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Sample records for putative nanobacteria demonstration

  1. Critical evaluation of gamma-irradiated serum used as feeder in the culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles.

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    Jan Martel

    Full Text Available The culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria (NB and calcifying nanoparticles (CNP from human and animal tissues has relied primarily on the use of a culture supplement consisting of FBS that had been gamma-irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy (gamma-FBS. The use of gamma-FBS is based on the assumption that this sterilized fluid has been rid entirely of any residual NB/CNP, while it continues to promote the slow growth in culture of NB/CNP from human/animal tissues. We show here that gamma-irradiation (5-50 kGy produces extensive dose-dependent serum protein breakdown as demonstrated through UV and visible light spectrophotometry, fluorometry, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and gel electrophoresis. Yet, both gamma-FBS and gamma-irradiated human serum (gamma-HS produce NB/CNP in cell culture conditions that are morphologically and chemically indistinguishable from their normal serum counterparts. Contrary to earlier claims, gamma-FBS does not enhance the formation of NB/CNP from several human body fluids (saliva, urine, ascites, and synovial fluid tested. In the presence of additional precipitating ions, both gamma-irradiated serum (FBS and HS and gamma-irradiated proteins (albumin and fetuin-A retain the inherent dual NB inhibitory and seeding capabilities seen also with their untreated counterparts. By gel electrophoresis, the particles formed from both gamma-FBS and gamma-HS are seen to have assimilated into their scaffold the same smeared protein profiles found in the gamma-irradiated sera. However, their protein compositions as identified by proteomics are virtually identical to those seen with particles formed from untreated serum. Moreover, particles derived from human fluids and cultured in the presence of gamma-FBS contain proteins derived from both gamma-FBS and the human fluid under investigation-a confusing and unprecedented scenario indicating that these particles harbor proteins from both the host tissue and the FBS

  2. Fetuin-A/albumin-mineral complexes resembling serum calcium granules and putative nanobacteria: demonstration of a dual inhibition-seeding concept.

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    Cheng-Yeu Wu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend

  3. Putative nanobacteria represent physiological remnants and culture by-products of normal calcium homeostasis.

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    John D Young

    Full Text Available Putative living entities called nanobacteria (NB are unusual for their small sizes (50-500 nm, pleomorphic nature, and accumulation of hydroxyapatite (HAP, and have been implicated in numerous diseases involving extraskeletal calcification. By adding precipitating ions to cell culture medium containing serum, mineral nanoparticles are generated that are morphologically and chemically identical to the so-called NB. These nanoparticles are shown here to be formed of amorphous mineral complexes containing calcium as well as other ions like carbonate, which then rapidly acquire phosphate, forming HAP. The main constituent proteins of serum-derived NB are albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1, but their involvement appears circumstantial since so-called NB from different body fluids harbor other proteins. Accordingly, by passage through various culture media, the protein composition of these particles can be modulated. Immunoblotting experiments reveal that antibodies deemed specific for NB react in fact with either albumin, fetuin-A, or both, indicating that previous studies using these reagents may have detected these serum proteins from the same as well as different species, with human tissue nanoparticles presumably absorbing bovine serum antigens from the culture medium. Both fetal bovine serum and human serum, used earlier by other investigators as sources of NB, paradoxically inhibit the formation of these entities, and this inhibition is trypsin-sensitive, indicating a role for proteins in this inhibitory process. Fetuin-A, and to a lesser degree albumin, inhibit nanoparticle formation, an inhibition that is overcome with time, ending with formation of the so-called NB. Together, these data demonstrate that NB are most likely formed by calcium or apatite crystallization inhibitors that are somehow overwhelmed by excess calcium or calcium phosphate found in culture medium or in body fluids, thereby becoming seeds for calcification. The

  4. CO 2 lasers to destroy defiance of nanobacteria

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    Jafar Kolahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria are mysterious particles that have spurred one of the biggest controversies in modern microbiology. The apatite mineral around the nanobacteria serves as a primary defense shield against various chemicals and extremely harsh condition. It is combined with a very slow metabolism of nanobacteria. These two items would be the likely explanation for the sever resistance of nanobacteria. The Hypothesis: The CO 2 laser is a continuous wave gas laser and emits infrared light at 9,600-10,600 nm in an easily manipulated focused beam that is well absorbed by water and hydroxyapatite. Hence, it seems logical to postulate that CO 2 laser can be used successfully to destroy defensive external hydroxyapatite layer of nanobacteria. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Main criticism with this hypothesis is differential radiation of nanobacteria. It is well known that CO 2 laser has high water absorption and consequently can cause unwanted damage to human host tissues.

  5. An overview on clinical implications of nanobacteria

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    C Anand Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological calcification is becoming recognized as an important feature in the dynamics of a variety of diseases, such as renal stone, atherosclerosis, pulp stones, scleroderma and arthritis. etc. from which millions of human beings suffer in all ages. Nanobacterium sanguineum is the first calcium phosphate mineral containing nanoorganism isolated from human blood that causes pathological disease calcification in humans. Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, recently discovered in human and cow blood and commercial cell culture serum. Herein the article controversy and critical role of calcifying nanoparticles as nidi and triggering factor inhuman pathologic calcifications are discussed.

  6. Nanobacteria in clouds can spread oral pathologic calcifications around the world

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    Jafar Kolahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria (calcifying nanoparticles, nanobes are one of the most controversial issues in contemporary biology. Studies show accumulating evidence on association of nanobacteria with oral pathologic calcifications such as calculus, pulp stone, and salivary gland stones. The Hypothesis: Experiments have shown that nanobacteria are excreted from the body in urine and saliva, lifted from the ground by winds into the cloud, and transit between the high humidity region of the clouds and the relatively dry inter-cloud regions. Remnants of a sticky protein coating that nanobacteria make it act as an extremely efficient cloud condensation nuclei. Following condensation of cloud, nanobacteria return to the earth via rain and snow. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Transmission of nanobacteria via clouds is not surprising when compared with cosmic transmission of nanobacteria. The apatite mineral layer around the organism serves as a primary defence shield against various seriously life-threatening conditions. A double defence with the apatite layer and an impermeable membrane combined with a very slow metabolism is a likely explanation for the resistance of nanobacteria.

  7. Cosmic Transmission of Periodontal, Cardiovascular and Kidney Disease via Nanobacteria

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    Jafar Kolahi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria (NB are mysterious particles that have spurred one of the biggest controversies in modern micro-biology. NB has been reported to be present in animal and human blood, tissue culture cell lines, wastewater and etc. NB appear to cause or contribute to common diseases of the mankind e.g. periodontitis, formation of kidney stone, heart calcifications, coronary artery calcification, atherosclerotic plaque. Recent data on the far-ultraviolet extinction of starlight in our galaxy and in external galaxies is interpreted in terms of the widespread occurrence of organic particles of optical refractive index 1.4 and radii less than or equal to 20 nm. Such particles are candidates for NB such as recently been found in abundance on the Earth. Unbelievably nanobacteria-like rods observed at the surface of the Tataouine meteorite and Martian rock.The hypothesis: It seems logic to hypothesize that aliens from inner space, nanobacteria, can bring us new disease such as periodontal, cardiovascular and kidney diseases via space travels or meteorites or interstellar dusts.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The main criticism with this idea is how NB can keep alive during transfer among seriously life threatening condition in interstellar space. NB are generally thought to be very difficult to deactivation, exceptionally resistant to heat, are not deactivated by physical or chemical treatments including autoclaving, UV treatment, and various biocides. Health care providers, health policy makers and space agencies e.g. NASA and European Space Agency should make a concentrated effort to prevent transmission of NB especially following space travels.

  8. Nanobacteria: An Infectious Cause for Salivary Stone Formation and Recurrence

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    Amr A El Badry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobacteria (NB contribute to pathological calcification in the human and animal body. It has been isolated from salivary stones and suggested that it may act as a nucleus for the initiation of these stones. In the present study, we examined its role in the recurrent salivary gland stones using immunodetection with NB-specific monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM hoping to provide a method for preventing the recurrence of these stones in the patient that has suffered from salivary stones. Our study comprised 30 patients with recurrent salivary gland stones (group I and 30 patients with salivary gland stones for the first time (group II, in addition to 30 normal controls (group III. We could detect 100–500 nm nanoparticles in 24/30 (80% cases in group I with significant difference <0.05 and <0.01 when compared with group II and group III in which they were detected in 19/30 (63.3% and 6/30 (20% respectively. Also there was a significant difference <0.05 between group II and group III. We proposed that salivary stone formation is a nanobacterial disease initiated by bacterial infection. This bacteria may play an important role in the recurrence of salivary stone. So the use of calcium chelator, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, before or in combination with the suitable antibiotic that is given in an amount effective to inhibit or prevent the growth and development of nanobacteria may eradicate these stones and prevent their recurrence.

  9. Microscopic Observation of Self-Propagation of Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria)

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    Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S.; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2007-01-01

    Biologists typically define living organisms as carbon and water-based cellular forms with :self-replication" as the fundamental trait of the life process. However, this standard dictionary definition of life does not help scientists to categorize self-replicators like viruses, prions, proteons and artificial life. CNP also named nanobacteria were discovered in early 1990s as about 100 nanometer-sized bacteria-like particles with unique apatite mineral-shells around them, and found to be associated with pathological-calcification related diseases. Although CNP have been isolated and cultured from mammalian blood and diseased calcified tissues, and their biomineralizing properties well established, their biological nature and self-replicating capability have always been severely challenged. The terms "self-replication", "self-assembly" or "self-propagation" have been widely used for all systems including nanomachines, crystals, computer viruses and memes. In a simple taxonomy, all biological and non-biological "self replicators", have been classified into "living" or "nonliving" based on the properties of the systems and the amount of support they require to self-replicate. To enhance our understanding about self-replicating nature of CNP, we have investigated their growth in specific culture conditions using conventional inverted light microscope and BioStation IM, Nikon s latest time-lapse imaging system. Their morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, all concomitantly validate CNP as living self-replicators.

  10. Tetracycline treatment of type III prostatitis nanobacteria infection of 100 cases report

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    Guo, Junyi; Li, Chongxian; Wu, Baisuo; Hao, Shaojun; Ming, Aimin; Zhang, Xinji; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of tetracycline treatment of nanobacterial infection in 100 cases of type III prostatitis. randomly divided into treatment group and control group with double blind method, the treatment group was given Tetracycline Tablets 250mg, oral, 2 times a day; the control group were treated with Levofloxacin Tablets 0.lg, oral, 2 times a day; observation of curative effect of two groups of patients after 1 months of treatment. after the treatment group patients NIH-CPSI score and pain, urinary symptoms and quality of life scores were significantly lower than that of control group (Pprostate fluid and cultured positive cases of nanobacterial numbers were 21 (21%) and 100 cases (100%), the positive rate of nanobacteria in observation group was significantly lower than the control group (Pprostatitis.

  11. Mutations in the putative zinc-binding motif of UL52 demonstrate a complex interdependence between the UL5 and UL52 subunits of the human herpes simplex virus type 1 helicase/primase complex.

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    Chen, Yan; Carrington-Lawrence, Stacy D; Bai, Ping; Weller, Sandra K

    2005-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes a heterotrimeric helicase-primase (UL5/8/52) complex. UL5 contains seven motifs found in helicase superfamily 1, and UL52 contains conserved motifs found in primases. The contributions of each subunit to the biochemical activities of the complex, however, remain unclear. We have previously demonstrated that a mutation in the putative zinc finger at UL52 C terminus abrogates not only primase but also ATPase, helicase, and DNA-binding activities of a UL5/UL52 subcomplex, indicating a complex interdependence between the two subunits. To test this hypothesis and to further investigate the role of the zinc finger in the enzymatic activities of the helicase-primase, a series of mutations were constructed in this motif. They differed in their ability to complement a UL52 null virus: totally defective, partial complementation, and potentiating. In this study, four of these mutants were studied biochemically after expression and purification from insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses. All mutants show greatly reduced primase activity. Complementation-defective mutants exhibited severe defects in ATPase, helicase, and DNA-binding activities. Partially complementing mutants displayed intermediate levels of these activities, except that one showed a wild-type level of helicase activity. These data suggest that the UL52 zinc finger motif plays an important role in the activities of the helicase-primase complex. The observation that mutations in UL52 affected helicase, ATPase, and DNA-binding activities indicates that UL52 binding to DNA via the zinc finger may be necessary for loading UL5. Alternatively, UL5 and UL52 may share a DNA-binding interface.

  12. Ten Putative Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic

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    McAllister, Emily J.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Keith, Scott W.; Aronne, Louis J.; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth M.; Biggio, Joseph; Boggiano, Mary M.; Eisenmann, Joe C.; Elobeid, Mai; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Gluckman, Peter; Hanlon, Erin C.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Redden, David T.; Ruden, Douglas M.; Wang, Chenxi; Waterland, Robert A.; Wright, Suzanne M.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic. PMID:19960394

  13. Zinc and glutamate dehydrogenase in putative glutamatergic brain structures.

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    Wolf, G; Schmidt, W

    1983-01-01

    A certain topographic parallelism between the distribution of histochemically (TIMM staining) identified zinc and putative glutamatergic structures in the rat brain was demonstrated. Glutamate dehydrogenase as a zinc containing protein is in consideration to be an enzyme synthesizing transmitter glutamate. In a low concentration range externally added zinc ions (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) induced an increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) originating from rat hippocampal formation, neocortex, and cerebellum up to 142.4%. With rising molarity of Zn(II) in the incubation medium, the enzyme of hippocampal formation and cerebellum showed a biphasic course of activation. Zinc ions of a concentration higher than 10(-6) M caused a strong inhibition of GDH. The effect of Zn(II) on GDH originating from spinal ganglia and liver led only to a decrease of enzyme activity. These results are discussed in connection with a functional correlation between zinc and putatively glutamatergic system.

  14. The Putative Son's Attractiveness Alters the Perceived Attractiveness of the Putative Father.

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    Prokop, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    A body of literature has investigated female mate choice in the pre-mating context (pre-mating sexual selection). Humans, however, are long-living mammals forming pair-bonds which sequentially produce offspring. Post-mating evaluations of a partner's attractiveness may thus significantly influence the reproductive success of men and women. I tested herein the theory that the attractiveness of putative sons provides extra information about the genetic quality of fathers, thereby influencing fathers' attractiveness across three studies. As predicted, facially attractive boys were more frequently attributed to attractive putative fathers and vice versa (Study 1). Furthermore, priming with an attractive putative son increased the attractiveness of the putative father with the reverse being true for unattractive putative sons. When putative fathers were presented as stepfathers, the effect of the boy's attractiveness on the stepfather's attractiveness was lower and less consistent (Study 2). This suggests that the presence of an attractive boy has the strongest effect on the perceived attractiveness of putative fathers rather than on non-fathers. The generalized effect of priming with beautiful non-human objects also exists, but its effect is much weaker compared with the effects of putative biological sons (Study 3). Overall, this study highlighted the importance of post-mating sexual selection in humans and suggests that the heritable attractive traits of men are also evaluated by females after mating and/or may be used by females in mate poaching.

  15. Identification and characterization of putative conserved IAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available putative AMI sequences from a wide array of monocot and dicot plants were identified and the phylogenetic tree was constructed and analyzed. We identified in this tree, a clade that contained sequences from species across the plant kingdom suggesting that AMI is conserved and may have a primary role in plant ...

  16. Toddlers' Duration of Attention toward Putative Threat

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    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…

  17. Nanobacteria-like particles: a threat to cell cultures Partículas semelhantes à nanobactérias: uma ameaça às culturas de células

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    Amauri Braga Simonetti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to alert researchers who work with cell cultures for the risk of contamination by structures called nanobacteria (NB. NB are tiny structures with size varying from 80 to 500 nm, commonly occurring in clusters and producing a biofilm which contains carbonate or hydroxyl apatite. The most likely source of cell culture contamination by such organisms is serum used as supplement in culture media. The presence of NB leads to a progressive culture deterioration with accumulation of granules (probably phagocytized NB in cytoplasmic vacuoles, an increasing number of dead cells in the supernatant and degeneration of cells that remained attached to the bottom of the vessel. NB can also be found in culture supernatants where they are found in clusters with variable size and displaying brownian movement. In this study, 19 cell lineages, 8 batches of sera and 1 batch of growth supplement from different sources were analyzed. Samples from sera were cultured in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium (E-MEM or incubated directly at 37ºC. Tests carried out to detect the presence of extracellular bacteria, Mycoplasma sp and viruses were all negative. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed tiny oval structures less than 500 nm in size, isolated or in small groups, in all material analyzed except in one fetal bovine serum batch.O principal objetivo deste estudo é alertar aos pesquisadores que trabalham com cultivos celulares sobre o risco de contaminação por estruturas denominadas nanobactérias (NB. NB são estruturas muito pequenas cujo tamanho varia de 80 a 500 nm e que comumente ocorrem em agrupamentos, produzindo biofilme de carbonato ou hidroxiapatita. A fonte mais provável de contaminação dos cultivos celulares por tais organismos é o soro utilizado como suplemento nos meios de cultura. A presença de NB leva a uma progressiva deterioração do cultivo com acúmulo de grânulos (provavelmente NB fagocitadas em

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

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    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

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    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  20. Putative neuroprotective agents in neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Dodd, Seetal; Maes, Michael; Anderson, George; Dean, Olivia M; Moylan, Steven; Berk, Michael

    2013-04-05

    In many individuals with major neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, their disease characteristics are consistent with a neuroprogressive illness. This includes progressive structural brain changes, cognitive and functional decline, poorer treatment response and an increasing vulnerability to relapse with chronicity. The underlying molecular mechanisms of neuroprogression are thought to include neurotrophins and regulation of neurogenesis and apoptosis, neurotransmitters, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cortisol and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and epigenetic influences. Knowledge of the involvement of each of these pathways implies that specific agents that act on some or multiple of these pathways may thus block this cascade and have neuroprotective properties. This paper reviews the potential of the most promising of these agents, including lithium and other known psychotropics, aspirin, minocycline, statins, N-acetylcysteine, leptin and melatonin. These agents are putative neuroprotective agents for schizophrenia and mood disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Hydraulic Flood Control Structure at Putat Boro River

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    Ruzziyatno, Ruhban

    2015-01-01

    Putat Boro River is one of the main drainage systems of Surakarta city which drains into Bengawan Solo river. The primary problem when flood occur is the higher water level of Bengawan Solo than Boro River and then backwater occur and inundates Putat Boro River. The objective of the study is to obtain operational method of Putat Boro River floodgate to control both inflows and outflows not only during flood but also normal condition. It also aims to know the Putat Boro rivers floodgate op...

  2. Putative bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.

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    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.

  3. Toddlers’ Duration of Attention towards Putative Threat

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    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inhibition when children entered kindergarten. Analyses examined attention to threat above and beyond and in interaction with both proximity to the mask and fear of novelty observed in other situations. Attention to threat interacted with proximity to the mask to predict social inhibition, such that attention to threat most strongly predicted social inhibition when toddlers stayed furthest from the mask. This relation occurred above and beyond the predictive relation between fear of novelty and social inhibition. Results are discussed within the broader literature of anxiety development and attentional processes in young children. PMID:21373365

  4. Twenty putative palmitoyl-acyl transferase genes with distinct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 20 genes containing DHHC domain predicted to encode putative palmitoyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana genome. However, little is known about their characteristics such as genetic relationship and expression profile. Here, we present an overview of the putative PAT genes in A. thaliana focusing on their ...

  5. Putative radioresistant bacterial isolate from sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, April; Chua, Patricia; Perez, Kristine; Rey, April; Rivor Kristel; San Pablo, Czarina; Santos, Ernestine

    2001-01-01

    Sewage water was collected from a stagnant body of water in Balara, Quezon City. approximately 150 ml was aseptically transferred into eight Erlenmeyer flasks. Seven flasks were then subjected to different doses of radiation at the 60 Co irradiation facility, PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) which are as follows: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 10 kGy, and 15 kGy. The remaining flask was used as the control. After irradiation, all the different treatments were subjected to colony count at the culture collection laboratory, NSRI. Results showed that the colonies from sewage water treatments irradiated at 0.01 kGy (treatment A), 0.10 kGy (treatment B), and 0.50 kGy (treatment C) exhibited a decreasing trend with colony counts 4.60 x 10 3 CFU/ml, and 1.30 x 10 3 CFU/ml, and 26 CFU/ml, respectively. Contrastingly, at 1 kGy (treatment D), high colony count of 2.95 x 10 3 CFU/ml was observed which is even higher compared to the control (1.02 x 10 3 CFU/ml). Treatment E that was irradiated at 5 kGy manifested low survival rate (25 CFU/ml) indicating the presence of few putative intermediate radioresistant bacteria. Radiation dose treatments higher than 5 kGy (i.e., 10 kGy and 15 kGy) exhibited no bacterial survival. (Author)

  6. Putative radioresistant bacterial isolate from sewage water

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    Ang, April; Chua, Patricia; Perez, Kristine; Rey, April; Kristel, Rivor; San Pablo, Czarina; Santos, Ernestine

    2001-01-29

    Sewage water was collected from a stagnant body of water in Balara, Quezon City. approximately 150 ml was aseptically transferred into eight Erlenmeyer flasks. Seven flasks were then subjected to different doses of radiation at the {sup 60}Co irradiation facility, PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) which are as follows: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 10 kGy, and 15 kGy. The remaining flask was used as the control. After irradiation, all the different treatments were subjected to colony count at the culture collection laboratory, NSRI. Results showed that the colonies from sewage water treatments irradiated at 0.01 kGy (treatment A), 0.10 kGy (treatment B), and 0.50 kGy (treatment C) exhibited a decreasing trend with colony counts 4.60 x 10{sup 3} CFU/ml, and 1.30 x 10{sup 3} CFU/ml, and 26 CFU/ml, respectively. Contrastingly, at 1 kGy (treatment D), high colony count of 2.95 x 10{sup 3} CFU/ml was observed which is even higher compared to the control (1.02 x 10{sup 3} CFU/ml). Treatment E that was irradiated at 5 kGy manifested low survival rate (25 CFU/ml) indicating the presence of few putative intermediate radioresistant bacteria. Radiation dose treatments higher than 5 kGy (i.e., 10 kGy and 15 kGy) exhibited no bacterial survival. (Author)

  7. Transcriptional profiling of putative human epithelial stem cells

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    Koçer Salih S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human interfollicular epidermis is sustained by the proliferation of stem cells and their progeny, transient amplifying cells. Molecular characterization of these two cell populations is essential for better understanding of self renewal, differentiation and mechanisms of skin pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to obtain gene expression profiles of alpha 6+/MHCI+, transient amplifying cells and alpha 6+/MHCI-, putative stem cells, and to compare them with existing data bases of gene expression profiles of hair follicle stem cells. The expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I, previously shown to be absent in stem cells in several tissues, and alpha 6 integrin were used to isolate MHCI positive basal cells, and MHCI low/negative basal cells. Results Transcriptional profiles of the two cell populations were determined and comparisons made with published data for hair follicle stem cell gene expression profiles. We demonstrate that presumptive interfollicular stem cells, alpha 6+/MHCI- cells, are enriched in messenger RNAs encoding surface receptors, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, transcripts encoding members of IFN-alpha family proteins and components of IFN signaling, but contain lower levels of transcripts encoding proteins which take part in energy metabolism, cell cycle, ribosome biosynthesis, splicing, protein translation, degradation, DNA replication, repair, and chromosome remodeling. Furthermore, our data indicate that the cell signaling pathways Notch1 and NF-κB are downregulated/inhibited in MHC negative basal cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates that alpha 6+/MHCI- cells have additional characteristics attributed to stem cells. Moreover, the transcription profile of alpha 6+/MHCI- cells shows similarities to transcription profiles of mouse hair follicle bulge cells known to be enriched for stem cells. Collectively, our data suggests that alpha 6+/MHCI- cells

  8. Crystal structure and putative substrate identification for the Entamoeba histolytica low molecular weight tyrosine phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Alicia S; Jiang, Nona M; Edwards, Thomas E; Sherman, Nicholas E; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Stewart, Lance J; Myler, Peter J; Staker, Bart L; Petri, William A

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a eukaryotic intestinal parasite of humans, and is endemic in developing countries. We have characterized the E. histolytica putative low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP). The structure for this amebic tyrosine phosphatase was solved, showing the ligand-induced conformational changes necessary for binding of substrate. In amebae, it was expressed at low but detectable levels as detected by immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblotting. A mutant LMW-PTP protein in which the catalytic cysteine in the active site was replaced with a serine lacked phosphatase activity, and was used to identify a number of trapped putative substrate proteins via mass spectrometry analysis. Seven of these putative substrate protein genes were cloned with an epitope tag and overexpressed in amebae. Five of these seven putative substrate proteins were demonstrated to interact specifically with the mutant LMW-PTP. This is the first biochemical study of a small tyrosine phosphatase in Entamoeba, and sets the stage for understanding its role in amebic biology and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Salivary PYY: a putative bypass to satiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Acosta

    Full Text Available Peptide YY(3-36 is a satiation hormone released postprandially into the bloodstream from L-endocrine cells in the gut epithelia. In the current report, we demonstrate PYY(3-36 is also present in murine as well as in human saliva. In mice, salivary PYY(3-36 derives from plasma and is also synthesized in the taste cells in taste buds of the tongue. Moreover, the cognate receptor Y2R is abundantly expressed in the basal layer of the progenitor cells of the tongue epithelia and von Ebner's gland. The acute augmentation of salivary PYY(3-36 induced stronger satiation as demonstrated in feeding behavioral studies. The effect is mediated through the activation of the specific Y2 receptor expressed in the lingual epithelial cells. In a long-term study involving diet-induced obese (DIO mice, a sustained increase in PYY(3-36 was achieved using viral vector-mediated gene delivery targeting salivary glands. The chronic increase in salivary PYY(3-36 resulted in a significant long-term reduction in food intake (FI and body weight (BW. Thus this study provides evidence for new functions of the previously characterized gut peptide PYY(3-36 suggesting a potential simple and efficient alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity.

  10. SPECTROSCOPY OF PUTATIVE BROWN DWARFS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2 ± 0.5), and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  11. A putative hybrid swarm within Oonopsis foliosa (Asteraceae: Astereae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.F.; Brown, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    Oo??nopsis foliosa var. foliosa and var. monocephala are endemic to short-grass steppe of southeastern Colorado and until recently were considered geographically disjunct. The only known qualitative feature separating these 2 varieties is floral head type; var. foliosa has radiate heads, whereas var. monocephala heads are discoid. Sympatry between these varieties is restricted to a small area in which a range of parental types and intermediate head morphologies is observed. We used distribution mapping, morphometric analyses, chromosome cytology, and pollen stainability to characterize the sympatric zone. Morphometrics confirms that the only discrete difference between var. foliosa and var. monocephala is radiate versus discoid heads, respectively. The outer florets of putative hybrid individuals ranged from conspicuously elongated yet radially symmetric disc-floret corollas, to elongated radially asymmetric bilabiate- or deeply cleft corollas, to stunted ray florets with appendages remnant of corolla lobes. Chromosome cytology of pollen mother cells from both putative parental varieties and a series of intermediate morphological types collected at the sympatric zone reveal evidence of translocation heterozygosity. Pollen stainability shows no significant differences in viability between the parental varieties and putative hybrids. The restricted distribution of putative hybrids to a narrow zone of sympatry between the parental types and the presence of meiotic chromosome-pairing anomalies in these intermediate plants are consistent with a hybrid origin. The high stainability of putative-hybrid pollen adds to a growing body of evidence that hybrids are not universally unfit.

  12. Inositol as putative integrative treatment for PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, Alessandro D

    2016-12-01

    Studies over the last decade have demonstrated that some polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have abnormal insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance), independently from being overweight or obese. This induces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in such PCOS patients. The use of insulin sensitizers (i.e. metformin), reduces such metabolic, and most hormonal, impairments. As metformin often induces side effects, new integrative strategies have been proposed to treat insulin resistance, such as the use of inositols. Such compounds are mainly represented in humans by two inositol stereoisomers: myo-inositol (MYO) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI). MYO is the precursor of inositol triphosphate, a second messenger that regulates thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and FSH as well as insulin. DCI derives from the conversion of myo-inositol via an insulin-dependent pathway. Several preliminary studies have indicated possible benefits of inositol therapy in PCOS patients, but to date no meta-analysis has been performed. This review aims to give clinical insights for the clinical use of inositol in PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Memory-guided sensory comparisons in the prefrontal cortex: contribution of putative pyramidal cells and interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Cory R; Pasternak, Tatiana

    2012-02-22

    Comparing two stimuli that occur at different times demands the coordination of bottom-up and top-down processes. It has been hypothesized that the dorsolateral prefrontal (PFC) cortex, the likely source of top-down cortical influences, plays a key role in such tasks, contributing to both maintenance and sensory comparisons. We examined this hypothesis by recording from the PFC of monkeys comparing directions of two moving stimuli, S1 and S2, separated by a memory delay. We determined the contribution of the two principal cell types to these processes by classifying neurons into broad-spiking (BS) putative pyramidal cells and narrow-spiking (NS) putative local interneurons. During the delay, BS cells were more likely to exhibit anticipatory modulation and represent the remembered direction. While this representation was transient, appearing at different times in different neurons, it weakened when direction was not task relevant, suggesting its utility. During S2, both putative cell types showed comparison-related activity modulations. These modulations were of two types, each carried by different neurons, which either preferred trials with stimuli moving in the same direction or trials with stimuli of different directions. These comparison effects were strongly correlated with choice, suggesting their role in circuitry underlying decision making. These results provide the first demonstration of distinct contributions made by principal cell types to memory-guided perceptual decisions. During sensory stimulation both cell types represent behaviorally relevant stimulus features contributing to comparison and decision-related activity. However in the absence of sensory stimulation, putative pyramidal cells dominated, carrying information about the elapsed time and the preceding direction.

  14. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, R.M.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Hof, B.E. van 't; Maltha, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-six adult laypeople

  15. Exploring universal partnerships and putative marriages as tools for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following upon the Supreme Court of Appeal's judgment in Butters v Mncora 2012 4 SA 1 (SCA), which broadened the criteria and consequences of universal partnerships in cohabitation relationships, this article investigates the potential of universal partnerships and putative marriages to allocate rights to share in ...

  16. Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-15

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of "Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe.".  Created: 10/15/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2015.

  17. Computational identification of putative cytochrome P450 genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, a computational study of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of soybean was performed by data mining methods and bio-informatics tools and as a result 78 putative P450 genes were identified, including 57 new ones. These genes were classified into five clans and 20 families by sequence similarities and among ...

  18. Differential expressions of putative genes in various floral organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Differential expressions of putative genes in various floral organs of the Pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum) using GeneFishing. Faridah, Q. Z.1, 2, Ng, B. Z.3, Raha, A. R.4, Umi, K. A. B.5 and Khosravi, A. R.2*. 1Department of Biology, Faculty Science, University Putra ...

  19. Inhibitory Synaptic Plasticity - Spike timing dependence and putative network function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim P Vogels

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While the plasticity of excitatory synaptic connections in the brain has been widely studied, the plasticity of inhibitory connections is much less understood. Here, we present recent experimental and theoretical □ndings concerning the rules of spike timing-dependent inhibitory plasticity and their putative network function. This is a summary of a workshop at the COSYNE conference 2012.

  20. Alkenenitrile Transmissive Olefination: Synthesis of the Putative Lignan "Morinol I"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Liu, Wang; Yao, Lihua; Pitta, Bhaskar; Purzycki, Matthew; Ravikumar, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Grignard reagents trigger an addition-elimination with α'-hydroxy acrylonitriles to selectively generate Z-alkenenitriles. The modular assembly of Z-alkenenitriles from a Grignard reagent, acrylonitrile, and an aldehyde is ideal for stereoselectively synthesizing alkenes as illustrated in the synthesis of the putative lignan "morinol I." PMID:22545004

  1. TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 mediate immune recognition of putative newly identified periodontal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesan, Julie; Jiao, Yizu; Schaff, Riley A; Hao, Jie; Morelli, Thiago; Kinney, Janet S; Gerow, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Rachel; Rodrigues, Vinicius; Paster, Bruce J; Inohara, Naohiro; Giannobile, William V

    2016-06-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that results from the interaction between the oral microbiota and the host immunity. Although the innate immune response is important for disease initiation and progression, the innate immune receptors that recognize both classical and putative periodontal pathogens that elicit an immune response have not been elucidated. By using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), we identified multiple predominant oral bacterial species in human plaque biofilm that strongly associate with severe periodontitis. Ten of the identified species were evaluated in greater depth, six being classical pathogens and four putative novel pathogens. Using human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type (WT) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific and MyD88 knockouts (KOs), we demonstrated that heat-killed Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, Selenomonas infelix, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia mediate high immunostimulatory activity. Campylobacter concisus, C. rectus, and S. infelix exhibited robust TLR4 stimulatory activity. Studies using mesothelial cells from WT and NOD1-specific KOs and NOD2-expressing human embryonic kidney cells demonstrated that Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium nodatum and Filifactor alocis exhibit robust NOD1 stimulatory activity, and that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Parvimonas micra have the highest NOD2 stimulatory activity. These studies allowed us to provide important evidence on newly identified putative pathogens in periodontal disease pathogenesis showing that these bacteria exhibit different immunostimulatory activity via TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154855). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannetti Marco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis.

  3. Supplementary data: Variation in the PTEN-induced putative kinase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variation in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 gene associated with the increase risk of type 2 diabetes in northern Chinese. Yanchun Qu, Liang Sun, Ze Yang and Ruifa Han. J. Genet. 90, 125–128. Table 1. Clinical characteristics of cases and controls. Phenotype. T2DM. Controls. P value. Age (years). 49.5 ± 11.1. 50.4 ± ...

  4. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ...

  5. Localization and expression of putative circadian clock transcripts in the brain of the nudibranch Melibe leonina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duback, Victoria E; Sabrina Pankey, M; Thomas, Rachel I; Huyck, Taylor L; Mbarani, Izhar M; Bernier, Kyle R; Cook, Geoffrey M; O'Dowd, Colleen A; Newcomb, James M; Watson, Winsor H

    2018-09-01

    The nudibranch, Melibe leonina, expresses a circadian rhythm of locomotion, and we recently determined the sequences of multiple circadian clock transcripts that may play a role in controlling these daily patterns of behavior. In this study, we used these genomic data to help us: 1) identify putative clock neurons using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH); and 2) determine if there is a daily rhythm of expression of clock transcripts in the M. leonina brain, using quantitative PCR. FISH indicated the presence of the clock-related transcripts clock, period, and photoreceptive and non-photoreceptive cryptochrome (pcry and npcry, respectively) in two bilateral neurons in each cerebropleural ganglion and a group of <10 neurons in the anterolateral region of each pedal ganglion. Double-label experiments confirmed colocalization of all four clock transcripts with each other. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that the genes clock, period, pcry and npcry exhibited significant differences in expression levels over 24 h. These data suggest that the putative circadian clock network in M. leonina consists of a small number of identifiable neurons that express circadian genes with a daily rhythm. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Five putative nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase genes are expressed in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Dos Santos, Odelta; Meirelles, Lúcia Collares; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan that parasitizes the human urogenital tract causing trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. The parasite has unique genomic characteristics such as a large genome size and expanded gene families. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) is an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing nucleoside tri- and diphosphates and has already been biochemically characterized in T. vaginalis. Considering the important role of this enzyme in the production of extracellular adenosine for parasite uptake, we evaluated the gene expression of five putative NTPDases in T. vaginalis. We showed that all five putative TvNTPDase genes (TvNTPDase1-5) were expressed by both fresh clinical and long-term grown isolates. The amino acid alignment predicted the presence of the five crucial apyrase conserved regions, transmembrane domains, signal peptides, phosphorylation and catalytic sites. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis showed that TvNTPDase sequences make up a clade with NTPDases intracellularly located. Biochemical NTPDase activity (ATP and ADP hydrolysis) is responsive to the serum-restrictive conditions and the gene expression of TvNTPDases was mostly increased, mainly TvNTPDase2 and TvNTPDase4, although there was not a clear pattern of expression among them. In summary, the present report demonstrates the gene expression patterns of predicted NTPDases in T. vaginalis. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Regulation of Arabidopsis Early Anther Development by Putative Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules and Transcriptional Regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jin Sun; Carey LH Hord; Chang-Bin Chen; Hong Ma

    2007-01-01

    Anther development in flowering plants involves the formation of several cell types, including the tapetal and pollen mother cells. The use of genetic and molecular tools has led to the identification and characterization of genes that are critical for normal cell division and differentiation in Arabidopsis early anther development. We review here several recent studies on these genes, including the demonstration that the putative receptor protein kinases BAM1 and BAM2 together play essential roles in the control of early cell division and differentiation. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that BAM1/2 may form a positive-negative feedback regulatory loop with a previously identified key regulator, SPOROCYTELESS (also called NOZZLE),to control the balance between sporogenous and somatic cell types in the anther. Furthermore, we summarize the isolation and functional analysis of the DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM1 (DYT1) gene in promoting proper tapetal cell differentiation. Our finding that DYT1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the bHLH family, as well as relevant expression analyses, strongly supports a model that DYT1 serves as a critical link between upstream factors and downstream target genes that are critical for normal tapetum development and function. These studies, together with other recently published works, indicate that cell-cell communication and transcriptional control are key processes essential for cell fate specification in anther development.

  8. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  9. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  10. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  11. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  12. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Rosemie M A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; van 't Hof, Martin A; van 't Hof, Bep E; Maltha, Jaap C

    2008-10-01

    In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. Seventy-six adult laypeople evaluated sets of photographs of 64 adolescents on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100. The facial esthetic value of each subject was calculated as a mean VAS score. Three observers recorded the position of 13 facial landmarks included in 19 putative golden proportions, based on the golden proportions as defined by Ricketts. The proportions and each proportion's deviation from the golden target (1.618) were calculated. This deviation was then related to the VAS scores. Only 4 of the 19 proportions had a significant negative correlation with the VAS scores, indicating that beautiful faces showed less deviation from the golden standard than less beautiful faces. Together, these variables explained only 16% of the variance. Few golden proportions have a significant relationship with facial esthetics in adolescents. The explained variance of these variables is too small to be of clinical importance.

  13. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

  14. A new putative deltapartitivirus recovered from Dianthus amurensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongliu; Tan, Guanlin; Xiong, Guihong; Li, Meirong; Fang, Shouguo; Islam, Saif Ul; Zhang, Songbai; Li, Fan

    2017-09-01

    Two double stranded RNAs (dsRNA), likely representing the genome of a novel deltapartitivirus, provisionally named carnation cryptic virus 3 (CCV3), were recovered from Dianthus amurensis. The two dsRNAs were 1,573 (dsRNA1) and 1,561 (dsRNA2) bp in size, each containing a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 475- and 411-aa protein, respectively. The 475-aa protein contains a conserved RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain which shows significant homology to RdRps of established or putative partitiviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Deltapartitivirus. However, it shares an amino acid identity of 75% with its closest relative, the RdRp of the deltapartitivirus beet cryptic virus 2 (BCV2), and is <62% identical to the RdRps of other partitiviruses. In a phylogenetic tree constructed with RdRps of selected partitiviruses, CCV3 clustered with BCV2 and formed a well-supported monophyletic clade with known or putative deltapartitiviruses.

  15. The Putative Chemosignal Androstadienone Makes Women More Generous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Valentina; Graffeo, Michele; Bonini, Nicolao; Gottfried, Jay A

    2016-06-01

    Putative human chemosignals have been shown to influence mood states and emotional processing, but the connection between these effects and higher-order cognitive processing is not well established. This study utilized an economic game (Dictator Game) to test whether androstadienone (AND), an odorous compound derived from testosterone, impacts on altruistic behavior. We predicted that the female participants would act more generously in the AND condition, exhibiting a significant interaction effect between gender and AND on Dictator Game contributions. We also expected that the presence of AND should increase the positive mood of the female participants, compared to a control odor condition and also compared to the mood of the male participants. The results confirm our hypotheses: for women the subliminal perception of AND led to larger monetary donations, compared to a control odor, and also increased positive mood. These effects were absent or significantly weaker in men. Our findings highlight the capacity of human putative chemosignals to influence emotions and higher cognitive processes - in particular the processes used in the context of economic decisions - in a gender-specific way.

  16. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  18. New record of Scedosporium dehoogii from Chile: Phylogeny and susceptibility profiles to classic and novel putative antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Eduardo; Sanhueza, Camila

    Scedosporium species are considered emerging agents causing illness in immunocompromised patients. In Chile, only Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium boydii and Lomentospora prolificans haven been reported previously. The study aimed to characterize genetically Scedosporium dehoogii strains from Chilean soil samples, and assessed the antifungal susceptibility profile to classic and novel putative antifungal molecules. In 2014, several samples were obtained during a survey of soil fungi in urban areas from Chile. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), tubulin (TUB), and calmodulin (CAL) sequences were performed. In addition, the susceptibility profiles to classic antifungal and new putative antifungal molecules were determined. Four strains of Scedosporium dehoogii were isolated from soil samples. The methodology confirmed the species (reported here as a new record for Chile). Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrates the low activity of terpenes (α-pinene and geraniol) against this species. Voriconazole (VRC), posaconazole (PSC), and the hydroxyquinolines (clioquinol, and 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline) showed the best antifungal activity. Our results demonstrate that Scedosporium dehoogii is present in soil samples from Chile. This study shows also that hydroxyquinolines have potential as putative antifungal molecules. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Pro-apoptotic effect of a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae putative type I signal peptidase on PK(15) swine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Jéssica A; Virginio, Veridiana G; Cancela, Martín; Leal, Fernanda M A; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Schrank, Irene S; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an economically significant swine pathogen that causes porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). Important processes for swine infection by M. hyopneumoniae depend on cell surface proteins, many of which are secreted by secretion pathways not completely elucidated so far. A putative type I signal peptidase (SPase I), a possible component of a putative Sec-dependent pathway, was annotated as a product of the sipS gene in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome. This M. hyopneumoniae putative SPase I (MhSPase I) displays only 14% and 23% of sequence identity/similarity to Escherichia coli bona fide SPase I, and, in complementation assays performed with a conditional E. coli SPase I mutant, only a partial restoration of growth was achieved with the heterologous expression of a recombinant MhSPase I (rMhSPase I). Considering the putative surface location of MhSPase I and its previously demonstrated capacity to induce a strong humoral response, we then assessed its potential to elicit a cellular and possible immunomodulatory response. In assays for immunogenicity assessment, rMhSPase I unexpectedly showed a cytotoxic effect on murine splenocytes. This cytotoxic effect was further confirmed using the swine epithelial PK(15) cell line in MTT and annexin V-flow cytometry assays, which showed that rMhSPase I induces apoptosis in a dose dependent-way. It was also demonstrated that this pro-apoptotic effect of rMhSPase I involves activation of a caspase-3 cascade. The potential relevance of the rMhSPase I pro-apoptotic effect for M. hyopneumoniae-host interactions in the context of PEP is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  1. Disparate subcellular location of putative sortase substrates in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Johann; Shaw, Helen A; Wren, Brendan W; Fairweather, Neil F

    2017-08-23

    Clostridium difficile is a gastrointestinal pathogen but how the bacterium colonises this niche is still little understood. Sortase enzymes covalently attach specific bacterial proteins to the peptidoglycan cell wall and are often involved in colonisation by pathogens. Here we show C. difficile proteins CD2537 and CD3392 are functional substrates of sortase SrtB. Through manipulation of the C-terminal regions of these proteins we show the SPKTG motif is essential for covalent attachment to the cell wall. Two additional putative substrates, CD0183 which contains an SPSTG motif, and CD2768 which contains an SPQTG motif, are not cleaved or anchored to the cell wall by sortase. Finally, using an in vivo asymmetric cleavage assay, we show that despite containing a conserved SPKTG motif, in the absence of SrtB these proteins are localised to disparate cellular compartments.

  2. Putative benefits of microalgal astaxanthin on exercise and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ASTA is a pinkish-orange carotenoid produced by microalgae, but also commonly found in shrimp, lobster and salmon, which accumulate ASTA from the aquatic food chain. Numerous studies have addressed the benefits of ASTA for human health, including the inhibition of LDL oxidation, UV-photoprotection and prophylaxis of bacterial stomach ulcers. ASTA is recognized as a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS, especially those involved in lipid peroxidation. Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise are closely related to overproduction of ROS in muscle tissue. Post-exercise inflammatory processes can even exacerbate the oxidative stress imposed by exercise. Thus, ASTA is suggested here as a putative nutritional alternative/coadjutant for antioxidant therapy to afford additional protection to muscle tissues against oxidative damage induced by exercise, as well as for an (overall integrative redox re-balance and general human health.

  3. Hepatology may have problems with putative surrogate outcome measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper; Gong, Yan

    2007-01-01

    A surrogate outcome measure is a laboratory measurement, a physical sign, or another intermediate substitute that is able to predict an intervention's effect on a clinically meaningful outcome. A clinical outcome detects how a patient feels, functions, or survives. Surrogate outcome measures occur...... faster or more often, are cheaper, and/or are less invasively achieved than the clinical outcome. In practice, validation is surprisingly often overlooked, especially if a biologic plausible rationale is proposed. Surrogate outcomes must be validated before use. The first step in validation...... predicts the intervention's effect on the clinical outcome. In hepatology a number of putative surrogate outcomes are used both in clinical research and in clinical practice without having been properly validated. Sustained virological response to interferons and ribavirin in patients with chronic...

  4. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  5. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC) may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients.

  6. High amino acid diversity and positive selection at a putative coral immunity gene (tachylectin-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellberg Michael E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in immune functions, including pathogen recognition and the activation of innate defense pathways, are among the most genetically variable known, and the proteins that they encode are often characterized by high rates of amino acid substitutions, a hallmark of positive selection. The high levels of variation characteristic of immunity genes make them useful tools for conservation genetics. To date, highly variable immunity genes have yet to be found in corals, keystone organisms of the world's most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reef. Here, we examine variation in and selection on a putative innate immunity gene from Oculina, a coral genus previously used as a model for studies of coral disease and bleaching. Results In a survey of 244 Oculina alleles, we find high nonsynonymous variation and a signature of positive selection, consistent with a putative role in immunity. Using computational protein structure prediction, we generate a structural model of the Oculina protein that closely matches the known structure of tachylectin-2 from the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus, a protein with demonstrated function in microbial recognition and agglutination. We also demonstrate that at least three other genera of anthozoan cnidarians (Acropora, Montastrea and Nematostella possess proteins structurally similar to tachylectin-2. Conclusions Taken together, the evidence of high amino acid diversity, positive selection and structural correspondence to the horseshoe crab tachylectin-2 suggests that this protein is 1 part of Oculina's innate immunity repertoire, and 2 evolving adaptively, possibly under selective pressure from coral-associated microorganisms. Tachylectin-2 may serve as a candidate locus to screen coral populations for their capacity to respond adaptively to future environmental change.

  7. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  8. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  9. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  10. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  11. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  12. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Roger, Emmanuel; Foure, Laurent; Duval, David; Mone, Yves; Ferrier-Pages, Christine; Tambutte, Eric; Tambutte, Sylvie; Zoccola, Didier; Allemand, Denis; Mitta, Guillaume

    2009-08-04

    Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28 degrees C to 32 degrees C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28 degrees C). The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching) and the non stressed states (control) were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function) were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin) contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich). Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress. Under thermal stress

  13. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambutte Sylvie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. Results In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28°C to 32°C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28°C. The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching and the non stressed states (control were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich. Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress

  14. A nuclear magnetic resonance based approach to accurate functional annotation of putative enzymes in the methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolau Basil J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct annotation of function is essential if one is to take full advantage of the vast amounts of genomic sequence data. The accuracy of sequence-based functional annotations is often variable, particularly if the sequence homology to a known function is low. Indeed recent work has shown that even proteins with very high sequence identity can have different folds and functions, and therefore caution is needed in assigning functions by sequence homology in the absence of experimental validation. Experimental methods are therefore needed to efficiently evaluate annotations in a way that complements current high throughput technologies. Here, we describe the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based ligand screening as a tool for testing functional assignments of putative enzymes that may be of variable reliability. Results The target genes for this study are putative enzymes from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans (MA that have been selected after manual genome re-annotation and demonstrate detectable in vivo expression at the level of the transcriptome. The experimental approach begins with heterologous E. coli expression and purification of individual MA gene products. An NMR-based ligand screen of the purified protein then identifies possible substrates or products from a library of candidate compounds chosen from the putative pathway and other related pathways. These data are used to determine if the current sequence-based annotation is likely to be correct. For a number of case studies, additional experiments (such as in vivo genetic complementation were performed to determine function so that the reliability of the NMR screen could be independently assessed. Conclusions In all examples studied, the NMR screen was indicative of whether the functional annotation was correct. Thus, the case studies described demonstrate that NMR-based ligand screening is an effective and rapid tool for confirming or

  15. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses......, and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...

  16. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  17. Biodenitrification demonstration test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Murray, S.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Leslie, J.W.; Patton, J.B.; Menako, C.R.

    1987-08-01

    A two-column biodenitrification (BDN) facility was constructed at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1985 and 1986 to test the feasibility of biological treatment for industrial nitrate-bearing waste water generated at FMPC. This demonstration facility comprises one-half of the proposed four-column production facility. A demonstration test was conducted over a four month period in 1987. The results indicate the proposed BDN production facility can process FMPC industrial wastewater in a continuous manner while maintaining an effluent that will consistently meet the proposed NPDES limits for combined nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N). The proposed NPDES limits are 62 kg/day average and 124 kg/day maximum. These limits were proportioned to determine that the two-column demonstration facility should meet the limits of 31 kg/day average and 62 kg/day maximum

  18. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  19. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J; Kaut, W [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the fourth PV-Contractors' Meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, held at Brussels on 21 and 22 November 1989, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the Energy Demonstration Program since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, describing progress with their projects. Summaries of the discussions held at the meeting, which included contractors whose projects were submitted in 1987, are also presented. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping, and warning systems. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  1. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  2. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  3. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in breast cancer patients with a known or putative genetic predisposition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baeyens, A

    2002-12-02

    The chromosomal radiosensitivity of breast cancer patients with a known or putative genetic predisposition was investigated and compared to a group of healthy women. The chromosomal radiosensitivity was assessed with the G2 and the G0-micronucleus assay. For the G2 assay lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with a dose of 0.4 Gy (60)Co gamma-rays after 71 h incubation, and chromatid breaks were scored in 50 metaphases. For the micronucleus assay lymphocytes were exposed in vitro to 3.5 Gy (60)Co gamma-rays at a high dose rate or low dose rate. 70 h post-irradiation cultures were arrested and micronuclei were scored in 1000 binucleate cells. The results demonstrated that the group of breast cancer patients with a known or putative genetic predisposition was on the average more radiosensitive than a population of healthy women, and this with the G2 as well as with the high dose rate and low dose rate micronucleus assay. With the G2 assay 43% of the patients were found to be radiosensitive. A higher proportion of the patients were radiosensitive with the micronucleus assay (45% with high dose rate and 61% with low dose rate). No correlation was found between the G2 and the G0-micronucleus chromosomal radiosensitivity. Out of the different subgroups considered, the group of the young breast cancer patients without family history showed the highest percentage of radiosensitive cases in the G2 (50%) as well as in the micronucleus assay (75-78%).

  4. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  5. Photovoltaic demonstration projects 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow (William) and Partners, Swindon (UK); Kaut, W [eds.

    1989-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the third Photovoltaic Contractors' Meeting organised by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported by the Energy Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984 and 1985, describing progress with their projects. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of houses, villages, recreation centres, water desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping and warning systems. (author).

  6. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  7. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are

  8. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  9. Astronomy LITE Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2006-12-01

    Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences for students. However, it has also included the development of lecture demonstrations that employ novel light sources and materials. In this presentation, we will show some of our new lecture demonstrations concerning geometrical and physical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence and polarization. We have developed over 200 Flash and Java applets that can be used either by teachers in lecture settings or by students at home. They are all posted on the web at http://lite.bu.edu. For either purpose they can be downloaded directly to the user's computer or run off line. In lecture demonstrations, some of these applets can be used to control the light emitted by video projectors to produce physical effects in materials (e.g. fluorescence). Other applets can be used, for example, to demonstrate that the human percept of color does not have a simple relationship with the physical frequency of the stimulating source of light. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  10. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  11. Rapid Discrimination Among Putative Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2016-08-31

    An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among putative models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values.

  12. The inducible CAM plants in putative lunar lander experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, Olexii; Zaetz, Iryna; Soldatkin, Olexii; Rogutskyy, Ivan; Danilchenko, Boris; Mikheev, Olexander; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Vidmachenko, Anatolii; Foing, Bernard H.; Kozyrovska, Natalia

    Precursory lunar lander experiments on growing plants in locker-based chambers will increase our understanding of effect of lunar conditions on plant physiology. The inducible CAM (Cras-sulacean Acid Metabolism)-plants are reasonable model for a study of relationships between environmental challenges and changes in plant/bacteria gene expression. In inducible CAM-plants the enzymatic machinery for the environmentally activated CAM switches on from a C3-to a full-CAM mode of photosynthesis in response to any stresses (Winter et al., 2008). In our study, Kalanchoe spp. are shown to be promising candidates for putative lunar experiments as resistant to irradiation and desiccation, especially after inoculation with a bacterial consortium (Boorlak et al., 2010). Within frames of the experiment we expect to get information about the functional activity of CAM-plants, in particular, its organogenesis, photosystem, the circadian regulation of plant metabolism on the base of data gaining with instrumental indications from expression of the reporter genes fused to any genes involved in vital functions of the plant (Kozyrovska et al., 2009). References 1. Winter K., Garcia M., Holtum J. (2008) J. Exp. Bot. 59(7):1829-1840 2. Bourlak O., Lar O., Rogutskyy I., Mikheev A., Zaets I., Chervatyuk N., de Vera J.-P., Danilchenko A.B. Foing B.H., zyrovska N. (2010) Space Sci. Technol. 3. Kozyrovska N.O., Vidmachenko A.P., Foing B.H. et al. Exploration/call/estec/ESA. 2009.

  13. Formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes in isolated developing pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaver, S.S.; Bhava, D.; Castelfranco, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to chlorophyll-protein complexes, other proteins were labeled when isolated developing pea chloroplasts were incubated with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid [ 14 C]-ALA. The major labeled band (M/sub r/ = 43 kDa by LDS-PAGE) was labeled even in the presence of chloramphenicol. Heme-dependent peroxidase activity (as detected by the tetramethyl benzidine-H 2 O 2 stain) was not visibly associated with this band. The radioactive band was stable to heat, 5% HCl in acetone, and was absent if the incubation with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid was carried out in the presence of N-methyl protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (a specific inhibitor of ferrochelatase). Organic solvent extraction procedures for the enrichment of cytochrome f from chloroplast membranes also extracted this unknown labeled product. It was concluded that this labeled product was probably a c-type cytochrome. The effect of exogenous iron, iron chelators, gabaculine (an inhibitor of ALA synthesis) and other incubation conditions upon the in vitro formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes will be discussed

  14. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  15. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  16. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaut, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (GB)

    1992-12-31

    This publication, comprising the proceedings of the fifth contractor`s meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the energy demonstration programme since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1987 and 1988, describing progress within their projects. Projects accepted from earlier calls for proposals and not yet completed were reviewed by a rapporteur and are discussed in the summary section. The results of the performance monitoring of all projects and the lessons drawn from the practical experience of the projects are also presented in the summaries and conclusions. Contractors whose projects were submitted in 1989 were also present at the meeting and contributed to the reported discussions. This proceeding is divided into four sessions (General, Housing, technical presentations, other applications) and 24 papers are offered.

  17. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  18. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  19. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  20. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R G [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  1. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  2. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  3. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  4. Putative Risk Factors in Developmental Dyslexia: A Case-Control Study of Italian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Sara; Marino, Cecilia; Simone, Daniela; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Riva, Valentina; Cellino, Maria Rosaria; Maziade, Michel; Brombin, Chiara; Battaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Although dyslexia runs in families, several putative risk factors that cannot be immediately identified as genetic predict reading disability. Published studies analyzed one or a few risk factors at a time, with relatively inconsistent results. To assess the contribution of several putative risk factors to the development of dyslexia, we conducted…

  5. Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BKCa Channel to the Respiratory Chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bednarczyk

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have been found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of various cells. These channels regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume and respiration. The activation of these channels is cytoprotective. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance Ca(2+-regulated potassium channel (mitoBKCa channel was measured by patch-clamping mitoplasts isolated from the human astrocytoma (glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. A potassium-selective current was recorded with a mean conductance of 290 pS in symmetrical 150 mM KCl solution. The channel was activated by Ca(2+ at micromolar concentrations and by the potassium channel opener NS1619. The channel was inhibited by paxilline and iberiotoxin, known inhibitors of BKCa channels. Western blot analysis, immuno-gold electron microscopy, high-resolution immunofluorescence assays and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of the BKCa channel β4 subunit in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the human astrocytoma cells. We showed that substrates of the respiratory chain, such as NADH, succinate, and glutamate/malate, decrease the activity of the channel at positive voltages. This effect was abolished by rotenone, antimycin and cyanide, inhibitors of the respiratory chain. The putative interaction of the β4 subunit of mitoBKCa with cytochrome c oxidase was demonstrated using blue native electrophoresis. Our findings indicate possible structural and functional coupling of the mitoBKCa channel with the mitochondrial respiratory chain in human astrocytoma U-87 MG cells.

  6. A Functional Assay for Putative Mouse and Human Definitive Endoderm using Chick Whole-Embryo Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Martina; Semb, Tor Henrik; Serup, Palle

    2012-01-01

    . Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe a method whereby the in vivo functionality of DE derived from ESCs can be assessed. Methods: By directed differentiation, putative DE was derived from human and mouse ESCs. This putative DE was subsequently transplanted into the endoderm of chick embryos...... to determine any occurrence of integration. Putative DE was analyzed by gene and protein expression prior to transplantation and 48 h post transplantation. Results: Putative DE, derived from mouse and human ESCs, was successfully integrated within the chick endoderm. Endoderm-specific genes were expressed...... result show that putative DE integrates with the chick endoderm and participate in the development of the chicken gut, indicating the generation of functional DE from ESCs. This functional assay can be used to assess the generation of functional DE derived from both human and mouse ESCs and provides...

  7. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  8. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  9. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  10. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  11. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  12. TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 Mediate Immune Recognition of Putative Newly-Identified Periodontal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Riley A.; Hao, Jie; Morelli, Thiago; Kinney, Janet S.; Gerow, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Rachel; Rodrigues, Vinicius; Paster, Bruce J.; Inohara, Naohiro; Giannobile, William V.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that results from the interaction between the oral microbiota and the host immunity. While the innate immune response is important for disease initiation and progression, the innate immune receptors that recognize both classical and putative periodontal pathogens that elicit an immune response have not been elucidated. By using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), we identified multiple predominant oral bacterial species in human plaque biofilm that strongly associate with severe periodontitis. Ten of the identified species were evaluated in greater depth, 6 being classical pathogens and 4 putative novel pathogens. Using human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and murine bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type (WT) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific and MyD88 knockouts (KOs), we demonstrated that heat-killed Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, Selenomonas infelix, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia mediate high immunostimulatory activity. C. concisus, C. rectus, and S. infelix exhibited robust TLR4 stimulatory activity. Studies using mesothelial cells from WT and NOD1-specific KOs and NOD2-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells demonstrated that Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium nodatum and Filifactor alocis exhibit robust NOD1 stimulatory activity, and that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Parvimonas micra have the highest NOD2-stimulatory activity. These studies allowed us to provide important evidence on newly-identified putative pathogens in periodontal disease pathogenesis showing that these bacteria exhibit different immunostimulatory activity via TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154855). PMID:26177212

  13. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  14. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  15. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  16. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  17. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  18. Industrial demonstration trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  19. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  20. TPA device for demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The TPA (torus plasma for amature) is a small race-trac type device made by the technical service division to demonstrate basic properties of plasma such as electron temperature, conductivity, effect of helical field for toroidal drift, and shape of plasma in mirror and cusp magnetic field in linear section. The plasmas are produced by RF discharge (-500W) and/or DC discharge (-30 mA) within glass discharge tube. Where major radius is 50 cm, length of linear section is 50 cm, toroidal magnetic field is 200 gauss. The device has been designed to be compact with only 100 V power source (-3.2 KW for the case without helical field) and to be full automatic sequence of operation. (author)

  1. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  2. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Putative cryomagma interaction with aerosols deposit at Titan's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Patrice; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Raulin, Francois; Coscia, David; Ramirez, Sandra I.; Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Poch, Olivier; Cabane, Michel; Brassé, Coralie

    The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is known for its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan’s atmosphere are of great astrobiological interest, particularly because of their potential evolution when they reach the surface and may interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma [1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan aerosol analogues, that have been qualified as representative of Titan’s aerosols [2]. Indeed the first results obtained by the ACP experiment onboard Huygens probe revealed that the main products obtained after thermolysis of Titan’s collected aerosols, were ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Then performing a direct comparison of the volatiles produced after a thermal treatment done in conditions similar to the ones used by the ACP experiment, we may estimate that the tholins we used are relevant to chemical analogues of Titan’s aerosols, and to note free of oxygen. Taking into account recent studies proposing that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less [3]), and assuming the presence of specific gas species [4, 5], in particular CO2 and H2S, trapped in likely internal ocean, we determine a new probable composition of the cryomagma which could potentially interact with deposited Titan’s aerosols. We then carried out different hydrolyses, taking into account this composition, and we established the influence of the hydrolysis temperature on the organic molecules production. References: [1] Mitri et al., 2008. Resurfacing of Titan by ammonia-water cryomagma. Icarus. 196, 216-224. [2] Coll et al. 2013, Can laboratory tholins mimic the chemistry producing Titan's aerosols? A review in light of ACP experimental results, Planetary and Space Science 77, 91-103. [3] Tobie et al. 2012. Titan’s Bulk Composition Constrained by Cassini-Huygens: implication for internal outgassing. The

  4. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  5. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  6. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  7. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  8. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  9. Drosophila larvae synthesize the putative oncometabolite L-2-hydroxyglutarate during normal developmental growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongde; Chawla, Geetanjali; Hurlburt, Alexander J; Sterrett, Maria C; Zaslaver, Olga; Cox, James; Karty, Jonathan A; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Tennessen, Jason M

    2017-02-07

    L-2-hydroxyglutarate (L-2HG) has emerged as a putative oncometabolite that is capable of inhibiting enzymes involved in metabolism, chromatin modification, and cell differentiation. However, despite the ability of L-2HG to interfere with a broad range of cellular processes, this molecule is often characterized as a metabolic waste product. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila larvae use the metabolic conditions established by aerobic glycolysis to both synthesize and accumulate high concentrations of L-2HG during normal developmental growth. A majority of the larval L-2HG pool is derived from glucose and dependent on the Drosophila estrogen-related receptor (dERR), which promotes L-2HG synthesis by up-regulating expression of the Drosophila homolog of lactate dehydrogenase (dLdh). We also show that dLDH is both necessary and sufficient for directly synthesizing L-2HG and the Drosophila homolog of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (dL2HGDH), which encodes the enzyme that breaks down L-2HG, is required for stage-specific degradation of the L-2HG pool. In addition, dLDH also indirectly promotes L-2HG accumulation via synthesis of lactate, which activates a metabolic feed-forward mechanism that inhibits dL2HGDH activity and stabilizes L-2HG levels. Finally, we use a genetic approach to demonstrate that dLDH and L-2HG influence position effect variegation and DNA methylation, suggesting that this compound serves to coordinate glycolytic flux with epigenetic modifications. Overall, our studies demonstrate that growing animal tissues synthesize L-2HG in a controlled manner, reveal a mechanism that coordinates glucose catabolism with L-2HG synthesis, and establish the fly as a unique model system for studying the endogenous functions of L-2HG during cell growth and proliferation.

  10. Drosophila larvae synthesize the putative oncometabolite L-2-hydroxyglutarate during normal developmental growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongde; Chawla, Geetanjali; Hurlburt, Alexander J.; Sterrett, Maria C.; Zaslaver, Olga; Cox, James; Karty, Jonathan A.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Caudy, Amy A.

    2017-01-01

    L-2-hydroxyglutarate (L-2HG) has emerged as a putative oncometabolite that is capable of inhibiting enzymes involved in metabolism, chromatin modification, and cell differentiation. However, despite the ability of L-2HG to interfere with a broad range of cellular processes, this molecule is often characterized as a metabolic waste product. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila larvae use the metabolic conditions established by aerobic glycolysis to both synthesize and accumulate high concentrations of L-2HG during normal developmental growth. A majority of the larval L-2HG pool is derived from glucose and dependent on the Drosophila estrogen-related receptor (dERR), which promotes L-2HG synthesis by up-regulating expression of the Drosophila homolog of lactate dehydrogenase (dLdh). We also show that dLDH is both necessary and sufficient for directly synthesizing L-2HG and the Drosophila homolog of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (dL2HGDH), which encodes the enzyme that breaks down L-2HG, is required for stage-specific degradation of the L-2HG pool. In addition, dLDH also indirectly promotes L-2HG accumulation via synthesis of lactate, which activates a metabolic feed-forward mechanism that inhibits dL2HGDH activity and stabilizes L-2HG levels. Finally, we use a genetic approach to demonstrate that dLDH and L-2HG influence position effect variegation and DNA methylation, suggesting that this compound serves to coordinate glycolytic flux with epigenetic modifications. Overall, our studies demonstrate that growing animal tissues synthesize L-2HG in a controlled manner, reveal a mechanism that coordinates glucose catabolism with L-2HG synthesis, and establish the fly as a unique model system for studying the endogenous functions of L-2HG during cell growth and proliferation. PMID:28115720

  11. The putative oncogene Pim-1 in the mouse: its linkage and variation among t haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, J H; Phillips, S J

    1987-11-01

    Pim-1, a putative oncogene involved in T-cell lymphomagenesis, was mapped between the pseudo-alpha globin gene Hba-4ps and the alpha-crystallin gene Crya-1 on mouse chromosome 17 and therefore within the t complex. Pim-1 restriction fragment variants were identified among t haplotypes. Analysis of restriction fragment sizes obtained with 12 endonucleases demonstrated that the Pim-1 genes in some t haplotypes were indistinguishable from the sizes for the Pim-1b allele in BALB/c inbred mice. There are now three genes, Pim-1, Crya-1 and H-2 I-E, that vary among independently derived t haplotypes and that have indistinguishable alleles in t haplotypes and inbred strains. These genes are closely linked within the distal inversion of the t complex. Because it is unlikely that these variants arose independently in t haplotypes and their wild-type homologues, we propose that an exchange of chromosomal segments, probably through double crossingover, was responsible for indistinguishable Pim-1 genes shared by certain t haplotypes and their wild-type homologues. There was, however, no apparent association between variant alleles of these three genes among t haplotypes as would be expected if a single exchange introduced these alleles into t haplotypes. If these variant alleles can be shown to be identical to the wild-type allele, then lack of association suggests that multiple exchanges have occurred during the evolution of the t complex.

  12. Insights into the Cytoadherence Phenomenon of Plasmodium vivax: The Putative Role of Phosphatidylserine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Totino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread and the dominant human malaria parasite in most countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa and, although it was classically recognized to cause benign infection, severe cases and deaths caused by P. vivax have remarkably been reported. In contrast to Plasmodium falciparum, which well-known ability to bind to endothelium and placental tissue and form rosettes is related to severity of the disease, it has been a dogma that P. vivax is unable to undergo cytoadherent phenomena. However, some studies have demonstrated that red blood cells (RBCs infected by P. vivax can cytoadhere to host cells, while the molecules participating in this host–parasite interaction are still a matter of speculation. In the present overview, we address the evidences currently supporting the adhesive profile of P. vivax and, additionally, discuss the putative role of phosphatidylserine—a cell membrane phospholipid with cytoadhesive properties that has been detected on the surface of Plasmodium-parasitized RBCs.

  13. TBC-8, a Putative RAB-2 GAP, Regulates Dense Core Vesicle Maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Mandy; Sasidharan, Nikhil; Hegermann, Jan; Kutscher, Lena M.; Koenig, Sabine; Eimer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Dense core vesicles (DCVs) are thought to be generated at the late Golgi apparatus as immature DCVs, which subsequently undergo a maturation process through clathrin-mediated membrane remodeling events. This maturation process is required for efficient processing of neuropeptides within DCVs and for removal of factors that would otherwise interfere with DCV release. Previously, we have shown that the GTPase, RAB-2, and its effector, RIC-19, are involved in DCV maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons. In rab-2 mutants, specific cargo is lost from maturing DCVs and missorted into the endosomal/lysosomal degradation route. Cargo loss could be prevented by blocking endosomal delivery. This suggests that RAB-2 is involved in retention of DCV components during the sorting process at the Golgi-endosomal interface. To understand how RAB-2 activity is regulated at the Golgi, we screened for RAB-2–specific GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). We identified a potential RAB-2 GAP, TBC-8, which is exclusively expressed in neurons and which, when depleted, shows similar DCV maturation defects as rab-2 mutants. We could demonstrate that RAB-2 binds to its putative GAP, TBC-8. Interestingly, TBC-8 also binds to the RAB-2 effector, RIC-19. This interaction appears to be conserved as TBC-8 also interacted with the human ortholog of RIC-19, ICA69. Therefore, we propose that a dynamic ON/OFF cycling of RAB-2 at the Golgi induced by the GAP/effector complex is required for proper DCV maturation. PMID:22654674

  14. The putative protein methyltransferase LAE1 controls cellulase gene expression in Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiboth, Bernhard; Karimi, Razieh Aghcheh; Phatale, Pallavi A; Linke, Rita; Hartl, Lukas; Sauer, Dominik G; Smith, Kristina M; Baker, Scott E; Freitag, Michael; Kubicek, Christian P

    2012-01-01

    Summary Trichoderma reesei is an industrial producer of enzymes that degrade lignocellulosic polysaccharides to soluble monomers, which can be fermented to biofuels. Here we show that the expression of genes for lignocellulose degradation are controlled by the orthologous T. reesei protein methyltransferase LAE1. In a lae1 deletion mutant we observed a complete loss of expression of all seven cellulases, auxiliary factors for cellulose degradation, β-glucosidases and xylanases were no longer expressed. Conversely, enhanced expression of lae1 resulted in significantly increased cellulase gene transcription. Lae1-modulated cellulase gene expression was dependent on the function of the general cellulase regulator XYR1, but also xyr1 expression was LAE1-dependent. LAE1 was also essential for conidiation of T. reesei. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (‘ChIP-seq’) showed that lae1 expression was not obviously correlated with H3K4 di- or trimethylation (indicative of active transcription) or H3K9 trimethylation (typical for heterochromatin regions) in CAZyme coding regions, suggesting that LAE1 does not affect CAZyme gene expression by directly modulating H3K4 or H3K9 methylation. Our data demonstrate that the putative protein methyltransferase LAE1 is essential for cellulase gene expression in T. reesei through mechanisms that remain to be identified. PMID:22554051

  15. Putative Stem Cells in Human Dental Pulp with Irreversible Pulpitis-An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Pan, J.; Wright, JT; Bencharit, S.; Zhang, S.; Everett, ET; Teixeira, FB; Preisser, JS

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is unknown whether stem cells also exist in clinically compromised teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Here we explored whether cells retrieved from clinically compromised dental pulp have stem cell-like properties. Methods Pulp cells were isolated from healthy teeth (control group) and from teeth with clinically diagnosed irreversible pulpitis (diseased group). Cell proliferation, stem cell marker STRO-1 expression and cell odonto-osteo-genic differentiation competence were compared. Results Cells from the diseased group demonstrated decreased colony formation capacity and a slightly decreased cell proliferation rate but had similar STRO-1 expression, and exhibited a similar percentage of positive ex vivo osteogenic induction and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression from STRO-1-enriched pulp cells. Conclusion Our study provides preliminary evidence that clinically compromised dental pulp may contain putative cells with certain stem cell properties. Further characterization of these cells will provide insight regarding whether they could serve as a source of endogenous multipotent cells in tissue regeneration based dental pulp therapy. PMID:20416426

  16. TBC-8, a putative RAB-2 GAP, regulates dense core vesicle maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Mandy; Sasidharan, Nikhil; Hegermann, Jan; Kutscher, Lena M; Koenig, Sabine; Eimer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Dense core vesicles (DCVs) are thought to be generated at the late Golgi apparatus as immature DCVs, which subsequently undergo a maturation process through clathrin-mediated membrane remodeling events. This maturation process is required for efficient processing of neuropeptides within DCVs and for removal of factors that would otherwise interfere with DCV release. Previously, we have shown that the GTPase, RAB-2, and its effector, RIC-19, are involved in DCV maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons. In rab-2 mutants, specific cargo is lost from maturing DCVs and missorted into the endosomal/lysosomal degradation route. Cargo loss could be prevented by blocking endosomal delivery. This suggests that RAB-2 is involved in retention of DCV components during the sorting process at the Golgi-endosomal interface. To understand how RAB-2 activity is regulated at the Golgi, we screened for RAB-2-specific GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). We identified a potential RAB-2 GAP, TBC-8, which is exclusively expressed in neurons and which, when depleted, shows similar DCV maturation defects as rab-2 mutants. We could demonstrate that RAB-2 binds to its putative GAP, TBC-8. Interestingly, TBC-8 also binds to the RAB-2 effector, RIC-19. This interaction appears to be conserved as TBC-8 also interacted with the human ortholog of RIC-19, ICA69. Therefore, we propose that a dynamic ON/OFF cycling of RAB-2 at the Golgi induced by the GAP/effector complex is required for proper DCV maturation.

  17. TBC-8, a putative RAB-2 GAP, regulates dense core vesicle maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Hannemann

    Full Text Available Dense core vesicles (DCVs are thought to be generated at the late Golgi apparatus as immature DCVs, which subsequently undergo a maturation process through clathrin-mediated membrane remodeling events. This maturation process is required for efficient processing of neuropeptides within DCVs and for removal of factors that would otherwise interfere with DCV release. Previously, we have shown that the GTPase, RAB-2, and its effector, RIC-19, are involved in DCV maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons. In rab-2 mutants, specific cargo is lost from maturing DCVs and missorted into the endosomal/lysosomal degradation route. Cargo loss could be prevented by blocking endosomal delivery. This suggests that RAB-2 is involved in retention of DCV components during the sorting process at the Golgi-endosomal interface. To understand how RAB-2 activity is regulated at the Golgi, we screened for RAB-2-specific GTPase activating proteins (GAPs. We identified a potential RAB-2 GAP, TBC-8, which is exclusively expressed in neurons and which, when depleted, shows similar DCV maturation defects as rab-2 mutants. We could demonstrate that RAB-2 binds to its putative GAP, TBC-8. Interestingly, TBC-8 also binds to the RAB-2 effector, RIC-19. This interaction appears to be conserved as TBC-8 also interacted with the human ortholog of RIC-19, ICA69. Therefore, we propose that a dynamic ON/OFF cycling of RAB-2 at the Golgi induced by the GAP/effector complex is required for proper DCV maturation.

  18. Evidence for positive selection in putative virulence factors within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Matute

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three genetically isolated groups in P. brasiliensis was demonstrated, enabling comparative studies of molecular evolution among P. brasiliensis lineages. Thirty-two gene sequences coding for putative virulence factors were analyzed to determine whether they were under positive selection. Our maximum likelihood-based approach yielded evidence for selection in 12 genes that are involved in different cellular processes. An in-depth analysis of four of these genes showed them to be either antigenic or involved in pathogenesis. Here, we present evidence indicating that several replacement mutations in gp43 are under positive balancing selection. The other three genes (fks, cdc42 and p27 show very little variation among the P. brasiliensis lineages and appear to be under positive directional selection. Our results are consistent with the more general observations that selective constraints are variable across the genome, and that even in the genes under positive selection, only a few sites are altered. We present our results within an evolutionary framework that may be applicable for studying adaptation and pathogenesis in P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi.

  19. Emotion processing fails to modulate putative mirror neuron response to trained visuomotor associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Kirkovski, Melissa; Fornito, Alex; Paton, Bryan; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Enticott, Peter G

    2016-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activation of the putative human mirror neuron system (MNS) can be elicited via visuomotor training. This is generally interpreted as supporting an associative learning account of the mirror neuron system (MNS) that argues against the ontogeny of the MNS to be an evolutionary adaptation for social cognition. The current study assessed whether a central component of social cognition, emotion processing, would influence the MNS activity to trained visuomotor associations, which could support a broader role of the MNS in social cognition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assessed repetition suppression to the presentation of stimulus pairs involving a simple hand action and a geometric shape that was either congruent or incongruent with earlier association training. Each pair was preceded by an image of positive, negative, or neutral emotionality. In support of an associative learning account of the MNS, repetition suppression was greater for trained pairs compared with untrained pairs in several regions, primarily supplementary motor area (SMA) and right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG). This response, however, was not modulated by the valence of the emotional images. These findings argue against a fundamental role of emotion processing in the mirror neuron response, and are inconsistent with theoretical accounts linking mirror neurons to social cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Covisualization in living onion cells of putative integrin, putative spectrin, actin, putative intermediate filaments, and other proteins at the cell membrane and in an endomembrane sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuzeau, C.; Doolittle, K. W.; McNally, J. G.; Pickard, B. G.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Covisualizations with wide-field computational optical-sectioning microscopy of living epidermal cells of the onion bulb scale have evidenced two major new cellular features. First, a sheath of cytoskeletal elements clads the endomembrane system. Similar elements clad the inner faces of punctate plasmalemmal sites interpreted as plasmalemmal control centers. One component of the endomembrane sheath and plasmalemmal control center cladding is anti-genicity-recognized by two injected antibodies against animal spectrin. Immunoblots of separated epidermal protein also showed bands recognized by these antibodies. Injected phalloidin identified F-actin with the same cellular distribution pattern, as did antibodies against intermediate-filament protein and other cytoskeletal elements known from animal cells. Injection of general protein stains demonstrated the abundance of endomembrane sheath protein. Second, the endomembrane system, like the plasmalemmal puncta, contains antigen recognized by an anti-beta 1 integrin injected into the cytoplasm. Previously, immunoblots of separated epidermal protein were shown to have a major band recognized both by this antibody prepared against a peptide representing the cytosolic region of beta 1 integrin and an antibody against the matrix region of beta 1 integrin. The latter antiboby also identified puncta at the external face of protoplasts. It is proposed that integrin and associated transmembrane proteins secure the endomembrane sheath and transmit signals between it and the lumen or matrix of the endoplasmic reticulum and organellar matrices. This function is comparable to that proposed for such transmembrane linkers in the plasmalemmal control centers, which also appear to bind cytoskeleton and a host of related molecules and transmit signals between them and the wall matrix. It is at the plasmalemmal control centers that the endoplasmic reticulum, a major component of the endomembrane system, attaches to the plasma membrane.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain from the camel, Camelus dromedarius. Farid Shokry Ataya, Mohammad Saud Alanazi, Dalia Fouad, Hehsam Mahmoud Saeed, Mohammad Bazzi ...

  2. AmcA - a putative mitochondrial ornithine transporter supporting fungal siderophore biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas eSchafferer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient required for a wide range of cellular processes. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus employs low-molecular mass iron-specific chelators, termed siderophores, for uptake, storage and intracellular iron distribution, which play a crucial role in the pathogenicity of this fungus. Siderophore biosynthesis depends on coordination with the supply of its precursor ornithine, produced mitochondrially from glutamate or cytosolically via hydrolysis of arginine. In this study, we demonstrate a role of the putative mitochondrial transporter AmcA (AFUA_8G02760 in siderophore biosynthesis of A. fumigatus.Consistent with a role in cellular ornithine handling, AmcA-deficiency resulted in decreased cellular ornithine and arginine contents as well as decreased siderophore production on medium containing glutamine as the sole nitrogen source. In support, arginine and ornithine as nitrogen sources did not impact siderophore biosynthesis due to cytosolic ornithine availability. As revealed by Northern blot analysis, transcript levels of siderophore biosynthetic genes were unresponsive to the cellular ornithine level. In contrast to siderophore production, AmcA deficiency did only mildly decrease the cellular polyamine content, demonstrating cellular prioritization of ornithine use. Nevertheless, AmcA-deficiency increased the susceptibility of A. fumigatus to the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor eflornithine, most likely due to the decreased ornithine pool. AmcA-deficiency decreased the growth rate particularly on ornithine as the sole nitrogen source during iron starvation and sufficiency, indicating an additional role in the metabolism and fitness of A. fumigatus, possibly in mitochondrial ornithine import. In the Galleria mellonella infection model, AmcA-deficiency did not affect virulence of A. fumigatus, most likely due to the residual siderophore production and arginine availability in this host niche.

  3. Identification of Putative Ortholog Gene Blocks Involved in Gestant and Lactating Mammary Gland Development: A Rodent Cross-Species Microarray Transcriptomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M.; Hernández-Stengele, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raúl; Salazar, Emmanuel; Sanchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio; Ramírez-Salcedo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland (MG) undergoes functional and metabolic changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, possibly by regulation of conserved genes. The objective was to elucidate orthologous genes, chromosome clusters and putative conserved transcriptional modules during MG development. We analyzed expression of 22,000 transcripts using murine microarrays and RNA samples of MG from virgin, pregnant, and lactating rats by cross-species hybridization. We identified 521 transcripts differentially expressed; upregulated in early (78%) and midpregnancy (89%) and early lactation (64%), but downregulated in mid-lactation (61%). Putative orthologous genes were identified. We mapped the altered genes to orthologous chromosomal locations in human and mouse. Eighteen sets of conserved genes associated with key cellular functions were revealed and conserved transcription factor binding site search entailed possible coregulation among all eight block sets of genes. This study demonstrates that the use of heterologous array hybridization for screening of orthologous gene expression from rat revealed sets of conserved genes arranged in chromosomal order implicated in signaling pathways and functional ontology. Results demonstrate the utilization power of comparative genomics and prove the feasibility of using rodent microarrays to identification of putative coexpressed orthologous genes involved in the control of human mammary gland development. PMID:24288657

  4. Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loe, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD) were to investigate, design a software architecture and demonstrate a capability to display intelligence data from multiple disciplines...

  5. Isolation of putative probionts from cod rearing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzon, H.L.; Gudmundsdottir, S.; Pedersen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    , metabolite production and adhesion to fish cell lines. Our study demonstrated that 14% of screened bacteria (n = 188) had antagonistic properties towards fish pathogens. The majority of these isolates were Gram-positive (81%), belonging to Firmicutes (69.2%) and Actinobacteria (11.5%) phyla based on 16S r...... was designed to search for new probiotics to target this critical period in cod rearing. Potential probionts were selected from the naturalmicrobiota of cod aquacultural environment. The selection was based on several criteria: pathogen inhibition potential, growth characteristics, strain identification......RNA gene sequencing. Only 6 (3.2%) of 188 isolates could inhibit all three pathogens tested: Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and Vibrio salmonicida. Differences observed in activity intensity and spectrum among inhibitory isolates emphasise the need to develop probiotic...

  6. Involvement of a putative intercellular signal-recognizing G protein-coupled receptor in the engulfment of Salmonella by the protozoan Tetrahymena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Agbedanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to investigate the molecular basis of protozoa engulfment-mediated hypervirulence of Salmonella in cattle, we evaluated protozoan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs as transducers of Salmonella engulfment by the model protozoan Tetrahymena. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-pathogenic protozoa (including Tetrahymena engulf Salmonella and then exacerbate its virulence in cattle, but the mechanistic details of the phenomenon are not fully understood. GPCRs were investigated since these receptors facilitate phagocytosis of particulates by Tetrahymena, and a GPCR apparently modulates bacterial engulfment for the pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. A database search identified three putative Tetrahymena GPCRs, based on sequence homologies and predicted transmembrane domains, that were the focus of this study. Salmonella engulfment by Tetrahymena was assessed in the presence of suramin, a non-specific GPCR inhibitor. Salmonella engulfment was also assessed in Tetrahymena in which expression of putative GPCRs was knocked-down using RNAi. A candidate GPCR was then expressed in a heterologous yeast expression system for further characterization. Our results revealed that Tetrahymena were less efficient at engulfing Salmonella in the presence of suramin. Engulfment was reduced concordantly with a reduction in the density of protozoa. RNAi-based studies revealed that knock-down of one the Tetrahymena GPCRs caused diminished engulfment of Salmonella. Tetrahymena lysates activated this receptor in the heterologous expression system. These data demonstrate that the Tetrahymena receptor is a putative GPCR that facilitates bacterial engulfment by Tetrahymena. Activation of the putative GPCR seemed to be related to protozoan cell density, suggesting that its cognate ligand is an intercellular signaling molecule.

  7. Characterization of BcaA, a putative classical autotransporter protein in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Cristine G; Borst, Luke; Cotter, Peggy A

    2013-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a tier 1 select agent, and the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease with effects ranging from chronic abscesses to fulminant pneumonia and septic shock, which can be rapidly fatal. Autotransporters (ATs) are outer membrane proteins belonging to the type V secretion system family, and many have been shown to play crucial roles in pathogenesis. The open reading frame Bp1026b_II1054 (bcaA) in B. pseudomallei strain 1026b is predicted to encode a classical autotransporter protein with an approximately 80-kDa passenger domain that contains a subtilisin-related domain. Immediately 3' to bcaA is Bp11026_II1055 (bcaB), which encodes a putative prolyl 4-hydroxylase. To investigate the role of these genes in pathogenesis, large in-frame deletion mutations of bcaA and bcaB were constructed in strain Bp340, an efflux pump mutant derivative of the melioidosis clinical isolate 1026b. Comparison of Bp340ΔbcaA and Bp340ΔbcaB mutants to wild-type B. pseudomallei in vitro demonstrated similar levels of adherence to A549 lung epithelial cells, but the mutant strains were defective in their ability to invade these cells and to form plaques. In a BALB/c mouse model of intranasal infection, similar bacterial burdens were observed after 48 h in the lungs and liver of mice infected with Bp340ΔbcaA, Bp340ΔbcaB, and wild-type bacteria. However, significantly fewer bacteria were recovered from the spleen of Bp340ΔbcaA-infected mice, supporting the idea of a role for this AT in dissemination or in survival in the passage from the site of infection to the spleen.

  8. Systematics of putative euparkeriids (Diapsida: Archosauriformes from the Triassic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland B. Sookias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African species Euparkeria capensis is of great importance for understanding the early radiation of archosauromorphs (including archosaurs following the Permo–Triassic mass extinction, as most phylogenetic analyses place it as the sister taxon to crown group Archosauria within the clade Archosauriformes. Although a number of species from Lower–Middle Triassic deposits worldwide have been referred to the putative clade Euparkeriidae, the monophyly of Euparkeriidae is controversial and has yet to be demonstrated by quantitative phylogenetic analysis. Three Chinese taxa have been recently suggested to be euparkeriids: Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’, and Wangisuchus tzeyii, all three of which were collected from the Middle Triassic Ermaying Formation of northern China. Here, we reassess the taxonomy and systematics of these taxa. We regard Wangisuchus tzeyii as a nomen dubium, because the holotype is undiagnostic and there is no convincing evidence that the previously referred additional specimens represent the same taxon as the holotype. We also regard ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ as a nomen dubium as we are unable to identify any diagnostic features. We refer the holotype to Archosauriformes, and more tentatively to Euparkeriidae. Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis and the holotype of ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ are resolved as sister taxa in a phylogenetic analysis, and are in turn the sister taxon to Euparkeria capensis, forming a monophyletic Euparkeriidae that is the sister to Archosauria+Phytosauria. This is the first quantitative phylogenetic analysis to recover a non-monospecific, monophyletic Euparkeriidae, but euparkeriid monophyly is only weakly supported and will require additional examination. Given their similar sizes, stratigraphic positions and phylogenetic placement, the holotype of ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ may represent a second individual of Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, but no

  9. Identification of putative cis-regulatory elements in Cryptosporidium parvum by de novo pattern finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissinger Jessica C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidium parvum is a unicellular eukaryote in the phylum Apicomplexa. It is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes diarrhea and is a significant AIDS-related pathogen. Cryptosporidium parvum is not amenable to long-term laboratory cultivation or classical molecular genetic analysis. The parasite exhibits a complex life cycle, a broad host range, and fundamental mechanisms of gene regulation remain unknown. We have used data from the recently sequenced genome of this organism to uncover clues about gene regulation in C. parvum. We have applied two pattern finding algorithms MEME and AlignACE to identify conserved, over-represented motifs in the 5' upstream regions of genes in C. parvum. To support our findings, we have established comparative real-time -PCR expression profiles for the groups of genes examined computationally. Results We find that groups of genes that share a function or belong to a common pathway share upstream motifs. Different motifs are conserved upstream of different groups of genes. Comparative real-time PCR studies show co-expression of genes within each group (in sub-sets during the life cycle of the parasite, suggesting co-regulation of these genes may be driven by the use of conserved upstream motifs. Conclusion This is one of the first attempts to characterize cis-regulatory elements in the absence of any previously characterized elements and with very limited expression data (seven genes only. Using de novo pattern finding algorithms, we have identified specific DNA motifs that are conserved upstream of genes belonging to the same metabolic pathway or gene family. We have demonstrated the co-expression of these genes (often in subsets using comparative real-time-PCR experiments thus establishing evidence for these conserved motifs as putative cis-regulatory elements. Given the lack of prior information concerning expression patterns and organization of promoters in C. parvum we

  10. Developing neurons use a putative pioneer's peripheral arbor to establish their terminal fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W B; Macagno, E R

    1995-05-01

    Pioneer neurons are known to guide later developing neurons during the initial phases of axonal outgrowth. To determine whether they are also important in the formation of terminal fields by the follower cells, we studied the role of a putative leech pioneer neuron, the pressure-sensitive (PD) neuron, in the establishment of other neurons' peripheral arbors. The PD neuron has a major axon that exits from its segmental ganglion to grow along the dorsal-posterior (DP) nerve to the dorsal body wall, where it arborizes extensively mainly in its own segment. It also has two minor axons that project to the two adjacent segments but branch to a lesser degree. We found that the peripheral projections of several later developing neurons, including the AP motor neuron and the TD sensory neuron, followed, with great precision, the major axon and peripheral arbor of the consegmental PD neuron, up to its fourth-order branches. When a PD neuron was ablated before it had grown to the body wall, the AP and TD axons grew normally toward and reached the target area, but then formed terminal arbors that were greatly reduced in size and abnormal in morphology. Further, if the ablation of a PD neuron was accompanied by the induction, in the same segment, of greater outgrowth of the minor axon of a PD neuron from the adjacent segment, the arbors of the same AP neurons grew along these novel PD neuron branches. These results demonstrate that the peripheral arbor of a PD neuron is a both necessary and sufficient template for the formation of normal terminal fields by certain later growing follower neurons.

  11. Putative DNA G-quadruplex formation within the promoters of Plasmodium falciparum var genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences are capable of folding into an intramolecular four-stranded structure called a G-quadruplex. When found in gene promoter regions, G-quadruplexes can downregulate gene expression, possibly by blocking the transcriptional machinery. Here we have used a genome-wide bioinformatic approach to identify Putative G-Quadruplex Sequences (PQS in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, along with biophysical techniques to examine the physiological stability of P. falciparum PQS in vitro. Results We identified 63 PQS in the non-telomeric regions of the P. falciparum clone 3D7. Interestingly, 16 of these PQS occurred in the upstream region of a subset of the P. falciparum var genes (group B var genes. The var gene family encodes PfEMP1, the parasite's major variant antigen and adhesin expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, that plays a key role in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion. The ability of the PQS found in the upstream regions of group B var genes (UpsB-Q to form stable G-quadruplex structures in vitro was confirmed using 1H NMR, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation experiments. Moreover, the synthetic compound BOQ1 that shows a higher affinity for DNA forming quadruplex rather than duplex structures was found to bind with high affinity to the UpsB-Q. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of non-telomeric PQS in the genome of P. falciparum that form stable G-quadruplexes under physiological conditions in vitro. These results allow the generation of a novel hypothesis that the G-quadruplex sequences in the upstream regions of var genes have the potential to play a role in the transcriptional control of this major virulence-associated multi-gene family.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Putative Virulence Determinants in Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Moi Puah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative saprophyte Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease which is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. This bacterium possesses many virulence factors which are thought to contribute to its survival and pathogenicity. Using a virulent clinical isolate of B. pseudomallei and an attenuated strain of the same B. pseudomallei isolate, 6 genes BPSL2033, BP1026B_I2784, BP1026B_I2780, BURPS1106A_A0094, BURPS1106A_1131, and BURPS1710A_1419 were identified earlier by PCR-based subtractive hybridization. These genes were extensively characterized at the molecular level, together with an additional gene BPSL3147 that had been identified by other investigators. Through a reverse genetic approach, single-gene knockout mutants were successfully constructed by using site-specific insertion mutagenesis and were confirmed by PCR. BPSL2033::Km and BURPS1710A_1419::Km mutants showed reduced rates of survival inside macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and also low levels of virulence in the nematode infection model. BPSL2033::Km demonstrated weak statistical significance (P=0.049 at 8 hours after infection in macrophage infection study but this was not seen in BURPS1710A_1419::Km. Nevertheless, complemented strains of both genes were able to partially restore the gene defects in both in vitro and in vivo studies, thus suggesting that they individually play a minor role in the virulence of B. pseudomallei.

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations

  14. CLONING, SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PUTATIVE BETA-LACTAMASE OF STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Seng Shueh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of current study was to explore the function of chromosomal putative beta-lactamase gene (smlt 0115 in clinical Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Antibiotic susceptibility test (AST screening for current antimicrobial drugs was done and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC level towards beta-lactams was determined by E-test. Putative beta-lactamase gene of S. maltophilia was amplified via PCR, with specific primers, then cloned into pET-15 expression plasmid and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. The gene was sequenced and analyzed. The expressed protein was purified by affinity chromatography and the kinetic assay was performed. S. maltophilia ATCC 13637 was included in this experiment. Besides, a hospital strain which exhibited resistant to a series of beta-lactams including cefepime was identified via AST and MIC, hence it was named as S2 strain and was considered in this study. Sequencing result showed that putative beta-lactamase gene obtained from ATCC 13637 and S2 strains were predicted to have cephalosporinase activity by National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI blast program. Differences in the sequences of both ATCC 13637 and S2 strains were found via ClustalW alignment software. Kinetic assay proved a cephalosporinase characteristic produced by E. coli BL21 clone that overexpressed the putative beta-lactamase gene cloned under the control of an external promoter. Yet, expressed protein purified from S2 strain had high catalytic activity against beta-lactam antibiotics which was 14-fold higher than expressed protein purified from ATCC 13637 strain. This study represents the characterization analysis of putative beta-lactamase gene (smlt 0115 of S. maltophilia. The presence of the respective gene in the chromosome of S. maltophilia suggested that putative beta-lactamase gene (smlt 0115 of S. maltophilia plays a role in beta-lactamase resistance.

  15. Influence of putative exopolysaccharide genes on Pseudomonas putida KT2440 biofilm stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Martin; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Fazli, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    We report a study of the role of putative exopolysaccharide gene clusters in the formation and stability of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 biofilm. Two novel putative exopolysaccharide gene clusters, pea and peb, were identified, and evidence is provided that they encode products that stabilize P....... putida KT2440 biofilm. The gene clusters alg and bcs, which code for proteins mediating alginate and cellulose biosynthesis, were found to play minor roles in P. putida KT2440 biofilm formation and stability under the conditions tested. A P. putida KT2440 derivative devoid of any identifiable...

  16. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  17. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  18. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  19. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2000-01-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  20. SACE_5599, a putative regulatory protein, is involved in morphological differentiation and erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirm, Benjamin; Magdevska, Vasilka; Tome, Miha; Horvat, Marinka; Karničar, Katarina; Petek, Marko; Vidmar, Robert; Baebler, Spela; Jamnik, Polona; Fujs, Štefan; Horvat, Jaka; Fonovič, Marko; Turk, Boris; Gruden, Kristina; Petković, Hrvoje; Kosec, Gregor

    2013-12-17

    Erythromycin is a medically important antibiotic, biosynthesized by the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Genes encoding erythromycin biosynthesis are organized in a gene cluster, spanning over 60 kbp of DNA. Most often, gene clusters encoding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites contain regulatory genes. In contrast, the erythromycin gene cluster does not contain regulatory genes and regulation of its biosynthesis has therefore remained poorly understood, which has for a long time limited genetic engineering approaches for erythromycin yield improvement. We used a comparative proteomic approach to screen for potential regulatory proteins involved in erythromycin biosynthesis. We have identified a putative regulatory protein SACE_5599 which shows significantly higher levels of expression in an erythromycin high-producing strain, compared to the wild type S. erythraea strain. SACE_5599 is a member of an uncharacterized family of putative regulatory genes, located in several actinomycete biosynthetic gene clusters. Importantly, increased expression of SACE_5599 was observed in the complex fermentation medium and at controlled bioprocess conditions, simulating a high-yield industrial fermentation process in the bioreactor. Inactivation of SACE_5599 in the high-producing strain significantly reduced erythromycin yield, in addition to drastically decreasing sporulation intensity of the SACE_5599-inactivated strains when cultivated on ABSM4 agar medium. In contrast, constitutive overexpression of SACE_5599 in the wild type NRRL23338 strain resulted in an increase of erythromycin yield by 32%. Similar yield increase was also observed when we overexpressed the bldD gene, a previously identified regulator of erythromycin biosynthesis, thereby for the first time revealing its potential for improving erythromycin biosynthesis. SACE_5599 is the second putative regulatory gene to be identified in S. erythraea which has positive influence on erythromycin yield. Like bld

  1. A Sequence and Structure Based Method to Predict Putative Substrates, Functions and Regulatory Networks of Endo Proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Prasanna; Balakrishnan, Satish; Rao, Shashidhar; Hooda, Yogesh; Pol, Suyog

    2009-01-01

    Background Proteases play a central role in cellular homeostasis and are responsible for the spatio- temporal regulation of function. Many putative proteases have been recently identified through genomic approaches, leading to a surge in global profiling attempts to characterize their function. Through such efforts and others it has become evident that many proteases play non-traditional roles. Accordingly, the number and the variety of the substrate repertoire of proteases are expected to be much larger than previously assumed. In line with such global profiling attempts, we present here a method for the prediction of natural substrates of endo proteases (human proteases used as an example) by employing short peptide sequences as specificity determinants. Methodology/Principal Findings Our method incorporates specificity determinants unique to individual enzymes and physiologically relevant dual filters namely, solvent accessible surface area-a parameter dependent on protein three-dimensional structure and subcellular localization. By incorporating such hitherto unused principles in prediction methods, a novel ligand docking strategy to mimic substrate binding at the active site of the enzyme, and GO functions, we identify and perform subjective validation on putative substrates of matriptase and highlight new functions of the enzyme. Using relative solvent accessibility to rank order we show how new protease regulatory networks and enzyme cascades can be created. Conclusion We believe that our physiologically relevant computational approach would be a very useful complementary method in the current day attempts to profile proteases (endo proteases in particular) and their substrates. In addition, by using functional annotations, we have demonstrated how normal and unknown functions of a protease can be envisaged. We have developed a network which can be integrated to create a proteolytic world. This network can in turn be extended to integrate other regulatory

  2. Characterization of a putative cis-regulatory element that controls transcriptional activity of the pig uroplakin II gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Mi-Ryung; Park, Jong-Yi; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Oh, Jae-Wook; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sequences of -604 to -84 bp of the pUPII promoter contained the region of a putative negative cis-regulatory element. → The core promoter was located in the 5F-1. → Transcription factor HNF4 can directly bind in the pUPII core promoter region, which plays a critical role in controlling promoter activity. → These features of the pUPII promoter are fundamental to development of a target-specific vector. -- Abstract: Uroplakin II (UPII) is a one of the integral membrane proteins synthesized as a major differentiation product of mammalian urothelium. UPII gene expression is bladder specific and differentiation dependent, but little is known about its transcription response elements and molecular mechanism. To identify the cis-regulatory elements in the pig UPII (pUPII) gene promoter region, we constructed pUPII 5' upstream region deletion mutants and demonstrated that each of the deletion mutants participates in controlling the expression of the pUPII gene in human bladder carcinoma RT4 cells. We also identified a new core promoter region and putative negative cis-regulatory element within a minimal promoter region. In addition, we showed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) can directly bind in the pUPII core promoter (5F-1) region, which plays a critical role in controlling promoter activity. Transient cotransfection experiments showed that HNF4 positively regulates pUPII gene promoter activity. Thus, the binding element and its binding protein, HNF4 transcription factor, may be involved in the mechanism that specifically regulates pUPII gene transcription.

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanjun; Gou, Junbo; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones, which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especiallytheir downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes...

  4. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Danny; Buter, Jeffrey; van Beek, Teris A.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  5. Search strings for the study of putative occupational determinants of disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattioli, S.; Zanardi, F.; Baldasseroni, A.; Schaafsma, F.; Cooke, R.M.T.; Mancini, G.; Fierro, M.; Santangelo, C.; Farioli, A.; Fucksia, S.; Curti, S.; Violante, F.S.; Verbeek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify efficient PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles regarding putative occupational determinants of conditions not generally considered to be work related. Methods Based on MeSH definitions and expert knowledge, we selected as candidate search terms the four MeSH terms

  6. Search strings for the study of putative occupational determinants of disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattioli, Stefano; Zanardi, Francesca; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Schaafsma, Frederieke; Cooke, Robin M. T.; Mancini, Gianpiero; Fierro, Mauro; Santangelo, Chiara; Farioli, Andrea; Fucksia, Serenella; Curti, Stefania; Violante, Francesco S.; Verbeek, Jos

    2010-01-01

    To identify efficient PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles regarding putative occupational determinants of conditions not generally considered to be work related. Based on MeSH definitions and expert knowledge, we selected as candidate search terms the four MeSH terms describing

  7. Putative contact ketoconazole shampoo-triggered pemphigus foliaceus in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyun-Jeong; Yoon, In-Hwa; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    A 10-year-old spayed female cocker spaniel dog was referred for an evaluation of acute-onset generalized pustular cutaneous lesions following application of ketoconazole shampoo. Cytologic and histopathologic examinations of the lesions revealed intra-epidermal pustules with predominantly neutrophils and acantholytic cells. This is the first description of putative contact ketoconazole shampoo-triggered pemphigus foliaceus in a dog.

  8. Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Giuffra, Valentina; Cano, Raul J

    2017-11-07

    Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing, but both groups showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. Putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved putative human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era.

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of putative type II fatty acid synthase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Cloning and sequence analysis of putative type II fatty acid synthase genes from Arachis hypogaea L. ... acyl carrier protein (ACP), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase, β-ketoacyl-ACP .... Helix II plays a dominant role in the interaction ... main distinguishing features of plant ACPs in plastids and ..... synthase component; J. Biol.

  10. Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, but both groups showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. Putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved putative human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era.

  11. Total synthesis of the putative structure of the novel triquinane natural product isocapnellenone

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Murthy, Sai Krishna A; Umarye, Jayant D

    2002-01-01

    A total synthesis of the ‘putative structure’ 7, attributed to the novel triquinane sesquiterpene isolated recently from two Buddelia species has been accomplished. The spectral data for 7 is a complete mismatch with those reported for the natural product and warrants a revision of the assigned structure.

  12. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  13. Sequence analysis of putative swrW gene required for surfactant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... These nucleotide and protein sequence analysis of the putative swrW gene provides vital information on the versatility .... chain reaction (PCR) products were stored at 4°C. Presence of ... identical to the same gene with an E-value of 0.0. .... The Prokaryotes-A Handbook on the Biol. of Bacteria:Ecophysiol.

  14. Distribution of putative virulence genes and antimicrobial drug resistance in Vibrio harveyi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Mendez, D.; Anto, C.

    zonula occludens toxin (Zot) and a hemolysin-coregulated protein gene (hcp) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the four putative reversible toxin genes, vhh-1 was detected in 31% of the isolates, vhh-2 in 46%, vhh-3 in 23% and vhh-4 was detected in 27...

  15. Expression of putative expansin genes in phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) induced root galls of Vitis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawo, N C; Griesser, M; Forneck, A

    Grape phylloxera ( Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) is a serious global pest in viticulture. The insects are sedentary feeders and require a gall to feed and reproduce. The insects induce their feeding site within the meristematic zone of the root tip, where they stay attached, feeding both intra- and intercellularly, and causing damage by reducing plant vigour. Several changes in cell structure and composition, including increased cell division and tissue swelling close to the feeding site, cause an organoid gall called a nodosity to develop. Because alpha expansin genes are involved in cell enlargement and cell wall loosening in many plant tissues it may be anticipated that they are also involved in nodosity formation. To identify expansin genes in Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir , we mined for orthologues genes in a comparative analysis. Eleven putative expansin genes were identified and shown to be present in the rootstock Teleki 5C ( V. berlandieri Planch. x V. riparia Michx.) using specific PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Expression analysis of young and mature nodosities and uninfested root tips were conducted via quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Up-regulation was measured for three putative expansin genes (VvEXPA15, -A17 and partly -A20) or down-regulation for three other putative genes (VvEXPA7, -A12, -A20) in nodosities. The present study clearly shows the involvement of putative expansin genes in the phylloxera-root interaction.

  16. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-04

    Feb 4, 2016 ... We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology search within ..... a putative EhTIF-IA with e-value (3e−25). Comparison of .... some biogenesis is correlated with altered rates of rDNA transcription ..... ylation by CK2 facilitates rDNA transcription by promoting dissociation of ...

  17. DETERMINATION OF ROCURONIUM AND ITS PUTATIVE METABOLITES IN BODY-FLUIDS AND TISSUE-HOMOGENATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEEF, UW; PROOST, JH; ROGGEVELD, J

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC method was developed for the quantification of the neuromuscular blocking agent rocuronium and its putative metabolites (the 17-desacetyl derivative and the N-desallyl derivative of rocuronium) in plasma, urine, bile, tissue homogenates and stoma fluid. Samples were

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Putative Densovirus of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Jared C; Nouri, Shahideh; Falk, Bryce W

    2016-07-28

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a putative densovirus of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Diaphorina citri densovirus (DcDNV) was originally identified through metagenomics, and here, we obtained the complete nucleotide sequence using PCR-based approaches. Phylogenetic analysis places DcDNV between viruses of the Ambidensovirus and Iteradensovirus genera. Copyright © 2016 Nigg et al.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Putative Densovirus of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Jared C.; Nouri, Shahideh; Falk, Bryce W.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a putative densovirus of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Diaphorina citri densovirus (DcDNV) was originally identified through metagenomics, and here, we obtained the complete nucleotide sequence using PCR-based approaches. Phylogenetic analysis places DcDNV between viruses of the Ambidensovirus and Iteradensovirus genera.

  20. Characteristics of functional enrichment and gene expression level of human putative transcriptional target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Naoki

    2018-01-19

    Transcriptional target genes show functional enrichment of genes. However, how many and how significantly transcriptional target genes include functional enrichments are still unclear. To address these issues, I predicted human transcriptional target genes using open chromatin regions, ChIP-seq data and DNA binding sequences of transcription factors in databases, and examined functional enrichment and gene expression level of putative transcriptional target genes. Gene Ontology annotations showed four times larger numbers of functional enrichments in putative transcriptional target genes than gene expression information alone, independent of transcriptional target genes. To compare the number of functional enrichments of putative transcriptional target genes between cells or search conditions, I normalized the number of functional enrichment by calculating its ratios in the total number of transcriptional target genes. With this analysis, native putative transcriptional target genes showed the largest normalized number of functional enrichments, compared with target genes including 5-60% of randomly selected genes. The normalized number of functional enrichments was changed according to the criteria of enhancer-promoter interactions such as distance from transcriptional start sites and orientation of CTCF-binding sites. Forward-reverse orientation of CTCF-binding sites showed significantly higher normalized number of functional enrichments than the other orientations. Journal papers showed that the top five frequent functional enrichments were related to the cellular functions in the three cell types. The median expression level of transcriptional target genes changed according to the criteria of enhancer-promoter assignments (i.e. interactions) and was correlated with the changes of the normalized number of functional enrichments of transcriptional target genes. Human putative transcriptional target genes showed significant functional enrichments. Functional

  1. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  2. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  3. Heterologous expression and characterization of a putative glycoside hydrolase family 43 arabinofuranosidase from Clostridium thermocellum B8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camargo, de Brenda R.; Claassens, Nico J.; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; Noronha, Eliane F.; Kengen, Servé W.M.

    2018-01-01

    An extensive list of putative cellulosomal enzymes from C. thermocellum is now available in the public databanks, however, most of these remain unvalidated with regard to their activity and expression control mechanisms. This is particularly true of those enzymes putatively involved in hemicellulose

  4. Putative and unique gene sequence utilization for the design of species specific probes as modeled by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of utilizing putative and unique gene sequences for the design of species specific probes was tested. The abundance profile of assigned functions within the Lactobacillus plantarum genome was used for the identification of the putative and unique gene sequence, csh. The targeted gene (cs...

  5. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner trademark/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist trademark/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals

  6. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  7. The putative mechanism of Na(+) absorption in euryhaline elasmobranchs exists in the gills of a stenohaline marine elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Keith P; Edwards, Susan L; Claiborne, James B; Evans, David H

    2007-02-01

    We recently cloned an NHE3 orthologue from the gills of the euryhaline Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina), and generated a stingray NHE3 antibody to unequivocally localize the exchanger to the apical side of epithelial cells that are rich with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (A MRC). We also demonstrated an increase in NHE3 expression when stingrays are in fresh water, suggesting that NHE3 is responsible for active Na(+) absorption. However, the vast majority of elasmobranchs are only found in marine environments. In the current study, immunohistochemistry with the stingray NHE3 antibody was used to localize the exchanger in the gills of the stenohaline marine spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). NHE3 immunoreactivity was confined to the apical side of cells with basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and was excluded from cells with high levels of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Western blots detected a single protein of 88 kDa in dogfish gills, the same size as NHE3 in stingrays and mammals. These immunological data demonstrate that the putative cell type responsible for active Na(+) absorption in euryhaline elasmobranchs is also present in stenohaline marine elasmobranchs, and suggest that the inability of most elasmobranchs to survive in fresh water is not due to a lack of the gill ion transporters for Na(+) absorption.

  8. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  9. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  11. Putative Biomarkers and Targets of Estrogen Receptor Negative Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Byers

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a progressive and potentially fatal disease that affects women of all ages. Like all progressive diseases, early and reliable diagnosis is the key for successful treatment and annihilation. Biomarkers serve as indicators of pathological, physiological, or pharmacological processes. Her2/neu, CA15.3, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and cytokeratins are biomarkers that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection. The structural and functional complexity of protein biomarkers and the heterogeneity of the breast cancer pathology present challenges to the scientific community. Here we review estrogen receptor-related putative breast cancer biomarkers, including those of putative breast cancer stem cells, a minor population of estrogen receptor negative tumor cells that retain the stem cell property of self renewal. We also review a few promising cytoskeleton targets for ER alpha negative breast cancer.

  12. The solution structure of ChaB, a putative membrane ion antiporter regulator from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannuzzi Pietro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChaB is a putative regulator of ChaA, a Na+/H+ antiporter that also has Ca+/H+ activity in E. coli. ChaB contains a conserved 60-residue region of unknown function found in other bacteria, archaeabacteria and a series of baculoviral proteins. As part of a structural genomics project, the structure of ChaB was elucidated by NMR spectroscopy. Results The structure of ChaB is composed of 3 α-helices and a small sheet that pack tightly to form a fold that is found in the cyclin-box family of proteins. Conclusion ChaB is distinguished from its putative DNA binding sequence homologues by a highly charged flexible loop region that has weak affinity to Mg2+ and Ca2+ divalent metal ions.

  13. Exploring Universal Partnerships and Putative Marriages as Tools for Awarding Partnership Property in Contemporary Family Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsje Bonthuys

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following upon the Supreme Court of Appeal's judgment in Butters v Mncora 2012 4 SA 1 (SCA, which broadened the criteria and consequences of universal partnerships in cohabitation relationships, this article investigates the potential of universal partnerships and putative marriages to allocate rights to share in partnership property in other intimate relationships. It traverses several instances in which marriages are not recognised - bigamous marriages, Muslim and Hindu religious marriages and invalid customary marriages – examining whether the wives in these marriages could use universal partnerships and putative marriages to claim a share in property. It then considers the use of universal partnerships to obtain a share of property in civil marriages out of community of property. It concludes by pointing out several issues which are in need of clarification and where the common law should be developed to give effect to fundamental constitutional rights.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a putative glucokinase/hexokinase from Thermus thermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kashima, Yasuhiro; Mine, Shouhei; Oku, Takashi; Uegaki, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a putative glucokinase/hexokinase from T. thermophilus was purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.02 Å resolution. Glucokinase/hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, which is the first step of glycolysis. The open reading frame TTHA0299 of the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus encodes a putative glucokinase/hexokinase which contains the consensus sequence for proteins from the repressors, open reading frames and sugar kinases family. In this study, the glucokinase/hexokinase from T. thermophilus was purified and crystallized using polyethylene glycol 8000 as a precipitant. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.02 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 70.93, b = 138.14, c = 75.16 Å, β = 95.41°

  15. A putative ABC transporter is involved in negative regulation of biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinna; Long, Fei; Chen, Yonghui

    2008-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes may persist for long periods in food processing environments. In some instances, this may be due to aggregation or biofilm formation. To investigate the mechanism controlling biofilm formation in the food-borne pathogen L. monocytogenes, we characterized LM-49, a mutant...... with enhanced ability of biofilm-formation generated via transposon Tn917 mutagenesis of L. monocytogenes 4b G. In this mutant, a Tn917 insertion has disrupted the coding region of the gene encoding a putative ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter permease identical to Lmof2365_1771 (a putative ABC...... the same amount of biofilm biomass as the wild-type strain. Furthermore, transcription of the downstream lm.G_1770 was not influenced by the upstream Tn917 insertion, and the presence of Tn917 has no effect on biofilm formation. These results suggest that lm.G_1771 was solely responsible for the negative...

  16. Characterization of putative multidrug resistance transporters of the major facilitator-superfamily expressed in Salmonella Typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, Aqsa; Ismat, Fouzia; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance mediated by efflux pumps is a well-known phenomenon in infectious bacteria. Although much work has been carried out to characterize multidrug efflux pumps in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, such information is still lacking for many deadly pathogens. The aim...... of this study was to gain insight into the substrate specificity of previously uncharacterized transporters of Salmonella Typhi to identify their role in the development of multidrug resistance. S. Typhi genes encoding putative members of the major facilitator superfamily were cloned and expressed in the drug......-hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain KAM42, and tested for transport of 25 antibacterial compounds, including representative antibiotics of various classes, antiseptics, dyes and detergents. Of the 15 tested putative transporters, STY0901, STY2458 and STY4874 exhibited a drug-resistance phenotype. Among these, STY4874...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Paramyxovirus Representative of Putative New Serotype 13

    OpenAIRE

    Goraichuk, Iryna; Sharma, Poonam; Stegniy, Borys; Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Gerilovych, Anton; Solodiankin, Olexii; Bolotin, Vitaliy; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virus of a putative new serotype of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). The virus was isolated from a white-fronted goose in Ukraine in 2011 and designated white-fronted goose/Ukraine/Askania-Nova/48-15-02/2011. The genomic characterization of the isolate suggests that it represents the novel avian paramyxovirus group APMV 13.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Paramyxovirus Representative of Putative New Serotype 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraichuk, Iryna; Sharma, Poonam; Stegniy, Borys; Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Gerilovych, Anton; Solodiankin, Olexii; Bolotin, Vitaliy; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virus of a putative new serotype of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). The virus was isolated from a white-fronted goose in Ukraine in 2011 and designated white-fronted goose/Ukraine/Askania-Nova/48-15-02/2011. The genomic characterization of the isolate suggests that it represents the novel avian paramyxovirus group APMV 13. PMID:27469958

  19. Evaluation of two putative susceptibility loci for oral clefts in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, L E; Murray, J C; O'Brien, S

    2001-01-01

    . The present study evaluated potential associations between CL+/-P and CP and two putative clefting susceptibility loci, MSX1 and TGFB3, using data from a nationwide case-control study conducted in Denmark from 1991 to 1994. The potential effects of interactions between these genes and two common environmental......-environment interactions involving MSX1 or TGFB3 and either first trimester exposure to maternal cigarette smoke or alcohol consumption....

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Corynespora cassiicola Leaf Fall Disease Putative Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David; Ribeiro, Sébastien; Label, Philippe; Fumanal, Boris; Venisse, Jean-Stéphane; Kohler, Annegret; de Oliveira, Ricardo R; Labutti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Lail, Kathleen; Bauer, Diane; Ohm, Robin A; Barry, Kerrie W; Spatafora, Joseph; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis M; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

    2018-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is an Ascomycetes fungus with a broad host range and diverse life styles. Mostly known as a necrotrophic plant pathogen, it has also been associated with rare cases of human infection. In the rubber tree, this fungus causes the Corynespora leaf fall (CLF) disease, which increasingly affects natural rubber production in Asia and Africa. It has also been found as an endophyte in South American rubber plantations where no CLF outbreak has yet occurred. The C. cassiicola species is genetically highly diverse, but no clear relationship has been evidenced between phylogenetic lineage and pathogenicity. Cassiicolin, a small glycosylated secreted protein effector, is thought to be involved in the necrotrophic interaction with the rubber tree but some virulent C. cassiicola isolates do not have a cassiicolin gene. This study set out to identify other putative effectors involved in CLF. The genome of a highly virulent C. cassiicola isolate from the rubber tree (CCP) was sequenced and assembled. In silico prediction revealed 2870 putative effectors, comprising CAZymes, lipases, peptidases, secreted proteins and enzymes associated with secondary metabolism. Comparison with the genomes of 44 other fungal species, focusing on effector content, revealed a striking proximity with phylogenetically unrelated species ( Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, nectria hematococca , and Botrosphaeria dothidea ) sharing life style plasticity and broad host range. Candidate effectors involved in the compatible interaction with the rubber tree were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Differentially expressed genes included 92 putative effectors, among which cassiicolin and two other secreted singleton proteins. Finally, the genomes of 35 C. cassiicola isolates representing the genetic diversity of the species were sequenced and assembled, and putative effectors identified. At the intraspecific level, effector

  1. Serotonin(4) (5-HT(4)) receptor agonists are putative antidepressants with a rapid onset of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Guillaume; Rymar, Vladimir V; Du, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    parameters considered to be key markers of antidepressant action, but that are observed only after 2-3 week treatments with classical molecules: desensitization of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors, increased tonus on hippocampal postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, and enhanced phosphorylation of the CREB protein...... intake consecutive to a chronic mild stress. These findings point out 5-HT(4) receptor agonists as a putative class of antidepressants with a rapid onset of action. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-6...

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Corynespora cassiicola Leaf Fall Disease Putative Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lopez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is an Ascomycetes fungus with a broad host range and diverse life styles. Mostly known as a necrotrophic plant pathogen, it has also been associated with rare cases of human infection. In the rubber tree, this fungus causes the Corynespora leaf fall (CLF disease, which increasingly affects natural rubber production in Asia and Africa. It has also been found as an endophyte in South American rubber plantations where no CLF outbreak has yet occurred. The C. cassiicola species is genetically highly diverse, but no clear relationship has been evidenced between phylogenetic lineage and pathogenicity. Cassiicolin, a small glycosylated secreted protein effector, is thought to be involved in the necrotrophic interaction with the rubber tree but some virulent C. cassiicola isolates do not have a cassiicolin gene. This study set out to identify other putative effectors involved in CLF. The genome of a highly virulent C. cassiicola isolate from the rubber tree (CCP was sequenced and assembled. In silico prediction revealed 2870 putative effectors, comprising CAZymes, lipases, peptidases, secreted proteins and enzymes associated with secondary metabolism. Comparison with the genomes of 44 other fungal species, focusing on effector content, revealed a striking proximity with phylogenetically unrelated species (Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, nectria hematococca, and Botrosphaeria dothidea sharing life style plasticity and broad host range. Candidate effectors involved in the compatible interaction with the rubber tree were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Differentially expressed genes included 92 putative effectors, among which cassiicolin and two other secreted singleton proteins. Finally, the genomes of 35 C. cassiicola isolates representing the genetic diversity of the species were sequenced and assembled, and putative effectors identified. At the intraspecific level, effector

  3. Identification of a putative nuclear export signal motif in human NANOG homeobox domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Won; Do, Hyun-Jin; Huh, Sun-Hyung; Sung, Boreum; Uhm, Sang-Jun; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found the putative nuclear export signal motif within human NANOG homeodomain. ► Leucine-rich residues are important for human NANOG homeodomain nuclear export. ► CRM1-specific inhibitor LMB blocked the potent human NANOG NES-mediated nuclear export. -- Abstract: NANOG is a homeobox-containing transcription factor that plays an important role in pluripotent stem cells and tumorigenic cells. To understand how nuclear localization of human NANOG is regulated, the NANOG sequence was examined and a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) motif ( 125 MQELSNILNL 134 ) was found in the homeodomain (HD). To functionally validate the putative NES motif, deletion and site-directed mutants were fused to an EGFP expression vector and transfected into COS-7 cells, and the localization of the proteins was examined. While hNANOG HD exclusively localized to the nucleus, a mutant with both NLSs deleted and only the putative NES motif contained (hNANOG HD-ΔNLSs) was predominantly cytoplasmic, as observed by nucleo/cytoplasmic fractionation and Western blot analysis as well as confocal microscopy. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis of the putative NES motif in a partial hNANOG HD only containing either one of the two NLS motifs led to localization in the nucleus, suggesting that the NES motif may play a functional role in nuclear export. Furthermore, CRM1-specific nuclear export inhibitor LMB blocked the hNANOG potent NES-mediated export, suggesting that the leucine-rich motif may function in CRM1-mediated nuclear export of hNANOG. Collectively, a NES motif is present in the hNANOG HD and may be functionally involved in CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway.

  4. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented

  5. Auditory demonstrations simulating Mayan architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2005-09-01

    Fascination with the ancient temples and ball court at Chichen Itza provide rich opportunities for science education. Children of all ages are delighted to learn that the sound of handclaps scattered from long temple staircases are transformed into bird chirps. Their engagement in such seemingly magical phenomena provides magic moments for teaching acoustical principals, including the picket-fence effect (PFE). PFE transforms impulsive sounds scattered from spatially periodic structures into tonal sounds. PFE is demonstrated with a computer possessing a sound card and a simple sound editing program. The inverse relationship between tonal frequency and the time interval between periodic impulses is easily demonstrated. The number of impulses needed to produce an audible tone is easily demonstrated and compared with the number of steps on the staircase. Transformation of audible tones into downward-gliding chirps is simulated by monotonically increasing the time between impulses. The Great Ball Court also provides opportunities for acoustical demonstration. Observers clapping their hands while standing between the long, tall, and parallel walls of the playing field marvel at the profound flutter echo heard for about 1.5 s. The flutter echo sonogram demonstrates the speed of sound and frequency-selective atmospheric attenuation.

  6. Demonstration of reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Morgan, T.A.

    1991-04-01

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is an approach to preventive maintenance planning and evaluation that has been used successfully by other industries, most notably the airlines and military. Now EPRI is demonstrating RCM in the commercial nuclear power industry. Just completed are large-scale, two-year demonstrations at Rochester Gas ampersand Electric (Ginna Nuclear Power Station) and Southern California Edison (San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station). Both demonstrations were begun in the spring of 1988. At each plant, RCM was performed on 12 to 21 major systems. Both demonstrations determined that RCM is an appropriate means to optimize a PM program and improve nuclear plant preventive maintenance on a large scale. Such favorable results had been suggested by three earlier EPRI pilot studies at Florida Power ampersand Light, Duke Power, and Southern California Edison. EPRI selected the Ginna and San Onofre sites because, together, they represent a broad range of utility and plant size, plant organization, plant age, and histories of availability and reliability. Significant steps in each demonstration included: selecting and prioritizing plant systems for RCM evaluation; performing the RCM evaluation steps on selected systems; evaluating the RCM recommendations by a multi-disciplinary task force; implementing the RCM recommendations; establishing a system to track and verify the RCM benefits; and establishing procedures to update the RCM bases and recommendations with time (a living program). 7 refs., 1 tab

  7. Effects of drugs of abuse on putative rostromedial tegmental neurons, inhibitory afferents to midbrain dopamine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecca, Salvatore; Melis, Miriam; Luchicchi, Antonio; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Castelli, Maria Paola; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Pistis, Marco

    2011-02-01

    Recent findings have underlined the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a structure located caudally to the ventral tegmental area, as an important site involved in the mechanisms of aversion. RMTg contains γ-aminobutyric acid neurons responding to noxious stimuli, densely innervated by the lateral habenula and providing a major inhibitory projection to reward-encoding midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. One of the key features of drug addiction is the perseverance of drug seeking in spite of negative and unpleasant consequences, likely mediated by response suppression within neural pathways mediating aversion. To investigate whether the RMTg has a function in the mechanisms of addicting drugs, we studied acute effects of morphine, cocaine, the cannabinoid agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN), and nicotine on putative RMTg neurons. We utilized single unit extracellular recordings in anesthetized rats and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to identify and characterize putative RMTg neurons and their responses to drugs of abuse. Morphine and WIN inhibited both firing rate in vivo and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked by stimulation of rostral afferents in vitro, whereas cocaine inhibited discharge activity without affecting EPSC amplitude. Conversely, nicotine robustly excited putative RMTg neurons and enhanced EPSCs, an effect mediated by α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our results suggest that activity of RMTg neurons is profoundly influenced by drugs of abuse and, as important inhibitory afferents to midbrain DA neurons, they might take place in the complex interplay between the neural circuits mediating aversion and reward.

  8. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women.

  9. [Detection of putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in Azospirillum brasilense strains from serogroups I and II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, L P; Prilipov, A G; Katsy, E I

    2017-01-01

    It is known that in Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp245 and SR75 included in serogroup I, the repeat units of their O-polysaccharides consist of five residues of D-rhamnose, and in strain SR15, of four; and the heteropolymeric O-polysaccharide of A. brasilense type strain Sp7 from serogroup II contains not less than five types of repeat units. In the present work, a complex of nondegenerate primers to the genes of A. brasilense Sp245 plasmids AZOBR_p6, AZOBR_p3, and AZOBR_p2, which encode putative enzymes for the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides, was proposed. By using the designed primers, products of the expected sizes were synthesized in polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA of A. brasilense Sp245, SR75, SR15, and Sp7 in 36, 29, 23, and 12 cases, respectively. As a result of sequencing of a number of amplicons, a high (86–99%) level of identity of the corresponding putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in three A. brasilense strains from serogroup I was detected. In a blotting-hybridization reaction with the biotin-labeled DNA of the A. brasilense gene AZOBR_p60122 coding for putative permease of the ABC transporter of polysaccharides, localization of the homologous gene in ~120-MDa plasmids of the bacteria A. brasilense SR15 and SR75 was revealed.

  10. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  11. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  12. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  13. Some Field Demonstrations in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Some Field Demonstrations in India. 2x150kVAR STATCOM at M/s Hindusthan Latex, Trivandrum. 250kVAR, 800V dc, 2-level STATCOM (Installed at Peekey Steels, Calicut). 250kVAR,800V dc, UPQC at CDAC, Trivandrum. REFERENCE: Website www. cdac.gov.in.

  14. Flexible-Rotor Balancing Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes method for balancing high-speed rotors at relatively low speeds and discusses demonstration of method on laboratory test rig. Method ensures rotor brought up to speeds well over 20,000 r/min smoothly, without excessive vibration amplitude at critical speeds or at operating speed.

  15. A Demonstration and a Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Randy

    1978-01-01

    Describes an activity using interchangeable, preset tool holders to provide a demonstration for parents or students attending a school's open house session that produces a small souvenir (an aluminum mini-chalice) for them. A procedure sheet for the school's individual lathe and specification diagrams for making the cup are provided. (TA)

  16. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  17. SunJammer Technology Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sunjammer Project is a NASA funded contract to L?Garde Inc. to fly a solar sail demonstration for a period of approximately one year. L?Garde is also partnered...

  18. The buried waste integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    There are numerous locations throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex where wastes have been buried in the ground or stored for future disposal. Much of this buried waste is contaminated with hazardous and radioactive materials. An extensive research program has been initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop and demonstrate advanced remediation techniques for DOE Complex buried waste. The purpose of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), is to develop a scientifically sound and deployable remediation system consisting of advanced technologies which address the buried waste characteristics of the DOE Complex. This comprehensive remediation system win include technologies for the entire remediation cycle (cradle-to-grave). Technologies developed and demonstrated within the BWID will be transferred to the DOE Complex sites with buried waste, to private industry, and to universities. Multidirectional technology transfer is encouraged by the BWID. Identification and evaluation of plausible technological solutions are an ongoing activity of the BWID. A number of technologies are currently under development throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, and universities. Technology integration mechanisms have been established by BWID to facilitate collaborative research and demonstration of applicable remedial technologies for buried waste. Successful completion of the BWID will result in the development of a proven and deployable system at the INEL and other DOE Complex buried waste sites, thereby supporting the DOE Complex's environmental restoration objectives

  19. E/Z MAS demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Solem, A.M.; Whiteson, R.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed E/Z MAS, a new generation nuclear material accountability application based on the latest technology and designed for facilities required to track nuclear materials with a simple-to-use interface. E/Z MAS is based on years of experience spent developing nuclear material accounting systems. E/Z MAS uses a modern relational database with a web server and enables users on a classified local area network to interact with the database with web browsers. The E/Z MAS Demonstration poster session demonstrates the E/Z MAS functions required by an operational nuclear facility to track material as it enters and leaves a facility and to account for the material as it moves through a process. The generation of internal facility reports and external reports for the Russian Federal system will be demonstrated. Bar-code readers will be used to demonstrate the ability of EZ MAS to automate certain functions, such as physical inventories at facilities

  20. US GCFR demonstration plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.S.; Snyder, H.J.

    1980-05-01

    A general description of the US GCFR demonstration plant conceptual design is given to provide a context for more detailed papers to follow. The parameters selected for use in the design are presented and the basis for parameter selection is discussed. Nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) and balance of plant (BOP) component arrangements and systems are briefly discussed

  1. Satellite Demonstration: The Videodisc Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propp, George; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a satellite demonstration of video disc materials. It is explained that a panel of deaf individuals in Washington, D.C. and another in Nebraska came into direct two-way communication for the first time, and video disc materials were broadcast via the satellite.…

  2. DOE's annealing prototype demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana's Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team's annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company's nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department's annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges

  3. Putative tumour-suppressor gene DAB2 is frequently down regulated by promoter hypermethylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Joanna H; Lo, Kwok W; To, Ka F; Ng, David C; Chau, Shuk L; So, Ken K; Leung, Patrick P; Lee, Tin L; Lung, Raymond W; Chan, Michael W; Chan, Anthony W

    2010-01-01

    Human Disabled-2 (DAB2), is a multi-function signalling molecule that it is frequently down-regulated in human cancers. We aimed to investigate the possible tumour suppressor effect of DAB2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We studied the expression of DAB2 in NPC cell lines, xenografts and primary tumour samples. The status of promoter methylation was assessed by methylation specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. The functional role of DAB2 in NPC was investigated by re-introducing DAB2 expression into NPC cell line C666-1. Decrease or absent of DAB2 transcript was observed in NPC cell lines and xenografts. Loss of DAB2 protein expression was seen in 72% (33/46) of primary NPC as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Aberrant DAB2 promoter methylation was detected in 65.2% (30/46) of primary NPC samples by methylation specific PCR. Treatment of the DAB2 negative NPC cell line C666-1 with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in restoration of DAB2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of DAB2 in NPC cell line C666-1 resulted in reduced growth rate and 35% reduction in anchorage-dependent colony formation, and inhibition of serum-induced c-Fos expression compared to vector-transfected controls. Over expression of DAB2 resulted in alterations of multiple pathways as demonstrated by expression profiling and functional network analysis, which confirmed the role of DAB2 as an adaptor molecule involved in multiple receptor-mediated signalling pathways. We report the frequent down regulation of DAB2 in NPC and the promoter hypermethylation contributes to the loss of expression of DAB2. This is the first study demonstrating frequent DAB2 promoter hypermethylation in human cancer. Our functional studies support the putative tumour suppressor effect of DAB2 in NPC cells

  4. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  5. Incineration demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.; Mersman, K.E.; Roberson, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process for Savannah River Plant (SRP) low level beta-gamma combustible waste was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive wastes. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. Presently, the process is being upgraded by SRP to accept radioactive wastes. During a two-year SRP demonstration, the facility will be used to incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (<1 mR/hr at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes

  6. Plasma hearth process demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.M.; Gillins, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is a high temperature thermal treatment process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form, greatly improving the disposability of the waste. This paper describes the PHP system and summarizes test results to date, including volume reduction, destruction and removal efficiencies for organic wastes, and emission characteristics. Tests performed so far demonstrate that the PHP adresses DOE mixed waste final waste form requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure requirements

  7. Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwaraj, I.

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning of minor actinide from high level waste could have a substantial impact in lowering the radio toxicity associated with high level waste as well as it will reduce the burden on geological repository. In Indian context, the partitioned minor actinide could be routed into the fast breeder reactor systems scheduled for commissioning in the near period. The technological breakthrough in solvent development has catalyzed the partitioning programme in India, leading to the setting up and hot commissioning of the Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) at BARC, Tarapur. The engineering scale Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) has been retrofitted in an available radiological hot cell situated adjacent to the Advanced Vitrification Facility (AVS). This location advantage ensures an uninterrupted supply of high-level waste and facilitates the vitrification of the high-level waste after separation of minor actinides

  8. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  9. The putative multidrug resistance protein MRP-7 inhibits methylmercury-associated animal toxicity and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDuyn, Natalia; Nass, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative motor disorder worldwide, and results in the progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Gene-environment interactions are believed to play a significant role in the vast majority of PD cases, yet the toxicants and the associated genes involved in the neuropathology are largely ill-defined. Recent epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that methylmercury (MeHg) may be an environmental toxicant that contributes to the development of PD. Here, we report that a gene coding for the putative multidrug resistance protein MRP-7 in Caenorhabditis elegans modulates whole animal and DA neuron sensitivity to MeHg. In this study, we demonstrate that genetic knockdown of MRP-7 results in a twofold increase in Hg levels and a dramatic increase in stress response proteins associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and mitochondria, as well as an increase in MeHg-associated animal death. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of MeHg induces MRP-7 gene expression, while exposures in MRP-7 genetic knockdown animals results in a loss of DA neuron integrity without affecting whole animal viability. Furthermore, transgenic animals expressing a fluorescent reporter behind the endogenous MRP-7 promoter indicate that the transporter is expressed in DA neurons. These studies show for the first time that a multidrug resistance protein is expressed in DA neurons, and its expression inhibits MeHg-associated DA neuron pathology. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Biofilm generation by Piscirickettsia salmonis under growth stress conditions: a putative in vivo survival/persistence strategy in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sergio H; Gómez, Fernando A; Ramírez, Ramón; Nilo, Luis; Henríquez, Vitalia

    2012-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a bacterial fish pathogen seriously threatening the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry. The biology and life cycle of this bacterium is not completely understood and there are no reports explaining how it survives or persists in marine environments. This work provides descriptive data of P. salmonis behavior when it is exposed to stress conditions, producing large cell aggregates closely resembling typical biofilm structures. In order to track this putative biofilm, we used indirect fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Complex masses were observed over time; the bacteria appear to be embedded within a matrix which disappears when it is exposed to cellulase, suggesting a polysaccharide nature typical of biofilm formation. Two lectins (ConA and WGA) were used to characterize the matrix. Both lectins showed a strong reaction with the structure, validating the exopolysaccharide nature of the matrix. Recently, several studies have demonstrated a correlation between toxin/anti-toxin system expression at initial stages of biofilm formation. In this report, QRT-PCR analysis was used with the P. salmonis toxin/anti-toxin mazEF operon, showing induction of these genes at early stages of biofilm formation, suggesting that said formation may be an adaptive strategy for survival and persistence under stress conditions in marine environments. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Data on the putative role of p53 in breast cancer cell adhesion: Technical information for adhesion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallirroi Voudouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, the potential role of p53 tumor suppressor gene (p53 on the attachment ability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells was investigated. In our main article, “IGF-I/ EGF and E2 signaling crosstalk through IGF-IR conduit point affect breast cancer cell adhesion” (K. Voudouri, D. Nikitovic, A. Berdiaki, D. Kletsas, N.K. Karamanos, G.N. Tzanakakis, 2016 [1], we describe the key role of IGF-IR in breast cancer cell adhesion onto fibronectin (FN. p53 tumor suppressor gene is a principal regulator of cancer cell proliferation. Various data have demonstrated an association between p53 and IGF-IR actions on cell growth through its’ putative regulation of IGF-IR expression. According to our performed experiments, p53 does not modify IGF-IR expression and does not affect basal MCF-7 cells adhesion onto FN. Moreover, technical details about the performance of adhesion assay onto the FN substrate were provided.

  12. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater

  13. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  14. PHTS, a novel putative tumor suppressor, is involved in the transformation reversion of HeLaHF cells independently of the p53 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dehua; Fan, Wufang; Liu, Guohong; Nguy, Vivian; Chatterton, Jon E.; Long Shilong; Ke, Ning; Meyhack, Bernd; Bruengger, Adrian; Brachat, Arndt; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Li, Qi-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    HeLaHF is a non-transformed revertant of HeLa cells, likely resulting from the activation of a putative tumor suppressor(s). p53 protein was stabilized in this revertant and reactivated for certain transactivation functions. Although p53 stabilization has not conclusively been linked to the reversion, it is clear that the genes in p53 pathway are involved. The present study confirms the direct role of p53 in HeLaHF reversion by demonstrating that RNAi-mediated p53 silencing partially restores anchorage-independent growth potential of the revertant through the suppression of anoikis. In addition, we identified a novel gene, named PHTS, with putative tumor suppressor properties, and showed that this gene is also involved in HeLaHF reversion independently of the p53 pathway. Expression profiling revealed that PHTS is one of the genes that is up-regulated in HeLaHF but not in HeLa. It encodes a putative protein with CD59-like domains. RNAi-mediated PHTS silencing resulted in the partial restoration of transformation (anchorage-independent growth) in HeLaHF cells, similar to that of p53 gene silencing, implying its tumor suppressor effect. However, the observed increased transformation potential by PHTS silencing appears to be due to an increased anchorage-independent proliferation rate rather than suppression of anoikis, unlike the effect of p53 silencing. p53 silencing did not affect PHTS gene expression, and vice versa, suggesting PHTS may function in a new and p53-independent tumor suppressor pathway. Furthermore, over-expression of PHTS in different cancer cell lines, in addition to HeLa, reduces cell growth likely via induced apoptosis, confirming the broad PHTS tumor suppressor properties

  15. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  16. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  17. AAEC builds synroc demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, R.

    1986-01-01

    A demonstration plant to test the feasibility of an Australian-developed method of immobilising radioactive waste is being built at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plant will operate as if radioactive waste was actually being processed, but non-radioactive elements of a similar composition will be used. The process involves the simulated waste being mixed into a slurry with the main SYNROC ingredients and then converted to a powder. The powder is moved about the plant in bellows-type containers by robots

  18. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  19. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  20. Crystal Structure of a Putative HTH-Type Transcriptional Regulator yxaF from Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharaman, J.; Kumaran, D.; Bonanno, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    The New York Structural GenomiX Research Consortium (NYSGXRC) has selected the protein coded by yxaF gene from Bacillus subtilis as a target for structure determination. The yxaF protein has 191 residues with a molecular mass of 21 kDa and had no sequence homology to any structure in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) at the time of target selection. We aimed to elucidate the three-dimensional structure for the putative protein yxaF to better understand the relationship between protein sequence, structure, and function. This protein is annotated as a putative helix-turn-helix (HTH) type transcriptional regulator. Many transcriptional regulators like TetR and QacR use a structurally well-defined DNA-binding HTH motif to recognize the target DNA sequences. DNA-HTH motif interactions have been extensively studied. As the HTH motif is structurally conserved in many regulatory proteins, these DNA-protein complexes show some similarity in DNA recognition patterns. Many such regulatory proteins have a ligand-binding domain in addition to the DNA-binding domain. Structural studies on ligand-binding regulatory proteins provide a wealth of information on ligand-, and possibly drug-, binding mechanisms. Understanding the ligand-binding mechanism may help overcome problems with drug resistance, which represent increasing challenges in medicine. The protein encoded by yxaF, hereafter called T1414, shows fold similar to QacR repressor and TetR/CamR repressor and possesses putative DNA and ligand-binding domains. Here, we report the crystal structure of T1414 and compare it with structurally similar drug and DNA-binding proteins

  1. Isolation and characterization of two mitoviruses and a putative alphapartitivirus from Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Hideki; Sasaki, Atsuko; Nomiyama, Koji; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Tomioka, Keisuke; Takehara, Toshiaki

    2015-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium spp. includes several important plant pathogens. We attempted to reveal presence of double-stranded (ds) RNAs in the genus. Thirty-seven Fusarium spp. at the MAFF collection were analyzed. In the strains of Fusarium coeruleum, Fusarium globosum and Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, single dsRNA bands were detected. The strains of F. coeruleum and F. solani f. sp. pisi cause potato dry rot and mulberry twig blight, respectively. Sequence analyses revealed that dsRNAs in F. coeruleum and F. globosum consisted of 2423 and 2414 bp, respectively. Using the fungal mitochondrial translation table, the positive strands of these cDNAs were found to contain single open reading frames with the potential to encode a protein of putative 757 and 717 amino acids (molecular mass 88.5 and 84.0 kDa, respectively), similar to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of members of the genus Mitovirus. These dsRNAs in F. coeruleum and F. globosum were assigned to the genus Mitovirus (family Narnaviridae), and these two mitoviruses were designated as Fusarium coeruleum mitovirus 1 and Fusarium globosum mitovirus 1. On the other hand, a positive strand of cDNA (1950 bp) from dsRNA in F. solani f. sp. pisi contained an ORF potentially encoding a putative RdRp of 608 amino acids (72.0 kDa). The putative RdRp was shown to be related to those of members of the genus of Alphapartitivirus (family Partitiviridae). We coined the name Fusarium solani partitivirus 2 for dsRNA in F. solani f. sp. pisi.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of putative peroxiredoxin in unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongli; Wang, Yipeng; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song

    2012-11-16

    Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic prokaryotes with wide variations in genome sizes and ecological habitats. Peroxiredoxin (PRX) is an important protein that plays essential roles in protecting own cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS). PRXs have been identified from mammals, fungi and higher plants. However, knowledge on cyanobacterial PRXs still remains obscure. With the availability of 37 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of PRXs and explored their diversity, distribution, domain structure and evolution. Overall 244 putative prx genes were identified, which were abundant in filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria, Acaryochloris marina MBIC 11017, and unicellular cyanobacteria inhabiting freshwater and hot-springs, while poor in all Prochlorococcus and marine Synechococcus strains. Among these putative genes, 25 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding hypothetical proteins were identified as prx gene family members and the others were already annotated as prx genes. All 244 putative PRXs were classified into five major subfamilies (1-Cys, 2-Cys, BCP, PRX5_like, and PRX-like) according to their domain structures. The catalytic motifs of the cyanobacterial PRXs were similar to those of eukaryotic PRXs and highly conserved in all but the PRX-like subfamily. Classical motif (CXXC) of thioredoxin was detected in protein sequences from the PRX-like subfamily. Phylogenetic tree constructed of catalytic domains coincided well with the domain structures of PRXs and the phylogenies based on 16s rRNA. The distribution of genes encoding PRXs in different unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria especially those sub-families like PRX-like or 1-Cys PRX correlate with the genome size, eco-physiology, and physiological properties of the organisms. Cyanobacterial and eukaryotic PRXs share similar conserved motifs, indicating that cyanobacteria adopt similar catalytic mechanisms as eukaryotes. All cyanobacterial PRX proteins

  3. Identification of Putative Coffee Rust Mycoparasites via Single-Molecule DNA Sequencing of Infected Pustules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy Y; Marino, John A; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2016-01-15

    The interaction of crop pests with their natural enemies is a fundament to their control. Natural enemies of fungal pathogens of crops are poorly known relative to those of insect pests, despite the diversity of fungal pathogens and their economic importance. Currently, many regions across Latin America are experiencing unprecedented epidemics of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Identification of natural enemies of coffee rust could aid in developing management strategies or in pinpointing species that could be used for biocontrol. In the present study, we characterized fungal communities associated with coffee rust lesions by single-molecule DNA sequencing of fungal rRNA gene bar codes from leaf discs (≈28 mm(2)) containing rust lesions and control discs with no rust lesions. The leaf disc communities were hyperdiverse in terms of fungi, with up to 69 operational taxonomic units (putative species) per control disc, and the diversity was only slightly reduced in rust-infected discs, with up to 63 putative species. However, geography had a greater influence on the fungal community than whether the disc was infected by coffee rust. Through comparisons between control and rust-infected leaf discs, as well as taxonomic criteria, we identified 15 putative mycoparasitic fungi. These fungi are concentrated in the fungal family Cordycipitaceae and the order Tremellales. These data emphasize the complexity of diverse fungi of unknown ecological function within a leaf that might influence plant disease epidemics or lead to the development of species for biocontrol of fungal disease. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. A Proteomics Approach to Identify New Putative Cardiac Intercalated Disk Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarth Soni

    Full Text Available Synchronous beating of the heart is dependent on the efficient functioning of the cardiac intercalated disk (ID. The ID is composed of a complex protein network enabling electrical continuity and chemical communication between individual cardiomyocytes. Recently, several different studies have shed light on increasingly prevalent cardiac diseases involving the ID. Insufficient knowledge of its composition makes it difficult to study these disease mechanisms in more detail and therefore here we aim expand the ID proteome. Here, using a combination of general membrane enrichment, in-depth quantitative proteomics and an intracellular location driven bioinformatics approach, we aim to discover new putative ID proteins in rat ventricular tissue.General membrane isolation, enriched amongst others also with ID proteins as based on presence of the established markers connexin-43 and n-cadherin, was performed using centrifugation. By mass spectrometry, we quantitatively evaluated the level of 3455 proteins in the enriched membrane fraction (EMF and its counterpart, the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. These data were stringently filtered to generate a final set of 97 enriched, putative ID proteins. These included Cx43 and n-cadherin, but also many interesting novel candidates. We selected 4 candidates (Flotillin-2 (FLOT2, Nexilin (NEXN, Popeye-domain-containg-protein 2 (POPDC2 and thioredoxin-related-transmembrane-protein 2 (TMX2 and confirmed their co-localization with n-cadherin in the ID of human and rat heart cryo-sections, and isolated dog cardiomyocytes.The presented proteomics dataset of putative new ID proteins is a valuable resource for future research into this important molecular intersection of the heart.

  5. Flambeau River Biofuels Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Robert J. [Flambeau River Biofuels, Inc., Park Falls, WI (United States)

    2012-07-30

    Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. (FRB) proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, Flambeau River Papers, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy – making Flambeau River Papers the first pulp and paper mill in North America to be nearly fossil fuel free – and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. FRB planned to replicate this facility at other paper mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility.

  6. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  7. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel; air arc gouging was selected to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. Three sectioning operations were demonstrated. For all three, the operating parameters were the same; but the position of the sample was varied. For the first cut, the sample was placed in a horizontal position, and it was successfully severed from the SS side. For the second cut, the sample was turned over and cut from the carbon steel side. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction

  8. Prevalence of Clinical Periodontitis and Putative Periodontal Pathogens among South Indian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Tellapragada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent understanding of the association of periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the present investigation was undertaken to study the periodontal infections among 390 asymptomatic pregnant women and to find an association of bacterial etiologies with the disease. Prevalence of gingivitis was 38% and clinical periodontitis was 10% among the study population. Subgingival plaque specimens were subjected to multiplex PCR targeting ten putative periodontopathogenic bacteria. Among the periodontitis group, high detection rates of Porphyromonas gingivalis (56%, Prevotella nigrescens (44%, Treponema denticola (32%, and Prevotella intermedius (24% were noted along with significant association with the disease (P<0.05.

  9. Semi-automated literature mining to identify putative biomarkers of disease from multiple biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational methods for mining of biomedical literature can be useful in augmenting manual searches of the literature using keywords for disease-specific biomarker discovery from biofluids. In this work, we develop and apply a semi-automated literature mining method to mine abstracts obtained from PubMed to discover putative biomarkers of breast and lung cancers in specific biofluids. Methodology A positive set of abstracts was defined by the terms ‘breast cancer’ and ‘lung cancer’ in conjunction with 14 separate ‘biofluids’ (bile, blood, breastmilk, cerebrospinal fluid, mucus, plasma, saliva, semen, serum, synovial fluid, stool, sweat, tears, and urine), while a negative set of abstracts was defined by the terms ‘(biofluid) NOT breast cancer’ or ‘(biofluid) NOT lung cancer.’ More than 5.3 million total abstracts were obtained from PubMed and examined for biomarker-disease-biofluid associations (34,296 positive and 2,653,396 negative for breast cancer; 28,355 positive and 2,595,034 negative for lung cancer). Biological entities such as genes and proteins were tagged using ABNER, and processed using Python scripts to produce a list of putative biomarkers. Z-scores were calculated, ranked, and used to determine significance of putative biomarkers found. Manual verification of relevant abstracts was performed to assess our method’s performance. Results Biofluid-specific markers were identified from the literature, assigned relevance scores based on frequency of occurrence, and validated using known biomarker lists and/or databases for lung and breast cancer [NCBI’s On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Cancer Gene annotation server for cancer genomics (CAGE), NCBI’s Genes & Disease, NCI’s Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), and others]. The specificity of each marker for a given biofluid was calculated, and the performance of our semi-automated literature mining method assessed for breast and lung cancer

  10. Energy 2007. Research, development, demonstration; Energi 07. Forskning, udvikling, demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byriel, I.P.; Justesen, Helle; Beck, A.; Borup Jensen, J.; Rosenfeldt Jakobsen, Kl; Jacobsen, Steen Hartvig (eds.)

    2007-08-10

    Danish energy research is in an exciting and challenging situation. Rising oil prices, unstable energy supply, climate policy responsibilities and globalization have brought development of new environmentally friendly and more efficient energy technologies into focus. Promising international markets for newly developed energy technologies are emerging, and at the same time well established Danish positions of strength are challenged by new strong actors on the global market. The Danish government has set to work on its vision of an appreciable strengthening of public energy research funding through the recent law on the energy technological development and demonstration programme EUDP and the realization of globalization funds. The interaction between basic and applied research must be kept intact. In this report the various Danish energy research programmes administered by Energinet.dk, Danish Energy Authority, Danish Energy Association, Danish Council for Strategic Research's Programme Commission on Energy and Environment and Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, coordinate their annual reports for the first time. The aim of Energy 2007 is to give the reader an idea of how the energy research programmes collaborate on solving the major energy technology challenges - also in an international context. (BA)

  11. Interaction mediated by the putative tip regions of MdsA and MdsC in the formation of a Salmonella-specific tripartite efflux pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saemee Song

    Full Text Available To survive in the presence of a wide range of toxic compounds, gram-negative bacteria expel such compounds via tripartite efflux pumps that span both the inner and outer membranes. The Salmonella-specific MdsAB pump consists of MdsB, a resistance-nodulation-division (RND-type inner membrane transporter (IMT that requires the membrane fusion protein (MFP MdsA, and an outer membrane protein (OMP; MdsC or TolC to form a tripartite efflux complex. In this study, we investigated the role of the putative tip regions of MdsA and its OMPs, MdsC and TolC, in the formation of a functional MdsAB-mediated efflux pump. Comparative analysis indicated that although sequence homologies of MdsA and MdsC with other MFPs and OMPs, respectively, are extremely low, key residues in the putative tip regions of these proteins are well conserved. Mutagenesis studies on these conserved sites demonstrated their importance for the physical and functional interactions required to form an MdsAB-mediated pump. Our studies suggest that, despite differences in the primary amino acid sequences and functions of various OMPs and MFPs, interactions mediated by the conserved tip regions of OMP and MFP are required for the formation of functional tripartite efflux pumps in gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells reveals putative apoptosis-related genes and a preliminary apoptosis mechanism induced by azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Benshui; Zhang, Jingjing; Sethuraman, Veeran; Cui, Gaofeng; Yi, Xin; Zhong, Guohua

    2017-10-16

    As an important botanical pesticide, azadirachtin demonstrates broad insecticidal activity against many agricultural pests. The results of a previous study indicated the toxicity and apoptosis induction of azadirachtin in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells. However, the lack of genomic data has hindered a deeper investigation of apoptosis in Sf9 cells at a molecular level. In the present study, the complete transcriptome data for Sf9 cell line was accomplished using Illumina sequencing technology, and 97 putative apoptosis-related genes were identified through BLAST and KEGG orthologue annotations. Fragments of potential candidate apoptosis-related genes were cloned, and the mRNA expression patterns of ten identified genes regulated by azadirachtin were examined using qRT-PCR. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that six putative apoptosis-related proteins were upregulated after being treated with azadirachtin while the protein Bcl-2 were downregulated. These data suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signal pathways comprising the identified potential apoptosis-related genes were potentially active in S. frugiperda. In addition, the preliminary results revealed that caspase-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways could function in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells.

  13. Whole-transcriptome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family genes in the latex-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 'full-size', 21 'half-size' and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis.

  14. Putative pacemakers in the eyestalk and brain of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii show circadian oscillations in levels of mRNA for crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janikua Nelson-Mora

    Full Text Available Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress.

  15. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  16. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 2 discusses the following topics: Fuel Rod Extraction System Test Results and Analysis Reports and Clamping Table Test Results and Analysis Reports

  17. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3

  18. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 1 of Volume IV, discusses: Process overview functional descriptions; Control system descriptions; Support system descriptions; Maintenance system descriptions; and Process equipment descriptions

  19. Demonstration of creep during filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Bugge, Thomas Vistisen; Kirchheiner, Anders Løvenbalk

    The classical filtration theory assumes a unique relationship between the local filter cake porosity and the local effective pressure. For a number of compressible materials, it has however been observed that during the consolidation stage this may not be the case. It has been found...... that the production of filtrate also depends on the characteristic time for the filter cake solids to deform. This is formulated in the Terzaghi-Voigt model in which a secondary consolidation is introduced. The secondary consolidation may be visualized by plots of the relative cake deformation (U) v.s. the square...... root of time. Even more clearly it is demonstrated by plotting the liquid pressure at the cake piston interface v.s. the relative deformation (to be shown). The phenomenon of a secondary consolidation processes is in short called creep. Provided that the secondary consolidation rate is of the same...

  20. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 9 discusses the following topics: Integrated System Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; Integrated System Off-Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; and Integrated System Maintenance Operations Test Results and Analysis Report

  1. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  2. Alderney 5 complex demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [High Performance Energy Systems, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) is the largest municipality in Atlantic Canada. This presentation described the flagship facility and the energy efficiency retrofit of five HRM-owned buildings called the Alderney 5 complex. The 5 objectives of the demonstration project involved a district-scale cooling project; replacement of chillers with harbour cooling; and replacement of a high exergy system with a low exergy system. Synergies and challenges of the project were also identified. The presentation also referred to borehole thermal energy storage; existing Halifax Harbour cooling; Halifax Harbour temperatures; cold energy geothermal borehole field; and the benefits of advanced concentric boreholes. A project update and progress to date were also provided. The Alderney 5 project represents the first concentric borehole technology for use to store and retrieve cold energy. tabs., figs.

  3. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 8 discusses Control System SOT Tests Results and Analysis Report. This is a continuation of Book 7

  4. Deep Space Habitat Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    This project will develop, integrate, test, and evaluate Habitation Systems that will be utilized as technology testbeds and will advance NASA's understanding of alternative deep space mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts. Rapid prototyping and existing hardware will be utilized to develop full-scale habitat demonstrators. FY 2014 focused on the development of a large volume Space Launch System (SLS) class habitat (Skylab Gen 2) based on the SLS hydrogen tank components. Similar to the original Skylab, a tank section of the SLS rocket can be outfitted with a deep space habitat configuration and launched as a payload on an SLS rocket. This concept can be used to support extended stay at the Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit to support the Asteroid Retrieval Mission and provide a habitat suitable for human missions to Mars.

  5. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  6. Prototypical Rod Construction Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 3 discusses the following topics: Downender Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report; Fuel Assembly Handling Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; and Fuel Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report

  7. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 4 of Volume IV, discusses: Off-normal operating and recovery procedures; Emergency response procedures; Troubleshooting procedures; and Preventive maintenance procedures

  8. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    A successful technical demonstration of simulated reactor vessel sectioning was completed using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel: an air arc gouger was chosen to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. After the simulated vessel was successfully cut from the SS side, another cut was made, starting from the carbon steel side. This cut was also successful. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction since the air arc gouging step is eliminated and contamination controlled because the molten metal is blown inward

  9. Performance Demonstration Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste characterization program, each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). The PDP serves as a quality control check against expected results and provides information about the quality of data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed by an independent organization to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. There are three elements within the PDP: analysis of simulated headspace gases, analysis of solids for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents, and analysis for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Because the analysis for TRU radionuclides using NDA techniques involves both the counting of drums and standard waste boxes, four PDP plans are required to describe the activities of the three PDP elements. In accordance with these PDP plans, the reviewing and approving authority for PDP results and for the overall program is the CBFO PDP Appointee. The CBFO PDP Appointee is responsible for ensuring the implementation of each of these plans by concurring with the designation of the Program Coordinator and by providing technical oversight and coordination for the program. The Program Coordinator will designate the PDP Manager, who will coordinate the three elements of the PDP. The purpose of this management plan is to identify how the requirements applicable to the PDP are implemented during the management and coordination of PDP activities. The other participants in the program (organizations that perform site implementation and activities under CBFO contracts or interoffice work orders) are not covered under this management plan. Those activities are governed by the organization's quality assurance (QA) program and procedures or as otherwise directed by CBFO.

  10. VenomKB, a new knowledge base for facilitating the validation of putative venom therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Joseph D; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2015-11-24

    Animal venoms have been used for therapeutic purposes since the dawn of recorded history. Only a small fraction, however, have been tested for pharmaceutical utility. Modern computational methods enable the systematic exploration of novel therapeutic uses for venom compounds. Unfortunately, there is currently no comprehensive resource describing the clinical effects of venoms to support this computational analysis. We present VenomKB, a new publicly accessible knowledge base and website that aims to act as a repository for emerging and putative venom therapies. Presently, it consists of three database tables: (1) Manually curated records of putative venom therapies supported by scientific literature, (2) automatically parsed MEDLINE articles describing compounds that may be venom derived, and their effects on the human body, and (3) automatically retrieved records from the new Semantic Medline resource that describe the effects of venom compounds on mammalian anatomy. Data from VenomKB may be selectively retrieved in a variety of popular data formats, are open-source, and will be continually updated as venom therapies become better understood.

  11. Update of green tea interactions with cardiovascular drugs and putative mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Werba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many patients treated with cardiovascular (CV drugs drink green tea (GT, either as a cultural tradition or persuaded of its putative beneficial effects for health. Yet, GT may affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CV compounds. Novel GT-CV drug interactions were reported for rosuvastatin, sildenafil and tacrolimus. Putative mechanisms involve inhibitory effects of GT catechins at the intestinal level on influx transporters OATP1A2 or OATP2B1 for rosuvastatin, on CYP3A for sildenafil and on both CYP3A and the efflux transporter p-glycoprotein for tacrolimus. These interactions, which add to those previously described with simvastatin, nadolol and warfarin, might lead, in some cases, to reduced drug efficacy or risk of drug toxicity. Oddly, available data on GT interaction with CV compounds with a narrow therapeutic index, such as warfarin and tacrolimus, derive from single case reports. Conversely, GT interactions with simvastatin, rosuvastatin, nadolol and sildenafil were documented through pharmacokinetic studies. In these, the effect of GT or GT derivatives on drug exposure was mild to moderate, but a high inter-individual variability was observed. Further investigations, including studies on the effect of the dose and the time of GT intake are necessary to understand more in depth the clinical relevance of GT-CV drug interactions. Keywords: Cardiovascular drugs, Green tea, Herb–drug interactions

  12. Characterization of Putative cis-Regulatory Elements in Genes Preferentially Expressed in Arabidopsis Male Meiocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is essential for plant reproduction because it is the process during which homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, and meiotic recombination occur. The meiotic transcriptome is difficult to investigate because of the size of meiocytes and the confines of anther lobes. The recent development of isolation techniques has enabled the characterization of transcriptional profiles in male meiocytes of Arabidopsis. Gene expression in male meiocytes shows unique features. The direct interaction of transcription factors (TFs with DNA regulatory sequences forms the basis for the specificity of transcriptional regulation. Here, we identified putative cis-regulatory elements (CREs associated with male meiocyte-expressed genes using in silico tools. The upstream regions (1 kb of the top 50 genes preferentially expressed in Arabidopsis meiocytes possessed conserved motifs. These motifs are putative binding sites of TFs, some of which share common functions, such as roles in cell division. In combination with cell-type-specific analysis, our findings could be a substantial aid for the identification and experimental verification of the protein-DNA interactions for the specific TFs that drive gene expression in meiocytes.

  13. A putative peroxidase cDNA from turnip and analysis of the encoded protein sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, S; Duarte-Vázquez, M A; García-Almendárez, B E; Mayorga-Martínez, L; Cervantes-Avilés, O; Regalado, C

    2008-12-01

    A putative peroxidase cDNA was isolated from turnip roots (Brassica napus L. var. purple top white globe) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Total RNA extracted from mature turnip roots was used as a template for RT-PCR, using a degenerated primer designed to amplify the highly conserved distal motif of plant peroxidases. The resulting partial sequence was used to design the rest of the specific primers for 5' and 3' RACE. Two cDNA fragments were purified, sequenced, and aligned with the partial sequence from RT-PCR, and a complete overlapping sequence was obtained and labeled as BbPA (Genbank Accession No. AY423440, named as podC). The full length cDNA is 1167bp long and contains a 1077bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 358 deduced amino acid peroxidase polypeptide. The putative peroxidase (BnPA) showed a calculated Mr of 34kDa, and isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5, with no significant identity with other reported turnip peroxidases. Sequence alignment showed that only three peroxidases have a significant identity with BnPA namely AtP29a (84%), and AtPA2 (81%) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and HRPA2 (82%) from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). Work is in progress to clone this gene into an adequate host to study the specific role and possible biotechnological applications of this alternative peroxidase source.

  14. Transcriptome of Aphanomyces euteiches: new oomycete putative pathogenicity factors and metabolic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Gaulin

    Full Text Available Aphanomyces euteiches is an oomycete pathogen that causes seedling blight and root rot of legumes, such as alfalfa and pea. The genus Aphanomyces is phylogenically distinct from well-studied oomycetes such as Phytophthora sp., and contains species pathogenic on plants and aquatic animals. To provide the first foray into gene diversity of A. euteiches, two cDNA libraries were constructed using mRNA extracted from mycelium grown in an artificial liquid medium or in contact to plant roots. A unigene set of 7,977 sequences was obtained from 18,864 high-quality expressed sequenced tags (ESTs and characterized for potential functions. Comparisons with oomycete proteomes revealed major differences between the gene content of A. euteiches and those of Phytophthora species, leading to the identification of biosynthetic pathways absent in Phytophthora, of new putative pathogenicity genes and of expansion of gene families encoding extracellular proteins, notably different classes of proteases. Among the genes specific of A. euteiches are members of a new family of extracellular proteins putatively involved in adhesion, containing up to four protein domains similar to fungal cellulose binding domains. Comparison of A. euteiches sequences with proteomes of fully sequenced eukaryotic pathogens, including fungi, apicomplexa and trypanosomatids, allowed the identification of A. euteiches genes with close orthologs in these microorganisms but absent in other oomycetes sequenced so far, notably transporters and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and suggests the presence of a defense mechanism against oxidative stress which was initially characterized in the pathogenic trypanosomatids.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanjun; Gou, Junbo; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especially their downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes, which were derived from the young leaves of two different cultivars and the purified glandular trichomes from one of the cultivars, were constructed in this study. In total, 157 million clean reads were generated and assembled into 91,861 unigenes, of which 59,858 unigenes were successfully annotated. All the genes coding for known enzymes in the upstream pathway to the biosynthesis of xanthanolides were present in the X. strumarium transcriptomes. From a comparative analysis of the X. strumarium transcriptomes, this study identified a number of gene candidates that are putatively involved in the downstream pathway to the synthesis of xanthanolides, such as four unigenes encoding CYP71 P450s, 50 unigenes for dehydrogenases, and 27 genes for acetyltransferases. The possible functions of these four CYP71 candidates are extensively discussed. In addition, 116 transcription factors that are highly expressed in X. strumarium glandular trichomes were also identified. Their possible regulatory roles in the biosynthesis of STLs are discussed. The global transcriptomic data for X. strumarium should provide a valuable resource for further research into the biosynthesis of xanthanolides.

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjun Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones, which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especiallytheir downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes, which were derived from the young leaves of two different cultivars and the purified glandular trichomes from one of the cultivars, were constructed in this study. In total, 157 million clean reads were generated and assembled into 91,861 unigenes, of which 59,858 unigenes were successfully annotated. All the genes coding for known enzymes in the upstream pathway to the biosynthesis of xanthanolides were present in the X. strumarium transcriptomes. From a comparative analysis of the X. strumarium transcriptomes, this study identified a number of gene candidates that are putatively involved in the downstream pathway to the synthesis of xanthanolides, such as four unigenes encoding CYP71 P450s, 50 unigenes for dehydrogenases, and 27 genes for acetyltransferases. The possible functions of these four CYP71 candidates are extensively discussed. In addition, 116 transcription factors that were highly expressed in X. strumarium glandular trichomes were also identified. Their possible regulatory roles in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones are discussed. The global transcriptomic data for X. strumarium should provide a valuable resource for further research into the biosynthesis of xanthanolides.

  17. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants.

  18. Hyla chrysoscelis (Cope’s gray treefrog) x Hyla cinerea (green treefrog): putative natural hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Jenkins, Jill A.; Olivier, Heather M.; Layton, Rebekah R.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally–occurring hybrid treefrogs have been occasionally found in the eastern United States. However, these hybrids are almost always between members of the same species group. On 10 Jun 2014, at 2145 h, we located an individual making an unusual advertisement call along Bayou Manual Road in Sherburne Wildlife Management Area in the Atchafalaya Basin of south-central Louisiana, USA, and brought it back to the laboratory for further study. Physically, the treefrog appeared intermediate between a Green Treefrog and a Cope’s Gray Treefrog, which are members of different species groups. Call analysis also showed the individual to be intermediate between the two putative parental species. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the total genome size from nuclei of whole blood cells, and also determined the individual to be intermediate of the putative parental species. Despite vocalizing for mates, the hybrid did not appear to have viable spermatozoa, and was likely the result of an anomalous mis-mating event between a male Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a female Green Treefrog. To our knowledge, natural hybrids between a Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a Green Treefrog have not been previously reported.

  19. Duplications and losses in gene families of rust pathogens highlight putative effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Pendleton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are a group of fungal pathogens that cause some of the world’s most destructive diseases of trees and crops. A shared characteristic among rust fungi is obligate biotrophy, the inability to complete a lifecycle without a host. This dependence on a host species likely affects patterns of gene expansion, contraction, and innovation within rust pathogen genomes. The establishment of disease by biotrophic pathogens is reliant upon effector proteins that are encoded in the fungal genome and secreted from the pathogen into the host’s cell apoplast or within the cells. This study uses a comparative genomic approach to elucidate putative effectors and determine their evolutionary histories. We used OrthoMCL to identify nearly 20,000 gene families in proteomes of sixteen diverse fungal species, which include fifteen basidiomycetes and one ascomycete. We inferred patterns of duplication and loss for each gene family and identified families with distinctive patterns of expansion/contraction associated with the evolution of rust fungal genomes. To recognize potential contributors for the unique features of rust pathogens, we identified families harboring secreted proteins that: i arose or expanded in rust pathogens relative to other fungi, or ii contracted or were lost in rust fungal genomes. While the origin of rust fungi appears to be associated with considerable gene loss, there are many gene duplications associated with each sampled rust fungal genome. We also highlight two putative effector gene families that have expanded in Cqf that we hypothesize have roles in pathogenicity.

  20. Investigation of paternity establishing without the putative father using hypervariable DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, T; Odaira, T; Nata, M; Sagisaka, K

    1990-09-01

    Seven kinds of DNA probes which recognize hypervariable loci were applied for paternity test. The putative father was decreased and unavailable for the test. The two legitimate children and their mother (the deceased's wife) and the four illegitimate children and their mother (the deceased's kept mistress) were available for analysis. Paternity index of four illegitimate child was investigated. Allelic frequencies and their confidence intervals among unrelated Japanese individuals were previously reported from our laboratory, and co-dominant segregation of the polymorphism was confirmed in family studies. Cumulative paternity indices of four illegitimate children from 16 kinds of standard blood group markers were 165, 42, 0.09, and 36, respectively. On the other hand, cumulative paternity indices from 7 kinds of DNA probes are 2,363, 4,685, 57,678, and 54,994, respectively, which are 14, 113, 640, 864, and 1,509 times higher than that from standard blood group markers. The DNA analyses gave nearly conclusive evidence that the putative father was the biological father of the children. Especially, the paternity relation of the third illegitimate child could not be established without the DNA analyses. Accordingly, DNA polymorphism is considered to be informative enough for paternity test.

  1. Duplications and losses in gene families of rust pathogens highlight putative effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Amanda L; Smith, Katherine E; Feau, Nicolas; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hamelin, Richard; Nelson, C Dana; Burleigh, J Gordon; Davis, John M

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi are a group of fungal pathogens that cause some of the world's most destructive diseases of trees and crops. A shared characteristic among rust fungi is obligate biotrophy, the inability to complete a lifecycle without a host. This dependence on a host species likely affects patterns of gene expansion, contraction, and innovation within rust pathogen genomes. The establishment of disease by biotrophic pathogens is reliant upon effector proteins that are encoded in the fungal genome and secreted from the pathogen into the host's cell apoplast or within the cells. This study uses a comparative genomic approach to elucidate putative effectors and determine their evolutionary histories. We used OrthoMCL to identify nearly 20,000 gene families in proteomes of 16 diverse fungal species, which include 15 basidiomycetes and one ascomycete. We inferred patterns of duplication and loss for each gene family and identified families with distinctive patterns of expansion/contraction associated with the evolution of rust fungal genomes. To recognize potential contributors for the unique features of rust pathogens, we identified families harboring secreted proteins that: (i) arose or expanded in rust pathogens relative to other fungi, or (ii) contracted or were lost in rust fungal genomes. While the origin of rust fungi appears to be associated with considerable gene loss, there are many gene duplications associated with each sampled rust fungal genome. We also highlight two putative effector gene families that have expanded in Cqf that we hypothesize have roles in pathogenicity.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the relationship between disease occurrence and distance from a putative source of pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Dreassi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between disease risk and a point source of pollution is usually investigated using distance from the source as a proxy of exposure. The analysis may be based on case-control data or on aggregated data. The definition of the function relating risk of disease and distance is critical, both in a classical and in a Bayesian framework, because the likelihood is usually very flat, even with large amounts of data. In this paper we investigate how the specification of the function relating risk of disease with distance from the source and of the prior distributions on the parameters of the function affects the results when case-control data and Bayesian methods are used. We consider different popular parametric models for the risk distance function in a Bayesian approach, comparing estimates with those derived by maximum likelihood. As an example we have analyzed the relationship between a putative source of environmental pollution (an asbestos cement plant and the occurrence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in the area of Casale Monferrato (Italy in 1987-1993. Risk of pleural malignant mesothelioma turns out to be strongly related to distance from the asbestos cement plant. However, as the models appeared to be sensitive to modeling choices, we suggest that any analysis of disease risk around a putative source should be integrated with a careful sensitivity analysis and possibly with prior knowledge. The choice of prior distribution is extremely important and should be based on epidemiological considerations.

  3. Demonstration of Data Interactive Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, B.; Weber, J.

    2012-04-01

    This is a demonstration version of the talk given in session ESSI2.4 "Full lifecycle of data." For some years now, the authors have developed examples of online documents that allowed the reader to interact directly with datasets, but there were limitations that restricted the interaction to specific desktop analysis and display tools that were not generally available to all readers of the documents. Recent advances in web service technology and related standards are making it possible to develop systems for publishing online documents that enable readers to access, analyze, and display the data discussed in the publication from the perspective and in the manner from which the author wants it to be represented. By clicking on embedded links, the reader accesses not only the usual textual information in a publication, but also data residing on a local or remote web server as well as a set of processing tools for analyzing and displaying the data. With the option of having the analysis and display processing provided on the server (or in the cloud), there are now a broader set of possibilities on the client side where the reader can interact with the data via a thin web client, a rich desktop application, or a mobile platform "app." The presentation will outline the architecture of data interactive publications along with illustrative examples.

  4. Demonstration poloidal coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiko; Kawano, Katumi; Tada, Eisuke

    1989-01-01

    A new compact cryogenic cold compressor was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in collaboration with Isikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI) in order to produce the supercritical helium below 4.2 K for Demonstration Poloidal Coils (DPC) which are forced-flow cooled type superconducting pulse coils. This compressor is one of key components for DPC test facility. The cold compressor reduces pressure in liquid helium bath, which contains liquid helium of around 3,000 l, down to 0.5 atm efficiently. Consequently, supercritical helium down to 3.5 K is produced and supplied to the DPC coils. A centrifugal compressor with dynamic gas bearing is selected as a compressor mechanism to realize high adiabatic efficiency and large flow rate. In this performance tests, the compressor was operated for 220 h at saturated condition from 0.5 to 1.0 atm without any failure. High adiabatic efficiency (more than 60 %) is achieved with wide flow range (25-65 g/s) and the design value is fully satisfied. The compressor can rotate up to 80,000 rpm at maximum then the coil supply temperature of supercritical helium is 3.5 K. (author)

  5. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  6. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 4 discusses the following topics: Rod Compaction/Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Collection System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Container Transfer Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; Staging and Cutting Table Test Results and Analysis Report; and Upper Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report

  7. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  8. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 5 discusses the following topics: Lower Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Robotic Bridge Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report; RM-10A Remotec Manipulator Test Results and Analysis Report; and Manipulator Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report

  9. Ionosphere Waves Service - A demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespon, François

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service was developed by ionosphere experts to answer several questions: How make the old ionosphere missions more valuable? How provide scientific community with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogues that characterize a huge number of Atmospheric Gravity Waves, Travelling Ionosphere Disturbances and Whistlers events. The Ionosphere Waves Service regroups databases of specific events extracted by experts from a ten of ionosphere missions which end users can access by applying specific searches and by using statistical analysis modules for their domain of interest. The scientific applications covered by the IWS are relative to earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations. In this presentation we propose to detail the service design, the hardware and software architecture, and the service functions. The service interface and capabilities will be the focus of a demonstration in order to help potential end-users for their first access to the Ionosphere Waves Service portal. This work is made with the support of FP7 grant # 263240.

  10. Sequence analysis of the MYC oncogene involved in the t(8;14)(q24;q11) chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell line indicates that putative regulatory regions are not altered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finver, S.N.; Nishikura, K.; Finger, L.R.; Haluska, F.G.; Finan, J.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors cloned the translocation-associated and homologous normal MYC alleles from SKW-3, a leukemia T-cell line with the t(8; 14)(q24; q11) translocation, and determined the sequence of the MYC oncogene first exon and flanking 5' putative regulatory regions. S1 nuclease protection experiments utilizing a MYC first exon probe demonstrated transcriptional deregulation of the MYC gene associated with the T-cell receptor α locus on the 8q + chromosome of SKW-3 cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the translocation-associated (8q +) MYC allele identified a single base substitution within the upstream flanking region; the homologous nontranslocated allele contained an additional substitution and a two-base deletion. None of the deletions or substitutions localized to putative 5' regulatory regions. The MYC first exon sequence was germ line in both alleles. These results demonstrate that alterations within the putative 5' MYC regulatory regions are not necessarily involved in MYC deregulation in T-cell leukemias, and they show that juxtaposition of the T-cell receptor α locus to a germ-line MYC oncogene results in MYC deregulation

  11. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  12. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Brendel, G.F.; Bruzek, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC 50 ). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  13. Identification of genomic variants putatively targeted by selection during dog domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alex; Blass, Torsten

    2016-01-12

    Dogs [Canis lupus familiaris] were the first animal species to be domesticated and continue to occupy an important place in human societies. Recent studies have begun to reveal when and where dog domestication occurred. While much progress has been made in identifying the genetic basis of phenotypic differences between dog breeds we still know relatively little about the genetic changes underlying the phenotypes that differentiate all dogs from their wild progenitors, wolves [Canis lupus]. In particular, dogs generally show reduced aggression and fear towards humans compared to wolves. Therefore, selection for tameness was likely a necessary prerequisite for dog domestication. With the increasing availability of whole-genome sequence data it is possible to try and directly identify the genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic differences between dogs and wolves. We analyse the largest available database of genome-wide polymorphism data in a global sample of dogs 69 and wolves 7. We perform a scan to identify regions of the genome that are highly differentiated between dogs and wolves. We identify putatively functional genomic variants that are segregating or at high frequency [> = 0.75 Fst] for alternative alleles between dogs and wolves. A biological pathways analysis of the genes containing these variants suggests that there has been selection on the 'adrenaline and noradrenaline biosynthesis pathway', well known for its involvement in the fight-or-flight response. We identify 11 genes with putatively functional variants fixed for alternative alleles between dogs and wolves. The segregating variants in these genes are strong candidates for having been targets of selection during early dog domestication. We present the first genome-wide analysis of the different categories of putatively functional variants that are fixed or segregating at high frequency between a global sampling of dogs and wolves. We find evidence that selection has been strongest

  14. Genome-wide analysis of putative peroxiredoxin in unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hongli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic prokaryotes with wide variations in genome sizes and ecological habitats. Peroxiredoxin (PRX is an important protein that plays essential roles in protecting own cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS. PRXs have been identified from mammals, fungi and higher plants. However, knowledge on cyanobacterial PRXs still remains obscure. With the availability of 37 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of PRXs and explored their diversity, distribution, domain structure and evolution. Results Overall 244 putative prx genes were identified, which were abundant in filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria, Acaryochloris marina MBIC 11017, and unicellular cyanobacteria inhabiting freshwater and hot-springs, while poor in all Prochlorococcus and marine Synechococcus strains. Among these putative genes, 25 open reading frames (ORFs encoding hypothetical proteins were identified as prx gene family members and the others were already annotated as prx genes. All 244 putative PRXs were classified into five major subfamilies (1-Cys, 2-Cys, BCP, PRX5_like, and PRX-like according to their domain structures. The catalytic motifs of the cyanobacterial PRXs were similar to those of eukaryotic PRXs and highly conserved in all but the PRX-like subfamily. Classical motif (CXXC of thioredoxin was detected in protein sequences from the PRX-like subfamily. Phylogenetic tree constructed of catalytic domains coincided well with the domain structures of PRXs and the phylogenies based on 16s rRNA. Conclusions The distribution of genes encoding PRXs in different unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria especially those sub-families like PRX-like or 1-Cys PRX correlate with the genome size, eco-physiology, and physiological properties of the organisms. Cyanobacterial and eukaryotic PRXs share similar conserved motifs, indicating that cyanobacteria adopt similar catalytic

  15. The fixABCX genes in Rhodospirillum rubrum encode a putative membrane complex participating in electron transfer to nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, Tomas; Nordlund, Stefan

    2004-04-01

    In our efforts to identify the components participating in electron transport to nitrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum, we used mini-Tn5 mutagenesis followed by metronidazole selection. One of the mutants isolated, SNT-1, exhibited a decreased growth rate and about 25% of the in vivo nitrogenase activity compared to the wild-type values. The in vitro nitrogenase activity was essentially wild type, indicating that the mutation affects electron transport to nitrogenase. Sequencing showed that the Tn5 insertion is located in a region with a high level of similarity to fixC, and extended sequencing revealed additional putative fix genes, in the order fixABCX. Complementation of SNT-1 with the whole fix gene cluster in trans restored wild-type nitrogenase activity and growth. Using Western blotting, we demonstrated that expression of fixA and fixB occurs only under conditions under which nitrogenase also is expressed. SNT-1 was further shown to produce larger amounts of both ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and polyhydroxy alkanoates than the wild type, indicating that the redox status is affected in this mutant. Using Western blotting, we found that FixA and FixB are soluble proteins, whereas FixC most likely is a transmembrane protein. We propose that the fixABCX genes encode a membrane protein complex that plays a central role in electron transfer to nitrogenase in R. rubrum. Furthermore, we suggest that FixC is the link between nitrogen fixation and the proton motive force generated in the photosynthetic reactions.

  16. Overexpression of Brucella putative glycosyltransferase WbkA in B. abortus RB51 leads to production of exopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha eDabral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis in mammals. Brucella strains containing the O-polysaccharide in their cell wall structure exhibit a smooth phenotype whereas the strains devoid of the polysaccharide show rough phenotype. B. abortus strain RB51 is a stable rough attenuated mutant which is used as a licensed live vaccine for bovine brucellosis. Previous studies have shown that the wboA gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase required for the synthesis of O-polysaccharide, is disrupted in B. abortus RB51 by an IS711 element. Although complementation of strain RB51 with a functional wboA gene results in O-polysaccharide synthesis in the cytoplasm, it does not result in smooth phenotype. The aim of this study was to determine if overexpression of Brucella WbkA or WbkE, two additional putative glycosyltransferases essential for O-polysaccharide synthesis, in strain RB51 would result in the O-polysaccharide synthesis and smooth phenotype. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of wbkA or wbkE gene in RB51 does not result in O-polysaccharide expression as shown by Western blotting with specific antibodies. However, wbkA, but not wbkE, overexpression leads to the development of a clumping phenotype and the production of exopolysaccharide(s containing mannose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Moreover, we found that the clumping recombinant strain displays increased adhesion to polystyrene plates. The recombinant strain was similar to strain RB51 in its attenuation characteristic and in its ability to induce protective immunity against virulent B. abortus challenge in mice.

  17. Overexpression of Brucella putative glycosyltransferase WbkA in B. abortus RB51 leads to production of exopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, Neha; Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Seleem, Mohamed N; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Vemulapalli, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis in mammals. Brucella strains containing the O-polysaccharide in their cell wall structure exhibit a smooth phenotype whereas the strains devoid of the polysaccharide show rough phenotype. B. abortus strain RB51 is a stable rough attenuated mutant which is used as a licensed live vaccine for bovine brucellosis. Previous studies have shown that the wboA gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase required for the synthesis of O-polysaccharide, is disrupted in B. abortus RB51 by an IS711 element. Although complementation of strain RB51 with a functional wboA gene results in O-polysaccharide synthesis in the cytoplasm, it does not result in smooth phenotype. The aim of this study was to determine if overexpression of Brucella WbkA or WbkE, two additional putative glycosyltransferases essential for O-polysaccharide synthesis, in strain RB51 would result in the O-polysaccharide synthesis and smooth phenotype. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of wbkA or wbkE gene in RB51 does not result in O-polysaccharide expression as shown by Western blotting with specific antibodies. However, wbkA, but not wbkE, overexpression leads to the development of a clumping phenotype and the production of exopolysaccharide(s) containing mannose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylgalactosamine. Moreover, we found that the clumping recombinant strain displays increased adhesion to polystyrene plates. The recombinant strain was similar to strain RB51 in its attenuation characteristic and in its ability to induce protective immunity against virulent B. abortus challenge in mice.

  18. Alteration of putative amino acid levels and morphological findings in neural tissues of methylmercury-intoxicated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, K.; Inouye, M.; Fujisaki, T.

    1985-04-01

    Methylmercury chloride was administered PO to male Kud:ddY mice at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day for 20 days. The contents of taurine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid were determined in tissue and crude synaptosomal (P/sub 2/) fraction of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord of methylmercury-treated mice with or without ataxia. In the cerebellum of ataxic mice, increased levels of taurine and glycine were found in the tissue and P/sub 2/ fraction, and increased levels of glutamate were found in the P/sub 2/ fraction. In the cerebral cortex, the levels of ..gamma..-aminobutylic acid decreased in the tissue and in the P/sub 2/ fraction of ataxic mice, but increased levels were found in the tissue of non-ataxic mice. A decreased asparate level in the cerebral cortex of ataxic mice and an increased taurine level in the cerebral cortex of non-ataxic mice were also found. In the spinal cord of ataxic mice, taurine increased in the tissue and in the P/sub 2/ fraction. Glutamate level decreased in the spinal cord of ataxic mice, but increased in the P/sub 2/ fraction of non-ataxic mice. Increased glycine levels in the P/sub 2/ fraction of the spinal cord were also found in non-axtaxic mice. Histologically, some degenerative changes were demonstrated in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of ataxic mice. Such changes were also present to a mild degree in non-ataxic mice. In conclusion, methylmercury treatment altered the levels of putative neurotransmitter amino acids in neutral tissue of mice. These alterations might be caused by specific neural cell dysfunction and could be related to the appearance of ataxia.

  19. Thrichomys laurentius (Rodentia; Echimyidae as a putative reservoir of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis: patterns of experimental infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Rodrigues Roque

    Full Text Available The importance of the genus Thrichomys in the retention of infection and transmission of Leishmania species is supported by previous studies that describe an ancient interaction between caviomorphs and trypanosomatids and report the natural infection of Thrichomys spp. Moreover, these rodents are widely dispersed in Brazil and recognized as important hosts of other tripanosomatids. Our main purpose was to evaluate the putative role of Thrichomys laurentius in the retention of infection and amplification of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis. Male and female T. laurentius (n = 24 born in captivity were evaluated for the retention of infection with these Leishmania species and followed up by parasitological, serological, hematological, biochemical, histological, and molecular assays for 3, 6, 9, or 12 months post infection (mpi. T. laurentius showed its competence as maintenance host for the two inoculated Leishmania species. Four aspects should be highlighted: (i re-isolation of parasites 12 mpi; (ii the low parasitic burden displayed by T. laurentius tissues; (iii the early onset and maintenance of humoral response, and (iv the similar pattern of infection by the two Leishmania species. Both Leishmania species demonstrated the ability to invade and maintain itself in viscera and skin of T. laurentius, and no rodent displayed any lesion, histological changes, or clinical evidence of infection. We also wish to point out the irrelevance of the adjective dermotropic or viscerotropic to qualify L. braziliensis and L. infantum, respectively, when these species are hosted by nonhuman hosts. Our data suggest that T. laurentius may act at least as a maintenance host of both tested Leishmania species since it maintained long-lasting infections. Moreover, it cannot be discarded that Leishmania spp. infection in free-ranging T. laurentius could result in higher parasite burden due the more stressing conditions in the wild

  20. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and putative orthologs comprise an ancient family of cutin synthase‐like (CUS) proteins that are conserved among land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish

    2014-01-01

    synthases within the large GDSL superfamily. We demonstrate that members of this ancient and conserved family of cutin synthase‐like (CUS) proteins act as polyester synthases with negligible hydrolytic activity. Moreover, solution‐state NMR analysis indicates that CD1 catalyzes the formation of primarily...... of hydroxyacylglycerol precursors, catalyzed by the GDSL‐motif lipase/hydrolase family protein (GDSL) Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1). Here, we present additional biochemical characterization of CD1 and putative orthologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, which represent a distinct clade of cutin...... linear cutin oligomeric products in vitro. These results reveal a conserved mechanism of cutin polyester synthesis in land plants, and suggest that elaborations of the linear polymer, such as branching or cross‐linking, may require additional, as yet unknown, factors....

  1. Examination of the requirement for ucp-4, a putative homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins, for stress tolerance and longevity in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Wendy B; Kim, Daemyung; Bachman, Eric; Wolkow, Catherine

    2005-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by mitochondrial respiration and can react with and damage cellular components. According to the free radical theory of aging, oxidative damage from mitochondrial ROS is a major cause of cellular decline during aging. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) uncouple ATP production from electron transport and can be stimulated by free radicals, suggesting UCPs may perform a cytoprotective function. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, contains one UCP-like protein, encoded by the ucp-4 gene. We have investigated the genetic requirement for ucp-4 in normal aging and stress resistance. Consistent with the hypothesis that ucp-4 encodes a putative uncoupling protein, animals lacking ucp-4 function contained elevated ATP levels. However, the absence of ucp-4 function did not affect adult lifespan or survival in the presence of thermal or oxidative stress. Together, these results demonstrate that ucp-4 is a negative regulator of ATP production in C. elegans, but is not required for normal lifespan.

  2. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects pollen tube growth via modulating putative Ca2+-permeable membrane channels and is coupled to negative regulation on glutamate decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Hui; Zou, Jie; Feng, Jing; Peng, Xiong-Bo; Wu, Ju-You; Wu, Ying-Liang; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in pollen tube growth, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms that it mediates are largely unknown. Here, it is shown that exogenous GABA modulates putative Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membranes of tobacco pollen grains and pollen tubes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments and non-invasive micromeasurement technology (NMT) revealed that the influx of Ca2+ increases in pollen tubes in response to exogenous GABA. It is also demonstrated that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA biosynthesis, is involved in feedback controls of Ca2+-permeable channels to fluctuate intracellular GABA levels and thus modulate pollen tube growth. The findings suggest that GAD activity linked with Ca2+-permeable channels relays an extracellular GABA signal and integrates multiple signal pathways to modulate tobacco pollen tube growth. Thus, the data explain how GABA mediates the communication between the style and the growing pollen tubes. PMID:24799560

  3. Evaluation of surveillance of dengue fever cases in the public health centre of Putat Jaya based on attribute surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumaroh Zumaroh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF is a public health problem in the village of Putat Jaya which is an endemic area. Surveilans activity in DHF control program is the most important activity in controlling and monitoring disease progression. The program is expected to achieve incidence rate 55/100.000 population. This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of case surveilans in health centre of putat jaya based on attribute surveillance. Attribute surveillance is an indicator that describes the characteristics of the surveillance system. This research was an evaluation research with descriptive study design. As informants were clinic staff who deal specifically with cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and laboratory workers. The techniques of data collection by interviews and document study. The variables of this study were simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representativeness, timeliness, data quality and data stability. It could be seen from Incidence Rate in 2013 has reached 133/100.00 population. The activity of surveilance in the village of Putat Jaya reviewed from disease contol program management was not succeed into decrease incidence rate of DHF. Therefore, dengue control programs in health centers Putat Jaya need to do cross-sector cooperation and cross-program cooperation, strengthening the case reporting system by way increasing in the utilization of information and communication technology electromedia. Keywords: case surveillance, dengue hemorrhagic fever, evaluation, attribute surveillance, Putat Jaya

  4. Analysis of the expression of putatively imprinted genes in bovine peri-implantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Alexopoulos, N.I.; Cooney, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The application of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been shown to induce changes in the methylation of the embryonic genome, leading to aberrant gene expression, including that of imprinted genes. Aberrant methylation and gene expression has been linked to the large offspring syndrome...... (LOS) in bovine embryos resulting in increased embryonic morbidity and mortality. In the bovine, limited numbers of imprinted genes have been studied and studies have primarily been restricted to pre-implantation stages. This study reports original data on the expression pattern of 8 putatively...... imprinted genes (Ata3, Dlk1, Gnas, Grb10, Magel2, Mest-1, Ndn and Sgce) in bovine peri-implantation embryos. Two embryonic developmental stages were examined, Day 14 and Day 21. The gene expression pattern of single embryos was recorded for in vivo, in vitro produced (IVP) and parthenogenetic embryos...

  5. State of the art on nailfold capillaroscopy: a reliable diagnostic tool and putative biomarker in rheumatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Smith, Vanessa

    2013-11-01

    Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive and safe tool to morphologically study the microcirculation. In rheumatology it has a dual use. First, it has a role in differential diagnosis of patients with RP. Second, it may have a role in the prediction of clinical complications in CTDs. In SSc, pilot studies have shown predictive associations with peripheral vascular and lung involvement hinting at a role of capillaroscopy as putative biomarker. Also and logically, in SSc, microangiopathy, as assessed by capillaroscopy, has been associated with markers of the disease such as angiogenic/static factors and SSc-specific antibodies. Moreover, morphological assessments of the microcirculation (capillaroscopy) seem to correlate with functional assessments (such as laser Doppler). Because of its clinical and research role, eyes are geared in Europe to expand the knowledge of this tool. Both the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the ACR are stepping forward to this need.

  6. Putative thyroid hormone receptors in red blood cells of some reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C C; Chiu, K W

    1987-06-01

    Putative triiodothyronine (T3) receptors have been detected in the nuclei of red blood cells (RBC) in a number of reptile species. The binding characteristics of T3 receptors in vitro were dissociation constant (Kd) 9.1 to 28.58, 36.8 and 40, and 11.12 and 11.36 pM, and binding capacity (Bmax) 0.12 to 0.37, 0.17 and 0.24, and 0.19 and 0.28 fmol per million cells in the rat snake (Ptyas korros), soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis), and tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), respectively. These data were obtained in all species using in vitro incubation of whole cell according to current receptor studies on living cells. With modified technique in subsequent experiments, these values of the binding characteristics were seemingly low. The discrepancy was ascribed to the assessment of "free" fraction of hormone which would be used in subsequent calculation.

  7. Molecular characterization of putative Hepatozoon sp. from the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; Kloch, Agnieszka; Migalska, Magdalena; Bielański, Wojciech

    2013-05-01

    We characterized partial sequences of 18S rDNA from sedge warblers infected with a parasite described previously as Hepatozoon kabeeni. Prevalence was 47% in sampled birds.We detected 3 parasite haplotypes in 62 sequenced samples from infected animals. In phylogenetic analyses, 2 of the putative Hepatozoon haplotypes closely resembled Lankesterella minima and L. valsainensis. The third haplotype grouped in a wider clade composed of Caryospora and Eimeria. None of the haplotypes showed resemblance to sequences of Hepatozoon from reptiles and mammals. Molecular detection results were consistent with those from microscopy of stained blood smears, confirming that the primers indeed amplified the parasite sequences. Here we provide evidence that the avian Hepatozoon-like parasites are most likely Lankesterella, supporting the suggestion that the systematic position of avian Hepatozoon-like species needs to be revised.

  8. Antiviral Activities and Putative Identification of Compounds in Microbial Extracts from the Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanan Lu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a rich source of significant bioactive compounds. The Hawaiian archipelago, located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, hosts diverse microorganisms, including many endemic species. Thirty-eight microbial extracts from Hawaiian coastal waters were evaluated for their antiviral activity against four mammalian viruses including herpes simplex virus type one (HSV-1, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, vaccinia virus and poliovirus type one (poliovirus-1 using in vitro cell culture assay. Nine of the 38 microbial crude extracts showed antiviral potencies and three of these nine microbial extracts exhibited significant activity against the enveloped viruses. A secosteroid, 5α(H,17α(H,(20R-beta-acetoxyergost-8(14-ene was putatively identified and confirmed to be the active compound in these marine microbial extracts. These results warrant future in-depth tests on the isolation of these active elements in order to explore and validate their antiviral potential as important therapeutic remedies.

  9. A strategy to discover new organizers identifies a putative heart organizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Khan, Mohsin A F; Wong, Frances; Solovieva, Tatiana; Oliveira, Nidia M M; Baldock, Richard A; Tickle, Cheryll; Burt, Dave W; Stern, Claudio D

    2016-08-25

    Organizers are regions of the embryo that can both induce new fates and impart pattern on other regions. So far, surprisingly few organizers have been discovered, considering the number of patterned tissue types generated during development. This may be because their discovery has relied on transplantation and ablation experiments. Here we describe a new approach, using chick embryos, to discover organizers based on a common gene expression signature, and use it to uncover the anterior intestinal portal (AIP) endoderm as a putative heart organizer. We show that the AIP can induce cardiac identity from non-cardiac mesoderm and that it can pattern this by specifying ventricular and suppressing atrial regional identity. We also uncover some of the signals responsible. The method holds promise as a tool to discover other novel organizers acting during development.

  10. Excitatory amino acid b-N-methylamino-L-alanine is a putative environmental neurotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR NEDELJKOV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid b-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA has been associated with the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex in three distinct western Pacific populations. The putative neurotoxin is produced by cyanobacteria, which live symbiotically in the roots of cycad trees. L-BMAA was thought to be a threat only to those few populations whose diet and medicines rely heavily on cycad seeds. However, the recent discovery that cyanobacteria from diverse terrestrial, freshwater, and saltwater ecosystems around the world produce the toxin requires a reassessment of whether it poses a larger health threat. Therefore, it is proposed that monitoring L-BMAA levels in cyanobacteria-contaminated water supplies might be prudent.

  11. Evolutionary analysis of Pinus densata Masters, a putative Tertiary hybrid : 1. Allozyme variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X R; Szmidt, A E; Lewandowski, A; Wang, Z R

    1990-11-01

    Allozyme differentiation at 13 loci was studied in populations of Pinus tabulaeformis, P. densata, and P. yunnanensis from China. It was previously suggested that P. densata represents a Tertiary hybrid between P. tabulaeformis and P. yunnanensis. The observed levels of allozyme variation within and among the investigated species were comparable to those of other conifers. P. tabulaeformis differed markedly from P. yunnanensis with respect to allozyme frequencies, while P. densata was intermediate between the two putative parents. There was evidence of homozygote excess in embryos from all investigated species, as compared to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The observed allozyme composition of P. densata conformed to earlier morphological and molecular evidence indicating hybrid origin of this taxon. It was proposed that fusion of gene pools from P. tabulaeformis and P. yunnanensis has led to adaptive evolution of a new species, P. densata.

  12. Identification of a novel group of putative Arabidopsis thaliana beta-(1,3)-galactosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Yongmei; Egelund, Jack; Gilson, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    To begin biochemical and molecular studies on the biosynthesis of the type II arabinogalactan chains on arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), we adopted a bioinformatic approach to identify and systematically characterise the putative galactosyltransferases (GalTs) responsible for synthesizing the beta......-(1,3)-Gal linkage from CAZy GT-family-31 from Arabidopsis thaliana. These analyses confirmed that 20 members of the GT-31 family contained domains/motifs typical of biochemically characterised beta-(1,3)-GTs from mammalian systems. Microarray data confirm that members of this family are expressed......,3)-GalT activity. This bioinformatic/molecular study of CAZy GT-family-31 was validated by the recent report of Strasser et al. (Plant Cell 19:2278-2292, 2007) that another member of this family (At1g26810; GALT1) encodes a beta-(1,3)-GalT involved in the biosynthesis of the Lewis a epitope of N...

  13. The Bacillus anthracis chromosome contains four conserved, excision-proficient, putative prophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozhamannan Shanmuga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus anthracis is considered to be a recently emerged clone within the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. The B. anthracis genome sequence contains four putative lambdoid prophages. We undertook this study in order to understand whether the four prophages are unique to B. anthracis and whether they produce active phages. Results More than 300 geographically and temporally divergent isolates of B. anthracis and its near neighbors were screened by PCR for the presence of specific DNA sequences from each prophage region. Every isolate of B. anthracis screened by PCR was found to produce all four phage-specific amplicons whereas none of the non-B. anthracis isolates, produced more than one phage-specific amplicon. Excision of prophages could be detected by a PCR based assay for attP sites on extra-chromosomal phage circles and for attB sites on phage-excised chromosomes. SYBR-green real-time PCR assays indicated that prophage excision occurs at very low frequencies (2 × 10-5 - 8 × 10-8/cell. Induction with mitomycin C increased the frequency of excision of one of the prophages by approximately 250 fold. All four prophages appear to be defective since, mitomycin C induced culture did not release any viable phage particle or lyse the cells or reveal any phage particle under electron microscopic examination. Conclusion The retention of all four putative prophage regions across all tested strains of B. anthracis is further evidence of the very recent emergence of this lineage and the prophage regions may be useful for differentiating the B. anthracis chromosome from that of its neighbors. All four prophages can excise at low frequencies, but are apparently defective in phage production.

  14. The V-ATPase a2-subunit as a putative endosomal pH-sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshansky, V

    2007-11-01

    V-ATPase (vesicular H(+)-ATPase)-driven intravesicular acidification is crucial for vesicular trafficking. Defects in vesicular acidification and trafficking have recently been recognized as essential determinants of various human diseases. An important role of endosomal acidification in receptor-ligand dissociation and in activation of lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes is well established. However, the molecular mechanisms by which luminal pH information is transmitted to the cytosolic small GTPases that control trafficking events such as budding, coat formation and fusion are unknown. Here, we discuss our recent discovery that endosomal V-ATPase is a pH-sensor regulating the degradative pathway. According to our model, V-ATPase is responsible for: (i) the generation of a pH gradient between vesicular membranes; (ii) sensing of intravesicular pH; and (iii) transmitting this information to the cytosolic side of the membrane. We also propose the hypothetical molecular mechanism involved in function of the V-ATPase a2-subunit as a putative pH-sensor. Based on extensive experimental evidence on the crucial role of histidine residues in the function of PSPs (pH-sensing proteins) in eukaryotic cells, we hypothesize that pH-sensitive histidine residues within the intra-endosomal loops and/or C-terminal luminal tail of the a2-subunit could also be involved in the pH-sensing function of V-ATPase. However, in order to identify putative pH-sensitive histidine residues and to test this hypothesis, it is absolutely essential that we increase our understanding of the folding and transmembrane topology of the a-subunit isoforms of V-ATPase. Thus the crucial role of intra-endosomal histidine residues in pH-dependent conformational changes of the V-ATPase a2-isoform, its interaction with cytosolic small GTPases and ultimately in its acidification-dependent regulation of the endosomal/lysosomal protein degradative pathway remain to be determined.

  15. Report on the development of putative functional SSR and SNP markers in passion fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Zirlane Portugal; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2017-09-06

    Passionflowers Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata are diploid, outcrossing and understudied fruit bearing species. In Brazil, passion fruit cultivation began relatively recently and has earned the country an outstanding position as the world's top producer of passion fruit. The fruit's main economic value lies in the production of juice, an essential exotic ingredient in juice blends. Currently, crop improvement strategies, including those for underexploited tropical species, tend to incorporate molecular genetic approaches. In this study, we examined a set of P. edulis transcripts expressed in response to infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis, (the passion fruit's main bacterial pathogen that attacks the vines), aiming at the development of putative functional markers, i.e. SSRs (simple sequence repeats) and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). A total of 210 microsatellites were found in 998 sequences, and trinucleotide repeats were found to be the most frequent (31.4%). Of the sequences selected for designing primers, 80.9% could be used to develop SSR markers, and 60.6% SNP markers for P. alata. SNPs were all biallelic and found within 15 gene fragments of P. alata. Overall, gene fragments generated 10,003 bp. SNP frequency was estimated as one SNP every 294 bp. Polymorphism rates revealed by SSR and SNP loci were 29.4 and 53.6%, respectively. Passiflora edulis transcripts were useful for the development of putative functional markers for P. alata, suggesting a certain level of sequence conservation between these cultivated species. The markers developed herein could be used for genetic mapping purposes and also in diversity studies.

  16. Identification and characterization of a putative human platelet thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saussy, D.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) analog, 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16-(3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13,14-dihydro-13-aza-15αβ-omega-tetranor TXA 2 (I-PTA-OH) was characterized as a competitive antagonist of TXA 2 mimetic-induced platelet aggregation, with a K/sub d/ of 190 nM in platelet rich plasma. This antagonism was specific for the putative thromboxane A 2 /prostaglandin H 2 (TXA 2 /PGH 2 ) receptor, since I-PTA-OH had no inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists which act independently of TXA 2 /PGH 2 , and did not inhibit platelet TXA 2 synthesis. [ 125 I]-PTA-OH binding to a particulate fraction from human platelets was saturable, displaceable, and linear with protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites, with a K/sub d/ of 30 +/- 4 nM and a B/sub max/ of 1.8 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein. Kinetic analysis yielded a k 1 of 1.35 x 10 6 M -1 x min -1 and a k√ 1 of 0.032 min -1 , K/sub d/ = k√ 1 /k 1 = 24 nM. The subcellular localization of the putative TXA 2 /PGH 2 receptor was determined using [ 125 I]-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. [ 125 I]-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. [ 125 I]-PTA-OH binding, was coenriched with markers for plasma membranes and dense tubular system; but not with markers for cytoplasmic constituents, mitochondria, or granules

  17. Detection of putatively thermophilic anaerobic methanotrophs in diffuse hydrothermal vent fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Alexander Y; Huber, Julie A; Chernyh, Nikolay A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Lebedinsky, Alexander V

    2013-02-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is carried out by a globally distributed group of uncultivated Euryarchaeota, the anaerobic methanotrophic arachaea (ANME). In this work, we used G+C analysis of 16S rRNA genes to identify a putatively thermophilic ANME group and applied newly designed primers to study its distribution in low-temperature diffuse vent fluids from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We found that the G+C content of the 16S rRNA genes (P(GC)) is significantly higher in the ANME-1GBa group than in other ANME groups. Based on the positive correlation between the P(GC) and optimal growth temperatures (T(opt)) of archaea, we hypothesize that the ANME-1GBa group is adapted to thrive at high temperatures. We designed specific 16S rRNA gene-targeted primers for the ANME-1 cluster to detect all phylogenetic groups within this cluster, including the deeply branching ANME-1GBa group. The primers were successfully tested both in silico and in experiments with sediment samples where ANME-1 phylotypes had previously been detected. The primers were further used to screen for the ANME-1 microorganisms in diffuse vent fluid samples from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean, and sequences belonging to the ANME-1 cluster were detected in four individual vents. Phylotypes belonging to the ANME-1GBa group dominated in clone libraries from three of these vents. Our findings provide evidence of existence of a putatively extremely thermophilic group of methanotrophic archaea that occur in geographically and geologically distinct marine hydrothermal habitats.

  18. Search strings for the study of putative occupational determinants of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Stefano; Zanardi, Francesca; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Schaafsma, Frederieke; Cooke, Robin MT; Mancini, Gianpiero; Fierro, Mauro; Santangelo, Chiara; Farioli, Andrea; Fucksia, Serenella; Curti, Stefania; Verbeek, Jos

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify efficient PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles regarding putative occupational determinants of conditions not generally considered to be work related. Methods Based on MeSH definitions and expert knowledge, we selected as candidate search terms the four MeSH terms describing ‘occupational disease’, ‘occupational exposure’, ‘occupational health’ and ‘occupational medicine’ (DEHM) alongside 22 other promising terms. We first explored overlaps between the candidate terms in PubMed. Using random samples of abstracts retrieved by each term, we estimated the proportions of articles containing potentially pertinent information regarding occupational aetiology in order to formulate two search strategies (one more ‘specific’, one more ‘sensitive’). We applied these strategies to retrieve information on the possible occupational aetiology of meningioma, pancreatitis and atrial fibrillation. Results Only 20.3% of abstracts were retrieved by more than one DEHM term. The more ‘specific’ search string was based on the combination of terms that yielded the highest proportion (40%) of potentially pertinent abstracts. The more ‘sensitive’ string was based on the use of broader search fields and additional coverage provided by other search terms under study. Using the specific string, the numbers of abstracts needed to read to find one potentially pertinent article were 1.2 for meningioma, 1.9 for pancreatitis and 1.8 for atrial fibrillation. Using the sensitive strategy, the numbers needed to read were 4.4 for meningioma, 8.9 for pancreatitis and 10.5 for atrial fibrillation. Conclusions The proposed strings could help health care professionals explore putative occupational aetiology for diseases that are not generally thought to be work related. PMID:19819858

  19. Identification of Putative Precursor Genes for the Biosynthesis of Cannabinoid-Like Compound in Radula marginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajammul Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The liverwort Radula marginata belongs to the bryophyte division of land plants and is a prospective alternate source of cannabinoid-like compounds. However, mechanistic insights into the molecular pathways directing the synthesis of these cannabinoid-like compounds have been hindered due to the lack of genetic information. This prompted us to do deep sequencing, de novo assembly and annotation of R. marginata transcriptome, which resulted in the identification and validation of the genes for cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway. In total, we have identified 11,421 putative genes encoding 1,554 enzymes from 145 biosynthetic pathways. Interestingly, we have identified all the upstream genes of the central precursor of cannabinoid biosynthesis, cannabigerolic acid (CBGA, including its two first intermediates, stilbene acid (SA and geranyl diphosphate (GPP. Expression of all these genes was validated using quantitative real-time PCR. We have characterized the protein structure of stilbene synthase (STS, which is considered as a homolog of olivetolic acid in R. marginata. Moreover, the metabolomics approach enabled us to identify CBGA-analogous compounds using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 1085 transcription factors (TF from 39 families. Comparative analysis showed that six TF families have been uniquely predicted in R. marginata. In addition, the bioinformatics analysis predicted a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Our results collectively provide mechanistic insights into the putative precursor genes for the biosynthesis of cannabinoid-like compounds and a novel transcriptomic resource for R. marginata. The large-scale transcriptomic resource generated in this study would further serve as a reference transcriptome to explore the Radulaceae family.

  20. Characterization of ERAS, a putative novel human oncogene, in skin and breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña Avalos, B.L. de la

    2014-07-01

    Most human tumors have mutations in genes of the RAS small GTPase protein family. RAS works as a molecular switch for signaling pathways that modulate many aspects of cell behavior, including proliferation, differentiation, motility and death. Oncogenic mutations in RAS prevent GTP hydrolysis, locking RAS in a permanently active state, being the most common mutations in HRAS, KRAS and NRAS. The human RAS family consists of at least 36 different genes, many of which have been scarcely studied. One of these relatively unknown genes is ERAS (ES cell-expressed RAS), which is a constitutively active RAS protein, localized in chromosome X and expressed only in embryonic cells, being undetectable in adult tissues. New high throughput technologies have made it possible to screen complete cancer genomes for identification of mutations associated to cancer. Using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system, ERAS was identified as a putative novel oncogene in non-melanoma skin and breast cancers. The major aim of this project is to determine the general characteristics of ERAS as a putative novel human oncogene in skin and breast cells. Forced expression of ERAS results in drastic changes in cell shape, proliferation and motility. When ERAS is overexpressed in skin and breast human cells it is mainly localized in the cytoplasmic membrane. ERAS activates the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) pathway but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. ERAS-expressing cells suffer spontaneous morphologic and phenotypic EMT-like changes, including cytoskeleton reorganization, vimentin and N-cadherin up-regulation and down-regulation of E-cadherin, which can be associated with increased malignancy, and invasive and metastatic potential. Our results suggest that inappropriate expression of ERAS lead to transformation of human cells. (Author)

  1. The putative serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 from Apis mellifera venom: recombinant and structural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Y; McIntyre, M; Ginglinger, H; Ollert, M; Cifuentes, L; Blank, S; Spillner, E

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated reactions to honeybee venom can cause severe anaphylaxis, sometimes with fatal consequences. Detailed knowledge of the allergic potential of all venom components is necessary to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of allergy and to gain a better understanding of the allergological mechanisms of insect venoms. Our objective was to undertake an immunochemical and structural evaluation of the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6, a component of honeybee venom. We recombinantly produced Api m 6 as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli and in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells.We also assessed specific IgE reactivity of venom-sensitized patients with 2 prokaryotically produced Api m 6 variants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, we built a structural model ofApi m 6 and compared it with other protease inhibitor structures to gain insights into the function of Api m 6. In a population of 31 honeybee venom-allergic patients, 26% showed specific IgE reactivity with prokaryotically produced Api m 6, showing it to be a minor but relevant allergen. Molecular modeling of Api m 6 revealed a typical fold of canonical protease inhibitors, supporting the putative function of this venom allergen. Although Api m 6 has a highly variant surface charge, its epitope distribution appears to be similar to that of related proteins. Api m 6 is a honeybee venom component with IgE-sensitizing potential in a fraction of venom-allergic patients. Recombinant Api m 6 can help elucidate individual component-resolved reactivity profiles and increase our understanding of immune responses to low-molecular-weight allergens

  2. Expression of putative immune response genes during early ontogeny in the coral Acropora millepora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneour Puill-Stephan

    Full Text Available Corals, like many other marine invertebrates, lack a mature allorecognition system in early life history stages. Indeed, in early ontogeny, when corals acquire and establish associations with various surface microbiota and dinoflagellate endosymbionts, they do not efficiently distinguish between closely and distantly related individuals from the same population. However, very little is known about the molecular components that underpin allorecognition and immunity responses or how they change through early ontogeny in corals.Patterns in the expression of four putative immune response genes (apextrin, complement C3, and two CELIII type lectin genes were examined in juvenile colonies of Acropora millepora throughout a six-month post-settlement period using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Expression of a CELIII type lectin gene peaked in the fourth month for most of the coral juveniles sampled and was significantly higher at this time than at any other sampling time during the six months following settlement. The timing of this increase in expression levels of putative immune response genes may be linked to allorecognition maturation which occurs around this time in A. millepora. Alternatively, the increase may represent a response to immune challenges, such as would be involved in the recognition of symbionts (such as Symbiodinium spp. or bacteria during winnowing processes as symbioses are fine-tuned.Our data, although preliminary, are consistent with the hypothesis that lectins may play an important role in the maturation of allorecognition responses in corals. The co-expression of lectins with apextrin during development of coral juveniles also raises the possibility that these proteins, which are components of innate immunity in other invertebrates, may influence the innate immune systems of corals through a common pathway or system. However, further studies investigating the expression of these genes in alloimmune-challenged corals are

  3. Expression of putative immune response genes during early ontogeny in the coral Acropora millepora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puill-Stephan, Eneour; Seneca, François O; Miller, David J; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L

    2012-01-01

    Corals, like many other marine invertebrates, lack a mature allorecognition system in early life history stages. Indeed, in early ontogeny, when corals acquire and establish associations with various surface microbiota and dinoflagellate endosymbionts, they do not efficiently distinguish between closely and distantly related individuals from the same population. However, very little is known about the molecular components that underpin allorecognition and immunity responses or how they change through early ontogeny in corals. Patterns in the expression of four putative immune response genes (apextrin, complement C3, and two CELIII type lectin genes) were examined in juvenile colonies of Acropora millepora throughout a six-month post-settlement period using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Expression of a CELIII type lectin gene peaked in the fourth month for most of the coral juveniles sampled and was significantly higher at this time than at any other sampling time during the six months following settlement. The timing of this increase in expression levels of putative immune response genes may be linked to allorecognition maturation which occurs around this time in A. millepora. Alternatively, the increase may represent a response to immune challenges, such as would be involved in the recognition of symbionts (such as Symbiodinium spp. or bacteria) during winnowing processes as symbioses are fine-tuned. Our data, although preliminary, are consistent with the hypothesis that lectins may play an important role in the maturation of allorecognition responses in corals. The co-expression of lectins with apextrin during development of coral juveniles also raises the possibility that these proteins, which are components of innate immunity in other invertebrates, may influence the innate immune systems of corals through a common pathway or system. However, further studies investigating the expression of these genes in alloimmune-challenged corals are needed to further

  4. A Forceful Demonstration by FORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    .). In addition, detailed computer software was provided to prepare the complex astronomical observations with FORS in advance and to monitor the instrument performance by quality checks of the scientific data accumulated. In return for building FORS for the community of European astrophysicists, the scientists in the three institutions of the FORS Consortium have received a certain amount of Guaranteed Observing Time at the VLT. This time will be used for various research projects concerned, among others, with minor bodies in the outer solar system, stars at late stages of their evolution and the clouds of gas they eject, as well as galaxies and quasars at very large distances, thereby permitting a look-back towards the early epoch of the universe. First tests of FORS1 at the VLT UT1: a great success After careful preparation, the FORS consortium has now started the so-called commissioning of the instrument. This comprises the thorough verification of the specified instrument properties at the telescope, checking the correct functioning under software control from the Paranal control room and, at the end of this process, a demonstration that the instrument fulfills its scientific purpose as planned. While performing these tests, the commissioning team at Paranal were able to obtain images of various astronomical objects, some of which are shown here. Two of these were obtained on the night of "FORS First Light". The photos demonstrate some of the impressive posibilities with this new instrument. They are based on observations with the FORS standard resolution collimator (field size 6.8 x 6.8 armin = 2048 x 2048 pixels; 1 pixel = 0.20 arcsec). Spiral galaxy NGC 1288 ESO PR Photo 37a/98 ESO PR Photo 37a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 908 pix - 224k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3406 pix - 1.5Mb] A colour image of spiral galaxy NGC 1288, obtained on the night of "FORS First Light". The first photo shows a reproduction of a colour composite image of the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC

  5. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Shuiming; Illa, Eudald; Song, Lijuan; Wu, Shandong; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere; Weg, Eric van de; Chen, Kunsong; Gao, Zhongshan

    2008-01-01

    Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4) have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica), these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcis)Pru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica). Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1). Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B) were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03) containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02) were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach/almond allergen genes have

  6. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weg Eric

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4 have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica, these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcisPru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica. Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1. Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03 containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02 were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach

  7. Didactic demonstrations of superfluidity and superconductivity phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniola-Jedrzejak, L.; Lewicki, A.; Pilipowicz, A.; Tarnawski, Z.; Bialek, H.

    1980-01-01

    In order to demonstrate to students phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity a special helium cryostat has been constructed. The demonstrated effects, construction of the cryostat and the method of demonstration are described. (author)

  8. EST mining identifies proteins putatively secreted by the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum

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    Vandenberg Albert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colletotrichum truncatum is a haploid, hemibiotrophic, ascomycete fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease on many economically important leguminous crops. This pathogen exploits sequential biotrophic- and necrotrophic- infection strategies to colonize the host. Transition from biotrophy to a destructive necrotrophic phase called the biotrophy-necrotrophy switch is critical in symptom development. C. truncatum likely secretes an arsenal of proteins that are implicated in maintaining a compatible interaction with its host. Some of them might be transition specific. Results A directional cDNA library was constructed from mRNA isolated from infected Lens culinaris leaflet tissues displaying the biotrophy-necrotrophy switch of C. truncatum and 5000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average read of > 600 bp from the 5-prime end were generated. Nearly 39% of the ESTs were predicted to encode proteins of fungal origin and among these, 162 ESTs were predicted to contain N-terminal signal peptides (SPs in their deduced open reading frames (ORFs. The 162 sequences could be assembled into 122 tentative unigenes comprising 32 contigs and 90 singletons. Sequence analyses of unigenes revealed four potential groups: hydrolases, cell envelope associated proteins (CEAPs, candidate effectors and other proteins. Eleven candidate effector genes were identified based on features common to characterized fungal effectors, i.e. they encode small, soluble (lack of transmembrane domain, cysteine-rich proteins with a putative SP. For a selected subset of CEAPs and candidate effectors, semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that these transcripts were either expressed constitutively in both in vitro and in planta or induced during plant infection. Using potato virus X (PVX based transient expression assays, we showed that one of the candidate effectors, i. e. contig 8 that encodes a cerato-platanin (CP domain containing protein, unlike CP proteins

  9. Genome sequence and comparative analysis of a putative entomopathogenic Serratia isolated from Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Tisa, Louis S; Cooper, Vaughn S; Hatcher, Philip J; Abebe, Eyualem; Thomas, W Kelley

    2015-07-18

    Entomopathogenic associations between nematodes in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabdus with their cognate bacteria from the bacterial genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively, are extensively studied for their potential as biological control agents against invasive insect species. These two highly coevolved associations were results of convergent evolution. Given the natural abundance of bacteria, nematodes and insects, it is surprising that only these two associations with no intermediate forms are widely studied in the entomopathogenic context. Discovering analogous systems involving novel bacterial and nematode species would shed light on the evolutionary processes involved in the transition from free living organisms to obligatory partners in entomopathogenicity. We report the complete genome sequence of a new member of the enterobacterial genus Serratia that forms a putative entomopathogenic complex with Caenorhabditis briggsae. Analysis of the 5.04 MB chromosomal genome predicts 4599 protein coding genes, seven sets of ribosomal RNA genes, 84 tRNA genes and a 64.8 KB plasmid encoding 74 genes. Comparative genomic analysis with three of the previously sequenced Serratia species, S. marcescens DB11 and S. proteamaculans 568, and Serratia sp. AS12, revealed that these four representatives of the genus share a core set of ~3100 genes and extensive structural conservation. The newly identified species shares a more recent common ancestor with S. marcescens with 99% sequence identity in rDNA sequence and orthology across 85.6% of predicted genes. Of the 39 genes/operons implicated in the virulence, symbiosis, recolonization, immune evasion and bioconversion, 21 (53.8%) were present in Serratia while 33 (84.6%) and 35 (89%) were present in Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus EPN bacteria respectively. The majority of unique sequences in Serratia sp. SCBI (South African Caenorhabditis briggsae Isolate) are found in ~29 genomic islands of 5 to 65 genes and are

  10. Discovery of Putative Herbicide Resistance Genes and Its Regulatory Network in Chickpea Using Transcriptome Sequencing

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    Mir A. Iquebal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 75% of total pulse production. Being cheaper than animal protein, makes it important in dietary requirement of developing countries. Weed not only competes with chickpea resulting into drastic yield reduction but also creates problem of harboring fungi, bacterial diseases and insect pests. Chemical approach having new herbicide discovery has constraint of limited lead molecule options, statutory regulations and environmental clearance. Through genetic approach, transgenic herbicide tolerant crop has given successful result but led to serious concern over ecological safety thus non-transgenic approach like marker assisted selection is desirable. Since large variability in tolerance limit of herbicide already exists in chickpea varieties, thus the genes offering herbicide tolerance can be introgressed in variety improvement programme. Transcriptome studies can discover such associated key genes with herbicide tolerance in chickpea.Results: This is first transcriptomic studies of chickpea or even any legume crop using two herbicide susceptible and tolerant genotypes exposed to imidazoline (Imazethapyr. Approximately 90 million paired-end reads generated from four samples were processed and assembled into 30,803 contigs using reference based assembly. We report 6,310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, of which 3,037 were regulated by 980 miRNAs, 1,528 transcription factors associated with 897 DEGs, 47 Hub proteins, 3,540 putative Simple Sequence Repeat-Functional Domain Marker (SSR-FDM, 13,778 genic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP putative markers and 1,174 Indels. Randomly selected 20 DEGs were validated using qPCR. Pathway analysis suggested that xenobiotic degradation related gene, glutathione S-transferase (GST were only up-regulated in presence of herbicide. Down-regulation of DNA replication genes and up-regulation of abscisic acid pathway genes were observed. Study further reveals

  11. Expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases and their putative homologues during Arabidopsis thaliana growth and development: lessons for database annotations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kye-Won; Cho, Man-Ho; Franceschi, Vincent R; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2007-07-01

    A major goal currently in Arabidopsis research is determination of the (biochemical) function of each of its approximately 27,000 genes. To date, however, 12% of its genes actually have known biochemical roles. In this study, we considered it instructive to identify the gene expression patterns of nine (so-called AtCAD1-9) of 17 genes originally annotated by The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) homologues [see Costa, M.A., Collins, R.E., Anterola, A.M., Cochrane, F.C., Davin, L.B., Lewis N.G., 2003. An in silico assessment of gene function and organization of the phenylpropanoid pathway metabolic networks in Arabidopsis thaliana and limitations thereof. Phytochemistry 64, 1097-1112.]. In agreement with our biochemical studies in vitro [Kim, S.-J., Kim, M.-R., Bedgar, D.L., Moinuddin, S.G.A., Cardenas, C.L., Davin, L.B., Kang, C.-H., Lewis, N.G., 2004. Functional reclassification of the putative cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase multigene family in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 1455-1460.], and analysis of a double mutant [Sibout, R., Eudes, A., Mouille, G., Pollet, B., Lapierre, C., Jouanin, L., Séguin A., 2005. Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-C and -D are the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 17, 2059-2076.], both AtCAD5 (At4g34230) and AtCAD4 (At3g19450) were found to have expression patterns consistent with development/formation of different forms of the lignified vascular apparatus, e.g. lignifying stem tissues, bases of trichomes, hydathodes, abscission zones of siliques, etc. Expression was also observed in various non-lignifying zones (e.g. root caps) indicative of, perhaps, a role in plant defense. In addition, expression patterns of the four CAD-like homologues were investigated, i.e. AtCAD2 (At2g21730), AtCAD3 (At2g21890), AtCAD7 (At4g37980) and AtCAD8 (At4g37990), each of which previously had been demonstrated to have low CAD

  12. A novel begomovirus isolated from sida contains putative cis- and trans-acting replication specificity determinants that have evolved independently in several geographical lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio-Castillo, J A; Torres-Herrera, S I; Cárdenas-Conejo, Y; Pastor-Palacios, G; Méndez-Lozano, J; Argüello-Astorga, G R

    2014-09-01

    A novel begomovirus isolated from a Sida rhombifolia plant collected in Sinaloa, Mexico, was characterized. The genomic components of sida mosaic Sinaloa virus (SiMSinV) shared highest sequence identity with DNA-A and DNA-B components of chino del tomate virus (CdTV), suggesting a vertical evolutionary relationship between these viruses. However, recombination analysis indicated that a short segment of SiMSinV DNA-A encompassing the plus-strand replication origin and the 5´-proximal 43 codons of the Rep gene was derived from tomato mottle Taino virus (ToMoTV). Accordingly, the putative cis- and trans-acting replication specificity determinants of SiMSinV were identical to those of ToMoTV but differed from those of CdTV. Modeling of the SiMSinV and CdTV Rep proteins revealed significant differences in the region comprising the small β1/β5 sheet element, where five putative DNA-binding specificity determinants (SPDs) of Rep (i.e., amino acid residues 5, 8, 10, 69 and 71) were previously identified. Computer-assisted searches of public databases led to identification of 33 begomoviruses from three continents encoding proteins with SPDs identical to those of the Rep encoded by SiMSinV. Sequence analysis of the replication origins demonstrated that all 33 begomoviruses harbor potential Rep-binding sites identical to those of SiMSinV. These data support the hypothesis that the Rep β1/β5 sheet region determines specificity of this protein for DNA replication origin sequences.

  13. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2* Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue11The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  14. Differential transcript abundance and genotypic variation of four putative allergen-encoding gene families in melting peach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Ma, Y.; Chen, L.; Xie, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, B.; Lu, M.; Wu, S.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Ree, van R.; Gao, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We analysed the temporal and spatial transcript expression of the panel of 18 putative isoallergens from four gene families (Pru p 1–4) in the peach fruit, anther and leaf of two melting cultivars, to gain insight into their expression profiles and to identify the key family members. Genotypic

  15. Distinct ASIC currents are expressed in rat putative nociceptors and are modulated by nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, Olivier; Berta, Temugin; Decosterd, Isabelle; Kellenberger, Stephan

    2006-10-01

    The H(+)-gated acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. Studies with ASIC knockout mice indicated either a pro-nociceptive or a modulatory role of ASICs in pain sensation. We have investigated in freshly isolated rat DRG neurones whether neurones with different ASIC current properties exist, which may explain distinct cellular roles, and we have investigated ASIC regulation in an experimental model of neuropathic pain. Small-diameter DRG neurones expressed three different ASIC current types which were all preferentially expressed in putative nociceptors. Type 1 currents were mediated by ASIC1a homomultimers and characterized by steep pH dependence of current activation in the pH range 6.8-6.0. Type 3 currents were activated in a similar pH range as type 1, while type 2 currents were activated at pH ASIC current density. Nerve injury induced differential regulation of ASIC subunit expression and selective changes in ASIC function in DRG neurones, suggesting a complex reorganization of ASICs during the development of neuropathic pain. In summary, we describe a basis for distinct cellular functions of different ASIC types in small-diameter DRG neurones.

  16. Original and regenerating lizard tail cartilage contain putative resident stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    Regeneration of cartilaginous tissues is limited in mammals but it occurs with variable extension in lizards (reptiles), including in their vertebrae. The ability of lizard vertebrae to regenerate cartilaginous tissue that is later replaced with bone has been analyzed using tritiated thymidine autoradiography and 5BrdU immunocytochemistry after single pulse or prolonged-pulse and chase experiments. The massive cartilage regeneration that can restore broad vertebral regions and gives rise to a long cartilaginous tube in the regenerating tail, depends from the permanence of some chondrogenic cells within adult vertebrae. Few cells that retain tritiated thymidine or 5-bromodeoxy-uridine for over 35 days are mainly localized in the inter-vertebral cartilage and in sparse chondrogenic regions of the neural arch of the vertebrae, suggesting that they are putative resident stem/progenitor cells. The study supports previous hypothesis indicating that the massive regeneration of the cartilaginous tissue in damaged vertebrae and in the regenerating tail of lizards derive from resident stem cells mainly present in the cartilaginous areas of the vertebrae including in the perichondrium that are retained in adult lizards as growing centers for most of their lifetime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In Silico Analysis of Putative Sugar Transporter Genes in Aspergillus niger Using Phylogeny and Comparative Transcriptomics

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    Mao Peng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger is one of the most widely used fungi to study the conversion of the lignocellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars. Understanding the sugar uptake system of A. niger is essential to improve the efficiency of the process of fungal plant biomass degradation. In this study, we report a comprehensive characterization of the sugar transportome of A. niger by combining phylogenetic and comparative transcriptomic analyses. We identified 86 putative sugar transporter (ST genes based on a conserved protein domain search. All these candidates were then classified into nine subfamilies and their functional motifs and possible sugar-specificity were annotated according to phylogenetic analysis and literature mining. Furthermore, we comparatively analyzed the ST gene expression on a large set of fungal growth conditions including mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and mutants of transcriptional regulators. This revealed that transporter genes from the same phylogenetic clade displayed very diverse expression patterns and were regulated by different transcriptional factors. The genome-wide study of STs of A. niger provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying an extremely flexible metabolism and high nutritional versatility of A. niger and will facilitate further biochemical characterization and industrial applications of these candidate STs.

  18. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Tumor Cell Growth Inhibitory Potential of New Putative HSP90 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, Ana; Sousa, Diana; Lima, Raquel T; Musso, Loana; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Zuco, Vantina; De Cesare, Michelandrea; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Vasconcelos, M Helena

    2018-02-13

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a well-known target for cancer therapy. In a previous work, some of us have reported a series of 3-aryl-naphtho[2,3- d ]isoxazole-4,9-diones as inhibitors of HSP90. In the present work, various compounds with new chromenopyridinone and thiochromenopyridinone scaffolds were synthesized as potential HSP90 inhibitors. Their binding affinity to HSP90 was studied in vitro. Selected compounds ( 5 and 8 ) were further studied in various tumor cell lines regarding their potential to cause cell growth inhibition, alter the cell cycle profile, inhibit proliferation, and induce apoptosis. Their effect on HSP90 client protein levels was also confirmed in two cell lines. Finally, the antitumor activity of compound 8 was studied in A431 squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Our results indicated that treatment with compounds 5 and 8 decreased the proliferation of tumor cell lines and compound 8 induced apoptosis. In addition, these two compounds were able to downregulate selected proteins known as "clients" of HSP90. Finally, treatment of xenografted mice with compound 5 resulted in a considerable dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth. Our results show that two new compounds with a chromenopyridinone and thiochromenopyridinone scaffold are promising putative HSP90 inhibitors causing tumor cell growth inhibition.

  19. Genetic Causes of Putative Autosomal Recessive Intellectual Disability Cases in Hamedan Province

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    Milad Bastami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic causes of autosomal recessive intellectual disabilities (AR-ID in Hamadan province of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, 25 families with more than one affected with putative autosomal recessive intellectual disability were chosen with collaboration of Welfare Organization of Hamadan province. Families were included a total of 60 patients (39 male and 21 female whose intellectual disability had been confirmed by Raven IQ test. Each family was asked for clinical examination and getting consent form. Blood sample was collected from each family. One proband from each family was tested for CGG repeat expansion in FMR1 gene, chromosomal abnormalities and inborn errors of metabolism. We also performed homozygosity mapping based on STR markers for seven known MCPH loci in families with primary microcephaly and AR-ID. Results: Five families had full mutation of Fragile X syndrome. No chromosomal abnormalities were identified. Metabolic screening revealed one family with Medium Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency. None of three families with primary microcephaly and AR-ID showed linkage to any of known seven MCPH loci. Conclusion: The main causes of ID in Hamadan province were Fragile X syndrome and Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly with the frequencies of 20% and 12%, respectively.

  20. Screening and identification of putative allergens in berry fruits of the Rosaceae family: technical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Gorji; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Herndl, Anita; Katinger, Hermann; Laimer, Margit

    2008-01-01

    Cross-reactive proteins in small fruits of the Rosaceae family like strawberry, raspberry and blackberry revealed an unexpected complex IgE-reactivity pattern. Several copies of PR-10 and PR-14 proteins were detected by Southern blots in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry. In raspberry, the highest similarity at the DNA level for PR-10 and PR-14 (Rub i 1 and Rub i 3) was detected to strawberry sequences of Fra a 1 and Fra a 3. At the protein level, Rub i 1 and Rub i 3 showed more than 70% identity with homologous proteins of rosaceous fruits. Furthermore, raspberries contained additional putative allergens, e.g. class III acidic chitinases and cyclophilins. Blackberries were shown to share at least two well-known major fruit allergens with other rosaceous fruits, namely PR-10s and PR-14s homologous proteins. However the IgE-reactive proteins of small fruits are still not extensively investigated. The main challenges in studying small fruit allergens are the complexity of the fruit matrix, the diversity of physico-chemical properties of fruit proteins, the lack of appropriate protein extraction procedures and the missing information about the influence of processing treatments on food components.

  1. Motivation and personality: relationships between putative motive dimensions and the five factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C

    2010-04-01

    There are few multidimensional measures of individual differences in motivation available. The Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire assesses 15 putative dimensions of motivation. The dimensions are based on evolutionary theory and preliminary evidence suggests the motive scales have good psychometric properties. The scales are reliable and there is evidence of their consensual validity (convergence of self-other ratings) and behavioral validity (relationships with self-other reported behaviors of social importance). Additional validity research is necessary, however, especially with respect to current models of personality. The present study tested two general and 24 specific hypotheses based on proposed evolutionary advantages/disadvantages and fitness benefits/costs of the five-factor model of personality together with the new motive scales in a sample of 424 participants (M age=28.8 yr., SD=14.6). Results were largely supportive of the hypotheses. These results support the validity of new motive dimensions and increase understanding of the five-factor model of personality.

  2. Cognitive processing in putative functional gastrointestinal disorder: rumination yields orientation to social threat not pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maryanne; Chapman, Sarah C E

    2010-02-01

    Two possible roles of selective attention in the development and maintenance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined. First, hypervigilance to pain within FGID may exacerbate pain perception and pain-related distress. Second, hypervigilance to socially threatening stimuli could account for the disrupted social functioning reported by patients. Furthermore, stress-related variations in reported symptom severity and functioning impairments may reflect changes in cognitive bias with psychological state. Patterns of selective attention were probed within a sample of putative FGID participants (pFGID). The effect of rumination induction on performance on a modified exogenous cueing task was examined. Thirty-three women with pFGID and 27 matched controls responded to dot probes following pain, social threat and neutral word cues, both before and after rumination (passive self-focused thought), or distraction induction. Reaction times revealed that after rumination but not neutral distraction, pFGID participants showed enhanced attention to social threat words, but not to pain or neutral words. Between-group differences in mood, anxiety or depression could not account for these effects. These results implicate selective attention in social but not pain-related idiosyncrasies in FGID including IBS.

  3. Occurrence of Putative Virulence Genes in Arcobacter Species Isolated from Humans and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douidah, Laid; de Zutter, Lieven; Baré, Julie; De Vos, Paul; Vandamme, Peter; Vandenberg, Olivier; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Interest in arcobacters in veterinary and human public health has increased since the first report of the isolation of arcobacters from food of animal origin. Since then, studies worldwide have reported the occurrence of arcobacters on food and in food production animals and have highlighted possible transmission, especially of Arcobacter butzleri, to the human population. In humans, arcobacters are associated with enteritis and septicemia. To assess their clinical relevance for humans and animals, evaluation of potential virulence factors is required. However, up to now, little has been known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity. Because of their close phylogenetic affiliation to the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter and their similar clinical manifestations, the presence of nine putative Campylobacter virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, hecA, hecB, irgA, mviN, pldA, and tlyA) previously identified in the recent Arcobacter butzleri ATCC 49616 genome sequence was determined in a large set of human and animal Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii strains after the development of rapid and accurate PCR assays and confirmed by sequencing and dot blot hybridization. PMID:22170914

  4. Buoyancy differences among two deepwater ciscoes from the Great Lakes and their putative ancestor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A.E.; Eshenroder, R.L.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed buoyancy in two deepwater ciscoes, Coregonus hoyi and C. kiyi, and in C. artedi, their putative ancestor, and also analyzed how variations in fish weight, water content, and lipid content affected buoyancy. Buoyancy was significantly different among the three species (p < 0.0001). Estimates of percent buoyancy (neutral buoyancy = 0.0%) were: kiyi, 3.8%; hoyi, 4.7%; and artedi, 5.7%. Buoyancy did not change with fish weight alone (p = 0.38). Fish weight was negatively related to water content for all three species (p = 0.037). Lipid content was not significantly different between hoyi and kiyi, but artedi had significantly fewer lipids than hoyi and kiyi (p < 0.10). When artedi was removed from the analysis, fish weight and lipids accounted for 48% of the variation in buoyancy (p = 0.003), fatter hoyi were less dense than leaner hoyi, but fatter and leaner kiyi were no different in density. Our findings provide additional evidence that buoyancy regulation was a speciating mechanism in deepwater ciscoes and that kiyi is more specialized than hoyi for diel-vertical migration in deep water.

  5. The Leptospiral Antigen Lp49 is a Two-Domain Protein with Putative Protein Binding Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Giuseppe,P.; Oliveira Neves, F.; Nascimento, A.; Gomes Guimaraes, B.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. Currently available vaccines have limited effectiveness and therapeutic interventions are complicated by the difficulty in making an early diagnosis of leptospirosis. The genome of Leptospira interrogans was recently sequenced and comparative genomic analysis contributed to the identification of surface antigens, potential candidates for development of new vaccines and serodiagnosis. Lp49 is a membrane-associated protein recognized by antibodies present in sera from early and convalescent phases of leptospirosis patients. Its crystal structure was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction using selenomethionine-labelled crystals and refined at 2.0 Angstroms resolution. Lp49 is composed of two domains and belongs to the all-beta-proteins class. The N-terminal domain folds in an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, whereas the C-terminal domain presents a seven-bladed beta-propeller fold. Structural analysis of Lp49 indicates putative protein-protein binding sites, suggesting a role in Leptospira-host interaction. This is the first crystal structure of a leptospiral antigen described to date.

  6. Antagonistic activity expressed by Shigella sonnei: identification of a putative new bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Angela Bernardes Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antibacterial, proteinaceous substances that mediate microbial dynamics. Bacteriocin production is a highly disseminated property among all major lineages of bacteria, including Shigella. In this paper, we addressed the purification and characterisation of a bacteriocin produced by a Shigella sonnei strain (SS9 isolated from a child with acute diarrhoea. The substance was purified through ammonium-sulphate precipitation and sequential steps of chromatography. The intracellular fraction obtained at 75% ammonium sulphate maintained activity following exposure to pH values from 1-11 and storage at -80ºC for more than two years and was inactivated by high temperatures and proteases. The molecular mass of the purified bacteriocin was determined by mass spectrometry to be 18.56 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the bacteriocin did not match any other antibacterial proteins described. A putative new bacteriocin produced by S. sonnei has been detected. This bacteriocin may represent a newly described protein or a previously described protein with a newly detected function. Considering that SS9 expresses antagonism against other diarrhoeagenic bacteria, the bacteriocin may contribute to S. sonnei virulence and is potentially applicable to either preventing or controlling diarrhoeal disease.

  7. Synthesis on accumulation of putative neurotransmitters by cultured neural crest cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.; Rafford, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    The events mediating the differentiation of embryonic neural crest cells into several types of neurons are incompletely understood. In order to probe one aspect of this differentiation, we have examined the capacity of cultured quail trunk neural crest cells to synthesize, from radioactive precursors, and store several putative neurotransmitter compounds. These neural crest cultures develop the capacity to synthesize and accumulate acetylcholine and the catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine. In contrast, detectable but relatively little synthesis and accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine gamma-aminobutyric acid, or octopamine from the appropriate radiolabeled precursors were observed. The capacity for synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines is very low or absent at 2 days in vitro. Between 3 and 7 days in vitro, there is a marked rise in both catecholamine and acetylcholine accumulation in the cultures. These findings suggest that, under the particular conditions used in these experiments, the development of neurotransmitter biosynthesis in trunk neural crest cells ijs restricted and resembles, at least partially, the pattern observed in vivo. The development of this capacity to synthesize and store radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines from the appropriate radioactive precursors coincides closely with the development of the activities of the synthetic enzymes choline acetyltransferase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase reported by others

  8. Identification and characterization of putative stem cells in the adult pig ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Hong-Thuy; Van Thuan, Nguyen; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Han, Jae-Woong; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the concept of 'neo-oogenesis' has received increasing attention, since it was shown that adult mammals have a renewable source of eggs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the origin of these eggs and to confirm whether neo-oogenesis continues throughout life in the ovaries of the adult mammal. Adult female pigs were utilized to isolate, identify and characterize, including their proliferation and differentiation capabilities, putative stem cells (PSCs) from the ovary. PSCs were found to comprise a heterogeneous population based on c-kit expression and cell size, and also express stem and germ cell markers. Analysis of PSC molecular progression during establishment showed that these cells undergo cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of Oct4 in a manner reminiscent of gonadal primordial germ cells (PGCs). Hence, cells with the characteristics of early PGCs are present or are generated in the adult pig ovary. Furthermore, the in vitro establishment of porcine PSCs required the presence of ovarian cell-derived extracellular regulatory factors, which are also likely to direct stem cell niche interactions in vivo. In conclusion, the present work supports a crucial role for c-kit and kit ligand/stem cell factor in stimulating the growth, proliferation and nuclear reprogramming of porcine PSCs, and further suggests that porcine PSCs might be the culture equivalent of early PGCs. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. TFPI-2 is a putative tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shumin; Ma, Ning; Murata, Mariko; Huang, Guangwu; Zhang, Zhe; Xiao, Xue; Zhou, Xiaoying; Huang, Tingting; Du, Chunping; Yu, Nana; Mo, Yingxi; Lin, Longde; Zhang, Jinyan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes play important roles in NPC tumorgenesis. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), is a protease inhibitor. Recently, TFPI-2 was suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis in some cancers. In this study, we investigated whether TFPI-2 was inactivated epigenetically in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Transcriptional expression levels of TFPI-2 was evaluated by RT-PCR. Methylation status were investigated by methylation specific PCR and bisulfate genomic sequencing. The role of TFPI-2 as a tumor suppressor gene in NPC was addressed by re-introducing TFPI-2 expression into the NPC cell line CNE2. TFPI-2 mRNA transcription was inactivated in NPC cell lines. TFPI-2 was aberrantly methylated in 66.7% (4/6) NPC cell lines and 88.6% (62/70) of NPC primary tumors, but not in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia. TFPI-2 expression could be restored in NPC cells after demethylation treatment. Ectopic expression of TFPI-2 in NPC cells induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and cell migration. Epigenetic inactivation of TFPI-2 by promoter hypermethylation is a frequent and tumor specific event in NPC. TFPI-2 might be considering as a putative tumor suppressor gene in NPC

  10. Dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and presence of putative pathogens during ambient temperature anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, J A; Diniz, C G; Silva, V L; Otenio, M H; Bonnafous, A; Arcuri, P B; Godon, J-J

    2014-12-01

    This study was focused on evaluating the persistency of antimicrobial resistance (AR) genes and putative pathogenic bacteria in an anaerobic digesters operating at mesophilic ambient temperature, in two different year seasons: summer and winter. Abundance and dynamic of AR genes encoding resistance to macrolides (ermB), aminoglycosides (aphA2) and beta-lactams (blaTEM -1 ) and persistency of potentially pathogenic bacteria in pilot-scale anaerobic digesters were investigated. AR genes were determined in the influent and effluent in both conditions. Overall, after 60 days, reduction was observed for all evaluated genes. However, during the summer, anaerobic digestion was more related to the gene reduction as compared to winter. Persistency of potentially pathogenic bacteria was also evaluated by metagenomic analyses compared to an in-house created database. Clostridium, Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas were the most identified. Overall, considering the mesophilic ambient temperature during anaerobic digestion (summer and winter), a decrease in pathogenic bacteria detection through metagenomic analysis and AR genes is reported. Although the mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been efficient, the results may suggest medically important bacteria and AR genes persistency during the process. This is the first report to show AR gene dynamics and persistency of potentially pathogenic bacteria through metagenomic approach in cattle manure ambient temperature anaerobic digestion. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Dengue Virus Infection of Aedes aegypti Requires a Putative Cysteine Rich Venom Protein.

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    Berlin Londono-Renteria

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. There is no specific antiviral therapy or vaccine for DENV infection. Alterations in gene expression during DENV infection of the mosquito and the impact of these changes on virus infection are important events to investigate in hopes of creating new treatments and vaccines. We previously identified 203 genes that were ≥5-fold differentially upregulated during flavivirus infection of the mosquito. Here, we examined the impact of silencing 100 of the most highly upregulated gene targets on DENV infection in its mosquito vector. We identified 20 genes that reduced DENV infection by at least 60% when silenced. We focused on one gene, a putative cysteine rich venom protein (SeqID AAEL000379; CRVP379, whose silencing significantly reduced DENV infection in Aedes aegypti cells. Here, we examine the requirement for CRVP379 during DENV infection of the mosquito and investigate the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. We also show that blocking CRVP379 protein with either RNAi or specific antisera inhibits DENV infection in Aedes aegypti. This work identifies a novel mosquito gene target for controlling DENV infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

  12. Putative Human and Avian Risk Factors for Avian Influenza Virus Infections in Backyard Poultry in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Basma M.; Fuller, Trevon L.; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Aziz, Soad Abdel; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A.; Elbokl, Mohamed M.; Habbak, Lotfy Z.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1,084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010–2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242)and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n = 51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F = 15.7, p< 0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F= 29.5, p< 0.0001). PMID:24315038

  13. Apple Down 152: a putative case of syphilis from sixth century AD Anglo-Saxon England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Garrard; Waldron, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a putative case of a treponemal infection observed on a skeleton of a young male adult from the Apple Down Anglo-Saxon cemetery dating to the sixth century AD, accompanied by grave goods indicative of a high status burial. The skeleton is well preserved and almost complete. The pathological evidence includes an extensive area of lytic destruction to the frontal bone of the skull, widespread profuse bilateral symmetrical periosteal reaction affecting scapulae, clavicles, arms, legs, hands, feet and ribs. There is also evidence of gummatous destruction on some of the long bones. Application of a differential diagnosis of all probable diseases exhibiting the individual symptoms leads to a clear conclusion that the person was infected with a treponemal pathogen. The skeleton shows none of the stigmata associated with the congenital form of treponemal disease. We propose that the evidence suggests a possible case of venereal syphilis rather than one of the endemic forms of treponemal disease. This diagnosis is based on the geographical pathogen range, the apparent low prevalence of the disease, significant social upheaval at the time, the high social status and early age of death of the individual. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Low Light Availability Alters Root Exudation and Reduces Putative Beneficial Microorganisms in Seagrass Roots

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    Belinda C. Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass roots host a diverse microbiome that is critical for plant growth and health. Composition of microbial communities can be regulated in part by root exudates, but the specifics of these interactions in seagrass rhizospheres are still largely unknown. As light availability controls primary productivity, reduced light may impact root exudation and consequently the composition of the root microbiome. Hence, we analyzed the influence of light availability on root exudation and community structure of the root microbiome of three co-occurring seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Cymodocea serrulata. Plants were grown under four light treatments in mesocosms for 2 weeks; control (100% surface irradiance (SI, medium (40% SI, low (20% SI and fluctuating light (10 days 20% and 4 days 100%. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing revealed that microbial diversity, composition and predicted function were strongly influenced by the presence of seagrass roots, such that root microbiomes were unique to each seagrass species. Reduced light availability altered seagrass root exudation, as characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, and altered the composition of seagrass root microbiomes with a reduction in abundance of potentially beneficial microorganisms. Overall, this study highlights the potential for above-ground light reduction to invoke a cascade of changes from alterations in root exudation to a reduction in putative beneficial microorganisms and, ultimately, confirms the importance of the seagrass root environment – a critical, but often overlooked space.

  15. Putative bacterial interactions from metagenomic knowledge with an integrative systems ecology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordron, Philippe; Latorre, Mauricio; Cortés, Maria-Paz; González, Mauricio; Thiele, Sven; Siegel, Anne; Maass, Alejandro; Eveillard, Damien

    2016-02-01

    Following the trend of studies that investigate microbial ecosystems using different metagenomic techniques, we propose a new integrative systems ecology approach that aims to decipher functional roles within a consortium through the integration of genomic and metabolic knowledge at genome scale. For the sake of application, using public genomes of five bacterial strains involved in copper bioleaching: Acidiphilium cryptum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, we first reconstructed a global metabolic network. Next, using a parsimony assumption, we deciphered sets of genes, called Sets from Genome Segments (SGS), that (1) are close on their respective genomes, (2) take an active part in metabolic pathways and (3) whose associated metabolic reactions are also closely connected within metabolic networks. Overall, this SGS paradigm depicts genomic functional units that emphasize respective roles of bacterial strains to catalyze metabolic pathways and environmental processes. Our analysis suggested that only few functional metabolic genes are horizontally transferred within the consortium and that no single bacterial strain can accomplish by itself the whole copper bioleaching. The use of SGS pinpoints a functional compartmentalization among the investigated species and exhibits putative bacterial interactions necessary for promoting these pathways. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Circulating miRNAs as Putative Biomarkers of Exercise Adaptation in Endurance Horses

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    Katia Cappelli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise induces metabolic adaptations and has recently been reported associated with the modulation of a particular class of small noncoding RNAs, microRNAs, that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Released into body fluids, they termed circulating miRNAs, and they have been recognized as more effective and accurate biomarkers than classical serum markers. This study examined serum profile of miRNAs through massive parallel sequencing in response to prolonged endurance exercise in samples obtained from four competitive Arabian horses before and 2 h after the end of competition. MicroRNA identification, differential gene expression (DGE analysis and a protein-protein interaction (PPI network showing significantly enriched pathways of target gene clusters, were assessed and explored. Our results show modulation of more than 100 miRNAs probably arising from tissues involved in exercise responses and indicating the modulation of correlated processes as muscle remodeling, immune and inflammatory responses. Circulating miRNA high-throughput sequencing is a promising approach for sports medicine for the discovery of putative biomarkers for predicting risks related to prolonged activity and monitoring metabolic adaptations.

  17. Cytotoxic effects of S-(dimethylarsino)-glutathione: A putative intermediate metabolite of inorganic arsenicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Seishiro; Kobayashi, Yayoi

    2006-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in the metabolism of arsenite and arsenate by generating arsenic-glutathione complexes. Although dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ) is the major metabolite of inorganic arsenicals (iAs) in urine, it is not clear how DMA V is produced from iAs. In the present study we report that S-(dimethylarsino)-glutathione (DMA III (SG)), a putative precursor of dimethylarsinic acid DMA V , was unstable in the culture medium without excess GSH and generated volatile substances which were highly cytotoxic for both rat heart microvascular endothelial cells and HL60, a human leukemia cell line. Cytotoxicity of DMA III (SG) was higher than that of iAs and its LC 5 value was calculated to be 7.8 μM in the endothelial cells. To our surprise DMA III (SG) effectively killed cells in the neighbor wells of the same multi-well dish, indicating that volatile toxic compounds generated from DMA III (SG) in the culture medium. High performance lipid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS) analyses suggested that the freshly generated volatile compounds dissolved into aqueous solution and formed an unstable arsenic compound and the unstable compound was further converted to DMA V . These results suggested that DMA III (SG) exerts its cytotoxicity by generating volatile arsenicals and is implicated in the metabolic conversion of inorganic arsenicals into DMA V , a major final metabolite of inorganic arsenicals in most mammals

  18. The adnAB Locus, Encoding a Putative Helicase-Nuclease Activity, Is Essential in Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingli; Nguyen, Hoang Chuong; Chipot, Ludovic; Piotrowski, Emilie; Bertrand, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a crucial mechanism that repairs a wide range of DNA lesions, including the most deleterious ones, double-strand breaks (DSBs). This multistep process is initiated by the resection of the broken DNA ends by a multisubunit helicase-nuclease complex exemplified by Escherichia coli RecBCD, Bacillus subtilis AddAB, and newly discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis AdnAB. Here we show that in Streptomyces, neither recBCD nor addAB homologues could be detected. The only putative helicase-nuclease-encoding genes identified were homologous to M. tuberculosis adnAB genes. These genes are conserved as a single copy in all sequenced genomes of Streptomyces. The disruption of adnAB in Streptomyces ambofaciens and Streptomyces coelicolor could not be achieved unless an ectopic copy was provided, indicating that adnAB is essential for growth. Both adnA and adnB genes were shown to be inducible in response to DNA damage (mitomycin C) and to be independently transcribed. Introduction of S. ambofaciens adnAB genes in an E. coli recB mutant restored viability and resistance to UV light, suggesting that Streptomyces AdnAB could be a functional homologue of RecBCD and be involved in DNA damage resistance. PMID:24837284

  19. Quantification and characterization of putative diazotrophic bacteria from forage palm under saline water irrigation

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    Gabiane dos Reis Antunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the density and phenotypical diversity of diazotrophic endophytic bacteria from the forage palm irrigated with different saline water depths. Opuntia stricta (IPA-200016 received five depths of saline water (L1: 80%. ETo; L2: 60%.ETo; L3: 40%; ETo; L4: 20%; ETo and, L5: 0% ETo, where ETo is the reference evapotranspiration. The roots were collected in the field, disinfected, grounded and serial diluted from 10-1 to 10-4. The total concentration of diazotrophic bacteria was determined by the most probable number method (MPN and the isolated bacteria were characterized phenotipically. The concentration of bacteria found in forage palm roots ranged from 0.36 x 104 to 109.89 104 cells per gram of root, with highest occurrence on the 60 and 80% ETo. In the dendrogram of similarity it was possible to observe the formation of 24 phenotypic groups with 100% similarity. All bacteria presented similarity superior to 40%. Among these groups, 14 are rare groups, formed by only a single bacterial isolate. In the Semi-Arid conditions, the forage palm that receives the highest amount of saline water, presents a higher density of putative nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria with high phenotypic diversity.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in Steroid Biosynthesis in Euphorbia tirucalli

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    Weibo Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of different Euphorbia tirucalli tissues revealed a contrasting tissue-specificity for the biosynthesis of euphol and β-sitosterol, which represent the two pharmaceutically active steroids in E. tirucalli. To uncover the molecular mechanism underlying this tissue-specificity for phytochemicals, a comprehensive E. tirucalli transcriptome derived from its root, stem, leaf and latex was constructed, and a total of 91,619 unigenes were generated with 51.08% being successfully annotated against the non-redundant (Nr protein database. A comparison of the transcriptome from different tissues discovered members of unigenes in the upstream steps of sterol backbone biosynthesis leading to this tissue-specific sterol biosynthesis. Among them, the putative oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC encoding genes involved in euphol synthesis were notably identified, and their expressions were significantly up-regulated in the latex. In addition, genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the different E. tirucalli tissues were identified. The cluster analysis of those DEGs showed a unique expression pattern in the latex compared with other tissues. The DEGs identified in this study would enrich the insights of sterol biosynthesis and the regulation mechanism of this latex-specificity.

  1. The putative visual word form area is functionally connected to the dorsal attention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alecia C; Miezin, Fran M; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2012-03-01

    The putative visual word form area (pVWFA) is the most consistently activated region in single word reading studies (i.e., Vigneau et al. 2006), yet its function remains a matter of debate. The pVWFA may be predominantly used in reading or it could be a more general visual processor used in reading but also in other visual tasks. Here, resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) is used to characterize the functional relationships of the pVWFA to help adjudicate between these possibilities. rs-fcMRI defines relationships based on correlations in slow fluctuations of blood oxygen level-dependent activity occurring at rest. In this study, rs-fcMRI correlations show little relationship between the pVWFA and reading-related regions but a strong relationship between the pVWFA and dorsal attention regions thought to be related to spatial and feature attention. The rs-fcMRI correlations between the pVWFA and regions of the dorsal attention network increase with age and reading skill, while the correlations between the pVWFA and reading-related regions do not. These results argue the pVWFA is not used predominantly in reading but is a more general visual processor used in other visual tasks, as well as reading.

  2. Exome sequencing in 53 sporadic cases of schizophrenia identifies 18 putative candidate genes.

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    Michel Guipponi

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SCZ is a severe, debilitating mental illness which has a significant genetic component. The identification of genetic factors related to SCZ has been challenging and these factors remain largely unknown. To evaluate the contribution of de novo variants (DNVs to SCZ, we sequenced the exomes of 53 individuals with sporadic SCZ and of their non-affected parents. We identified 49 DNVs, 18 of which were predicted to alter gene function, including 13 damaging missense mutations, 2 conserved splice site mutations, 2 nonsense mutations, and 1 frameshift deletion. The average number of exonic DNV per proband was 0.88, which corresponds to an exonic point mutation rate of 1.7×10(-8 per nucleotide per generation. The non-synonymous-to-synonymous mutation ratio of 2.06 did not differ from neutral expectations. Overall, this study provides a list of 18 putative candidate genes for sporadic SCZ, and when combined with the results of similar reports, identifies a second proband carrying a non-synonymous DNV in the RGS12 gene.

  3. Differential proteomic analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus morphotypes reveals putative drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H; Curty, Nathalia; Neves, Gabriela W P; Gil, Concha; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2013-01-14

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiological agent of invasive aspergillosis, an important opportunistic infection for neutropenic patients. The main risk groups are patients with acute leukemia and bone marrow transplantation recipients. The lack of an early diagnostic test together with the limited spectrum of antifungal drugs remains a setback to the successful treatment of this disease. During invasive infection the inhaled fungal conidia enter the morphogenic cycle leading to angioinvasive hyphae. This work aimed to study differentially expressed proteins of A. fumigatus during morphogenesis. To achieve this goal, a 2D-DIGE approach was applied to study surface proteins extractable by reducing agents of two A. fumigatus morphotypes: germlings and hyphae. Sixty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-ToF/MS. We observed that proteins associated with biosynthetic pathways and proteins with multiple functions (miscellaneous) were over-expressed in the early stages of germination, while in hyphae, the most abundant proteins detected were related to metabolic processes or have unknown functions. Among the most interesting proteins regulated during morphogenesis, two putative drug targets were identified, the translational factor, eEF3 and the CipC-like protein. Neither of these proteins are present in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ARA-PEPs: a repository of putative sORF-encoded peptides in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Rashmi R; De Coninck, Barbara; Yamamoto, Lidia R; Martin, Laura R; Cammue, Bruno P A; van Noort, Vera

    2017-01-17

    Many eukaryotic RNAs have been considered non-coding as they only contain short open reading frames (sORFs). However, there is increasing evidence for the translation of these sORFs into bioactive peptides with potent signaling, antimicrobial, developmental, antioxidant roles etc. Yet only a few peptides encoded by sORFs are annotated in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. To aid the functional annotation of these peptides, we have developed ARA-PEPs (available at http://www.biw.kuleuven.be/CSB/ARA-PEPs ), a repository of putative peptides encoded by sORFs in the A. thaliana genome starting from in-house Tiling arrays, RNA-seq data and other publicly available datasets. ARA-PEPs currently lists 13,748 sORF-encoded peptides with transcriptional evidence. In addition to existing data, we have identified 100 novel transcriptionally active regions (TARs) that might encode 341 novel stress-induced peptides (SIPs). To aid in identification of bioactivity, we add functional annotation and sequence conservation to predicted peptides. To our knowledge, this is the largest repository of plant peptides encoded by sORFs with transcript evidence, publicly available and this resource will help scientists to effortlessly navigate the list of experimentally studied peptides, the experimental and computational evidence supporting the activity of these peptides and gain new perspectives for peptide discovery.

  5. ald of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Encodes both the Alanine Dehydrogenase and the Putative Glycine Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Michelle M.; Modesti, Lucia; Raab, Ronald W.; Wayne, Lawrence G.

    2012-01-01

    The putative glycine dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the reductive amination of glyoxylate to glycine but not the reverse reaction. The enzyme was purified and identified as the previously characterized alanine dehydrogenase. The Ald enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and had both pyruvate and glyoxylate aminating activities. The gene, ald, was inactivated in M. tuberculosis, which resulted in the loss of all activities. Both enzyme activities were found associated with the cell and were not detected in the extracellular filtrate. By using an anti-Ald antibody, the protein was localized to the cell membrane, with a smaller fraction in the cytosol. None was detected in the extracellular medium. The ald knockout strain grew without alanine or glycine and was able to utilize glycine but not alanine as a nitrogen source. Transcription of ald was induced when alanine was the sole nitrogen source, and higher levels of Ald enzyme were measured. Ald is proposed to have several functions, including ammonium incorporation and alanine breakdown. PMID:22210765

  6. Identification of putative orthologous genes for the phylogenetic reconstruction of temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Na; Zhang, Xian-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Ma, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2014-09-01

    The temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) are highly diverse in morphology but lack a substantial amount of genetic variation. The taxonomy of this lineage is intractable, and the relationships within the tribe have not been well resolved. Recent studies indicated that this tribe could have a complex evolutionary history. Although phylogenetic studies of the tribe have been carried out, most of these phylogenetic reconstructions were based on plastid data, which provide lower phylogenetic resolution compared with nuclear data. In this study, we intended to identify a set of desirable nuclear genes for resolving the phylogeny of the temperate woody bamboos. Using two different methodologies, we identified 209 and 916 genes, respectively, as putative single copy orthologous genes. A total of 112 genes was successfully amplified and sequenced by next-generation sequencing technologies in five species sampled from the tribe. As most of the genes exhibited intra-individual allele heterozygotes, we investigated phylogenetic utility by reconstructing the phylogeny based on individual genes. Discordance among gene trees was observed and, to resolve the conflict, we performed a range of analyses using BUCKy and HybTree. While caution should be taken when inferring a phylogeny from multiple conflicting genes, our analysis indicated that 74 of the 112 investigated genes are potential markers for resolving the phylogeny of the temperate woody bamboos. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia, 1891 as a putative member of the subfamily Stevardiinae (Characiformes: Characidae: spermatic evidence

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    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Markiana was until recently recognized as incertae sedis in the family Characidae, even though alternative placements for this genus have been advanced since its original description. More recently, it was hypothesized that Markiana nigripinnis is part of a clade informally named the Astyanax clade, indicating the putative close relationship of Markiana with the genus Astyanax. Examination of sperm ultrastructure of representatives of Astyanax and M. nigripinnis shows no evidence for this hypothesized close relationship. Rather, the spermatozoa of M. nigripinnis share characters found in spermatozoa of the non-inseminating members of the subfamily Stevardiinae, such as an angle of nuclear rotation equal to 85º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. As with the non-inseminating Stevardiinae, sperm nuclei are also slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. Additionally, M. nigripinnis shares with the other members of the Stevardiinae the presence of only four teeth in the inner row of the premaxillary and a short triangular ectopterygoid, which is never more than twice the length of the palatine.

  8. Lysosomal putative RNA transporter SIDT2 mediates direct uptake of RNA by lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Shu; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Contu, Viorica Raluca; Hase, Katsunori; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Hisae; Kabuta, Chihana; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are thought to be the major intracellular compartment for the degradation of macromolecules. We recently identified a novel type of autophagy, RNautophagy, where RNA is directly taken up by lysosomes in an ATP-dependent manner and degraded. However, the mechanism of RNA translocation across the lysosomal membrane and the physiological role of RNautophagy remain unclear. In the present study, we performed gain- and loss-of-function studies with isolated lysosomes, and found that SIDT2 (SID1 transmembrane family, member 2), an ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans putative RNA transporter SID-1 (systemic RNA interference deficient-1), mediates RNA translocation during RNautophagy. We also observed that SIDT2 is a transmembrane protein, which predominantly localizes to lysosomes. Strikingly, knockdown of Sidt2 inhibited up to ˜50% of total RNA degradation at the cellular level, independently of macroautophagy. Moreover, we showed that this impairment is mainly due to inhibition of lysosomal RNA degradation, strongly suggesting that RNautophagy plays a significant role in constitutive cellular RNA degradation. Our results provide a novel insight into the mechanisms of RNA metabolism, intracellular RNA transport, and atypical types of autophagy.

  9. Genomic localization, sequence analysis, and transcription of the putative human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbronn, T.; Jahn, G.; Buerkle, A.; Freese, U.K.; Fleckenstein, B.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-induced DNA polymerase has been well characterized biochemically and functionally, but its genomic location has not yet been assigned. To identify the coding sequence, cross-hybridization with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) polymerase gene was used, as suggested by the close similarity of the herpes group virus-induced DNA polymerases to the HCMV DNA polymerase. A cosmid and plasmid library of the entire HCMV genome was screened with the BamHI Q fragment of HSF-1 at different stringency conditions. One PstI-HincII restriction fragment of 850 base pairs mapping within the EcoRI M fragment of HCMV cross-hybridized at T/sub m/ - 25/degrees/C. Sequence analysis revealed one open reading frame spanning the entire sequence. The amino acid sequence showed a highly conserved domain of 133 amino acids shared with the HSV and putative Esptein-Barr virus polymerase sequences. This domain maps within the C-terminal part of the HSV polymerase gene, which has been suggested to contain part of the catalytic center of the enzyme. Transcription analysis revealed one 5.4-kilobase early transcript in the sense orientation with respect to the open reading frame identified. This transcript appears to code for the 140-kilodalton HCMV polymerase protein

  10. The putative effects of D-Aspartic acid on blood testosterone levels: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Roshanzamir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp is in invertebrate and vertebrate neuroendocrine tissues, where it carries out important physiological functions. Recently, it has been reported that D-Asp is involved in the synthesis and release of testosterone and is assumed can be used as a testosterone booster for infertile men, and by athletes to increase muscle mass and strength. Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence related to the effects of D-Asp on serum testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of all type studies, which evaluated the effect of the D-Asp on blood testosterone including published papers until October 2015, using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest and Scopus database. Results: With 396 retrieved records, 23 animal studies and 4 human studies were included. In vivo and in vitro animal studies revealed the effect of D-Asp depending on species, sex and organ-specific. Our results showed that exogenous D-Asp enhances testosterone levels in male animal’s studies, whereas studies in human yielded inconsistent results. The evidence for this association in man is still sparse, mostly because of limited number and poor quality studies. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for more and well-designed human clinical trials with larger sample sizes and longer duration to investigate putative effects of D-Asp on testosterone concentrations.

  11. Shell alterations in limpets as putative biomarkers for multi-impacted coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begliomini, Felipe Nincao; Maciel, Daniele Claudino; de Almeida, Sérgio Mendonça; Abessa, Denis Moledo; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Pereira, Camilo Seabra; Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete; Castro, Ítalo Braga

    2017-07-01

    During the last years, shell alterations in gastropods have been proposed as tools to be used in monitoring programs. However, no studies were so far performed investigating the relationships among shell parameters and classical biomarkers of damage. The relationship between shell alterations (biometrics, shape and elemental composition) and biomarkers (LPO and DNA strand break) was evaluated in the limpet L. subrugosa sampled along a contamination gradient in a multi-impacted coastal zone from southeastern Brazil. Statistically significant differences were detected among sites under different pollution levels. The occurrence of shell malformations was consistent with environmental levels of several hazardous substances reported for the studied area and related to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. In addition, considering the low mobility, wide geographic distribution, ease of collection and abundance of limpets in coastal zones, this putative tool may be a cost-effective alternative to traditional biomarkers. Thus, shell alterations in limpets seem to be good proxies for assessing biological adverse effects in multi-impacted coastal zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reefs under Siege—the Rise, Putative Drivers, and Consequences of Benthic Cyanobacterial Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. Ford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Benthic cyanobacteria have commonly been a small but integral component of coral reef ecosystems, fulfilling the critical function of introducing bioavailable nitrogen to an inherently oligotrophic environment. Though surveys may have previously neglected benthic cyanobacteria, or grouped them with more conspicuous benthic groups, emerging evidence strongly indicates that they are becoming increasingly prevalent on reefs worldwide. Some species can form mats comprised by a diverse microbial consortium which allows them to exist across a wide range of environmental conditions. This review evaluates the putative driving factors of increasing benthic cyanobacterial mats, including climate change, declining coastal water quality, iron input, and overexploitation of key consumer and ecosystem engineer species. Ongoing global environmental change can increase growth rates and toxin production of physiologically plastic benthic cyanobacterial mats, placing them at a considerable competitive advantage against reef-building corals. Once established, strong ecological feedbacks [e.g., inhibition of coral recruitment, release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC] reinforce reef degradation. The review also highlights previously overlooked implications of mat proliferation, which can extend beyond reef health and affect human health and welfare. Though identifying (opportunistic consumers of mats remains a priority, their perceived low palatability implies that herbivore management alone may be insufficient to control their proliferation and must be accompanied by local measures to improve water quality and watershed management.

  13. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Peter H; Gurvich, Caroline; Fielding, Joanne; Enticott, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    The human mirror neuron system (MNS) is hypothesized to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity), healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26) viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation. Motor-evoked potentials recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  14. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hugh Donaldson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human mirror neuron system (MNS is hypothesised to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity, healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26 viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze (PG and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  15. A genome-wide analysis of putative functional and exonic variation associated with extremely high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, S L; Pedroso, I; Kadeva, N; Miller, M B; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Stergiakouli, E; Davey Smith, G; Putallaz, M; Lubinski, D; Meaburn, E L; Plomin, R; Simpson, M A

    2016-08-01

    Although individual differences in intelligence (general cognitive ability) are highly heritable, molecular genetic analyses to date have had limited success in identifying specific loci responsible for its heritability. This study is the first to investigate exome variation in individuals of extremely high intelligence. Under the quantitative genetic model, sampling from the high extreme of the distribution should provide increased power to detect associations. We therefore performed a case-control association analysis with 1409 individuals drawn from the top 0.0003 (IQ >170) of the population distribution of intelligence and 3253 unselected population-based controls. Our analysis focused on putative functional exonic variants assayed on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We did not observe any individual protein-altering variants that are reproducibly associated with extremely high intelligence and within the entire distribution of intelligence. Moreover, no significant associations were found for multiple rare alleles within individual genes. However, analyses using genome-wide similarity between unrelated individuals (genome-wide complex trait analysis) indicate that the genotyped functional protein-altering variation yields a heritability estimate of 17.4% (s.e. 1.7%) based on a liability model. In addition, investigation of nominally significant associations revealed fewer rare alleles associated with extremely high intelligence than would be expected under the null hypothesis. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that rare functional alleles are more frequently detrimental than beneficial to intelligence.

  16. "SP-G", a putative new surfactant protein--tissue localization and 3D structure.

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    Felix Rausch

    Full Text Available Surfactant proteins (SP are well known from human lung. These proteins assist the formation of a monolayer of surface-active phospholipids at the liquid-air interface of the alveolar lining, play a major role in lowering the surface tension of interfaces, and have functions in innate and adaptive immune defense. During recent years it became obvious that SPs are also part of other tissues and fluids such as tear fluid, gingiva, saliva, the nasolacrimal system, and kidney. Recently, a putative new surfactant protein (SFTA2 or SP-G was identified, which has no sequence or structural identity to the already know surfactant proteins. In this work, computational chemistry and molecular-biological methods were combined to localize and characterize SP-G. With the help of a protein structure model, specific antibodies were obtained which allowed the detection of SP-G not only on mRNA but also on protein level. The localization of this protein in different human tissues, sequence based prediction tools for posttranslational modifications and molecular dynamic simulations reveal that SP-G has physicochemical properties similar to the already known surfactant proteins B and C. This includes also the possibility of interactions with lipid systems and with that, a potential surface-regulatory feature of SP-G. In conclusion, the results indicate SP-G as a new surfactant protein which represents an until now unknown surfactant protein class.

  17. ESTs Analysis of Putative Genes Engaged in Polyporus umbellatus Sclerotial Development

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    Chao Song

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyporus umbellatus is one of the most widely used and precious medicinal fungi and the underground sclerotia are known to be with great medicinal value. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in sclerotial development are poorly understood. In the present study, we constructed a forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of Polyporus umbellatus to identify genes expressing differently between mycelium and sclerotia. In this library, a total of 1202 clones were sequenced, assembled into 222 contigs and 524 singletons which were further searched against the NCBI nonredundant (NR protein database (E-value cutoff, 10−5. Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 378 sequences between mycelium and sclerotial were identified and classified into different functional categories through Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs. We have finally identified a majority of differentially expressed genes (constituting 5.6% of the present library between the two different periods. An expression level of 32 selected expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from the above SSH cDNA library was studied through RT-PCR. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial development and provides a preliminary basis for further functional research in terms of regulated gene expression in sclerotial production.

  18. Telocytes and putative stem cells in the lungs: electron microscopy, electron tomography and laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Laurentiu M; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Suciu, Laura C; Manole, Catalin G; Hinescu, Mihail E

    2011-09-01

    This study describes a novel type of interstitial (stromal) cell - telocytes (TCs) - in the human and mouse respiratory tree (terminal and respiratory bronchioles, as well as alveolar ducts). TCs have recently been described in pleura, epicardium, myocardium, endocardium, intestine, uterus, pancreas, mammary gland, etc. (see www.telocytes.com ). TCs are cells with specific prolongations called telopodes (Tp), frequently two to three per cell. Tp are very long prolongations (tens up to hundreds of μm) built of alternating thin segments known as podomers (≤ 200 nm, below the resolving power of light microscope) and dilated segments called podoms, which accommodate mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and caveolae. Tp ramify dichotomously, making a 3-dimensional network with complex homo- and heterocellular junctions. Confocal microscopy reveals that TCs are c-kit- and CD34-positive. Tp release shed vesicles or exosomes, sending macromolecular signals to neighboring cells and eventually modifying their transcriptional activity. At bronchoalveolar junctions, TCs have been observed in close association with putative stem cells (SCs) in the subepithelial stroma. SCs are recognized by their ultrastructure and Sca-1 positivity. Tp surround SCs, forming complex TC-SC niches (TC-SCNs). Electron tomography allows the identification of bridging nanostructures, which connect Tp with SCs. In conclusion, this study shows the presence of TCs in lungs and identifies a TC-SC tandem in subepithelial niches of the bronchiolar tree. In TC-SCNs, the synergy of TCs and SCs may be based on nanocontacts and shed vesicles.

  19. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Wood, Phd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, a reliable noninvasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders.

  20. Amplification of tumor inducing putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) by vitamin A/retinol from mammary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rohit B. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Wang, Qingde [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Khillan, Jaspal S., E-mail: khillan@pitt.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Vitamin A supports self renewal of putative CSCs from mammary tumors. •These cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism into retinoic acid. •CSCs from mammary tumors differentiate into mammary specific cell lineages. •The cells express mammary stem cell specific CD29 and CD49f markers. •Putative CSCs form highly metastatic tumors in NOD SCID mouse. -- Abstract: Solid tumors contain a rare population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for relapse and metastasis. The existence of CSC however, remains highly controversial issue. Here we present the evidence for putative CSCs from mammary tumors amplified by vitamin A/retinol signaling. The cells exhibit mammary stem cell specific CD29{sup hi}/CD49f{sup hi}/CD24{sup hi} markers, resistance to radiation and chemo therapeutic agents and form highly metastatic tumors in NOD/SCID mice. The cells exhibit indefinite self renewal as cell lines. Furthermore, the cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism and do not express enzymes that metabolize retinol into retinoic acid. Vitamin A/retinol also amplified putative CSCs from breast cancer cell lines that form highly aggressive tumors in NOD SCID mice. The studies suggest that high purity putative CSCs can be isolated from solid tumors to establish patient specific cell lines for personalized therapeutics for pre-clinical translational applications. Characterization of CSCs will allow understanding of basic cellular and molecular pathways that are deregulated, mechanisms of tumor metastasis and evasion of therapies that has direct clinical relevance.

  1. Putative Dementia Cases Fluctuate as a Function of Mini-Mental State Examination Cut-Off Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ilka M; Henriques, Ana G; Wiltfang, Jens; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B

    2018-01-01

    As the population ages, there is a growing need to quickly and accurately identify putative dementia cases. Many cognitive tests are available; among those commonly used are the Cognitive Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). The aim of this work was to compare the validity and reliability of these cognitive tests in a primary care based cohort (pcb-Cohort). The MMSE and the CDR were applied to 568 volunteers in the pcb-Cohort. Distinct cut-off points for the MMSE were considered, namely MMSE 27, MMSE 24, and MMSE PT (adapted for the Portuguese population). The MMSE 27 identified the greatest number of putative dementia cases, and, as determined by the ROC curve, it was the most sensitive and specific of the MMSE cut-offs considered. Putative predictive or risk factors identified included age, literacy, depression, and diabetes mellitus (DM). DM has previously been indicated as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Comparatively, the MMSE 27 cut-off has the greatest sensibility (94.9%) and specificity (66.3%) when compared to MMSE PT and MMSE 24. Upon comparing MMSE and CDR scores, the latter identified a further 146 putative dementia cases, thus permitting one to propose that in an ideal situation, both tests should be employed. This increases the likelihood of identifying putative dementia cases for subsequent follow up work, thus these cognitive tests represent important tools in patient care. Further, this is a significant study for Portuguese populations, where few of these studies have been carried out.

  2. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

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    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  3. Molecular characterization of the llama FGF5 gene and identification of putative loss of function mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, M S; Vidal-Rioja, L; Frank, E N; Di Rocco, F

    2017-12-01

    Llama, the most numerous domestic camelid in Argentina, has good fiber-production ability. Although a few genes related to other productive traits have been characterized, the molecular genetic basis of fiber growth control in camelids is still poorly understood. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a secreted signaling protein that controls hair growth in humans and other mammals. Mutations in the FGF5 gene have been associated with long-hair phenotypes in several species. Here, we sequenced the llama FGF5 gene, which consists of three exons encoding 813 bp. cDNA analysis from hair follicles revealed the expression of two FGF5 alternative spliced transcripts, in one of which exon 2 is absent. DNA variation analysis showed four polymorphisms in the coding region: a synonymous SNP (c.210A>G), a single base deletion (c.348delA), a 12-bp insertion (c.351_352insCATATAACATAG) and a non-sense mutation (c.499C>T). The deletion was always found together with the insertion forming a haplotype and producing a putative truncated protein of 123 amino acids. The c.499C>T mutation also leads to a premature stop codon at position 168. In both cases, critical functional domains of FGF5, including one heparin binding site, are lost. All animals analyzed were homozygous for one of the deleterious mutations or compound heterozygous for both (i.e. c.348delA, c.351_352insCATATAACATAG/c.499T). Sequencing of guanaco samples showed that the FGF5 gene encodes a full-length 270-amino acid protein. These results suggest that FGF5 is likely functional in short-haired wild species and non-functional in the domestic fiber-producing species, the llama. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. First description of giant Archaea (Thaumarchaeota) associated with putative bacterial ectosymbionts in a sulfidic marine habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Félix; Brissac, Terry; Le Bris, Nadine; Felbeck, Horst; Gros, Olivier

    2010-08-01

    Archaea may be involved in global energy cycles, and are known for their ability to interact with eukaryotic species (sponges, corals and ascidians) or as archaeal-bacterial consortia. The recently proposed phylum Thaumarchaeota may represent the deepest branching lineage in the archaeal phylogeny emerging before the divergence between Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Here we report the first characterization of two marine thaumarchaeal species from shallow waters that consist of multiple giant cells. One species is coated with sulfur-oxidizing γ-Proteobacteria. These new uncultured thaumarchaeal species are able to live in the sulfide-rich environments of a tropical mangrove swamp, either on living tissues such as roots or on various kinds of materials such as stones, sunken woods, etc. These archaea and archaea/bacteria associations have been studied using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Species identification of archaeons and the putative bacterial symbiont have been assessed by 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA analysis. The sulfur-oxidizing ability of the bacteria has been assessed by genetic investigation on alpha-subunit of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase/oxidase's (AprA). Species identifications have been confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific probes designed in this study. In this article, we describe two new giant archaeal species that form the biggest archaeal filaments ever observed. One of these species is covered by a specific biofilm of sulfur-oxidizing γ-Proteobacteria. This study highlights an unexpected morphological and genetic diversity of the phylum Thaumarchaeota. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Implications of Galaxy Buildup for Putative IMF Variations in Massive Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancato, Kirsten; Genel, Shy; Bryan, Greg

    2017-08-01

    Recent observational evidence for initial mass function (IMF) variations in massive quiescent galaxies at z = 0 challenges the long-established paradigm of a universal IMF. While a few theoretical models relate the IMF to birth cloud conditions, the physical driver underlying these putative IMF variations is still largely unclear. Here we use post-processing analysis of the Illustris cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to investigate possible physical origins of IMF variability with galactic properties. We do so by tagging stellar particles in the simulation (each representing a stellar population of ≈ {10}6 {M}⊙ ) with individual IMFs that depend on various physical conditions, such as velocity dispersion, metallicity, or star formation rate, at the time and place in which the stars are formed. We then follow the assembly of these populations throughout cosmic time and reconstruct the overall IMF of each z = 0 galaxy from the many distinct IMFs it is composed of. Our main result is that applying the observed relations between IMF and galactic properties to the conditions at the star formation sites does not result in strong enough IMF variations between z = 0 galaxies. Steeper physical IMF relations are required for reproducing the observed IMF trends, and some stellar populations must form with more extreme IMFs than those observed. The origin of this result is the hierarchical nature of massive galaxy assembly, and it has implications for the reliability of the strong observed trends, for the ability of cosmological simulations to capture certain physical conditions in galaxies, and for theories of star formation aiming to explain the physical origin of a variable IMF.

  6. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

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    Giuseppe Forlani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2. In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.

  7. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

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    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  8. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Giovanni; Fuertinger, Stefan; Fleysher, Lazar; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Background Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. Methods We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional MRI data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor vs. adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial vs. sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. Results We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in SD patients compared to healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortex. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Conclusions Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. PMID:27346568

  9. Quantitative Molecular Detection of Putative Periodontal Pathogens in Clinically Healthy and Periodontally Diseased Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, André; Hetzer, Adrian; Holtfreter, Birte; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Steinmetz, Ivo; Kocher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a multi-microbial oral infection with high prevalence among adults. Putative oral pathogens are commonly found in periodontally diseased individuals. However, these organisms can be also detected in the oral cavity of healthy subjects. This leads to the hypothesis, that alterations in the proportion of these organisms relative to the total amount of oral microorganisms, namely their abundance, rather than their simple presence might be important in the transition from health to disease. Therefore, we developed a quantitative molecular method to determine the abundance of various oral microorganisms and the portion of bacterial and archaeal nucleic acid relative to the total nucleic acid extracted from individual samples. We applied quantitative real-time PCRs targeting single-copy genes of periodontal bacteria and 16S-rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea. Testing tongue scrapings of 88 matched pairs of periodontally diseased and healthy subjects revealed a significantly higher abundance of P. gingivalis and a higher total bacterial abundance in diseased subjects. In fully adjusted models the risk of being periodontally diseased was significantly higher in subjects with high P. gingivalis and total bacterial abundance. Interestingly, we found that moderate abundances of A. actinomycetemcomitans were associated with reduced risk for periodontal disease compared to subjects with low abundances, whereas for high abundances, this protective effect leveled off. Moderate archaeal abundances were health associated compared to subjects with low abundances. In conclusion, our methodological approach unraveled associations of the oral flora with periodontal disease, which would have gone undetected if only qualitative data had been determined. PMID:25029268

  10. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

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    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  11. Zuotin, a putative Z-DNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Lockshin, C.; Herbert, A.; Winter, E.; Rich, A.

    1992-01-01

    A putative Z-DNA binding protein, named zuotin, was purified from a yeast nuclear extract by means of a Z-DNA binding assay using [32P]poly(dG-m5dC) and [32P]oligo(dG-Br5dC)22 in the presence of B-DNA competitor. Poly(dG-Br5dC) in the Z-form competed well for the binding of a zuotin containing fraction, but salmon sperm DNA, poly(dG-dC) and poly(dA-dT) were not effective. Negatively supercoiled plasmid pUC19 did not compete, whereas an otherwise identical plasmid pUC19(CG), which contained a (dG-dC)7 segment in the Z-form was an excellent competitor. A Southwestern blot using [32P]poly(dG-m5dC) as a probe in the presence of MgCl2 identified a protein having a molecular weight of 51 kDa. The 51 kDa zuotin was partially sequenced at the N-terminal and the gene, ZUO1, was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli; the expressed zuotin showed similar Z-DNA binding activity, but with lower affinity than zuotin that had been partially purified from yeast. Zuotin was deduced to have a number of potential phosphorylation sites including two CDC28 (homologous to the human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2) phosphorylation sites. The hexapeptide motif KYHPDK was found in zuotin as well as in several yeast proteins, DnaJ of E.coli, csp29 and csp32 proteins of Drosophila and the small t and large T antigens of the polyoma virus. A 60 amino acid segment of zuotin has similarity to several histone H1 sequences. Disruption of ZUO1 in yeast resulted in a slow growth phenotype.

  12. A sparse regulatory network of copy-number driven gene expression reveals putative breast cancer oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yinyin; Curtis, Christina; Caldas, Carlos; Markowetz, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Copy number aberrations are recognized to be important in cancer as they may localize to regions harboring oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Such genomic alterations mediate phenotypic changes through their impact on expression. Both cis- and transacting alterations are important since they may help to elucidate putative cancer genes. However, amidst numerous passenger genes, trans-effects are less well studied due to the computational difficulty in detecting weak and sparse signals in the data, and yet may influence multiple genes on a global scale. We propose an integrative approach to learn a sparse interaction network of DNA copy-number regions with their downstream transcriptional targets in breast cancer. With respect to goodness of fit on both simulated and real data, the performance of sparse network inference is no worse than other state-of-the-art models but with the advantage of simultaneous feature selection and efficiency. The DNA-RNA interaction network helps to distinguish copy-number driven expression alterations from those that are copy-number independent. Further, our approach yields a quantitative copy-number dependency score, which distinguishes cis- versus trans-effects. When applied to a breast cancer data set, numerous expression profiles were impacted by cis-acting copy-number alterations, including several known oncogenes such as GRB7, ERBB2, and LSM1. Several trans-acting alterations were also identified, impacting genes such as ADAM2 and BAGE, which warrant further investigation. An R package named lol is available from www.markowetzlab.org/software/lol.html.

  13. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  14. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  15. Assessment of nucleosides as putative tumor biomarkers in prostate cancer screening by CE-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Adriana Zardini; de Oliveira Silva, Mariana; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Simionato, Ana Valéria Colnaghi

    2017-05-01

    Cancer is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide, but most base diseases may be cured if detected early. Screening tests may be used to identify early-stage malignant neoplasms. However, the major screening tool for prostate cancer, the prostate-specific antigen test, has unsuitable sensitivity. Since cancer cells may affect the pattern of consumption and excretion of nucleosides, such biomolecules are putative biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Using a previously validated method for the analysis of nucleosides in blood serum by capillary electrophoresis with UV-vis spectroscopy detection, we investigated 60 samples from healthy individuals and 42 samples from prostate cancer patients. The concentrations of nucleosides in both groups were compared and a multivariate partial least squares-discriminant analysis classification model was optimized for prediction of prostate cancer. The validation of the model with an independent sample set resulted in the correct classification of 82.4% of the samples, with sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 76.7%. A significant downregulation of 5-methyluridine and inosine was observed, which can be indicative of the carcinogenic process. Therefore, such analytes are potential candidates for prostate cancer screening. Graphical Abstract Separation of the studied nucleosides and the internal standard 8-Bromoguanosine by CE-UV (a); classification of the external validation samples (30 from healthy volunteers and 21 from prostate cancer patients) by the developed Partial Least Square - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model with accuracy of 82.4% (b); Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve (c); and Variable Importance in the Projection (VIP) values for the studied nucleosides (d). A significant down-regulation of 5- methyluridine (5mU) and inosine (I) was observed, which can be indicative of the presence of prostate tumors.

  16. Detailed analysis of putative genes encoding small proteins in legume genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel eGuillén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plant genome sequencing projects coupled with powerful bioinformatics tools have facilitated massive data analysis to construct specialized databases classified according to cellular function. However, there are still a considerable number of genes encoding proteins whose function has not yet been characterized. Included in this category are small proteins (SPs, 30-150 amino acids encoded by short open reading frames (sORFs. SPs play important roles in plant physiology, growth, and development. Unfortunately, protocols focused on the genome-wide identification and characterization of sORFs are scarce or remain poorly implemented. As a result, these genes are underrepresented in many genome annotations. In this work, we exploited publicly available genome sequences of Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus to analyze the abundance of annotated SPs in plant legumes. Our strategy to uncover bona fide sORFs at the genome level was centered in bioinformatics analysis of characteristics such as evidence of expression (transcription, presence of known protein regions or domains, and identification of orthologous genes in the genomes explored. We collected 6170, 10461, 30521, and 23599 putative sORFs from P. vulgaris, G. max, M. truncatula, and L. japonicus genomes, respectively. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs available in the DFCI Gene Index database provided evidence that ~one-third of the predicted legume sORFs are expressed. Most potential SPs have a counterpart in a different plant species and counterpart regions or domains in larger proteins. Potential functional sORFs were also classified according to a reduced set of GO categories, and the expression of 13 of them during P. vulgaris nodule ontogeny was confirmed by qPCR. This analysis provides a collection of sORFs that potentially encode for meaningful SPs, and offers the possibility of their further functional evaluation.

  17. Functional analysis of the putative peroxidase domain of FANCA, the Fanconi anemia complementation group A protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J; Youssoufian, H

    2001-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder manifested by chromosomal breakage, birth defects, and susceptibility to bone marrow failure and cancer. At least seven complementation groups have been identified, and the genes defective in four groups have been cloned. The most common subtype is complementation group A. Although the normal functions of the gene products defective in FA cells are not completely understood, a clue to the function of the FA group A gene product (FANCA) was provided by the detection of limited homology in the amino terminal region to a class of heme peroxidases. We evaluated this hypothesis by mutagenesis and functional complementation studies. We substituted alanine residues for the most conserved FANCA residues in the putative peroxidase domain and tested their effects on known biochemical and cellular functions of FANCA. While the substitution mutants were comparable to wild-type FANCA with regard to their stability, subcellular localization, and interaction with FANCG, only the Trp(183)-to-Ala substitution (W183A) abolished the ability of FANCA to complement the sensitivity of FA group A cells to mitomycin C. By contrast, TUNEL assays for apoptosis after exposure to H2O2 showed no differences between parental FA group A cells, cells complemented with wild-type FANCA, and cells complemented with the W183A of FANCA. Moreover, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis for the expression of the peroxide-sensitive heme oxygenase gene showed appropriate induction after H2O2 exposure. Thus, W183A appears to be essential for the in vivo activity of FANCA in a manner independent of its interaction with FANCG. Moreover, neither wild-type FANCA nor the W183A mutation appears to alter the peroxide-induced apoptosisor peroxide-sensing ability of FA group A cells. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Nocek, Boguslaw; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2017-08-02

    In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2). In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER) that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.

  19. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Nocek, Boguslaw; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2017-08-02

    In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2). In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER) that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.

  20. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, G; Fuertinger, S; Fleysher, L; Ozelius, L J; Simonyan, K

    2016-10-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor versus adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial versus sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in patients with SD compared with healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortices. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from the left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. © 2016 EAN.

  1. Autoradiographic localization of putative nicotinic receptors in the rat brain using 125I-neuronal bungarotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, D.W.; Loring, R.H.; Aizenman, E.; Zigmond, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Neuronal bungarotoxin (NBT), a snake venom neurotoxin, selectively blocks nicotinic receptors in many peripheral and central neuronal preparations. alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha BT), on the other hand, a second toxin isolated from the venom of the same snake, is an ineffective nicotinic antagonist in most vertebrate neuronal preparations studied thus far. To examine central nicotinic receptors recognized by NBT, we have characterized the binding of 125I-labeled NBT (125I-NBT) to rat brain membranes and have mapped the distribution of 125I-NBT binding in brain sections using quantitative light microscopic autoradiography. The binding of 125I-NBT was found to be saturable, of high affinity, and heterogeneously distributed in the brain. Pharmacological studies suggested that more than one population of sites is labeled by 125I-NBT. For example, one component of 125I-NBT binding was also recognized by alpha BT, while a second component, not recognized by alpha BT, was recognized by the nicotinic agonist nicotine. The highest densities of these alpha BT-insensitive, nicotine-sensitive sites were found in the fasciculus retroflexus, the lateral geniculate nucleus, the medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract, and the olivary pretectal nucleus. alpha BT-sensitive NBT binding sites were found in highest density in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus, the dorsal tegmental nucleus, and the medial mammillary nucleus (lateral part). The number of brain regions with a high density of 125I-NBT binding sites, blocked either by alpha BT or by nicotine, is low when compared with results obtained using other approaches to studying the central distribution of nicotinic receptors, such as labeling with 3H-nicotine or labeling with cDNA probes to mRNAs coding for putative receptor subunits

  2. ESTs analysis reveals putative genes involved in symbiotic seed germination in Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world's most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e(-5)). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.

  3. ESTs Analysis Reveals Putative Genes Involved in Symbiotic Seed Germination in Dendrobium officinale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world’s most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D . officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D . officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e-5). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D . officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D . officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D . officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids. PMID:23967335

  4. ESTs analysis reveals putative genes involved in symbiotic seed germination in Dendrobium officinale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Zhao

    Full Text Available Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae is one of the world's most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs, which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR protein database (E-value cutoff, e(-5. Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS. The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS, were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.

  5. Linking global climate and temperature variability to widespread amphibian declines putatively caused by disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Raffel, Thomas R

    2010-05-04

    The role of global climate change in the decline of biodiversity and the emergence of infectious diseases remains controversial, and the effect of climatic variability, in particular, has largely been ignored. For instance, it was recently revealed that the proposed link between climate change and widespread amphibian declines, putatively caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), was tenuous because it was based on a temporally confounded correlation. Here we provide temporally unconfounded evidence that global El Niño climatic events drive widespread amphibian losses in genus Atelopus via increased regional temperature variability, which can reduce amphibian defenses against pathogens. Of 26 climate variables tested, only factors associated with temperature variability could account for the spatiotemporal patterns of declines thought to be associated with Bd. Climatic predictors of declines became significant only after controlling for a pattern consistent with epidemic spread (by temporally detrending the data). This presumed spread accounted for 59% of the temporal variation in amphibian losses, whereas El Niño accounted for 59% of the remaining variation. Hence, we could account for 83% of the variation in declines with these two variables alone. Given that global climate change seems to increase temperature variability, extreme climatic events, and the strength of Central Pacific El Niño episodes, climate change might exacerbate worldwide enigmatic declines of amphibians, presumably by increasing susceptibility to disease. These results suggest that changes to temperature variability associated with climate change might be as significant to biodiversity losses and disease emergence as changes to mean temperature.

  6. Association of cardiac myosin binding protein-C with the ryanodine receptor channel: putative retrograde regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Paulina J; Seidel, Monika; White, Judith; Viero, Cedric; George, Christopher H; Zissimopoulos, Spyros; Lai, F Anthony

    2018-06-21

    The cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor-Ca 2+ release channel (RyR2) constitutes the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ efflux mechanism that initiates myocyte contraction, while cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) mediates regulation of acto-myosin cross-bridge cycling. In this report, we provide the first evidence for the presence of direct interaction between these two proteins, forming a RyR2:cMyBP-C complex. The C-terminus of cMyBP-C binds with the RyR2 N-terminus in mammalian cells and is not mediated by a fibronectin-like domain. Notably, we detected complex formation between both recombinant cMyBP-C and RyR2, as well as with the native proteins in cardiac tissue. Cellular Ca 2+ dynamics in HEK293 cells is altered upon co-expression of cMyBP-C and RyR2, with lowered frequency of RyR2-mediated spontaneous Ca 2+ oscillations, suggesting cMyBP-C exerts a potential inhibitory effect on RyR2-dependent Ca 2+ release. Discovery of a functional RyR2 association with cMyBP-C provides direct evidence for a putative mechanistic link between cytosolic soluble cMyBP-C and SR-mediated Ca 2+ release, via RyR2. Importantly, this interaction may have clinical relevance to the observed cMyBP-C and RyR2 dysfunction in cardiac pathologies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. KLONING GEN PUTATIVE CLEAVAGE PROTEIN 1 (PCP-1 PADA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei YANG TERSERANG INFECTIOUS MYONECROSIS VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessy Novita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Penanggulangan penyakit ikan dapat dilakukan dengan cara meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh ikan melalui program vaksinasi. Namun vaksinasi tidak tepat untuk udang, karena udang tidak mempunyai immunological memory seperti ikan. Oleh karena itu, perlindungan udang terhadap serangan penyakit viral dengan menggunakan RNA interference (RNAi. Teknologi RNAi digunakan untuk menghalangi (interfere proses replikasi infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV pada udang vaname dengan cara menon-aktifkan gen putative cleavage protein 1 (PCP-1, yang berfungsi dalam pembentukan capsid dan proses transkripsi RNA IMNV. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan kloning gen putative cleavage protein 1 dalam rangka perakitan teknologi RNAi untuk pengendalian penyakit IMNV pada udang vaname. Tahapan penelitian meliputi koleksi sampel, isolasi RNA, sintesis cDNA, amplifikasi PCR, purifikasi DNA, transformasi, isolasi plasmid, serta sekuensing dan analisis data. Hasil isolasi plasmid cDNA PCP-1 memperlihatkan semua koloni bakteri terseleksi ternyata membawa plasmid hasil insersi DNA gen PCP–1, hasil sekuen dengan nilai homologinya mencapai 100% dan 99% yang dibandingkan dengan sekuen di Genebank. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kloning gen putative cleavage protein 1 (PCP-1 dari udang vaname yang terserang Infectious Myonecrosis Virus berhasil dikloning yang nantinya digunakan untuk perakitan RNAi. The prevention of fish diseases can be done by increasing of the fish immune through vaccination programs. However, the vaccination can not be done for the shrimp,due to the absence of  immunological memory. Therefore, the protection of shrimp against viral diseases was done by using of RNA interference (RNAi. RNAi technology is used to interfere infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV replication process on white shrimp by disabling of putative cleavage protein 1 (PCP-1gene, which functions in capsid formation and RNA transcription process. The study was conducted to perform putative

  8. Glucocorticoid acts on a putative G protein-coupled receptor to rapidly regulate the activity of NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmin; Sheng, Hui; Qi, Jinshun; Ma, Bei; Sun, Jihu; Li, Shaofeng; Ni, Xin

    2012-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been demonstrated to act through both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. The present study demonstrated that corticosterone rapidly suppressed the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons. The effect was maintained with corticosterone conjugated to bovine serum albumin and blocked by inhibition of G protein activity with intracellular GDP-β-S application. Corticosterone increased GTP-bound G(s) protein and cyclic AMP (cAMP) production, activated phospholipase Cβ(3) (PLC-β(3)), and induced inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)) production. Blocking PLC and the downstream cascades with PLC inhibitor, IP(3) receptor antagonist, Ca(2+) chelator, and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors prevented the actions of corticosterone. Blocking adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) caused a decrease in NMDA-evoked currents. Application of corticosterone partly reversed the inhibition of NMDA currents caused by blockage of AC and PKA. Intracerebroventricular administration of corticosterone significantly suppressed long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus within 30 min in vivo, implicating the possibly physiological significance of rapid effects of GC on NMDA receptors. Taken together, our results indicate that GCs act on a putative G protein-coupled receptor to activate multiple signaling pathways in hippocampal neurons, and the rapid suppression of NMDA activity by GCs is dependent on PLC and downstream signaling.

  9. Perchlorate Removal, Destruction, and Field Monitoring Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coppola, Edward N; Davis, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this demonstration were to evaluate and demonstrate a complete perchlorate ion exchange process for groundwater that included a unique, regenerable, perchlorate-selective ion exchange resin...

  10. HTI retrieval demonstration project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This plan describes the process for demonstrating the retrieval of difficult Hanford tank waste forms utilizing commercial technologies and the private sector to conduct the operations. The demonstration is to be conducted in Tank 241-C-106

  11. Introduction to Methods Demonstrations for Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Pitts, W. K.

    2002-01-01

    During the Trilateral Initiative Technical Workshop on Authentication and Certification, PNNL will demonstrate some authentication technologies. This paper briefly describes the motivation for these demonstrations and provide background on them

  12. Using Daily Horoscopes To Demonstrate Expectancy Confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration that uses daily horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)

  13. 40 CFR 117.14 - Demonstration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demonstration projects. 117.14 Section... DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Applicability § 117.14 Demonstration projects... research or demonstration projects relating to the prevention, control, or abatement of hazardous substance...

  14. Cone penetrometer demonstration standard startup review checklist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIEG, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Startup readiness for the Cone Penetrometer Demonstration in AX Tank Farm will be verified through the application of a Standard Startup Review Checklist. This is a listing of those items essential to demonstrating readiness to start the Cone Penetrometer Demonstration in AX Tank Farm

  15. Molecular detection of a putatively novel cyprinid herpesvirus in sichel (Pelecus cultratus) during a mass mortality event in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszpoly, Andor; Papp, Melitta; Deákné, Petra P; Glávits, Róbert; Ursu, Krisztina; Dán, Ádám

    2015-05-01

    In the early summer of 2014, mass mortality of sichel (Pelecus cultratus) was observed in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Histological examination revealed degenerative changes within the tubular epithelium, mainly in the distal tubules and collecting ducts in the kidneys and multifocal vacuolisation in the brain stem and cerebellum. Routine molecular investigations showed the presence of the DNA of an unknown alloherpesvirus in some specimens. Subsequently, three genes of the putative herpesviral genome (DNA polymerase, terminase, and helicase) were amplified and partially sequenced. A phylogenetic tree reconstruction based on the concatenated sequence of these three conserved genes implied that the virus belongs to the genus Cyprinivirus within the family Alloherpesviridae. The sequences of the sichel herpesvirus differ markedly from those of the cypriniviruses CyHV-1, CyHV-2 and CyHV-3, putatively representing a fifth species in the genus.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Putative Integron-Like Elements of the Heavy-Metal-Hypertolerant Strains of Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok, Anna; Adamczuk, Marcin; Bartosik, Dariusz; Dziewit, Lukasz

    2016-11-28

    Pseudomonas strains isolated from the heavily contaminated Lubin copper mine and Zelazny Most post-flotation waste reservoir in Poland were screened for the presence of integrons. This analysis revealed that two strains carried homologous DNA regions composed of a gene encoding a DNA_BRE_C domain-containing tyrosine recombinase (with no significant sequence similarity to other integrases of integrons) plus a three-component array of putative integron gene cassettes. The predicted gene cassettes encode three putative polypeptides with homology to (i) transmembrane proteins, (ii) GCN5 family acetyltransferases, and (iii) hypothetical proteins of unknown function (homologous proteins are encoded by the gene cassettes of several class 1 integrons). Comparative sequence analyses identified three structural variants of these novel integron-like elements within the sequenced bacterial genomes. Analysis of their distribution revealed that they are found exclusively in strains of the genus Pseudomonas .

  17. Application of a Colorimetric Assay to Identify Putative Ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-Phosphate Synthase Genes Expressed with Activity in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Bechard, Matthew E.; Chhatwal, Sonya; Garcia, Rosemarie E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

    2003-01-01

    Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms is unknown. The key enzyme which distinguishes the biosynthetic pathways of H4MPT and tetrahydrofolate is ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-phosphate synthase (RFAP synthase). Given the importance of RFAP synthase in H4MPT biosynthesis, the identification of putative RFAP synthase genes and...

  18. De Novo assembly of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus spleen transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important marine fish in Asia and has suffered from disease outbreaks caused by various pathogens, which requires more information for immune relevant genes on genome background. However, genomic and transcriptomic data for Japanese flounder remain scarce, which limits studies on the immune system of this species. In this study, we characterized the Japanese flounder spleen transcriptome using an Illumina paired-end sequencing platform to identify putative genes involved in immunity.A cDNA library from the spleen of P. olivaceus was constructed and randomly sequenced using an Illumina technique. The removal of low quality reads generated 12,196,968 trimmed reads, which assembled into 96,627 unigenes. A total of 21,391 unigenes (22.14% were annotated in the NCBI Nr database, and only 1.1% of the BLASTx top-hits matched P. olivaceus protein sequences. Approximately 12,503 (58.45% unigenes were categorized into three Gene Ontology groups, 19,547 (91.38% were classified into 26 Cluster of Orthologous Groups, and 10,649 (49.78% were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Furthermore, 40,928 putative simple sequence repeats and 47, 362 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Importantly, we identified 1,563 putative immune-associated unigenes that mapped to 15 immune signaling pathways.The P. olivaceus transciptome data provides a rich source to discover and identify new genes, and the immune-relevant sequences identified here will facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune response. Furthermore, the plentiful potential SSRs and SNPs found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of a linkage map or marker assisted breeding programs for the flounder.

  19. Humoral immune response to hypervariable region 1 of the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp70) of hepatitis C virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, N; Sekiya, H; Ootsuyama, Y; Nakazawa, T; Hijikata, M; Ohkoshi, S; Shimotohno, K

    1993-01-01

    We recently found that alterations of amino acids in hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp70) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurred sequentially in the chronic phase of hepatitis at intervals of several months. This finding suggests that mutations in HVR1 are involved in the mechanism of persistent chronic HCV infection involving escape from the immunosurveillance system. To explore this possibility, we examined the humoral immune response to HVR1 with our assa...

  20. Distribution and innervation of putative peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Catalina; Fong, Angelina Y; Milsom, William K

    2015-06-15

    Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors have been isolated to the common carotid artery, aorta, and pulmonary artery of turtles. However, the putative neurotransmitters associated with these chemoreceptors have not yet been described. The goal of the present study was to determine the neurochemical content, innervations, and distribution of putative oxygen-sensing cells in the central vasculature of turtles and to derive homologies with peripheral arterial chemoreceptors of other vertebrates. We used tract tracing together with immunohistochemical markers for cholinergic cells (vesicular acetylcholine transporter [VAChT]), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis), and serotonin (5HT) to identify putative oxygen-sensing cells and to determine their anatomical relation to branches of the vagus nerve (Xth cranial nerve). We found potential oxygen-sensing cells in all three chemosensory areas innervated by branches of the Xth cranial nerve. Cells containing either 5HT or VAChT were found in all three sites. The morphology and size of these cells resemble glomus cells found in amphibians, mammals, tortoises, and lizards. Furthermore, we found populations of cholinergic cells located at the base of the aorta and pulmonary artery that are likely involved in efferent regulation of vessel resistance. Catecholamine-containing cells were not found in any of the putative chemosensitive areas. The presence of 5HT- and VAChT-immunoreactive cells in segments of the common carotid artery, aorta, and pulmonary artery appears to reflect a transition between cells containing the major neurotransmitters seen in fish (5HT) and mammals (ACh and adenosine). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Aspergillus nidulans Natural Product Biosynthesis Is Regulated by MpkB, a Putative Pheromone Response Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; Bao, D.; Kaur, N.; Grayburn, W.S.; Calvo, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans putative mitogen-activated protein kinase encoded by mpkB has a role in natural product biosynthesis. An mpkB mutant exhibited a decrease in sterigmatocystin gene expression and low mycotoxin levels. The mutation also affected the expression of genes involved in penicillin and terrequinone A synthesis. mpkB was necessary for normal expression of laeA, which has been found to regulate secondary metabolism gene clusters. (author)

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Olive latent virus 3, a new putative member of the family Tymoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdullah, Abdulkader; Minafra, Angelantonio; Elbeaino, Toufic; Saponari, Maria; Savino, Vito; Martelli, Giovanni P

    2010-09-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence and the genome organization were determined of a putative new member of the family Tymoviridae, tentatively named Olive latent virus 3 (OLV-3), recovered in southern Italy from a symptomless olive tree. The sequenced ssRNA genome comprises 7148 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and contains four open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a polyprotein of 221.6kDa in size, containing the conserved signatures of the methyltransferase (MTR), papain-like protease (PRO), helicase (HEL) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains of the replication-associated proteins of positive-strand RNA viruses. ORF2 overlaps completely ORF1 and encodes a putative protein of 43.33kDa showing limited sequence similarity with the putative movement protein of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV). ORF3 codes for a protein with predicted molecular mass of 28.46kDa, identified as the coat protein (CP), whereas ORF4 overlaps ORF3 and encodes a putative protein of 16kDa with sequence similarity to the p16 and p31 proteins of Citrus sudden death-associated virus (CSDaV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), respectively. Within the family Tymoviridae, OLV-3 genome has the closest identity level (49-52%) with members of the genus Marafivirus, from which, however, it differs because of the diverse genome organization and the presence of a single type of CP subunits. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. RPS6KA2, a putative tumour suppressor gene at 6q27 in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignone, P A; Lee, K Y; Liu, Y

    2007-01-01

    We had previously defined by allele loss studies a minimal region at 6q27 (between D6S264 and D6S297) to contain a putative tumour suppressor gene. The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase-3 gene (p90 Rsk-3, RPS6KA2) maps in this interval. It is a serine-threonine kinase that signals downstream of the mitogen...

  4. Over-expression of a putative oxidoreductase (UcpA) for increasing furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Miller, Elliot N.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2016-05-24

    The subject invention pertains to overexpression of a putative oxidoreductase (ucpA) for increasing furfural tolerance in genetically modified microorganisms. Genetically modified microorganisms capable of overexpressing UcpA are also provided. Increased expression of ucpA was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50%, and to permit the fermentation of sugars to products in the presence of 15 mM furfural.

  5. A systematic review of amyloid-beta peptides as putative mediators of the association between affective disorders and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Heegaard, N. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Affective disorders are associated with an increased occurrence of cognitive deficits and have been linked to cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The putative molecular mechanisms involved in these associations are however not clear. The aim of this systematic review...... were limited by very low sample numbers. Finally, different assays for amyloid-beta were utilized in the different studies, thus hampering comparisons. Conclusion: To unravel possible risk relations and causalities between affective disorder and Alzheimer's disease and to determine how amyloid...

  6. A synthetic peptide with the putative iron binding motif of amyloid precursor protein (APP does not catalytically oxidize iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Honarmand Ebrahimi

    Full Text Available The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP, which is a key player in Alzheimer's disease, was recently reported to possess an Fe(II binding site within its E2 domain which exhibits ferroxidase activity [Duce et al. 2010, Cell 142: 857]. The putative ligands of this site were compared to those in the ferroxidase site of ferritin. The activity was indirectly measured using transferrin, which scavenges the Fe(III product of the reaction. A 22-residue synthetic peptide, named FD1, with the putative ferroxidase site of APP, and the E2 domain of APP were each reported to exhibit 40% of the ferroxidase activity of APP and of ceruloplasmin. It was also claimed that the ferroxidase activity of APP is inhibited by Zn(II just as in ferritin. We measured the ferroxidase activity indirectly (i by the incorporation of the Fe(III product of the ferroxidase reaction into transferrin and directly (ii by monitoring consumption of the substrate molecular oxygen. The results with the FD1 peptide were compared to the established ferroxidase activities of human H-chain ferritin and of ceruloplasmin. For FD1 we observed no activity above the background of non-enzymatic Fe(II oxidation by molecular oxygen. Zn(II binds to transferrin and diminishes its Fe(III incorporation capacity and rate but it does not specifically bind to a putative ferroxidase site of FD1. Based on these results, and on comparison of the putative ligands of the ferroxidase site of APP with those of ferritin, we conclude that the previously reported results for ferroxidase activity of FD1 and - by implication - of APP should be re-evaluated.

  7. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens and putative symbionts of black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from Georgia and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Nims, Todd N; Savage, Mason Y; Durden, Lance A

    2009-10-01

    Ticks were collected from 38 black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from northwestern Florida (n = 18) from 2003 to 2005 and southern Georgia (n = 20) in 2006. Five species (Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and I. affinis) were collected from Florida bears, and 4 species (A. americanum, A. maculatum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis) were collected from bears in Georgia. Ixodes scapularis was the most frequently collected tick, followed by D. variabilis, A. americanum, A. maculatum, and I. affinis. The collection of I. affinis from a Florida bear represents a new host record. A subset of ticks was screened for pathogens and putative symbionts by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The zoonotic tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Rickettsia parkeri were detected in 1 of 23 (4.3%) A. americanum and 1 of 12 (8.3%) A. maculatum, respectively. The putative zoonotic pathogen "Rickettsia amblyommii" was detected in 4 (17.4%) A. americanum and 1 (8.3%) A. maculatum. Other putative symbiotic rickettsiae detected included R. bellii and R. montanensis in D. variabilis, a Rickettsia cooleyi-like sp. and Rickettsia sp. Is-1 in I. scapularis, and Rickettsia TR39-like sp. in I. scapularis and A. americanum. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp., E. ewingii, Francisella tularensis, and Borrelia spp.

  8. Computational Exploration of Putative LuxR Solos in Archaea and Their Functional Implications in Quorum Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Akanksha; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    LuxR solos are unexplored in Archaea, despite their vital role in the bacterial regulatory network. They assist bacteria in perceiving acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or non-AHLs signaling molecules for establishing intraspecies, interspecies, and interkingdom communication. In this study, we explored the potential LuxR solos of Archaea from InterPro v62.0 meta-database employing taxonomic, probable function, distribution, and evolutionary aspects to decipher their role in quorum sensing (QS). Our bioinformatics analyses showed that putative LuxR solos of Archaea shared few conserved domains with bacterial LuxR despite having less similarity within proteins. Functional characterization revealed their ability to bind various AHLs and/or non-AHLs signaling molecules that involve in QS cascades alike bacteria. Further, the phylogenetic study indicates that Archaeal LuxR solos (with less substitution per site) evolved divergently from bacteria and share distant homology along with instances of horizontal gene transfer. Moreover, Archaea possessing putative LuxR solos, exhibit the correlation between taxonomy and ecological niche despite being the inhabitant of diverse habitats like halophilic, thermophilic, barophilic, methanogenic, and chemolithotrophic. Therefore, this study would shed light in deciphering the role of the putative LuxR solos of Archaea to adapt varied habitats via multilevel communication with other organisms using QS. PMID:28515720

  9. Computational Exploration of Putative LuxR Solos in Archaea and Their Functional Implications in Quorum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Rajput

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available LuxR solos are unexplored in Archaea, despite their vital role in the bacterial regulatory network. They assist bacteria in perceiving acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs and/or non-AHLs signaling molecules for establishing intraspecies, interspecies, and interkingdom communication. In this study, we explored the potential LuxR solos of Archaea from InterPro v62.0 meta-database employing taxonomic, probable function, distribution, and evolutionary aspects to decipher their role in quorum sensing (QS. Our bioinformatics analyses showed that putative LuxR solos of Archaea shared few conserved domains with bacterial LuxR despite having less similarity within proteins. Functional characterization revealed their ability to bind various AHLs and/or non-AHLs signaling molecules that involve in QS cascades alike bacteria. Further, the phylogenetic study indicates that Archaeal LuxR solos (with less substitution per site evolved divergently from bacteria and share distant homology along with instances of horizontal gene transfer. Moreover, Archaea possessing putative LuxR solos, exhibit the correlation between taxonomy and ecological niche despite being the inhabitant of diverse habitats like halophilic, thermophilic, barophilic, methanogenic, and chemolithotrophic. Therefore, this study would shed light in deciphering the role of the putative LuxR solos of Archaea to adapt varied habitats via multilevel communication with other organisms using QS.

  10. Purification and crystallization of a putative transcriptional regulator of the benzoate oxidation pathway in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Adrienne M.; Bains, Jasleen; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction and preliminary phasing of the putative transcriptional regulator Bxe-C0898 from B. xenovorans LB400 are reported. Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 harbours two paralogous copies of the recently discovered benzoate oxidation (box) pathway. While both copies are functional, the paralogues are differentially regulated and flanked by putative transcriptional regulators from distinct families. The putative LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) adjacent to the megaplasmid-encoded box enzymes, Bxe-C0898, has been produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Gel-filtration studies show that Bxe-C0898 is a tetramer in solution, consistent with previously characterized LTTRs. Bxe-C0898 crystallized with four molecules in the asymmetric unit of the P4 3 2 1 2/P4 1 2 1 2 unit cell with a solvent content of 61.19%, as indicated by processing of the X-ray diffraction data. DNA-protection assays are currently under way in order to identify potential operator regions for this LTTR and to define its role in regulation of the box pathway

  11. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanucci, Silvana; Minerdi, Daniela; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Mengoni, Alessio; Bazzicalupo, Marco

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability

  12. Conservation of polypyrimidine tract binding proteins and their putative target RNAs in several storage root crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondhare, Kirtikumar R; Kumar, Amit; Hannapel, David J; Banerjee, Anjan K

    2018-02-07

    crops exhibited differential accumulation patterns in leaf and storage root tissues. Our results suggest that the PTB1/6-like orthologues and their putative targets, BEL5- and POTH1-like mRNAs, from storage root crops could interact physically, similar to that in potato, and potentially, could function as key molecular signals controlling storage organ development in root crops.

  13. Putative stem cell markers in cervical squamous cell carcinoma are correlated with poor clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Teng; Zhang, Weijing; Tong, Chongjie; Kazobinka, Gallina; Huang, Xin; Huang, Yongwen; Zhang, Yanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the value of putative cancer stem cell markers Musashi-1, ALDH1, Sox2, and CD49f in predicting the prognosis in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry staining was performed to examine Musashi-1, ALDH1, Sox2, and CD49f expression in archived specimens of CSCC patients with postoperative chemotherapy. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic impact of CSC markers for overall survival (OS) and recurrent-free survival (RFS). The Real-time PCR data showed that the expression of all markers were increased in CSCC tissues compared with in paired normal cervical tissues (P < 0.05). The IHC result showed that high expression of Msi1, ALDH1, Sox2, and CD49f was found in 25.7 %, 43.0 %, 62.0 % and 29.0 % CSCC samples, respectively. Moreover, high expression of Msi1 (P = 0.033 and P = 0.003, respectively), ALDH1 (P = 0.015 and P = 0.002, respectively), and Sox2 (P = 0.005 and P = 0.003, respectively), and low expression of CD49f (P = 0.027 and P = 0.025, respectively) were correlated with poor OS and PFS in CSCC patients. Interestingly, tumors with Msi1 high /CD49f low expression had the poorest prognosis according to Msi1/CD49f stratification. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, Sox2 expression (P = 0.047 and P = 0.018, respectively), ALDH1 expression (P = 0.013 and P = 0.003, respectively), and CD49f expression (P = 0.008 and P = 0.003, respectively) were independent prognostic markers for both OS and RFS. Our results suggest that cancer stem cell markers are linked with poor prognosis of CSCC patients. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1826-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  14. HinT proteins and their putative interaction partners in Mollicutes and Chlamydiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegemann Johannes H

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background HinT proteins are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and belong to the superfamily of HIT proteins, which are characterized by an histidine-triad sequence motif. While the eukaryotic variants hydrolyze AMP derivates and modulate transcription, the function of prokaryotic HinT proteins is less clearly defined. In Mycoplasma hominis, HinT is concomitantly expressed with the proteins P60 and P80, two domains of a surface exposed membrane complex, and in addition interacts with the P80 moiety. Results An cluster of hitABL genes, similar to that of M. hominis was found in M. pulmonis, M. mycoides subspecies mycoides SC, M. mobile and Mesoplasma florum. RT-PCR analyses provided evidence that the P80, P60 and HinT homologues of M. pulmonis were polycistronically organized, suggesting a genetic and physical interaction between the proteins encoded by these genes in these species. While the hit loci of M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium encoded, in addition to HinT, a protein with several transmembrane segments, the hit locus of Ureaplasma parvum encoded a pore-forming protein, UU270, a P60 homologue, UU271, HinT, UU272, and a membrane protein of unknown function, UU273. Although a full-length mRNA spanning the four genes was not detected, amplification of all intergenic regions from the center of UU270 to the end of UU273 by RT-PCR may be indicative of a common, but unstable mRNA. In Chlamydiaceae the hit gene is flanked upstream by a gene predicted to encode a metal dependent hydrolase and downstream by a gene putatively encoding a protein with ARM-repeats, which are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. In RT-PCR analyses of C. pneumoniae, regions comprising only two genes, Cp265/Cp266 and Cp266/Cp267 were able to be amplified. In contrast to this in vivo interaction analysis using the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro immune co-precipitation revealed an interaction between Cp267, which contains the ARM repeats, Cp265, the

  15. Characterization of four plasma membrane aquaporins in tulip petals: a putative homolog is regulated by phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Katsuhara, Maki; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2008-08-01

    We suggested previously that temperature-dependent tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) petal movement that is concomitant with water transport is regulated by reversible phosphorylation of an unidentified plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP). In this study, four full-length cDNAs of PIPs from tulip petals were identified and cloned. Two PIPs, namely TgPIP1;1 and TgPIP1;2, are members of the PIP1 subfamily, and the remaining two PIPs, namely TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2, belong to the PIP2 subfamily of aquaporins and were named according to the nomenclature of PIP genes in plants. Of these four homologs, only TgPIP2;2 displayed significant water channel activity in the heterologous expression assay using Xenopus laevis oocytes. The water channel activity of this functional isoform was abolished by mercury and was affected by inhibitors of protein kinase and protein phosphatase. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach to substitute several serine residues with alanine, and assessing water channel activity using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris expression assay, we showed that Ser35, Ser116 and Ser274 are the putative phosphorylation sites of TgPIP2;2. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of TgPIP1;1 and TgPIP1;2 in tulip petals, stems, leaves, bulbs and roots are very low when compared with those of TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2. The transcript level of TgPIP2;1 is negligible in roots, and TgPIP2;2 is ubiquitously expressed in all organs with significant transcript levels. From the data reported herein, we suggest that TgPIP2;2 might be modulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation for regulating water channel activity, and may play a role in transcellular water transport in all tulip organs.

  16. How to Demonstrate Microgravity in your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hall, Nancy Rabel

    2013-01-01

    Learn why zero gravity is a misnomer and learn how to demonstrate microgravity to students and the general public. In this session, a short theory segment will explain and reinforce these concepts so that you may explain to others. Session participants will also see simple equipment that demonstrates microgravity during the session and can just as well be done in the classroom or museum exhibit hall. The hands-on demonstration devices range from a leaky water bottle to an electronic drop tower with an on-board camera. The session will also include demonstration techniques for Physics, Forces & Motion, and orbits. This material is useful for middle school forces and motions instruction, high school physics instruction, public demonstrations at conferences & school open houses, travelling museum exhibits, fixed museum exhibits, and independent student projects or experiments. These activities also connect the terrestrial demonstration with planetary & moon motion, comet trajectory, and more.

  17. Genome-wide characterization of genetic variants and putative regions under selection in meat and egg-type chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschiero, Clarissa; Moreira, Gabriel Costa Monteiro; Gheyas, Almas Ara; Godoy, Thaís Fernanda; Gasparin, Gustavo; Mariani, Pilar Drummond Sampaio Corrêa; Paduan, Marcela; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2018-01-25

    Meat and egg-type chickens have been selected for several generations for different traits. Artificial and natural selection for different phenotypes can change frequency of genetic variants, leaving particular genomic footprints throghtout the genome. Thus, the aims of this study were to sequence 28 chickens from two Brazilian lines (meat and white egg-type) and use this information to characterize genome-wide genetic variations, identify putative regions under selection using Fst method, and find putative pathways under selection. A total of 13.93 million SNPs and 1.36 million INDELs were identified, with more variants detected from the broiler (meat-type) line. Although most were located in non-coding regions, we identified 7255 intolerant non-synonymous SNPs, 512 stopgain/loss SNPs, 1381 frameshift and 1094 non-frameshift INDELs that may alter protein functions. Genes harboring intolerant non-synonymous SNPs affected metabolic pathways related mainly to reproduction and endocrine systems in the white-egg layer line, and lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases in the broiler line. Fst analysis in sliding windows, using SNPs and INDELs separately, identified over 300 putative regions of selection overlapping with more than 250 genes. For the first time in chicken, INDEL variants were considered for selection signature analysis, showing high level of correlation in results between SNP and INDEL data. The putative regions of selection signatures revealed interesting candidate genes and pathways related to important phenotypic traits in chicken, such as lipid metabolism, growth, reproduction, and cardiac development. In this study, Fst method was applied to identify high confidence putative regions under selection, providing novel insights into selection footprints that can help elucidate the functional mechanisms underlying different phenotypic traits relevant to meat and egg-type chicken lines. In addition, we generated a large catalog of line-specific and common

  18. The mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, T.D.; Williams, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in arid environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies and systems. The comparison will include the cost, efficiency, risk, and feasibility of using these innovative technologies at other sites

  19. Challenging demonstrations in the physics classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: We consider the role of classroom demonstrations in improving students understanding of physics lectures and suggest criteria to decide whether a given demonstration will be pedagogically useful. In the light of these considerations, we performed two series of related experiments before groups of high-school students. We shall perform one of them with active participation from the audience. We shall also show some challenging demonstrations performed in the final stages of the Israeli Physics Olympiad for high-school students

  20. Test and Demonstration Assets of New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This document was developed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a DOE/NNSA grant. The NSPP has three primary components: business incubation, workforce development, and technology demonstration and validation. The document contains a survey of test and demonstration assets in New Mexico available for external users such as small businesses with security technologies under development. Demonstration and validation of national security technologies created by incubator sources, as well as other sources, are critical phases of technology development. The NSPP will support the utilization of an integrated demonstration and validation environment.

  1. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program is a government and industry co-funded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes. One goal of the program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a variety of energy efficient, environmentally superior coal-based technologies. Demonstration projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising coal technologies that have proceeded beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This report is a post-project assessment of the DOE CCT Demonstration Program, the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project. A major objective of the CCT Program is to provide the technical data necessary for the private sector to proceed confidently with the commercial replication of the demonstrated technologies. An essential element of meeting this goal is the dissemination of results from the demonstration projects. This post-project assessment (PPA) report is an independent DOE appraisal of the successes that the completed project had in achieving its objectives and aiding in the commercialization of the demonstrated technology. The report also provides an assessment of the expected technical, environmental, and economic performance of the commercial version of the technology, as well as an analysis of the commercial market.

  2. OVERVIEW OF USEPA'S ARSENIC TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides a summary on the Arsenic Treatment Technology Demonstration Program. The information includes the history and the current status of the demonstration projects on both round 1 and round 2 including some photos of the treatment systems. The presentation m...

  3. The Simplest Demonstration on Acoustic Beats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Alessio; Ganci, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The classical demonstration experiment on acoustic beats using two signal generators and a dual trace oscilloscope is an important ingredient in teaching the subject. This short laboratory note aims to point out what may be the simplest demonstrative experiment on acoustic beats to carry out in a classroom without employing any lab apparatus.

  4. Status of IFR fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The next major step in Argonne's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program is demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle, in conjunction with continued operation of EBR-II. The Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is being readied for this mission. This paper will address the status of facility systems and process equipment, the initial startup experience, and plans for the demonstration program

  5. Professor's Page: Do Demonstration Lessons Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Doug

    2011-01-01

    As part of a large research and professional development project funded by the Catholic Education Office Melbourne (CEOM), called "Contemporary Teaching and Learning of Mathematics," the ACU team has been leading demonstration lessons. There is certainly not universal agreement on the worth of demonstration lessons in the mathematics…

  6. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report

  7. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD)

  8. Repression of MHC class I transcription by HPV16E7 through interaction with a putative RXRβ motif and NF-κB cytoplasmic sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Zhan, TaiLan; Li, Chang; Liu, Mugen; Wang, Qing K.

    2009-01-01

    Down-regulation of transcription of the MHC class I genes in HPV16 tumorigenic cells is partly due to HPV16E7 associated with the MHC class I promoter and repressed chromatin activation. In this study, we further demonstrated that HPV16E7 is physically associated with a putative RXRβ binding motif (GGTCA) of the proximal promoter of the MHC class I genes by using reporter transcriptional assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our data also provide evidence that HPV16E7 inhibits TNF-α-induced up-regulation of MHC class I transcription by impaired nuclear translocation of NF-κB. More importantly, CaSki tumor cells treated with TSA and transfected with the constitutively active mutant form of IKK-α (which can activate NF-κB directly) showed a maximal level of up-regulation of MHC-I expression. Taken together, our results suggest that HPV16E7 may employ two independent mechanisms to ensure that either the constitutive or inducible transcription of MHC class I genes is down-regulated.

  9. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the human ribosomal RNA transcription initiation factor-IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Jhingan, Gagan Deep

    2016-03-01

    Initiation of rDNA transcription requires the assembly of a specific multi-protein complex at the rDNA promoter containing the RNA Pol I with auxiliary factors. One of these factors is known as Rrn3P in yeast and Transcription Initiation Factor IA (TIF-IA) in mammals. Rrn3p/TIF-IA serves as a bridge between RNA Pol I and the pre-initiation complex at the promoter. It is phosphorylated at multiple sites and is involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in a growth-dependent manner. In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, the rRNA genes are present exclusively on circular extra chromosomal plasmids. The protein factors involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in E. histolytica are not known. We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology search within the database and was further cloned and expressed. Immuno-localization studies showed that EhTIF-IA co-localized partially with fibrillarin in the peripherally localized nucleolus. EhTIF-IA was shown to interact with the RNA Pol I-specific subunit RPA12 both in vivo and in vitro. Mass spectroscopy data identified RNA Pol I-specific subunits and other nucleolar proteins to be the interacting partners of EhTIF-IA. Our study demonstrates for the first time a conserved putative RNA Pol I transcription factor TIF-IA in E. histolytica.

  10. Burkholderia mallei tssM encodes a putative deubiquitinase that is secreted and expressed inside infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, John; Burtnick, Mary N; Brett, Paul J; Waag, David M; Spurgers, Kevin B; Ribot, Wilson J; Schell, Mark A; Panchal, Rekha G; Gherardini, Frank C; Wilkinson, Keith D; Deshazer, David

    2009-04-01

    Burkholderia mallei, a category B biothreat agent, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. The B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system activates the transcription of approximately 60 genes, including a large virulence gene cluster encoding a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The B. mallei tssM gene encodes a putative ubiquitin-specific protease that is physically linked to, and transcriptionally coregulated with, the T6SS gene cluster. Mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that TssM was secreted in a virAG-dependent manner in vitro. Surprisingly, the T6SS was found to be dispensable for the secretion of TssM. The C-terminal half of TssM, which contains Cys and His box motifs conserved in eukaryotic deubiquitinases, was purified and biochemically characterized. Recombinant TssM hydrolyzed multiple ubiquitinated substrates and the cysteine at position 102 was critical for enzymatic activity. The tssM gene was expressed within 1 h after uptake of B. mallei into RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, suggesting that the TssM deubiquitinase is produced in this intracellular niche. Although the physiological substrate(s) is currently unknown, the TssM deubiquitinase may provide B. mallei a selective advantage in the intracellular environment during infection.

  11. Burkholderia mallei tssM Encodes a Putative Deubiquitinase That Is Secreted and Expressed inside Infected RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophages▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, John; Burtnick, Mary N.; Brett, Paul J.; Waag, David M.; Spurgers, Kevin B.; Ribot, Wilson J.; Schell, Mark A.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Gherardini, Frank C.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; DeShazer, David

    2009-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei, a category B biothreat agent, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. The B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system activates the transcription of ∼60 genes, including a large virulence gene cluster encoding a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The B. mallei tssM gene encodes a putative ubiquitin-specific protease that is physically linked to, and transcriptionally coregulated with, the T6SS gene cluster. Mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that TssM was secreted in a virAG-dependent manner in vitro. Surprisingly, the T6SS was found to be dispensable for the secretion of TssM. The C-terminal half of TssM, which contains Cys and His box motifs conserved in eukaryotic deubiquitinases, was purified and biochemically characterized. Recombinant TssM hydrolyzed multiple ubiquitinated substrates and the cysteine at position 102 was critical for enzymatic activity. The tssM gene was expressed within 1 h after uptake of B. mallei into RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, suggesting that the TssM deubiquitinase is produced in this intracellular niche. Although the physiological substrate(s) is currently unknown, the TssM deubiquitinase may provide B. mallei a selective advantage in the intracellular environment during infection. PMID:19168747

  12. Captodiamine, a putative antidepressant, enhances hypothalamic BDNF expression in vivo by synergistic 5-HT2c receptor antagonism and sigma-1 receptor agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Rebecca M; Regan, Ciaran M

    2013-10-01

    The putative antidepressant captodiamine is a 5-HT2c receptor antagonist and agonist at sigma-1 and D3 dopamine receptors, exerts an anti-immobility action in the forced swim paradigm, and enhances dopamine turnover in the frontal cortex. Captodiamine has also been found to ameliorate stress-induced anhedonia, reduce the associated elevations of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and restore the reductions in hypothalamic BDNF expression. Here we demonstrate chronic administration of captodiamine to have no significant effect on hypothalamic CRF expression through sigma-1 receptor agonism; however, both sigma-1 receptor agonism or 5-HT2c receptor antagonism were necessary to enhance BDNF expression. Regulation of BDNF expression by captodiamine was associated with increased phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB and mediated through sigma-1 receptor agonism but blocked by 5-HT2c receptor antagonism. The existence of two separate signalling pathways was confirmed by immunolocalisation of each receptor to distinct cell populations in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Increased BDNF induced by captodiamine was also associated with enhanced expression of synapsin, but not PSD-95, suggesting induction of long-term structural plasticity between hypothalamic synapses. These unique features of captodiamine may contribute to its ability to ameliorate stress-induced anhedonia as the hypothalamus plays a prominent role in regulating HPA axis activity.

  13. The VanE operon in Enterococcus faecalis N00-410 is found on a putative integrative and conjugative element, Tn6202.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D A; Mulvey, M R

    2013-02-01

    To date no complete genetic structure of acquired DNA harbouring a d-Ala-d-Ser operon in an Enterococcus is known. We wished to characterize the acquired DNA harbouring the vanE operon located in the Enterococcus faecalis N00-410 chromosome. Whole genome sequencing of E. faecalis N00-410 was conducted by massively parallel sequencing. Two sequence contigs harbouring the vanE region were linked by PCR and the acquired DNA harbouring the vanE operon was completely characterized. Excision/integration of the region was determined by PCR and transfer attempted by conjugation. The regions flanking the vanE operon were analysed and a total of 42 open reading frames were identified in a region flanked by inverted terminal and direct repeats (Tn6202). Tn6202 could be excised from the chromosome, circularized and the target site rejoined, but transfer could not be demonstrated. The vanE operon was found on the putative integrative and conjugative element Tn6202 in the E. faecalis N00-410 chromosome. This represents the first characterization of acquired DNA harbouring a D-Ala-D-Ser operon.

  14. Discovery of novel interacting partners of PSMD9, a proteasomal chaperone: Role of an Atypical and versatile PDZ-domain motif interaction and identification of putative functional modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Sangith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PSMD9 (Proteasome Macropain non-ATPase subunit 9, a proteasomal assembly chaperone, harbors an uncharacterized PDZ-like domain. Here we report the identification of five novel interacting partners of PSMD9 and provide the first glimpse at the structure of the PDZ-domain, including the molecular details of the interaction. We based our strategy on two propositions: (a proteins with conserved C-termini may share common functions and (b PDZ domains interact with C-terminal residues of proteins. Screening of C-terminal peptides followed by interactions using full-length recombinant proteins, we discovered hnRNPA1 (an RNA binding protein, S14 (a ribosomal protein, CSH1 (a growth hormone, E12 (a transcription factor and IL6 receptor as novel PSMD9-interacting partners. Through multiple techniques and structural insights, we clearly demonstrate for the first time that human PDZ domain interacts with the predicted Short Linear Sequence Motif (SLIM at the C-termini of the client proteins. These interactions are also recapitulated in mammalian cells. Together, these results are suggestive of the role of PSMD9 in transcriptional regulation, mRNA processing and editing, hormone and receptor activity and protein translation. Our proof-of-principle experiments endorse a novel and quick method for the identification of putative interacting partners of similar PDZ-domain proteins from the proteome and for discovering novel functions.

  15. Sex-Specific Effects of Combined Exposure to Chemical and Non-chemical Stressors on Neuroendocrine Development: a Review of Recent Findings and Putative Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Environmental toxicants and psychosocial stressors share many biological substrates and influence overlapping physiological pathways. Increasing evidence indicates stress-induced changes to the maternal milieu may prime rapidly developing physiological systems for disruption by concurrent or subsequent exposure to environmental chemicals. In this review, we highlight putative mechanisms underlying sex-specific susceptibility of the developing neuroendocrine system to the joint effects of stress or stress correlates and environmental toxicants (bisphenol A, alcohol, phthalates, lead, chlorpyrifos, and traffic-related air pollution). We provide evidence indicating that concurrent or tandem exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors during windows of rapid development is associated with sex-specific synergistic, potentiated and reversed effects on several neuroendocrine endpoints related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, sex steroid levels, neurotransmitter circuits, and innate immune function. We additionally identify gaps, such as the role that the endocrine-active placenta plays, in our understanding of these complex interactions. Finally, we discuss future research needs, including the investigation of non-hormonal biomarkers of stress. We demonstrate multiple physiologic systems are impacted by joint exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors differentially among males and females. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of evaluating sex-specific endpoints when investigating the neuroendocrine system and underscore the need to examine exposure to chemical toxicants within the context of the social environment.

  16. Constitutive expression of a putative high-affinity nitrate transporter in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia: evidence for post-transcriptional regulation by a reduced nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisier, V; Gojon, A; Tillard, P; Daniel-Vedele, F

    2000-08-01

    The NpNRT2.1 gene encodes a putative inducible component of the high-affinity nitrate (NO3-) uptake system in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Here we report functional and physiological analyses of transgenic plants expressing the NpNRT2.1 coding sequence fused to the CaMV 35S or rolD promoters. Irrespective of the level of NO3- supplied, NO3- contents were found to be remarkably similar in wild-type and transgenic plants. Under specific conditions (growth on 10 mM NO3-), the steady-state NpNRT2. 1 mRNA level resulting from the deregulated transgene expression was accompanied by an increase in 15NO3- influx measured in the low concentration range. This demonstrates for the first time that the NRT2.1 sequence codes a limiting element of the inducible high-affinity transport system. Both 15NO3- influx and mRNA levels decreased in the wild type after exposure to ammonium, in agreement with previous results from many species. Surprisingly, however, influx was also markedly decreased in transgenic plants, despite stable levels of transgene expression in independent transformants after ammonium addition. We conclude that the conditions associated with the supply of a reduced nitrogen source such as ammonium, or with the generation of a further downstream metabolite, probably exert a repressive effect on NO3- influx at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  17. Mating type gene homologues and putative sex pheromone-sensing pathway in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a presumably asexual plant root symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Halary

    Full Text Available The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle.

  18. Determining putative vectors of the Bogia Coconut Syndrome phytoplasma using loop-mediated isothermal amplification of single-insect feeding media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hengyu; Wilson, Bree A. L.; Ash, Gavin J.; Woruba, Sharon B.; Fletcher, Murray J.; You, Minsheng; Yang, Guang; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect vectored mollicutes responsible for disease in many economically important crops. Determining which insect species are vectors of a given phytoplasma is important for managing disease but is methodologically challenging because disease-free plants need to be exposed to large numbers of insects, often over many months. A relatively new method to detect likely transmission involves molecular testing for phytoplasma DNA in sucrose solution that insects have fed upon. In this study we combined this feeding medium method with a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to study 627 insect specimens of 11 Hemiptera taxa sampled from sites in Papua New Guinea affected by Bogia coconut syndrome (BCS). The LAMP assay detected phytoplasma DNA from the feeding solution and head tissue of insects from six taxa belonging to four families: Derbidae, Lophopidae, Flatidae and Ricaniidae. Two other taxa yielded positives only from the heads and the remainder tested negative. These results demonstrate the utility of combining single-insect feeding medium tests with LAMP assays to identify putative vectors that can be the subject of transmission tests and to better understand phytoplasma pathosystems. PMID:27786249

  19. Marketing Plan for Demonstration and Validation Assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-05-30

    The National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), is to be sustained by various programs, including technology demonstration and evaluation (DEMVAL). This project assists companies in developing technologies under the National Security Technology Incubator program (NSTI) through demonstration and validation of technologies applicable to national security created by incubators and other sources. The NSPP also will support the creation of an integrated demonstration and validation environment. This report documents the DEMVAL marketing and visibility plan, which will focus on collecting information about, and expanding the visibility of, DEMVAL assets serving businesses with national security technology applications in southern New Mexico.

  20. Transportable Vitrification System Demonstration on Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from the first demonstration of the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) on actual mixed waste. The TVS is a fully integrated, transportable system for the treatment of mixed and low-level radioactive wastes. The demonstration was conducted at Oak Ridge's East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly known as the K-25 site. The purpose of the demonstration was to show that mixed wastes could be vitrified safely on a 'field' scale using joule-heated melter technology and obtain information on system performance, waste form durability, air emissions, and costs

  1. Prototype scale demonstration of CECE detritiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadhankar Ramesh; Cobanoglu, Macit

    2004-01-01

    AECL has developed and demonstrated the Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) Process for detritiation of heavy water. Although CECE has been the subject of pilot-scale demonstrations by various organizations, AECL is the first to demonstrate this technology in an industrial prototype plant. AECL designed, built and operated a CECE demonstration facility under CAN/CSA N286 Quality Assurance Program. The facility was licensed by the Canadian nuclear regulator. This was a two-fold demonstration of the CECE technology - for upgrading (removal of light water) and for detritiation of heavy water. In 1998 June, AECL began operating the facility in upgrading mode. The design feed rate ranged up to 25 Mg/a for 95 mol% D 2 O feed water. After 18 months of operation in upgrading mode, the facility was reconfigured and operated for an additional 9 months from 2000 August in detritiation mode. Design capacity for detritiation was 5 Mg/a with a detritiation factor (DF) of 100. However, significantly higher DFs, up to 56 000, were demonstrated. Highlights of the detritiation demonstration were: Proven robustness of AECL's proprietary wetproofed catalyst for Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange; Demonstration of a trickle-bed-recombiner for stoichiometric combination of deuterium and oxygen; Demonstration of electrolysis of highly tritiated heavy water; High process availability and controllability was demonstrated by a long interrupted run; Low emissions; Demonstration of high DF - up to 56 000 - a significant advantage of the CECE process over other approaches to detritiation; Validation of AECL's simulation code for the CECE process over a range of DFs from 100 to 50 000. Apart from the technology, AECL has expertise in all aspects of setting up a new detritiation facility including design, engineering, safety assessment, licensing support, project management and training. AECL is also the engineering and design contractor for a tritium removal facility that is under

  2. 2017 SmartWay Logistics Tool Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA presentation provides information on the SmartWay Logistics Carrier Tool: its background and development, participation in the program, application process, emission metrics, tool demonstration, data collection, and schedule for 2017.

  3. Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Edison Demonstration of SmallSat Networks (EDSN) mission will launch and deploy a group of eight cubesats into a loose formation approximately 250 miles (400...

  4. Reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.F.; Henderson, J.T.; MacDiarmid, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Security surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television are being deployed with increasing frequency for the protection of property and other valuable assets. A need exists to demonstrate the reliability of such systems before their installation to assure that the deployed systems will operate when needed with only the scheduled amount of maintenance and support costs. An approach to the reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television is described. Failure definitions based on industry television standards and imaging alarm assessment criteria for surveillance systems are discussed. Test methods which allow 24 hour a day operation without the need for numerous test scenarios, test personnel and elaborate test facilities are presented. Existing reliability demonstration standards are shown to apply which obviate the need for elaborate statistical tests. The demonstration methods employed are shown to have applications in other types of imaging surveillance systems besides closed circuit television

  5. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. D.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T., III; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Mertens, S.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G., II; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    2014-06-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment is currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, USA. An overview and status of the experiment are given.

  6. Classroom Demonstrations in Materials Science/Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, J. S.; And Others

    Examples are given of demonstrations used at the University of Wisconsin in a materials science course for nontechnical students. Topics include crystal models, thermal properties, light, and corrosion. (MLH)

  7. Lessons Learned from Microgrid Demonstrations Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Qu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-31

    The survey leads to policy recommendations for starting a microgrid demonstration program and overall development of microgrid and distributed energy. Additionally, specific recommendations have been made for China specifically.

  8. Keys to Successful EPIQ Business Demonstrator Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoikova, Elena; Denishev, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    Shoikova, E., & Denishev, V. (2009). Keys to Successful EPIQ Business Demonstrator Implementation. Paper presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19, 2009, Manchester, United Kingdom: TENCompetence.

  9. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert Calderon

    1998-01-01

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Conducting bench-scale tests to produce coke and acceptable tar from the process to satisfy Koppers, a prospective stakeholder; Consolidation of the project team players to execute the full size commercial cokemaking reactor demonstration; and Progress made in advancing the design of the full size commercial cokemaking reactor

  10. Medicare Demonstration Projects and Evaluation Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) conducts and sponsors a number of innovative demonstration projects to test and measure the effect of potential...

  11. Hybrid Life Support System Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Wetzel, J. P.; Richter, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    Demonstration of plant-based hybrid life support technologies in deep space will validate the function of these technologies for long duration missions, such as Mars transit, while providing dietary variety to improve habitability.

  12. Nuclear Systems (NS): Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nuclear Systems Project demonstrates nuclear power technology readiness to support the goals of NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate. To this end, the...

  13. Radioactive waste incineration system cold demonstration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Masahiro; Takaoku, Yoshinobu; Koyama, Shigeru; Nagae, Madoka; Seike, Yasuhiko; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Kenji; Manabe, Kyoichi

    1984-12-01

    To demonstrate Waste Incineration System (WIS) which our company has been licensed by Combustion Engineering Inc., USA we installed a demonstration test plant in our Hiratsuka Research Laboratory and started the demonstration test on January 1984. One of the characteristics of this system is to be able to process many kinds of wastes with only one system, and to get high volume reduction factors. In our test plant, we processed paper, cloth, wood, polyethylene sheets as the samples of solid combustible wastes and spent ion exchange resins with incineration and processed condensed liquid wastes with spray drying. We have got good performances and enough Decontamination Factor (DF) data for the dust control equipment. In this paper, we introduce this demonstration test plant and report the test results up to date. (author).

  14. Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-05-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop, held on March 12–13, 2014, at Argonne National Laboratory.

  15. Comparative genome analysis of 24 bovine-associated Staphylococcus isolates with special focus on the putative virulence genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Paulin, Lars; Blom, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) are most commonly isolated from subclinical mastitis. Different NAS species may, however, have diverse effects on the inflammatory response in the udder. We determined the genome sequences of 20 staphylococcal isolates from clinical or subclinical bovine mastitis, belonging to the NAS species Staphylococcus agnetis, S. chromogenes, and S. simulans, and focused on the putative virulence factor genes present in the genomes. For comparison we used our previously published genome sequences of four S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis. The pan-genome and core genomes of the non-aureus isolates were characterized. After that, putative virulence factor orthologues were searched in silico. We compared the presence of putative virulence factors in the NAS species and S. aureus and evaluated the potential association between bacterial genotype and type of mastitis (clinical vs. subclinical). The NAS isolates had much less virulence gene orthologues than the S. aureus isolates. One third of the virulence genes were detected only in S. aureus. About 100 virulence genes were present in all S. aureus isolates, compared to about 40 to 50 in each NAS isolate. S. simulans differed the most. Several of the virulence genes detected among NAS were harbored only by S. simulans, but it also lacked a number of genes present both in S. agnetis and S. chromogenes. The type of mastitis was not associated with any specific virulence gene profile. It seems that the virulence gene profiles or cumulative number of different virulence genes are not directly associated with the type of mastitis (clinical or subclinical), indicating that host derived factors such as the immune status play a pivotal role in the manifestation of mastitis. PMID:29610707

  16. Comparative genome analysis of 24 bovine-associated Staphylococcus isolates with special focus on the putative virulence genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja Åvall-Jääskeläinen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS are most commonly isolated from subclinical mastitis. Different NAS species may, however, have diverse effects on the inflammatory response in the udder. We determined the genome sequences of 20 staphylococcal isolates from clinical or subclinical bovine mastitis, belonging to the NAS species Staphylococcus agnetis, S. chromogenes, and S. simulans, and focused on the putative virulence factor genes present in the genomes. For comparison we used our previously published genome sequences of four S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis. The pan-genome and core genomes of the non-aureus isolates were characterized. After that, putative virulence factor orthologues were searched in silico. We compared the presence of putative virulence factors in the NAS species and S. aureus and evaluated the potential association between bacterial genotype and type of mastitis (clinical vs. subclinical. The NAS isolates had much less virulence gene orthologues than the S. aureus isolates. One third of the virulence genes were detected only in S. aureus. About 100 virulence genes were present in all S. aureus isolates, compared to about 40 to 50 in each NAS isolate. S. simulans differed the most. Several of the virulence genes detected among NAS were harbored only by S. simulans, but it also lacked a number of genes present both in S. agnetis and S. chromogenes. The type of mastitis was not associated with any specific virulence gene profile. It seems that the virulence gene profiles or cumulative number of different virulence genes are not directly associated with the type of mastitis (clinical or subclinical, indicating that host derived factors such as the immune status play a pivotal role in the manifestation of mastitis.

  17. VISLISI trial, a prospective clinical study allowing identification of a new metalloprotease and putative virulence factor from Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argemi, X; Prévost, G; Riegel, P; Keller, D; Meyer, N; Baldeyrou, M; Douiri, N; Lefebvre, N; Meghit, K; Ronde Oustau, C; Christmann, D; Cianférani, S; Strub, J M; Hansmann, Y

    2017-05-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus that displays an unusually high virulence rate close to that of Staphylococcus aureus. It also shares phenotypic properties with S. aureus and several studies found putative virulence factors. The objective of the study was to describe the clinical manifestations of S. lugdunensis infections and investigate putative virulence factors. We conducted a prospective study from November 2013 to March 2016 at the University Hospital of Strasbourg. Putative virulence factors were investigated by clumping factor detection, screening for proteolytic activity, and sequence analysis using tandem nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 347 positive samples for S. lugdunensis were collected, of which 129 (37.2%) were from confirmed cases of S. lugdunensis infection. Eighty-one of these 129 patients were included in the study. Bone and prosthetic joints (PJI) were the most frequent sites of infection (n=28; 34.6%) followed by skin and soft tissues (n=23; 28.4%). We identified and purified a novel protease secreted by 50 samples (61.7%), most frequently associated with samples from deep infections and PJI (pr 0.97 and pr 0.91, respectively). Protease peptide sequencing by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a novel protease bearing 62.42% identity with ShpI, a metalloprotease secreted by Staphylococcus hyicus. This study confirms the pathogenicity of S. lugdunensis, particularly in bone and PJI. We also identified a novel metalloprotease called lugdulysin that may contribute to virulence. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Markerless deletion of putative alanine dehydrogenase genes in Bacillus licheniformis using a codBA-based counterselection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostner, David; Rachinger, Michael; Liebl, Wolfgang; Ehrenreich, Armin

    2017-11-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strains are used for the large-scale production of industrial exoenzymes from proteinaceous substrates, but details of the amino acid metabolism involved are largely unknown. In this study, two chromosomal genes putatively involved in amino acid metabolism of B. licheniformis were deleted to clarify their role. For this, a convenient counterselection system for markerless in-frame deletions was developed for B. licheniformis. A deletion plasmid containing up- and downstream DNA segments of the chromosomal deletion target was conjugated to B. licheniformis and integrated into the genome by homologous recombination. Thereafter, the counterselection was done by using a codBA cassette. The presence of cytosine deaminase and cytosine permease exerted a conditionally lethal phenotype on B. licheniformis cells in the presence of the cytosine analogue 5-fluorocytosine. Thereby clones were selected that lost the integrated vector sequence and the anticipated deletion target after a second recombination step. This method allows the construction of markerless mutants in Bacillus strains in iterative cycles. B. licheniformis MW3 derivatives lacking either one of the ORFs BL03009 or BL00190, encoding a putative alanine dehydrogenase and a similar putative enzyme, respectively, retained the ability to grow in minimal medium supplemented with alanine as the carbon source. In the double deletion mutant MW3 ΔBL03009 ΔBL00190, however, growth on alanine was completely abolished. These data indicate that the two encoded enzymes are paralogues fulfilling mutually replaceable functions in alanine utilization, and suggest that in B. licheniformis MW3 alanine utilization is initiated by direct oxidative transamination to pyruvate and ammonium.

  19. Identification of putative and potential cross-reactive chickpea (Cicer arietinum) allergens through an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anuja; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi; Raman, Karthik

    2013-12-01

    Allergy has become a key cause of morbidity worldwide. Although many legumes (plants in the Fabaceae family) are healthy foods, they may have a number of allergenic proteins. A number of allergens have been identified and characterized in Fabaceae family, such as soybean and peanut, on the basis of biochemical and molecular biological approaches. However, our understanding of the allergens from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), belonging to this family, is very limited. In this study, we aimed to identify putative and cross-reactive allergens from Chickpea (C. arietinum) by means of in silico analysis of the chickpea protein sequences and allergens sequences from Fabaceae family. We retrieved known allergen sequences in Fabaceae family from the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Database. We performed a protein BLAST (BLASTp) on these sequences to retrieve the similar sequences from chickpea. We further analyzed the retrieved chickpea sequences using a combination of in silico tools, to assess them for their allergenicity potential. Following this, we built structure models using FUGUE: Sequence-structure homology; these models generated by the recognition tool were viewed in Swiss-PDB viewer. Through this in silico approach, we identified seven novel putative allergens from chickpea proteome sequences on the basis of similarity of sequence, structure and physicochemical properties with the known reported legume allergens. Four out of seven putative allergens may also show cross reactivity with reported allergens since potential allergens had common sequence and structural features with the reported allergens. The in silico proteomic identification of the allergen proteins in chickpea provides a basis for future research on developing hypoallergenic foods containing chickpea. Such bioinformatics approaches, combined with experimental methodology, will help delineate an efficient and comprehensive approach to assess allergenicity and pave the way for a better understanding of

  20. Space Internet-Embedded Web Technologies Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center recently demonstrated the ability to securely command and control space-based assets by using the Internet and standard Internet Protocols (IP). This is a significant accomplishment because future NASA missions will benefit by using Internet standards-based protocols. The benefits include reduced mission costs and increased mission efficiency. The Internet-Based Space Command and Control System Architecture demonstrated at the NASA Inspection 2000 event proved that this communications architecture is viable for future NASA missions.

  1. Some simple demonstration experiments involving homopolar motors

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Seán M.

    2007-01-01

    The ready availability of very strong permanent magnets in the form of rare-earth magnetic alloys such as neodymium-iron-boron has lead to renewed interest in one of the oldest types of electric motors - the homopolar motor. The ease with which a demonstration homopolar motor can now be built and operated when neodymium magnets are used is quite remarkable. In this paper some simple homopolar motors employing neodymium magnets suitable for demonstrational purposes are described and discussed....

  2. Some simple demonstration experiments involving homopolar motors

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart,Seán M.

    2007-01-01

    The ready availability of very strong permanent magnets in the form of rare-earth magnetic alloys such as neodymium-iron-boron has lead to renewed interest in one of the oldest types of electric motors - the homopolar motor. The ease with which a demonstration homopolar motor can now be built and operated when neodymium magnets are used is quite remarkable. In this paper some simple homopolar motors employing neodymium magnets suitable for demonstrational purposes are described and discussed.

  3. Postirradiation examination of ORR demonstration elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Copeland, G.L.; Hofman, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Postirradiation examinations of selected U 3 Si 2 fuel elements fabricated by B and W, CERCA, and NUKEM and irradiated during the whole core demonstration in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are nearing completion. The results of all tests have shown the demonstration fuel elements, produced under production-line conditions, to have performed in the excellent manner expected from earlier tests of miniature fuel plates and full-sized elements. (orig.)

  4. Guidance manual for conducting technology demonstration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Robert L.; Morris, Michael I.; Singh, Suman P.N.

    1991-12-01

    This demonstration guidance manual has been prepared to assist Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), staff in conducting demonstrations. It is prepared in checklist style to facilitate its use and assumes that Energy Systems personnel have project management responsibility. In addition to a detailed step-by-step listing of procedural considerations, a general checklist, logic flow diagram, and several examples of necessary plans are included to assist the user in developing an understanding of the many complex activities required to manage technology demonstrations. Demonstrations are pilot-scale applications of often innovative technologies to determine the commercial viability of the technologies to perform their designed function. Demonstrations are generally conducted on well-defined problems for which existing technologies or processes are less than satisfactory in terms of effectiveness, cost, and/or regulatory compliance. Critically important issues in demonstration management include, but are not limited to, such factors as communications with line and matrix management and with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems staff responsible for management oversight, budgetary and schedule requirements, regulatory compliance, and safety.

  5. Guidance manual for conducting technology demonstration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1991-12-01

    This demonstration guidance manual has been prepared to assist Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), staff in conducting demonstrations. It is prepared in checklist style to facilitate its use and assumes that Energy Systems personnel have project management responsibility. In addition to a detailed step-by-step listing of procedural considerations, a general checklist, logic flow diagram, and several examples of necessary plans are included to assist the user in developing an understanding of the many complex activities required to manage technology demonstrations. Demonstrations are pilot-scale applications of often innovative technologies to determine the commercial viability of the technologies to perform their designed function. Demonstrations are generally conducted on well-defined problems for which existing technologies or processes are less than satisfactory in terms of effectiveness, cost, and/or regulatory compliance. Critically important issues in demonstration management include, but are not limited to, such factors as communications with line and matrix management and with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems staff responsible for management oversight, budgetary and schedule requirements, regulatory compliance, and safety

  6. Transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the viable putative non-culturable state of beer-spoilage Lactobacillus acetotolerans

    OpenAIRE

    Junyan Liu; Yang Deng; Brian M. Peters; Lin Li; Bing Li; Lequn Chen; Zhenbo Xu; Mark E. Shirtliff

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria regardless of beer type, and thus pose significant problems for the brewery industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms involved in the ability of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus acetotolerans to enter into the viable putative non-culturable (VPNC) state. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of beer-spoilage L. acetotolerans strains BM-LA14526, BM-LA14527, and BM-LA1...

  7. Comparative Analysis of Putative Orthologues of Mitochondrial Import Motor Subunit: Pam18 and Pam16 in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuejin; Ghazanfar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui

    2013-01-01

    Pam18/Tim14 and Pam16/Tim16, highly conserved proteins among eukaryotes, are two essential subunits of protein import motors localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The heterodimer formed by Pam18 and Pam16 via their J-type domains serves a regulatory function in protein translocation. Here, we report that thirty-one Pam18 and twenty-six Pam16 putative orthologues in twelve plant species were identified and analyzed through bioinformatics strategy. Results data revealed that Pam18 and ...

  8. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Tityus pachyurus and Tityus obscurus novel putative Na+-channel scorpion toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy A Guerrero-Vargas

    Full Text Available Colombia and Brazil are affected by severe cases of scorpionism. In Colombia the most dangerous accidents are caused by Tityus pachyurus that is widely distributed around this country. In the Brazilian Amazonian region scorpion stings are a common event caused by Tityus obscurus. The main objective of this work was to perform the molecular cloning of the putative Na(+-channel scorpion toxins (NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus venom glands and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other known NaScTxs from Tityus species.cDNA libraries from venom glands of these two species were constructed and five nucleotide sequences from T. pachyurus were identified as putative modulators of Na(+-channels, and were named Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, Tpa7 and Tpa8; the latter being the first anti-insect excitatory β-class NaScTx in Tityus scorpion venom to be described. Fifteen sequences from T. obscurus were identified as putative NaScTxs, among which three had been previously described, and the others were named To4 to To15. The peptides Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, To6, To7, To9, To10 and To14 are closely related to the α-class NaScTxs, whereas Tpa7, Tpa8, To4, To8, To12 and To15 sequences are more related to the β-class NaScTxs. To5 is possibly an arthropod specific toxin. To11 and To13 share sequence similarities with both α and β NaScTxs. By means of phylogenetic analysis using the Maximum Parsimony method and the known NaScTxs from Tityus species, these toxins were clustered into 14 distinct groups.This communication describes new putative NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus and their phylogenetic analysis. The results indicate clear geographic separation between scorpions of Tityus genus inhabiting the Amazonian and Mountain Andes regions and those distributed over the Southern of the Amazonian rainforest. Based on the consensus sequences for the different clusters, a new nomenclature for the NaScTxs is proposed.

  9. Transforming properties of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in vitro and their transcriptional activity in feline squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamura, Gennaro, E-mail: gennaro.altamura@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Corteggio, Annunziata, E-mail: ancorteg@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Pacini, Laura, E-mail: PaciniL@students.iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Conte, Andrea, E-mail: andreaconte88@hotmail.it [Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria, E-mail: gmpieran@unina.it [Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tommasino, Massimo, E-mail: tommasinom@iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Accardi, Rosita, E-mail: accardir@iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Borzacchiello, Giuseppe, E-mail: borzacch@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) DNA is found in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); however, its biological properties are still uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully expressed FcaPV2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in feline epithelial cells and demonstrated that FcaPV2 E6 binds to p53, impairing its protein level. In addition, E6 and E7 inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-triggered accumulation of p53, p21 and pro-apoptotic markers such as Cleaved Caspase3, Bax and Bak, suggesting a synergistic action of the virus with UV exposure in tumour pathogenesis. Furthermore, FcaPV2 E7 bound to feline pRb and impaired pRb levels, resulting in upregulation of the downstream pro-proliferative genes Cyclin A and Cdc2. Importantly, we demonstrated mRNA expression of FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 in feline SCC samples, strengthening the hypothesis of a causative role in the development of feline SCC. - Highlights: • FcaPV2 E6 binds to and deregulates feline p53 protein. • FcaPV2 E7 binds to and deregulates feline pRb protein. • FcaPV2 oncogenes inhibit UVB-induced apoptosis. • FcaPV2 E6E7 and E7 increase the lifespan of primary cells. • FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 are expressed at the mRNA level in feline SCC in vivo.

  10. Target specificity, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of the putative STAT3 inhibitor LY5 in osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Y Yu

    Full Text Available STAT3 is a transcription factor involved in cytokine and receptor kinase signal transduction that is aberrantly activated in a variety of sarcomas, promoting metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel putative STAT3 inhibitor, LY5.An in silico fragment-based drug design strategy was used to create LY5, a small molecule inhibitor that blocks the STAT3 SH2 domain phosphotyrosine binding site, inhibiting homodimerization. LY5 was evaluated in vitro demonstrating good biologic activity against rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma cell lines at high nanomolar/low micromolar concentrations, as well as specific inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation without effects on other STAT3 family members. LY5 exhibited excellent oral bioavailability in both mice and healthy dogs, and drug absorption was enhanced in the fasted state with tolerable dosing in mice at 40 mg/kg BID. However, RNAi-mediated knockdown of STAT3 did not phenocopy the biologic effects of LY5 in sarcoma cell lines. Moreover, concentrations needed to inhibit ex vivo metastasis growth using the PuMA assay were significantly higher than those needed to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation in vitro. Lastly, LY5 treatment did not inhibit the growth of sarcoma xenografts or prevent pulmonary metastasis in mice.LY5 is a novel small molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations. LY5 demonstrates good oral bioavailability in mice and dogs. However LY5 did not decrease tumor growth in xenograft mouse models and STAT3 knockdown did not induce concordant biologic effects. These data suggest that the anti-cancer effects of LY5 identified in vitro were not mediated through STAT3 inhibition.

  11. Target specificity, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of the putative STAT3 inhibitor LY5 in osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Heather L; Roberts, Ryan; Cam, Hakan; Hariharan, Seethalakshmi; Ren, Ling; LeBlanc, Amy K; Xiao, Hui; Lin, Jiayuh; Guttridge, Denis C; Mo, Xiaokui; Bennett, Chad E; Coss, Christopher C; Ling, Yonghua; Phelps, Mitch A; Houghton, Peter; London, Cheryl A

    2017-01-01

    STAT3 is a transcription factor involved in cytokine and receptor kinase signal transduction that is aberrantly activated in a variety of sarcomas, promoting metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel putative STAT3 inhibitor, LY5. An in silico fragment-based drug design strategy was used to create LY5, a small molecule inhibitor that blocks the STAT3 SH2 domain phosphotyrosine binding site, inhibiting homodimerization. LY5 was evaluated in vitro demonstrating good biologic activity against rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma cell lines at high nanomolar/low micromolar concentrations, as well as specific inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation without effects on other STAT3 family members. LY5 exhibited excellent oral bioavailability in both mice and healthy dogs, and drug absorption was enhanced in the fasted state with tolerable dosing in mice at 40 mg/kg BID. However, RNAi-mediated knockdown of STAT3 did not phenocopy the biologic effects of LY5 in sarcoma cell lines. Moreover, concentrations needed to inhibit ex vivo metastasis growth using the PuMA assay were significantly higher than those needed to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation in vitro. Lastly, LY5 treatment did not inhibit the growth of sarcoma xenografts or prevent pulmonary metastasis in mice. LY5 is a novel small molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations. LY5 demonstrates good oral bioavailability in mice and dogs. However LY5 did not decrease tumor growth in xenograft mouse models and STAT3 knockdown did not induce concordant biologic effects. These data suggest that the anti-cancer effects of LY5 identified in vitro were not mediated through STAT3 inhibition.

  12. Orbital Express fluid transfer demonstration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberger, Scott; SooHoo, David; Abraham, Gabriel

    2008-04-01

    Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft is no longer in the realm of high risk development. The recently concluded Orbital Express (OE) mission included a fluid transfer demonstration that operated the hardware and control logic in space, bringing the Technology Readiness Level to a solid TRL 7 (demonstration of a system prototype in an operational environment). Orbital Express (funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA) was launched aboard an Atlas-V rocket on March 9th, 2007. The mission had the objective of demonstrating technologies needed for routine servicing of spacecraft, namely autonomous rendezvous and docking, propellant resupply, and orbital replacement unit transfer. The demonstration system used two spacecraft. A servicing vehicle (ASTRO) performed multiple dockings with the client (NextSat) spacecraft, and performed a variety of propellant transfers in addition to exchanges of a battery and computer. The fluid transfer and propulsion system onboard ASTRO, in addition to providing the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) thruster system for rendezvous and docking, demonstrated autonomous transfer of monopropellant hydrazine to or from the NextSat spacecraft 15 times while on orbit. The fluid transfer system aboard the NextSat vehicle was designed to simulate a variety of client systems, including both blowdown pressurization and pressure regulated propulsion systems. The fluid transfer demonstrations started with a low level of autonomy, where ground controllers were allowed to review the status of the demonstration at numerous points before authorizing the next steps to be performed. The final transfers were performed at a full autonomy level where the ground authorized the start of a transfer sequence and then monitored data as the transfer proceeded. The major steps of a fluid transfer included the following: mate of the coupling, leak check of the coupling, venting of the coupling, priming of the coupling, fluid transfer, gauging

  13. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has the leading role for NASA s preliminary conceptual launch vehicle design and performance analysis. Over the past several years the ACO Earth-to-Orbit Team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a multitude of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). NASA plans to continue human space exploration and space station utilization. Launch vehicles used for heavy lift cargo and crew will be needed. One of the current leading concepts for future heavy lift capability is an inline one and a half stage concept using solid rocket boosters (SRB) and based on current Shuttle technology and elements. Potentially, the quickest and most cost-effective path towards an operational vehicle of this configuration is to make use of a demonstrator vehicle fabricated from existing shuttle assets and relying upon the existing STS launch infrastructure. Such a demonstrator would yield valuable proof-of-concept data and would provide a working test platform allowing for validated systems integration. Using shuttle hardware such as existing RS-25D engines and partial MPS, propellant tanks derived from the External Tank (ET) design and tooling, and four-segment SRB s could reduce the associated upfront development costs and schedule when compared to a concept that would rely on new propulsion technology and engine designs. There are potentially several other additional benefits to this demonstrator concept. Since a concept of this type would be based on man-rated flight proven hardware components, this demonstrator has the potential to evolve into the first iteration of heavy lift crew or cargo and serve as a baseline for block upgrades. This vehicle could also serve as a demonstration

  14. Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Chun-hua; Chen, Xun; Tan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The conventional reliability demonstration tests are difficult to apply to products with competing failure modes due to the complexity of the lifetime models. This paper develops a testing methodology based on the reliability target allocation for reliability demonstration under competing failure modes at accelerated conditions. The specified reliability at mission time and the risk caused by sampling of the reliability target for products are allocated for each failure mode. The risk caused by degradation measurement fitting of the target for a product involving performance degradation is equally allocated to each degradation failure mode. According to the allocated targets, the accelerated life reliability demonstration test (ALRDT) plans for the failure modes are designed. The accelerated degradation reliability demonstration test plans and the associated ALRDT plans for the degradation failure modes are also designed. Next, the test plan and the decision rules for the products are designed. Additionally, the effects of the discreteness of sample size and accepted number of failures for failure modes on the actual risks caused by sampling for the products are investigated. - Highlights: • Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes is studied. • The method is based on the reliability target allocation involving the risks. • The test plan for the products is based on the plans for all the failure modes. • Both failure mode and degradation failure modes are considered. • The error of actual risks caused by sampling for the products is small enough

  15. Decision support software technology demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.; ARMSTRONG,A.

    1998-09-01

    The performance evaluation of innovative and alternative environmental technologies is an integral part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mission. Early efforts focused on evaluating technologies that supported the implementation of the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. In 1986 the Agency began to demonstrate and evaluate the cost and performance of remediation and monitoring technologies under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program (in response to the mandate in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)). In 1990, the US Technology Policy was announced. This policy placed a renewed emphasis on making the best use of technology in achieving the national goals of improved quality of life for all Americans, continued economic growth, and national security. In the spirit of the technology policy, the Agency began to direct a portion of its resources toward the promotion, recognition, acceptance, and use of US-developed innovative environmental technologies both domestically and abroad. Decision Support Software (DSS) packages integrate environmental data and simulation models into a framework for making site characterization, monitoring, and cleanup decisions. To limit the scope which will be addressed in this demonstration, three endpoints have been selected for evaluation: Visualization; Sample Optimization; and Cost/Benefit Analysis. Five topics are covered in this report: the objectives of the demonstration; the elements of the demonstration plan; an overview of the Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot; an overview of the technology verification process; and the purpose of this demonstration plan.

  16. Loop Group Parakeet Virtual Cable Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, T.; McNeill, T. C.; Reynolds, A. B.; Blair, W. D.

    2002-07-01

    The Parakeet Virtual Cable (PVC) concept demonstrator uses the Ethernet Local Area Network (LAN) laid for the Battle Command Support System (BCSS) to connect the Parakeet DVT(DA) (voice terminal) to the Parakeet multiplexer. This currently requires pairs of PVC interface units to be installed for each DVT(DA) . To reduce the cost of a PVC installation, the concept of a Loop Group Parakeet Virtual Cable (LGPVC) was proposed. This device was designed to replace the up to 30 PVC boxes and the multiplexer at the multiplexer side of a PVC installation. While the demonstrator is largely complete, testing has revealed an incomplete understanding of how to emulate the proprietary handshaking occurring between the circuit switch and the multiplexer. The LGPVC concept cannot yet be demonstrated.

  17. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  18. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji-Won; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Duty, Chad E.; Gresback, Ryan; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Jellison, Gerald Earle; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Jung, Hyunsung; Meyer, Harry M.; Phelps, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  19. Optimizing Probability of Detection Point Estimate Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2017-01-01

    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-18231and associated mh18232POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. The paper provides discussion on optimizing probability of detection (POD) demonstration experiments using Point Estimate Method. POD Point estimate method is used by NASA for qualifying special NDE procedures. The point estimate method uses binomial distribution for probability density. Normally, a set of 29 flaws of same size within some tolerance are used in the demonstration. The optimization is performed to provide acceptable value for probability of passing demonstration (PPD) and achieving acceptable value for probability of false (POF) calls while keeping the flaw sizes in the set as small as possible.

  20. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.