusses the possible impact of prebiotics in impacting upon the gut health of aged persons.

  19. Prebiotic inulin: Useful dietary adjuncts to manipulate the livestock gut microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Samanta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation on the relevance of gastrointestinal microflora in both ruminants and non-ruminants owing to revelation of their role in several physiological functions including digestion, nutrient utilization, pathogen exclusion, gastrointestinal development, immunity system, gut gene expression and quality of animal products. The ban imposed on the use of antibiotics and hormones in feed has compelled animal researchers in finding an alternative which could overcome the issues of conventional feed additives. Though the concept of prebiotic was evolved keeping in mind the gastrointestinal flora of human beings, presently animal researchers are exploring the efficiency of prebiotic (inulin for modulating the gut ecosystem of both ruminants and non-ruminants. It was revealed that prebiotic inulin is found to exhibit desirable changes in the gut of non-ruminants like poultry, swine, rabbit etc for augmenting gut health and improvement of product quality. Similarly, in ruminants the prebiotic reduces rumen ammonia nitrogen, methane production, increase microbial protein synthesis and live weight gains in calves. Unlike other feed additives, prebiotic exhibits its effect in multipronged ways for overall increase in the performances of the animals. In coming days, it is expected that prebiotics could be the part of diets in both ruminants and non-ruminants for enabling modulation of gut microflora vis a vis animals productivity in ecological ways.

  20. Prebiotic inulin: Useful dietary adjuncts to manipulate the livestock gut microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A K; Jayapal, Natasha; Senani, S; Kolte, A P; Sridhar, Manpal

    2013-05-07

    In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation on the relevance of gastrointestinal microflora in both ruminants and non-ruminants owing to revelation of their role in several physiological functions including digestion, nutrient utilization, pathogen exclusion, gastrointestinal development, immunity system, gut gene expression and quality of animal products. The ban imposed on the use of antibiotics and hormones in feed has compelled animal researchers in finding an alternative which could overcome the issues of conventional feed additives. Though the concept of prebiotic was evolved keeping in mind the gastrointestinal flora of human beings, presently animal researchers are exploring the efficiency of prebiotic (inulin) for modulating the gut ecosystem of both ruminants and non-ruminants. It was revealed that prebiotic inulin is found to exhibit desirable changes in the gut of non-ruminants like poultry, swine, rabbit etc for augmenting gut health and improvement of product quality. Similarly, in ruminants the prebiotic reduces rumen ammonia nitrogen, methane production, increase microbial protein synthesis and live weight gains in calves. Unlike other feed additives, prebiotic exhibits its effect in multipronged ways for overall increase in the performances of the animals. In coming days, it is expected that prebiotics could be the part of diets in both ruminants and non-ruminants for enabling modulation of gut microflora vis a vis animals productivity in ecological ways.

  1. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  2. Use of prebiotics and probiotics of bacterial and yeast origin for free-range broiler chickens

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    K Pelícia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial and yeast origin on the performance, development of the digestive system, carcass yield and meat quality of free-range broiler chickens. Five hundred and sixty male chicks of the strain ISA S757-N were reared from one to 84 days old. The birds were distributed in four treatments according to a completely randomized block design: T1 = Control, T2 = Probiotics and Prebiotics of bacterial origin, T3 = Probiotics and prebiotics of yeast origin, T4 = Probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial origin + probiotics and prebiotics of yeast origin. There were four repetitions with 35 birds per repetition, and the birds had access to a pasture area after 35 days of age. Characteristics evaluated were performance, development of the digestive system, carcass and parts yield, abdominal fat, breast meat physical measurements (length, width and height and meat quality parameters (pH from breast and leg meat, cooking loss and shearing force from breast meat. Lower mortality (p<0.05 and higher weight gain from 64 to 77 and 64 to 84 days of age were seen in birds supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial origin compared to the non-supplemented birds (control. There were significant differences (p<0.05 among treatments for carcass yield. Birds supplemented with both probiotics and prebiotics of microbial and yeast origin (T4 showed higher carcass yield than control birds. Supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial origin (T2 or the supplementation of these together with those of yeast origin (T4 reduced mortality and increased the carcass yield in free-range broiler chickens.

  3. [Role of prebiotic oligosaccharides in prevention of gastrointestinal infections: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Vergara, Ana María; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz; Montfort, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont

    2009-12-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are still a main world public health problem. Scientific progress shows that and inadequate balance in intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Evidence indicates that one way to modulate the IM is through the use of prebiotics. These oligosaccharides stimulate the growth of benefic bacteria and increase the resistance to invading pathogens. Research using animals show that the consumption of prebiotics could be implicated in prevention and treatment of diarrhea. Studies in healthy infants also indicate that the consumption of prebiotic mixtures (galactooligosaccharides/fructooligosaccharides, inulin/galactooligosaccharides) decreases the incidence of fever, infections and pathogens. These results represent a great potential for functional foods that contain prebiotics, mainly the infant formulas. However, results of other clinical studies for prebiotics effects on diarrhea are not conclusive. Specially those studies that include patients with an altered IM (like the elderly), patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and with diarrhea associated to antibiotic treatments. There is a need for more biochemical and microbiological studies in humans at different ages and intestinal health conditions, in order to determine when prebiotics may effectively function on infections.

  4. Prebiotic synthesis of histidyl-histidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Mills, T.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    Histidyl-histidine (His-His) has been synthesized in a yield of up to 14.4% under plausible prebiotic conditions using histidine (His), cyanamide, and 4-amino-5-imidazole carboxamide. A trace amount of His trimer was also detected. Because the imidazole group of His is involved in a number of important enzymatic reactions, and His-His has been shown to catalyze the prebiotic synthesis of glycyl-glycine, we expect this work will stimulate further studies on the catalytic activities of simple His-containing peptides in prebiotic reactions.

  5. PREBIOTIC EFFECT OF LACTULOSE AMONG INFANTS

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    L.A. Nikulin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates the modern viewpoint on the functional feeding of the infants. The researchers give the application findings in respect of lactulose (Normase — a medication with prebiotic effect, among children, undergoing artificial feeding. It is showed that lactulose improves bowels micro-biocenosis and contributes to symptoms couping of the digestion disorders. The medication is recommended by the authors as a prebiotic for the newborns deprived of the mother's milk.Key words: children, micro-biocenosis, lactulose, prebiotic.

  6. Prebiotic effect of Agave fourcroydes fructans: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Curbelo, Yanelys; Bocourt, Ramón; Savón, Lourdes L; García-Vieyra, Maria Isabel; López, Mercedes G

    2015-09-01

    The use of prebiotics such as fructans has increased in human and animal nutrition because of their productive performance and health benefits. Agave fourcroydes has shown high concentrations of fructans in their stems; however, there is no information on new products derived from this plant that might enhance its added value. Therefore, we evaluated the prebiotic effect of Agave fourcroydes fructans in an animal model. Male mice (C57BL/6J) were fed on parallel form with a standard diet or diets supplemented with 10% of fructans from Cichorium intybus (Raftilose P95) and Agave fourcroydes from Cuba for 35 days. The body weight, food intake, blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, gastrointestinal organ weights, fermentation indicators in cecal and colon contents and mineral content in femurs were determined. The body weight and food intake of mice were not significantly modified by any treatment. However, serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P fructans groups with respect to the standard diet group; this decrement was higher in the A. fourcroydes group with respect to the Raftilose P95 group. Mice groups supplemented with fructans exhibited increased (P fructans in their diets with respect to the standard diet. The diets supplemented with fructans also increased the mineral concentrations of calcium (P fructans from Agave fourcroydes in the mice diet induced a prebiotic response, similar to or greater than the commercial product (Raftilose P95) and this constitutes a promising alternative with potential use not only in animal but also in human diets.

  7. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

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    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011 on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475, 10 probiotics studies (N = 933 and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563 were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal

  8. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2012-10-04

    Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The quality of evidence was

  9. Prebiotic effectiveness of inulin extracted from edible burdock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Kim, Jin M; Jin, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jie

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the prebiotic potential of burdock inulin (B-INU), the in vitro and in vivo effects of B-INU on bacterial growth were studied. B-INU significantly stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria in Man-Rogosa-Sharp (MRS) medium, anaerobically. Compared with chicory inulin (C-INU), long-chain inulin (L-INU) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS), 1% (w/v) B-INU promoted the specific growth rate of beneficial bacteria. The decreases of media pH with B-INU were almost the same as that with C-INU and FOS. In vivo, B-INU significantly increased the number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (Pinulin extracted from edible burdock showed prebiotic properties that could promote health.

  10. Evaluation of the prebiotic effects of citrus pectin hydrolysate

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    Yen-Yi Ho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus pectin enzyme hydrolysate (PEH of different hydrolysis time intervals (6 hours, PEH-6; 12 hours, PEH-12; 24 hours, PEH-24; or 48 hours, PEH-48 or concentrations (1%, 2%, and 4% was tested for its growth stimulation effect on two probiotics, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Higher monosaccharide concentrations and smaller molecular weights of PEHs were obtained by prolonging the hydrolysis time. In addition, higher PEH concentrations resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05 probiotic populations, pH reduction, and increase in total titratable acidity than the glucose-free MRS negative control. Furthermore, significantly higher populations in the low pH environment and longer survival time in nonfat milk (p < 0.05 were observed when the two probiotics were incubated in media supplemented with 2% PEH-24, than in glucose and the negative control. In comparison with other prebiotics, addition of 2% PEH-24 resulted in a more significant increase in the probiotic population (p < 0.05 than in the commercial prebiotics. This study demonstrated that PEH derived from citrus pectin could be an effective prebiotic to enhance the growth, fermentation, acid tolerance, and survival in nonfat milk for the tested probiotics.

  11. Development of prebiotic food products and health benefits

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    Priscilla Moura Rolim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current context from the nutritional and epidemiological point of view, it can be seen an occurrence increase of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases, as well as the inflammatory ones, ordinarily associated to a wrong feed, poor in fibers and rich in fats and simple and refined carbohydrates. This view has evidenced a progressive increase of diseases, highlighting the importance of colonic microbiota as an active mechanism of infectious processes control and modulation of immunologic answer. Therefore, constant the worries related to recovering and maintenance of healthy intestines, stocked with prebiotic nutrients that support the survival of beneficial health agents. This way, researchers and the segment of food industry has encouraged the development of products with prebiotic properties, looking for the health promotion, treatment and diseases prevention, besides the strengthening on the competitive market. This article will embrace the contents about physiologic effects of the main known prebiotic, their potential in relation to fermentatives bacterias, new developed products and used methodologies to the recognition of pre and probiotic functions.

  12. Mechanisms of Prebiotic Impact on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, H.; Macfarlane, S.

    Prebiotics were originally defined as non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activities of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, thereby improving host health (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). However, a more recent definition is that “A prebiotic is a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confers benefits upon host wellbeing and health” (Gibson et al., 2004). The principal concept associated with both of these definitions is that the prebiotic has a selective effect on the microbiota that results in an improvement in the health of the host. Common prebiotics in use include inulins, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), soya-oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, pyrodextrins, isomalto-oligosaccharides and lactulose. The majority of studies carried out to date have focused on inulin, FOS and GOS (Macfarlane et al., 2008).

  13. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kavita R; Naik, Suresh R; Vakil, Babu V

    2015-12-01

    The health benefits imparted by probiotics and prebiotics as well as synbiotics have been the subject of extensive research in the past few decades. These food supplements termed as functional foods have been demonstrated to alter, modify and reinstate the pre-existing intestinal flora. They also facilitate smooth functions of the intestinal environment. Most commonly used probiotic strains are: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacilli, S. boulardii, B. coagulans. Prebiotics like FOS, GOS, XOS, Inulin; fructans are the most commonly used fibers which when used together with probiotics are termed synbiotics and are able to improve the viability of the probiotics. Present review focuses on composition and roles of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in human health. Furthermore, additional health benefits like immune-modulation, cancer prevention, inflammatory bowel disease etc. are also discussed. Graphical abstractPictorial summary of health benefits imparted by probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics.

  14. Peptide catalysed prebiotic polymerization of RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal; Luisi, Pier Luigi; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    resulting in hydrolysis of esters, proteins and nucleic acids (Li et al. 2000). The direction of the catalysis either toward hydrolysis or condensation is determined by thermodynamic constraints. Prebiotically compatible reactions are generally required to be performed in an aqueous medium...... – in such environment hydrolysis is thermodynamically favoured over condensation. However, the thermodynamic equilibrium towards condensation can be shifted even in this environment. In this poster we describe a prebiotically plausible system in which the SerHis dipeptide acts as catalyst for the formation of RNA...... represent a link between prebiotic chemistry and the RNA world. Short peptides are plausible products of prebiotic chemistry (Rode 1999). Consequently, they could have influenced chemical evolution on an early stage. Finally, it hints that the evolution towards enzymes could have started at a very early...

  15. Antihypertensive Properties of Plant-Based Prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Siok-Koon; Ooi, Lay-Gaik; Lim, Ting-Jin; Liong, Min-Tze

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although various drugs for its treatment have been synthesized, the occurring side effects have generated the need for natural interventions for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Dietary intervention such as the administration of prebiotics has been seen as a highly acceptable approach. Prebiotics are indigestible food ingredients that bypass digestion and reach the lower gut as substrates for indigenous microflora. Most of the prebiotics used as food adjuncts, such as inulin, fructooligosaccharides, dietary fiber and gums, are derived from plants. Experimental evidence from recent studies has suggested that prebiotics are capable of reducing and preventing hypertension. This paper will discuss some of the mechanisms involved, the evidence generated from both in-vitro experiments and in-vivo trials and some controversial findings that are raised. PMID:20111692

  16. Antihypertensive Properties of Plant-Based Prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Tze Liong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although various drugs for its treatment have been synthesized, the occurring side effects have generated the need for natural interventions for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Dietary intervention such as the administration of prebiotics has been seen as a highly acceptable approach. Prebiotics are indigestible food ingredients that bypass digestion and reach the lower gut as substrates for indigenous microflora. Most of the prebiotics used as food adjuncts, such as inulin, fructooligosaccharides, dietary fiber and gums, are derived from plants. Experimental evidence from recent studies has suggested that prebiotics are capable of reducing and preventing hypertension. This paper will discuss some of the mechanisms involved, the evidence generated from both in-vitro experiments and in-vivo trials and some controversial findings that are raised.

  17. Antihypertensive properties of plant-based prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Siok-Koon; Ooi, Lay-Gaik; Lim, Ting-Jin; Liong, Min-Tze

    2009-08-10

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although various drugs for its treatment have been synthesized, the occurring side effects have generated the need for natural interventions for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Dietary intervention such as the administration of prebiotics has been seen as a highly acceptable approach. Prebiotics are indigestible food ingredients that bypass digestion and reach the lower gut as substrates for indigenous microflora. Most of the prebiotics used as food adjuncts, such as inulin, fructooligosaccharides, dietary fiber and gums, are derived from plants. Experimental evidence from recent studies has suggested that prebiotics are capable of reducing and preventing hypertension. This paper will discuss some of the mechanisms involved, the evidence generated from both in-vitro experiments and in-vivo trials and some controversial findings that are raised.

  18. Probiotics and prebiotics: health claim substantiation

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Seppo; van Loveren, Henk

    2012-01-01

    ‘Probiotics’ and ‘prebiotics’ by definition should have health benefits. Health claims on microorganisms proposed as probiotics and probiotic stimulating agents (prebiotics) suggest that there is a relationship between the specific food and maintaining good health or that the food can reduce the risk of a disease. The Health Claim Regulation in European Union aims at a level consumer protection. Thereby, health claim assessment focuses on defining the probiotics and prebiotics, assessing the ...

  19. Prebiotic capacity of inulin-type fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolida, Sofia; Gibson, Glenn R

    2007-11-01

    The human gut microbiota plays a significant role in human health through its ability to digest food ingredients and manufacture metabolites. This can be positive or negative for host welfare. Moreover, the microflora plays an active role in host defense whereby colonization resistance affords protection against pathogens. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that target beneficial components of the gut microflora (mainly colonic), particularly the bifidobacteria. In vitro and in vivo evidence has accumulated to confirm the prebiotic effects of inulin-derived fructans.

  20. Exposure to a galactooligosaccharides/inulin prebiotic mix at different developmental time points differentially modulates immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbeyre, Pascal; Desbuards, Nicolas; Grémy, Guilaine; Le Gall, Sophie; Champ, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Bodinier, Marie

    2012-12-05

    Prebiotics constitute emerging tools to alleviate immune pathologies. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of prebiotic exposure during perinatal and postweaning periods on immune and gut regulations. Mice were fed either a galactooligosaccharides/inulin prebiotic mix-enriched diet or a control diet during the perinatal and/or postweaning periods. Biomarkers related to gut barrier function (SCFA, heat shock proteins, zonula occludens protein-1, and mucin-2) and immune mechanisms (IgA, IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4, IL-17A, and IFN-γ) were analyzed. The milk of dams fed the prebiotic diet was more concentrated in both IgA and TGF-β when prebiotics were introduced during both the perinatal and postweaning periods; IL-10, IgA, and IgG2a were increased in pups; and expression of intestinal markers was more pronounced. Postweaning exposure to prebiotics alone induced higher INF-γ and TGF-β levels, whereas IgA levels fell. Combined exposure periods (perinatal/postweaning) to prebiotics increased tolerance-related immunoglobulins in pups and reinforced gut barrier functions.

  1. Prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic as alternative to Antibiotics on the Performance and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VDA Murarolli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate diets supplemented with prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance and immune response against the virus of Newcastle disease in broiler chickens. 1,400 one-day old male Cobb 500 chicks were raised until 42 days old in a completely randomized design with 2x2+1 factorial scheme with seven replications. The treatments were: diet without supplementation (base diet - BD, BD + prebiotic, BD + probiotic, BD + symbiotic (prebiotic + probiotic, and BD + antibiotic. The parameters evaluated were performance and antibody serum titers against Newcastle disease. No antibiotic effect was observed on performance. The symbiotic provided better results for weight gain and feed:gain ratio until 21 days old than isolated additives. At 28 days old, the broilers fed diets with prebiotic presented better feed: gain ratio. In the same period (28 d-old, there was an antibody production increase against the Newcastle disease virus in the group supplemented with prebiotic. It can be concluded that the utilization of symbiotic in broiler chickens' diets can substitute performance enhancing antibiotics. The inclusion of prebiotic in the diet improves feed: gain ratio at 1-28 days old. The chickens' immune response increases at 28 days against the Newcastle disease virus in the group supplemented with prebiotic.

  2. Clinical Effects of Prebiotics in Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, Rok; Reberšak, Lea Vodušek

    2016-12-15

    Prebiotics are non-digestible components of food that in a selective manner trigger the expansion of microbes in the gut with valuable effects for the health of the host. In our document, current literature pertaining to the clinical effects of the use of prebiotics for the treatment and prevention of some common pediatric pathology such as infantile colic, constipation, absorption of minerals, weight gain, diarrhea, respiratory infections, and eczema is reviewed. Data was collected through search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, UpToDate, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register database as well as through references from relevant articles, all until September 2015. However, only the results of publications with adequate methodological quality were included. Prebiotics seem to be very appealing in treatment of many clinical conditions, explicitly in the fight against constipation, poor weight gain in preterm infants, and eczema in atopic children. In contrast to probiotics, the evidence of true clinical efficacy of prebiotics, supported with exact type and dose information are rather sparse, and there are a limited number of randomized controlled trials concerning prebiotics in children, especially beyond the age of infancy. Large well-designed, controlled, confirmatory clinical trials are required, using commercially available products, to help healthcare providers in making an appropriate decision concerning the appropriate use of prebiotics in different conditions.

  3. Effects of Prebiotics and Synbiotics on Functional Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Tan, Jia-Cheng; Xiong, Wen-Jie; Wang, Yun; Lin, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics on adults with functional constipation (FC). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature published up to February 2015. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported administration of prebiotics or synbiotics to adults with FC. The end points included stool frequency, stool consistency and other symptoms related to constipation. Mean differences (MD) or standard mean differences (SMD) were used for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for discontinuous outcomes using a random-effects model. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to determine the quality of the trials. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to analyze for publication bias. We included 5 RCTs involving 199 patients who were administered prebiotics and 8 RCTs involving 825 patients who were administered synbiotics. Prebiotics increased weekly stool frequency (MD: 1.01bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.04-1.99) and improved stool consistency (SMD: -0.59, 95% CI: -1.16 to -0.02). Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for galacto-oligosaccharides on stool frequency, consistency, ease of defecation and abdominal pain. Synbiotics significantly improved stool frequency (MD: 1.15bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.58-1.71), consistency (SMD: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-0.92) and reduced whole-gut transit time (MD: 13.52, 95% CI: -26.56 to -0.49) in patients with FC. Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic combinations on stool frequency, consistency, straining defecation and bloating. Galacto-oligosaccharides and synbiotics made up of fructo-oligosaccharides with probiotic combinations may improve stool frequency, consistency and some other symptoms related to constipation. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of prebiotics and probiotics on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghazzewi, F H; Tester, R F

    2014-06-01

    This review discusses the role of pre- and probiotics with respect to improving skin health by modulating the cutaneous microbiota. The skin ecosystem is a complex environment covered with a diverse microbiota community. These are classified as either transient or resident, where some are considered as beneficial, some essentially neutral and others pathogenic or at least have the capacity to be pathogenic. Colonisation varies between different parts of the body due to different environmental factors. Pre- and probiotic beneficial effects can be delivered topically or systemically (by ingestion). The pre- and probiotics have the capacity to optimise, maintain and restore the microbiota of the skin in different ways. Topical applications of probiotic bacteria have a direct effect at the site of application by enhancing the skin natural defence barriers. Probiotics as well as resident bacteria can produce antimicrobial peptides that benefit cutaneous immune responses and eliminate pathogens. In cosmetic formulations, prebiotics can be applied to the skin microbiota directly and increase selectively the activity and growth of beneficial 'normal' skin microbiota. Little is known about the efficacy of topically applied prebiotics. Nutritional products containing prebiotics and/or probiotics have a positive effect on skin by modulating the immune system and by providing therapeutic benefits for atopic diseases. This review underlines the potential use of pre- and probiotics for skin health.

  5. Plant prebiotics and human health: Biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam Dwivedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the prebiotic-rich grain crops include barley, chickpea, lentil, lupin, and wheat. Some prebiotic-rich crop germplasm have been reported in barley, chickpea, lentil, wheat, yacon, and Jerusalem artichoke. A few major quantitative trait loci and gene-based markers associated with high fructan are known in wheat. More targeted search in genebanks using reduced subsets (representing diversity in germplasm is needed to identify accessions with prebiotic carbohydrates. Transgenic maize, potato and sugarcane with high fructan, with no adverse effects on plant development, have been bred, which suggests that it is feasible to introduce fructan biosynthesis pathways in crops to produce health-imparting prebiotics. Developing prebiotic-rich and super nutritious crops will alleviate the widespread malnutrition and promote human health. A paradigm shift in breeding program is needed to achieve this goal and to ensure that newly-bred crop cultivars are nutritious, safe and health promoting.

  6. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Prebiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Humoral Immunity Responses and Egg Hatchability in Broiler Breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajati H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the influence of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation in the broiler breeder diets on body weight, mortality, feed intake, egg production, hatchability and humoral immunity response was investigated. A total number of 13140 female and 1260 male breeders (Cobb 500 with 26 wks of age were allocated to three treatments with six replicates (800 birds each replicate. Breeders were fed control basal diet, basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide or probiotic (Protexin® for 17 weeks. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured weekly during 26-40 wks of age. The hatchability of eggs was recorded on weeks 38, 39, and 40. Antibody production was recorded after 8 wks of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation. Prebiotic supplementation did not affect feed intake, the percentages of egg production and settable eggs percents. Prebiotic increased egg hatchability and reduced the percentages of infertile eggs, as well as dead embryo-in-shells. Antibody titers against influenza and reovirus were higher in prebiotic fed group, but there were no significant differences among the other blood antibody titers. Probiotic had no significant effect on the considered parameters. In conclusion, findings of present study showed that prebiotic improved egg hatchability and humoral immunity of broiler breeders.

  7. Effects of dietary prebiotics, probiotic and synbiotics on performance, caecal bacterial populations and caecal fermentation concentrations of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookiah, Saminathan; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Abdullah, Norhani; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-30

    In view of a worldwide attempt to restrict or ban the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production, probiotics, prebiotics and combinations of both, as synbiotics, have been suggested as potential alternatives. In this study, the effects of a prebiotic (isomalto-oligosaccharides, IMO), a multi-strain probiotic (consisting of 11 Lactobacillus strains), and a combination of these dietary additives as a synbiotic on the performance, caecal bacterial populations and concentrations of caecal volatile fatty acids and non-volatile fatty acids of broiler chickens were evaluated. Supplementation of 1g kg⁻¹ probiotic (PRO); 5 g kg⁻¹ prebiotic IMO (PRE05); 10 g kg⁻¹ prebiotic IMO (PRE10); synbiotic consisting of 1g kg⁻¹ probiotic + 5 g kg⁻¹ prebiotic IMO (SYN05); or synbiotic consisting of 1 g kg⁻¹ probiotic + 10 g kg⁻¹ prebiotic IMO (SYN10) significantly (P chickens at 22-42 and 1-42 days of age, and feed conversion rate from 1 to 21, 22-42 and 1-42 days of age. The supplementation of probiotic (PRO), prebiotics (PRE05 and PRE10) or synbiotics (SYN05 and SYN10) also significantly (P probiotic or prebiotic alone. The results of the study indicated that prebiotic IMO (5 g kg⁻¹ or 10 g kg⁻¹), probiotic and their combinations as synbiotics were effective in improving the performance of broiler chickens and in increasing the caecal beneficial bacteria and fatty acids. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. How can probiotics and prebiotics impact mucosal immunity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Saulnier, Delphine; Pot, Bruno; Versalovic, James

    2010-01-01

    ...? These questions were part of a discussion entitled "How Can Probiotics and Prebiotics Impact Mucosal Immunity" at the 2009 annual meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP...

  9. Inulin-type prebiotics--a review: part 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This article is part 1 of a two-part review of inulin-type prebiotics. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional compounds grouped together by the ability to promote the growth of specific beneficial (probiotic) gut bacteria...

  10. Positive interaction between prebiotics and thiazolidinedione treatment on adiposity in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligier, Maud; Dewulf, Evelyne M; Salazar, Nuria; Mairal, Aline; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Cani, Patrice D; Langin, Dominique; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2014-07-01

    To investigate whether inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics could counteract the thiazolidinedione (TZD, PPARγ activator) induced-fat mass gain, without affecting its beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis, in high-fat (HF) diet fed mice. Male C57bl6/J mice were fed a HF diet alone or supplemented with ITF prebiotics (0.2 g/day × mouse) or TZD (30 mg pioglitazone (PIO)/kg body weight × day) or both during 4 weeks. An insulin tolerance test was performed after 3 weeks of treatment. As expected, PIO improved glucose homeostasis and increased adiponectinaemia. Furthermore, it induced an over-expression of several PPARγ target genes in white adipose tissues. ITF prebiotics modulated the PIO-induced PPARγ activation in a tissue-dependent manner. The co-treatment with ITF prebiotics and PIO maintained the beneficial impact of TZD on glucose homeostasis and adiponectinaemia. Moreover, the combination of both treatments reduced fat mass accumulation, circulating lipids and hepatic triglyceride content, suggesting an overall improvement of metabolism. Finally, the co-treatment favored induction of white-to-brown fat conversion in subcutaneous adipose tissue, thereby leading to the development of brite adipocytes that could increase the oxidative capacity of the tissue. ITF prebiotics decrease adiposity and improve the metabolic response in HF fed mice treated with TZD. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Pasek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973, which were based on the kinetic effects.

  12. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Maheen; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973), which were based on the kinetic effects. PMID:25369744

  13. Probiotics and prebiotics--perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-González, Ivonne; Quijano, Guillermo; Ramírez, Gerardo; Cruz-Guerrero, Alma

    2011-06-01

    Owing to their health benefits, probiotics and prebiotics are nowadays widely used in yogurts and fermented milks, which are leader products of functional foods worldwide. The world market for functional foods has grown rapidly in the last three decades, with an estimated size in 2003 of ca US$ 33 billion, while the European market estimation exceeded US$ 2 billion in the same year. However, the production of probiotics and prebiotics at industrial scale faces several challenges, including the search for economical and abundant raw materials for prebiotic production, the low-cost production of probiotics and the improvement of probiotic viability after storage or during the manufacturing process of the functional food. In this review, functional foods based on probiotics and prebiotics are introduced as a key biotechnological field with tremendous potential for innovation. A concise state of the art addressing the fundamentals and challenges for the development of new probiotic- and prebiotic-based foods is presented, the niches for future research being clearly identified and discussed.

  14. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reviews (2005 to 2009 on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s or prebiotic(s to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi2 test. An I2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Results Four probiotics studies (N=212, 4 prebiotics studies (N=126 were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34 or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34, number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20. Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide / Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50, GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50. There were no significant differences in head growth (MD −0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76 or age at full enteral feed (MD −0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86. Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86. GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27 and (MD 0.48, 95

  15. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2012-08-28

    Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi² test. An I² test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I²> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide/Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD -0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD -0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.68, n=56). There is not

  16. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal tract has been colonized by thousands of species of bacteria during the coevolution of man and microbes. Gut-borne microbes outnumber the total number of body tissue cells by a factor of ten. Recent metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota has revealed the presence of some 3.3 million genes, as compared to the mere 23 thousand genes present in the cells of the tissues in the entire human body. Evidence for various beneficial roles of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease is expanding rapidly. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota may lead to chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, colon cancers, gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, functional bowel diseases, and obesity. Restoration of the gut microbiota may be difficult to accomplish, but the use of probiotics has led to promising results in a large number of well-designed (clinical studies. Microbiomics has spurred a dramatic increase in scientific, industrial, and public interest in probiotics and prebiotics as possible agents for gut microbiota management and control. Genomics and bioinformatics tools may allow us to establish mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, health status, and the effects of drugs in the individual. This will hopefully provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management.

  17. Prebiotics to fight diseases: reality or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolomeo, F; Startek, J B; Van den Ende, W

    2013-10-01

    Bacteria living in the gastrointestinal tract are crucial for human health and disease occurrence. Increasing the beneficial intestinal microflora by consumption of prebiotics, which are 'functional foods', could be an elegant way to limit the number and incidence of disorders and to recover from dysbiosis or antibiotic treatments. This review focuses on the short-chain low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) which are metabolized by gut microbiota serving as energy source, immune system enhancers or facilitators of mineral uptake. Intake of foods containing LDCs can improve the state of health and may prevent diseases as for example certain forms of cancer. Given the large number of different molecules belonging to LDCs, we focused our attention on fructans (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides), galacto-oligosaccharides and resistant starches and their therapeutic and protective applications. Evidence is accumulating that LDCs can inhibit bacterial and viral infections by modulating host defense responses and by changing the interactions between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria. Animal studies and studies on small groups of human subjects suggest that LDCs might help to counteract colorectal cancer, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The action mechanisms of LDCs in the human body might be broader than originally thought, perhaps also including reactive oxygen species scavenging and signaling events.

  18. Biotechnological approaches for the production of prebiotics and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Parmjit S; Kumari, Shweta; Panesar, Reeba

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide interest in prebiotics have been increasing extensively both as food ingredients and pharmacological supplements, since they have beneficial properties for human health. Prebiotics not only stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the gut but also increase the resistance towards pathogens. In addition to this, they also act as dietary fiber, an energy source for intestinal cells after converting to short-chain fatty acids, a stimulator of immune systems, sugar replacer etc. Moreover, due to heat resistant properties, they are able to maintain their intact form during the baking process and allow them to be incorporated into every day food products. Thus, they can be interesting and useful ingredients in the development of novel functional foods. This review provides comprehensive information about the different biotechnological techniques employed in the production of prebiotics and their potential applications in different areas.

  19. Prebiotics mitigate in vitro sulfur-containing odour generation in caecal content of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Fan Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effects and role of prebiotics, such as inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS and galactooligosaccharides (GAS, to mitigate sulfur-containing odour gases, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH using pigs as in vitro study model. Inocula obtained from pigs were incubated at 39°C for 24 h using 550 mg sterilised substrate (caecal contents supplemented with or without 50 mg prebiotics. Production of total gas, H2S and CH3SH were determined. The results showed that total gas production for the caecal content of pigs was 57.3 mL, and that for H2S and CH3SH was 220.2 and 15.2 μL, respectively. The total gas production increased (P<0.05, whereas concentrations of H2S and CH3SH decreased (P<0.05 with supplementation of prebiotics. Among the prebiotics, inulin was the most effective in mitigating H2S and CH3SH productions, reducing the two malodorous gases by 14.7 and 19.8%, respectively. The reduction of the above two sulfur- containing gases was supported by lower sulfate-reducing bacteria population and higher sulfate radical concentrations in the prebiotics, particularly that of inulin supplementation group.

  20. TECHNOLOGICAL INFORMATION REGARDING PREBIOTICS AND PROBIOTICS NUTRITION VERSUS THE PATENT REGISTERS: WHAT IS NEW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos REIS, José Maciel Caldas; PINHEIRO, Maurício Fortuna; OTI, André Takashi; FEITOSA-JUNIOR, Denilson José Silva; PANTOJA, Mauro de Souza; BARROS, Rui Sérgio Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Food is a key factor both in prevention and in promoting human health. Among the functional food are highlighted probiotics and prebiotics. Patent databases are the main source of technological information about innovation worldwide, providing extensive library for research sector. Objective: Perform mapping in the main patent databases about pre and probiotics, seeking relevant information regarding the use of biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the production of these foods. Method: Electronic consultation was conducted (online) in the main public databases of patents in Brazil (INPI), United States (USPTO) and the European Patent Bank (EPO). The research involved the period from January 2014 to July 2015, being used in the title fields and summary of patents, the following descriptors in INPI "prebiotic", "prebiotic" "probiotics", "probiotic" and the USPTO and EPO: "prebiotic", "prebiotics", "probiotic", "probiotics". Results: This search haven't found any deposit at the brazilian patents website (INPI) in this period; US Patent &Trademark Office had registered 60 titles in patents and the European Patent Office (EPO) showed 10 documents on the issue. Conclusion: Information technology offered by genetic engineering, biotechnology and nanotechnology deposited in the form of titles and abstracts of patents in relation to early nutritional intervention as functional foods, has increasingly required to decrease the risks and control the progression of health problems. But, the existing summaries, although attractive and promising in this sense, are still incipient to recommend them safely as a therapeutic tool. Therefore, they should be seen more as diet elements and healthy lifestyles. PMID:28076487

  1. Redefining Lactose as a Conditional Prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Szilagyi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactose in dairy products is maldigested by up to 70% to 75% of the world's population and many people may therefore suffer symptoms reminiscent of irritable bowel syndrome. As a result, most research to date has concentrated on ways of improving lactose tolerance to enhance dairy as a source of nutrition. However, research on other possible benefits of lactose and its maldigestion has lagged. In view of an exponential growth in the understanding of intestinal microfloral host interactions and the expanding therapeutical potential of probiotics, a reassessment of the role of lactose as a potential prebiotic in lactase nonpersistent subjects is required. Gibson and Roberfroid introduced the concept of prebiotics and outlined definitive requirements for such a compound. The present article examines scientific and clinical knowledge about the properties of lactose and argues that in lactase nonpersistent subjects, lactose qualifies as a prebiotic.

  2. Prebiotically Important Molecules in Orion KL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Chuang, Yo-Ling

    Many interstellar, complex organic molecules are known to be prebiotically important and have essential functions in terrestrial biochemistry. Observations of complex organic molecular species in molecular clouds can thus enable us to test the origin of the primitive organic material found in the Solar System. Interstellar pyrimidine and glycine, the building block of nucleic acid and the simplest amino acid, respectively, are key molecules for astrobiology and were both detected in meteorites and comets. Although the formation of prebiotic molecules in extraterrestrial environments and their contribution to prebiotic chemistry and the origin of life remains unsettled, the connection between interstellar organic chemistry, meteoritic pyrimidines and amino acids, and the emergence of life on the early Earth would be strengthened with the discovery of interstellar pyrimidine and glycine. We have therefore observed the Orion KL hot molecular core to search for interstellar pyrimidine and for the confirmation of interstellar glycine using the ALMA array. We will present some of the encouraging, positive results.

  3. Towards a more comprehensive concept for prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindels, Laure B; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D; Walter, Jens

    2015-05-01

    The essential role of the gut microbiota for health has generated tremendous interest in modulating its composition and metabolic function. One of these strategies is prebiotics, which typically refer to selectively fermented nondigestible food ingredients or substances that specifically support the growth and/or activity of health-promoting bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract. In this Perspective, we argue that advances in our understanding of diet-microbiome-host interactions challenge important aspects of the current concept of prebiotics, and especially the requirement for effects to be 'selective' or 'specific'. We propose to revise this concept in an effort to shift the focus towards ecological and functional features of the microbiota more likely to be relevant for host physiology. This revision would provide a more rational basis for the identification of prebiotic compounds, and a framework by which the therapeutic potential of modulating the gut microbiota could be more fully materialized.

  4. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Hoentjen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients have been performed. Most of these studies evaluated VSL#3 or E. Coli Nissle 1917 and in general there is evidence for efficacy of these agents for induction and maintenance of remission. However, studies are frequently underpowered, lack a control group, and are very heterogeneous investigating different probiotic strains in different study populations. The absence of well-powered robust randomized placebo-controlled trials impedes the widespread use of probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis. However, given the promising results that are currently available, probiotics and prebiotics may find their way to the treatment algorithm for ulcerative colitis in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dipeptide catalysed prebiotic polymerization of RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal; Luisi, Pier Luigi; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2011-01-01

    be an important factor from an origin-of-life point of view. Short peptides are plausible products of prebiotic chemistry2. Consequently, they could have influenced chemical evolution on an early stage. An enzyme catalysing hydrolytic reactions can in principle be used as catalyst for condensation: the reverse...... reaction to hydrolysis. The direction of the catalysis either toward hydrolysis or condensation is determined by thermodynamic constraints. In an aqueous medium (a general requirement for prebiotically compatible reactions), hydrolysis is thermodynamically favoured over condensation. However......, the thermodynamic equilibrium towards condensation can be shifted even in this environment. For example, the reverse-proteolysis in prebiotic environment has been described for SerHis3. In this case, SerHis was able to condensate amino acids into insoluble peptides, which in turn pulled the equilibrium further...

  6. A food additive with prebiotic properties of an α-d-glucan from lactobacillus plantarum DM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

    2014-08-01

    An α-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities. Glucan-DM5 demonstrated 21.6% solubility, 316.9% water holding capacity, 86.2% flocculation activity, 71.4% emulsification activity and a degradation temperature (Td) of 292.2°C. Glucan-DM5 exhibited lowest digestibility of 0.54% by artificial gastric juice, 0.21% by intestinal fluid and 0.32% by α-amylase whereas the standard prebiotic inulin, showed 25.23%, 5.97% and 19.13%, hydrolysis, respectively. Prebiotic activity assay of glucan-DM5 displayed increased growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, but did not support the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall findings indicated that glucan from L. plantarum DM5 can serve as a potential prebiotic additive for food products.

  7. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, J. H.

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

  8. In situ prebiotics: enzymatic release of galacto-rhamnogalacturonan from potato pulp in vivo in the gastrointestinal tract of the weaning piglet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics may be efficient for prevention of intestinal infections in humans and animals by increasing the levels of beneficial bacteria and thereby improving gut health. Using purified prebiotics may however not be cost-effective in the livestock production industry. Instead, prebiotic fibres may...... be released directly in the gastro-intestinal tract by feeding enzymes with a suitable substrate and allowing the prebiotics to be produced in situ. Using low doses, 0.03 % enzyme-to-substrate ratio, of the enzymes pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in combination with potato pulp, a low-value industrial by...... and is then followed by distribution through the small intestines. To our knowledge, this is the first paper describing targeted production of prebiotics in an animal model....

  9. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics affect mineral absorption, bone mineral content, and bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E; Ade, Peter; Marten, Berit; Weber, Petra; Timm, Wolfram; Açil, Yahya; Glüer, Claus-C; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2007-03-01

    Several studies in animals and humans have shown positive effects of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) on mineral absorption and metabolism and bone composition and architecture. These include inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharide, and also resistant starches, sugar alcohols, and difructose anhydride. A positive outcome of dietary prebiotics is promoted by a high dietary calcium content up to a threshold level and an optimum amount and composition of supplemented prebiotics. There might be an optimum composition of fructooligosaccharides with different chain lengths (synergy products). The efficacy of dietary prebiotics depends on chronological age, physiological age, menopausal status, and calcium absorption capacity. There is evidence for an independent probiotic effect on facilitating mineral absorption. Synbiotics, i.e., a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, can induce additional effects. Whether a low content of habitual NDO would augment the effect of dietary prebiotics or synbiotics remains to be studied. The underlying mechanisms are manifold: increased solubility of minerals because of increased bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids, which is promoted by the greater supply of substrate; an enlargement of the absorption surface by promoting proliferation of enterocytes mediated by bacterial fermentation products, predominantly lactate and butyrate; increased expression of calcium-binding proteins; improvement of gut health; degradation of mineral complexing phytic acid; release of bone-modulating factors such as phytoestrogens from foods; stabilization of the intestinal flora and ecology, also in the presence of antibiotics; stabilization of the intestinal mucus; and impact of modulating growth factors such as polyamines. In conclusion, prebiotics are the most promising but also best investigated substances with respect to a bone-health-promoting potential, compared with probiotics

  10. Assessing the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides in sheep milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Vieira, A H; Neto, R P C; Cappato, L P; Coimbra, P T; Moraes, J; Andrade, M M; Calado, V M A; Granato, D; Freitas, M Q; Tavares, M I B; Raices, R S L; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligossacaride, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide, resistant starch, corn dietary oligosaccharide and polydextrose) in non-fat sheep milk ice cream processing through physical parameters, water mobility and thermal analysis. Overall, the fat replacement by dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides significantly decreased the melting time, melting temperature and the fraction and relaxation time for fat and bound water (T22) while increased the white intensity and glass transition temperature. The replacement of sheep milk fat by prebiotics in sheep milk ice cream constitutes an interesting option to enhance nutritional aspects and develop a functional food.

  11. Prebiotics: A Potential Treatment Strategy for the Chemotherapy-damaged Gut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanru; Geier, Mark S; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Mucositis, characterized by ulcerative lesions along the alimentary tract, is a common consequence of many chemotherapy regimens. Chemotherapy negatively disrupts the intestinal microbiota, resulting in increased numbers of potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridia and Enterobacteriaceae, and decreased numbers of "beneficial" bacteria, such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Agents capable of restoring homeostasis in the bowel microbiota could, therefore, be applicable to mucositis. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds, commonly oligosaccharides, that seek to reverse chemotherapy-induced intestinal dysbiosis through selective colonization of the intestinal microbiota by probiotic bacteria. In addition, evidence is emerging that certain prebiotics contribute to nutrient digestibility and absorption, modulate intestinal barrier function through effects on mucin expression, and also modify mucosal immune responses, possibly via inflammasome-mediated processes. This review examines the known mechanisms of prebiotic action, and explores their potential for reducing the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the intestine.

  12. Application of inulin in cheese as prebiotic, fat replacer and texturizer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Reza; Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Vaziri, Moharam

    2015-03-30

    Inulin is a food ingredient that belongs to a class of carbohydrates known as fructans. Nutritionally it has functional properties and health-promoting effects that include reduced calorie value, dietary fiber and prebiotic effects. Inulin is increasingly used in industrially processed dairy and non-dairy products because it is a bulking agent for use in fat replacement, textural modification and organoleptic improvement. Addition of inulin to different kinds of cheese can be beneficial in the manufacture of a reduced- or low-fat, texturized, symbiotic product. This paper gives an overview of some aspects of the microstructural, textural, rheological, prebiotic and sensorial effects of inulin incorporated in cheese as fat replacer, prebiotic and texture modifier.

  13. Importance of prebiotics in aquaculture as immunostimulants. Effects on immune system of Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Donatella; Faggio, Caterina

    2016-07-01

    Infectious diseases in fish represent a major problem for the aquaculture field as they produce extensive damages and loss. Over the last few years, with increased development of the aquaculture industry, different methods have been used to contrast these pathologies. Common interest has led to the use of components (as additives in diets) that could contrast diseases without causing any negative impact on the environment. These components are represented by prebiotics, probiotics, and plant extracts. In this review, the effects of prebiotics are described. Prebiotics are indigestible fibres fermented by gut enzymes and commensal bacteria, whose beneficial effects are due to the by-products generated from fermentation. The influence of pre-biotics on the immune system of fish is called immunosaccharides. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and Inulin act at different levels in the innate immune response. For example, through phagocytosis, lysozyme activity, and the complement system activity, an increase in fish growth and an amelioration of their health status is brought about. In this review, the use of prebiotics in aquaculture, such as immunostimulants, has been highlighted: particularly in two teleost fish species, Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax. The results demonstrate that the road is still long and further studies are required, but the use of prebiotics, individually or coupled together, can open the doors to pioneering a new model of alternative components to antimicrobial agents.

  14. Resistance exercise-induced increases in putative anabolic hormones do not enhance muscle protein synthesis or intracellular signalling in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Kujbida, Gregory W; Moore, Daniel R; Atherton, Philip; Burd, Nicholas A; Padzik, Jan P; De Lisio, Michael; Tang, Jason E; Parise, Gianni; Rennie, Michael J; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2009-11-01

    We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced elevations in systemic concentration of testosterone, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhanced post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and phosphorylation of signalling proteins important in regulating mRNA translation. Eight young men (20 +/- 1.1 years, BMI = 26 +/- 3.5 kg m(-2)) completed two exercise protocols designed to maintain basal hormone concentrations (low hormone, LH) or elicit increases in endogenous hormones (high hormone, HH). In the LH protocol, participants performed a bout of unilateral resistance exercise with the elbow flexors. The HH protocol consisted of the same elbow flexor exercise with the contralateral arm followed immediately by high-volume leg resistance exercise. Participants consumed 25 g of protein after arm exercise to maximize MPS. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were taken as appropriate. There were no changes in serum testosterone, GH or IGF-1 after the LH protocol, whereas there were marked elevations after HH (testosterone, P Exercise stimulated a rise in MPS in the biceps brachii (rest = 0.040 +/- 0.007, LH = 0.071 +/- 0.008, HH = 0.064 +/- 0.014% h(-1); P hormones (P = 0.72). Phosphorylation of the 70 kDa S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) also increased post-exercise (P hormones do not enhance fed-state anabolic signalling or MPS following resistance exercise. Local mechanisms are likely to be of predominant importance for the post-exercise increase in MPS.

  15. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF HYPOALLERGENIC COMPOUND, ENRICHED WITH PREBIOTICS, FOR THE PROPHYLACTICS OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Dzhumagaziyev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of prophylactic effectiveness of hypoallergenic compound «Nutrilon Hypoallergenic 1», fortified with prebiotics «IMMUNOFORTIS», in children from group of risk of development of atopic dermatitis. Anthropometric rates of children after 8 weeks of observation corresponded with average age rates; their physical development was estimated as harmonious. The compound was well-tolerated. Its use resulted in increase of bifido- and lactobacteria of intestinal micro flora and decrease of acute respiratory infections in infants.Key words: infants, alimentary allergy, atopic dermatitis, artificial feeding, prebiotics, hypoallergenic compound.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:37-43

  16. Towards microbial fermentation metabolites as markers for health benefits of prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Kristin A; Boobis, Alan R; Chiodini, Alessandro; Edwards, Christine A; Franck, Anne; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Nauta, Arjen; Raes, Jeroen; van Tol, Eric A F; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2015-06-01

    Available evidence on the bioactive, nutritional and putative detrimental properties of gut microbial metabolites has been evaluated to support a more integrated view of how prebiotics might affect host health throughout life. The present literature inventory targeted evidence for the physiological and nutritional effects of metabolites, for example, SCFA, the potential toxicity of other metabolites and attempted to determine normal concentration ranges. Furthermore, the biological relevance of more holistic approaches like faecal water toxicity assays and metabolomics and the limitations of faecal measurements were addressed. Existing literature indicates that protein fermentation metabolites (phenol, p-cresol, indole, ammonia), typically considered as potentially harmful, occur at concentration ranges in the colon such that no toxic effects are expected either locally or following systemic absorption. The endproducts of saccharolytic fermentation, SCFA, may have effects on colonic health, host physiology, immunity, lipid and protein metabolism and appetite control. However, measuring SCFA concentrations in faeces is insufficient to assess the dynamic processes of their nutrikinetics. Existing literature on the usefulness of faecal water toxicity measures as indicators of cancer risk seems limited. In conclusion, at present there is insufficient evidence to use changes in faecal bacterial metabolite concentrations as markers of prebiotic effectiveness. Integration of results from metabolomics and metagenomics holds promise for understanding the health implications of prebiotic microbiome modulation but adequate tools for data integration and interpretation are currently lacking. Similarly, studies measuring metabolite fluxes in different body compartments to provide a more accurate picture of their nutrikinetics are needed.

  17. Increased secreted amyloid precursor protein-α (sAPPα in severe autism: proposal of a specific, anabolic pathway and putative biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmiki Ray

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in verbal communication, social interactions, and the presence of repetitive, stereotyped and compulsive behaviors. Excessive early brain growth is found commonly in some patients and may contribute to disease phenotype. Reports of increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and other neurotrophic-like factors in autistic neonates suggest that enhanced anabolic activity in CNS mediates this overgrowth effect. We have shown previously that in a subset of patients with severe autism and aggression, plasma levels of the secreted amyloid-β (Aβ precursor protein-alpha form (sAPPα were significantly elevated relative to controls and patients with mild-to-moderate autism. Here we further tested the hypothesis that levels of sAPPα and sAPPβ (proteolytic cleavage products of APP by α- and β-secretase, respectively are deranged in autism and may contribute to an anabolic environment leading to brain overgrowth. We measured plasma levels of sAPPα, sAPPβ, Aβ peptides and BDNF by corresponding ELISA in a well characterized set of subjects. We included for analysis 18 control, 6 mild-to-moderate, and 15 severely autistic patient plasma samples. We have observed that sAPPα levels are increased and BDNF levels decreased in the plasma of patients with severe autism as compared to controls. Further, we show that Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and sAPPβ levels are significantly decreased in the plasma of patients with severe autism. These findings do not extend to patients with mild-to-moderate autism, providing a biochemical correlate of phenotypic severity. Taken together, this study provides evidence that sAPPα levels are generally elevated in severe autism and suggests that these patients may have aberrant non-amyloidogenic processing of APP.

  18. Emergent Sources of Prebiotics: Seaweeds and Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have become aware that human microbiota, in general, and gut microbiota, in particular, play a major role in human health and diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, among others. A large number of evidence has come to light regarding the beneficial effects, either for the host or the gut microbiota, of some foods and food ingredients or biochemical compounds. Among these, the most promising seem to be polysaccharides (PS) or their derivatives, and they include the dietary fibers. Some of these PS can be found in seaweeds and microalgae, some being soluble fibers, such as alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans and exopolysaccharides, that are not fermented, at least not completely, by colonic microbiota. This review gives an overview of the importance of the dietary fibers, as well as the benefits of prebiotics, to human health. The potential of the PS from marine macro- and microalgae to act as prebiotics is discussed, and the different techniques to obtain oligosaccharides from PS are presented. The mechanisms of the benefits of fiber, in general, and the types and benefits of algal fibers in human health are highlighted. The findings of some recent studies that present the potential effects of prebiotics on animal models of algal biomass and their extracts, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides, are presented. In the future, the possibility of using prebiotics to modulate the microbiome, and, consequently, prevent certain human diseases is foreseen. PMID:26828501

  19. Emergent Sources of Prebiotics: Seaweeds and Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, scientists have become aware that human microbiota, in general, and gut microbiota, in particular, play a major role in human health and diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, among others. A large number of evidence has come to light regarding the beneficial effects, either for the host or the gut microbiota, of some foods and food ingredients or biochemical compounds. Among these, the most promising seem to be polysaccharides (PS or their derivatives, and they include the dietary fibers. Some of these PS can be found in seaweeds and microalgae, some being soluble fibers, such as alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans and exopolysaccharides, that are not fermented, at least not completely, by colonic microbiota. This review gives an overview of the importance of the dietary fibers, as well as the benefits of prebiotics, to human health. The potential of the PS from marine macro- and microalgae to act as prebiotics is discussed, and the different techniques to obtain oligosaccharides from PS are presented. The mechanisms of the benefits of fiber, in general, and the types and benefits of algal fibers in human health are highlighted. The findings of some recent studies that present the potential effects of prebiotics on animal models of algal biomass and their extracts, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides, are presented. In the future, the possibility of using prebiotics to modulate the microbiome, and, consequently, prevent certain human diseases is foreseen.

  20. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics.

  1. Emergent Sources of Prebiotics: Seaweeds and Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2016-01-28

    In recent years, scientists have become aware that human microbiota, in general, and gut microbiota, in particular, play a major role in human health and diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, among others. A large number of evidence has come to light regarding the beneficial effects, either for the host or the gut microbiota, of some foods and food ingredients or biochemical compounds. Among these, the most promising seem to be polysaccharides (PS) or their derivatives, and they include the dietary fibers. Some of these PS can be found in seaweeds and microalgae, some being soluble fibers, such as alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans and exopolysaccharides, that are not fermented, at least not completely, by colonic microbiota. This review gives an overview of the importance of the dietary fibers, as well as the benefits of prebiotics, to human health. The potential of the PS from marine macro- and microalgae to act as prebiotics is discussed, and the different techniques to obtain oligosaccharides from PS are presented. The mechanisms of the benefits of fiber, in general, and the types and benefits of algal fibers in human health are highlighted. The findings of some recent studies that present the potential effects of prebiotics on animal models of algal biomass and their extracts, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides, are presented. In the future, the possibility of using prebiotics to modulate the microbiome, and, consequently, prevent certain human diseases is foreseen.

  2. Prebiotics and synbiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, Axel; Sjöberg, Klas

    2017-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with unclear pathogenesis. A dysbiotic intestinal microbiota is regarded as a key component in the disease process and there has been significant interest in developing new treatments which target the microbiota. To give an overview of the studies to date investigating prebiotics and synbiotics for the treatment of UC. A literature search of PubMed and related search engines was carried out using the terms "ulcerative colitis" in combination with "prebiotic", "synbiotic" or "dietary fibre". In total 17 studies on humans examining the effect of prebiotics in UC were found. Five major groups could be distinguished. Fructo-oligosaccharides were tried in six studies (mean 35 patients included, range 9-121). One study found a clinical response while two demonstrated indirect evidence of an effect. Germinated barley foodstuff was used in 8 studies (mean 38 patients, range 10-63). One study found an endoscopic response, while four noted a clinical response and two some indirect effects. Galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose and resveratrol were used in one study each (mean 48 patients, range 41-52). One study found an endoscopic response and one a clinical response. There is yet inadequate evidence - especially in humans - to support any particular prebiotic in the clinical management of UC. However, due to the bulk of evidence supporting the effect of the microbiota on colonic inflammation, there is enough potential to justify further high-quality clinical trials investigating this subject.

  3. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, L.A.A.P.; Dieleman, L.A.; Hoentjen, F.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of

  4. Manufacture of Prebiotics from Biomass Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Moure, Andrés; Alonso, José Luis; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    Biomass from plant material is the most abundant and widespread renewable raw material for sustainable development, and can be employed as a source of polymeric and oligomeric carbohydrates. When ingested as a part of the diet, some biomass polysaccharides and/or their oligomeric hydrolysis products are selectively fermented in the colon, causing prebiotic effects.

  5. An overview of probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Gareth C

    This article reviews the origins and background of probiotics. Evidence for the potential mechanisms of probiotics and prebiotics, and their interactions with the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system are discussed. Evidence is examined for the use of probiotics to treat infantile diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and atopic dermatitis.

  6. Differential responses of gut microbiota to the same prebiotic formula in oligotrophic and eutrophic batch fermentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Qianpeng; Feng, Zhou; Bridgewater, Laura; Wang, Linghua; Zhao, Liping; Pang, Xiaoyan

    2015-08-25

    The same prebiotics have produced inconsistent effects on microbiota when evaluated in different batch fermentation studies. To understand the reasons behind these discrepancies, we compared impact of one prebiotic formula on the same inoculated fecal microbiota in two frequently used batch systems: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, oligotrophic) and basal culture medium (BCM, eutrophic). The microbiota was monitored using 454 pyrosequencing. Negative controls (no prebiotic) of both systems showed significant shifts in the microbiota during fermentation, although their pH remained relatively stable, especially in BCM, with increases in Bilophila and Escherichia/Shigella but a decrease in Faecalibacterium. We identified prebiotic responders via redundancy analysis by including both baseline and negative controls. The key positive and negative responders in the two systems were very different, with only 8 consistently modulated OTUs (7 of the 28 positive responders and 1 of the 35 negative responders). Moreover, some OTUs within the same genus responded to the prebiotic in opposite ways. Therefore, to obtain a complete in vitro evaluation of the modulatory effects of a prebiotic on microbiota, it is necessary to use both oligotrophic and eutrophic systems, compare treatment groups with both baseline and negative controls, and analyze the microbiota changes down to the OTU level.

  7. Novel Probiotics and Prebiotics: How Can They Help in Human Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gómez Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Novel probiotics and prebiotics designed to modulate the gut microbiota for improving health outcomes are in demand as the importance of the gut microbiota in human health is revealed. A review of the scientific literature regarding the current knowledge and novel species and novel oligosaccharides for the treatment of dysbiosis-associated diseases has been carried out due to their growing interest. Results and Conclusions: The regulations governing introduction of novel probiotics and prebiotics vary by geographical region. Novel foods and foods with health claims fall under specific regulations in several countries. In European Union (EU, safety is assessed by novel food approval process and by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA established Quantitative Presumption of Safety (QPS system for bacteria and other biologicals. Any messages on health benefits are covered by the European Regulation on Health Claims (ERHC, also assessed by EFSA. Examples of recent novel probiotics in EU include Clostridium butyricum, and Bacteroides xylanisolvens and examples of novel prebiotics include human milk oligosaccharides such as Lacto-N-neotetraose. Yacon root is an example on a previously novel prebiotic food which is allowed due to the reported existing cultivation and use in EU prior to the novel food regulation. Potential future candidates include further human milk oligosaccharides and bacteria such Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermasia muciniphila. Increasing knowledge on human intestinal microbiota and microbiota development enables the design of new more specific and hitherto unknown probiotics and prebiotics. Also understanding the microbe and microbe host interactions facilitates the search for novel probiotics and prebiotics.

  8. Thermodynamic basis for the emergence of genomes during prebiotic evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-June Woo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The RNA world hypothesis views modern organisms as descendants of RNA molecules. The earliest RNA molecules must have been random sequences, from which the first genomes that coded for polymerase ribozymes emerged. The quasispecies theory by Eigen predicts the existence of an error threshold limiting genomic stability during such transitions, but does not address the spontaneity of changes. Following a recent theoretical approach, we applied the quasispecies theory combined with kinetic/thermodynamic descriptions of RNA replication to analyze the collective behavior of RNA replicators based on known experimental kinetics data. We find that, with increasing fidelity (relative rate of base-extension for Watson-Crick versus mismatched base pairs, replications without enzymes, with ribozymes, and with protein-based polymerases are above, near, and below a critical point, respectively. The prebiotic evolution therefore must have crossed this critical region. Over large regions of the phase diagram, fitness increases with increasing fidelity, biasing random drifts in sequence space toward 'crystallization.' This region encloses the experimental nonenzymatic fidelity value, favoring evolutions toward polymerase sequences with ever higher fidelity, despite error rates above the error catastrophe threshold. Our work shows that experimentally characterized kinetics and thermodynamics of RNA replication allow us to determine the physicochemical conditions required for the spontaneous crystallization of biological information. Our findings also suggest that among many potential oligomers capable of templated replication, RNAs may have evolved to form prebiotic genomes due to the value of their nonenzymatic fidelity.

  9. Prebiotic Competition between Information Variants, With Low Error Catastrophe Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Popa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During competition for resources in primitive networks increased fitness of an information variant does not necessarily equate with successful elimination of its competitors. If variability is added fast to a system, speedy replacement of pre-existing and less-efficient forms of order is required as novel information variants arrive. Otherwise, the information capacity of the system fills up with information variants (an effect referred as “error catastrophe”. As the cost for managing the system’s exceeding complexity increases, the correlation between performance capabilities of information variants and their competitive success decreases, and evolution of such systems toward increased efficiency slows down. This impasse impedes the understanding of evolution in prebiotic networks. We used the simulation platform Biotic Abstract Dual Automata (BiADA to analyze how information variants compete in a resource-limited space. We analyzed the effect of energy-related features (differences in autocatalytic efficiency, energy cost of order, energy availability, transformation rates and stability of order on this competition. We discuss circumstances and controllers allowing primitive networks acquire novel information with minimal “error catastrophe” risks. We present a primitive mechanism for maximization of energy flux in dynamic networks. This work helps evaluate controllers of evolution in prebiotic networks and other systems where information variants compete.

  10. Prebiotic chemical evolution in the astrophysical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, L M; Adande, G R; Edwards, J L; Schmidt, D R; Halfen, D T; Woolf, N J

    2015-06-01

    An ever increasing amount of molecular material is being discovered in the interstellar medium, associated with the birth and death of stars and planetary systems. Radio and millimeter-wave astronomical observations, made possible by high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy, uniquely trace the history of gas-phase molecules with biogenic elements. Using a combination of both disciplines, the full extent of the cycling of molecular matter, from circumstellar ejecta of dying stars - objects which expel large amounts of carbon - to nascent solar systems, has been investigated. Such stellar ejecta have been found to exhibit a rich and varied chemical content. Observations demonstrate that this molecular material is passed onto planetary nebulae, the final phase of stellar evolution. Here the star sheds almost its entire original mass, becoming an ultraviolet-emitting white dwarf. Molecules such as H2CO, HCN, HCO(+), and CCH are present in significant concentrations across the entire age span of such nebulae. These data suggest that gas-phase polyatomic, carbon-containing molecules survive the planetary nebula phase and subsequently are transported into the interstellar medium, seeding the chemistry of diffuse and then dense clouds. The extent of the chemical complexity in dense clouds is unknown, hindered by the high spectral line density. Organic species such as acetamide and methyl amine are present in such objects, and NH2CHO has a wide Galactic distribution. However, organophosphorus compounds have not yet been detected in dense clouds. Based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, molecular material from the ISM appears to become incorporated into solar system planetesimals. It is therefore likely that interstellar synthesis influences prebiotic chemistry on planet surfaces.

  11. Prebiotic Chemical Evolution in the Astrophysical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Adande, G. R.; Edwards, J. L.; Schmidt, D. R.; Halfen, D. T.; Woolf, N. J.

    2015-06-01

    An ever increasing amount of molecular material is being discovered in the interstellar medium, associated with the birth and death of stars and planetary systems. Radio and millimeter-wave astronomical observations, made possible by high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy, uniquely trace the history of gas-phase molecules with biogenic elements. Using a combination of both disciplines, the full extent of the cycling of molecular matter, from circumstellar ejecta of dying stars - objects which expel large amounts of carbon - to nascent solar systems, has been investigated. Such stellar ejecta have been found to exhibit a rich and varied chemical content. Observations demonstrate that this molecular material is passed onto planetary nebulae, the final phase of stellar evolution. Here the star sheds almost its entire original mass, becoming an ultraviolet-emitting white dwarf. Molecules such as H2CO, HCN, HCO+, and CCH are present in significant concentrations across the entire age span of such nebulae. These data suggest that gas-phase polyatomic, carbon-containing molecules survive the planetary nebula phase and subsequently are transported into the interstellar medium, seeding the chemistry of diffuse and then dense clouds. The extent of the chemical complexity in dense clouds is unknown, hindered by the high spectral line density. Organic species such as acetamide and methyl amine are present in such objects, and NH2CHO has a wide Galactic distribution. However, organophosphorus compounds have not yet been detected in dense clouds. Based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, molecular material from the ISM appears to become incorporated into solar system planetesimals. It is therefore likely that interstellar synthesis influences prebiotic chemistry on planet surfaces.

  12. Bifidobacterium carbohydrases-their role in breakdown and synthesis of (potential) prebiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den L.A.M.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Beldman, G.; Vincken, J.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There is an increasing interest to positively influence the human intestinal microbiota through the diet by the use of prebiotics and/or probiotics. It is anticipated that this will balance the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract in favor of health promoting genera such as B

  13. Similar calcium status is present in infants fed formula with and without prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...

  14. The utilisation of prebiotics and synbiotics in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pinna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the large intestine plays a fundamental role in maintaining the state of health of the gastrointestinal tract and the host. The use of specific dietary supplements such as prebiotics and synbiotics might positively influence the composition and metabolism of the intestinal microbial population. Several studies have been conducted on the use of prebiotics in dogs. Most studies have aimed to assess whether using prebiotics brings about an improvement in the canine intestinal ecosystem. Moreover, the effect of prebiotics on canine immune system has also been investigated. Among the prebiotics used in the studies present in the literature, short-chain fructooligosaccharides and oligofructose seem to be the most effective in modulating the canine intestinal ecosystem and improving intestinal absorption of minerals but with little or no effect on canine immune system. Conversely, mannanoligosaccharides may have a positive influence on the immune system of dogs. Some positive effects of prebiotics on canine intestinal microbiota might be enhanced when these are used in combination with one or more probiotic strains (synbiotic. Clinical effects of prebiotics have been investigated in humans and animal models but little evidence exists that prebiotics may be helpful in canine diseases. Finally, most studies on canine intestinal microbiota were conducted using traditional culture methods, so that more research remains to be done with modern molecular identification methods to investigate the effects of prebiotic substances. This paper presents an overview of the scientific literature dealing with the use of prebiotics and synbiotics in the canine species.

  15. Probiotics and prebiotics and health in ageing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J

    2013-05-01

    In healthy adults microbial communities that colonise different regions of the human colon contribute nutrients and energy to the host via the fermentation of non-digestible dietary components in the large intestine. A delicate balance of microbial species is required to maintain healthy metabolism and immune function. Disturbance in this microbial balance can have negative consequences for health resulting in elevated inflammation and infection, that are contributory factors in diabetes and cancer. There is a growing awareness that the microbial balance in the colon may become increasingly perturbed with aging and therefore hasten the onset of certain diseases. Societal and dietary factors influence microbial community composition both in the short and long term in the elderly (>65 years old) whilst immunosenescence may also be linked to a perturbed distal gut microbiota and frailty in the elderly. Significant progress has been made in defining some of the dominant members of the microbial community in the healthy large intestine and in identifying their roles in metabolism. There is therefore an urgent need for better awareness of the impact of diet, prebiotic and probiotic strategies in driving human colonic microbial composition in order to understand the possibilities for maintaining healthy gut function and well-being in an increasingly elderly population. Here we review gut microbial changes associated with aging and how diet, prebiotics and probiotics may modulate the gut microbiota to maintain health in the elderly.

  16. Prebiotic Synthesis of Protobiopolymers Under Alkaline Ocean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Rivas, Luis A.; Palacín, Arantxa; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana

    2011-08-01

    Clasically, prebiotic chemistry has focused on the production and identification of simple organic molecules, many of them forming part of "intractable polymers" named tholins. In a previous work, we demonstrated that in experiments using an external energy source and inorganic carbon the aqueous aerosols improved the formation of hydrophilic tholins. Herein, we elucidate the role of pH (from 4 to 12) in prebiotic experiments using saline aqueous aerosols, spark discharges and an atmosphere containing CH4. At all values of pH, the saline aqueous aerosols increased the production of a significant variety of carboxylic acids that could have been present in a primitive Krebs cycle. Moreover, the study for the first time of hydrophilic tholins by 2-D electrophoresis revealed that these are formed by a set of unexpected heavy polymeric species. The initial alkaline conditions significantly increased both the apparent molecular weight of polymeric species up to 80 kDa and their diversity. We propose the term of protobiopolymers to denote those polymeric species fractionated by 2-D electrophoresis since these are formed by biomolecules present in living systems and show diversity in length as well as in functional groups. Thus, aerosols formed in simulated alkaline ocean conditions could provide an optimal medium for the formation of the primeval materials that could be precursors to the emergence of life.

  17. [Probiotics and prebiotics as a bioactive component of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Niedźwiecka, Joanna; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    The results of food science investigations have confirmed the relationship between the type of eaten food and health. Simultaneously, consumers are paying more and more attention to the kind of food they eat, as their awareness concerning the influence of proper food on health is increasing. On that base the conception of functional food has been created. This kind of food, besides being a source of essential macro- and micronutrients, exerts an additional positive influence on health. Probiotics and prebiotics containing products are a good example of functional food. These products provide not only essential nutrients but also microorganisms and polysaccharides, which are indigestible in the human alimentary tract, but exert a positive effect on human health. It may be a therapeutic or prophylactic effect due to specific affliction or may improve health in general. The paper - based on available literature - shows a positive influence of probiotics and prebiotics on human health, especially in the immunomodulation effect, an advantageous effect on the digestive system, antitumor activity and a possible therapeutic and prophylactic effect on cardiovascular diseases and obesity.

  18. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, Luis; Briskey, David; Alford, Hollie; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-06-01

    The microbiome located in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) comprises the largest community (diverse and dense) of bacteria, and in conjunction with a conducive internal milieu, promotes the development of regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory signals within the GIT that promotes immunological and metabolic tolerance. In addition, host-microbial interactions govern GIT inflammation and provide cues for upholding metabolic regulation in both the host and microbes. Failure to regulate inflammatory responses can increase the risk of developing inflammatory conditions in the GIT. Here, we review clinical studies regarding the efficacy of probiotics/prebiotics and the role they may have in restoring host metabolic homeostasis by rescuing the inflammatory response. The clinical studies reviewed included functional constipation, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, infectious diarrhoea/gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and necrotizing enterocolitis. We have demonstrated that there was an overall reduction in risk when probiotics were administered over placebo in the majority of GIT inflammatory conditions. The effect size of a cumulative reduction in relative risk for the GIT conditions/diseases investigated was 0.65 (0.61-0.70) (z = 13.3); p prebiotics may have a significant pharmacobiotic regulatory role in maintaining host GIT homeostasis in disease states partially through reactive oxygen species signalling.

  19. Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films

    OpenAIRE

    Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; YONEKURA,Lina; Parmenter, C.D.J.; Fisk, Ian D.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; pr...

  20. The utilisation of prebiotics and synbiotics in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Pinna; Giacomo Biagi

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of the large intestine plays a fundamental role in maintaining the state of health of the gastrointestinal tract and the host. The use of specific dietary supplements such as prebiotics and synbiotics might positively influence the composition and metabolism of the intestinal microbial population. Several studies have been conducted on the use of prebiotics in dogs. Most studies have aimed to assess whether using prebiotics brings about an improvement in the canine intestinal e...

  1. Prebiotic Chemistry: Geochemical Context and Reaction Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson James Cleaves

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of life on Earth is widely believed to have required the reactions of organic compounds and their self- and/or environmental organization. What those compounds were remains open to debate, as do the environment in and process or processes by which they became organized. Prebiotic chemistry is the systematic organized study of these phenomena. It is difficult to study poorly defined phenomena, and research has focused on producing compounds and structures familiar to contemporary biochemistry, which may or may not have been crucial for the origin of life. Given our ignorance, it may be instructive to explore the extreme regions of known and future investigations of prebiotic chemistry, where reactions fail, that will relate them to or exclude them from plausible environments where they could occur. Come critical parameters which most deserve investigation are discussed.

  2. Probiotics and prebiotics in infectious gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-02-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is worldwide a common problem in infants and children. While AGE is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, it is mainly a problem with high socioeconomic impact in the rest of the world. Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and rapid refeeding remain the cornerstone of the management. However, ORS does not decrease the duration of diarrhea. There is evidence that selected strains of probiotics decrease the duration of AGE with 24 h, both in ambulatory care and in hospitalized children, resulting also in a decrease of the duration of hospitalization. Synbiotics are equally effective as probiotics alone, but prebiotics are not effective. Both pro- and prebiotics have limited to no efficacy in the prevention of AGE. The administration of pre- and probiotics is considered to be safe, even in newborns. Only these pre-, pro and synbiotics that have been clinically tested can be recommended.

  3. Dipeptide catalysed prebiotic polymerization of RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal; Luisi, Pier Luigi; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2011-01-01

    toward more peptide synthesis. In the present work we describe a prebiotically plausible system in which the SerHis dipeptide acts as catalyst for the formation of RNA oligomers from imidazole derivatives of mononucleotides. The thermodynamic shift towards condensation was achieved using water......-concentrated in the remaining liquid microinclusions, thus creating an environment with low water activity in which condensation reactions can occur. Successful oligomerization of RNA monomers catalysed by the SerHis dipeptide was observed in a broad range of pH, and with all four natural nucleobases. The isomeric dipeptide...... HisSer did not exhibit any catalytic properties thus indicating that the specific, spatial arrangement of amino acid residues in the SerHis structure is responsible for its catalytic activity. Establishing novel synthetic pathways to RNA polymerization is important, as to date no convincing prebiotic...

  4. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E

    2010-07-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  5. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  6. Prebiotics: preferential substrates for specific germs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, M B

    2001-02-01

    A prebiotic is "a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or the activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon." The premise is based on the hypothesis that the large gut in humans contains bacteria that are beneficial or detrimental to health. Although this generalization probably gives too simplistic a view of gut microbiology, it is a feasible working concept. Currently, food components that seem to exert the best prebiotic effects are inulin-type fructans. In pure culture, most species of bifidobacteria are adapted to the utilization of these nondigestible oligosaccharides but many other bacteria are also capable of metabolizing them. Clearly, these studies of pure bacteria are of limited use unless their results are supported by the results of studies using mixed cultures. Indeed, as many components of the gut microbiota as possible should be measured to indicate a true prebiotic effect. Simple stimulation of bifidobacteria is insufficient to demonstrate an effect; the effects on other gut microorganisms in vivo with human volunteers is necessary. Adjustment of the composition and activities of the colonic microflora so that health-promoting activities are optimized remains key in functional food development. New methods are being applied extensively to human gut microbiology and promise the degree of reliability required to detect subtle changes in colonic microflora composition and to correlate such changes with health benefits. This is a review of the present state of knowledge concerning prebiotics, with emphasis on the criteria used for classification, mechanisms of selective growth stimulation, and physiologic effects.

  7. Cometary micrometeorites and input of prebiotic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The apparition of life on the early Earth was probably favored by inputs of extraterrestrial matter brought by carbonaceous chondrite-like objects or cometary material. Interplanetary dust collected nowadays on Earth is related to carbonaceous chondrites and to cometary material. They contain in particular at least a few percent of organic matter, organic compounds (amino-acids, PAHs,…), hydrous silicates, and could have largely contributed to the budget of prebiotic matter on Earth, about 4 ...

  8. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheeta, Sohan; Joshi, Prakash C.

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the "Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA)" conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5-6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1). Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7) produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M) enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl- > Br- > I-. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.

  9. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohan Jheeta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the “Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA” conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5–6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1. Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7 produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl− > Br− > I−. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.

  10. Non-digestible oligosaccharides used as prebiotic agents: mode of production and beneficial effects on animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizard, D; Barthomeuf, C

    1999-01-01

    Prebiotic agents are food ingredients that are potentially beneficial to the health of consumers. The main commercial prebiotic agents consist of oligosaccharides and dietary fibres (mainly inulin). They are essentially obtained by one of three processes: 1) the direct extraction of natural polysaccharides from plants; 2) the controlled hydrolysis of such natural polysaccharides; 3) enzymatic synthesis, using hydrolases and/or glycosyl transferases. Both of these enzyme types catalyse transglycosylation reactions, allowing synthesis of small molecular weight synthetic oligosaccharides from mono- and disaccharides. Presently, in Europe, inulin-type fructans, characterised by the presence of fructosyl units bound to the beta-2,1 position of sucrose, are considered as one of the carbohydrate prebiotic references. Prebiotics escape enzymatic digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and enter the caecum without change to their structure. None are excreted in the stools, indicating that they are fermented by colonic flora so as to give a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), L-lactate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. By stimulating bifidobacteria, they may have the following implications for health: 1) potential protective effects against colorectal cancer and infectious bowel diseases by inhibiting putrefactive bacteria (Clostridium perfringens ) and pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Shigella ), respectively; 2) improvement of glucid and lipid metabolisms; 3) fibre-like properties by decreasing the renal nitrogen excretion; 4) improvement in the bioavailability of essential minerals; and 5) low cariogenic factor. These potential beneficial effects have been largely studied in animals but have not really been proven in humans. The development of a second generation of oligosaccharides and the putative implication of a complex bacterial trophic chain in the intestinal prebiotic fermentation process are also

  11. Importance of prebiotic and probiotic: the role of galactooligosacharides as prebiotic additives: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rosenberg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In today's well-resistant pathogens and excessive use of antibiotics which weake and undermine the immune system the importance of pre- and probiotics is more desired. Probiotics - lactic acid bacteria - our intestinal symbiotes, has significant affect on our intestinal tract and brings us to number of positive physiological effects – inhibit the development of pathogenic microflora and serious stimulate the immune system, which subsequently leads to secondary health benefits - efficient use of energy from food, better resorption of minerals and vitamins by intestinal epithelium, suppression of diseases and inflammatory processes in the human intestine and many others. This article discusses the impact of prebiotics (essential substrate for probiotic bacteria, but also natural occurrence and important of prebiotics. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS as prebiotic are the most suitable and therefore their commercial application is discussed.doi:10.5219/251

  12. Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Collins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption.

  13. Prebiotic properties of potato starch dextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barczyńska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the prebiotic properties of starch dextrins, that is, resistant dextrins obtained from potato starch in the process of simultaneous thermolysis and chemical modification, which were selected based on previous research. Both prepared dextrins met the definition criterion of dietary fiber and also the basic prebiotic criterion – they were not degraded by the digestive enzymes of the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The growth of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, as well as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium strains isolated from feces of healthy people, showed that both studied dextrins were utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the strains. Furthermore, better growth (higher numbers of cells counts of probiotic bacteria than those of fecal isolates indicated that the studied resistant dextrins showed a selective effect. Both dextrins might be considered as substances with prebiotic properties due to their chemical and physical properties and selectivity towards the studied probiotic bacterial strains.

  14. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-04-22

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known "prebiotics", "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health." To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  15. Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephanie; Reid, Gregor

    2016-08-26

    The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption.

  16. Human milk and related oligosaccharides as prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Daniela; Rastall, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are believed to have a range of biological activities beyond providing nutrition to the infant. Principal among these is that they may act as prebiotics. Prebiotics are dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides that provide a health benefit to the host mediated by the modulation of the human gut microbiota. While it is clear that such oligosaccharides may have potential applications in infants and adults alike, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing HMO. Consequently functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are under investigation. GOS are produced enzymatically from lactose for commercial use in food applications--including addition to infant formulae--as similar to breast milk oligosaccharides, they encourage a gut bacteria population that promotes health and reduces the incidence of intestinal infections. New methods for separation and concentration of complex, breast milk-like oligosaccharides from bovine milk industrial streams that contain only low amounts of these valuable oligosaccharides are providing the opportunity to investigate other viable sources of specific oligosaccharides for use as prebiotics in supplements or food products.

  17. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, M B

    2000-06-01

    A probiotic is a viable microbial dietary supplement that beneficially affects the host through its effects in the intestinal tract. Probiotics are widely used to prepare fermented dairy products such as yogurt or freeze-dried cultures. In the future, they may also be found in fermented vegetables and meats. Several health-related effects associated with the intake of probiotics, including alleviation of lactose intolerance and immune enhancement, have been reported in human studies. Some evidence suggests a role for probiotics in reducing the risk of rotavirus-induced diarrhea and colon cancer. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that benefit the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon. Work with prebiotics has been limited, and only studies involving the inulin-type fructans have generated sufficient data for thorough evaluation regarding their possible use as functional food ingredients. At present, claims about reduction of disease risk are only tentative and further research is needed. Among the claims are constipation relief, suppression of diarrhea, and reduction of the risks of osteoporosis, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, obesity, and possibly type 2 diabetes. The combination of probiotics and prebiotics in a synbiotic has not been studied. This combination might improve the survival of the bacteria crossing the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, thereby enhancing their effects in the large bowel. In addition, their effects might be additive or even synergistic.

  18. Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephanie; Reid, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption. PMID:27571098

  19. Enteral-tube-feeding diarrhoea: manipulating the colonic microbiota with probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Kevin

    2007-08-01

    Diarrhoea is a common and serious complication of enteral tube feeding. Its pathogenesis involves antibiotic prescription, enteropathogenic colonization and abnormal colonic responses, all of which involve an interaction with the colonic microbiota. Alterations in the colonic microbiota have been identified in patients receiving enteral tube feeding and these changes may be associated with the incidence of diarrhoea. Preventing negative alterations in the colonic microbiota has therefore been investigated as a method of reducing the incidence of diarrhoea. Probiotics and prebiotics may be effective because of their suppression of enteropathogenic colonization, stimulation of immune function and modulation of colonic metabolism. Randomized controlled trials of probiotics have produced contrasting results, although Saccharomyces boulardii has been shown to reduce the incidence of diarrhoea in patients in the intensive care unit receiving enteral tube feeding. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides have been shown to increase the concentration of faecal bifidobacteria in healthy subjects consuming enteral formula, although this finding has not yet been confirmed in patients receiving enteral tube feeding. Furthermore, there are no clinical trials investigating the effect of a prebiotic alone on the incidence of diarrhoea. Further trials of the efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics, alone and in combination, in preventing diarrhoea in this patient group are warranted.

  20. Assessment of production performance in 2 breeds of broilers fed prebiotics as feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, I; Clement, A; Owens, C; Park, S H; Pendleton, S; Scott, E E; Almeida, G; Gonzalez Gil, F; Ricke, S C

    2012-12-01

    Pasture-flock-raised poultry are becoming an increasingly popular product, but only limited options are currently available for maintaining gut health. For these producers, prebiotics are an attractive option because they are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and can be mixed into the feed and thus do not require adjustments to production protocols. However, if prebiotic treatments reduce production performance, they would not be useful to producers. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure performance of pasture-raised broilers fed 1 of 3 prebiotic treatments. For these trials, 2 breeds of birds were used: Naked Neck slow-growing breeds and Cornish White Rock cross fast-growing breeds. The experimental design was replicated for each breed. A total of 340 birds were split into 4 groups, each group fed one feed additive: 1) galactoligosaccharides (2% wt/wt), 2) fructooligosaccharides (1% wt/wt), 3) plum fibers (1% wt/wt), or 4) no additives. During the 8-wk rearing period, 10 birds from each group were collected and euthanized to take small intestine samples. Histological preparations were made from the small intestine tissue, and 4 measurements of villi height and crypt depth from each cross section were taken. Throughout the study, mortality was monitored and BW measurements were taken at 2-wk intervals. For the Cornish White Rock cross, the group receiving the feed supplemented with fructooligosaccharides had higher (P prebiotics utilized in this study could be used without risk of decreasing production performance, but only for Naked Neck breeds.

  1. Evaluation of a prebiotic and potassium for the control of anthracnose in the tree tomato

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    Carlos Alberto Luengas-Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is the most limiting disease in the production of the tree tomato; losses may exceed 50% if control measures are not appropriate. For this reason, farmers use continuous applications of fungicides. Prebiotics have been successfully tested in animals and humans in order to stimulate the growth of intestinal flora and fauna to improve digestion, achieve greater increases in weight, reduce infections and stimulate the immune system. In plants, there are no data on their effectiveness in disease control, for this reason, this research was conducted on the La Esmeralda farm located in the town of Silvana (Cundinamarca, Colombia; to evaluate the effect of a prebiotic (BioKakimu® and potassium dose on disease control. We determined the incidence and severity of anthracnose, and crop production. We used a complete block design with three replications and twelve treatments, each experimental unit consisted of six plants, for a total of 216 plants and an area of 1,350 m². The crop was 18-months-old and consisted of the common red variety. The results showed that the foliar incidence, severity and production had significant differences between the various treatments, where the prebiotic - K2O interaction showed favorable results for disease management in high doses of prebiotic (6 L ha-1

  2. Prebiotic supplementation improves appetite control in children with overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Hume, Megan P; Nicolucci, Alissa C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-02-22

    Background: Prebiotics have been shown to improve satiety in adults with overweight and obesity; however, studies in children are limited.Objective: We examined the effects of prebiotic supplementation on appetite control and energy intake in children with overweight and obesity.Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-two boys and girls, ages 7-12 y, with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥85th percentile were randomly assigned to 8 g oligofructose-enriched inulin/d or placebo (maltodextrin) for 16 wk. Objective measures of appetite included energy intake at an ad libitum breakfast buffet, 3-d food records, and fasting satiety hormone concentrations. Subjective appetite ratings were obtained from visual analog scales before and after the breakfast. Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaires were also completed by caregivers.Results: Compared with placebo, prebiotic intake resulted in significantly higher feelings of fullness (P = 0.04) and lower prospective food consumption (P = 0.03) at the breakfast buffet at 16 wk compared with baseline. Compared with placebo, prebiotic supplementation significantly reduced energy intake at the week 16 breakfast buffet in 11- and 12-y-olds (P = 0.04) but not in 7- to 10-y-olds. Fasting adiponectin (P = 0.04) and ghrelin (P = 0.03) increased at 16 wk with the prebiotic compared with placebo. In intent-to-treat analysis, there was a trend for prebiotic supplementation to reduce BMI z score to a greater extent than placebo (-3.4%; P = 0.09) and a significant -3.8% reduction in per-protocol analysis (P = 0.043).Conclusions: Independent of other lifestyle changes, prebiotic supplementation in children with overweight and obesity improved subjective appetite ratings. This translated into reduced energy intake in a breakfast buffet in older but not in younger children. This simple dietary change has the potential to help with appetite regulation in children with obesity. This trial was registered at

  3. Brown Norway rats, a putative schizophrenia model, show increased electroencephalographic activity at rest and decreased event-related potential amplitude, power, and coherence in the auditory sensory gating paradigm.

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    Tomimatsu, Yoshiro; Hibino, Ryosuke; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    In recent schizophrenia clinical research, electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activities induced by a sensory stimulus or behavioral tasks have gained considerable interest as functional and pathophysiological biomarkers. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is a putative schizophrenia model that shows naturally low sensorimotor gating and deficits in cognitive performance, although other phenotypes have not been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the neurophysiological features of BN rats, particularly EEG/event-related potential (ERP). EEG activity was recorded at rest and during the auditory sensory gating paradigm under an awake, freely moving condition. Frequency and ERP analysis were performed along with time-frequency analysis of evoked power and intertrial coherence. Compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, a well-documented control line, BN rats showed increased EEG power at rest, particularly in the theta and gamma ranges. In ERP analysis, BN rats showed reduced N40-P20 amplitude but normal sensory gating. The rats also showed reduced evoked power and intertrial coherence against auditory stimuli. These results suggest that BN rats show features of EEG/ERP measures clinically relevant to schizophrenia and may provide additional opportunities for translational research.

  4. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims12

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    Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010

  5. Prebiotic feeding elevates central brain derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits and D-serine.

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    Savignac, Helene M; Corona, Giulia; Mills, Henrietta; Chen, Li; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Tzortzis, George; Burnet, Philip W J

    2013-12-01

    The influence of the gut microbiota on brain chemistry has been convincingly demonstrated in rodents. In the absence of gut bacteria, the central expression of brain derived neurotropic factor, (BDNF), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits are reduced, whereas, oral probiotics increase brain BDNF, and impart significant anxiolytic effects. We tested whether prebiotic compounds, which increase intrinsic enteric microbiota, also affected brain BDNF and NMDARs. In addition, we examined whether plasma from prebiotic treated rats released BDNF from human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, to provide an initial indication of mechanism of action. Rats were gavaged with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or water for five weeks, prior to measurements of brain BDNF, NMDAR subunits and amino acids associated with glutamate neurotransmission (glutamate, glutamine, and serine and alanine enantiomers). Prebiotics increased hippocampal BDNF and NR1 subunit expression relative to controls. The intake of GOS also increased hippocampal NR2A subunits, and frontal cortex NR1 and d-serine. Prebiotics did not alter glutamate, glutamine, l-serine, l-alanine or d-alanine concentrations in the brain, though GOSfeeding raised plasma d-alanine. Elevated levels of plasma peptide YY (PYY) after GOS intake was observed. Plasma from GOS rats increased the release of BDNF from SH-SY5Y cells, but not in the presence of PYY antisera. The addition of synthetic PYY to SH-SY5Y cell cultures, also elevated BDNF secretion. We conclude that prebiotic-mediated proliferation of gut microbiota in rats, like probiotics, increases brain BDNF expression, possibly through the involvement of gut hormones. The effect of GOS on components of central NMDAR signalling was greater than FOS, and may reflect the proliferative potency of GOS on microbiota. Our data therefore, provide a sound basis to further investigate the utility of prebiotics in the maintenance of brain health and

  6. Sensory and microbiological quality of yogurt drinks with prebiotics and probiotics.

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    Allgeyer, L C; Miller, M J; Lee, S-Y

    2010-10-01

    The popularity of dairy products fortified with prebiotics and probiotics continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfill their health needs. Our objectives were to assess the sensory profile of drinkable yogurts made with prebiotics and probiotics and to determine the viability of the probiotics in the yogurt drink over the duration of storage. Thirteen trained descriptive panelists evaluated 10 yogurt drinks on a 16-point category scale. Three selected prebiotics, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, and chicory inulin, were each present individually at an amount to claim an excellent source of fiber (5 g of fiber/serving) or a good source of fiber (2.5 g of fiber/serving) in 6 different yogurt drinks. Three additional yogurt drinks contained 5 g of each of the separate prebiotics along with a mixture of the selected probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5). A control sample with no prebiotics or probiotics was also included in the experimental design. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Fisher's least significant difference, and principal component analysis. Survival of the probiotics in the yogurt drinks during a 30-d refrigerated storage period was also analyzed. Results showed that clover honey aroma, buttermilk aroma, butter aroma, sweetness, sourness, chalky mouthfeel, and viscosity were identified as significant attributes in the yogurt drinks. Total variance explained by the principal component analysis biplot of factors 1 and 2 was 65%, which showed yogurt drinks with soluble corn fiber and inulin varying by the sweet versus sour attributes and yogurt drinks with polydextrose varying by the mouthfeel attributes. The viability study determined a 2- to 3-log decrease in the survival of probiotics in all of the yogurt treatments during a 30-d refrigerated storage period. Based on the results of the current study, only the polydextrose treatment would be an acceptable vehicle to deliver the probiotic

  7. The origin of life and the prebiotic chemistry

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    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a historical view from Oparin-Haldane hypothesis to prebiotic chemistry is discussed. Several aspects of prebiotic chemistry are also discussed such as: environments where the abiotic synthesis of biomolecules and biopolymers could be occurred, primitive metabolism and genetic code, selection of L-amino acids and panspermia.

  8. Inulin-type prebiotics: a review. (Part 2).

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    Kelly, Greg

    2009-03-01

    This is part 2 of a two-part review of inulin-type prebiotics. This article discusses the clinical research on inulin-type prebiotics, including effects on infant nutrition, gastrointestinal health, colon cancer prevention, blood sugar and lipid metabolism, bone mineralization, fatty liver disease, obesity, and immunity. Gastrointestinal side effects and dosage recommendations are also considered.

  9. Motilin and gastrin secretion and lipid profile in preterm neonates following prebiotics supplementation: a double-blind randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasopoulou, Maria; Briana, Despina D; Boutsikou, Theodora; Karakasidou, Eirini; Roma, Eleftheria; Costalos, Christos; Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2015-03-01

    Gut hormones play an important role in the adaptation of the immature neonatal gut, and their secretion may be modulated by prebiotics. Furthermore, prebiotics are well known for their hypolipidemic potentials. We tested the hypothesis that prebiotics could alter motilin and gastrin secretion and reduce lipids in healthy preterms. A total of 167 newborns were randomized to either a prebiotics enriched formula containing dietary oligosaccharides (short-chain galacto-oligo-saccharides/long-chain fructo-oligo-saccharides [scGOS/lcFOS]), at a concentration of 0.8 g/100 ml, or a common preterm formula. Day 1 and 16 basal motilin, gastrin concentrations, and lipids were evaluated together with growth parameters, gastric residue, bowel habits, and feeding tolerance. Adverse events including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and septicemia were also recorded. Mean motilin increase and day 16 mean values were greater for the intervention, compared with the control group (P = .001, P = .005, respectively), while gastrin remained high in both groups. Mean cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) increase were significantly greater in the control, compared with the intervention (P = .037, and P = .001) group. Day 16 LDL levels were significantly higher in the control group. Mean weight was increased in the control group, while gastric residue was less and stool frequency was increased in the intervention group. NEC and septicemia were not statistically different between groups. A prebiotics enriched formula resulted in significant surge of motilin relating to reduced gastric residue, compared with a common preterm formula. Mean cholesterol change was lower, while LDL was not increased in the prebiotics group, compared with the control group. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Development of a bread delivery vehicle for dietary prebiotics to enhance food functionality targeted at those with metabolic syndrome.

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    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are dietary carbohydrates that favourably modulate the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to develop a functional prebiotic bread using Bimuno®, (galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) mixture), for modulation of the gut microbiota in vitro in individuals at risk of metabolic syndrome. A control bread, (no added prebiotic) and positive control bread (containing equivalent carbohydrate to B-GOS bread) were also developed. A 3-stage continuous in vitro colonic model was used to assess prebiotic functionality of the breads. Bacteria were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. Ion-exchange chromatography was used to determine GOS concentration after bread production. Following B-GOS bread fermentation numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher compared to controls. There was no significant degradation of B-GOS during bread manufacture, indicating GOS withstood the manufacturing process. Furthermore, based on previous research, increased bifidobacteria and butyrate levels could be of benefit to those with obesity related conditions. Our findings support utilization of prebiotic enriched bread for improving gastrointestinal health.

  11. Prebiotics and bioactive natural substances induce changes of composition and metabolic activities of the colonic microflora in cancerous rats.

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    Hijová, Emília; Bomba, Alojz; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Szabadosová, Viktória; Šoltésová, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Prebiotics are defined as selectively fermented food ingredients that induce specific changes in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota beneficial to the host well-being and health. The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the effect of a prebiotic applied alone or in combination with Hyppocastani extractum siccum, and Lini oleum virginale in rats with dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer. Wistar albino rats were fed high fat diet supplemented with the prebiotic alone or in combination with Horse chestnut and flaxseed oil. The activity of faecal glycolytic enzymes, lipid parameters, bile acids, short chain fatty acids and counts of coliforms and lactobacilli were determined. Treatment with the prebiotic alone and in combination with selected substances significantly decreased the activity of glycolytic bacterial enzyme β-glucuronidase (Pprebiotic with Horse chestnut. The prebiotic alone decreased the lipid parameters (Pprebiotic and bioactive natural substances significantly reduced number of coliforms (PPrebiotic alone significantly increased the count of lactobacilli (Pprebiotics have a protective effect and may be the useful for colon cancer prevention and treatment.

  12. Comparative study of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus fry gut microbiota modulation following administration of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide prebiotics

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    Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modulation of intestinal microbiota toward potentially beneficial communities (probiotics positively affects fish physiology and health status. Different prebiotics showed contradictory effects on intestinal microbiota. The present study investigates the effects of different levels of two prebiotics, galacto- and fructooligosaccharide on intestinal microbiota of Caspian roach fry which is a commercially valuable species of Caspian sea. Materials and methods: The study was performed as a randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications in which Caspian roach were fed different levels, 0, 1, and 2% of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide prebiotics for 6 weeks. At the end of the trial culture, analysis of intestinal microbiota include lactic acid bacteria levels, total bacteria as well as proportion of LAB were performed by using MRS agar, Plate count agar media. Results: Administration of different levels of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide had no significant effects on total bacteria of intestinal microbiota (P > 0.05. The lactic acid bacteria levels significantly increased compared to control group following prebiotics administration in diet (P > 0.05. LAB levels in galactooligosaccharide treatment were higher than those of fructooligosaccharide treatment. The highest LAB proportion in intestinal microbiota was observed in roach fed diet which contains 2% galactooligosaccharide (P > 0.05. Discussion and conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that prebiotics can be used for modulation of Caspian roach intestinal microbiota toward beneficial bacterial communities. Also, the results showed that galactooligosaccharide was more efficient than fructooligosaccharide in case of modulation of intestinal microbiota and elevation of LAB levels.

  13. Functional intestinal microbiome, new frontiers in prebiotic design.

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    Candela, Marco; Maccaferri, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Carnevali, Paola; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2010-06-15

    In this review we focus on the revision of the prebiotic concept in the context of the new metagenomic era. Functional metagenomic data provided by the Human Microbiome Project are revolutionizing the view of the symbiotic relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the human host. A deeper knowledge of the mechanisms that govern the dynamic interplay between diet, intestinal microbiota and host nutrition opens the way to better information on the prebiotic structure-function relationships, tailoring prebiotic formula into specific health attributes. On the other hand, functional genomic studies of the sourdough microbial communities allow to scan the environmental variability to identify novel metabolic traits for the biosynthesis of new potential prebiotic molecules. The integration of the functional analyses provided by the massive sequencing of bacterial genomes and metagenomes will allow the rational production of a desired prebiotic molecule with specific functional properties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucosylglycerol on performance of prebiotic potential

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    Thornthan Sawangwan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucosylglycerol (GG, an organic compound constitutes a structurally diverse group of small organic molecules, which has a glycosidic chemical structure, where is a powerful osmolyte which catalyzed by sucrose phosphorylase in the presence of sucrose and glycerol as the donor and acceptor substrate. Context and purpose of this study: This research aims to study the potential of prebiotic properties from GG compared with three commercial oligosaccharides (FOS, inulin and lactulose which have the prebiotic properties. Results: The cultures with GG and FOS showed statistically significant difference (P<0.05 capacity to stimulated both probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum and presented high ability to inhibit four intestinal pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Samonella paratyphi and Staphyloccous aureus as displayed from wider inhibition zone compared with the culture without oligosaccharide. The tolerance ability of different gastrointestinal conditions (alpha-amylase, bile extract and HCl in the culture medium with GG presented the highest percentage of survival (6.50% after incubated with HCl for 3 hours (significant difference as P<0.05. The culture of L. acidophilus with GG in the medium displayed maximum lactic acid concentration (1.46 mg/mL after 48 incubation hours. Conclusions: GG has high potential of prebiotic properties for probiotic growth stimulation, pathogenic inhibition and gastrointestinal tolerance. In addition, GG can introduce probiotic for high production of lactic acid concentration in the culture media. From these results, GG is promising for application and development to become an efficiency of functional food in the coming future.

  15. Probiotics and Prebiotics in Periodontal Disease-Revisited

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    Nihal Devkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of periodontal disease in recent years has moved toward an antibiotic/antimicrobial model of disease management. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. With increase in the incidence of resistance to antibiotics, probiotics may be a promising area of research in periodontal therapy. Probiotics utilize naturally occurring bacteria to confer a healthy benefit when administered in adequate amounts. This paper reviews the evidences for the use of probiotics or prebiotics for the prevention of periodontal diseases. The role of probiotics in periodontics is still in infancy and a complete understanding of the broad ecological changes induced by probiotics is essential to assess their long term consequences for oral health and disease.

  16. Studies on Functional Yogurt with Added Inulin as Prebiotic Fiber

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    Mirela Jimborean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Products that contain both probiotics and prebiotics are known as symbiotic, these products are able to modify the composition of the internal microflora, with the beneficial effects on the consumer's body. The objective followed in this study was the obtaining of probiotic yogurt in which inulin is added. The control consists in an organoleptic examination, a physicochemical examination and monitoring of the evolution of bifidobacteria. The results obtained showed a progressive evolution by adding inulin. The highest difference was recorded for yogurt type 3 with an addition of 3% inulin, the number of bifidobacteria increased with 1.04x109 cfu/g in only 7 days, reaching 1.30 x 109 cfu/g.

  17. Antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in IBD.

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    Bernstein, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    The dysbiosis theory of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) posits that there is an alteration in the gut microbiome as an important underpinning of disease etiology. It stands to reason then, that administering agents that could impact on the balance of microbes on the gut could be impactful on the course of IBD. Herein is a review of the controlled trials undertaken to assess the use of antibiotics that would kill or suppress potentially injurious microbes, probiotics that would overpopulate the gut with potentially beneficial microbes or prebiotics that provide a metabolic substrate that enhances the growth of potentially beneficial microbes. With regard to antibiotics, the best data are for the use of nitroimadoles postoperatively in Crohn's disease (CD) to prevent disease recurrence. Otherwise, the data are limited with the regard to any lasting benefit of antibiotics sustaining remission in either CD or ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent meta-analysis concluded that antibiotics are superior to placebo at inducing remission in CD or UC, although the meta-analysis grouped a variety of antibiotics with different spectra of activity. Despite the absence of robust clinical trial data, antibiotics are widely used to treat perineal fistulizing CD and acute and chronic pouchitis. Probiotics have not been shown to have a beneficial role in CD. However, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 has comparable effects to low doses of mesalamine in maintaining remission in UC. VSL#3, a combination of 8 microbes, has been shown to have an effect in inducing remission in UC and preventing pouchitis. Prebiotics have yet to be shown to have an effect in any form of IBD, but to date controlled trials have been small. The use of antibiotics should be balanced against the risks they pose. Even probiotics may pose some risk and should not be assumed to be innocuous especially when ingested by persons with a compromised epithelial barrier. Prebiotics may not be harmful but may cause

  18. Initialization of metabolism in prebiotic petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki-Berrada, Ali

    The theoretical and bibliographical work on the geochemical origin of life, which I present here, it works on the assumption that: "The class of more complex molecules of life that can have a geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acid with long aliphatic chain". This idea comes from the controversy over the abiotic oil industry, and the first measurements of abiotic oil at mid-ocean ridges (Charlou J.L. et al. 2002, Proskurowski G. et al. 2008). To go further and propose a comprehensive experimentation on the origin of life, I propose in this article the idea that the prebiotic soup or prebiotic petroleum would stem from the diagenesis of the gas clathrates/sediments mixture. Gas, H2S H2 N2 CH4 CO2, are produced at mid-ocean ridges, and at large-scale at the seafloor, by serpentinization. Sediments contain hydrogenophosphates as a source of phosphate and minerals to the surface catalysis. Extreme conditions experienced by some prokaryotes and pressures and temperatures of submarine oilfields of fossil petroleum are close. The hydrostatic pressure is around 1.5 kbar and the temperature is below 150 °C. This experiment I propose is quite feasible today since these conditions are used: In research and exploration of fossil petroleum; In the field of organic chemistry called "green chemistry" and where temperatures remain low and the pressure can reach 10 kbar; to study the biology of prokaryotes living in the fossil petroleum of industrial interest, these studies are quite comparable to experiment with prebiotic oil; Finally, this experiment can be based on research on abiotic CH4 on Mars and abiotic hydrocarbons on Titan. The next step in the theoretical research of the origin of life is the abiotic synthesis of liposomes. Abiotic synthesis liposomes just requires synthesis of glycerol and ethanolamine (or serine) esterifying the phosphate and fatty acid. The state of research on the abiotic synthesis of these molecules shows that synthesis of

  19. What do we need for prebiotic chemistry?

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    Danger, G.; Duvernay, F.; Borget, F.; Theule, P.; Chiavassa, T.; le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.; Robert, P.

    2014-04-01

    Since the Miller Urey experiment, the prebiotic chemistry has been mainly focused on the search of organic matter formation (e.g. amino acids, nucleic bases) that can take a part in the emergence of living organisms. However, fewer researches have been performed on the specific processes that have to develop for obtaining an evolution of these organic matter toward living organisms. In this contribution, by taking the example of amino acids, we will try to understand what could be these processes and in which conditions they could emerge.

  20. Potential roles and clinical utility of prebiotics in newborns, infants, and children: proceedings from a global prebiotic summit meeting, New York City, June 27-28, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Philip M; Cabana, Michael; Gibson, Glenn R; Koletzko, Berthold V; Neu, Josef; Veereman-Wauters, Gigi; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Walker, W Allan

    2009-11-01

    Initial bacterial colonization, including colonization with health-positive bacteria, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, is necessary for the normal development of intestinal innate and adaptive immune defenses. The predominance of beneficial bacteria in the gut microflora of breast-fed infants is thought to be, at least in part, supported by the metabolism of the complex mixture of oligosaccharides present in human breast milk, and a more adult-type intestinal microbiota is found in formula-fed infants. Inadequate gut colonization, dysbiosis, may lead to an increased risk of infectious, allergic, and autoimmune disorders later in life. The addition of appropriate amounts of selected prebiotics to infant formulas can enhance the growth of bifidobacteria or lactobacilli in the colonic microbiota and, thereby, might produce beneficial effects. Among the substrates considered as prebiotics are the oligosaccharides inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, and lactulose. There are some reports that such prebiotics have beneficial effects on various markers of health. For example, primary prevention trials in infants have provided promising data on prevention of infections and atopic dermatitis. Additional well-designed prospective clinical trials and mechanistic studies are needed to advance knowledge further in this promising field.

  1. Effect of antibiotic and its possible alternatives (organic acid, probiotic, prebiotic on performance, egg characteristics and blood metabolites of commercial laying hens

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    mosayeb shalaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic effects on performance, egg quality and blood metabolites in commercial laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain Hy line (W-36 from 32 to 42 weeks of age with 5 treatments and 4 replicates of 8 hens each. The experimental treatments consisted: 1- basal diet, 2- basal diet + 150 g/ton oxy tetracycline antibiotic, 3- basal diet + 3 kg/ton of organic acid supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g/ton probiotic (Protexin and 5- basal diet + 2 kg/ton of mannan oligosaccharide prebiotic. The results showed that the use of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic have significant effects on performance and egg quality traits. Accordingly, the maximum egg weight was obtained in treatments receiving organic acid and prebiotic that was significant compared to control treatment. Egg mass and feed conversion ratio in treatment received prebiotic significantly improved. The maximum egg shell weight was obtained in treatment received prebiotic that compared to the control treatment showed a significant increase. Between blood factors, glucose concentration in treatment received organic acid compared to control and antibiotic treatments, significantly increased. Consequently the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharides can have positive effects on performance and egg characteristics of laying hens.

  2. Cometary micrometeorites and input of prebiotic compounds

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    Engrand C.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The apparition of life on the early Earth was probably favored by inputs of extraterrestrial matter brought by carbonaceous chondrite-like objects or cometary material. Interplanetary dust collected nowadays on Earth is related to carbonaceous chondrites and to cometary material. They contain in particular at least a few percent of organic matter, organic compounds (amino-acids, PAHs,…, hydrous silicates, and could have largely contributed to the budget of prebiotic matter on Earth, about 4 Ga ago. A new population of cometary dust was recently discovered in the Concordia Antarctic micrometeorite collection. These “Ultracarbonaceous Antarctic Micrometeorites” (UCAMMs are dominated by deuterium-rich and nitrogen-rich organic matter. They seem related to the “CHON” grains identified in the comet Halley in 1986. Although rare in the micrometeorites flux (<5% of the micrometeorites, UCAMMs could have significantly contributed to the input of prebiotic matter. Their content in soluble organic matter is currently under study.

  3. Selection of Prebiotic Molecules in Amphiphilic Environments

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    Christian Mayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic problem in all postulated pathways of prebiotic chemistry is the low concentration which generally is expected for interesting reactants in fluid environments. Even though compounds, like nucleobases, sugars or peptides, principally may form spontaneously under environmental conditions, they will always be rapidly diluted in an aqueous environment. In addition, any such reaction leads to side products which often exceed the desired compound and generally hamper the first steps of a subsequent molecular evolution. Therefore, a mechanism of selection and accumulation of relevant prebiotic compounds seems to be crucial for molecular evolution. A very efficient environment for selection and accumulation can be found in the fluid continuum circulating in tectonic fault zones. Vesicles which form spontaneously at a depth of approximately 1 km present a selective trap for amphiphilic molecules, especially for peptides composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids in a suitable sequence. The accumulation effect is shown in a numeric simulation on a simplified model. Further, possible mechanisms of a molecular evolution in vesicle membranes are discussed. Altogether, the proposed scenario can be seen as an ideal environment for constant, undisturbed molecular evolution in and on cell-like compartments.

  4. Is formamide a geochemically plausible prebiotic solvent?

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    Bada, Jeffrey L; Chalmers, John H; Cleaves, H James

    2016-07-27

    From a geochemical perspective, significant amounts of pure formamide (HCONH2) would have likely been rare on the early Earth. There may have been mixed formamide-water solutions, but even in the presence of catalyst, solutions with >20 weight% water in formamide would not have produced significant amounts of prebiotic compounds. It might be feasible to produce relatively pure formamide by a rare occurrence of freezing formamide/water mixtures at temperatures lower than formamide's freezing point (2.55 °C) but greater than the freezing point of water. Because of the high density of formamide ice it would have sunk and accumulated at the bottom of the solution. If the remaining water froze on the surface of this ice, and was then removed by a sublimation-ablation process, a small amount of pure formamide ice might have been produced. In addition a recent report suggested that ∼85 weight% formamide could be prepared by a geochemical type of fractional distillation process, offering another possible route for prebiotic formamide production.

  5. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Slavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF, lactulose, and resistant starch (RS meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS, transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS, polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  6. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. PMID:23609775

  7. Metabolic diseases and pro- and prebiotics: Mechanistic insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yukiko K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are world-wide health problems. The prevalence of metabolic diseases is associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake during the past decades. Based on national statistics and from a public health viewpoint, traditional approaches, such as diet and physical activity, have been unsuccessful in decreasing the prevalence of metabolic diseases. Since the approaches strongly rely on individual’s behavior and motivation, novel science-based strategies should be considered for prevention and therapy for the diseases. Metabolism and immune system are linked. Both overnutrition and infection result in inflammation through nutrient and pathogen sensing systems which recognize compounds with structural similarities. Dietary macronutrients (fats and sugars can induce inflammation through activation of an innate immune receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Long-term intake of diets high in fats and meats appear to induce chronic systemic low-grade inflammation, endotoxicity, and metabolic diseases. Recent investigations support the idea of the involvement of intestinal bacteria in host metabolism and preventative and therapeutic potentials of probiotic and prebiotic interventions for metabolic diseases. Specific intestinal bacteria seem to serve as lipopolysaccharide (LPS sources through LPS and/or bacterial translocation into the circulation due to a vulnerable microbial barrier and increased intestinal permeability and to play a role in systemic inflammation and progression of metabolic diseases. This review focuses on mechanistic links between metabolic diseases (mainly obesity and type 2 diabetes, chronic systemic low-grade inflammation, intestinal environment, and nutrition and prospective views of probiotic and prebiotic interventions for the diseases.

  8. Metabolic diseases and pro- and prebiotics: Mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukiko K; Omaye, Stanley T

    2012-06-19

    Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are world-wide health problems. The prevalence of metabolic diseases is associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake during the past decades. Based on national statistics and from a public health viewpoint, traditional approaches, such as diet and physical activity, have been unsuccessful in decreasing the prevalence of metabolic diseases. Since the approaches strongly rely on individual's behavior and motivation, novel science-based strategies should be considered for prevention and therapy for the diseases. Metabolism and immune system are linked. Both overnutrition and infection result in inflammation through nutrient and pathogen sensing systems which recognize compounds with structural similarities. Dietary macronutrients (fats and sugars) can induce inflammation through activation of an innate immune receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Long-term intake of diets high in fats and meats appear to induce chronic systemic low-grade inflammation, endotoxicity, and metabolic diseases. Recent investigations support the idea of the involvement of intestinal bacteria in host metabolism and preventative and therapeutic potentials of probiotic and prebiotic interventions for metabolic diseases. Specific intestinal bacteria seem to serve as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sources through LPS and/or bacterial translocation into the circulation due to a vulnerable microbial barrier and increased intestinal permeability and to play a role in systemic inflammation and progression of metabolic diseases. This review focuses on mechanistic links between metabolic diseases (mainly obesity and type 2 diabetes), chronic systemic low-grade inflammation, intestinal environment, and nutrition and prospective views of probiotic and prebiotic interventions for the diseases.

  9. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  10. Dietary modulation of the human gut microflora using prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, G R

    1998-10-01

    The human colonic flora has both beneficial and pathogenic potentials with respect to host health. There is now much interest in manipulation of the microbiota composition in order to improve the potentially beneficial aspects. The prebiotic approach dictates that non-viable food components are specifically fermented in the colon by indigenous bacteria thought to be of positive value, e.g. bifidobacteria, lactobacilli. Any food ingredient that enters the large intestine is a candidate prebiotic. However, to be effective, selectivity of the fermentation is essential. Most current attention and success has been derived using non-digestible oligosaccharides. Types primarily being looked at include those which contain fructose, xylose, soya, galactose, glucose and mannose. In particular, fructose-containing oligosaccharides, which occur naturally in a variety of plants such as onion, asparagus, chicory, banana and artichoke, fulfil the prebiotic criteria. Various data have shown that fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are specifically fermented by bifidobacteria. During controlled feeding studies, ingestion of these prebiotics causes bifidobacteria to become numerically dominant in faeces. Recent studies have indicated that a FOS dose of 4 g/d is prebiotic. To exploit this concept more fully, there is a need for assessments of (a) improved determination of the gut microbiota composition and activity; (b) the use of molecular methodologies to assess accurately prebiotic identities and develop efficient bacterial probing strategies; (c) the prebiotic potential of raw and processed foods; and (d) the health consequences of dietary modulation.

  11. Supplementation of infant formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics: a systematic review and comment by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braegger, Christian; Chmielewska, Anna; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis; Pieścik, Małgorzata; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2011-02-01

    Infant formulae are increasingly supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics despite uncertainties regarding their efficacy. The present article, developed by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, systematically reviews published evidence related to the safety and health effects of the administration of formulae supplemented with probiotics and/or prebiotics compared with unsupplemented formulae. Studies in which probiotics/prebiotics were not administered during the manufacturing process, but thereafter, for example in capsules, the contents of which were supplemented to infant formula or feeds, were excluded.On the basis of this review, available scientific data suggest that the administration of currently evaluated probiotic- and/or prebiotic-supplemented formula to healthy infants does not raise safety concerns with regard to growth and adverse effects. The safety and clinical effects of 1 product should not be extrapolated to other products. At present, there is insufficient data to recommend the routine use of probiotic- and/or prebiotic-supplemented formulae. The Committee considers that the supplementation of formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics is an important field of research. There is a need in this field for well-designed and carefully conducted randomised controlled trials, with relevant inclusion/exclusion criteria and adequate sample sizes. These studies should use validated clinical outcome measures to assess the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic supplementation of formulae. Such trials should also define the optimal doses and intake durations, as well as provide more information about the long-term safety of probiotics and/or prebiotics. Because most of the trials were company funded, independent trials, preferentially financed jointly by national/governmental/European Union bodies and other international organisations, would be desirable.

  12. Pre-cultivation with Selected Prebiotics Enhances the Survival and the Stress Response of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains in Simulated Gastrointestinal Transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Mariantonietta; Tremonte, Patrizio; Pannella, Gianfranco; Tipaldi, Luca; Cozzolino, Autilia; Romaniello, Rossana; Sorrentino, Elena; Coppola, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    In our study, we dwelled upon combinations of lactobacilli/prebiotics, considering four different strains belonging to the Lactobacillus rhamnosus species, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and different prebiotics often found in commercial synbiotic products, such as inulin, lactulose and polyols mannitol and sorbitol. In the first step of the research, the survival, the growth kinetic parameters and the protein expression of Lb. rhamnosus strains cultivated in presence of the different prebiotics as a unique carbon source were evaluated. In the second step, the influence of pre-cultivation in medium added of metabolizable prebiotics on the strains survival to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) transit, assayed without prebiotics addition, was estimated. Our results showed that the presence in the medium of certain low fermented prebiotics, specific for each strain, represents a stress factor that significantly affects the growth of Lb. rhamnosus strains, inducing the up-regulation of several proteins. In detail, all added prebiotics used as unique carbon source caused a growth retard compared with glucose, as testified by increased values of the lag phase and decreased values of the μmax. Mannitol evidenced intermediate μmax values between those registered with glucose and those detected with the other assayed prebiotics. Moreover, the cultivation with prebiotics induced the over expression of 7 protein bands. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the up-regulation of two specific stress proteins, called P4 (ATP-binding subunit Clpx) and P7 (GrpE), and the death kinetic parameters (resistance and cells viability) registered during the simulated GI transit of strains pre-cultivated with specific, low fermented prebiotics. Specifically, the highest resistance and gastric-vitality scores were highlighted for the strain AT195 when pre-cultivated in presence of sorbitol. Conversely, the lowest values were found in the case of DSM20021 pre

  13. Oligomannan Prebiotic Attenuates Immunological, Clinical and Behavioral Symptoms in Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczi, Szilamér; Szegi, Krisztián; Winkler, Zsuzsanna; Barna, Teréz; Kovács, Krisztina J.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease shows increasing prevalence, however its pathomechanism and treatment is not fully resolved. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which might provide an alternative to treat inflammatory conditions in the gut due to their positive effects either on the microbiome or through their direct effect on macrophages and mucosa. To test the protective effects of an oligomannan prebiotic, yeast cell wall mannooligosaccharide (MOS) was administered in dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. MOS reduced DSS-induced clinical- (weight loss, diarrhea) and histological scores (mucosal damage) as well as sickness-related anxiety. DSS treatment resulted in changes in colon microbiome with selective increase of Coliform bacteria. MOS administration attenuated colitis-related increase of Coliforms, normalized colonic muc2 expression and attenuated local expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1a, IL1b, IL6, KC, G-CSF and MCP1 as well as toll-like receptor TLR4 and NLRP3 inflammasome. Some of the protective effects of MOS were likely be mediated directly through local macrophages because MOS dose-dependently inhibited IL-1b and G-CSF induction following in vitro DSS challenge and IL1a, IL1b, G-SCF-, and IL6 increases after LPS treatment in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. These results highlight oligomannan prebiotics as therapeutic functional food for testing in clinical trials. PMID:27658624

  14. Vitamin D and prebiotics may benefit the intestinal microbacteria and improve glucose homeostasis in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengolts, Elena

    2013-01-01

    To review the role of human large bowel microbacteria (microbiota) in the glucose homeostasis, to address vitamin D (VD) and prebiotics interactions with microbiota, and to summarize recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of VD and prebiotics supplementation in prediabetes (PreDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Primary literature was reviewed in the following areas: composition and activity of human microbiota associated with PreDM and T2DM, interactions between microbiota and glucose homeostasis, the interaction of microbiota with VD/prebiotics, and RCTs of VD/prebiotics in subjects with PreDM or T2DM. The human microbiota is comprised of 100 trillion bacteria with an aggregate genome that is 150-fold larger than the human genome. Data from the animal models and human studies reveal that an "obesogenic" diet results into the initial event of microbiota transformation from symbiosis to dysbiosis. The microbial antigens, such as Gram(-) bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), translocate to the host interior and trigger increased energy harvesting and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation with subsequent inflammatory pathways signaling. The "double hit" of steatosis (ectopic fat accumulation) and "-itis" (inflammation) and contribution of "corisks" (e.g., vitamin D deficiency [VDD]) are required to activate molecular signaling, including impaired insulin signaling and secretion, that ends with T2DM and associated diseases. Dietary changes (e.g., prebiotics, VD supplementation) may ameliorate this process if initiated prior to the process becoming irreversible. Emerging evidence suggests an important role of microbiota in glucose homeostasis. VD supplementation and prebiotics may be useful in managing PreDM and T2DM.

  15. Prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and histidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun; Oro, J.; Yang, Lily; Miller, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose and formamidine has been demonstrated as well as the prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-ethanol and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose, formaldehyde, and ammonia. The maximum yields of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde, imidazole-4-ethanol, and imidazole-4-glycol obtained in these reactions are 1.6, 5.4, and 6.8 percent respectively, based on the erythrose. Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde would have been converted to histidine on the primitive earth by a Strecker synthesis, and several prebiotic reactions would convert imidazole-4-glycol and imidazole-4-ethanol to imidazole-4-acetaldehyde.

  16. The International Scientific Conference on Probiotics and Prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Karen

    2011-10-01

    The 5th International Scientific Conference on Probiotics and Prebiotics was held in the Doubletree Hotel in Kosice, Slovakia, and highlighted current advances in the research and use of probiotics and prebiotics in both animal and human health. The conference attracted academic and industry representatives from over 35 countries and facilitated networking between research scientists and industry. A poster session was on display throughout the entire meeting. Over the course of the 3-day symposium, 12 sessions addressed issues related to the use of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention and treatment of chronic and infectious diseases, their effects on host immune function and how they may modulate existing gut microbes.

  17. Differential proteome and cellular adhesion analyses of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM grown on raffinose - an emerging prebiotic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Hansen, Morten Ejby; Majumder, Avishek

    2016-01-01

    Whole cell and surface proteomes were analyzed together with adhesive properties of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) grown on the emerging prebiotic raffinose, exemplifying a synbiotic. Adhesion of NCFM to mucin and intestinal HT-29 cells increased three-fold after...

  18. Prebiotic Supplementation Has Only Minimal Effects on Growth Efficiency, Intestinal Health and Disease Resistance of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Fed 30% Soybean Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Sealey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi were fed a practical type formulation with 0 or 30% dietary soybean meal with or without the commercial prebiotic (Grobiotic-A prior to experimental exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (initial weight 7.8 g/fish ± standard deviation of 0.5 g were stocked at 30 fish/tank in 75 L tanks with six replicate tanks per diet and fed their respective diets for 20 weeks. Final weights of Westslope cutthroat trout were affected by neither dietary soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.9582 nor prebiotic inclusion (P=0.9348 and no interaction was observed (P=0.1242. Feed conversion ratios were similarly not affected by soybean meal level (P=0.4895, prebiotic inclusion (P=0.3258 or their interaction (P=0.1478. Histological examination of the distal intestine of Westslope cutthroat trout demonstrated increases in inflammation due to both increased soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.0038 and prebiotic inclusion (P=0.0327 without significant interaction (P=0.3370. Feeding dietary soybean meal level at 30% increased mortality of F.psychrophilum cohabitation challenged Westslope cutthroat trout (P=0.0345 while prebiotic inclusion tended to decrease mortality (P=0.0671. These results indicate that subclinical alterations in intestinal inflammation levels due to high dietary inclusion levels of soybean meal could predispose Westslope cutthroat trout to F.psychrophilum infection.

  19. Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuchun; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Pingfan; Ni, Li

    2014-04-01

    Almonds and almond skins are rich in fiber and other components that have potential prebiotic properties. In this study we investigated the prebiotic effects of almond and almond skin intake in healthy humans. A total of 48 healthy adult volunteers consumed a daily dose of roasted almonds (56 g), almond skins (10 g), or commercial fructooligosaccharides (8 g) (as positive control) for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at defined time points and analyzed for microbiota composition and selected indicators of microbial activity. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to almonds or almond skins. Significant increases in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed in fecal samples as a consequence of almond or almond skin supplementation. However, the populations of Escherichia coli did not change significantly, while the growth of the pathogen Clostridum perfringens was significantly repressed. Modification of the intestinal microbiota composition induced changes in bacterial enzyme activities, specifically a significant increase in fecal β-galactosidase activity and decreases in fecal β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and azoreductase activities. Our observations suggest that almond and almond skin ingestion may lead to an improvement in the intestinal microbiota profile and a modification of the intestinal bacterial activities, which would induce the promotion of health beneficial factors and the inhibition of harmful factors. Thus we believe that almonds and almond skins possess potential prebiotic properties.

  20. Genetic mechanisms of prebiotic oligosaccharide metabolism in probiotic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    Recent insights into the relationship between the human gut and its resident microbiota have revolutionized our appreciation of this symbiosis and its impact on health and disease development. Accumulating evidence on probiotic and prebiotic interventions has demonstrated promising effects on promoting gastrointestinal health by modulating the microbiota toward the enrichment of beneficial microorganisms. However, the precise mechanisms of how prebiotic nondigestible oligosaccharides are metabolized by these beneficial microbes in vivo remain largely unknown. Genome sequencing of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has revealed versatile carbohydrate metabolic gene repertoires dedicated to the catabolism of various oligosaccharides. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the genetic mechanisms involved in the utilization of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides, β-galactooligosaccharides, human milk oligosaccharides, and other prebiotic candidates by these probiotic microbes.

  1. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie O’Sullivan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  2. Probiotics and prebiotics: prospects for public health and nutritional recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Salminen, Seppo; Merenstein, Daniel J; Gibson, Glenn R; Petschow, Bryon W; Nieuwdorp, Max; Tancredi, Daniel J; Cifelli, Christopher J; Jacques, Paul; Pot, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are useful interventions for improving human health through direct or indirect effects on the colonizing microbiota. However, translation of these research findings into nutritional recommendations and public health policy endorsements has not been achieved in a manner consistent with the strength of the evidence. More progress has been made with clinical recommendations. Conclusions include that beneficial cultures, including probiotics and live cultures in fermented foods, can contribute towards the health of the general population; prebiotics, in part due to their function as a special type of soluble fiber, can contribute to the health of the general population; and a number of challenges must be addressed in order to fully realize probiotic and prebiotic benefits, including the need for greater awareness of the accumulated evidence on probiotics and prebiotics among policy makers, strategies to cope with regulatory roadblocks to research, and high-quality human trials that address outstanding research questions in the field.

  3. Gut microbiota and metabolic disorders: How prebiotic can work?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delzenne, Nathalie M; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Cani, Patrice D

    2013-01-01

    .... In the present review, we will describe how changes in the gut microbiota composition and/or activity by dietary fibres with prebiotic properties, can modulate host gene expression and metabolism...

  4. Bioactive foods in promoting health: probiotics and prebiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Ronald R; Preedy, Victor R

    2010-01-01

    "Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion: Probiotics and Prebiotics brings together experts working on the different aspects of supplementation, foods, and bacterial preparations, in health promotion and disease prevention, to provide...

  5. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  6. Physiological Changes of Surface Membrane in Lactobacillus with Prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Kumaree, Kishore K; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-03-01

    Synbiotics are always considered to be beneficial in healthy manipulation of gut environment; however, the purpose of this research was to investigate the dominance of synbiotic over the individual potential of probiotics and prebiotics. Four different types of prebiotics, fructo-oligosaccharides, raffinose, inulin, and cellobiose, were evaluated based on their varying degree of polymerization, combined each with 2 different Lactobacilli strains, including Lactobacillus paracasei 276 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The effects of synbiotics combination on the surface structure were evaluated by analyzing auto-aggregation, membrane hydrophobicity, and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that both Lactobacilli exhibited significantly greater degree of attachment to Caco-2 cells (23.31% and 16.85%, respectively) when using cellobiose as a substrate than with other prebiotics (P prebiotics. These behavioral changes in terms of attachment and auto-aggregation were further supported with the changes noticed from infrared spectra (FT-IR). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Prebiotics and probiotics - the importance of branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The costs of developing a probiotic or prebiotic ingredient have always been substantial. Ingredient characterization, evaluation of technological and physiological properties, and demonstrations of safety and clinical efficacy require expensive research. The demanding regulatory requirements imposed by EFSA raise the bar even higher so that the costs of acquiring the necessary clinical evidence to support labeling of these food ingredients is approaching that of pharmaceuticals. In order to justify investment in such expensive clinical development, companies require certainty that they can gain a return on investment. Patenting can provide some protection but is not always possible to patent ingredients, and the period of protection is limited. All ingredients eventually face the prospect of commoditization once patents expire. Branding strategies offer one means of maintaining adequate product differentiation to protect market share and margins over the long term.

  8. Peptide catalysed prebiotic polymerization of RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal; Luisi, Pier Luigi; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    A short peptide composed of only two amino acid residues, serine and histidine, is here reported to enable oligomerization of RNA monomers. SerHis dipeptide was previously reported to catalyse formation of peptide bonds (Gorlero et al. 2009) as well as possessing broad hydrolytic activities...... – in such environment hydrolysis is thermodynamically favoured over condensation. However, the thermodynamic equilibrium towards condensation can be shifted even in this environment. In this poster we describe a prebiotically plausible system in which the SerHis dipeptide acts as catalyst for the formation of RNA...... these conditions, most of the water is in the form of ice crystals and the other reactants are upconcentrated in the remaining liquid micro-inclusions, hence creating an environment with low water activity in which condensation reactions can occur. The ability of simple peptides to catalyse RNA synthesis could...

  9. Application of central composite design to optimize the amount of carbon source and prebiotics for Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Guowei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to obtain the optimum proportion of the carbon source and prebiotics for Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 by the central composite design (CCD. The effect of carbon source (lactose and two prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides on the BB01 were observed by measuring the OD600 value, pH value and the viable counts at 18h. The final optimized concentrations of carbon source and prebiotics were: lactose 1.6%, inulin 0.26%, and fructooligosaccharides 0.22%. The result indicates that the growth of B. bifidum BB01 shows an significant increase in the optimized culture medium (p < 0.05, the OD600 value reached 1.434 at 18h, which increased 6.58% compared to the control. And the viable counts of B. bifidum BB01 increased 24.36% and reached (2.17±0.06 ×109cfu/mL. The results show that the optimization of the carbon source and prebiotics using CCD in this study is workable and necessary.

  10. Endogenous Synthesis of Prebiotic Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    The necessary condition for the synthesis of organic compounds on the primitive earth is the presence of reducing conditions. This means an atmosphere of CH4, CO, or CO2 + H2. The atmospheric nitrogen can be N2 with a trace of NH3, but NH4(+) is needed in the ocean at least for amino acid synthesis. Many attempts have been made to use CO2 + H2O atmospheres for prebiotic synthesis, but these give at best extremely low yields of organic compounds, except in the presence of H2. Even strong reducing agents such as FeS + H2S or the mineral assemblages of the submarine vents fail to give significant yields of organic compounds with CO2. There appears to be a high kinetic barrier to the non-biological reduction of CO2 at low temperatures using geological reducing agents. The most abundant source of energy for prebiotic synthesis is ultraviolet light followed by electric discharges, with electric discharges being more efficient, although it is not clear which was the important energy source. Photochemical process would also make significant contributions. In an atmosphere Of CO2, N2, and H2O with no H2, the production rates of HCN and H2CO would be very low, 0.001 or less than that of a relatively reducing atmosphere. The concentration of organic compounds under these non-reducing conditions would be so low that there is doubt whether the concentration mechanism would be adequate for further steps toward the origin of life. A number of workers have calculated the influx of comets and meteorites on the primitive earth as a source of organic compounds. We conclude that while some organic material was added to the earth from comets and meteorites the amount available from these sources at a given time was at best only a few percent of that from earth bases syntheses under reducing conditions.

  11. Are commercial probiotics and prebiotics effective in the treatment and prevention of honeybee nosemosis C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyńska, Aneta A; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Cytryńska, Małgorzata; Małek, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (a commercial probiotic) and inulin (a prebiotic) on the survival rates of honeybees infected and uninfected with Nosema ceranae, the level of phenoloxidase (PO) activity, the course of nosemosis, and the effect on the prevention of nosemosis development in bees. The cells of L. rhamnosus exhibited a high rate of survival in 56.56 % sugar syrup, which was used to feed the honeybees. Surprisingly, honeybees fed with sugar syrup supplemented with a commercial probiotic and a probiotic + prebiotic were more susceptible to N. ceranae infection, and their lifespan was much shorter. The number of microsporidian spores in the honeybees fed for 9 days prior to N. ceranae infection with a sugar syrup supplemented with a commercial probiotic was 25 times higher (970 million spores per one honeybee) than in a control group fed with pure sucrose syrup (38 million spores per one honeybee). PO activity reached its highest level in the hemolymph of this honeybee control group uninfected with N. ceranae. The addition of probiotics or both probiotics and prebiotics to the food of uninfected bees led to the ~2-fold decrease in the PO activity. The infection of honeybees with N. ceranae accompanied an almost 20-fold decrease in the PO level. The inulin supplemented solely at a concentration of 2 μg/mL was the only administrated factor which did not significantly affect honeybees' survival, the PO activity, or the nosemosis infection level. In conclusion, the supplementation of honeybees' diet with improperly selected probiotics or both probiotics and prebiotics does not prevent nosemosis development, can de-regulate insect immune systems, and may significantly increase bee mortality.

  12. Physicochemical Characterization and Potential Prebiotic Effect of Whey Protein Isolate/Inulin Nano Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ho-Kyung; Jeon, Na-Eun; Kim, Jin Wook; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Yun, Sung Seob; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Lee, Won-Jae

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the impacts of concentration levels of whey protein isolate (WPI) and inulin on the formation and physicochemical properties of WPI/inulin nano complexes and to evaluate their potential prebiotic effects. WPI/inulin nano complexes were produced using the internal gelation method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size analyzer were used to assess the morphological and physicochemical characterizations of nano complexes, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of resveratrol in nano complexes was studied using HPLC while the potential prebiotic effects were investigated by measuring the viability of probiotics. In TEM micrographs, the globular forms of nano complexes in the range of 10 and 100 nm were successfully manufactured. An increase in WPI concentration level from 1 to 3% (w/v) resulted in a significant (pnano complexs while inulin concentration level did not affect the size of nano complexes. The polydispersity index of nano complexes was below 0.3 in all cases while the zeta-potential values in the range of -2 and -12 mV were observed. The encapsulation efficiency of resveratrol was significantly (pnano complexes exhibited similar viability of probiotics with free inulin and had significantly (pnano complexes and had potential prebiotic effect.

  13. Production of Alginate Oligosaccharides (AOS as Prebiotic Ingredients through by Alginate lyase enzyme

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    Fahriza Sri Afni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics is indigestible foods that can not be digested but can stimulate the growth and activity of bacteria in the digestive tract effecting human health. Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS can be used as a source of prebiotic. That compounds can be produced enzymatically by cutting long chain alginates using alginate lyase. The aim of this study was to produce alginate lyase enzyme then producing Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS as a prebiotic ingredients. The alginate lyase enzyme can be produced from Bacillus megaterium bacteria using a discontinuous fermentor. The enzyme was  optimum temperature of 45°C and an optimum pH of 7.0. Alginate oligosaccharides production was performed with the addition of different enzyme concentrations 25, 50, 75, and 100 U. The result of the addition of enzyme (25, 50,75 U showed that the value of polymerization degrees (DP were between 4-5. However, the addition of enzyme (100 U was in the range of  DP 3-4. Bacterial probiotic growth test results of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus showed that 1% added AOS media were able to increase the growth of probiotic bacteria compared to themedia without addition of AOS. The addition Alginate lyase activity of 50 U in AOS production is the best treatment of both probiotic bacteria.

  14. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects

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    Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS- enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound.

  15. Intestinal microbiota; relevance to obesity and modulation by prebiotics and probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The intestinal microbiota has several beneficial functions related to host health. Studies suggest that it may be related to the presence of metabolic diseases, including obesity. Objective: A bibliographic survey was carried out upon the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and obesity and the possible impacts of the use of prebiotics and probiotics, aiming to understand this complex and promising interaction. Methods: A search was conducted in the Lilacs, PubMed, SciElo and ScienceDirect databases, using the keywords "gut microbiota" and "obesity". Results and discussion: We identified 613 original studies. After careful selection, 61 original articles were included in this review. The others indicated that there are differences in the microbial composition between obese and non-obese patients and the possible mechanisms involved. Alteration is caused in the energy homeostasis, in the use of dietary intake and storage of lipids due to the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Among the studies that evaluated the microbiota modulation, seven used probiotics; 24 used prebiotics, and five studies were performed using food. After dietary manipulation, the growth of bifidobacteria was obtained in 10 studies, in association with weight reduction, adipogenic effects of diet, intestinal permeability and inflammatory markers. Conclusion: Knowledge on the impact of the microbiota on metabolic pathways allows to conceive new factors associated with obesity and modulation by prebiotics and probiotics. In this sense, the main effect observed was the increase in bifidobacteria, usually accompanied by weight loss and enhancement of parameters related to obesity.

  16. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS-) enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound.

  17. [Effects of prebiotics and probiotics on gastrointestinal tract lymphoid tissue in hiv infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Manuel G; Taborda, Natalia A; Hernandez, Juan C; Rugeles, María T

    2017-02-01

    HIV infection induces alterations in almost all immune cell populations, mainly in CD4+ T cells, leading to the development of opportunistic infections. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) constitutes the most important site for viral replication, because the main target cells, memory T-cells, reside in this tissue. It is currently known that alterations in GALT are critical during the course of the infection, as HIV-1 induces loss of tissue integrity and promotes translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation, leading to a persistent immune activation state and immune exhaustion. Although antiretroviral treatment decreases viral load and substantially improves the prognosis of the infection, the alterations in GALT remains, having a great impact on the ability to establish effective immune responses. This emphasizes the importance of developing new therapeutic alternatives that may promote structural and functional integrity of this tissue. In this regard, therapy with probiotics/prebiotics has beneficial effects in GALT, mainly in syndromes characterized by intestinal dysbiosis, including the HIV-1 infection. In these patients, the consumption of probiotics/prebiotics decreased microbial products in plasma and CD4+ T cell activation, increased CD4+ T cell frequency, in particular Th17, and improved the intestinal flora. In this review, the most important findings on the potential impact of the probiotics/prebiotics therapy are discussed.

  18. In ovo injection of prebiotics and synbiotics affects the digestive potency of the pancreas in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszynska-Oszmalek, E; Kolodziejski, P A; Stadnicka, K; Sassek, M; Chalupka, D; Kuston, B; Nogowski, L; Mackowiak, P; Maiorano, G; Jankowski, J; Bednarczyk, M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 2 prebiotics and 2 synbiotics on the digestive potency of pancreas in 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, and 34-day-old cockerels. Prebiotics (inulin and Bi²tos) and synbiotics (inulin + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Bi²tos + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris) were injected in ovo into the air cell on the 12th d embryonic development. Their application increased the activity of amylase, lipase, and trypsin in the pancreas. The most pronounced changes were observed at the end of the investigated rearing period (d 34). The strongest stimulative effects on amylase were shown by both synbiotics, on lipase synbiotic Bi²tos + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, and on trypsin all the used prebiotics and synbiotics. Simultaneously, neither the absolute nor the relative mass of the pancreas in comparison to control group were changed. Also, the injected in ovo compounds did not cause a deterioration in the posthatching condition of the chicken liver, as determined by measurement of the activity of marker enzymes in the blood (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). Treatment with the prebiotics and synbiotics did not change the feed conversion ratio but Bi²tos (galacto-oligosaccharide) and inulin (fructan) + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis significantly increased final BW.

  19. Effect of prebiotics on the fecal microbiota of elderly volunteers after dietary supplementation of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangale, Edna P; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David; Chernoff, David; Gibson, Glenn R

    2014-12-01

    In advancing age, gut populations of beneficial microbes, notably Bifidobacterium spp., show a marked decline. This contributes to an environment less capable of maintaining homoeostasis. This in vitro investigation studied the possible synergistic effects of probiotic supplementation in modulating the gut microbiota enabling prebiotic therapy to in elderly persons. Single stage batch culture anaerobic fermenters were used and inoculated with fecal microbiota obtained from volunteers after taking a 28 day treatment of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30 (BC30)) or a placebo. The response to prebiotic supplements fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in the fermenters was assessed. Bacterial enumeration was carried out using fluorescent in situ hybridisation and organic acids measured by gas chromatography. Baseline populations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium lituseburense and Bacillus spp. were significantly higher in those having consumed BC30 compared to the placebo. Both prebiotics increased populations of several purportedly beneficial bacterial groups in both sets of volunteers. Samples from volunteers having ingested the BC30 also increased populations of C. lituseburense, Eubacterium rectale and F. prausnitzii more so than in persons who had consumed the placebo, this also resulted in significantly higher concentrations of butyrate, acetate and propionate. This shows that consumption of BC30 and subsequent use of prebiotics resulted in elevated populations of beneficial genres of bacteria as well as organic acid production.

  20. Exercise and Prebiotics Produce Stress Resistance: Converging Impacts on Stress-Protective and Butyrate-Producing Gut Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, A; Rumian, N; Loughridge, A B; Fleshner, M

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbial ecosystem can mediate the negative health impacts of stress on the host. Stressor-induced disruptions in microbial ecology (dysbiosis) can lead to maladaptive health effects, while certain probiotic organisms and their metabolites can protect against these negative impacts. Prebiotic diets and exercise are feasible and cost-effective strategies that can increase stress-protective bacteria and produce resistance against the detrimental behavioral and neurobiological impacts of stress. The goal of this review is to describe research demonstrating that both prebiotic diets and exercise produce adaptations in gut ecology and the brain that arm the organism against inescapable stress-induced learned helplessness. The results of this research support the novel hypothesis that some of the stress-protective effects of prebiotics and exercise are due to increases in stress-protective gut microbial species and their metabolites. In addition, new evidence also suggests that prebiotic diet or exercise interventions are most effective if given early in life (juvenile-adolescence) when both the gut microbial ecosystem and the brain are plastic. Based on our new understanding of the mechanistic convergence of these interventions, it is feasible to propose that in adults, both interventions delivered in combination may elevate their efficacy to promote a stress-resistant phenotype. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of prebiotic fibre supplementation on hepatic gene expression and serum lipids: a dose-response study in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Reimer, Raylene A

    2010-06-01

    Prebiotic fibres have been proposed to promote weight loss and lower serum cholesterol; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present research was to identify possible mechanisms through which prebiotic fibres improve serum lipids. Lean and obese JCR:La-cp rats aged 8 weeks consumed one of three diets supplemented with 0, 10 or 20 % prebiotic fibre for 10 weeks. Rats were anaesthetised and a fasting blood sample was taken for lipid analysis. Real-time PCR was used to determine gene expression for cholesterol and fatty acid regulatory genes in liver tissue. Liver and caecal digesta cholesterol and TAG content were quantified. Both doses of prebiotic fibre lowered serum cholesterol levels by 24 % in the obese hyperlipidaemic rats (P < 0.05). This change was associated with an increase in caecal digesta as well as an up-regulation of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and bile production. Additionally, there was a 42 % reduction in TAG accumulation in the liver of the obese rats with 10 % prebiotic diet (P < 0.05); however, no change in liver fatty acid synthase (FAS). Prebiotic fibres appear to lower cholesterol levels through increased cholesterol excretion in the form of bile and inhibit the accumulation of TAG in the liver through a mechanism unrelated to FAS. These effects appear to be limited to the obese model and particularly the 10 % dose. The present work is significant as it provides insight into the mechanisms of action for prebiotic fibres on lipid metabolism and furthers the development of dietary treatments for hypercholesterolaemia.

  2. Effect of prebiotic fibre supplementation on hepatic gene expression and serum lipids: a dose–response study in JCR:LA-cp rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2013-01-01

    Prebiotic fibres have been proposed to promote weight loss and lower serum cholesterol; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present research was to identify possible mechanisms through which prebiotic fibres improve serum lipids. Lean and obese JCR:La-cp rats aged 8 weeks consumed one of three diets supplemented with 0, 10 or 20 % prebiotic fibre for 10 weeks. Rats were anaesthetised and a fasting blood sample was taken for lipid analysis. Real-time PCR was used to determine gene expression for cholesterol and fatty acid regulatory genes in liver tissue. Liver and caecal digesta cholesterol and TAG content were quantified. Both doses of prebiotic fibre lowered serum cholesterol levels by 24 % in the obese hyperlipidaemic rats (P<0·05). This change was associated with an increase in caecal digesta as well as an up-regulation of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and bile production. Additionally, there was a 42 % reduction in TAG accumulation in the liver of the obese rats with 10 % prebiotic diet (P<0·05); however, no change in liver fatty acid synthase (FAS). Prebiotic fibres appear to lower cholesterol levels through increased cholesterol excretion in the form of bile and inhibit the accumulation of TAG in the liver through a mechanism unrelated to FAS. These effects appear to be limited to the obese model and particularly the 10 % dose. The present work is significant as it provides insight into the mechanisms of action for prebiotic fibres on lipid metabolism and furthers the development of dietary treatments for hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:20021705

  3. The effect of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on cardiometabolic health: Rationale, design, and methods of a controlled feeding efficacy trial in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie M; Davy, Brenda M; Halliday, Tanya M; Hulver, Mathew W; Neilson, Andrew P; Ponder, Monica A; Davy, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Prediabetes is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). An elevated lipopolysaccharide concentration, associated with dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, has been implicated in the development of both T2D and CVD. Selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics reduces intestinal permeability and endotoxin concentrations, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in rodents. The effect of prebiotic supplementation on cardio-metabolic function in humans at risk for T2D is not known. The primary aim of this trial is to determine the influence of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility in adults at risk for T2D. We hypothesize that prebiotic supplementation with inulin will improve insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility. We will randomize 48 adults (40-75 yrs) with prediabetes or a score ≥ 5 on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk screener to 6 weeks of prebiotic supplementation with inulin (10 g/day) or placebo. Subjects will be provided with all food for the duration of the study, to avoid potential confounding through differences in dietary intake between individuals. Intestinal permeability, serum endotoxin concentrations, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and fecal bacterial composition will be measured at baseline and following treatment. The identification of prebiotic supplementation with inulin as an efficacious strategy for reducing cardio-metabolic risk in individuals at risk of T2D could impact clinical practice by informing dietary recommendations and increasing acceptance of prebiotics by the scientific and medical community.

  4. The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustaw, Waldemar; Kordowska-Wiater, Monika; Kozioł, Justyna

    2011-01-01

    Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com-pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe-cific beneficial (probiotic) gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch), which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (10(6)-10(9) cfu/g) according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 10(6) cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of FOS) and decrease in syneresis of obtained bio-yoghurts.

  5. The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gustaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com­pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe­cific beneficial (probiotic gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Material and methods. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch, which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. Results. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Conclusions. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (106-109 cfu/g according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 106 cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of

  6. The Surface UV Environment on Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry and the Need for Experimental Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Wordsworth, Robin; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2017-07-01

    Potentially habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs are of intense astrobiological interest because they are the only rocky worlds accessible to biosignature search over the next 10+ years because of a confluence of observational effects. Simultaneously, recent experimental and theoretical work suggests that UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, especially the origin of RNA. Characterizing the UV environment on M-dwarf planets is important for understanding whether life as we know it could emerge on such worlds. In this work, we couple radiative transfer models to observed M-dwarf spectra to determine the UV environment on prebiotic Earth-analog planets orbiting M dwarfs. We calculate dose rates to quantify the impact of different host stars on prebiotically important photoprocesses. We find that M-dwarf planets have access to 100-1000 times less bioactive UV fluence than the young Earth. It is unclear whether UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry that may have been important to abiogenesis, such as the only known prebiotically plausible pathways for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis, could function on M-dwarf planets. This uncertainty affects objects like the recently discovered habitable-zone planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of putative prebiotic pathways to irradiation level are required to resolve this uncertainty. If steady-state M-dwarf UV output is insufficient to power these pathways, transient elevated UV irradiation due to flares may suffice; laboratory studies can constrain this possibility as well.

  7. Processing effects on four prebiotic carbohydrates supplemented in an extruded cereal and a low pH drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebbeca M. Duar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic carbohydrates are added as functional ingredients to a variety of processed foods. Data on the stability of prebiotics during food processing in complex matrices remain limited. The objective of this project was to determine the stability of fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS, and resistant starch (RS2, when added as ingredients (1% w/w to an extruded cereal and a low pH drink. The cereal was prepared using different screw speeds and barrel temperatures. GOS was not affected by any of the extrusion conditions, whereas inulin decreased significantly at 140 and 170°C. FOS levels decreased in all extrusion conditions, while resistant starch (RS unexpectedly increased for each of the parameters. The low pH drink was prepared with different sucrose to corn syrup solids (S:CSS ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 at pH 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The 1:1 S:CSS drink at pH 3.0, negatively impacted FOS and inulin. Moreover, FOS levels decreased when exposed to 1:2 S:CSS (pH 3.5 and 4.0 and 1:1 S:CSS (pH 3.0. GOS and RS were unaffected by any drink formulations. As different conditions impact the stability of prebiotics differently, this study addresses the importance of developing product specific processes for each prebiotic when supplemented into a processed food.

  8. Influence of prebiotics on Lactobacillus reuteri death kinetics under sub-optimal temperatures and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Clelia; Iorio, Maria Clara; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Eaten foodstuffs are usually fortified with prebiotic ingredients, such as inulin and oligofructose (FOS). The main goal of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of inulin and FOS with either suboptimal pH or storage temperature on the viability of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016. Data were modeled through Weibull equation for the evaluation of the microbiological shelf life and the survival time. Prebiotics enhanced the microbiological shelf life and enhanced the survival time of the target bacterium. The use of the factorial ANOVA highlighted that inulin and FOS exerted a different effect as a function of pH and temperature. Inulin prolonged survival time under acidic conditions, while the effect of glucose + FOS was significant at pH 8. Finally, temperature could act by increasing or decreasing the effect of prebiotics, as they could exert a protective effect at 30 °C but not at 44 °C. As the main output of this research, we could suggest that the effect of prebiotics on L. reuteri could be significantly affected by pH and temperature, thus pinpointing that the design of a symbiotic food should also rely on these factors.

  9. Evaluation of Agro-Industrial Co-Products as Source of Bioactive Compounds: Fiber, Antioxidants and Prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Alcántara Annel M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial co-products derived of fruit processing represents an important source of bioactive compounds as fiber, antioxidants and prebiotics. The objective of this work was to determine the content of fiber, antioxidant capacity and prebiotic activity of three flours obtained from commonly co-products (banana peel, apple peel, and carrot bagasse. The results showed a higher total fiber content in carrot bagasse, and lower in apple peel. Significantly differences were found in antioxidant activity. Fruit co-products flours were a suitable carbon source increasing specific growth rate with a reduction in duplication time as compared to glucose. The prebiotic activity was positive in the three co-products, all flours survived at pH 1.0 and showed resistance to simulated gastric acid for about 60 min. Banana peel, apple peel and carrot bagasse showed to be a good source of bioactive compounds as fiber and antioxidants and can be used as prebiotics for lactic acid bacteria.

  10. Drivers of liking for yogurt drinks with prebiotics and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeyer, L C; Miller, M J; Lee, S-Y

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have addressed the sensory properties of yogurt. However, as the market for yogurt continues to expand and new varieties of yogurt with novel ingredients emerge, additional sensory tests are needed to ensure the quality of the products. Three selected prebiotics, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, and chicory inulin, were each added at an excellent source of fiber (5 g fiber/serving) or a good fiber source (2.5 g fiber/serving) levels into a yogurt drink base. Three additional yogurt drinks contained 5 g of each of the separate prebiotics along with a mixture of probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5). A control sample with no prebiotics or probiotics was also included in the experimental design. Yogurt drinks were evaluated by 110 consumers for overall acceptance, acceptance of aroma, appearance, taste, and texture, and purchase intent. Demographic information pertaining to consumer knowledge of prebiotics and probiotics was collected. Consumer data were correlated with previously obtained descriptive analysis data to identify drivers of liking. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), Fisher's least significant difference (LSD), cluster analysis, internal preference mapping, and external preference mapping. Total variance explained by the internal and external preference maps were 32.2% and 64.6%, respectively, which showed higher levels of the prebiotics with probiotics drove consumer liking compared to lower levels without probiotics. In terms of ingredients added, chicory inulin and polydextrose were preferred over soluble corn fiber. Yogurt drinks with these prebiotics included and probiotics were characterized by a medium level of sweetness and high viscosity. Development of new prebiotic and probiotic containing drinkable yogurts should strive for a medium level of sweetness and high viscosity for maximum consumer acceptance.

  11. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Doreen; Afanasenkau, Dzmitry; Dhont, Jan K. G.

    2016-04-01

    Formamide is one of the important compounds from which prebiotic molecules can be synthesized, provided that its concentration is sufficiently high. For nucleotides and short DNA strands, it has been shown that a high degree of accumulation in hydrothermal pores occurs, so that temperature gradients might play a role in the origin of life [Baaske P, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(22):9346-9351]. We show that the same combination of thermophoresis and convection in hydrothermal pores leads to accumulation of formamide up to concentrations where nucleobases are formed. The thermophoretic properties of aqueous formamide solutions are studied by means of Infrared Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering. These data are used in numerical finite element calculations in hydrothermal pores for various initial concentrations, ambient temperatures, and pore sizes. The high degree of formamide accumulation is due to an unusual temperature and concentration dependence of the thermophoretic behavior of formamide. The accumulation fold in part of the pores increases strongly with increasing aspect ratio of the pores, and saturates to highly concentrated aqueous formamide solutions of ˜85 wt% at large aspect ratios. Time-dependent studies show that these high concentrations are reached after 45-90 d, starting with an initial formamide weight fraction of 10-310-3 wt % that is typical for concentrations in shallow lakes on early Earth.

  12. Prebiotics and gut microbial ecosystem%益生元与肠道微生态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈定树; 郑静

    2013-01-01

    A prebiotic is "a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or the activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon.",thereby,increase the body' s natural resistance to invading pathogens.The prebiotic carbohydrates that have been evaluated in humans at present largely consist of fructans or galactans.There is consistent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies that these are not digested by normal human enzymes,but are readily fermented by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine.There are no reports of faecal recovery of measurable quantities of prebiotic carbohydrates.Through fermentation in the large intestine,prebiotic carbohydrates yield short-chain fatty acids,stimulate the growth of many bacterial species in addition to the selective effects on lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.New methods are being applied extensively to human gut microbiology and promote the degree of reliability required to detect subtle changes in colonic microflora composition and to correlate such changes with health benefits.This paper reviewed the present status of studies concerning prebiotics,with emphasis on the mechanisms of selective growth stimulation,and physiologic effects.%益生元是一种非消化的成分,通过选择性的刺激肠道中一种或少数种益生菌的增长和/或活性而对宿主有利.具有抵抗致病菌侵入的天然功能.目前广泛研究的有果糖和半乳糖,体内与体外试验均表明不被正常人酶类所消化,在大肠中容易发酵,粪便内未能检出这种糖的成分.通过大肠细菌对益生元的发酵产生的短链脂肪酸是刺激双歧杆菌和乳杆菌增长的重要因素.应用现代技术获得了人肠道微生物细菌群的组成与种类的多样性.本文综述有关益生元的研究状况,强调益生元选择性刺激的机制和对人生理功能的影响.

  13. Prebiotic syntheses of purines and pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, B; Lazcano, A; Oró, J

    1984-01-01

    The work done in many laboratories during the last two decades has confirmed that hydrogen cyanide and cyanoacetylene are the two major precursors for the prebiotic synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, respectively. Although several different pathways for the synthesis of purines have been described, they are all variations of the initial mechanism proposed by Oró and Kimball, where hydrogen cyanide leads first to the formation of a 4,5-di-substituted imidazole derivative, and then to the closing of the purine ring with a C1 compound. A number of experiments have shown that purines and pyrimidines can also be obtained from methane, ammonia (nitrogen), and water mixtures, provided an activating source of energy (radiation, electric discharges, etc.) is available. However, in this case the yields are lower by about two orders of magnitude because of the intermediate formation of hydrogen cyanide and cyanoacetylene. The latter two compounds have been found in interstellar space, Titan and other bodies of the solar system. They were probably present in the primordial parent bodies from the solar nebula in concentrations of 10(-2) to 10(-3) M as inferred from recent calculations by Miller and coworkers obtained for the Murchison meteorite. These concentrations should have been sufficient to generate relatively large amounts of purine and pyrimidine bases on the primitive Earth.

  14. Prebiotic Phosphorylation Reactions on the Early Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen Gull

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential element for life. It occurs in living beings in the form of phosphate, which is ubiquitous in biochemistry, chiefly in the form of C-O-P (carbon, oxygen and phosphorus, C-P, or P-O-P linkages to form life. Within prebiotic chemistry, several key questions concerning phosphorus chemistry have developed: what were the most likely sources of P on the early Earth? How did it become incorporated into the biological world to form the P compounds that life employs today? Can meteorites be responsible for the delivery of P? What were the most likely solvents on the early Earth and out of those which are favorable for phosphorylation? Or, alternatively, were P compounds most likely produced in relatively dry environments? What were the most suitable temperature conditions for phosphorylation? A route to efficient formation of biological P compounds is still a question that challenges astrobiologists. This article discusses these important issues related to the origin of biological P compounds.

  15. Optimization of prebiotics in soybean milk using mixture experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A mixture experiment was used to optimize prebiotic mixtures in soybean milk formulation. Inulin (I, galactooligosaccharides(GOS, and isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO were the prebiotic ingredients added (4% w/v to soybean milk. Thirteen formulations of soybean milk were compared using the general descriptive analysis and the growth of probiotics(Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20456, Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 875, and Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1034. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in all sensory attributes (color, thickness, beany flavor, sweetness, viscosity, sweetness aftertaste among the samples. Various mixtures of the prebiotics had only a slight effect on the soybean milk color and viscosity (p0.05. The soybean milk supplemented with the optimized prebiotic mixture had higher (p<0.05carbohydrates, total soluble solid, total solid content, and viscosity than the control (without prebiotic. However, it had a lower L* value (lightness and a higher a* value (redness than the control (p<0.05.

  16. The Influence of Prebiotics on Neurobiology and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, A C C; Harty, S; Burnet, P W J

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the benefit of the brain is a concept that has become widely acknowledged. Prebiotics are nondigestible nutrients (i.e., fibers, carbohydrates, or various saccharides) that proliferate intrinsic, beneficial gut bacteria, and so provide an alternative strategy for effectively altering the enteric ecosystem, and thence brain function. Rodent studies demonstrating neurobiological changes following prebiotic intake are slowly emerging, and have thus far revealed significant benefits in disease models, including antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions. There are also compelling data showing the robust and favorable effects of prebiotics on several behavioral paradigms including, anxiety, learning, and memory. At present, studies in humans are limited, though there is strong evidence for prebiotics modulating emotional processes and the neuroendocrine stress response that may underlie the pathophysiology of anxiety. While the mechanistic details linking the enteric microbiota to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated, there are a number of considerations that can guide future studies. These include the modulation of intestinal endocrine systems and inflammatory cascades, as well as direct interaction with the enteric nervous system and gut mucosa. Our knowledge of gut microbiome-brain communication is steadily progressing, and thorough investigations validating the use of prebiotics in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders would be highly valued and are encouraged. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dissolution enhancement of curcumin via curcumin-prebiotic inulin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Mohammad M; Salem, Mu'taz Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution enhancement of curcumin via prebiotic inulin designed to orally deliver poorly water-soluble curcumin at duodenum low acidity (pH 5.5) was investigated. Different prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol-water binary system at different pre-adjusted pH values. Characterization via FTIR, XRD and TGA revealed the formation of curcumin-inulin conjugates, whereas surface morphology via SEM and TEM techniques implied the formation of nanoparticle beads and nanoclusters. Prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles prepared at pH 7.0 demonstrated a maximum curcumin dissolution enhancement of ≈90% with respect to 30% for curcumin alone at pH 5.5. Power law constant values were in accordance with dissolution enhancement investigations. All samples show Fickian diffusion mechanism. XRD investigations confirm that inulin maintain its crystalline structure in curcumin-inulin conjugate structure, which confirms that it can exert successfully its prebiotic role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, the use of curcumin-inulin nanoparticles can perform dual-mission in the GI tract at the duodenum environment; release of 90% of curcumin followed by prebiotic activity of inulin, which will probably play a significant role in cancer therapeutics for the coming generations.

  18. Prebiotic Potential of a Maize-Based Soluble Fibre and Impact of Dose on the Human Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Costabile

    Full Text Available Dietary management of the human gut microbiota towards a more beneficial composition is one approach that may improve host health. To date, a large number of human intervention studies have demonstrated that dietary consumption of certain food products can result in significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota i.e. the prebiotic concept. Thus the prebiotic effect is now established as a dietary approach to increase beneficial gut bacteria and it has been associated with modulation of health biomarkers and modulation of the immune system. Promitor™ Soluble Corn Fibre (SCF is a well-known maize-derived source of dietary fibre with potential selective fermentation properties. Our aim was to determine the optimum prebiotic dose of tolerance, desired changes to microbiota and fermentation of SCF in healthy adult subjects. A double-blind, randomised, parallel study was completed where volunteers (n = 8/treatment group consumed 8, 14 or 21 g from SCF (6, 12 and 18 g/fibre delivered respectively over 14-d. Over the range of doses studied, SCF was well tolerated Numbers of bifidobacteria were significantly higher for the 6 g/fibre/day compared to 12 g and 18 g/fibre delivered/day (mean 9.25 and 9.73 Log10 cells/g fresh faeces in the pre-treatment and treatment periods respectively. Such a numerical change of 0.5 Log10 bifidobacteria/g fresh faeces is consistent with those changes observed for inulin-type fructans, which are recognised prebiotics. A possible prebiotic effect of SCF was therefore demonstrated by its stimulation of bifidobacteria numbers in the overall gut microbiota during a short-term intervention.

  19. Prebiotic Potential of a Maize-Based Soluble Fibre and Impact of Dose on the Human Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Deaville, Eddie R; Morales, Agustin Martin; Gibson, Glenn R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary management of the human gut microbiota towards a more beneficial composition is one approach that may improve host health. To date, a large number of human intervention studies have demonstrated that dietary consumption of certain food products can result in significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota i.e. the prebiotic concept. Thus the prebiotic effect is now established as a dietary approach to increase beneficial gut bacteria and it has been associated with modulation of health biomarkers and modulation of the immune system. Promitor™ Soluble Corn Fibre (SCF) is a well-known maize-derived source of dietary fibre with potential selective fermentation properties. Our aim was to determine the optimum prebiotic dose of tolerance, desired changes to microbiota and fermentation of SCF in healthy adult subjects. A double-blind, randomised, parallel study was completed where volunteers (n = 8/treatment group) consumed 8, 14 or 21 g from SCF (6, 12 and 18 g/fibre delivered respectively) over 14-d. Over the range of doses studied, SCF was well tolerated Numbers of bifidobacteria were significantly higher for the 6 g/fibre/day compared to 12 g and 18 g/fibre delivered/day (mean 9.25 and 9.73 Log10 cells/g fresh faeces in the pre-treatment and treatment periods respectively). Such a numerical change of 0.5 Log10 bifidobacteria/g fresh faeces is consistent with those changes observed for inulin-type fructans, which are recognised prebiotics. A possible prebiotic effect of SCF was therefore demonstrated by its stimulation of bifidobacteria numbers in the overall gut microbiota during a short-term intervention.

  20. Efficacy of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in irritable bowel syndrome and chronic idiopathic constipation: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Lacy, Brian E; Lembo, Anthony J; Saito, Yuri A; Schiller, Lawrence R; Soffer, Edy E; Spiegel, Brennan M R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) are functional bowel disorders. Evidence suggests that disturbance in the gastrointestinal microbiota may be implicated in both conditions. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in IBS and CIC. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched (up to December 2013). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting adults with IBS or CIC, which compared prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics with placebo or no therapy, were eligible. Dichotomous symptom data were pooled to obtain a relative risk (RR) of remaining symptomatic after therapy, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous data were pooled using a standardized or weighted mean difference with a 95% CI. The search strategy identified 3,216 citations. Forty-three RCTs were eligible for inclusion. The RR of IBS symptoms persisting with probiotics vs. placebo was 0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.89). Probiotics had beneficial effects on global IBS, abdominal pain, bloating, and flatulence scores. Data for prebiotics and synbiotics in IBS were sparse. Probiotics appeared to have beneficial effects in CIC (mean increase in number of stools per week=1.49; 95% CI=1.02-1.96), but there were only two RCTs. Synbiotics also appeared beneficial (RR of failure to respond to therapy=0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.92). Again, trials for prebiotics were few in number, and no definite conclusions could be drawn. Probiotics are effective treatments for IBS, although which individual species and strains are the most beneficial remains unclear. Further evidence is required before the role of prebiotics or synbiotics in IBS is known. The efficacy of all three therapies in CIC is also uncertain.

  1. Recent developments in manufacturing oligosaccharides with prebiotic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zoltán; Benjamins, Eric; Grau, Konrad; Ur Rehman, Amad; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The market for prebiotics is steadily growing. To satisfy this increasing worldwide demand, the introduction of effective bioprocessing methods and implementation strategies is required. In this chapter, we review recent developments in the manufacture of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). These well-established oligosaccharides (OS) provide several health benefits and have excellent technological properties that make their use as food ingredients especially attractive. The biosyntheses of lactose-based GOS and sucrose-based FOS show similarities in terms of reaction mechanisms and product formation. Both GOS and FOS can be synthesized using whole cells or (partially) purified enzymes in immobilized or free forms. The biocatalysis results in a final product that consists of OS, unreacted disaccharides, and monosaccharides. This incomplete conversion poses a challenge to manufacturers because an enrichment of OS in this mixture adds value to the product. For removing digestible carbohydrates from OS, a variety of bioengineering techniques have been investigated, including downstream separation technologies, additional bioconversion steps applying enzymes, and selective fermentation strategies. This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art manufacturing strategies and recent advances in bioprocessing technologies that can lead to new possibilities for manufacturing and purifying sucrose-based FOS and lactose-based GOS.

  2. Inulin Potential for Enzymatic Obtaining of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Adriana C; Morlett, Jesús A; Rodríguez, Raúl

    2016-08-17

    Oligosaccharides have been marketed since the 80s as low-calorie agents and recently have gained interest in the pharmaceutical and food industry as functional sweeteners and prebiotic enriching population of Bifidobacteria. Currently, they have an approximated value of $200 per kg and recently, inulin has been proposed as a feedstock for production of oligosaccharides through selective hydrolysis by action of endoinulinase. High optimum temperature (60°C) and thermostability are two important criteria that determine suitability of this enzyme for industrial applications as well as enzyme cost, a major limiting factor. Significant reduction in cost can be achieved by employing low-value and abundant inulin-rich plants as Jerusalem artichoke, dahlia, yacon, garlic, and onion, among others. In general, the early harvested tubers of these plants contain a greater amount of highly polymerized sugar fractions, which offer more industrial value than late-harvested tubers or those after storage. Also, development of recombinant microorganisms could be useful to reduce the cost of enzyme technology for large-scale production of oligosaccharides. In the case of fungal inulinases, several studies of cloning and modification have been made to achieve greater efficiency. The present paper reviews inulin from vegetable sources as feedstock for oligosaccharides production through the action of inulinases, the impact of polymerization degree of inulin and its availability, and some strategies to increase oligosaccharide production.

  3. Package models and the information crisis of prebiotic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Daniel A M M; Fontanari, José F

    2008-05-21

    The coexistence between different types of templates has been the choice solution to the information crisis of prebiotic evolution, triggered by the finding that a single RNA-like template cannot carry enough information to code for any useful replicase. In principle, confining d distinct templates of length L in a package or protocell, whose survival depends on the coexistence of the templates it holds in, could resolve this crisis provided that d is made sufficiently large. Here we review the prototypical package model of Niesert et al. [1981. Origin of life between Scylla and Charybdis. J. Mol. Evol. 17, 348-353] which guarantees the greatest possible region of viability of the protocell population, and show that this model, and hence the entire package approach, does not resolve the information crisis. In particular, we show that the total information stored in a viable protocell (Ld) tends to a constant value that depends only on the spontaneous error rate per nucleotide of the template replication mechanism. As a result, an increase of d must be followed by a decrease of L, so that the net information gain is null.

  4. TECHNOLOGICAL INFORMATION REGARDING PREBIOTICS AND PROBIOTICS NUTRITION VERSUS THE PATENT REGISTERS: WHAT IS NEW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, José Maciel Caldas Dos; Pinheiro, Maurício Fortuna; Oti, André Takashi; Feitosa-Junior, Denilson José Silva; Pantoja, Mauro de Souza; Barros, Rui Sérgio Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Food is a key factor both in prevention and in promoting human health. Among the functional food are highlighted probiotics and prebiotics. Patent databases are the main source of technological information about innovation worldwide, providing extensive library for research sector. Perform mapping in the main patent databases about pre and probiotics, seeking relevant information regarding the use of biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the production of these foods. Electronic consultation was conducted (online) in the main public databases of patents in Brazil (INPI), United States (USPTO) and the European Patent Bank (EPO). The research involved the period from January 2014 to July 2015, being used in the title fields and summary of patents, the following descriptors in INPI "prebiotic", "prebiotic" "probiotics", "probiotic" and the USPTO and EPO: "prebiotic", "prebiotics", "probiotic", "probiotics". This search haven't found any deposit at the brazilian patents website (INPI) in this period; US Patent &Trademark Office had registered 60 titles in patents and the European Patent Office (EPO) showed 10 documents on the issue. Information technology offered by genetic engineering, biotechnology and nanotechnology deposited in the form of titles and abstracts of patents in relation to early nutritional intervention as functional foods, has increasingly required to decrease the risks and control the progression of health problems. But, the existing summaries, although attractive and promising in this sense, are still incipient to recommend them safely as a therapeutic tool. Therefore, they should be seen more as diet elements and healthy lifestyles. A alimentação é fator primordial tanto na prevenção quanto na promoção para a saúde humana. Dentre os alimentos funcionais destacam-se os probióticos e prebióticos. Os bancos de dados de patentes representam a maior fonte de informação tecnológica acerca de inovação em nível mundial

  5. Commercial probiotic bacteria and prebiotic carbohydrates: a fundamental study on prebiotics uptake, antimicrobials production and inhibition of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Guerrero, Alma; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Rodríguez-Serrano, Gabriela; Gómez-Ruiz, Lorena; García-Garibay, Mariano; Figueroa-González, Ivonne

    2014-08-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are among the most important functional food ingredients worldwide. The proven benefits of such ingredients to human health have encouraged the development of functional foods containing both probiotics and prebiotics. In this work, the production of antimicrobial compounds coupled to the uptake of commercial prebiotics by probiotic bacteria was investigated. The probiotic bacteria studied were able to take up commercial prebiotic carbohydrates to the same or higher extent than that observed for lactose (control carbohydrate). The growth of probiotic bacteria was coupled to the production of antimicrobials such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), H2 O2 and bacteriocins. A higher production of antimicrobial compounds was recorded with Oligomate 55® compared with Regulact® and Frutafit® (3-5 and 10-115 times higher SCFA and H2 O2 production, respectively). The probiotic bacteria grown with Oligomate 55® also produced bacteriocins and other non-identified antimicrobial compounds. The antimicrobials produced by the probiotic bacteria inhibited up to 50% the growth of model pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Micrococcus luteus compared with control cultures. The results here obtained are useful for the adequate selection of probiotic/prebiotics pairs and therefore in the development of efficient functional foods. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Novel probiotics and prebiotics: road to the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Verhagen, Hans; Rowland, Ian; Heimbach, Jim; Bañares, Silvia; Young, Tony; Nomoto, Koji; Lalonde, Mélanie

    2015-04-01

    Novel probiotics and prebiotics designed to manipulate the gut microbiota for improving health outcomes are in demand as the importance of the gut microbiota in human health is revealed. The regulations governing introduction of novel probiotics and prebiotics vary by geographical region. Novel foods and foods with health claims fall under specific regulations in several countries. The paper reviews the main requirements of the regulations in the EU, USA, Canada and Japan. We propose a number of areas that need to be addressed in any safety assessment of novel probiotics and prebiotics. These include publication of the genomic sequence, antibiotic resistance profiling, selection of appropriate in vivo model, toxicological studies (including toxin production) and definition of target population.

  7. The prebiotic synthesis of amino acids - interstellar vs. atmospheric mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, U. J.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Schutte, W. A.; Barbier, B.; Arcones Segovia, A.; Rosenbauer, H.; Thiemann, W. H.-P.; Brack, A.

    2002-11-01

    Until very recently, prebiotic amino acids were believed to have been generated in the atmosphere of the early Earth, as successfully simulated by the Urey-Miller experiments. Two independent studies now identified ice photochemistry in the interstellar medium as a possible source of prebiotic amino acids. Ultraviolet irradiation of ice mixtures containing identified interstellar molecules (such as H2O, CO2, CO, CH3OH, and NH3) in the conditions of vacuum and low temperature found in the interstellar medium generated amino acid structures including glycine, alanine, serine, valine, proline, and aspartic acid. After warmup, hydrolysis and derivatization, our team was able to identify 16 amino acids as well as furans and pyrroles. Enantioselective analyses of the amino acids showed racemic mixtures. A prebiotic interstellar origin of amino acid structures is now discussed to be a plausible alternative to the Urey-Miller mechanism.

  8. The effect of wheat prebiotics on the gut bacterial population and iron status of iron deficient broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P; Knez, Marija; Stangoulis, James Cr

    2014-06-13

    Currently, there is a lot of interest in improving gut health, and consequently increasing Fe absorption, by managing the colonic microbial population. This is traditionally done by the consumption of probiotics, live microbial food supplements. However, an alternative, and often very effective approach, is the consumption of food ingredients known as prebiotics. Fructans and arabinoxylans are naturally occurring non-digestible oligosaccharides in wheat that exhibit prebiotic properties and may enhance intestinal iron (Fe) absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prebiotics from wheat on Fe bioavailability in vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (broiler chickens, Gallus gallus). In the current study, the effect of intra-amniotic administration of wheat samples extracts at 17 d of embryonic incubation on the Fe status and possible changes in the bacterial population in intestinal content of broiler hatchlings were investigated. A group of 144 eggs were injected with the specified solution (1 ml per egg) into the amniotic fluid. Immediately after hatch (21 d) and from each treatment group, 10 chicks were euthanized and their small intestine, liver and cecum were removed for relative mRNA abundance of intestinal Fe related transporters, relative liver ferritin amounts and bacterial analysis of cecal content, respectively. The in vivo results are in agreement with the in vitro observations, showing no differences in the hatchling Fe status between the treatment groups, as Fe bioavailability was not increased in vitro and no significant differences were measured in the intestinal expression of DMT1, Ferroportin and DcytB in vivo. However, there was significant variation in relative amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal content between the treatments groups, with generally more bifidobacteria being produced with increased prebiotic content. In this study we showed that prebiotics naturally found in wheat grains/bread products

  9. Proton impact charge transfer on hydantoin - Prebiotic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchus-Montabonel, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    Formation and destruction of prebiotic compounds in astrophysical environments is a major issue in reactions concerning the origin of life. Detection of hydantoin in laboratory irradiation of interstellar ice analogues has confirmed evidence of this prebiotic compound and its stability to UV radiation or collisions may be crucial. Considering the different astrophysical environments, we have investigated theoretically proton-induced collisions with hydantoin in a wide energy range, from eV in the interstellar medium, up to keV for processes involving solar wind or supernovae shock-waves protons. Results are compared to previous investigations and qualitative trends on damage under spatial radiations are suggested.

  10. Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of pre biotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer - if formed - would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere.

  11. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two beta-Glycoside Hydrolases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations there of, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro-and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins...... (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 4-7) and the alkaline (pH 6-11) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5-13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5-7.8-fold in relative abundance....... Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium...

  12. Application of Plackett-Burman Design in Screening of Carbohydrate, Prebiotics/Alcohols and Protein/Amino Acid for Cryoprotectants of Streptococcus thermophilus

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    He Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The carbohydrate, prebiotics/alcohols as well as protein/amino acid have shown important influence on the cryoprotectants for Streptococcus thermophilus, this study aimed to screen the main effective factors for cryoprotectants of Streptococcus thermophiles using Plackett-Burman design. Viable counts with cryoprotectants were studied containing eight carbohydrate (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, galactose maltose, trehalose, soluble starch, eleven prebiotics/alcohols (xylooligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, isomaltooligosaccharide, stachyose, synanthrin, dextran sulfate, glycerin, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol and eight protein/amino acid (peptone, yeast powder, casein hydrolysate, glutamic acid, methionine, cysteine, alanine, Vc. The results indicated that sucrose and soluble starch, dextran sulfate, casein hydrolysate among the carbohydrate, prebiotics/alcohols and protein/amino acid affected the cryoprotectants for Streptococcus thermophilus markly, which should be appropriately increased in the subsequent experiments.

  13. Efficacy of a novel prebiotic and a commercial probiotic in reducing mortality and production losses due to cold stress/Escherichia coli challenge in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotics consisting of resistant starch may alter intestinal ecology, thus modulating inflammation and increasing intestinal health through increased cecal production of short chain fatty acids. Probiotics may directly alter the intestinal microbiome resulting in the same effects. Trials 1, 2, and...

  14. Evaluation of the prebiotic, Previda, on performance characteristics, intestinal microbial community, immune function and intestinal tract morphology of Altantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research into the use of non-nutritive feed supplements to enhance growth and disease resistance has increased due to concerns about antibiotics and their residues. The use of prebiotics, supplements that stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, is increasing in aquafeeds. This study examined ...

  15. Evaluation of the prebiotic, previda, on performance characteristics, intestinal microbial community, immune function and intestinal tract morphology of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research into the use of non-nutritive feed supplements to enhance growth and disease resistance has increased due to concerns about antibiotics and their residues. The use of prebiotics, supplements that stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, is increasing in aquafeeds. This study examined th...

  16. EFFICACY OF PREBIOTIC DOSE OF LACTULOSE IN FUNCTIONAL NUTRITION OF INFANTS WITH ENTEROCOLITIS AND INTESTINAL DISBIOSIS

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    Ye.R. Meskina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a data from a clinical study describing different clinical effects of lactulose. The direction of drug’s efficacy depends on different dose of lactulose. The use of prebiotic dose (milk mixture «Bifidus 1, 2» improves the state of intestinal micro flora, favors to the increase of efficacy of usually used treatment and decreases the probability of unfavorable rehabilitation period in infants with infectious enterocolitis and intestinal disbiosis.Key words: infants, infectious enterocolitis, intestinal micro flora, short-chain fatty acids, lactulose.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 105–110

  17. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Glenn R; Hutkins, Robert; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Prescott, Susan L; Reimer, Raylene A; Salminen, Seppo J; Scott, Karen; Stanton, Catherine; Swanson, Kelly S; Cani, Patrice D; Verbeke, Kristin; Reid, Gregor

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, a panel of experts in microbiology, nutrition and clinical research was convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics to review the definition and scope of prebiotics. Consistent with the original embodiment of prebiotics, but aware of the latest scientific and clinical developments, the panel updated the definition of a prebiotic: a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit. This definition expands the concept of prebiotics to possibly include non-carbohydrate substances, applications to body sites other than the gastrointestinal tract, and diverse categories other than food. The requirement for selective microbiota-mediated mechanisms was retained. Beneficial health effects must be documented for a substance to be considered a prebiotic. The consensus definition applies also to prebiotics for use by animals, in which microbiota-focused strategies to maintain health and prevent disease is as relevant as for humans. Ultimately, the goal of this Consensus Statement is to engender appropriate use of the term 'prebiotic' by relevant stakeholders so that consistency and clarity can be achieved in research reports, product marketing and regulatory oversight of the category. To this end, we have reviewed several aspects of prebiotic science including its development, health benefits and legislation.

  18. Evaluation of Prebiotic Effects of High-Purity Galactooligosaccharides in vitro and in vivo

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    Ki Bae Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Galactooligosaccharides (GOS are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS. Following administration of 1 % (by mass of HP-GOS to rats, the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum and B. longum in the gut increased most rapidly up to 12 h, and thereafter the increase was slow. Therefore, 1 % HP-GOS was found to be acceptable for the growth of probiotic bacteria. Groups of animals that were orally administered HP-GOS and bifidobacteria during the study, and the group administered HP-GOS during the 2nd (days 13–15 and 4th (days 28–30 period of the study had significantly (p<0.05 higher numbers of bifidobacteria in faeces than groups receiving a single dose of bifidobacteria. HP-GOS affected the expression of genes encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY. There was a significant upregulation of GLP-1 and PYY mRNA with HP-GOS and bifidobacteria intake. We propose that the prebiotic properties of HP-GOS are potentially valuable for the production of functional foods for human consumption.

  19. Qat Chewing and Periodontal Pathogens in Health and Disease: Further Evidence for a Prebiotic-Like Effect

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    Abdulrahman Al-Alimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Qat chewing has been reported to induce subgingival microbial shifts suggestive of prebiotic-like properties. The objective here was to assess the effect of qat chewing on a panel of classical and new putative periopathogens in health and periodontitis. Materials and Methods. 40 qat chewers and 40 nonchewers, equally stratified by periodontal health status, were recruited. Taqman, real-time PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Synergistetes, and TM7s in pooled subgingival biofilm samples. Differences in microbial parameters between the study groups were analysed using ordinal regression. Results. In health, the qat chewers harboured significantly lower relative counts of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, Synergistetes, and TM7s after adjustment for multiple comparisons (P≤0.007. At nominal significance level, they also carried lower counts of TM7s and P. micra (P≤0.05. In periodontitis, the chewers had lower counts of all taxa; however, only T. denticola withstood correction for multiple comparisons (P≤0.0063. Conclusions. Qat chewing is associated with lower proportions of periopathogens, particularly in subjects with healthy periodontium, which supports previous reports of its prebiotic-like properties. This potentially beneficial biological effect can be exploited by attempting to isolate the active fraction.

  20. Prebiotic (Mannanoligosaccharide- MOS in fish nutrition: effects on nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus performance

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    Flávio Endrigo Cechim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World fish production are growing about 10% a year and Brazil presents potential to be the first one in fish production until 2030. However, intensification of aquaculture production systems expose fish to numerous stressors such as poor water quality, crowding, handling and transport which may negatively affect their growth and and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. This study was set out to determine de effects of increasing levels of mannanoligosccharides (MOS on growth of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR. Fish were fed during 60 days with a commercial diet (32%CP supplemented with 0.0 (control; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% dietary MOS (n=4. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. After 60 days feeding trial, fish were fasted for 24 hours and sedated for biometrical parameters to evaluate growth parameters. It was observed no influence (p>0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia growth parameters (weight gain, feed conversion rate, specific growth rate as well as for hepatosomatic index. Fish fed 0.4% dietary MOS showed increased (p<0.05 feed consumption (76.74 ± 3.98 when compared to fish fed control (unsupplemented diet (69.31 ± 1.11. MOS are indigestible glucomannoproteins, which provide mannose substrate upon which pathogenic gut bacteria selectively attach and prevents formation of mixed colonies leading to better gut health by increasing regularity, height and integrity of the gut villi and consequent better utilization and absorption of nutrients. Several authors found positive effects of MOS supplementation on fish growth and at same time, others

  1. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG UMBI DAHLIA, KEDELAI DAN BAWANG PUTIH SEBAGAI SUMBER PREBIOTIK UNTUK ENKAPSULASI PROBIOTIK [Addition of Flours from Dahlia Tuber, Soybean and Garlic as Prebiotic Sources for Probiotic Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of flours made from dahlia tuber, soybean and garlic as the sources of natural prebiotic on the encapsulation of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus Dad 13 with carragenan and chitosan. Carragenan and chitosan are potential encapsulating agents that can protect bacterial cells from unfavorable conditions. It is hypothesized that addition of natural prebiotics from dahlia tuber, soybean and garlic can stimulate the growth of probiotic (L. acidophilus Dad 13 in MRS broth medium. Parameters evaluated were size and weight of capsule, number of cells in the capsule, acid and bile salt resistance of the biocapsule produced from carragenan and chitosan added with flours of dahlia tuber, soybean and garlic as the sources of natural prebiotic. The randomized complete block design was used as the experimental design with two factors. The first factor was the encapsulating agents (A1 carragenan, A2 chitosan and second factor was the sources of natural prebiotic (P1 dahlia tuber, P2 garlic, P3 soybean. The results showed that the type of encapsulating agent had an effect on weight, diameter and number of cells in the capsule but did not affect the acid and bile salt resistance. Addition of prebiotic flour to biocapsules had an effect on weight and diameter of capsules but no effect on acid and bile salt resistance and the number of cells. Addition of flour as prebiotic source from dahlia, garlic and soybean increased the cell number by 1 log cycle. Capsules made from chitosan with the addition of prebiotic source flour were lighter, had shorter diameter and lower cell reduction by acid (4.63-5.24 log cycle than those made with carragenan (6.93-7.19 log cycle. Based on the acid resistance, the best biocapsules was made with chitosan and dahlia prebiotic flour.

  2. Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

    2014-09-15

    The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of a prebiotic on performance of partridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaksar, V.; Veldkamp, T.; Hashemipour, H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a prebiotic on performance of partridge. The experiment was carried out with a total of eighty-day-old male Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar chukar) chicks in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of a control and

  4. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Siti A; Sarbini, Shahrul R

    2016-01-01

    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry.

  5. Proton-Induced Collisions on Potential Prebiotic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchus-Montabonel, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    With regard to the fascinating question of the origin of life, special interest has been devoted to potential prebiotic molecules which could drive the emergence of life. In the widely discussed hypothesis of a possible exogen apparition of life, the transport of those prebiotic species and their survival under spatial conditions is of strong interest. In particular their stability under solar radiation or in collisions with bare nucleus has to be considered. In that sense, taking account of the abundance of protons in ionized clouds of the interstellar medium, we have developed a detailed theoretical study of the charge transfer collision dynamics induced by impact of protons on a series of possible prebiotic compounds. Three main types of molecules have been considered: first of all the DNA and RNA building blocks with on a one hand the nucleobases uracil and thymine, and on the other hand the 2-deoxy-D-ribose sugar skeleton in its furanose and pyranose forms. The study has been extended to the 2-aminooxazole suggested to be a possible precursor of RNA nucleotides. The theoretical treatment involves ab-initio quantum chemistry molecular calculations followed by a semiclassical collision dynamics. Some qualitative trends may be suggested for the proton-induced damage of such prebiotic species.

  6. Complex prebiotic chemistry within a simple impacting icy mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Nir

    2013-06-01

    We present results of prebiotic molecule synthesis in shock compressed mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Given the likelihood of a CO2-rich primitive atmosphere, it is possible that impact processes of comets or other icy bodies were partially responsible for the creation of prebiotic chemical compounds on early Earth. We have conducted simulations of the chemical reactivity within an oxidized astrophysical icy mixture to close to equilibrium using a density functional tight binding (DFTB) approach. We observe that moderate shock pressures and temperatures (35 GPa and 2800 K) produce a number of functionalized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which remain intact upon expansion and cooling to lower conditions. At higher shock pressures and temperatures (48-62 GPa, 3700-4700 K), we observe the synthesis of a variety of short-lived, exotic C--C and C--N bonded oligomers which decompose upon expansion and cooling to form precursors to amino acids and other prebiotic compounds, such as long chain alkanes, HCN, CH4 and formaldehyde. Our results provide a mechanism for shock synthesis of prebiotic molecules at realistic impact conditions that is independent of external features such as the presence of a catalyst, illuminating UV radiation, or pre-existing conditions on a planet. This work was performed at LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and was funded by the NASA Astrobiology program.

  7. Prebiotic Organic Matter from the Center of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, DeWayne; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2016-06-01

    The origins of life on Earth must have begun with simple organic compounds. A plausible source of such prebiotic molecules was the interstellar medium (ISM). Of the over 160 molecules that have been identified in interstellar gas, about half have been discovered in one source, Sagittarius B2(N), located in the Galactic Center. This giant molecular cloud is also home to many large organic species observed in the ISM. How complex these species can become is unknown. In order to accurately establish an inventory of potentially, prebiotic organic molecules, we completed a continuous spectral-line survey of Sgr B2(N) at the confusion limit using the Arizona Radio Observatory facilities: the Kitt Peak 12 m and the Submillimeter Telescope. The survey covers the 1, 2, and 3 mm atmospheric windows in the range 68 - 280 GHz, and about 15,000 individual spectral lines have been observed. Seventy-four molecules have been identified in the data, including several potential prebiotic species, such as glycolaldehyde, acetamide, and methyl isocyanate. These molecules are relatively abundant in Sgr B2(N), with fractional abundances of f ~ 10-10 - 10-12 relative to H2. Current results of this survey will be presented, along with its implications for interstellar organic chemistry and prebiotic synthesis. A comparison with organics found in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  8. Effect of Probiotics/Prebiotics on Cattle Health and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeno, Yutaka; Shigemori, Suguru; Shimosato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics/prebiotics have the ability to modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, and are, thus, considered beneficial to the host animal and have been used as functional foods. Numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, have been shown to markedly affect the structure and activities of gut microbial communities in livestock animals. Previous studies reported the potential of probiotics and prebiotics in animal nutrition; however, their efficacies often vary and are inconsistent, possibly, in part, because the dynamics of the GI community have not been taken into consideration. Under stressed conditions, direct-fed microbials may be used to reduce the risk or severity of scours caused by disruption of the normal intestinal environment. The observable benefits of prebiotics may also be minimal in generally healthy calves, in which the microbial community is relatively stable. However, probiotic yeast strains have been administered with the aim of improving rumen fermentation efficiency by modulating microbial fermentation pathways. This review mainly focused on the benefits of probiotics/prebiotics on the GI microbial ecosystem in ruminants, which is deeply involved in nutrition and health for the animal.

  9. The effect of prebiotics on adherence of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Robert; Jakubec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotics are generally considered to promote the function or viability of probiotics via their fermentation, but their effect on the adherence of probiotics is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of 4 commercially available prebiotics [Orafti GR, Orafti P95, and Orafti Synergy (Beneo GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), and Vivinal (Friesland Foods Domo, Amersfoort, the Netherlands)] and 3 simple saccharides (glucose, galactose, and lactose) on the adherence of 5 probiotic type strains, 2 lactococci starter cultures, and 5 potential dairy probiotic strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms (Tábor, Czech Republic). Adherence was tested in microtiter plates on the following types of substrate: polystyrene alone and polystyrene coated with either porcine mucus or cocultures of the human colon cell lines Caco2 and HT29-MXT (1:9 ratio of HT29-MXT:Caco2). Adherence was evaluated as a change in fluorescence in the well of a microtiter plate. The most commonly observed effect (with a few exceptions) of prebiotics was decreased adherence of the tested strains observed on all types of substrate. The tested saccharides, which are part of the residual compounds of the used prebiotics, had a very similar effect-eliciting a decrease in adherence ability in the majority of the probiotic strains. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Constraints on the Early Terrestrial Surface UV Environment Relevant to Prebiotic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2017-03-01

    The UV environment is a key boundary condition to abiogenesis. However, considerable uncertainty exists as to planetary conditions and hence surface UV at abiogenesis. Here, we present two-stream multilayer clear-sky calculations of the UV surface radiance on Earth at 3.9 Ga to constrain the UV surface fluence as a function of albedo, solar zenith angle (SZA), and atmospheric composition. Variation in albedo and latitude (through SZA) can affect maximum photoreaction rates by a factor of >10.4; for the same atmosphere, photoreactions can proceed an order of magnitude faster at the equator of a snowball Earth than at the poles of a warmer world. Hence, surface conditions are important considerations when computing prebiotic UV fluences. For climatically reasonable levels of CO2, fluence shortward of 189 nm is screened out, meaning that prebiotic chemistry is robustly shielded from variations in UV fluence due to solar flares or variability. Strong shielding from CO2 also means that the UV surface fluence is insensitive to plausible levels of CH4, O2, and O3. At scattering wavelengths, UV fluence drops off comparatively slowly with increasing CO2 levels. However, if SO2 and/or H2S can build up to the ≥1-100 ppm level as hypothesized by some workers, then they can dramatically suppress surface fluence and hence prebiotic photoprocesses. H2O is a robust UV shield for λ atmospheric gases, fluence ≲198 nm is only available for cold, dry atmospheres, meaning sources with emission ≲198 (e.g., ArF excimer lasers) can only be used in simulations of cold environments with low abundance of volcanogenic gases. On the other hand, fluence at 254 nm is unshielded by H2O and is available across a broad range of NCO2, meaning that mercury lamps are suitable for initial studies regardless of the uncertainty in primordial H2O and CO2 levels.

  11. Simulating the UV Environment For the Synthesis of Prebiotic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, S.; Sasselov, D.

    2014-03-01

    UV radiation plays a key role in the era of biogenesis. The young Sun was more UV-active than the modern Sun (Ribas et al. 2010), and the Earth lacked an ozone layer, implying a larger UV flux both on Earth, as well as on asteroids/comets. Ultraviolet radiation can help drive prebiotic molecule synthesis (e.g., Chyba et al. 1992; Powner et al. 2009) or destroy biologically important molecules (e.g., Johns et al. 1967). These effects are wavelength dependent: they are sensitive to ionzation, bond, and ro-vibrational transition energies of biologically relevant molecules and their precursors. When simulating the environment at biogenesis it is therefore important to ensure realistic levels of UV input, in both magnitude and spectral shape. Many laboratory simulations of biomolecule synthesis under prebiotic conditions to date have been done with atomic lamps (e.g., Powner et al. 2007). These lamps are safe, stable, and affordable UV sources, well-suited for initial studies. However, their emission spectra are a poor match to prebiotic conditions: low-pressure lamps are characterized by line emission, while higher-pressure lamps do not well-reproduce the spectrum of the young Sun. In this paper, we present spectra that are more realistic approximations to prebiotic conditions. Using published opacity lists and atmospheric models, we compute the attenuation of the flux from a young Sunanalog due to water, and from the present-day Sun due to a planetary atmosphere. We compare these spectra to those emitted by lamps used in studies today, and explore the potential biological implications of the differences. We conclude by discussing possibilities for better simulating the prebiotic UV environment in lab setups.

  12. Growth, immune status and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia fed dietary prebiotics (mannan oligosaccharides-MOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Yuji-Sado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Farmers must conform to Best Management Practices in fish production such as the development of non-antibiotic dietary supplements for fish growth and health management. We determined the effects of increasing levels of dietary mannan oligosaccharides on growth, immune system and intestine integrity of Nile tilapia. Fish (49.6 ± 10.8 g were randomly distributed into 12 tanks (250 L; 20 fish per tank and fed during 60 days with a practical diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% dietary mannan oligosaccharides (n = 3. Fish growth and immune system were not affected (P > 0.05 by treatments. Fish fed 0.4% prebiotic supplementation presented increased (P < 0.05 intestinal fold height. Moreover, the intestine muscular layer thickness was increased in fish fed 0.4 and 0.6% dietary prebiotic. After 60 days, there were no effects on intestinal morphology. Studies regarding characterization of intestinal microbiota and experiment that reproduce commercial fish production systems hearing conditions are necessary to determine the effective use of this dietary supplement for the species.

  13. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Youn Yoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD, present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity. The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area.

  14. Prebiotics, Prosynbiotics and Synbiotics: Can They Reduce Plasma Oxidative Stress Parameters? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra

    2017-01-03

    This study assessed the effectiveness of presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics on reducing serum oxidative stress parameters. PubMed/Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched up to September 2016. English language randomized clinical trials reporting the effect of presybiotics, prosybiotics or synbiotic interventions on serum oxidative stress parameters in human adults were included. Twenty-one randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. Two studies investigated prebiotics, four studies synbiotics and fifteen studies probiotics. According to our systematic review, prebiotic could decrease malondialdehyde and increase superoxidative dismutase, but evidence is not enough. In comparison with fructo-oligosaccharide, inulin is much more useful for oxidative stress reduction. Using probiotics with dairy products could reduce oxidative stress significantly, but probiotic in form of supplementation did not have any effect on oxidative stress. There is limited but supportive evidence that presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics are effective for reducing oxidative stress parameters. Further randomized clinical trials with longer duration of intervention especially on population with increased oxidative stress are needed to provide more definitive results before any recommendation for clinical use of these interventions.

  15. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Youn; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-03-18

    Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual's quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area.

  16. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Youn; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area. PMID:26999199

  17. Ten Putative Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Emily J.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Keith, Scott W.; Aronne, Louis J.; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth M.; Biggio, Joseph; Boggiano, Mary M.; Eisenmann, Joe C.; Elobeid, Mai; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Gluckman, Peter; Hanlon, Erin C.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Redden, David T.; Ruden, Douglas M.; Wang, Chenxi; Waterland, Robert A.; Wright, Suzanne M.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic. PMID:19960394

  18. Possible mechanisms by which pro- and prebiotics influence colon carcinogenesis and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B S

    1999-07-01

    Oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon. Studies were designed to evaluate inulin (Raftiline) and oligofructose (Raftilose) for their potential inhibitory properties against the development of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. ACF are putative preneoplastic lesions from which adenomas and carcinomas may develop in the colon. The results of this study indicate that dietary administration of oligofructose and inulin inhibits the development of ACF in the colon, suggesting the potential colon tumor inhibitory properties of chicory fructans. The degree of ACF inhibition was more pronounced in animals given inulin than in those fed oligofructose. Because these prebiotics selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activities, ras-p21 ontoprotein expressions and tumor inhibitory activity of lyophilized cultures of Bifidobacterium longum against chemically induced colon and mammary carcinogenesis and against colonic tumor cell proliferation were examined. Dietary administration of lyophilized cultures of B. longum strongly suppressed colon and mammary tumor development and tumor burden. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis was associated with a decrease in colonic mucosal cell proliferation and activities of colonic mucosal and tumor ornithine decarboxylase and ras-p21. Human clinical trials are likely to broaden our insight into the importance of the pre- and probiotics in health and disease.

  19. Prebiotics and probiotics: some thoughts on demonstration of efficacy within the regulatory sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stephen P J; Kalmokoff, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics present regulators with challenges because they require a demonstrated positive health outcome and proof that the prebiotic or probiotic is the agent of action once safety aspects have been satisfied. Thus, probiotic and prebiotic definitions are important because they will set the criteria by which these materials will be judged within the regulatory sphere. Use of the terms probiotic and prebiotic are, themselves, considered health claims in some jurisdictions, so that both product health claims and product content labeling may be regulated. Currently accepted definitions of prebiotic and probiotic make it easier to draw a straight line between ingestion and health outcome for probiotics but much more difficult for prebiotics, where a health outcome must be linked to changes in specific bacterial species within the gut microbial community. These challenges highlight the difficulties facing regulatory bodies and the scientific community when emerging science is turned into consumable product.

  20. Prebióticos y su efecto en la biod sponibilidad del calcio Prebiotics and their effect on calcium bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Lavanda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de medidas de prevención de enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles, se piensa en los prebióticos como una forma efectiva, saludable y relativamente barata para la optimización de la absorción de Ca. El aumento de la expectativa de vida de la población y el incremento de enfermedades como la osteoporosis traen graves consecuencias a la salud del individuo, acarreando importantes desembolsos económicos. En esta revisión se condensa el conocimiento presente sobre el efecto fisiológico del consumo de carbohidratos prebióticos y su posible interferencia en la biodisponibilidad del Ca, como también las posibilidades de su empleo en estrategias para combatir las deficiencias del mineral. Se elaboró una recopilación de los estudios originales realizados con mayor impacto en el tema, dando preferencia a los publicados en los últimos 6 años. Utilizamos las bases de datos PubMed, Lilacs e SciELO, usando las palabras claves calcio, prebióticos e probióticos.The increased life expectancy and prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases have serious health and economic consequences on the population. Among the useful tools for preventing osteoporosis, prebiotics are thought to be an effective, healthy and relatively cheap way of optimizing calcium absorption. The objective of this review was to summarize the present knowledge on the physiological effects of prebiotic carbohydrate consumption and its possible interference with calcium bioavailability. The possibility of using prebiotics to fight calcium deficiency was also assessed. The keywords calcium, prebiotics and probiotics were used to search the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases for the most significant original studies on the subject published in the last 6 years.

  1. Prebiotics effect on immune and hepatic oxidative status and gut morphology of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Machado, Marina; Castro, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on immune and hepatic oxidative status, and gut morphology of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to the control but supplemented with 1% of scFOS, XOS or GOS. Dietary prebiotic incorporation did not affect total blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood indices or differential white blood cell counts. Fish fed GOS had lower ACH50 and nitric oxide than fish fed control diet. XOS enhanced immune status through the increase in alternative complement pathway (ACH50), lysozyme and total immunoglobulin. The higher activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish fed FOS compared to the other dietary groups was the only related antioxidant enzyme affected by prebiotics in the liver. GOS ameliorated the precocious adverse effects of PF based diet on gut histomorphology, as denoted by the lower incidence of histological alterations in fish fed GOS for 15 days. In conclusion, XOS and GOS at 1% might have potential to be used as prebiotics in white sea bream juveniles.

  2. In vitro evaluation of the prebiotic activity of a pectic oligosaccharide-rich extract enzymatically derived from bergamot peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, G; Nueno Palop, C; Tuohy, K; Gibson, G R; Bennett, R N; Waldron, K W; Bisignano, G; Narbad, A; Faulds, C B

    2007-01-01

    The prebiotic effect of a pectic oligosaccharide-rich extract enzymatically derived from bergamot peel was studied using pure and mixed cultures of human faecal bacteria. This was compared to the prebiotic effect of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Individual species of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli responded positively to the addition of the bergamot extract, which contained oligosaccharides in the range of three to seven. Fermentation studies were also carried out in controlled pH batch mixed human faecal cultures and changes in gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, a culture-independent microbial assessment. Addition of the bergamot oligosaccharides (BOS) resulted in a high increase in the number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, whereas the clostridial population decreased. A prebiotic index (PI) was calculated for both FOS and BOS after 10 and 24 h incubation. Generally, higher PI scores were obtained after 10 h incubation, with BOS showing a greater value (6.90) than FOS (6.12).

  3. Whole-grain wheat breakfast cereal has a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Klinder, Annett; Fava, Francesca; Napolitano, Aurora; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Leonard, Clare; Gibson, Glenn R; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association between dietary intake of whole grains and the risk of chronic disease. This may be related to the ability to mediate a prebiotic modulation of gut microbiota. However, no studies have been conducted on the microbiota modulatory capability of whole-grain (WG) cereals. In the present study, the impact of WG wheat on the human intestinal microbiota compared to wheat bran (WB) was determined. A double-blind, randomised, crossover study was carried out in thirty-one volunteers who were randomised into two groups and consumed daily 48 g breakfast cereals, either WG or WB, in two 3-week study periods, separated by a 2-week washout period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (the target genera for prebiotic intake), were significantly higher upon WG ingestion compared with WB. Ingestion of both breakfast cereals resulted in a significant increase in ferulic acid concentrations in blood but no discernible difference in faeces or urine. No significant differences in faecal SCFA, fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), TAG or HDL-cholesterol were observed upon ingestion of WG compared with WB. However, a significant reduction in TC was observed in volunteers in the top quartile of TC concentrations upon ingestion of either cereal. No adverse intestinal symptoms were reported and WB ingestion increased stool frequency. Daily consumption of WG wheat exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota composition. This prebiotic activity may contribute towards the beneficial physiological effects of WG wheat.

  4. PENGUJIAN SIFAT PREBIOTIK DAN SINBIOTIK PRODUK OLAHAN UBI JALAR SECARA IN VIVO [In Vivo Evaluation of Prebiotic and Synbiotic Properties of Processed Sweet Potato Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Nuraida1,2

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to investigate the prebiotic and synbiotic properties of sweet potato products (combined with L. casei subsp Rhamnosus for probiotic in increasing the number of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB and suppressing the number of E. coli and the occurrence of Salmonella in vivo. Some previous study showed that sweet potato is a potent source of prebiotic. The sweet potato products evaluated were sweet potato flakes (SPF and sweet potato ice cream mix. The in vivo assay used male rat strain Sprague-Dawley. Total microbes, LAB, E. coli and Salmonella in fecal were analyzed before, during and after feeding period. Feeding with SPF as prebiotic, L. casei subsp Rhamnosus as probiotic, and combination of both as synbiotic for ten days were able to increase the number of LAB (0.4-1.1 log CFU/g and suppress the number of E. coli in rat feces (1.5-1.7 log CFU/g. All of the treatment did not affect the occurrence of Salmonella in rat feces. The treatment of sweet potato ice cream mix as prebiotics and the combination of sweet potato ice cream mix and L. casei subsp. Rhamnosus as synbiotic for ten days did not effect the number of LAB and E. coli in rat feces.

  5. In vitro assessment of agave fructans (Agave salmiana) as prebiotics and immune system activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Vilet, L; Garcia-Hernandez, M H; Delgado-Portales, R E; Corral-Fernandez, N E; Cortez-Espinosa, N; Ruiz-Cabrera, M A; Portales-Perez, D P

    2014-02-01

    The prebiotic effect of agave fructans (Agave salmiana) was evaluated through the growth of two lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis). The immune system was activated through the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy subjects testing fructans, LAB or a mixture of these compounds at different concentrations. Immune responses, such as early cell activation (CD69), cell cycle progression, nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of transcription factors for lymphocyte differentiation, were analyzed. Compared with other fructans, the extracted agave fructans showed the highest prebiotic activity and increased levels of CD69 expression, proliferative activity and NO production when administered with the probiotic L. casei. The Th1 lymphocyte differentiation produced through LAB stimulation was greatly diminished after the incorporation of agave fructans. In conclusion, these types of fructans (A. salmiana) are involved in the activation and selective differentiation of cells of the immune system through interactions with probiotics. Thus, agave fructans represent a novel immunomodulator that might benefit the functional food industry.

  6. Pre-biotic stage of life origin under non-photosynthetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsev, S. I.; Mezhevikin, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous assembling of a simplest bacterial cell even if all necessary molecules are present in a solution seems to be extremely rare event and from the scientific standpoint has to be considered as impossible. Therefore, a predecessor of a living cell has to be very simple for providing its self-assembling and at the same time it should be able of progressive increase in complexity. Now phase-separated particles, first of all micelles, are put forward as possible predecessors of living cell. According to the offered working concept only phase-separated particles possessing autocatalytic properties can be considered as predecessors of living cells. The first stage of evolution of these phase-separated autocatalytic systems is the appearance of pre-biotic metabolism providing synthesis of amphiphiles for formation of capsules of these systems. This synthesis is maintained by the energy of a base reaction being a component of a planet-chemical cycle. Catalytic system providing functioning of pre-biotic metabolism is based on multivariate oligomeric autocatalyst, which reproduces itself from monomers, penetrating the particles from the outside. Since the autocatalyst realizes random polymerization then a collection of other oligomers possessing different catalytic functions is produced. In the paper the functioning of multivariate oligomeric autocatalyst in flow reactor is analyzed. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  7. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in the diet of young pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: prebiotics, piglets, gut healthPrebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that are not metabolized in the small intestine and fermented in the large intestine. Oligofructose are non-digestible oligosaccharides which may stimulate beneficial bacteria in the gut and may affect the gut ecosystem. Prebiotic effects will depend largely on their chemical structure (degree of polymerization). Dietary inclusion of probiotics in young pig diets may beneficially affect gut microbiota. Synbio...

  8. Developing a prebiotic yogurt enriched by red bean powder: Microbiological, physi-cochemical and sensory aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyoningrum, Fitri; Priadi, Gunawan; Afiati, Fifi

    2017-01-01

    Red bean is widely known as a prebiotic, but addition of it into yogurt is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red bean powder addition on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory of yogurt. Skim milk also added into yogurt formula to optimize the quality of yogurt. The treatment of concentrations, either red bean and skim milk, did not effect on the viability of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt (8.35 - 9.03 log cfu/ml) and the crude fiber content (0.04 - 0.08%). The increasing of red bean concentration induced the increase of protein content significantly. The increasing of level concentration, either red bean or skim milk, induced the increasing of carbohydrate content. Opposite phenomenon was occurred on the moisture content. Based on the sensory test result, the addition of 3% of skim milk and 2%of red bean into yogurt still accepted by panelist.

  9. Schreibersite on the early Earth: Scenarios for prebiotic phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Pasek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni3P, provides a reactive source of phosphorus capable of forming phosphorylated molecules. These molecules may have been an important component of prebiotic chemistry, allowing their build-up and eventual commencement of autopoiesis. Discussed here are potential geochemical routes to providing schreibersite, as a potentially important prebiotic mineral, to the Hadean Earth. Two routes are identified: delivery of phosphides by meteoritic material and the reduction of phosphates to phosphides by high-temperature, low-redox conditions. About 1–10% of all crustal phosphorus is estimated to have been in schreibersite during the Hadean, making the long-term reaction of this mineral with organic-laden water plausible for many years. Ultimately, such conditions would have been conducive to the formation of life as we know it today.

  10. Prebiotic organic syntheses and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Desmarais, D.; Mack, R.; Miller, S. L.; Strathearn, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The outline of a modern paradigm for the origins of life on earth was first formulated by Oparin (1924). According to the considered hypothesis, living organisms arose naturally on the primitive earth through a lengthy process of chemical evolution of organic matter which began in the atmosphere and culminated in the primordial seas. Details regarding the chemical evolution paradigm are discussed, and chemical evolutionary processes formulated by principal contributors are reviewed in a historical context. Attention is given to the Oparin model of the prebiotic earth, the Urey model, the Rubey model, a multistage model for early atmospheric evolution, and other variations on the theme of prebiotic atmospheres. Evidence in support of the chemical evolution paradigm is considered along with modern models regarding the accretion of earth and the formation of its core, and problems and prospects for future studies.

  11. Shock-Synthesis of Prebiotic Compounds in Impacting Simple Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, N.

    2013-12-01

    How and when prebiotic organic material such as amino acids appeared on the primitive planet has been debated without resolution in the open literature for close to 60 years. Earlier studies have shown that the synthesis of life-building molecules such as amino acids, polypeptides, and DNA and RNA nucleobases is much more likely in a reducing environment, e.g., rich in H2 and CH4. However, the current viewpoint is that the composition of early Earth's atmosphere was more oxidizing, consisting mainly of CO2, with significantly lesser amounts of N2, H2S, HCl, and water vapor. The possibility exists that both prebiotic raw materials and the requisite energy for their synthesis may have been delivered to the Earth simultaneously by a comet impact. Cometary ices are predominantly water, containing many small molecules important to prebiotic aqueous chemistry, e.g., NH3, CH3OH, and an impact can provide an abundant supply of energy to drive chemical reactivity. The flux of organic matter to Earth via comets and asteroids during periods of heavy bombardment may have been as high as 1013 kg/yr, delivering up to several orders of magnitude greater mass of organics than what likely pre-existed on the planet. We have conducted simulations of the chemical reactivity within impacting icy materials to close to equilibrium using quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Here, we have simulated the thermodynamic conditions of the entire impacting event, including shock compression due to impact with the planetary surface, followed by expansion due to the rarefaction wave passing through the material, and cooling and equilibration to conditions extant on the planet. Our simulations show that shock compression induces the formation of extended C-C and C-N bonded networks, which break apart to form prebiotic material upon expansion and cooling. Impacts with peak thermodynamic conditions of 36 GPa (1 GPa = 10 kbar) and 2800 K yielded functionalized aromatic hydrocarbons upon

  12. Electrostatic activation of prebiotic chemistry in substellar atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Craig R; Diver, Declan A; Rimmer, Paul B

    2013-01-01

    Charged dust grains in the atmospheres of exoplanets may play a key role in the formation of prebiotic molecules, necessary to the origin of life. Dust grains submerged in an atmospheric plasma become negatively charged and attract a flux of ions that are accelerated from the plasma. The energy of the ions upon reaching the grain surface may be sufficient to overcome the activation energy of particular chemical reactions that would be unattainable via ion and neutral bombardment from classical, thermal excitation. As a result, prebiotic molecules or their precursors could be synthesised on the surface of dust grains that form clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. This paper investigates the energization of the plasma ions, and the dependence on the plasma electron temperature, in the atmospheres of substellar objects such as gas giant planets. Calculations show that modest electron temperatures of $\\approx 1$ eV ($\\approx 10^{4}$ K) are enough to accelerate ions to sufficient energies that exceed the activation...

  13. Prebiotic organic syntheses and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Desmarais, D.; Mack, R.; Miller, S. L.; Strathearn, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The outline of a modern paradigm for the origins of life on earth was first formulated by Oparin (1924). According to the considered hypothesis, living organisms arose naturally on the primitive earth through a lengthy process of chemical evolution of organic matter which began in the atmosphere and culminated in the primordial seas. Details regarding the chemical evolution paradigm are discussed, and chemical evolutionary processes formulated by principal contributors are reviewed in a historical context. Attention is given to the Oparin model of the prebiotic earth, the Urey model, the Rubey model, a multistage model for early atmospheric evolution, and other variations on the theme of prebiotic atmospheres. Evidence in support of the chemical evolution paradigm is considered along with modern models regarding the accretion of earth and the formation of its core, and problems and prospects for future studies.

  14. Prebiotics and probiotics: the prevention and reduction in severity of atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, N; Armstrong, A W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify whether supplementation with prebiotics and/or probiotics help prevent the development or reduce the severity of atopic dermatitis in children less than three years of age. Since 1997, immunostimulatory supplements, such as prebiotics and probiotics, have been investigated. Various supplementations include probiotics (single strain or mix), probiotics with formula, probiotics mix with prebiotics, and prebiotics. In this narrative review, we examined 13 key articles on prebiotics and/or probiotics, and their effects on infant atopic dermatitis. Among the selected studies, a total of 3,023 participants received supplements or placebo. Eight out of the 13 (61.5%) studies reported a significant effect on the prevention of atopic dermatitis after supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics. Five out of the 13 (38.5%) studies indicated significant reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis after supplementation. Based on the available studies, supplementation with certain probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) appears to be an effective approach for the prevention and reduction in severity of atopic dermatitis. A mix of specific probiotic strains prevented atopic dermatitis among infants. Based on studies with prebiotics, there was a long-term reduction in the incidence of atopic dermatitis. Supplementation with prebiotics and probiotics appears useful for the reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis. Additional interventional studies exploring prebiotics and probiotics are imperative before recommendations can be made.

  15. Recent developments in prebiotics to selectively impact beneficial microbes and promote intestinal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastall, Robert A; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-04-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that have a specific stimulatory effect upon selected populations of gut bacteria. The usual target microorganisms for prebiotic approaches are bifidobacteria. Numerous human feeding studies have shown the prebiotic influences that galactans and fructans can exert. Other candidate prebiotics are under investigation. The field is now moving towards identifying the health aspect associated with their use. Many avenues of gut related health are being researched, including reduction of diarrhoea, immune stimulation, and improved mineral bioavailability. Most current emphasis appears to be towards various parameters associated with metabolic syndrome. These include markers of insulin resistance, appetite, satiety, blood lipids and inflammatory status.

  16. A MeSH-based text mining method for identifying novel prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guangyu; Lu, Yiming; Min, Bo; Qu, Wubin; Zhang, Chenggang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prebiotics contribute to the well-being of their host by altering the composition of the gut microbiota. Discovering new prebiotics is a challenging and arduous task due to strict inclusion criteria; thus, highly limited numbers of prebiotic candidates have been identified. Notably, the large numbers of published studies may contain substantial information attached to various features of known prebiotics that can be used to predict new candidates. In this paper, we propose a medical subject headings (MeSH)-based text mining method for identifying new prebiotics with structured texts obtained from PubMed. We defined an optimal feature set for prebiotics prediction using a systematic feature-ranking algorithm with which a variety of carbohydrates can be accurately classified into different clusters in accordance with their chemical and biological attributes. The optimal feature set was used to separate positive prebiotics from other carbohydrates, and a cross-validation procedure was employed to assess the prediction accuracy of the model. Our method achieved a specificity of 0.876 and a sensitivity of 0.838. Finally, we identified a high-confidence list of candidates of prebiotics that are strongly supported by the literature. Our study demonstrates that text mining from high-volume biomedical literature is a promising approach in searching for new prebiotics. PMID:27930574

  17. The prebiotic inulin as a functional food - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C-H; Cao, J-H; Zhang, F-C

    2016-07-01

    The newborn digestive tract is rapidly colonized right after birth. The type of feeding could significantly influence this colonization process. Infant formulas like inulin try to mimic the bifidogenic effects of human milk by addition of prebiotics. Moreover, studies in the recent past have evidenced important effects of inulin during early infant life. The present review article will highlight recent updates about the use of inulin in the pediatric clinical setting.

  18. Evaluating Experimental Artifacts in Hydrothermal Prebiotic Synthesis Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexander; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2003-04-01

    Control experiments with ultra pure deionized water were conducted to evaluate the organic contamination in hydrothermal prebiotic experiments. Different combinations of reaction vessel material, sampling tubing and stirring were tested and the amounts of organic contaminants determined. All tested types of polymer tubing were proven to introduce organic contaminants (formate, acetate and propionate ions) into the reacting solution. Stainless steel has a catalytic effect on the decomposition of formate, consistent with earlier work at high temperatures and pressures.

  19. Long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model for prebiotic evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nokura, Kazuo [Shonan Institute of Technology, Fujisawa 251-8511 (Japan)

    2003-11-28

    I propose and discuss a fitness function for one-dimensional binary monomer sequences of macromolecules for prebiotic evolution. The fitness function is defined by the free energy of polymers in the high temperature random coil phase. With repulsive interactions among the same kind of monomers, the free energy in the high temperature limit becomes the energy function of the one-dimensional long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model, which is shown to have a dynamical phase transition and glassy states.

  20. The intestinal microbiome, probiotics and prebiotics in neurogastroenterology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The brain-gut axis allows bidirectional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS), linking emotional and cognitive centers of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. Recent experimental work suggests that the gut microbiota have an impact on the brain-gut axis. A group of experts convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) discussed the role of gut bacteria on brain functions and the impli...

  1. Inadequacy of prebiotic synthesis as origin of proteinous amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J T; Bronskill, P M

    1979-07-18

    The production of some nonproteinous, and lack of production of other proteinous, amino acids in model prebiotic synthesis, along with the instability of glutamine and asparagine, suggest that not all of the 20 present day proteinous amino acids gained entry into proteins directly from the primordial soup. Instead, a process of active co-evolution of the genetic code and its constituent amino acids would have to precede the final selection of these proteinous amono acids.

  2. Exploring the Fate of Nitrogen Heterocycles in Complex Prebiotic Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    A long standing question in the field of prebiotic chemistry is the origin of the genetic macromolecules DNA and RNA. DNA and RNA have very complex structures with repeating subunits of nucleotides, which are composed of nucleobases (nitrogen heterocycles) connected to sugar-phosphate. Due to the instability of some nucleobases (e.g. cytosine), difficulty of synthesis and instability of D-ribose, and the likely scarcity of polyphosphates necessary for the modern nucleotides, alternative nucleotides have been proposed for constructing the first genetic material. Thus, we have begun to investigate the chemistry of nitrogen heterocycles in plausible, complex prebiotic mixtures in an effort to identify robust reactions and potential alternative nucleotides. We have taken a complex prebiotic mixture produced by a spark discharge acting on a gas mixture of N2, CO2, CH4, and H2, and reacted it with four nitrogen heterocycles: uracil, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, guanine, and isoxanthopterin (2-amino-4,7-dihydroxypteridine). The products of the reaction between the spark mixture and each nitrogen heterocycle were characterized by liquid chromatography coupled to UV spectroscopy and Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We found that the reaction between the spark mixtUl'e and isoxanthopterin formed one major product, which was a cyanide adduct. 5-hydroxymethyluracil also reacted with the spark mixture to form a cyanide adduct, uracil-5-acetonitrile, which has been synthesized previously by reacting HCN with S-hydroxymethyluracil. Unlike isoxanthopterin, the chromatogram of the 5-hydroxymethyluracil reaction was much more complex with multiple products including spark-modified dimers. Additionally, we observed that HMU readily self-polymerizes in solution to a variety of oligomers consistent with those suggested by Cleaves. Guanine and uracil, the biological nucleobases, did not react with the spark mixture, even at high temperature (100 C). This suggests that there are alternative

  3. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant.

  4. Chili Peppers, Curcumins, and Prebiotics in Gastrointestinal Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence for the role of several natural products as either useful agents or adjuncts in the management of functional GI disorders (FGIDs). In this review, we examine the medical evidence for three such compounds: chili, a culinary spice; curcumin, another spice and active derivative of a root bark; and prebiotics, which are nondigestible food products. Chili may affect the pathogenesis of abdominal pain especially in functional dyspepsia and cause other symptoms. It may have a therapeutic role in FGIDs through desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric rhizome, has been shown in several preclinical studies and uncontrolled clinical trials as having effects on gut inflammation, gut permeability and the brain-gut axis, especially in FGIDs. Prebiotics, the non-digestible food ingredients in dietary fiber, may serve as nutrients and selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of certain colonic bacteria. The net effect of this change on colonic microbiota may lead to the production of acidic metabolites and other compounds that help to reduce the production of toxins and suppress the growth of harmful or disease-causing enteric pathogens. Although some clinical benefit in IBS has been shown, high dose intake of prebiotics may cause more bloating from bacterial fermentation.

  5. Polyimine and its potential significance for prebiotic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Martin; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Usher, David; Shalloway, David

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a key reagent in prebiotic chemistry, is being generated in large amounts in the atmosphere of Titan. Contradictions between Cassini-Huygens measurements of the atmosphere and the surface of Titan, suggest that HCN is undergoing reaction chemistry, despite the frigid temperatures of 90-94 K. We will discuss computational results [1] investigating polyimine as one potential explanation for this observation. Polyimine is a polymer identified as the major component of polymerized HCN in laboratory experiments. It is flexible, which aids low temperature mobility, and it is able to form intermolecular and intramolecular =N-H...N hydrogen bonds, allowing for different polymorphs. Polymorphs have been predicted and explored by density functional theory coupled with a structure-searching algorithm. We have calculated the thermodynamics of polymerization, and show that polyimine is capable of absorbing light in a window of relative transparency in Titan's atmosphere. Light absorption and the possible catalytic functions of polyimine are suggestive of it driving photochemistry on the surface, with potential prebiotic implications.References:[1] M. Rahm, J. I. Lunine, D. Usher, D. Shalloway, "Polymorphism and electronic structure of polyimine and its potential significance for prebiotic chemistry on Titan", PNAS, early view. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1606634113

  6. Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschow, Bryon; Doré, Joël; Hibberd, Patricia; Dinan, Timothy; Reid, Gregor; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Degnan, Fred H; Foster, Jane; Gibson, Glenn; Hutton, John; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Ley, Ruth; Nieuwdorp, Max; Pot, Bruno; Relman, David; Serazin, Andrew; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions. © 2013 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

    2014-09-07

    It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn's disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment.

  8. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two β-Glycoside Hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella C. van Zanten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE in the acidic (pH 4–7 and the alkaline (pH 6–11 regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5–13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5–7.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881 and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726. The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

  9. Microbial Populations in Naked Neck Chicken Ceca Raised on Pasture Flock Fed with Commercial Yeast Cell Wall Prebiotics via an Illumina MiSeq Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hong Park

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate dietary supplements that selectively stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. These bacteria can inhibit colonization of pathogenic bacteria by producing antimicrobial substances such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs and competing for niches with pathogens within the gut. Pasture flock chickens are generally raised outdoors with fresh grass, sunlight and air, which represents different environmental growth conditions compared to conventionally raised chickens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in microbial populations from naked neck chicken ceca fed with commercial prebiotics derived from brewer's yeast cell wall via an Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 147 day-of-hatch naked neck chickens were distributed into 3 groups consisted of 1 C: control (no prebiotic, 2 T1: Biolex® MB40 with 0.2%, and 3 T2: Leiber® ExCel with 0.2%, consistently supplemented prebiotics during the experimental period. At 8 weeks, a total of 15 birds from each group were randomly selected and ceca removed for DNA extraction. The Illumina Miseq platform based on V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was applied for microbiome analysis. Both treatments exhibited limited impact on the microbial populations at the phylum level, with no significant differences in the OTU number of Bacteroidetes among groups and an increase of Proteobacteria OTUs for the T1 (Biolex® MB40 group. In addition there was a significant increase of genus Faecalibacterium OTU, phylum Firmicutes. According to the development of next generation sequencing (NGS, microbiome analysis based on 16S rRNA gene proved to be informative on the prebiotic impact on poultry gut microbiota in pasture-raised naked neck birds.

  10. Catalytic Interactions and Molecular Docking of Bile Salt Hydrolase (BSH) from L. plantarum RYPR1 and Its Prebiotic Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ruby; Singh, Puneet K.; Puniya, Anil K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are the non-digestible carbohydrate, which passes through the small intestine into unmetabolized form, reaches the large intestine and undergoes fermentation by the colonic bacteria thus; prebiotics stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Further, bile salt hydrolase (BSH) is an enzyme that catalyses the deconjugation of bile salt, so it has enormous potential toward utilizing such capability of Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 toward detoxifying through BSH enzyme activity. In the present study, six isolates of Lactobacillus were evaluated for the co-aggregation assay and the isolate Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 was further selected for studies of prebiotic utilization, catalytic interactions and molecular docking. The prebiotic utilization ability was assessed by using commercially available prebiotics lactulose, inulin, xylitol, raffinose, and oligofructose P95. The results obtained revealed that RYPR1 is able to utilize these probiotics, maximum with lactulose by showing an increase in viable cell count (7.33 ± 0.02 to 8.18 ± 0.08). In addition, the molecular docking of BSH from Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 was performed which revealed the binding energy –4.42 and 7.03 KJ/mol. This proves a considerably good interactions among BSH and its substrates like Taurocholic acid (–4.42 KJ/mol) and Glycocholic acid (–7.03 KJ/mol). These results from this study establishes that Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 possesses good probiotic effects so it could be used for such applications. Further, molecular dynamics simulations were used to analyze the dynamic stability of the of modeled protein to stabilize it for further protein ligand docking and it was observed that residues Asn12, Ile8, and Leu6 were interacting among BSH and its substrates, i.e., Taurocholic acid and Lys88 and Asp126 were interacting with Glycocholic acid. These residues were interacting when the docking was carried out with stabilized BSH protein structure, thus, these residues may

  11. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in the diet of young pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: prebiotics, piglets, gut healthPrebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that are not metabolized in the small intestine and fermented in the large intestine. Oligofructose are non-digestible oligosaccharides which may stimulate beneficial bacteria in the gut and may affect the gut

  12. Effects of dietary Aspergillus meal prebiotic on turkey poults production parameters and bone qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Aspergillus meal (AM), a prebiotic on performance and bone parameters of neonatal turkey poults. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host and have been shown to stimulate calcium and magnesium a...

  13. Prebiotic oligosaccharides and the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Meer (Hester); G. Boehm (Günther); F. Stellaard (Frans); A. Vriesema (Aldwin); J. Knol (Jan); R. Havinga (Rick); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); H.J. Verkade (Henkjan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHuman milk contains prebiotic oligosaccharides, which stimulate the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. It is unclear whether the prebiotic capacity of human milk contributes to the larger bile salt pool size and the more efficient fat absorption in infants fed human mi

  14. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in the diet of young pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: prebiotics, piglets, gut healthPrebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that are not metabolized in the small intestine and fermented in the large intestine. Oligofructose are non-digestible oligosaccharides which may stimulate beneficial bacteria in the gut and may affect the gut ecosy

  15. Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Alissa C; Hume, Megan P; Martínez, Inés; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Walter, Jens; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-09-01

    It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of

  16. Probiotic and prebiotic-probiotic PEC microparticles for sustaining and enhancing intestinal probiotic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshitha, K; Kulkarni, P K; Vaghela, Rudra; Kumar Varma, V Naga Sravan; Deshpande, D Rohan; Hani, Umme

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) microparticles composing Lactobacillus Acidophilus (probiotic) and Fructo oligosaccharide-Lactobacillus Acidophilus (prebiotic-probiotic), for sustaining and enhancing intestinal growth of probiotic bacteria. Gum Karaya-Chitosan(GK-CH) was used to fabricate PEC microparticles by extrusion method. The prepared microparticles were characterized for FT-IR, DSC and particle size and evaluated for percentage yield, swelling, surface morphology, entrapment rate and further studied for influence of prebiotic over probiotic growth. The fabricated PEC microparticles composed of Probiotic and Prebiotic- Probiotic have exhibited sustainability of probiotic bacteria for 12 hrs in GIT conditions and presence of prebiotic in the preparation enhanced the probiotic cell growth. Hence, it can be concluded that PEC between GK-CH was found to be successful in sustaining cell release and presence of prebiotic was found to enhance the probiotic cell growth.

  17. Carcass and cut yields and meat qualitative traits of broilers fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.

  18. Prebiotic water/ice as medium for peptide catlysis and RNA world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    The emergence of RNA chains from prebiotic soup is considered a stumbling block in the RNA world theory (Orgel 2004). Both the activation of RNA monomers and their subsequent oligomerization is hard to achieve in accepted early Earth conditions, thus putting doubt on the prebiotic plausibility...... of the RNA world concept. Contrary to RNA building blocks, amino acids form quite easily in simulated prebiotic reactions. Also, many prebiotic scenarios for condensation of amino acids into peptides have been proposed and successfully demonstrated experimentally (Rode 1999). We also have growing body....... As an environment medium we have used water/ice eutectic phase – conditions believed to be present on the early Earth and many icy moons. In this work we describe a prebiotically plausible system in which L-dipeptides containing a histidine residue, primarily the SerHis dipeptide act as catalyst for the formation...

  19. Specific prebiotics in a formula for infants with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Anita; Cochrane, Barbara; Wopereis, Harm; Loveridge, Nik

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the influence of adding a patented, specific mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS [9:1 ratio], Danone Research) to a protein substitute suitable for infants with Phenylketonuria (PKU); PKU Anamix Infant (Nutricia). This was an 8-week open-label, single-arm, pilot intervention study in 9 infants (8-week median age) diagnosed with PKU. On study entry, infants were prescribed PKU Anamix Infant to replace an infant phenylalanine-free protein substitute without prebiotics (IPS). Blood phenylalanine concentrations were monitored and stool samples analyzed for pH/bacterial groups. PKU Anamix infant was well tolerated and accepted with no adverse events reported. Overall, plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations were maintained within target ranges throughout the study (120-360 μmol/l phenylalanine, 30-100 μmol/l tyrosine). All infants exhibited microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria (median 58.97% at Week 8), although no statistically significant change from baseline was observed at study endpoint. No infants showed abnormally high levels of Clostridium histolyticum/lituseburense or potentially pathogenic enterobacteriaceae at any point during the study. A significant reduction in median stool pH versus baseline was observed at Week 4 (pH reduced from 6.79 to 5.83), but this significance was not present at Week 8 (pH = 6.61). PKU Anamix Infant maintains phenylalanine control in line with established IPS without prebiotics and maintains levels of bifidobacteria and lowers stool pH. In exclusively breast-fed infants the latter two factors have been associated with a reduced risk of infection and may be of particular importance in infants with PKU. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of probiotics and prebiotics in inducing gut immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Angélica T; Teixeira, Mauro M; Martins, Flaviano S

    2013-12-12

    The gut immune system is influenced by many factors, including dietary components and commensal bacteria. Nutrients that affect gut immunity and strategies that restore a healthy gut microbial community by affecting the microbial composition are being developed as new therapeutic approaches to treat several inflammatory diseases. Although probiotics (live microorganisms) and prebiotics (food components) have shown promise as treatments for several diseases in both clinical and animal studies, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the direct and indirect effects on the gut immune response will facilitate better and possibly more efficient therapy for diseases. In this review, we will first describe the concept of prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics and cover the most recently well-established scientific findings regarding the direct and indirect mechanisms by which these dietary approaches can influence gut immunity. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship of diet, the microbiota, and the gut immune system. Second, we will highlight recent results from our group, which suggest a new dietary manipulation that includes the use of nutrient products (organic selenium and Lithothamnium muelleri) and probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii UFMG 905 and Bifidobacterium sp.) that can stimulate and manipulate the gut immune response, inducing intestinal homeostasis. Furthermore, the purpose of this review is to discuss and translate all of this knowledge into therapeutic strategies and into treatment for extra-intestinal compartment pathologies. We will conclude by discussing perspectives and molecular advances regarding the use of prebiotics or probiotics as new therapeutic strategies that manipulate the microbial composition and the gut immune responses of the host.

  1. Large prebiotic molecules in space: photo-physics of acetic acid and its isomers

    CERN Document Server

    Puletti, Fabrizio; Mulas, Giacomo; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large molecules have been positively identified in space. Many of these molecules are of biological interest and thus provide insight into prebiotic organic chemistry in the protoplanetary nebula. Among these molecules, acetic acid is of particular importance due to its structural proximity to glycine, the simplest amino acid. We compute electronic and vibrational properties of acetic acid and its isomers, methyl formate and glycolaldehyde, using density functional theory. From computed photo-absorption cross-sections, we obtain the corresponding photo-absorption rates for solar radiation at 1 AU and find them in good agreement with previous estimates. We also discuss glycolaldehyde diffuse emission in Sgr B2(N), as opposite to emissions from methyl formate and acetic acid that appear to be concentrate in the compact region Sgr B2(N-LMH).

  2. Modulation of Gut Microbiota-Brain Axis by Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Cao, Shangqing; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-09-16

    There exists a bidirectional communication system between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. Increasing evidence shows that gut microbiota can play a critical role in this communication; thus, the concept of a gut microbiota and brain axis is emerging. Here, we review recent findings in the relationship between intestinal microbes and brain function, such as anxiety, depression, stress, autism, learning, and memory. We highlight the advances in modulating brain development and behavior by probiotics, prebiotics, and diet through the gut microbiota-brain axis. A variety of mechanisms including immune, neural, and metabolic pathways may be involved in modulation of the gut microbiota-brain axis. We also discuss some future challenges. A deeper understanding of the relationship between the gut bacteria and their hosts is implicated in developing microbial-based therapeutic strategies for brain disorders.

  3. Microbial production of fructosyltransferases for synthesis of pre-biotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, Alfredo Eduardo; Piccoli, Rosane Moniz; da Silva, Elda Sabino; de Andrade Rodrigues, Maria Filomena

    2008-11-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic substances found in several vegetable or natural foods. The main commercial production of FOS comes from enzymatic transformation of sucrose by the microbial enzyme fructosyltransferase. The development of more efficient enzymes, with high activity and stability, is required and this has attracted the interest of biotechnologists and microbiologists with production by several microorganisms being studied. This article reviews and discusses FOS chemical structure, enzyme characteristics, the nomenclature, producer microorganisms and enzyme production both in solid state fermentation and submerged cultivation.

  4. Prebiotic materials from on and off the early Earth

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    One of the greatest puzzles of all time is how did life arise? It has been universally presumed that life arose in a soup rich in carbon compounds, but from where did these organic molecules come? In this article, I will review proposed terrestrial sources of prebiotic organic molecules, such as Miller–Urey synthesis (including how they would depend on the oxidation state of the atmosphere) and hydrothermal vents and also input from space. While the former is perhaps better known and more com...

  5. Catalyzed Synthesis of Zinc Clays by Prebiotic Central Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruixin; Basu, Kaustuv; Hartman, Hyman; Matocha, Christopher J; Sears, S Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2017-04-03

    How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature and ambient pressure catalyzed by oxalate. Herein, the crystallization of clay minerals is catalyzed by succinate, an example of a photoproduced intermediate from central metabolism. The experiments connect the synthesis of sauconite, a model for clay minerals, to prebiotic photochemistry. We report the temperature, pH, and concentration dependence on succinate for the synthesis of sauconite identifying new mechanisms of clay formation in surface environments of rocky planets. The work demonstrates that seeding induces nucleation at low temperatures accelerating the crystallization process. Cryogenic and conventional transmission electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and measurements of total surface area are used to build a three-dimensional representation of the clay. These results suggest the coevolution of clay minerals and early metabolites in our planet could have been facilitated by sunlight photochemistry, which played a significant role in the complex interplay between rocks and life over geological time.

  6. Comets as a possible source of prebiotic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, W. F.; Boice, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    Prebiotic molecules derive from abiotic organic molecules, radicals, and ions that pervade the universe at temperatures as high as several 1000 K. Here we review the role of organic molecules that condensed at low temperatures before or during comet formation in the early history of the Solar System. Recent spacecraft encounters and ground-based observations of carbon-rich volatile and dust components of comet comae provide a broad database for the investigation of these organic molecules. New laboratory data for some potential cometary organics are presented. Probable icy organic constituents of the nucleus and CHON particles as likely candidates for the distributed sources of gas-phase organic species in the coma are discussed. There is broad agreement that many organic molecules observed in the coma originate from the dust that must have existed in the solar nebula at the time and place of comet formation. We conclude that complex organic molecules found in comets may be a source of prebiotic molecules that led to the origins of life.

  7. Influence of prebiotics, probiotics and protein ingredients on mycotoxin bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, M; Manyes, L; Mañes, J; Meca, G

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of prebiotic compounds (cellulose and inulin), food ingredients (milk whey, β-lactoglobulin and calcium caseinate) and several probiotic microorganisms on the bioaccessibility of beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENs A, A1, B, B1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) present in wheat crispy bread produced with wheat flour previously fermented with F. tricinctum, F. culmorum and G. zeae. The bioaccessibility of mycotoxins was determined by a dynamic simulated gastrointestinal digestion system, imitating the human digestive physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Mycotoxins were determined in the simulated intestinal fluids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). EN bioaccessibility ranged from 15.1 to 30.6%, whereas the values evidenced for BEA ranged from 12 to 19%. DON showed bioaccessibility data ranging from 0.8 to 5.6% whereas for ZEA the data evidenced ranged from 26 to 44%. The bioaccessibility reduction evidenced using probiotic microorganisms for the mycotoxins studied ranged from 21 to 27.1% for ENs, from 29 to 39.7% for DON, from 41 to 57% for ZEA and from 6.6 to 10.5% for BEA. The addition of prebiotic and bioactive microorganisms decreased the bioaccessibility of mycotoxins, with a concentration-dependent behavior, thus being a potential strategy for reducing human exposure to these minor mycotoxins.

  8. Possible prebiotics and gallic acid separations from jackfruit seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of jackfruit seeds can be extracted for possible prebiotics and phenolics (gallic acid and purified by crystallization and solid phase extraction (SPE, respectively. The studied parameters for crystallization were mixing speed, crystallizing temperature and cooling rate while the studied parameters for SPE were feed concentration, feed flow rate and length to diameter ratio (L/D of the extraction column. The optimal condition for the crystallization provided the crystal yield of 0.028 g crystal /g dry extract at 100 rpm mixing speed, 58°C crystallizing temperature and 1°C /min cooling rate. Molecular weight analysis of the crystals indicated that the crystals can be fructo-oligosaccharide or raffinose. The optimal condition for SPE obtaining gallic acid 92 percent yield was at 4% w/v feed concentration with 3 mL/min flow rate and L/D of 15.3. Finally a high temperature can degrade both possible prebiotic and gallic acid.

  9. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Hypercholesterolemia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Anandharaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol plays a major role in human health. High cholesterol is a leading risk factor for human cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Excess cholesterol in the bloodstream can form plaque in the artery walls. Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological (including dietary approaches being employed to reduce the cholesterol level. Numerous drugs that lower serum cholesterol have been developed to treat hypercholesterolemic patients, the best example being the statins drugs (Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, Rosuvastatin, and Lovastatin. However, the undesirable side effects of these compounds were observed and have caused concern about their long term therapeutic use. Several studies have been reported that the consumption of fermented dairy products decreases serum cholesterol. Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms without any deleterious effect to the human health. This paper may throw some light to prove the ability of these synbiotics as a novel alternative or adjuvant to chemical drugs to help fight the hypercholesterolemic problem.

  10. Probiotics and prebiotics in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia B Ewaschuk; Levinus A Dieleman

    2006-01-01

    The prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells of the colon exist in a highly complex, but harmonious relationship.Disturbances in this remarkable symbiosis can result in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).Although the etiology of IBD is not entirely understood,it is known that the chronic inflammation of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and chronic pouchitis are a result of an overly aggressive immune response to the commensal intestinal flora in genetically susceptible hosts. Recent studies have enhanced our ability to understand the interaction between the host and its intestinal microflora and the role the microflora plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. As we begin to understand the benefits conferred to the intestine by the microflora, the notion of modifying the composition of the bacterial load to improve human health has arisen.A significant body of research now exists investigating the role of probiotics and prebiotics in ameliorating chronic intestinal inflammation. This article will begin with an overview of the role of the commensal microflora in maintaining mucosal immune homeostasis, and how a dysregulated immune response to the intestinal microflora results in IBD. This will be followed by a summary of the use of probiotics and prebiotics in experimental and human IBD.

  11. Gastrointestinal cancers: influence of gut microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Daniela Elena

    2014-04-10

    Cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract continue to represent a major health problem, despite progress in therapy. Gut microbiota is a key element related to the genesis of GI cancers, countless papers addressing this burning issue across the world. We provide an updated knowledge of the involvement of gut microbiota in GI tumorigenesis, including its underlying mechanisms. We present also a comprehensive review of the evidence from animal and clinical studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics in the prevention and/or therapy of GI tumours, of GI cancer therapy-related toxicity and of post-operative complications. We summarize the anticarcinogenic mechanisms of these biotherapeutics from in vitro, animal and clinical interventions. More research is required to reveal the interactions of microflora with genetic, epigenetic and immunologic factors, diet and age, before any firm conclusion be drawn. Well-designed, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled human studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics, with adequate follow-up are necessary in order to formulate directions for prevention and therapy.

  12. Prebiotic formation of polyamino acids in molten urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, H.; Nomoto, S.; Terasaki, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2005-04-01

    It is important for research into the origins of life to elucidate polyamino acid formation under prebiotic conditions. Only a limited set of amino acids has been reported to polymerize thermally. In this paper we demonstrate a novel thermal polymerization mechanism in a molten urea of alkylamino acids (i.e. glycine, alanine, β-alanine, α-aminobutyric acid, valine, norvaline, leucine and norleucine), which had been thought to be incapable of undergoing thermal polymerization. Also, aspartic acid was found to polymerize in molten urea at a lower temperature than that at which aspartic acid alone had previously been thermally polymerized. Individual oligomers produced in heating experiments on urea-amino acid mixtures were analysed using a liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. Major products in the reaction mixture were three different types of polyamino acid derivatives: N-carbamoylpolyamino acids, polyamino acids containing a hydantoin ring at the N-terminal position and unidentified derivatives with molecular weights that were greater by 78 than those of the corresponding peptide forms. The polymerization reaction occurred by taking advantage of the high polarity of molten urea as well as its dehydrating ability. Under the presumed prebiotic conditions employed here, many types of amino acids were thus revealed to undergo thermal polymerization.

  13. PREBIOTIC HYDROCARBON SYNTHESIS IN IMPACTING REDUCED ASTROPHYSICAL ICY MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir, E-mail: lucas.koziol@exxonmobil.com, E-mail: ngoldman@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials.

  14. Emergence of native peptide sequences in prebiotic replication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Jayanta; Rubinov, Boris; Ivnitski, Denis; Mukherjee, Rakesh; Shtelman, Elina; Motro, Yair; Miller, Yifat; Wagner, Nathaniel; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2017-09-05

    Biopolymer syntheses in living cells are perfected by an elaborate error correction machinery, which was not applicable during polymerization on early Earth. Scientists are consequently striving to identify mechanisms by which functional polymers were selected and further amplified from complex prebiotic mixtures. Here we show the instrumental role of non-enzymatic replication in the enrichment of certain product(s). To this end, we analyzed a complex web of reactions in β-sheet peptide networks, focusing on the formation of specific intermediate compounds and template-assisted replication. Remarkably, we find that the formation of several products in a mixture is not critically harmful, since efficient and selective template-assisted reactions serve as a backbone correction mechanism, namely, for keeping the concentration of the peptide containing the native backbone equal to, or even higher than, the concentrations of the other products. We suggest that these findings may shed light on molecular evolution processes that led to current biology.The synthesis of biopolymers in living cells is perfected by complex machinery, however this was not the case on early Earth. Here the authors show the role of non-enzymatic replication in the enrichment of certain products within prebiotically relevant mixtures.

  15. Spatial Models of Prebiotic Evolution: Soup Before Pizza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, István; Czárán, Tamás; Szabó, Péter; Károlyi, György; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2003-10-01

    The problem of information integration and resistance to the invasion of parasitic mutants in prebiotic replicator systems is a notorious issue of research on the origin of life. Almost all theoretical studies published so far have demonstrated that some kind of spatial structure is indispensable for the persistence and/or the parasite resistance of any feasible replicator system. Based on a detailed critical survey of spatial models on prebiotic information integration, we suggest a possible scenario for replicator system evolution leading to the emergence of the first protocells capable of independent life. We show that even the spatial versions of the hypercycle model are vulnerable to selfish parasites in heterogeneous habitats. Contrary, the metabolic system remains persistent and coexistent with its parasites both on heterogeneous surfaces and in chaotically mixing flowing media. Persistent metabolic parasites can be converted to metabolic cooperators, or they can gradually obtain replicase activity. Our simulations show that, once replicase activity emerged, a gradual and simultaneous evolutionary improvement of replicase functionality (speed and fidelity) and template efficiency is possible only on a surface that constrains the mobility of macromolecule replicators. Based on the results of the models reviewed, we suggest that open chaotic flows (`soup') and surface dynamics (`pizza') both played key roles in the sequence of evolutionary events ultimately concluding in the appearance of the first living cell on Earth.

  16. Prebiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in impacting reduced astrophysical icy mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Nir; Koziol, Lucas

    2015-06-01

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium time-scales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impact on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon and nitrogen bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding for hydrocarbon impact synthesis on early Earth and its role in producing life building molecules from simple starting materials. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Carbon Monoxide and the Potential for Prebiotic Chemistry on Habitable Planets around Main Sequence M Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Sedeño, J Manik; Ortiz-Cervantes, Adrian; Segura, Antígona; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D

    2016-10-04

    Lifeless planets with CO2 atmospheres produce CO by CO2 photolysis. On planets around M dwarfs, CO is a long-lived atmospheric compound, as long as UV emission due to the star's chromospheric activity lasts, and the sink of CO and O2 in seawater is small compared to its atmospheric production. Atmospheres containing reduced compounds, like CO, may undergo further energetic and chemical processing to give rise to organic compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. We calculated the yield of organic compounds from CO2-rich atmospheres of planets orbiting M dwarf stars, which were previously simulated by Domagal-Goldman et al. (2014) and Harman et al. (2015), by cosmic rays and lightning using results of experiments by Miyakawa et al. (2002) and Schlesinger and Miller ( 1983a , 1983b ). Stellar protons from active stars may be important energy sources for abiotic synthesis and increase production rates of biological compounds by at least 2 orders of magnitude compared to cosmic rays. Simple compounds such as HCN and H2CO are more readily synthesized than more complex ones, such as amino acids and uracil (considered here as an example), resulting in higher yields for the former and lower yields for the latter. Electric discharges are most efficient when a reducing atmosphere is present. Nonetheless, atmospheres with high quantities of CO2 are capable of producing higher amounts of prebiotic compounds, given that CO is constantly produced in the atmosphere. Our results further support planetary systems around M dwarf stars as candidates for supporting life or its origin. Key Words: Prebiotic chemistry-M dwarfs-Habitable planets-Cosmic rays-Lightning-Stellar activity. Astrobiology 16, 744-754.

  18. Application of Probiotic, Prebiotic and Synbiotic for the Control of Streptococcosis in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarni; Tanbiyaskur

    2015-02-01

    One of the fish diseases that is becoming the main problem in tilapia culture is streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae. Application of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic are expected to be an alternative for controlling the disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the administration of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic through artificial feed to control streptococcosis in tilapia. This study consisted of five treatments with three replications, namely positive control, negative control; 1% probiotic treatment; 2% prebiotic treatment and synbiotic treatment (1% probiotic and 2% prebiotic). Results showed that fish survival rate before the challenge test for all treatments was between 95 and 100%. Growth and feed conversion ratios in probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments were better than that of the controls. After the challenge test, the fish survival rate in probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments were 74.08, 74.08 and 85.19%, respectively; whereas, in the positive control it was only 18.52%. Results showed that S. agalactiae bacteria could be found in the brain, kidney, liver and eyes. The number of S. agalactiae bacteria and the damage level of various target organs in probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments were lower than that of positive control.

  19. Glycemic profile and prebiotic potential "in vitro" of bread with yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Moura Rolim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elaborate bread with yacon flour at two different levels (6% and 11% and to analyze their proximate composition, their glycemic indices and their prebiotic potentials in vitro. Bread with 6% and 11% of yacon flour presented, simultaneously, low and moderate glycemic index. As for the prebiotic potentials, it was evident the presence of probiotic bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus. The results showed that, the addition of yacon flour on bread rendered products from low to moderate GI, with prebiotic potential, low fat and high fiber contents, according to the Brazilian food legislation.

  20. USE OF FOODSTUFFS WITH PRO-AND PREBIOTIC ACTIONS IN INFANT FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Ladodo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the data about opportunity to enrich the modern infant foodstuffs with pro and prebiotics. The authors name the contents of the foodstuffs with pro and prebiotic properties, findings of the multicentric research according to the estimate of their clinical efficiency among healthy and ill infants. They show the safety and high efficiency of the use of the given healthful and dietary foodstuffs.Key words: infant food, foodstuffs, probiotics, prebiotics, bifidus bacteria, lactic acid bacilli, oligosaccharides, lactulose, inulin.

  1. Antigenotoxicity of probiotics and prebiotics on faecal water-induced DNA damage in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anthony J; Rowland, Ian R

    2004-07-13

    Six strains of lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB) were incubated (1 x 10(8)cfu/ml) with genotoxic faecal water from a human subject. HT29 human adenocarcinoma cells were then challenged with the resultant samples and DNA damage measured using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The LAB strains investigated were Bifidobacterium sp. 420, Bifidobacterium Bb12, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Enterococcus faecium. DNA damage was significantly decreased by all bacteria used with the exception of Strep. thermophilus. Bif. Bb12 and Lact. plantarum showed the greatest protective effect against DNA damage. Incubation of faecal water with different concentrations of Bif. Bb12 and Lact. plantarum revealed that the decrease in genotoxicity was related to cell density. Non-viable (heat treated) probiotic cells had no effect on faecal water genotoxicity. In a second study, HT29 cells were cultured in the presence of supernatants of incubations of probiotics with various carbohydrates including known prebiotics; the HT29 cells were then exposed to faecal water. Overall, incubations involving Lact. plantarum with the fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-based prebiotics Inulin, Raftiline, Raftilose and Actilight were the most effective in increasing the cellular resistance to faecal water genotoxicity, whereas fermentations with Elixor (a galactooligosaccharide) and Fibersol (a maltodextrin) were less effective. Substantial reductions in faecal water-induced DNA damage were also seen with supernatants from incubation of prebiotics with Bif. Bb12. The supernatant of fermentations involving Ent. faecium and Bif. sp. 420 generally had less potent effects on genotoxicity although some reductions with Raftiline and Elixor fermentations were apparent.

  2. Patients Receiving Prebiotics and Probiotics Before Liver Transplantation Develop Fewer Infections Than Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawas, Tarek; Al Halabi, Shadi; Hernaez, Ruben; Carey, William D; Cho, Won Kyoo

    2015-09-01

    Among patients who have received liver transplants, infections increase morbidity and mortality and prolong hospital stays. Administration of antibiotics and surgical trauma create intestinal barrier dysfunction and microbial imbalances that allow enteric bacteria to translocate to the blood. Probiotics are believed to prevent bacterial translocation by stabilizing the intestinal barrier and stimulating proliferation of the intestinal epithelium, mucus secretion, and motility. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the effects of probiotics on infections in patients receiving liver transplants. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of prebiotics and probiotics on infections in patients who underwent liver transplantation. Heterogeneity was analyzed by the Cochran Q statistic. Pooled Mantel-Haenszel relative risks were calculated with a fixed-effects model. We identified 4 controlled studies, comprising 246 participants (123 received probiotics, 123 served as controls), for inclusion in the meta-analysis. In these studies, the intervention groups received enteric nutrition and fiber (prebiotics) with probiotics, and the control groups received only enteric nutrition and fiber without probiotics. The infection rate was 7% in groups that received probiotics vs 35% in control groups (relative risk [RR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.41; P = .001). The number needed to treat to prevent 1 infection was 3.6. In subgroup analyses, only 2% of subjects in the probiotic groups developed urinary tract infections, compared with 16% of controls (RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.47; P prebiotics before, or on the day of, liver transplantation reduces the rate of infection after surgery. These agents also reduced the amount of time spent in the hospital or intensive care unit and the duration of antibiotic use. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GUT MICROBIOTA, PREBIOTICS, PROBIOTICS, AND SYNBIOTICS IN MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY AND PREDIABETES: REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengolts, Elena

    2016-10-01

    To review the data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the roles of microbiota, pre-, pro- and synbiotics in metabolic conditions (obesity, prediabetes, and diabetes mellitus type 2 [DM2]). Primary literature was reviewed on the topics including RCTs of pre-, pro- and synbiotics use for metabolic disease. Gut bacteria (microbiota) benefit digestion and have multiple other functions. Microbiota could increase harvesting of energy from the food and cause subclinical inflammation seen in metabolic disorders. Diet-related interventions including prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics (combining pre-and probiotics) may benefit metabolic conditions. Prebiotics are complex carbohydrates (i.e., dietary fiber). Results of RCTs of prebiotics suggested a neutral effect on body weight, decreased fasting and postprandial glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profile. Some inflammation markers were reduced, sometimes substantially (20-30%). RCTs for probiotics demonstrated significant but small effects on body weight (<3%) and metabolic parameters. The effect was seen mostly with fermented milk or yogurt compared to capsule form, consumption for at least 8 weeks, and use of multiple rather than a single bacterial strain. Changes in microbiota were seen at times with both pre- and probiotics. Pickled and fermented foods, particularly vegetables and beans, could serve as a dietary source of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics. These foods showed possible benefits for morbidity and mortality in prospective cohort studies. Pre-, pro-, and synbiotics could prove useful, but further research is needed to clarify their clinical relevance for the prevention and management of metabolic disease. A1c = glycohemoglobin A1c CI = confidence interval CVD = cardiovascular disease GMB = gut (large bowel) microbiota DM2 = diabetes mellitus type 2 HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance LDL = low-density lipoprotein LPS = lipopolysaccharide NAFLD = nonalcoholic

  4. Potential fat-lowering and prebiotic effects of enzymatically treated okara in high-cholesterol-fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Suárez, María-José; Pérez-Cózar, María-Luisa; Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Redondo-Cuenca, Araceli

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the lipid profile on serum, liver and faeces, and the potential prebiotic effect of diets supplemented with enzymatically treated okara (okara(ET)) in high-cholesterol fed Wistar rats. Triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in the serum (p < 0.01) and liver (p < 0.01) of okara(ET) treated rats. Total lipids, triglycerides and bile acids were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the faeces of rats fed the okara(ET) diet. The pH of faecal contents from treated okara(ET) rats was lower (p < 0.001), probably due to the significantly higher (p < 0.001) production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Okara(ET), therefore, reduced triglycerides in serum and liver, and increased the excretion of total lipids, triglycerides and bile acids, improving the lipid profile in rats fed with high-cholesterol diets. Okara(ET) fibre can improve intestinal transit by increasing faecal bulk. The decreased pH and increased SCFA production indicated that okara(ET) fibre fermentation occurred, suggesting a potential prebiotic effect.

  5. Prebiotic Polymer Synthesis and the Origin of Glycolytic Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1998-01-01

    Our research resulted in several discoveries which contributed to understanding the origin and operation of life. (1) Most importantly, we discovered a new pathway of prebiotic amino acid synthesis in which formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (formose reaction substrates) react with ammonia to give alanine and homoserine in the presence of thiol catalysts. The thiol-dependent synthesis of amino acids undoubtedly occurs via amino acid thioester intermediates capable of forming peptides. This 'one-pot' reaction system operates under mild aqueous conditions, and like modern amino acid biosynthesis, uses sugar intermediates which are converted to amino acids by energy-yielding redox disproportionation. Preliminary evidence suggests that this type of process can be "evolved" by a serial transfer methods that lead to enrichment of autocatalytic molecules. (2) We established that prebiotic peptide polymers can be made by condensation of amino acid thioesters (homocysteine thiolactone and S-(N-beta-orotidyl- diaminopropionic acid) ethanethiol), and that prebiotic polydisulfide polymers can be generated by oxidation of dithiols with iron(III) in minerals. (3) In our analysis of metabolism we discovered the primary energy source of biosynthesis -- chemical energy made available by the redox disproportionation of substrate carbon groups. We concluded that the energy and reactivity of sugars make them the optimal substrate for the origin and operation of terrestrial (or extraterrestrial) life. (4) Since it is likely that the use of optimal sugar substrates in biosynthesis sets the average oxidation number of functional biocarbon throughout the Universe near 0.0 (the reduction level of formaldehyde), we proposed that a line(s) in the microwave spectrum of formaldehyde could be rationally selected as a frequency for interstellar communication that symbolizes life. (5) Finally, in preparation for the analysis of Martian meteorite samples, we upgraded our HPLC system to one femtomole

  6. Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) pulp, probiotic, and prebiotic: Influence on color, apparent viscosity, and texture of goat milk yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marion P; Frasao, Beatriz S; Silva, Adriana Cristina O; Freitas, Mônica Q; Franco, Robson M; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2015-09-01

    Cupuassu is an acidic fruit that has a characteristic aroma, flavor, and texture; its fiber-rich pulp can provide a different consistency than other fruit pulps. Goat milk is an excellent source of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals, and is widely used for processing fermented milks, such as yogurt. However, compared with cow milk yogurts, it is difficult to make goat milk yogurts with a good consistency. Therefore, it is necessary to use certain technological strategies. This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding cupuassu pulp, probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5), and prebiotic (inulin) to improve the texture of goat milk yogurt. A total of 6 treatments were performed: natural (N), probiotic (Pro), prebiotic (Pre), synbiotic (S), cupuassu (C), and probiotic with cupuassu (PC). The viability of probiotic in yogurts (Pro, S, and PC) was evaluated. In addition, instrumental analyses (pH, color, apparent viscosity, and texture) were performed to evaluate the influence of these different ingredients on goat milk yogurts. The probiotic bacteria remained viable (≥7 log cfu·mL(-1)) throughout the 28d of refrigerated storage, which exceeded the minimum count required to confer probiotic physiological benefits. The pH levels of the yogurts inoculated with L. acidophilus (Pro, S, and PC) were lower than others yogurts (N, Pre, and C). However, all yogurt samples underwent gradual decreases in pH until 7 to 14d of storage. The lightness (L*) was affected initially by addition of all ingredients (cupuassu pulp, probiotic, and prebiotic). The addition of cupuassu pulp (C and PC) increased the L* during the period of storage. Apparent viscosity and firmness decreased in the PC yogurt. The consistency was highest in the yogurts with added prebiotic (Pre and S) than the other yogurts (N, Pro, C, and PC) at the end of the storage period (d 28). The cohesiveness remained constant in all yogurts (N, Pro, Pre, S, C, and PC). Based on the results

  7. Computer Simulation and Experimental Self-assembly of Irradiated Glycine Amino Acid Under Magnetic Fields: Its Possible Significance in Prebiotic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Alejandro; Colín-García, María; Puig, Teresa Pi I; Alba-Aldave, Leticia; Meléndez, Adriana; Cruz-Castañeda, Jorge A; Basiuk, Vladimir A; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio; Mendoza, Alicia Negrón

    2017-08-26

    Ionizing radiation may have played a relevant role in chemical reactions for prebiotic biomolecule formation on ancient Earth. Environmental conditions such as the presence of water and magnetic fields were possibly relevant in the formation of organic compounds such as amino acids. ATR-FTIR, Raman, EPR and X-ray spectroscopies provide valuable information about molecular organization of different glycine polymorphs under static magnetic fields. γ-glycine polymorph formation increases in irradiated samples interacting with static magnetic fields. The increase in γ-glycine polymorph agrees with the computer simulations. The AM1 semi-empirical simulations show a change in the catalyst behavior and dipole moment values in α and γ-glycine interaction with the static magnetic field. The simulated crystal lattice energy in α-glycine is also affected by the free radicals under the magnetic field, which decreases its stability. Therefore, solid α and γ-glycine containing free radicals under static magnetic fields might have affected the prebiotic scenario on ancient Earth by causing the oligomerization of glycine in prebiotic reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Influence of CO2 Admixtures on the Product Composition in a Nitrogen-Methane Atmospheric Glow Discharge Used as a Prebiotic Atmosphere Mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazankova, V.; Torokova, L.; Krcma, F.; Mason, N. J.; Matejcik, S.

    2016-11-01

    This work extends our previous experimental studies of the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere by atmospheric glow discharge. The Titan's atmosphere seems to be similarly to early Earth atmospheric composition. The exploration of Titan atmosphere was initiated by the exciting results of the Cassini-Huygens mission and obtained results increased the interest about prebiotic atmospheres. Present work is devoted to the role of CO2 in the prebiotic atmosphere chemistry. Most of the laboratory studies of such atmosphere were focused on the chemistry of N2 + CH4 mixtures. The present work is devoted to the study of the oxygenated volatile species in prebiotic atmosphere, specifically CO2 reactivity. CO2 was introduced to the standard N2 + CH4 mixture at different mixing ratio up to 5 % CH4 and 3 % CO2. The reaction products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. This work shows that CO2 modifies the composition of the gas phase with the detection of oxygenated compounds: CO and others oxides. There is a strong influence of CO2 on increasing concentration other products as cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH3).

  9. An In Vitro Approach to Study Effects of Prebiotics and Probiotics on the Faecal Microbiota and Selected Immune Parameters Relevant to the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Gibson, Glenn R.; Walton, Gemma E.

    2016-01-01

    The aging process leads to alterations of gut microbiota and modifications to the immune response, such changes may be associated with increased disease risk. Prebiotics and probiotics can modulate microbiome changes induced by aging; however, their effects have not been directly compared. The aim of this study was to use anaerobic batch culture fermenters to assess the impact of various fermentable carbohydrates and microorganisms on the gut microbiota and selected immune markers. Elderly volunteers were used as donors for these experiments to enable relevance to an aging population. The impact of fermentation supernatants on immune markers relevant to the elderly were assessed in vitro. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants were measured using flow cytometry. Trans-galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) and inulin both stimulated bifidobacteria compared to other treatments (pinulin, B. bifidum, L. acidophilus and Ba. coagulans inhibited LPS induced TNF-α (pinulin, B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, Ba. coagulans and Bac. thetaiotaomicron (p<0.05). To conclude, prebiotics and probiotics could lead to potentially beneficial effects to host health by targeting specific bacterial groups, increasing saccharolytic fermentation and decreasing inflammation associated with aging. Compared to probiotics, prebiotics led to greater microbiota modulation at the genus level within the fermenters. PMID:27612304

  10. Dietary Prebiotics and Bioactive Milk Fractions Improve NREM Sleep, Enhance REM Sleep Rebound and Attenuate the Stress-Induced Decrease in Diurnal Temperature and Gut Microbial Alpha Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S.; Roller, Rachel; Mika, Agnieszka; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Knight, Rob; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M.; Fleshner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Severe, repeated or chronic stress produces negative health outcomes including disruptions of the sleep/wake cycle and gut microbial dysbiosis. Diets rich in prebiotics and glycoproteins impact the gut microbiota and may increase gut microbial species that reduce the impact of stress. This experiment tested the hypothesis that consumption of dietary prebiotics, lactoferrin (Lf) and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) will reduce the negative physiological impacts of stress. Male F344 rats, postnatal day (PND) 24, received a diet with prebiotics, Lf and MFGM (test) or a calorically matched control diet. Fecal samples were collected on PND 35/70/91 for 16S rRNA sequencing to examine microbial composition and, in a subset of rats; Lactobacillus rhamnosus was measured using selective culture. On PND 59, biotelemetry devices were implanted to record sleep/wake electroencephalographic (EEG). Rats were exposed to an acute stressor (100, 1.5 mA, tail shocks) on PND 87 and recordings continued until PND 94. Test diet, compared to control diet, increased fecal Lactobacillus rhamnosus colony forming units (CFU), facilitated non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consolidation (PND 71/72) and enhanced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep rebound after stressor exposure (PND 87). Rats fed control diet had stress-induced reductions in alpha diversity and diurnal amplitude of temperature, which were attenuated by the test diet (PND 91). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between early-life Deferribacteres (PND 35) and longer NREM sleep episodes (PND 71/72). A diet containing prebiotics, Lf and MFGM enhanced sleep quality, which was related to changes in gut bacteria and modulated the impact of stress on sleep, diurnal rhythms and the gut microbiota. PMID:28119579

  11. Production of fructooligosaccharides from inulin by endoinulinases and their prebiotic potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Ram S; Singh, Rupinder P

    2010-01-01

    .... They are relatively new functional food ingredients that have great potential as prebiotics, apart from having a number of desirable characteristics which are beneficial to the health of consumers...

  12. A high-yielding, strictly regioselective prebiotic purine nucleoside formation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sidney; Thoma, Ines; Deutsch, Amrei; Gehrke, Tim; Mayer, Peter; Zipse, Hendrik; Carell, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    The origin of life is believed to have started with prebiotic molecules reacting along unidentified pathways to produce key molecules such as nucleosides. To date, a single prebiotic pathway to purine nucleosides had been proposed. It is considered to be inefficient due to missing regioselectivity and low yields. We report that the condensation of formamidopyrimidines (FaPys) with sugars provides the natural N-9 nucleosides with extreme regioselectivity and in good yields (60%). The FaPys are available from formic acid and aminopyrimidines, which are in turn available from prebiotic molecules that were also detected during the Rosetta comet mission. This nucleoside formation pathway can be fused to sugar-forming reactions to produce pentosides, providing a plausible scenario of how purine nucleosides may have formed under prebiotic conditions.

  13. Influence of the UV Environment on the Synthesis of Prebiotic Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Sukrit

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is common to most planetary environments, and could play a key role in the chemistry of molecules relevant to abiogenesis (prebiotic chemistry). In this work, we explore the impact of UV light on prebiotic chemistry that might occur in liquid water on the surface of a planet with an atmosphere. We consider effects including atmospheric absorption, attenuation by water, and stellar variability to constrain the UV input as a function of wavelength. We conclude that the UV environment would be characterized by broadband input, and wavelengths below 204 nm and 168 nm would be shielded out by atmospheric CO2 and water, respectively. We compare this broadband prebiotic UV input to the narrowband UV sources (e.g. mercury lamps) often used in laboratory studies of prebiotic chemistry, and explore the implications for the conclusions drawn from these experiments. We consider as case studies the ribonucleotide synthesis pathway of Powner et al (2009) and the sugar synthesis pathway of Ritson ...

  14. Induction of regulatory T cells: A role for probiotics and prebiotics to suppress autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Mitesh; Kumar, Prasant; Laddha, Naresh C; Kemp, E Helen

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells that play a vital role in suppressing inflammation and maintaining immune tolerance. Given the crucial role of Tregs in maintaining immune homeostasis, it is probably not surprising that many microbial species and their metabolites have the potential to induce Tregs. There is now great interest in the therapeutic potential of probiotics and prebiotics based strategies for a range of autoimmune disorders. This review will summarise recent findings concerning the role of probiotics and prebiotics in induction of Tregs to ameliorate the autoimmune conditions. In addition, the article is focused to explain the different mechanisms of Treg induction and function by these probiotics and prebiotics, based on the available studies till date. The article further proposes that induction of Tregs by probiotics and prebiotics could lead to the development of new therapeutic approach towards curbing the autoimmune response and as an alternative to detrimental immunosuppressive drugs.

  15. Is there a Place for Prebiotics in the Management of Neonatal Inguinal Hernia? A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaou, Mahdi Ben; Zouari, Mohamed; Ammar, Saloua; Bouraoui, Amira; Gassara, Imene; Feki, Ines; Zitouni, , Hayet; Jallouli, Mohamed; Masmoudi, Jawaher; Gargouri, Abdellatif; Mhiri, Riadh

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the place of prebiotics in the management of neonatal inguinal hernia. Boys with a diagnosis of unilateral non-complicated inguinal hernia, aged less than 40 days, were prospectively followed from January 2012 to December 2014. Clinical and psychiatric data and outcomes were collected before and after prebiotics (Primalac AC) administration. Ninety-eight patients were included. There were 75 inguinal hernias and 23 inguino-scrotal hernias. Before prebiotics administration 72.2% of infants had abdominal distention and 98% had colic. After prebiotics, abdominal distention and colic regressed in 85.2% and 73.2% of patients, respectively. Hernias disappeared clinically in 66.3% of cases. The factors associated with the disappearance of hernias were the type of the hernia (pinguinal hernia. They decrease colic and abdominal distention, which seems helpful to prevent strangulation and probably get spontaneous resolution of small hernias. PMID:28083493

  16. Probiotic B420 and prebiotic polydextrose improve efficacy of antidiabetic drugs in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stenman, Lotta K; Waget, Aurélie; Garret, Céline; Briand, François; Burcelin, Rémy; Sulpice, Thierry; Lahtinen, Sampo

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota is now known to control glucose metabolism. Previous studies have shown that probiotics and prebiotics may improve glucose metabolism, but their effects have not been studied in combination with drug therapy...

  17. Intestinal infections and prebiotics: the roles of oligosaccharides in promoting health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides exert activity against pathogens partly by stimulating the growth and/or activity of commensal bacteria that provide health benefits (lower pH, bacteriocin production, immune system modulation, competitive exclusion). This review describes alternative mechanisms of action...

  18. Prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and the immune system: experimental data and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Remo; Akdis, Mübeccel; O'Mahony, Liam

    2015-03-01

    The intestinal immune system is constantly exposed to foreign antigens, which for the most part should be tolerated. Certain probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are able to influence immune responses. In this review, we highlight the recent publications (within the last 2 years) that have substantially progressed this field. The immunological mechanisms underpinning probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics effects continue to be better defined with novel mechanisms being described for dendritic cells, epithelial cells, T regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, natural killer T cells, and B cells. Many of the mechanisms being described are bacterial strain or metabolite specific, and should not be extrapolated to other probiotics or prebiotics. In addition, the timing of intervention seems to be important, with potentially the greatest effects being observed early in life. In this review, we discuss the recent findings relating to probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, specifically their effects on immunological functions.

  19. Prebiotic water/ice as medium for peptide catlysis and RNA world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    than nucleotide chains, their potential as catalysts for the formation of RNA is very interesting from the origin-of-life perspective. The ability of simple peptides to catalyze RNA synthesis could represent a link between prebiotic chemistry and the RNA world. Prebiotic soup likely contained complex...... mixtures of various molecules. Interaction of peptides and nucleotides shows that we should give more consideration to systems chemistry approach in the origin-of-life research.......The emergence of RNA chains from prebiotic soup is considered a stumbling block in the RNA world theory (Orgel 2004). Both the activation of RNA monomers and their subsequent oligomerization is hard to achieve in accepted early Earth conditions, thus putting doubt on the prebiotic plausibility...

  20. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics.

  1. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: I. Cysteamine and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The reaction of NH3 and SO3(2-) with ethylene sulfide is shown to be a prebiotic synthesis of cysteamine and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M). A similar reaction with ethylene imine would give cysteamine and taurine. Ethylene oxide would react with NH3 and N(CH3)3 to give the phospholipid components ethanolamine and choline. The prebiotic sources of ethylene sulfide, ethylene imine and ethylene oxide are discussed. Cysteamine itself is not a suitable thioester for metabolic processes because of acyl transfer to the amino group, but this can be prevented by using an amide of cysteamine. The use of cysteamine in coenzyme A may have been due to its prebiotic abundance. The facile prebiotic synthesis of both cysteamine and coenzyme M suggests that they were involved in very early metabolic pathways.

  2. The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Hoffmann, Arkadiusz; Pniewska, Ewa; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) influences the antioxidant properties of human plasma when combined with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg). Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). Volunteers were divided according to sex (16 male and 16 female) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 weeks, at the end of the study. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in human plasma were examined. The administration of synbiotics containing L. casei plus Inulin resulted in a significant increase in FRAP values (p = 0.00008) and CAT activity (p = 0.02) and an insignificant increase in SOD and GPx activity compared to controls. Synbiotics containing L. casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg) may have a positive influence on human plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Prebiotics and probiotics – the importance of branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The costs of developing a probiotic or prebiotic ingredient have always been substantial. Ingredient characterization, evaluation of technological and physiological properties, and demonstrations of safety and clinical efficacy require expensive research. The demanding regulatory requirements imposed by EFSA raise the bar even higher so that the costs of acquiring the necessary clinical evidence to support labeling of these food ingredients is approaching that of pharmaceuticals. In order to justify investment in such expensive clinical development, companies require certainty that they can gain a return on investment. Patenting can provide some protection but is not always possible to patent ingredients, and the period of protection is limited. All ingredients eventually face the prospect of commoditization once patents expire. Branding strategies offer one means of maintaining adequate product differentiation to protect market share and margins over the long term. PMID:23990815

  4. Prebiotics and probiotics – the importance of branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Crittenden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The costs of developing a probiotic or prebiotic ingredient have always been substantial. Ingredient characterization, evaluation of technological and physiological properties, and demonstrations of safety and clinical efficacy require expensive research. The demanding regulatory requirements imposed by EFSA raise the bar even higher so that the costs of acquiring the necessary clinical evidence to support labeling of these food ingredients is approaching that of pharmaceuticals. In order to justify investment in such expensive clinical development, companies require certainty that they can gain a return on investment. Patenting can provide some protection but is not always possible to patent ingredients, and the period of protection is limited. All ingredients eventually face the prospect of commoditization once patents expire. Branding strategies offer one means of maintaining adequate product differentiation to protect market share and margins over the long term.

  5. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  6. Amyloid Aggregates Arise from Amino Acid Condensations under Prebiotic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Jason; Friedmann, Michael P; Riek, Roland

    2016-09-12

    Current theories on the origin of life reveal significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms that allowed simple chemical precursors to coalesce into the complex polymers that are needed to sustain life. The volcanic gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) is known to catalyze the condensation of amino acids under aqueous conditions, but the reported di-, tri-, and tetra-peptides are too short to support a regular tertiary structure. Here, we demonstrate that alanine and valine, two of the proteinogenic amino acids believed to have been among the most abundant on a prebiotic earth, can polymerize into peptides and subsequently assemble into ordered amyloid fibers comprising a cross-β-sheet quaternary structure following COS-activated continuous polymerization of as little as 1 mm amino acid. Furthermore, this spontaneous assembly is not limited to pure amino acids, since mixtures of glycine, alanine, aspartate, and valine yield similar structures.

  7. PREBIOTICS AS DRYING AIDS FOR SPRAY DRYING FRUIT JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FREIXO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fruit juices are difficult to transform into powder because they are rich in sugars and acids with low glass transition temperatures, resulting in a sticky behaviour during spray drying. The present research work aimed to test the prebiotics maltodextrin and arabic gum as drying agents in order to be able to produce dehydrated powder from pineapple, strawberry and apple juices. 2 % of maltodextrin and an inlet air temperature of 130 °C are recommended to spray dry apple juice, reaching 60 % yield of powder with a water activity below 0.40. For strawberry juice, 2 % of this carrier is recommended and the inlet air temperature, 120 °C or 130 °C, did not seem relevant. For pineapple, neither the concentration of the carrier nor the inlet air temperature seemed to be relevant.

  8. Prebiotic materials from on and off the early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Max

    2006-01-01

    One of the great puzzles of all time is how did life arise? It has been universally presumed that life arose in a soup rich in compounds made mostly of carbon, the kind of which we are currently composed. Where did these organic molecules come from? In this talk I will review proposed contributions to pre-biotic organic chemistry from both terrestrial processes (i.e., hydrothermal vents, Miller-Urey syntheses) and also from space. While the former is perhaps better known and more commonly taught in school, we now know that comet and asteroid dust deliver tons of organics to the Earth every day, and there is a growing consensus among scientists that molecules from space played an important role in making the Earth habitable, and perhaps even provided specific compounds that were directly related to the origin of life.

  9. From astrochemistry to prebiotic chemistry an astrobiological point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danger, G.; Duvernay, F.; Borget, F.; Theule, P.; Chiavassa, T.; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.; Pascal, R.

    2013-09-01

    Most of the organic matter present in the Universe is formed and evolves in dense molecular clouds. During the evolution of interstellar grains, it undergoes many chemical changes (ion bombardment, UV irradiations, and thermal effect) to yield a highly complex organic matrix. The interstellar grains then form agglomerates found in small objects including the original organic matter (in comets and/or asteroids). Next to endogenously formed organic matter, these small objects can serve as reservoirs of organic matter for the development of prebiotic chemistry on the surface of Earth-like planets. This kind of chemistry only developed in environments enabling the development of chemical networks continuously fed with matter and energy with a high enough potential. This is the prelude to the emergence of biosystems as it has indeed been the case on the Earth.

  10. Scavenging of soluble organic matter from the prebiotic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, A

    1976-12-01

    The existence of hot or cold "nutrient broth" or "primeval soup" is challenged on the basis of the recent geochemistry of soluble organic carbon in the oceans. Most of the dissolved organic carbon is recycled quickly by organisms, but the residual, biologically refractive, organic matter is efficiently scavenged from the oceans (residence time of 1000 to 3500 years) by nonbiologically mediated chemical and physical processes, such as adsorption on sinking minerals, polymerization and aggregation to humic type polymers or by aggregation to particulate matter through bubbling and sinking of this material to the ocean bottom. Since there is no reason to believe that such nonbiological scavenging was not operative in the prebiotic oceans as well, then the prolonged existence of "organic soup" is very doubtful. The question of the origin of life is thus assumed to be related to solid-liquid interfacial activity, and the answer may be associated with sediment-water interaction rather than with solution chemistry.

  11. Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Randi J; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Gut colonization by beneficial bacteria in early life is necessary for establishing the gut mucosal barrier, maturation of the immune system and preventing infections with enteric pathogens. Mode of delivery, prematurity, breastfeeding, and use of antibiotics are some of many factors that have been described to influence early life colonization. Dysbiosis, the absence of normal colonization, is associated with many disease conditions. Pre- and probiotics are commonly used as supplementation in infant formula, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides for stimulation of Bifidobacterium growth aiming to mimic the high levels of these commensal bacteria in the gut of breastfed infants. Studies suggest that probiotic supplementation may be beneficial in prevention and management of disease (e.g., reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children). Although these studies show promising beneficial effects, the long-term risks or health benefits of pre- and probiotic supplementation are not clear.

  12. Prebiotics: A Novel Approach to Treat Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the fatal malignancies and is considered as the third leading cause of death. Mutations, genetic modifications, dietary aflatoxins, or impairments in the regulation of oncogenic pathways may bring about liver cancer. An effective barrier against hepatotoxins is offered by gut-liver axis as a change in gut permeability and expanded translocation of lipopolysaccharides triggers the activation of Toll-like receptors which stimulate the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Prebiotics, nondigestible oligosaccharides, have a pivotal role to play when it comes to inducing an antitumor effect. A healthy gut flora balance is imperative to downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and reducing lipopolysaccharides induced endotoxemia, thus inducing the antitumor effect.

  13. An update on probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics in clinical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Gabriel; González-Molero, Inmaculada

    2016-11-01

    The concept of prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics and their use in different situations of daily clinical practice related to clinical nutrition is reviewed, as well as their role in the treatment/prevention of diarrhea (acute, induced by antibiotics, secondary to radiotherapy), inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and pouchitis), in colonic health (constipation, irritable bowel), in liver disease (steatosis and minimum encephalopathy), and in intensive care, surgical, and liver transplantation. While their effectiveness for preventing antibiotic-induced diarrhea and pouchitis in ulcerative colitis appears to be shown, additional studies are needed to establish recommendations in most clinical settings. The risk of infection associated to use of probiotics is relatively low; however, there are selected groups of patients in whom they should be used with caution (as jejunum infusion). Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory Studies of Methane and Its Relationship to Prebiotic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Geppert, Wolf D.; Carrasco, Nathalie; Holm, Nils G.; Mousis, Olivier; Palumbo, Maria Elisabetta; Waite, J. Hunter; Watanabe, Naoki; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-08-01

    To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role. Such organic molecules may have come from molecular clouds and regions of star formation that created protoplanetary disks, planets, asteroids, and comets. The interstellar origin of organics has been examined both experimentally and theoretically, including laboratory investigations that simulate interstellar molecular reactions. Endogenous and exogenous organics could also have been supplied to the primitive ocean, making submarine hydrothermal systems plausible sites of the generation of life. Experiments that simulate such hydrothermal systems where methane played an important role have consequently been conducted. Processes that occur in other Solar System bodies offer clues to the prebiotic chemistry of Earth. Titan and other icy bodies, where methane plays significant roles, are especially good targets. In the case of Titan, methane is both in the atmosphere and in liquidospheres that are composed of methane and other hydrocarbons, and these have been studied in simulation experiments. Here, we review the wide range of experimental work in which these various terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have been modeled, and we examine the possible role of methane in chemical evolution.

  15. The principal fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk exhibit prebiotic properties on cultured infant microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Chen, Ceng; Kling, David E.; Liu, Bo; McCoy, John M.; Merighi, Massimo; Heidtman, Matthew; Newburg, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Breast-fed infant microbiota is typically rich in bifidobacteria. Herein, major human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) are assessed for their ability to promote the growth of bifidobacteria and to acidify their environment, key features of prebiotics. During in vitro anaerobic fermentation of infant microbiota, supplementation by HMOS significantly decreased the pH even greater than supplementation by fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic positive control. HMOS elevated lactate concentrations,...

  16. A Human Volunteer Study to Determine the Prebiotic Effects of Lactulose Powder on Human Colonic Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The prebiotic effects of lactulose were monitored in a human feeding study. Prebiotics are dietary carbohydrates that have a selective microbial metabolism in the gut, directed towards bacteria seen as beneficial, examples being bifidobacteria and/or lactobacilli. The study was conducted in a double blind, placebo controlled manner. A dose of 10 g per day, half the pharmacological dose, was fed to 10 healthy adult volunteers. In parallel, 10 persons were fed a placebo (glucose/lactose). Both ...

  17. Carcass percentage and quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics is a feed additive in the form of life microorganisms that balance microorganism population in the digestive tract. While prebiotics is a feed substance which is not digested, and selectively improves growth and activity of useful microbes in large intestine. The objectives of this research were to study the carcass percentage and carcass quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics. Four hundred eighty day-old chicks of broiler Arbor Acres strain were divided into four dietary treatments and three replications (40 birds / replicate. Ration used was consisted of: R1 = basal ration + 0.01% antibiotics (Zinc bacitracin, R2 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics (Bacillus spp, R3 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics + 0.5% prebiotics and R4 = basal ration + 0.5% prebiotics (katuk leaves. The variables observed were: carcass percentage, fat content in the abdomen, liver and carcass, cholesterol content in the liver, carcass and blood serum. The results showed that the carcass quality of broiler received probiotics and prebiotics either independently or the combination was significantly (P<0.05 different. The fat content of liver and thigh, and breast cholesterol of R3 was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of the control (R1. It is concluded that combination of probiotics and prebiotics were able to decrease the carcass fat and cholesterol content at six week of age.

  18. Characterization of Bacterial Mannanase for Hydrolyzing Palm Kernel Cake to Produce Manno-oligosaccharides Prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Utami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC is a promising source of prebiotics, since it contains high amount of β-mannan which can be further hydrolyzed to manno-oligasaccharides (MOS, a prebiotic. Therefore, this research was carried out to analyze the capability of a bacterial isolate (A2 isolates previously isolated from soils sample from around IPB campus to hydrolyze PKC. Based on 16S-DNA analysis, isolate A2 was identified as Brevibacillus borstelensis. Mannanase of A2 isolate had an optimum condition at 90 oC and pH 7. Mannanase activity of crude extracts using Locust Bean Gum (LBG and PKC as substrates were 0.37U/mL and 0.032U/mL, respectively. However, the most favorable production of oligosaccharides based on the degree of polymerization was obtained after 72-h of incubation with the ratio of substrate:enzyme, 1.2:1, on 1.5% PKC as substrate. The manno-oligosaccharides prebio-tic obtained was found to interfere the growth of both lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and pathogenic microflora (Escherichia coli. E. coli apparently could not use this prebiotic as the carbon sources, in contrast to L. casei. Substitution of carbon source in medium with prebiotics reduced the capability of L. casei to produce organic acids. It is concluded that local A2 isolate (B. borstelensis produces mannanase which can be used to produce prebiotics from PKC.

  19. Meta-analysis of probiotics and/or prebiotics for the prevention of eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Dan; Zhou, Wenli; Lun, Zhi Jun; Mu, Xin; Wang, Dong Xuan; Wu, Hui

    2013-10-01

    The efficacy of probiotics and/or prebiotics for preventing eczema in infants remains unclear. This meta-analysis evaluated published studies on pro/prebiotics for eczema prevention, investigating bacterial strain efficacy and changes to the allergy status of the children involved. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were analysed, irrespective of bacterial strains used in the pro/prebiotics. Studies of pregnant women, nursing mothers and infants receiving pro/prebiotics were included. All infant participants were assessed within 2 years of birth. Incidences of eczema and systemic sensitization were measured by weighted relative risk ratios (RRR). The 14 studies on probiotics had a pooled RRR of 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62, 0.78). Three studies on prebiotic consumption showed a RRR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.18). One study of mixed pro/prebiotic (synbiotic) strains found a RRR ratio of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.99). No consistent sensitization changes were found. Only the combination of nonspore lactobacilli and bifidobacteria reduced the incidence of eczema. This meta-analysis found that probiotics or synbiotics may reduce the incidence of eczema in infants aged <2 years. Systemic sensitization did not change following probiotic administration.

  20. Fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of Bimuno® galacto-oligosaccharide (65 % galacto-oligosaccharide content) on in vitro gut microbiota parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Roberta; Swann, Jonathan R; Vulevic, Jelena; Gibson, Glenn R; Costabile, Adele

    2016-08-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides have the ability to generate important changes in the gut microbiota composition that may confer health benefits to the host. Reducing the impurities in prebiotic mixtures could expand their applications in food industries and improve their selectivity and prebiotic effect on the potential beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. This study aimed to determine the in vitro potential fermentation properties of a 65 % galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) content Bimuno® GOS (B-GOS) on gut microbiota composition and their metabolites. Fermentation of 65 % B-GOS was compared with 52 % B-GOS in pH- and volume-controlled dose-response anaerobic batch culture experiments. In total, three different doses (1, 0·5 and 0·33 g equivalent to 0·1, 0·05 and 0·033 g/l) were tested. Changes in the gut microbiota during a time course were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, whereas small molecular weight metabolomics profiles and SCFA were determined by 1H-NMR analysis and GC, respectively. The 65 % B-GOS showed positive modulation of the microbiota composition during the first 8 h of fermentation with all doses. Administration of the specific doses of B-GOS induced a significant increase in acetate as the major SCFA synthesised compared with propionate and butyrate concentrations, but there were no significant differences between substrates. The 65 % B-GOS in syrup format seems to have, in all the analysis, an efficient prebiotic effect. However, the applicability of such changes remains to be shown in an in vivo trial.

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotics and synbiotics effects on glycaemia, insulin concentrations and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beserra, Bruna T S; Fernandes, Ricardo; do Rosario, Vinicius A; Mocellin, Michel C; Kuntz, Marilyn G F; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have reported the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics supplementation in lipid profile and glucose homeostasis, however a pooled analysis of clinical trials that assessed these parameters has not been performed in overweight or obese individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics on plasma lipid profile, fasting insulin and fasting glucose in adults with overweight or obesity. Randomized controlled trials were systematically searched before May 2014 in electronic databases and screening reference lists. Combined and stratified (diabetics and non-diabetics trials) meta-analyzes were performed. Thirteen trials, representing 513 adult participants with Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m² were included. Prebiotic supplementation reduced plasma total cholesterol (SMD -0.25; 95% CI -0.48, -0.02) and LDL-c (SMD -0.22; 95% CI -0.44, -0.00) concentrations in overall analysis, and reduced triglycerides (SMD -0.72; 95% CI -1.20, -0.23) and increased HDL-c (SMD 0.49; 95% CI 0.01, 0.97) concentrations in diabetic trials. Synbiotic supplementation reduced plasma fasting insulin (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.75, -0.02) and triglycerides (SMD -0.43; 95% CI -0.70, -0.15) concentrations. The improvement of the evaluated parameters supports prebiotics and synbiotics supplementation as an adjuvant therapy in obesity-related comorbidities, such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypothesized origin of microbial life in a prebiotic gel and the transition to a living biofilm and microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Jack T

    2011-04-01

    This article hypothesizes that the origin of the first microbial cell(s) occurred as a series of increasing levels of organization within a prebiotic gel attached to a mineral surface, which made the transition to a biofilm composed of the first cell(s) capable of growth and division. A gel microenvironment attached to a surface for the origin of life, and subsequent living cells offers numerous advantages. These include acting as a water and nutrient trap on a surface, physical protection as well as protection from UV radiation. The prebiotic gel and the living biofilm contained the necessary water, does not impede diffusion of molecules including gases, provides a structured gel microscopic location for biochemical interactions and polymerisation reactions, where the necessary molecules for life need to be present and not limiting. The composition of the first gel environment may have been an oily-water mixture (or the interface between an oily-water mixture) of microscopic dimensions, but large enough for the organization of the first cell(s). The living biofilm then made the evolutionary transition to a microbial mat.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Reveals the Metabolic Insight on Consumption of Prebiotics and Host Glycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Han; An, Hyun Joo; Garrido, Daniel; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis is a common member of the intestinal microbiota in breast-fed infants and capable of metabolizing human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). To investigate the bacterial response to different prebiotics, we analyzed both cell wall associated and whole cell proteins in B. infantis. Proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS followed by comparative proteomics to deduce the protein localization within the cell. Enzymes involved in the metabolism of lactose, glucose, galactooligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides and HMO were constitutively expressed exhibiting less than two-fold change regardless of the sugar used. In contrast, enzymes in N-Acetylglucosamine and sucrose catabolism were induced by HMO and fructans, respectively. Galactose-metabolizing enzymes phosphoglucomutase, UDP-glucose 4-epimerase and UTP glucose-1-P uridylytransferase were expressed constitutively, while galactokinase and galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, increased their expression three fold when HMO and lactose were used as substrates for cell growth. Cell wall-associated proteomics also revealed ATP-dependent sugar transport systems associated with consumption of different prebiotics. In addition, the expression of 16 glycosyl hydrolases revealed the complete metabolic route for each substrate. Mucin, which possesses O-glycans that are structurally similar to HMO did not induced the expression of transport proteins, hydrolysis or sugar metabolic pathway indicating B. infantis do not utilize these glycoconjugates. PMID:23469017

  4. Prebiotic effect of fructooligosaccharide in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME® model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivieri, Katia; Morales, Martha L Villarreal; Saad, Susana M I; Adorno, Maria A Tallarico; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Rossi, Elizeu A

    2014-08-01

    Maintaining "gut health" is a goal for scientists throughout the world. Therefore, microbiota management models for testing probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been developed. The SHIME(®) model was used to study the effect of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on the fermentation pattern of the colon microbiota. Initially, an inoculum prepared from human feces was introduced into the reactor vessels and stabilized over 2 weeks using a culture medium. This stabilization period was followed by a 2-week control period during which the microbiota was monitored. The microbiota was then subjected to a 4-week treatment period by adding 5 g/day-1 FOS to vessel one (the "stomach" compartment). Plate counts, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and ammonium analyses were used to observe the influence of FOS treatment in simulated colon compartments. A significant increase (P<.01) in the Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. populations was observed during the treatment period. The DGGE obtained showed the overall microbial community was changed in the ascending colon compartment of the SHIME reactor. FOS induced increase of the SCFA concentration (P<.05) during the treatment period, mainly due to significant increased levels of acetic and butyric acids. However, ammonium concentrations increased during the same period (P<.01). This study indicates the usefulness of in vitro methods that simulate the colon region as part of research towards the improvement of human health.

  5. Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics: A Review of in Vivo and in Vitro Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Lay-Gaik Ooi; Min-Tze Liong

    2010-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid pr...

  6. Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics: A Review of in Vivo and in Vitro Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Lay-Gaik Ooi; Min-Tze Liong

    2010-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid pr...

  7. Prebiotic Oligosaccharides: Comparative Evaluation Using In Vitro Cultures of Infants' Fecal Microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiverson, J; Williams, T; Chen, J; Adams, S; Hustead, D; Price, P; Guerrieri, J; Deacon, J; Yu, Z

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically assess the bifidogenic effect of three commonly used prebiotic products using in vitro cultures of infant fecal samples. Fresh stool samples collected from six term infants, each exclusively fed human milk (n = 3) or infant formula (n = 3), at 28 days of age were used as inocula. The following prebiotic products were added at concentrations applicable to infant formula: Vivinal GOS 15 (containing 28.5% galacto-oligosaccharide [GOS]) at 7.2 g/liter, Beneo HP (99.5% long-chain inulin [IN]) at 0.8 g/liter, Beneo Synergy 1 (enriched oligofructose and inulin [OF-IN]) at 4 g/liter, and a combination of Vivinal GOS 15 (7.2 g/liter) and Beneo HP (0.8 g/liter) (GOS-IN). The growth of total bacteria, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium longum, and Escherichia coli was quantified using specific quantitative PCR (qPCR). Bifidobacterium was also enumerated on selective Beerens agar plates, with representative colonies identified by sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) and pH in the cultures were also determined. Irrespective of the feeding methods, the GOS product, either alone or in combination with Beneo HP, resulted in substantially higher growth of total bifidobacteria, and much of this growth was attributed to growth of B. longum. Beneo Synergy 1 also increased the abundance of total bifidobacteria and B. longum. Corresponding to the increases in these two bacterial groups, acetic acid concentrations were higher, while there was a trend of lower E. coli levels and pH. The lower pH and higher acetic acid concentration might be directly responsible for the lower E. coli population. At the concentrations studied, the GOS product was more bifidogenic and potent in inhibiting E. coli than the other products tested. These results suggest that supplementation of infant formula with GOS may increase intestinal bifidobacteria and benefit infant health.

  8. Fermented milk supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics can effectively alter the intestinal microbiota and immunity of host animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, S; Zhu, H; Lu, C; Kang, Z; Luo, Y; Feng, L; Lu, X

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with 2 probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide, was orally administered to 100 healthy...

  9. Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics: A Review of in Vivo and in Vitro Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay-Gaik Ooi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probioticmediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.

  10. Cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotics and prebiotics: a review of in vivo and in vitro findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Lay-Gaik; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-06-17

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.

  11. Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics: A Review of in Vivo and in Vitro Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Lay-Gaik; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised. PMID:20640165

  12. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, María E; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel; Torres, Nimbe; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Morales, Porfirio; Sobal, Mercedes; Bernabé, Teodoro; Escudero, Helios; Granados-Portillo, Omar; Tovar, Armando R

    2016-01-01

    Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl) were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM) added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%), LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%), triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%), hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52%) and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca) and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8), as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of bioactive compounds

  13. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, María E.; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel; Torres, Nimbe; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Morales, Porfirio; Sobal, Mercedes; Bernabé, Teodoro; Escudero, Helios; Granados-Portillo, Omar; Tovar, Armando R.

    2016-01-01

    Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl) were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM) added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%), LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%), triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%), hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52%) and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca) and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8), as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of bioactive compounds

  14. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Meneses

    Full Text Available Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%, LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%, triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%, hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52% and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8, as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of

  15. Influence of the UV Environment on the Synthesis of Prebiotic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is common to most planetary environments and could play a key role in the chemistry of molecules relevant to abiogenesis (prebiotic chemistry). In this work, we explore the impact of UV light on prebiotic chemistry that might occur in liquid water on the surface of a planet with an atmosphere. We consider effects including atmospheric absorption, attenuation by water, and stellar variability to constrain the UV input as a function of wavelength. We conclude that the UV environment would be characterized by broadband input, and wavelengths below 204 nm and 168 nm would be shielded out by atmospheric CO2 and water, respectively. We compare this broadband prebiotic UV input to the narrowband UV sources (e.g., mercury lamps) often used in laboratory studies of prebiotic chemistry and explore the implications for the conclusions drawn from these experiments. We consider as case studies the ribonucleotide synthesis pathway of Powner et al. (2009) and the sugar synthesis pathway of Ritson and Sutherland (2012). Irradiation by narrowband UV light from a mercury lamp formed an integral component of these studies; we quantitatively explore the impact of more realistic UV input on the conclusions that can be drawn from these experiments. Finally, we explore the constraints solar UV input places on the buildup of prebiotically important feedstock gasses like CH4 and HCN. Our results demonstrate the importance of characterizing the wavelength dependence (action spectra) of prebiotic synthesis pathways to determine how pathways derived under laboratory irradiation conditions will function under planetary prebiotic conditions.

  16. A model for the origin of life through rearrangements among prebiotic phosphodiester polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhnin, Alexander V

    2013-02-01

    This model proposes that the origin of life on Earth occurred as a result of a process of alteration of the chemical composition of prebiotic macromolecules. The stability of organic compounds assembled into polymers generally exceeded the stability of the same compounds as free monomers. This difference in stability stimulated accumulation of prebiotic macromolecules. The prebiotic circulation of matter included constant formation and decomposition of polymers. Spontaneous chemical reactions between macromolecules with phosphodiester backbones resulted in a non-Darwinian selection for chemical stability, while formation of strong structures provided an advantage in the struggle for stability. Intermolecular structures between nucleotide-containing polymers were further stabilized by occasional acquisition of complementary nucleotides. Less stable macromolecules provided the source of nucleotides. This process resulted first in the enrichment of nucleotide content in prebiotic polymers, and subsequently in the accumulation of complementary oligonucleotides. Finally, the role of complementary copy molecules changed from the stabilization of the original templates to the de novo production of template-like molecules. I associate this stage with the origin of life in the form of cell-free molecular colonies. Original life acquired ready-to-use substrates from constantly forming prebiotic polymers. Metabolism started to develop when life began to consume more substrates than the prebiotic cycling produced. The developing utilization of non-polymeric compounds stimulated the formation of the first membrane-enveloped cells that held small soluble molecules. Cells "digested" the nucleotide-containing prebiotic macromolecules to nucleotide monomers and switched the mode of replication to the polymerization of nucleotide triphosphates.

  17. New Insights into Prebiotic Chemistry from Old Archived Miller Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Following the discovery of an archived set of samples from Stanley Miller's early experiments, analyses were undertaken to better understand the diversity of compounds produced from electric discharges acting on reducing gas mixtures. The paper chromatography methods that Miller used in the 1950s were only capable of detecting a few amino acids and were unable to provide substantial quantitative data relative to today's techniques. Current analytical techniques are much more sensitive and selective, and are capable of precisely quantifying a much larger range of amino acids and their enantiomeric abundances. In one study, preserved dried samples produced by Miller using a lesser-known volcanic apparatus which differed from Miller's classic apparatus in that it utilized an aspirator that injected steam into the electric discharge chamber, simulating a volcanic eruption. The volcanic apparatus produced a wider variety of amino acids than the classic configuration. Prebiotic compounds synthesized in these environments may have locally accumulated where they could have undergone further processing. An additional preserved set of samples from an experiment conducted in 1958 were also found in Miller's archived collection. These samples which had been generated using a mixture of CH4, NH3, H2S and CO2 were collected, catalogued, and stored by Miller, but for unknown reasons were never studied. In our analyses a total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordial environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of amino butyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment

  18. Putative archaeal viruses from the mesopelagic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Dean R; Roux, Simon; Brum, Jennifer R; Bolduc, Ben; Emerson, Joanne B; Padilla, Cory C; Stewart, Frank J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce "MArVD", for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify putative archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset. Application of MArVD to 10 viral metagenomes from two depth profiles in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) oxygen minimum zone revealed 43 new putative archaeal virus genomes and large genome fragments ranging in size from 10 to 31 kb. Network-based classifications, which were consistent with marker gene phylogenies where available, suggested that these putative archaeal virus contigs represented six novel candidate genera. Ecological analyses, via fragment recruitment and ordination, revealed that the diversity and relative abundances of these putative archaeal viruses were correlated with oxygen concentration and temperature along two OMZ-spanning depth profiles, presumably due to structuring of the host Archaea community. Peak viral diversity and abundances were found in surface waters, where Thermoplasmata 16S rRNA genes are prevalent, suggesting these archaea as hosts in the surface habitats. Together these findings provide a baseline for identifying archaeal viruses in sequence datasets, and an initial picture of the ecology of such viruses in non-extreme environments.

  19. Prebiotic competence of spirulina on the production performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Rawshon Jamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of Spirulina as a growth and immunity promoter for broiler chickens. Birds (n=100 were randomly and equally distributed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3 and fed on a diet containing 0, 2, 4 and 8 g Spirulina/kg feed respectively for 4 weeks. The body weight was significantly (P<0.05 increased in the treatment groups fed with Spirulina diet from 7th days to 28th days old. FCR was also significantly (P<0.05 decreased among the treatment groups. Hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05 increased except ESR which was decreased significantly (P<0.05 in the treatment group. Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and alanine aminotransferase (AST level were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in all the treatment groups. The study suggests that, Spirulina is a good natural feed additive which has a tremendous effect to improve the broiler production and thereby may reduce the production cost. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 304-309

  20. Modulating the microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases: prebiotics, probiotics or faecal transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Kristin A; Boesmans, Leen; Boets, Eef

    2014-11-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two major phenotypes of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) which constitute a spectrum of chronic, debilitating diseases characterised by a relapsing inflammation of the intestinal mucosal lining. Evidence from a variety of disciplines implicates the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of idiopathic IBD and their complications, including pouchitis. Many studies have reported a dysbiosis in IBD, characterised by a decrease in diversity, a decreased abundance of some dominant commensal members (such as Clostridium IV and XIVa) and an increase in detrimental bacteria (such as sulphate reducing bacteria and Escherichia coli). Therapies such as prebiotics and probiotics aim to selectively manipulate the intestinal microbiota and have been evaluated as an attractive therapeutic option with few side effects. The multispecies product VSL#3 was found effective in preventing and maintaining remission in pouchitis, whereas both VSL#3 and E. coli Nissle were effective in maintaining remission in UC. A more drastic approach to restore the composition of the microbiota and correct the underlying imbalance is a faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). FMT has been successfully applied to treat patients with even recalcitrant Clostridium difficile infection. Particularly in UC, the majority of studies suggest that FMT may be an effective treatment option although the evidence is still limited. It is anticipated that our increasing knowledge on the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota components will allow in the future for a better selection of highly performing bacteria with specific functions required for specific benefits.

  1. Stress-induced visceral analgesia assessed non-invasively in rats is enhanced by prebiotic diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muriel Larauche; Agata Mulak; Pu-Qing Yuan; Osamu Kanauchi; Yvette Taché

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS) on the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) and the modulation of the response by a prebiotic diet in rats using a novel surgery-free method of solid-state manometry.METHODS: Male Wistar rats fed a standard diet with or without 4% enzyme-treated rice fiber (ERF) for 5 wk were subjected to rWAS (1 h daily x 10 d) or no stress. The VMR to graded phasic CRD was assessed by intraluminal colonic pressure recording on days 0 (baseline), 1 and 10 (45 min) and 11 (24 h) after rWAS and expressed as percentage change from baseline. Cecal content of short chain fatty acids and distal colonic histology were assessed on day 11.RESULTS: WAS on day 1 reduced the VMR to CRD at 40 and 60 mmHg similarly by 28.9% ± 6.6% in both diet groups. On day 10, rWAS-induced reduction of VMR occurred only at 40 mmHg in the standard diet group (36.2% ± 17.8%) while in the ERF group VMR was lowered at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg by 64.9% ± 20.9%, 49.3% ± 11.6% and 38.9% ± 7.3% respectively. The visceral analgesia was still observed on day 11 in ERF- but not in standard diet-fed rats. By contrast the non-stressed groups (standard or ERF diet) exhibited no changes in VMR to CRD. In standard diet-fed rats, rWAS induced mild colonic histological changes that were absent in ERF-fed rats exposed to stress compared to non-stressed rats. The reduction of cecal content of isobutyrate and total butyrate, but not butyrate alone, was correlated with lower visceral pain response. Additionally, ERF diet increased rWAS-induced defecation by 26% and 75% during the first 0-15 min and last 15-60 min, respectively, compared to standard diet, and reduced rats' body weight gain by 1.3 fold independently of their stress status. CONCLUSION: These data provide the first evidence of psychological stress-related visceral analgesia in rats that was enhanced by chronic intake of ERF prebiotic.

  2. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Haemophilus parasuis Isolates Exhibit More Putative Virulence Factors than Their Susceptible Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jiantao; Yan, Shuxian; Yang, Yujie; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of 23 putative virulence factors among fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant Haemophilus parasuis isolates was analyzed. Putative hemolysin precursor, fimbrial assembly chaperone, and type I site-specific restriction modification system R subunit genes were more prevalent among fluoroquinolone-resistant H. parasuis isolates than among fluoroquinolone-susceptible H. parasuis isolates. Fluoroquinolone resistance may be associated with an increase in the presence of some viru...

  3. Efficacy of a novel prebiotic and a commercial probiotic in reducing mortality and production losses due to cold stress and Escherichia coli challenge of broiler chicks 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; El-Gohary, F A; Zhou, Z Y; Shini, S

    2015-05-01

    Prebiotics consisting of resistant starch may alter intestinal ecology, thus modulating inflammation and increasing intestinal health through increased cecal production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Probiotics may directly alter the intestinal microbiome, resulting in the same effects. We hypothesize that adding prebiotics and probiotics to feed may protect the gut of young chicks under stress. Studies 1, 2, and 3 evaluated treatments in a cold stress (CS) and Escherichia coli (EC) oral challenge to 430 day-old broiler chicks for 3 wk. In study 1, prebiotics were administered as 15% of the diet during the first week only and consisted of the following: Hi-Maize resistant starch (HM), potato starch (PS), or raw potato (RP). In studies 2 and 3, the PS treatment was identical to study 1, and an additional probiotic treatment (PRO) was administered in feed and water. In study 1, PS protected BW during the first week and decreased the mortality of CS/EC-challenged birds during the first week and wk 3, while RP decreased the mortality of warm-brooded birds challenged with EC during the first week. In study 2, PS decreased and PRO increased the main effect mean (MEM) of the first week BW. PS and PRO numerically decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 23 and 29 points, respectively, in CS/EC-challenged birds with no effects on mortality. In study 3, PS decreased and PRO increased the first week and wk 3 MEM BW. PS numerically increased FCR by 16 points, while PRO decreased FCR by 2 points. Both PS and PRO tended to increase overall mortality, and PRO significantly increased mortality in the CS/EC challenge. These results suggest that the effects of PS may be too variable in this challenge model for further study; however, the PRO treatment improved production values and may have potential as an alternative to antibiotics during the first weeks after hatch.

  4. The UV Surface Environment on Young Planets: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry & Life on Other Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Simons Collaboration on the Origin of Life, Harvard Origins of Life Initiative

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the origin of life (abiogenesis) on Earth is key to understanding how it might start elsewhere. Recent laboratory studies suggest UV light may have played a critical role in the synthesis of molecules relevant to abiogenesis (prebiotic chemistry), such as RNA. I show that UV light interacts with prebiotic chemistry in ways that may be sensitive to the spectral shape and overall amplitude of irradiation. I use radiative transfer models to constrain the UV environment on early Earth (3.9 Ga). I find that the surface UV is insensitive to much of the considerable uncertainty in the atmospheric state, enabling me to constrain the UV environment for prebiotic chemistry on early Earth. Some authors have suggested Mars as a venue for prebiotic chemistry. Therefore, I explore plausible UV spectral fluences on Mars at 3.9 Ga. I find that the early Martian UV environment is comparable to Earth’s under conventional assumptions about the atmosphere. However, if the atmosphere was dusty or SO2 levels were high, UV fluence would have been strongly suppressed. Intriguingly, despite overall attenuation of UV fluence, SO2 preferentially attenuates destructive FUV radiation over prebiotically-useful NUV radiation, meaning high-SO2 epochs may have been more clement for the origin of life. Better measurements of the spectral dependence of prebiotic photoprocesses are required to constrain this hypothesis. Finally, I calculate the UV fluence on planets orbiting M-dwarfs. I find that UV irradiation on such planets is low compared to Earth. Laboratory studies are required to understand whether prebiotic photoprocesses that worked on Earth can function on low-UV M-dwarf planets. My work 1) provides initial conditions for laboratory studies of prebiotic chemistry, 2) constrains the inhabitability of Mars and planets orbiting M-dwarfs, and 3) demonstrates the need for laboratory studies to characterize the impact of variations in irradiating intensity and spectral shape on

  5. Out of fuzzy chemistry: from prebiotic chemistry to metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretó, Juli

    2012-08-21

    The origin of life on Earth was a chemical affair. So how did primitive biochemical systems originate from geochemical and cosmochemical processes on the young planet? Contemporary research into the origins of life subscribes to the Darwinian principle of material causes operating in an evolutionary context, as advocated by A. I. Oparin and J. B. S. Haldane in the 1920s. In its simplest form (e.g., a bacterial cell) extant biological complexity relies on the functional integration of metabolic networks and replicative genomes inside a lipid boundary. Different research programmes have explored the prebiotic plausibility of each of these autocatalytic subsystems and combinations thereof: self-maintained networks of small molecules, template chemistry, and self-reproductive vesicles. This tutorial review focuses on the debates surrounding the origin of metabolism and offers a brief overview of current studies on the evolution of metabolic networks. I suggest that a leitmotif in the origin and evolution of metabolism is the role played by catalysers' substrate ambiguity and multifunctionality.

  6. Molecular Asymmetry in Prebiotic Chemistry: An Account from Meteorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pizzarello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous Chondrite (CC meteorites are fragments of asteroids, solar planetesimals that never became large enough to separate matter by their density, like terrestrial planets. CC contains various amounts of organic carbon and carry a record of chemical evolution as it came to be in the Solar System, at the time the Earth was formed and before the origins of life. We review this record as it pertains to the chiral asymmetry determined for several organic compounds in CC, which reaches a broad molecular distribution and enantiomeric excesses of up to 50%–60%. Because homochirality is an indispensable attribute of extant polymers and these meteoritic enantiomeric excesses are still, to date, the only case of chiral asymmetry in organic molecules measured outside the biosphere, the possibility of an exogenous delivery of primed prebiotic compounds to early Earth from meteorites is often proposed. Whether this exogenous delivery held a chiral advantage in molecular evolution remains an open question, as many others regarding the origins of life are.

  7. [Use of probiotics and prebiotics in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Calatayud, Guillermo; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2015-02-07

    Probiotics are used in a great number of both paediatric and adult diseases, mainly in gastrointestinal disorders, like diarrhoea. Nevertheless, their beneficial effect on immune alterations, such as atopic dermatitis and, more recently, in women related diseases such as vulvovaginitis and mastitis have also been observed. However, the use of probiotics is not completely implemented into the routine clinical practice for primary care physicians. There is still a great controversy with scarce scientific evidence, due to the diversity in the designs thereof which justifies the variability in the efficacy results. This outcome leads to difficulties in developing definitive treatment guidelines although there are exceptions, for example, WGO. The aim of this workshop, held at the VI Congress of the Spanish Society of Probiotics and Prebiotics is the training of primary care physicians, both paediatricians and general practitioners in the clinical applications of these nutritional preparations in different diseases: acute diarrhoea; antibiotic associated diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, employment in infant milk formulas, infant colic, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as vulvovaginitis and mastitis.

  8. Cool Stars May Have Different Prebiotic Chemical Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope detected a prebiotic, or potentially life-forming, molecule called hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the planet-forming disks around yellow stars like our sun, but not in the disks around cooler, reddish stars. The observations are plotted in this graph, called a spectrum, in which light from the gas in the disks around the stars has been split up into its basic components, or wavelengths. Data from stars like our sun are yellow, and data from cool stars are orange. Light wavelengths are shown on the X-axis, and the relative brightness of disk emission is shown on the Y-axis. The signature of a baseline molecule, called acetylene (C2H2), was seen for both types of stars, but hydrogen cyanide was seen only around stars like our sun. Hydrogen cyanide is an organic, nitrogen-containing molecule. Five hydrogen cyanide molecules can link up to form adenine, one of the four chemical bases of DNA.

  9. Searching for Prebiotically Important Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Erika L.; Brown, L. R.; Sudholt, E.

    2012-05-01

    Understanding how prebiotic molecules form and are distributed around young stars is an important step in determining how and where life can form in planetary systems. In general, protoplanetary disks consist of a cold, dense midplane where, beyond the frost line, water and organic molecules will condense onto dust grains as icy coatings. The surface of the disk is exposed to stellar and interstellar radiation, giving rise to a photon-dominated region characterized by ionization and dissociation products. Between these two layers is a warm molecular layer where a rich molecular chemistry is predicted to occur. The warm molecular layer is somewhat protected from ionizing radiation by the dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface region. We present a high-resolution (λ / Δλ 25,000), near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the L-band toward T Tauri star GV Tau N. The data were acquired with the NIRSPEC instrument on the Keck II telescope, located on Mauna Kea, HI. We detected strong HCN absorption lines that we interpret to be located in the warm molecular layer of a nearly edge-on protoplanetary disk. We discuss significant differences in spectra acquired in 2006 and 2010 and implications for the material in the disk of GV Tau N, including rotational temperatures, abundances, and inferred location. This work was supported by the NSF Stellar Astronomy Program (Grant #0908230) and the NASA Exobiology program (NNX11AG44G).

  10. Dynamical Study of Prebiotic Processing by Comet Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Dateo, Christopher E.; McKay, Christopher P.; Borucki, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Comets and meteoroids that bombarded the Earth, other planets and moons are considered possible deliverers of prebiotic materials manufactured in space. Simultaneously, chemical processing can be initiated by the large kinetic energy imparted to the planetary atmosphere during comet/meteoroid entry. The efficiency of organic synthesis and the diversity of products by impact shock are known to decrease as the reducing power of the atmosphere decreases. It is generally accepted that rich organic products are produced in a methane atmosphere whereas a carbon dioxide atmosphere is reported to yield a dearth of products In order to understand the details of impact chemistry and how it depends on the atmospheric composition, we carried out simulations of the chemistry initiated by comet/meteoroid impact upon a planetary atmosphere using different atmospheric compositions. The simulations were done by solving the set of coupled equations for mass, momentum, and energy conservations, chemical kinetics, and transport, that describe a high-energy impact shock, subsequent expansion and cooling of the hot shocked gas by mixing with the ambient gas, and the eventual steady state composition.

  11. Prebiotic materials from on and off the early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Max

    2006-10-29

    One of the greatest puzzles of all time is how did life arise? It has been universally presumed that life arose in a soup rich in carbon compounds, but from where did these organic molecules come? In this article, I will review proposed terrestrial sources of prebiotic organic molecules, such as Miller-Urey synthesis (including how they would depend on the oxidation state of the atmosphere) and hydrothermal vents and also input from space. While the former is perhaps better known and more commonly taught in school, we now know that comet and asteroid dust deliver tons of organics to the Earth every day, therefore this flux of reduced carbon from space probably also played a role in making the Earth habitable. We will compare and contrast the types and abundances of organics from on and off the Earth given standard assumptions. Perhaps each process provided specific compounds (amino acids, sugars, amphiphiles) that were directly related to the origin or early evolution of life. In any case, whether planetary, nebular or interstellar, we will consider how one might attempt to distinguish between abiotic organic molecules from actual signs of life as part of a robotic search for life in the Solar System.

  12. Nonequilibrium Steady States in Models of Prebiotic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, J. W.; Wynveen, A.

    2014-12-01

    We report computational results from a model for prebiotic evolution.The model is schematic, but contains a correct description of thebasic statistical problem associated with understanding how the initiation of life can occur given the strong entropic barriers (sometimesknown as 'Eigen's paradox' and appearing in experiments as the 'tar problem'). The model is similar to one of the modelsintroduced years ago by Kauffman and coworkers. The important innovationwhich we introduce is imposition of the requirement that, to qualifyas a lifelike dynamical chemical system, the system must not be inchemical equilibrium. That constraint turns out to have major qualitativeeffects on the conclusions. In particular, very sparse chemical networksturn out to be the most favorable ones for generating autocatalyticnonequilibrium states. This suggests qualitatively that deserts might bebetter than ponds for initiating life. Some details of the models andsimulations will be described, including recent results in which weintroduce spatial diffusion and a proxy for temperature into the description ofthe model chemistry. Results on growth rates, convergence and theoverall probability of generation of lifelike states as a function ofparameters of the chemical network model will be presented.

  13. Sugar-driven prebiotic synthesis of ammonia from nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L

    2010-06-01

    Reaction of 3-5 carbon sugars, glycolaldehyde, and alpha-ketoaldehydes with nitrite under mild anaerobic aqueous conditions yielded ammonia, an essential substrate for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules during abiogenesis. Under the same conditions, ammonia synthesis was not driven by formaldehyde, glyoxylate, 2-deoxyribose, and glucose, a result indicating that the reduction process requires an organic reductant containing either an accessible alpha-hydroxycarbonyl group or an alpha-dicarbonyl group. Small amounts of aqueous Fe(+3) catalyzed the sugar-driven synthesis of ammonia. The glyceraldehyde concentration dependence of ammonia synthesis, and control studies of ammonia's reaction with glyceraldehyde, indicated that ammonia formation is accompanied by incorporation of part of the synthesized ammonia into sugar-derived organic products. The ability of sugars to drive the synthesis of ammonia is considered important to abiogenesis because it provides a way to generate photochemically unstable ammonia at sites of sugar-based origin-of-life processes from nitrite, a plausible prebiotic nitrogen species.

  14. Xylooligosaccharides: an economical prebiotic from agroresidues and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ira; Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-03-01

    Oligosaccharides and dietary fibres are non-digestible food ingredients that preferentially stimulate the growth of prebiotic Bifidobacterium and other lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) provide a plethora of health benefits and can be incorporated into several functional foods. In the recent times, there has been an over emphasis on the microbial conversion of agroresidues into various value added products. Xylan, the major hemicellulosic component of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs), represents an important structural component of plant biomass in agricultural residues and could be a potent bioresource for XOS. On an industrial scale, XOS can be produced by chemical, enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of LCMs. Chemical methods generate XOS with a broad degree of polymerization (DP), while enzymatic processes will be beneficial for the manufacture of food grade and pharmaceutically important XOS. Xylooligomers exert several health benefits, and therefore, have been considered to provide relief from several ailments. This review provides a brief on production, purification and structural characterization of XOS and their health benefits.

  15. Molecular Asymmetry in Prebiotic Chemistry: An Account from Meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2016-04-13

    Carbonaceous Chondrite (CC) meteorites are fragments of asteroids, solar planetesimals that never became large enough to separate matter by their density, like terrestrial planets. CC contains various amounts of organic carbon and carry a record of chemical evolution as it came to be in the Solar System, at the time the Earth was formed and before the origins of life. We review this record as it pertains to the chiral asymmetry determined for several organic compounds in CC, which reaches a broad molecular distribution and enantiomeric excesses of up to 50%-60%. Because homochirality is an indispensable attribute of extant polymers and these meteoritic enantiomeric excesses are still, to date, the only case of chiral asymmetry in organic molecules measured outside the biosphere, the possibility of an exogenous delivery of primed prebiotic compounds to early Earth from meteorites is often proposed. Whether this exogenous delivery held a chiral advantage in molecular evolution remains an open question, as many others regarding the origins of life are.

  16. Functional metagenomics reveals novel pathways of prebiotic breakdown by human gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Davide A; Laville, Elisabeth; Laguerre, Sandrine; Robe, Patrick; Leclerc, Marion; Doré, Joël; Henrissat, Bernard; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Monsan, Pierre; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    The human intestine hosts a complex bacterial community that plays a major role in nutrition and in maintaining human health. A functional metagenomic approach was used to explore the prebiotic breakdown potential of human gut bacteria, including non-cultivated ones. Two metagenomic libraries, constructed from ileum mucosa and fecal microbiota, were screened for hydrolytic activities on the prebiotic carbohydrates inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose. The DNA inserts of 17 clones, selected from the 167 hits that were identified, were pyrosequenced in-depth, yielding in total 407, 420 bp of metagenomic DNA. From these sequences, we discovered novel prebiotic degradation pathways containing carbohydrate transporters and hydrolysing enzymes, for which we provided the first experimental proof of function. Twenty of these proteins are encoded by genes that are also present in the gut metagenome of at least 100 subjects, whatever are their ages or their geographical origin. The sequence taxonomic assignment indicated that still unknown bacteria, for which neither culture conditions nor genome sequence are available, possess the enzymatic machinery to hydrolyse the prebiotic carbohydrates tested. The results expand the vision on how prebiotics are metabolized along the intestine, and open new perspectives for the design of functional foods.

  17. Functional metagenomics reveals novel pathways of prebiotic breakdown by human gut bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide A Cecchini

    Full Text Available The human intestine hosts a complex bacterial community that plays a major role in nutrition and in maintaining human health. A functional metagenomic approach was used to explore the prebiotic breakdown potential of human gut bacteria, including non-cultivated ones. Two metagenomic libraries, constructed from ileum mucosa and fecal microbiota, were screened for hydrolytic activities on the prebiotic carbohydrates inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose. The DNA inserts of 17 clones, selected from the 167 hits that were identified, were pyrosequenced in-depth, yielding in total 407, 420 bp of metagenomic DNA. From these sequences, we discovered novel prebiotic degradation pathways containing carbohydrate transporters and hydrolysing enzymes, for which we provided the first experimental proof of function. Twenty of these proteins are encoded by genes that are also present in the gut metagenome of at least 100 subjects, whatever are their ages or their geographical origin. The sequence taxonomic assignment indicated that still unknown bacteria, for which neither culture conditions nor genome sequence are available, possess the enzymatic machinery to hydrolyse the prebiotic carbohydrates tested. The results expand the vision on how prebiotics are metabolized along the intestine, and open new perspectives for the design of functional foods.

  18. Potential of fructooligosaccharide prebiotics in alternative and nonconventional poultry production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, S C

    2015-06-01

    Fructooligosaccharide and inulin prebiotics are carbohydrate-based polymers derived from natural sources that can be utilized by certain gastrointestinal tract bacteria but not by the host animal. They are attractive as feed additives for nonconventional poultry production systems because they select for beneficial microorganisms that are thought to promote nutritional benefits to the bird and potentially limit foodborne pathogen establishment. There have been numerous studies conducted with prebiotic supplements to assess their impact in humans, animals, and conventionally raised poultry but only limited research has been conducted with birds grown under nonconventional production conditions. Much remains unknown about the specific mechanism(s) associated with their impact on the host as well as the gastrointestinal tract microflora. Utilization of several recently developed approaches such as microbiome and metabolomic analyses should offer more insight on how dietary prebiotic additives influence the development of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and these subsequent changes correspond with alterations in a bird's physiology as it matures. As more detailed and precise studies are done with nonconventional poultry, it is likely that structurally distinct prebiotics will influence not only the gastrointestinal tract microbiota differently, but potentially interact directly and/or indirectly with the bird host in distinguishable patterns as well. These functions will be important to delineate if further applications are to be developed for specific prebiotics in nonconventional poultry production systems. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Application of evidence on probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics by food industry: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, Mary N; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2014-10-23

    This study assessed how the food industry applies the knowledge and evidence gained from synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics research in infants, on the general paediatric population. This study also explored: what happens after the clinical trials using infant formula are completed, data is published or remains unpublished; the effectiveness and type of medium the formula manufacturers use to educate consumers on probiotic, prebiotic or synbiotic infant formula. This was a descriptive study (a survey) that used a structured questionnaire. All listed companies that manufacture and / or market food products with added probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics for infants were identified and invited to participate. People responsible for research and development were invited to participate in the survey. A letter of invitation was sent to selected participants and if they expressed willingness to take part in the study, a questionnaire with a written consent form was sent. Descriptive statistics and associations between categorical variables were to be tested using a Chi-square test, a p prebiotics or synbiotics research on infants for the benefit of the general paediatric population. More information and greater transparency is needed from the infant formula manufacturers on how they apply the evidence gained from the research on probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics on infants.

  20. Evidence of preventive effect of probiotics and prebiotics for infantile eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, Philippe A

    2013-08-01

    Infantile eczema, and in particular atopic dermatitis are, in many children, the first manifestation of their predisposition to an atopic disease. Among existing prevention strategies, supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics belong to the most promising beneficial interventions. Highlighting the most recent literature, we review here the most recent studies on probiotics and prebiotics and hypothesize on the most efficient intervention strategies. Various probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combinations, have been administered, in general, during the late phase of pregnancy and up to 6 months of age. In general, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics given from pregnancy until early infancy has a higher potential for protecting the infant from developing early manifestations of eczema than short administration of one specific microorganism. The effect of probiotics and prebiotic supplementations on early manifestations of atopy such as infantile eczema are conflicting. Nevertheless, prevention strategies should aim for an enhanced efficacy by addressing not only interventions on the microbiota, but by combining them to other interventions, for example, to those aiming at actively inducing antigen-specific tolerance.

  1. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  2. Value-added prebiotic GGMO oligosaccharides from a high-volume molasses by-product of pine fiber board manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Prebiotics" are substances that enhance the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of host animals. To be of value, prebiotics must provide a selective nutrient source for desirable gut bacteria, especially Bifidobacterium, while reducing the incidence of undesirable bacteria ...

  3. Stimulation of the growth of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus Acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium Lactis BL-04, by selected prebiotic canditates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Knudsen, Anne; Bandsholm, O.

    2009-01-01

    Prebiotics have been shown to support the growth of probiotic bacteria thereby having a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to evaluate selected and structurally different carbohydrate prebiotic candidate by measuring their capability to stimulate the growth of the two pro...... probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acdophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis BL-04....

  4. Stimulation of the growth of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus Acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium Lactis BL-04, by selected prebiotic canditates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Knudsen, Anne; Bandsholm, O.;

    2009-01-01

    Prebiotics have been shown to support the growth of probiotic bacteria thereby having a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to evaluate selected and structurally different carbohydrate prebiotic candidate by measuring their capability to stimulate the growth of the two...... probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acdophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis BL-04....

  5. Effects of the prebiotics GroBiotic-A and inulin on the intestinal microbiota of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two separate feeding trials examined the effects of dietary supplementation of the prebiotics GroBiotic®-A and inulin on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. In the first feeding trial, fishmeal-based diets without prebiotics or supplemented ...

  6. Temperature oscillations near natural nuclear reactor cores and the potential for prebiotic oligomer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Zachary R

    2016-06-01

    Geologic settings capable of driving prebiotic oligomer synthesis reactions remain a relatively unexplored aspect of origins of life research. Natural nuclear reactors are an example of Precambrian energy sources that produced unique temperature fluctuations. Heat transfer models indicate that water-moderated, convectively-cooled natural fission reactors in porous host rocks create temperature oscillations that resemble those employed in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) devices to artificially amplify oligonucleotides. This temperature profile is characterized by short-duration pulses up to 70-100 °C, followed by a sustained period of temperatures in the range of 30-70 °C, and finally a period of relaxation to ambient temperatures until the cycle is restarted by a fresh influx of pore water. For a given reactor configuration, temperature maxima and the time required to relax to ambient temperatures depend most strongly on the aggregate effect of host rock permeability in decreasing the thermal expansion and increasing the viscosity and evaporation temperature of the pore fluids. Once formed, fission-fueled reactors can sustain multi-kilowatt-level power production for 10(5)-10(6) years, ensuring microenvironmental longevity and chemical output. The model outputs indicate that organic synthesis on young planetary bodies with a sizeable reservoir of fissile material can involve more sophisticated energy dissipation pathways than modern terrestrial analog settings alone would suggest.

  7. Temperature oscillations near natural nuclear reactor cores and the potential for prebiotic oligomer synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Zachary R.

    2016-06-01

    Geologic settings capable of driving prebiotic oligomer synthesis reactions remain a relatively unexplored aspect of origins of life research. Natural nuclear reactors are an example of Precambrian energy sources that produced unique temperature fluctuations. Heat transfer models indicate that water-moderated, convectively-cooled natural fission reactors in porous host rocks create temperature oscillations that resemble those employed in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) devices to artificially amplify oligonucleotides. This temperature profile is characterized by short-duration pulses up to 70-100 °C, followed by a sustained period of temperatures in the range of 30-70 °C, and finally a period of relaxation to ambient temperatures until the cycle is restarted by a fresh influx of pore water. For a given reactor configuration, temperature maxima and the time required to relax to ambient temperatures depend most strongly on the aggregate effect of host rock permeability in decreasing the thermal expansion and increasing the viscosity and evaporation temperature of the pore fluids. Once formed, fission-fueled reactors can sustain multi-kilowatt-level power production for 105-106 years, ensuring microenvironmental longevity and chemical output. The model outputs indicate that organic synthesis on young planetary bodies with a sizeable reservoir of fissile material can involve more sophisticated energy dissipation pathways than modern terrestrial analog settings alone would suggest.

  8. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Role in Prevention of Nosocomial Sepsis in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrinda Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolonged hospital stay. Prevention of sepsis especially in the preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit remains a major challenge. The gastrointestinal tract is an important source of potential pathogens causing nosocomial sepsis as the immature intestinal epithelium can permit translocation of bacteria and yeast. The intestinal tract and its microflora play an important role in the immunity. Altering the gut microflora has been extensively studied for immunomodulation in preterm infants. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics have been used for prevention and treatment of various medical conditions in children and adults. Studies on probiotics in premature infants have focused on normalizing intestinal flora, improvement in feeding intolerance, prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. In this paper, we discuss the intestinal bacterial colonization pattern; the rational for probiotics and prebiotic therapy with special focus on the prevention of nosocomial sepsis in preterm infants.

  9. The Use of Ascorbate as an Oxidation Inhibitor in Prebiotic Amino Acid Synthesis: A Cautionary Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Hideharu; Eto, Midori; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Kensei

    2012-12-01

    It is generally thought that the terrestrial atmosphere at the time of the origin of life was CO2-rich and that organic compounds such as amino acids would not have been efficiently formed abiotically under such conditions. It has been pointed out, however, that the previously reported low yields of amino acids may have been partially due to oxidation by nitrite/nitrate during acid hydrolysis. Specifically, the yield of amino acids was found to have increased significantly (by a factor of several hundred) after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid as an oxidation inhibitor. However, it has not been shown that CO2 was the carbon source for the formation of the amino acids detected after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid. We therefore reinvestigated the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids in a CO2-rich atmosphere using an isotope labeling experiment. Herein, we report that ascorbic acid does not behave as an appropriate oxidation inhibitor, because it contributes amino acid contaminants as a consequence of its reactions with the nitrogen containing species and formic acid produced during the spark discharge experiment. Thus, amino acids are not efficiently formed from a CO2-rich atmosphere under the conditions studied.

  10. The use of ascorbate as an oxidation inhibitor in prebiotic amino acid synthesis: a cautionary note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Hideharu; Eto, Midori; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Kensei

    2012-12-01

    It is generally thought that the terrestrial atmosphere at the time of the origin of life was CO(2)-rich and that organic compounds such as amino acids would not have been efficiently formed abiotically under such conditions. It has been pointed out, however, that the previously reported low yields of amino acids may have been partially due to oxidation by nitrite/nitrate during acid hydrolysis. Specifically, the yield of amino acids was found to have increased significantly (by a factor of several hundred) after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid as an oxidation inhibitor. However, it has not been shown that CO(2) was the carbon source for the formation of the amino acids detected after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid. We therefore reinvestigated the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids in a CO(2)-rich atmosphere using an isotope labeling experiment. Herein, we report that ascorbic acid does not behave as an appropriate oxidation inhibitor, because it contributes amino acid contaminants as a consequence of its reactions with the nitrogen containing species and formic acid produced during the spark discharge experiment. Thus, amino acids are not efficiently formed from a CO(2)-rich atmosphere under the conditions studied.

  11. From prebiotic chemistry to cellular metabolism--the chemical evolution of metabolism before Darwinian natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Hevia, Enrique; Montero-Gómez, Nancy; Montero, Francisco

    2008-06-07

    It is generally assumed that the complex map of metabolism is a result of natural selection working at the molecular level. However, natural selection can only work on entities that have three basic features: information, metabolism and membrane. Metabolism must include the capability of producing all cellular structures, as well as energy (ATP), from external sources; information must be established on a material that allows its perpetuity, in order to safeguard the goals achieved; and membranes must be able to preserve the internal material, determining a selective exchange with external material in order to ensure that both metabolism and information can be individualized. It is not difficult to understand that protocellular entities that boast these three qualities can evolve through natural selection. The problem is rather to explain the origin of such features under conditions where natural selection could not work. In the present work we propose that these protocells could be built by chemical evolution, starting from the prebiotic primordial soup, by means of chemical selection. This consists of selective increases of the rates of certain specific reactions because of the kinetic or thermodynamic features of the process, such as stoichiometric catalysis or autocatalysis, cooperativity and others, thereby promoting their prevalence among the whole set of chemical possibilities. Our results show that all chemical processes necessary for yielding the basic materials that natural selection needs to work may be achieved through chemical selection, thus suggesting a way for life to begin.

  12. Functional Effects of Prebiotic Fructans in Colon Cancer and Calcium Metabolism in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Huerta, Marisol; Lizárraga-Grimes, Vania Lorena; Tinoco-Méndez, Mabel; Macías-Rosales, Lucía; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Tapia-Pérez, Graciela Guadalupe; Romero-Romero, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin “Synergy 1®” and inulin from Mexican agave “Metlin®” in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia. On the other hand, inulin treatments significantly increased bone densitometry (femur and vertebra) in ovariectomized rats without altering the concentration of many serum biochemical parameters and urinary parameters. Histopathology results were compared between different experimental groups. There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones. Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of inulin as a prebiotic can improve health and prevent development of chronic diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis. PMID:28293641

  13. THE MODERN STATE OF DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS AND SYNBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balak A. K.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass uncontrolled use of antibiotics, environmentaldegradation, large amount of stress situations cause re-duction of adaptive abilities of human body, activate thesympathetic-adrenal system, which, in turn, causes theneurohumoral changes due to the imbalance of neuro-transmitters production, affecting specific and nonspe-cific resistance of the organism, as well as the microflora.According to WHO data, the number of people with dis-orders of immune system is constantly increasing. Thatleads to exacerbation of chronic diseases, including thosecaused by opportunistic pathogens. Thereby, it is veryimportant to develop appropriate methods for macroor-ganism’s optimum microflora restoring. The review sum-marizes the scientific data about composition, mecha-nisms of action and drug formulations of probiotics, pre-biotics and synbiotics. The probable complications aftertaking these drugs are described. The main problems as-sociated with the production and standardization of pro-biotic preparations and perspective directions aimed atthe normalization of microbial ecology are presented inthe article.

  14. Functional Effects of Prebiotic Fructans in Colon Cancer and Calcium Metabolism in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Huerta, Marisol; Lizárraga-Grimes, Vania Lorena; Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Tinoco-Méndez, Mabel; Macías-Rosales, Lucía; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Tapia-Pérez, Graciela Guadalupe; Romero-Romero, Laura; Gracia-Mora, María Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin "Synergy 1®" and inulin from Mexican agave "Metlin®" in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia. On the other hand, inulin treatments significantly increased bone densitometry (femur and vertebra) in ovariectomized rats without altering the concentration of many serum biochemical parameters and urinary parameters. Histopathology results were compared between different experimental groups. There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones. Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of inulin as a prebiotic can improve health and prevent development of chronic diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis.

  15. Functional Effects of Prebiotic Fructans in Colon Cancer and Calcium Metabolism in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rivera-Huerta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin “Synergy 1®” and inulin from Mexican agave “Metlin®” in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia. On the other hand, inulin treatments significantly increased bone densitometry (femur and vertebra in ovariectomized rats without altering the concentration of many serum biochemical parameters and urinary parameters. Histopathology results were compared between different experimental groups. There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones. Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of inulin as a prebiotic can improve health and prevent development of chronic diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis.

  16. In ovo validation model to assess the efficacy of commercial prebiotics on broiler performance and oxidative stability of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, Giuseppe; Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Tavaniello, Siria; Abiuso, Cinzia; Bogucka, Joanna; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of in ovo injection of 2 different prebiotics, DiNovo (DN; Laminaria spp., extract containing laminarin and fucoidan) and Bi(2)tos (BI; non-digestive trans-galactooligosaccharides from milk lactose digested with Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171), on growth, slaughter traits, intramuscular fat percentage (IF) and muscle fiber diameter, and lipid oxidation of meat in chickens reared under commercial conditions, following an in ovo trial protocol. On d 12 of embryonic incubation, 350,560 Ross 308 eggs were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups and automatically injected in ovo with: physiological saline (control group), BI at dose of 3.5 mg/embryo and DN at dose of 0.88 mg/embryo. Hatched chicks (males and females) were allocated dependent on treatment group into 3 poultry houses on each farm (3 farms in total) with a stocking density of 21.2 to 21.5 chicks/m(2) At 42 d of age, 14 randomly chosen birds (7 males and 7 females), per each treatment from each farm, were individually weighed and slaughtered. The results showed no significant differences of final number of chickens/chicken house, mortality, BW per treatment, stocking density (kg/m(2)), feed intake, feed conversion rate (FCR), and European Broiler Index among 3 experimental groups. Treatments with BI and DN were associated with slight increases (P > 0.05) in average BW and a minor improvement (P > 0.05) of FCR in BI group. Slaughtered chickens from DN and BI treated groups had significantly increase of BW, carcass weight, carcass yield, and breast muscle weight compared with the control group. IF and muscle fiber diameter were similar among groups. Males had significantly higher slaughter traits compared to females, except for breast muscle yield. The prebiotic treatments led to a higher lipid oxidation in meat, even if the detected TBA reactive substances were below the critical value recognized for meat acceptability. In conclusion, in ovo

  17. In vitro fermentation by human gut bacteria of proteolytically digested caseinomacropeptide nonenzymatically glycosylated with prebiotic carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Hernandez, Oswaldo; Sanz, M Luz; Kolida, Sofia; Rastall, Robert A; Moreno, F Javier

    2011-11-23

    The in vitro fermentation selectivity of hydrolyzed caseinomacropeptide (CMP) glycosylated, via Maillard reaction (MR), with lactulose, galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose (GOSLa), and galacto-oligosaccharides from lactulose (GOSLu) was evaluated, using pH-controlled small-scale batch cultures at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions with human feces. After 10 and 24 h of fermentation, neoglyconjugates exerted a bifidogenic activity, similar to those of the corresponding prebiotic carbohydrates. No significant differences were found in Bacteroides , Lactobacillus - Enterococcus , Clostridium histolyticum subgroup, Atopobium and Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectale populations. Concentrations of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced during the fermentation of prebiotic carbohydrates were similar to those produced for their respective neoglycoconjugates at both fermentation times. These findings, joined with the functional properties attributed to CMP, could open up new applications of MR products involving prebiotics as novel multiple-functional ingredients with potential beneficial effects on human health.

  18. Spontaneous formation and base pairing of plausible prebiotic nucleotides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafferty, Brian J; Fialho, David M; Khanam, Jaheda; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Hud, Nicholas V

    2016-04-25

    The RNA World hypothesis presupposes that abiotic reactions originally produced nucleotides, the monomers of RNA and universal constituents of metabolism. However, compatible prebiotic reactions for the synthesis of complementary (that is, base pairing) nucleotides and mechanisms for their mutual selection within a complex chemical environment have not been reported. Here we show that two plausible prebiotic heterocycles, melamine and barbituric acid, form glycosidic linkages with ribose and ribose-5-phosphate in water to produce nucleosides and nucleotides in good yields. Even without purification, these nucleotides base pair in aqueous solution to create linear supramolecular assemblies containing thousands of ordered nucleotides. Nucleotide anomerization and supramolecular assemblies favour the biologically relevant β-anomer form of these ribonucleotides, revealing abiotic mechanisms by which nucleotide structure and configuration could have been originally favoured. These findings indicate that nucleotide formation and selection may have been robust processes on the prebiotic Earth, if other nucleobases preceded those of extant life.

  19. Discrete dynamic system oriented on the formation of prebiotic dipeptides from Rode's experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This work attempts to rationalize the possible prebiotic profile of the first dipeptides of about 4 billion years ago based on a computational discrete dynamic system that uses the final yields of the dipeptides obtained in Rode's experiments of salt-induced peptide formation (Rode et al., 1999, Peptides 20: 773-786). The system built a prebiotic scenario that allowed us to observe that (i) the primordial peptide generation was strongly affected by the abundances of the amino acid monomers, (ii) small variations in the concentration of the monomers have almost no effect on the final distribution pattern of the dipeptides and (iii) the most plausible chemical reaction of prebiotic peptide bond formation can be linked to Rode's hypothesis of a salt-induced scenario. The results of our computational simulations were related to former simulations of the Miller, and Fox & Harada experiments on amino acid monomer and oligomer generation, respectively, offering additional information to our approach.

  20. Transcriptional Analysis of Prebiotic Uptake and Catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake...... and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β- linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC......-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively...