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Sample records for putative crustacean hyperglycemic

  1. Putative pacemakers in the eyestalk and brain of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii show circadian oscillations in levels of mRNA for crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.

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    Janikua Nelson-Mora

    Full Text Available Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress.

  2. Molecular cloning of a putative crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) isoform from extra-eyestalk tissue of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and determination of temporal and spatial patterns of CHH gene expression.

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    Zheng, Junying; Chen, Hsiang-Yin; Choi, Cheol Young; Roer, Robert D; Watson, R Douglas

    2010-11-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a polypeptide neurohormone involved in regulation of multiple physiological processes. We report here the cloning from thoracic ganglia of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) a cDNA (CsCHH-2) encoding a putative CHH isoform (CsCHH-2). CsCHH-2 is structurally similar to a putative preproCHH (CsCHH-1) previously cloned from eyestalk ganglia of C. sapidus. The two preprohormones possess an identical signal peptide and CHH precursor related peptide, but differ in the mature CHH polypeptide. An analysis by RT-PCR of the tissue distribution of CsCHH-1 and CsCHH-2 revealed the former is restricted to eyestalk neural ganglia, while the latter is widely distributed among tissues. The type of CHH transcript present in eyestalk and thoracic ganglia did not vary as a function of the molt cycle. An assessment of transcript abundance in tissues of intermolt crabs showed the abundance of the CsCHH-1 transcript in eyestalk ganglia far exceeds the abundance of the CsCHH-2 transcript in extra-eyestalk tissue. An assessment of transcript abundance during a molt cycle showed CsCHH-1 transcript abundance in eyestalk ganglia was low during intermolt, rose during premolt, reaching a peak in D(3), then fell prior to molting, and remained low during postmolt. By contrast, CsCHH-2 transcript abundance in thoracic ganglia was low during intermolt, rose sharply during D(2), then dropped in D(3) and remained low during postmolt. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that CsCHH-1 and CsCHH-2 differ with respect to physiological function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone is synthesized in the eyestalk and brain of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

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    Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa; Escamilla-Chimal, Elsa G

    2017-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a neuropeptide that is synthesized, stored, and released by brain and eyestalk structures in decapods. CHH participates in the regulation of several mechanisms, including increasing the level of glucose in hemolymph. Although CHH mRNA levels have been quantified and the CHH protein has been localized in various structures of the crayfish P. clarkii, CHH synthesis has only been reported in the X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG). Therefore, the aim of this study was to use in situ hybridization to determine whether CHH mRNA is located in other structures, including the putative pacemaker, eyestalk and brain, of crayfish P. clarkii at two times of day. CHH mRNA was observed in both the eyestalk and the brain of P. clarkii, indicating that CHH is synthesized in several structures in common with other crustaceans, possibly to provide metabolic support for these regions by increasing glucose levels.

  4. Molecular evolution of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family in ecdysozoans

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    2010-01-01

    Background Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) family peptides are neurohormones known to regulate several important functions in decapod crustaceans such as ionic and energetic metabolism, molting and reproduction. The structural conservation of these peptides, together with the variety of functions they display, led us to investigate their evolutionary history. CHH family peptides exist in insects (Ion Transport Peptides) and may be present in all ecdysozoans as well. In order to extend the evolutionary study to the entire family, CHH family peptides were thus searched in taxa outside decapods, where they have been, to date, poorly investigated. Results CHH family peptides were characterized by molecular cloning in a branchiopod crustacean, Daphnia magna, and in a collembolan, Folsomia candida. Genes encoding such peptides were also rebuilt in silico from genomic sequences of another branchiopod, a chelicerate and two nematodes. These sequences were included in updated datasets to build phylogenies of the CHH family in pancrustaceans. These phylogenies suggest that peptides found in Branchiopoda and Collembola are more closely related to insect ITPs than to crustacean CHHs. Datasets were also used to support a phylogenetic hypothesis about pancrustacean relationships, which, in addition to gene structures, allowed us to propose two evolutionary scenarios of this multigenic family in ecdysozoans. Conclusions Evolutionary scenarios suggest that CHH family genes of ecdysozoans originate from an ancestral two-exon gene, and genes of arthropods from a three-exon one. In malacostracans, the evolution of the CHH family has involved several duplication, insertion or deletion events, leading to neuropeptides with a wide variety of functions, as observed in decapods. This family could thus constitute a promising model to investigate the links between gene duplications and functional divergence. PMID:20184761

  5. CHHBP: a newly identified receptor of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.

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    Li, Ran; Tian, Jin-Ze; Zhuang, Cui-Heng; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Geng, Xu-Yun; Zhu, Li-Na; Sun, Jin-Sheng

    2016-04-15

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a neurohormone found only in arthropods that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of hemolymph glucose levels, molting and stress responses. Although it was determined that a membrane guanylyl cyclase (GC) acts as the CHH receptor in the Y-organ during ecdysteroidogenesis, the identity of the CHH receptor in the hepatopancreas has not been established. In this study, we identified CHH binding protein (CHHBP), as a potential receptor by screening the annotated unigenes from the transcriptome of ITALIC! Eriocheir sinensis, after removal of the eyestalk. Analysis of the binding affinity between CHH and CHHBP provided direct evidence that CHH interacts with CHHBP in a specific binding mode. Subsequent analysis showed that CHHBP is expressed primarily in the hepatopancreas where it localizes to the cell membrane. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed that ITALIC! CHHBPtranscript levels gradually increase in the hepatopancreas following eyestalk ablation. RNAi-mediated suppression of ITALIC! CHHBPexpression resulted in decreased glucose levels. Furthermore, the reduction of blood glucose induced by ITALIC! CHHBPRNAi reached the same level as that observed in the eyestalk ablation group, suggesting that CHHBP is involved in glucose metabolism regulated by CHH. In addition, compared with the control group, injection of CHH was unable to rescue the decreased glucose levels in ITALIC! CHHBPRNAi crabs. CHH induced transport of 2-NBDG to the outside of cells, with indispensable assistance from CHHBP. Taken together, these findings suggest that CHHBP acts as one type of the primary signal processor of CHH-mediated regulation of cellular glucose metabolism. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Isolation and amino acid sequence of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptides.

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    Tensen, C P; Verhoeven, A H; Gaus, G; Janssen, K P; Keller, R; Van Herp, F

    1991-01-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is synthesized as part of a larger preprohormone in which the sequence of CHH is N-terminally flanked by a peptide for which the name CPRP (CHH precursor-related peptide) is proposed. Both CHH and CPRP are present in the sinus gland, the neurohemal organ of neurosecretory cells located in the eyestalk of decapod crustaceans. This paper describes the isolation and sequence analysis of CPRPs isolated from sinus glands of the crab Carcinus maenas, the crayfish Orconectes limosus and the lobster Homarus americanus. The published sequence of "peptide H" isolated from the land crab, Cardisoma carnifex, has now been recognized as a CPRP in this species. Sequence comparison reveals a high level of identity for the N-terminal region (residues 1-13) between all four peptides, while identity in the C-terminal domain is high between lobster and crayfish CPRP on the one hand, and between both crab species on the other. Conserved N-terminal residues include a putative monobasic processing site at position 11, which suggests that CPRP may be a biosynthetic intermediate from which a potentially bioactive decapeptide can be derived.

  7. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (cHH as a modulator of aggression in crustacean decapods.

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    Laura Aquiloni

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1 'control pairs' (CP, n = 8: both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS; (2 'reinforced pairs' (RP, n = 9: the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3 'inverted pairs' (IP, n = 9: the opposite of (2. We found that, independently of the crayfish's prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii higher glycemic levels, and (iii lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans.

  8. Circadian modulation of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in crayfish eyestalk and retina.

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    Fanjul-Moles, Maria Luisa; Escamilla-Chimal, Elsa Guadalupe; Salceda, Rocio; Giulianini, Piero G; Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggested the retina could be a putative locus of daily crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) secretion, as it possesses its own metabolic machinery and is independent of the well-known CHH eyestalk locus responsible for the circadian secretion of this peptide. However, it has been proposed that hemolymph glucose and lactate concentrations play a dual role in the regulation of CHH in crayfish. To elucidate the temporal relationship between these two different CHH production loci and to examine their relationship with glucose regulation, we investigated the expression of CHH daily and circadian rhythms in the eyestalk and retina of crayfish using biochemical methods and time series analysis. We wanted to determine whether (1) putative retina and eyestalk CHH rhythmic expressions are correlated and if the oscillations of the two metabolic products of lactate and glucose in the blood due to CHH action on the target tissue correlate, and (2) retina CHH (RCHH) and the possible retinal substrate glycogen and its product glucose are temporally correlated. We found a negative correlation between daily and circadian changes of relative CHH abundance in the retina and eyestalk. This correlation and the cross-correlation values found between eyestalk CHH and hemolymph and glucose confirm that CHH produced by the X-organ sinus gland complex is under the previously proposed dual feedback control system over the 24 h time period. However, the presence of both glycogen and glucose in the retina, the cross-correlation values found between these parameters and hemolymph lactate and glucose, as well as RCHH and hemolymph and retina metabolic markers suggest RCHH is not under the same temporal metabolic control as eyestalk CHH. Nonetheless, their expression may be linked to common rhythms-generating processes.

  9. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones directly modulate the immune response of hemocytes in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Wang, Lin; Chen, Hao; Xu, Jianchao; Xu, Qingsong; Wang, Mengqiang; Zhao, Depeng; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2017-03-01

    A robust immune response against invading pathogens is crucial for host to survive, which depends greatly on the well balance of metabolism. Increasing evidence has indicated that some metabolic hormones, such as insulin, could modulate immune responses directly. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family is a group of ecdysozoans-specific peptide hormone involved in glucose metabolism and other biological events. In the present study, two members of CHH family (designated as LvCHH I and LvCHH II) in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with one and two crustacean neurohormone domains respectively were chosen to investigate their putative modulatory roles in both glucose metabolism and immune response. LvCHH I and LvCHH II were both expressed in the sinus gland and lamina ganglionalis of eyestalks and were significantly induced after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Meanwhile, significant increases of hemolymph glucose levels were observed in shrimp at 12 and 24 h after WSSV infection while the glucose inside the hemocytes decreased at 6 h and then increased at 12 h. Gain-of-function of rLvCHHs was subsequently conducted in vivo by injecting the recombinant proteins (rLvCHH I and rLvCHH II). The hemolymph glucose increased significantly from 0.5 h to 3 h after the shrimps received an injection of rLvCHH I, while it decreased at 0.5 h and increased afterward at 3 h post rLvCHH II injection. At the meantime, significant decreases of reactive oxygen species level in hemocytes were observed at 3 h and 6 h post rLvCHH I injection, while it remained unchanged in rLvCHH II injection group. rLvCHH I and rLvCHH II could bind to the cytomembrane of primary shrimp hemocytes in vitro, and the expressions of superoxide dismutase and LvRelish increased when the hemocytes were incubated with rLvCHH I for 3 h. Meanwhile, the expression of antimicrobial peptides, crustin and penaeidin-4, were also induced by rLvCHH I and rLvCHH II. These results demonstrated that

  10. Hyperglycemic activity of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone B1 isoform (CHH-B1) of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Aguilar, Manuel B; Re, Ana Denisse; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is the most abundant neuropeptide produced by the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the crustacean eyestalk. CHH plays a principal role in the control of glucose metabolism. The CHH-B1 isoform is produced in the eyestalk of Litopenaeus vannamei by alternative splicing of the chhB gene and its cDNA sequence has revealed that this isoform has a non-amidated C-terminal residue (CHH-like peptide). In this work, a recombinant CHH-B1 (rCHH-B1) with a sequence identical to the native hormone was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33 and purified from the culture medium by RP-HPLC. The identity of the purified rCHH-B1 was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and by using an anti-CHH-B1 polyclonal antibody. An in vivo assay showed that the hyperglycemic effect was dependant of the dosage of rCHH-B1, and the maximal hyperglycemic response was obtained with 250pmol treatment. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence of the C-terminus and its correct structure are both important for the hyperglycemic activity of naturally occurring non-amidated CHH peptides, such as CHH-B1. CHH-B1 appears to be the first reported CHH-like peptide with significant hyperglycemic activity produced in the sinus gland of a penaeid shrimp.

  11. Crustacean hyperglycemic and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormones in the lobster Homarus gammarus.

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    Ollivaux, Céline; Vinh, Joëlle; Soyez, Daniel; Toullec, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), produced by the X organ-sinus gland neurosecretory complex, belong to a peptide group referred to as the CHH family, which is widely distributed in arthropods. In this study, genetic variants and post-translationally modified isoforms of CHH and VIH were characterized in the European lobster Homarus gammarus. With the use of RP-HPLC and ELISA with specific antibodies that discriminate between stereoisomers of CHH and VIH, two groups of CHH-immunoreactive peaks were characterized from HPLC fractions of sinus gland extract (CHH A and CHH B); each group contained two variants (CHH and D-Phe3CHH). In the same way, two VIH-immunoreactive peaks (VIH and D-Trp4VIH) were demonstrated in HPLC fractions from sinus gland extract. The masses of these different neuropeptides were determined by FT-ICR MS: CHH A and CHH B spectra exhibited monoisotopic ions at 8557.05 Da and 8527.04 Da, respectively, and both VIH isomers displayed an m/z value of 9129.19 Da. Two full-length cDNAs encoding preprohomones of CHH A and CHH B and only one cDNA for VIH precursor were cloned and sequenced from X organ RNA. Comparison of CHH sequences between European lobster and other Astacoidea suggests that the most hydrophobic form appeared first during crustacean evolution.

  12. Molecular cloning, characterization and recombinant expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Liu, Maoqi; Pan, Luqing; Li, Li; Zheng, Debin

    2014-03-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) plays an important role in crustacean. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of CHH was cloned from the eyestalk of Litopenaeus vannamei by RACE approach for the first time. The full-length cDNA of LvCHH was 846 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 65 bp, a 3' UTR of 436 bp with a canonical polyadenylation signal-sequence AATAA and a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 345 bp. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 114 amino acids including a 24 amino acid signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (74 amino acids) was 8.76 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.78. The sequence of LvCHH was submitted in NCBI GenBank under the accession number HM748790.2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvCHH was clustered with CHH of other crustaceans. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the expression of LvCHH mRNA was observed in all tissues but gill, and was highest in heart. Specific primers containing Xho I and BamH I restriction sites respectively, were designed based on the obtained ORF sequence of LvCHH gene and the cloning sites of expression vector pET-32a (+). The recombinant plasmid LvCHH-pET32a, was used to transform Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). LvCHH was successfully expressed by means of SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. We detected gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity after rLvCHH protein injection and found that All the experimental group Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity presented peak change among 0-6h, and the peaks of all treated groups occurred in 1 h. 20 and 30 μg/shrimp(-1) groups showed significant increase (Pcrustacean osmoregulation physiological mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization, localization and temporal expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the behaviorally rhythmic peracarid crustaceans, Eurydice pulchra (Leach) and Talitrus saltator (Montagu).

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    Hoelters, Laura; O'Grady, Joseph Francis; Webster, Simon George; Wilcockson, David Charles

    2016-10-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) has been extensively studied in decapod crustaceans where it is known to exert pleiotropic effects, including regulation of blood glucose levels. Hyperglycemia in decapods seems to be temporally gated to coincide with periods of activity, under circadian clock control. Here, we used gene cloning, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to describe the characterization and localization of CHH in two peracarid crustaceans, Eurydice pulchra and Talitrus saltator. We also exploited the robust behavioral rhythmicity of these species to test the hypothesis that CHH mRNA expression would resonate with their circatidal (12.4h) and circadian (24h) behavioral phenotypes. We show that both species express a single CHH transcript in the cerebral ganglia, encoding peptides featuring all expected, conserved characteristics of other CHHs. E. pulchra preproCHH is an amidated 73 amino acid peptide N-terminally flanked by a short, 18 amino acid precursor related peptide (CPRP) whilst the T. saltator prohormone is also amidated but 72 amino acids in length and has a 56 residue CPRP. The localization of both was mapped by immunohistochemistry to the protocerebrum with axon tracts leading to the sinus gland and into the tritocerebrum, with striking similarities to terrestrial isopod species. We substantiated the cellular position of CHH immunoreactive cells by in situ hybridization. Although both species showed robust activity rhythms, neither exhibited rhythmic transcriptional activity indicating that CHH transcription is not likely to be under clock control. These data make a contribution to the inventory of CHHs that is currently lacking for non-decapod species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones of two cold water crab species, Chionoecetes opilio and C. japonicus: isolation of cDNA sequences and localization of CHH neuropeptide in eyestalk ganglia.

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    Chung, J Sook; Ahn, I S; Yu, O H; Kim, D S

    2015-04-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is primarily known for its prototypical function in hyperglycemia which is induced by the release of CHH. The CHH release takes place as an adaptive response to the energy demands of the animals experiencing stressful environmental, physiological or behavioral conditions. Although >63 decapod CHH nucleotide sequences are known (GenBank), the majority of them is garnered from the species inhabiting shallow and warm water. In order to understand the adaptive role of CHH in Chionoecetes opilio and Chionoecetes japonicus inhabiting deep water environments, we first aimed for the isolation of the full-length cDNA sequence of CHH from the eyestalk ganglia of C. opilio (ChoCHH) and C. japonicus (ChjCHH) using degenerate PCR and 5' and 3' RACE. Cho- and ChjCHH cDNA sequences are identical in 5' UTR and ORF with 100% sequence identity of the putative 138aa of preproCHHs. The length of 3' UTR ChjCHH cDNA sequence is 39 nucleotides shorter than that of ChoCHH. This is the first report in decapod crustaceans that two different species have the identical sequence of CHH. ChoCHH expression increases during embryogenesis of C. opilio and is significantly higher in adult males and females. C. japonicus males have slightly higher ChjCHH expression than C. opilio males, but no statistical difference. In both species, the immunostaining intensity of CHH is stronger in the sinus gland than that of X-organ cells. Future studies will enable us to gain better understanding of the comparative metabolic physiology and endocrinology of cold, deep water species of Chionoecetes spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NEUROSECRETION OF CRUSTACEAN HYPERGLYCEMIC HORMONE EVOKED BY AXONAL STIMULATION OR ELEVATION OF SALINE K+ CONCENTRATION QUANTIFIED BY A SENSITIVE IMMUNOASSAY METHOD

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    Keller; Haylett; Cooke

    1994-03-01

    A sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was utilized to quantify crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (as Carcinus maenas equivalents) released by single X-organ­sinus gland systems of the crab Cardisoma carnifex during continuous perifusion. Basal rates of secretion (20­60 pg min-1) were stable for at least 4 h. Electrical stimulation (600 stimuli in 5 min) of the axon tract increased secretion two- to threefold, but only if it resulted in neural activity that was propagated to the terminals of the sinus gland. No difference was observable when stimuli were given repetitively or as a series of trains. Perifusion with saline having ten times the normal K+ concentration augmented secretion by as much as fivefold. Augmented secretion of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone evoked by either electrical or K+ stimulation appeared abruptly but declined slowly (over tens of minutes) after stimulation was stopped. K+-evoked secretion of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone was maintained without decrement for at least 1 h. Basal secretion increased in saline from which Ca2+ had been omitted, but decreased in saline containing Mn2+. Neither electrical stimulation nor high [K+] augmented secretion in Ca2+-deficient saline or if Mn2+ was present. Introduction of Mn2+ during K+-evoked secretion immediately reduced release to unstimulated levels; secretion resumed promptly upon removal of Mn2+. Tetrodotoxin reversibly blocked both electrical and secretory responses to axonal stimulation, but it did not block basal or K+-evoked secretion. Release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone by isolated axon terminals was augmented two- to threefold by perifusion with saline having ten times the normal K+ concentration. The responses were similar to those of the intact systems, having a rapid onset, well-maintained secretion and a long 'tail' of secretion after removal of the K+ stimulus.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative top-down mass spectral analysis of crustacean hyperglycemic hormones in response to feeding.

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    Jia, Chenxi; Yu, Qing; Wang, Jingxin; Li, Lingjun

    2014-05-01

    An efficient pipeline for peptide discovery accelerates peptidomic analysis and facilitates a better understanding of the functional roles of neuropeptides. However, qualitative and quantitative analysis of large neuropeptides is challenging due to the bigger molecular sizes, multiple PTMs, and interference by homologous isoforms. Herein, we refined two methodologies in the pipeline for highly confident and efficient MS-based peptide discovery. For the qualitative analysis, the so-called "high resolution/accurate mass" measurement on Orbitrap mass spectrometers was integrated with computer-assisted homology search, which was successfully applied to decipher the substituted amino acid residues in large neuropeptides by referring to homologous sequences. For the quantitative analysis, a new isotopic labeling-assisted top-down MS strategy was developed, which enabled direct monitoring of the abundance changes of endogenous large neuropeptides. By using the refined peptide discovery pipeline, one novel crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the Dungeness crab sinus glands was confidently identified and de novo sequenced, and its relative abundance was quantified. Comparative analysis of CHHs in unfed and fed crabs revealed that the peptide abundance in the sinus glands was significantly increased after food intake, suggesting that the release of CHHs might be altered by feeding behavior. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Functional Assessment of Residues in the Amino- and Carboxyl-Termini of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) in the Mud Crab Scylla olivacea Using Point-Mutated Peptides.

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    Liu, Chun-Jing; Huang, Shiau-Shan; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Yun-Ru; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH), both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH) completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH) were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH) elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly) completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family), and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members.

  18. Silencing two main isoforms of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH induces compensatory expression of two CHH-like transcripts in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

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    C Manfrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference has frequently been applied to modulate gene function in organisms. With the aim of creating new autocidal methods based on neuro-endocrine disruptors for invasive populations of Procambarus clarkii, we silenced the Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH by injecting the corresponding dsRNA. CHH is a pleiotropic hormone that primarily regulates the mobilization of energy reserves and plays a pivotal role in stress responses. Here, we describe two experiments aimed at testing whether CHH silencing significantly alters important physiological aspects. The first experiment investigates the effects of CHH silencing at the glycemic and transcriptomic level in the eyestalk. The second experiment explores the long-term effects of CHH silencing and the effects on mortality and moulting rates. Osmotic deficits and mortality were recorded in specimens injected with CHH dsRNA, whilst controls were injected with GFP dsRNA. After 20 days, despite still silenced for CHH, individuals that survived recovered a strong hyperglycemic response after serotonin injection due to the compensatory effect of two peptides belonging to the crustacean neurohormone CHH protein family

  19. Genomic identification of a putative circadian system in the cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex

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    Tilden, Andrea R.; McCoole, Matthew D.; Harmon, Sarah M.; Baer, Kevin N.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Essentially nothing is known about the molecular underpinnings of crustacean circadian clocks. The genome of Daphnia pulex, the only crustacean genome available for public use, provides a unique resource for identifying putative circadian proteins in this species. Here, the Daphnia genome was mined for putative circadian protein genes using Drosophila melanogaster queries. The sequences of core clock (e.g. CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD, TIMELESS and CRYPTOCHROME 2), clock input (CRYPTOCHROME 1) and clock output (PIGMENT DISPERSING HORMONE RECEPTOR) proteins were deduced. Structural analyses and alignment of the Daphnia proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Comparisons of the Daphnia proteins with other sequences showed that they are, in most cases, more similar to homologs from other species, including vertebrates, than they are to those of Drosophila. The presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 and 2 in Daphnia suggests the organization of its clock may be more similar to that of the butterfly Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila (which possesses CRYPTOCHROME 1 but not CRYPTOCHROME 2). These data represent the first description of a putative circadian system from any crustacean, and provide a foundation for future molecular, anatomical and physiological investigations of circadian signaling in Daphnia. PMID:21798832

  20. Involvement of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the physiological compensation of the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus to low temperature and high salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymaczok, Natalia C; Pasqualino, Valeria M; Viau, Verónica E; Rodríguez, Enrique M; Medesani, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    This study was aimed at determining the role of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the physiological compensation to both saline and thermal stress, in the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. By determining the expression of the CHH gene in the eyestalk of juvenile crayfish, we found that maximal induction of CHH was induced at high salinity (10 g/L) and low temperature (20 °C). In order to investigate the role of CHH in the physiological compensation to such stressful conditions, recombinant CHH was supplied to stressed animals. CHH-injected crayfish showed increased hemolymphatic levels of glucose, in accordance with a significant utilization of glycogen reserves from the hepatopancreas. Furthermore, CHH administration allowed stressed animals to regulate hemolymphatic sodium and potassium at more constant levels than controls. Taken together, these results suggest a relevant role of CHH in increasing the energy available intended for processes involved in the physiological compensation of C. quadricarinatus to both saline and thermal stress.

  1. Immunological relationships between neuropeptides from the sinus gland of the lobster Homarus americanus, with special references to the vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusy, J J; Soyez, D

    1991-03-01

    Antisera raised in guinea pigs against four major neuropeptides purified from sinus glands of the lobster, Homarus americanus, were used to study the immunological relationships between several sinus gland peptides. On the basis of their behavior in ELISA and in absorption procedures, three groups of peptides are defined. Two groups may be related to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH groups); the third one is composed of three immunologically identical peptides and, since one of these peptides was characterized in previous studies as a vitellogenesis inhibitor, is referred to as VIH group. This closely meets our present knowledge about the physiological effects and biochemical characteristics of these neuropeptides and gives immunological insights on the question of molecular polymorphism of lobster neurohormones.

  2. Cloning of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone and evidence for molt-inhibiting hormone within the central nervous system of the blue crab Portunus pelagicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J; Stewart, Praphaporn; Sroyraya, Morakot; Soonklang, Nantawan; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Duan, Wei; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-02-01

    The crustacean X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG) complex controls molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) production, although extra expression sites for MIH have been postulated. Therefore, to explore the expression of MIH and distinguish between the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) superfamily, and MIH immunoreactive sites (ir) in the central nervous system (CNS), we cloned a CHH gene sequence for the crab Portunus pelagicus (Ppel-CHH), and compared it with crab CHH-type I and II peptides. Employing multiple sequence alignments and phylogenic analysis, the mature Ppel-CHH peptide exhibited residues common to both CHH-type I and II peptides, and a high degree of identity to the type-I group, but little homology between Ppel-CHH and Ppel-MIH (a type II peptide). This sequence identification then allowed for the use of MIH antisera to further confirm the identity and existence of a MIH-ir 9kDa protein in all neural organs tested by Western blotting, and through immunohistochemistry, MIH-ir in the XO, optic nerve, neuronal cluster 17 of the supraesophageal ganglion, the ventral nerve cord, and cell cluster 22 of the thoracic ganglion. The presence of MIH protein within such a diversity of sites in the CNS, and external to the XO-SG, raises new questions concerning the established mode of MIH action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystal structure of a crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) precursor suggests structural variety in the C-terminal regions of CHH superfamily members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Arisaka, Fumio; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is one of the major hormones in crustaceans, and peptides belonging to the CHH superfamily have been found in diverse ecdysozoans. Although the basic function of CHH is to control energy metabolism, it also plays various roles in crustacean species, such as in molting and vitellogenesis. Here, we present the crystal structure of Pej-SGP-I-Gly, a partially active precursor of CHH from the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, which has an additional Gly residue in place of the C-terminal amide group of the mature Pej-SGP-I. The 1.6-angstrom crystal structure showed not only the common CHH superfamily scaffold comprising three α-helices, three disulfide bridges, and a hydrophobic core but also revealed that the C-terminal part has a variant backbone fold that is specific to Pej-SGP-I-Gly. The α-helix 4 of Pej-SGP-I-Gly was much longer than that of molt-inhibiting hormone (Pej-MIH) from the same species, and as a result, the following C-terminal helix, corresponding to α-helix 5 in MIH, was not formed. Unlike monomeric Pej-MIH, Pej-SGP-I-Gly forms a homodimer in the crystal structure via its unique α-helix 4. The unexpected dissimilar folds between Pej-SGP-I-Gly and Pej-MIH appear to be the result of their distinct C-terminal amino acid sequences. Variations in amino acid sequences and lengths and the resulting variety of backbone folds allow the C-terminal and sterically adjoining regions to confer different hormonal activities in diverse CHH superfamily members.

  4. Identification and temporal expression of putative circadian clock transcripts in the amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Joseph F; Hoelters, Laura S; Swain, Martin T; Wilcockson, David C

    2016-01-01

    Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species. We harvested brain tissue from animals expressing robust circadian activity rhythms and used homology cloning and Illumina RNAseq approaches to sequence and identify the core circadian clock and clock-related genes in these samples. We assessed the temporal expression of these genes in time-course samples from rhythmic animals using RNAseq. We identified a comprehensive suite of circadian clock gene homologues in T. saltator including the 'core' clock genes period (Talper), cryptochrome 2 (Talcry2), timeless (Taltim), clock (Talclk), and bmal1 (Talbmal1). In addition we describe the sequence and putative structures of 23 clock-associated genes including two unusual, extended isoforms of pigment dispersing hormone (Talpdh). We examined time-course RNAseq expression data, derived from tissues harvested from behaviourally rhythmic animals, to reveal rhythmic expression of these genes with approximately circadian period in Talper and Talbmal1. Of the clock-related genes, casein kinase IIβ (TalckIIβ), ebony (Talebony), jetlag (Taljetlag), pigment dispensing hormone (Talpdh), protein phosphatase 1 (Talpp1), shaggy (Talshaggy), sirt1 (Talsirt1), sirt7 (Talsirt7) and supernumerary limbs (Talslimb) show temporal changes in expression. We report the sequences of principle genes that comprise the circadian clock of T. saltator and highlight the conserved structural and functional domains of their deduced cognate proteins. Our sequencing data contribute to the growing inventory

  5. Cloning of genomic sequences of three crustacean hyperglycemic hormone superfamily genes and elucidation of their roles of regulating insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fajun; Bai, Hongkun; Zhang, Wenyi; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Fengwei; Liang, Guoxia; Jin, Shubo; Sun, Shengming; Qiao, Hui

    2015-04-25

    The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) gene in crustaceans plays an important role in male sexual differentiation, metabolism, and growth. However, the upstream regulation of IAG signaling schemes remains poorly studied. In the present study, we cloned the 5' flanking sequence of IAG and full-length genomic sequences of gonad-inhibiting hormone (Mn-GIH), molt-inhibiting hormone (Mn-MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (Mn-CHH) in Macrobrachium nipponense. We identified the transcription factor-binding sites in the 5' flanking sequence of IAG and investigated the exon-intron patterns of the three CHH superfamily genes. Each CHH superfamily gene consisted of two introns separating three exons. Mn-GIH and Mn-MIH shared the same intron insertion sites, which differed from Mn-CHH. We provided DNA-level evidence for the type definition. We also identified two cAMP response elements in the 5' untranslated region. We further investigated the regulatory relationships between Mn-GIH, Mn-MIH, and Mn-CHH and IAG at the transcriptional level by injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). IAG transcription levels were significantly increased to 660.2%, 472.9%, and 112.4% of control levels in the Mn-GIH dsRNA, Mn-MIH dsRNA, and Mn-CHH dsRNA groups, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that Mn-GIH and Mn-MIH, but not Mn-CHH, negatively regulate the expression of the IAG gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular cloning of two structure variants of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus), and their gene expression during molting and ovarian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xi; Zhu, Dongfa; Yang, Jifen; Qiu, Xier; Cui, Xiaoyu; Tang, Jie

    2014-12-01

    Two full-length cDNA (Pt-CHH1 and Pt-CHH2) sequences encoding crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) were cloned from tissues of the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) using RACE. Pt-CHH1 was cloned from eyestalk, whereas Pt-CHH2 was cloned from thoracic ganglia. Sequence and structure analyses of Pt-CHH1 and Pt-CHH2 suggest that they may be generated from alternative splicing. Tissue distribution showed that transcript of Pt-CHH1 was only detected in eyestalk, while transcript of Pt-CHH2 was observed in several extra-eyestalk tissues. The transcript levels of Pt-CHH1 and Pt-CHH2 during molting and ovarian development were determined using qPCR. In molting process, level of Pt-CHH1 in eyestalk increased from stage A (postmolt), and to significant higher at stage C (intermolt), then decreased during premolt (D0-D4). In ovarian development, level of Pt-CHH1 in eyestalk decreased from previtellogenic stage (II), and to significant lower at mature stage (IV). The expression patterns of Pt-CHH2 in thoracic ganglia and Y-organ were distinct from that of Pt-CHH1 in eyestalk. The combined results suggest that Pt-CHH1 may be involved in inhibition of molting and ovarian development, whereas Pt-CHH2 may have other physiological functions.

  7. Neuroendocrine responses of a crustacean host to viral infection: effects of infection of white spot syndrome virus on the expression and release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Jiun; Chen, Yan-Jhou; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the changes in crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) transcript and peptide levels in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in a crustacean, Procambarus clarkii. After viral challenge, significant increase in virus load began at 24 h post injection (hpi) and the increase was much more substantial at 48 and 72 hpi. The hemolymph CHH levels rapidly increased after viral challenge; the increase started as early as 3 hpi and lasted for at least 2 d after the challenge. In contrast, the hemolymph glucose levels did not significantly changed over a 2 d period in the WSSV-infected animals. The CHH transcript and peptide levels in tissues were also determined. The CHH transcript levels in the eyestalk ganglia (the major site of CHH synthesis) of the virus-infected animals did not significantly change over a 2 d period and those in 2 extra-eyestalk tissues (the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia) significantly increased at 24 and 48 hpi. The CHH peptide levels in the eyestalk ganglia of the virus-infected animals significantly decreased at 24 and 48 hpi and those in the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia remained unchanged over a 2 d period. These data demonstrated a WSSV-induced increase in the release of CHH into hemolymph that is rapid in onset and lasting in duration. Changes in the CHH transcript and peptide levels implied that the WSSV-induced increase in hemolymph CHH levels primarily resulted from an enhanced release from the eyestalk ganglia, but the contribution of the 2 extra-eyestalk tissues to hemolymph pool of CHH increased as viral infection progressed. The combined patterns of change in the hemolymph glucose and CHH levels further suggest that the virus-enhanced CHH release would lead to higher glycolytic activity and elevated glucose mobilization presumably favorable for viral replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential effects of silencing crustacean hyperglycemic hormone gene expression on the metabolic profiles of the muscle and hepatopancreas in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Tien, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Shih-Fu; Shih, Li-Jane; Lee, Chien-Hsun; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2017-01-01

    In order to functionally characterize the metabolic roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), gene expression of CHH in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was knocked down by in vivo injection of CHH double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), followed by metabolomic analysis of 2 CHH target tissues (the muscle and hepatopancreas) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Compared to the levels in untreated and saline-injected (SAI) animals, levels of CHH transcript, but not those of molt-inhibiting hormone (a CHH-family peptide), in the eyestalk ganglia of CHH dsRNA-injected (DSI) animals were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 hour post injection (hpi), with concomitant changes in levels of CHH peptide in the sinus gland (a neurohemal organ) and hemolymph. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) dsRNA failed to affect levels of CHH transcript in the eyestalk ganglia of GFP DSI animals. Number of metabolites whose levels were significantly changed by CHH dsRNA was 149 and 181 in the muscle and 24 and 12 in the hepatopancreas, at 24 and 48 hpi, respectively. Principal component analysis of these metabolites show that metabolic effects of silencing CHH gene expression were more pronounced in the muscle (with the cluster of CHH DSI group clearly being separated from that of SAI group at 24 hpi) than in the hepatopancreas. Moreover, pathway analysis of the metabolites closely related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism indicate that, for CHH DSI animals at 24 hpi, metabolic profile of the muscle was characterized by reduced synthesis of NAD+ and adenine ribonucleotides, diminished levels of ATP, lower rate of utilization of carbohydrates through glycolysis, and a partially rescued TCA cycle, whereas that of the hepatopancreas by unaffected levels of ATP, lower rate of utilization of carbohydrates, and increased levels of ketone bodies. The combined results of metabolic changes in response to silenced CHH gene expression reveal that metabolic functions of CHH on the

  9. Differential effects of silencing crustacean hyperglycemic hormone gene expression on the metabolic profiles of the muscle and hepatopancreas in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Tien, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Shih-Fu; Shih, Li-Jane; Lee, Chien-Hsun; Toullec, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    In order to functionally characterize the metabolic roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), gene expression of CHH in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was knocked down by in vivo injection of CHH double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), followed by metabolomic analysis of 2 CHH target tissues (the muscle and hepatopancreas) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Compared to the levels in untreated and saline-injected (SAI) animals, levels of CHH transcript, but not those of molt-inhibiting hormone (a CHH-family peptide), in the eyestalk ganglia of CHH dsRNA-injected (DSI) animals were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 hour post injection (hpi), with concomitant changes in levels of CHH peptide in the sinus gland (a neurohemal organ) and hemolymph. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) dsRNA failed to affect levels of CHH transcript in the eyestalk ganglia of GFP DSI animals. Number of metabolites whose levels were significantly changed by CHH dsRNA was 149 and 181 in the muscle and 24 and 12 in the hepatopancreas, at 24 and 48 hpi, respectively. Principal component analysis of these metabolites show that metabolic effects of silencing CHH gene expression were more pronounced in the muscle (with the cluster of CHH DSI group clearly being separated from that of SAI group at 24 hpi) than in the hepatopancreas. Moreover, pathway analysis of the metabolites closely related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism indicate that, for CHH DSI animals at 24 hpi, metabolic profile of the muscle was characterized by reduced synthesis of NAD+ and adenine ribonucleotides, diminished levels of ATP, lower rate of utilization of carbohydrates through glycolysis, and a partially rescued TCA cycle, whereas that of the hepatopancreas by unaffected levels of ATP, lower rate of utilization of carbohydrates, and increased levels of ketone bodies. The combined results of metabolic changes in response to silenced CHH gene expression reveal that metabolic functions of CHH on the

  10. Discovery and characterization of the Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor related peptides (CPRP) and orcokinin neuropeptides in the sinus glands of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus using multiple tandem mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Limei; Cunningham, Robert; Zhang, Zichuan; Cao, Weifeng; Jia, Chenxi; Li, Lingjun

    2011-09-02

    The crustacean sinus gland (SG) is a well-defined neuroendocrine site that produces numerous hemolymph-borne agents including the most complex class of endocrine signaling molecules-neuropeptides. Via a multifaceted mass spectrometry (MS) approach, 70 neuropeptides were identified including orcokinins, orcomyotropin, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) precursor-related peptides (CPRPs), red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH), pigment dispersing hormone (PDH), proctolin, RFamides, RYamides, and HL/IGSL/IYRamide. Among them, 15 novel orcokinins, 9 novel CPRPs, 1 novel orcomyotropin, 1 novel Ork/Orcomyotropin-related peptide, and 1 novel PDH were de novo sequenced via collision induced dissociation (CID) from the SG of a model organism Callinectes sapidus. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) was used for sequencing of intact CPRPs due to their large size and higher charge state. Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) was employed for separation of members of the orcokinin family, which is one of the most abundant neuropeptide families observed in the SG. Collectively, our study represents the most complete characterization of neuropeptides in the SG and provides a foundation for future investigation of the physiological function of neuropeptides in the SG of C. sapidus.

  11. Discovery and Characterization of the Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone Precursor Related Peptides (CPRP) and Orcokinin Neuropeptides in the Sinus Glands of the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus Using Multiple Tandem Mass Spectrometry Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Limei; Cunningham, Robert; Zhang, Zichuan; Cao, Weifeng; Jia, Chenxi; Li, Lingjun

    2011-01-01

    The crustacean sinus gland (SG) is a well-defined neuroendocrine site that produces numerous hemolymph-borne agents including the most complex class of endocrine signaling molecules—neuropeptides. Via a multifaceted mass spectrometry (MS) approach, 70 neuropeptides were identified including orcokinins, orcomyotropin, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) precursor-related peptides (CPRPs), red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH), pigment dispersing hormone (PDH), proctolin, RFamides, RYamides, and HL/IGSL/IYRamide. Among them, 15 novel orcokinins, 9 novel CPRPs, one novel orcomyotropin, one novel Ork/Orcomyotropin-related and one novel PDH were de novo sequenced via collision induced dissociation (CID) from the SG of a model organism Callinectes sapidus. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) was used for sequencing of intact CPRPs due to their large size and charge state. Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) was employed for separation of members of the orcokinin family which is one of the most abundant neuropeptide families observed in the SG. Collectively, our study represents the most complete characterization of neuropeptides of the SG and provides a foundation for future investigation of the physiological function of neuropeptides in the SG of C. sapidus. PMID:21740068

  12. Cloning and expression of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoform B2 (rCHH-B2) and its effects on the metabolism and osmoregulation of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Díaz, Fernando; Aguilar, Manuel B; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides ubiquitous in crustaceans. In Litopenaeus vannamei, CHH-B2 is a CHH eyestalk isoform whose expression has been shown to vary with enviromental conditions, suggesting its relevance for ecophysiological performance of shrimp, controlling processes related to metabolism and osmo-ionic regulation. To study the involvement of CHH-B2 in these processes, we cloned and expressed a recombinant version with a free C-terminal glycine (rCHH-B2-Gly) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The rCHH-B2-Gly peptide secreted to the culture medium was purified by RP-HPLC and used for in vivo glucose, triglyceride, and osmoregulation dose-response analyses with juvenile shrimp. The peptide was also amidated at the C-terminus using an α-amidating enzyme to produce rCHH-B2-amide. The shrimp showed a dose-dependent effect of rCHH-B2-Gly to hemolymph glucose and triglyceride levels, inducing maximal increases by injecting 500 and 1000pmol of hormone, respectively. Additionally, 10pmol of hormone was sufficient to reduce the hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of shrimp at 35‰. These findings suggest that CHH-B2 has regulatory roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and a potential involvement in osmoregulation of L. vannamei. Injection of 100pmol of rCHH-B2-amide increased glucose and triglyceride levels by 15 and 28%, respectively in comparison with rCHH-B2-Gly, suggesting an important role for the C-terminal amidation. Additionally, an in silico structural analysis done with the CHH-B1 and rCHH-B2-Gly peptides suggests that the C-terminal region may be relevant for the activity of the L. vannamei isoforms and explain the functional divergence from other crustacean CHH/CHH-like peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000304.htm Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) is a complication of ...

  14. 口虾蛄高血糖激素基因全长 cDNA 的克隆及表达分析%Molecular cloning and expression of a full length cDNA of encoding crustacean hyperglycemic hormone(CHH)in Oratosquilla oratoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海映; 张秀芹; 隋宥珍; 李宏俊; 邢坤; 姜玉声; 杨贵福; 陈雷; 张娜

    2016-01-01

    Total RNA in eyestalk of Oratosquilla oratoria was extracted and cDNA sequence of crustacean hypergly-cemic hormone (CHH)were obtained by RACE for the first time.The result showed that the full length of the CHH gene is 2 421 bp,containing an 180 bp 5′-untranslated region (UTR),and 1 821 bp 3′UTR,and 420 bp open reading flame (ORF)which encoded 139 amino acids.Prediction of protein structure was composed of 23.74%α-helix,23.02% extension chain,53.24% random coil,and its molecular mass is 15 470 Daltons with an estimated pI of 7.049.The mature peptide contained six conserved Cys residues in CHH family.The C-terminus mature peptide was GK which has the same characteristics with ES-CHH.Based on protein similarity comparison,the separated CHH gene was classified into the type I CHH family of peptides.Phylogenetic analysis showed that CHH of O.oratoria and CHH of decapod species formed two subgroups on the same branch of the tree.The relative ex-pression of CHH gene in different organizations was tested by real time fluorescent quantitative PCR,the expres-sion was highest in the intestine,and then the eyestalk,antenna and brain,the expression is negligible in muscle and ovary,and no expression in testis.%本文首次采用 RACE 技术获得口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria )眼柄部高血糖激素(crustacean hy-perglycemic hormone,CHH)基因 cDNA 全长序列,共2421 bp,5′UTR 长度为180 bp,3′UTR 为1821 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)长420 bp,编码139个氨基酸。预测蛋白二级结构α-螺旋23.74%,延伸链占23.02%,无规则卷曲占53.24%,预测分子量为15.47 kD,等电点(pI )为7.049。CHH 成熟肽包含6个 CHH 家族中位置保守的 Cys 残基,C 端为 GK,推断为 ES 型 CHH 基因。聚类分析表明:口虾蛄CHH 和十足目 CHH 聚为同一个分支的两亚群,具有较近的亲缘关系。荧光定量 PCR 分析结果表明,CHH 基因在肠中表达量最高,在眼柄、触角

  15. Structure-activity relationship of crustacean peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    In crustaceans, various physiological events, such as molting, vitellogenesis, and sex differentiation, are regulated by peptide hormones. To understanding the functional sites of these hormones, many structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been published. In this review, the author focuses the SAR of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-family peptides and androgenic gland hormone and describes the detailed results of our and other research groups. The future perspectives will be also discussed.

  16. Identification of putative peptide paracrines/hormones in the water flea Daphnia pulex (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Cladocera) using transcriptomics and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Ashley L; Lenz, Petra H; Shaw, Joseph R; Christie, Andrew E

    2009-02-01

    The cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex has emerged as a model species for many biological fields, in particular environmental toxicology and toxicogenomics. Recently, this species has been the subject of an extensive transcriptome project, resulting in the generation and public deposition of over 150,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). This resource makes D. pulex an excellent model for protein discovery using bioinformatics. Here, in silico searches of the D. pulex EST database were conducted to identify transcripts encoding putative peptide precursors. Moreover, the mature peptides contained within the deduced prepro-hormones were predicted using online peptide processing programs and homology to known arthropod isoforms. In total, 63 putative peptide-encoding ESTs were identified encompassing 14 distinct peptide families/subfamilies: A-type allatostatin, B-type allatostatin, C-type allatostatin, bursicon (both alpha and beta subunit peptides), crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)/ion transport peptide (both CHH- and moult-inhibiting hormone-like subfamilies), diuretic hormone (calcitonin-like), ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH), FMRFamide (both neuropeptide F and short neuropeptide F subfamilies), orcokinin and pigment dispersing hormone. From these transcripts, the structures of 76 full-length/partial peptides were predicted, which included the first C-type allatostatin-like peptide identified from a crustacean, the first crustacean calcitonin-like diuretic hormone, an undescribed CCAP isoform, two hitherto unknown ETH variants, and two new orcokinins. Neuronal localization of several of the identified peptide families was confirmed using immunohistochemitry (i.e. A-type allatostatin, CCAP, FMRFamide and PDH). In addition, immunohistochemical analyses identified other putative neuropeptides for which no ESTs had been found (i.e. corazonin, insect kinin, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, SIFamide, sulfakinin

  17. Insulin Therapy in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Machado Ramírez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state are two of the most serious metabolic emergencies in diabetic patients. Objective: to identify the type of metabolic complications (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state in order to analyze the patients’ outcome considering the plasma pH levels, as well as the mode of insulin administration. Method: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 52 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 to 2007. The variables analyzed included: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, mode of insulin administration, blood gas analysis and outcome. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in 57.5 % of the type 1 diabetic patients and in the 42.5 % of the type 2 diabetics. None of the type 1 diabetics developed hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state and this complication was observed in 23.0 % of the patients with diabetes type 2. Microdosing was the mode of insulin administration that predominated in both ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic state cases. Mortality was higher in the hyperglycemic state (67 % and using microdoses in the insulin therapy. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the major complication. Mortality from diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state was high and the mode of insulin administration was inadequate in some patients.

  18. Antimicrobial peptides in crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Rosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans are a large and diverse invertebrate animal group that mounts a complex and efficient innate immune response against a variety of microorganisms. The crustacean immune system is primarily related to cellular responses and the production and release of important immune effectors into the hemolymph. Antimicrobial proteins and/or peptides (AMPs are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, 15 distinct AMP families are currently recognized, although the great majority (14 families comes from members of the order Decapoda. Crustacean AMPs are generally cationic, gene-encoded molecules that are mainly produced by circulating immune-competent cells (hemocytes or are derived from unrelated proteins primarily involved in other biological functions. In this review, we tentatively classified the crustacean AMPs into four main groups based on their amino acid composition, structural features and multi-functionality. We also attempted to summarize the current knowledge on their implication both in an efficient response to microbial infections and in crustacean survival.

  19. Endocrine disruption in crustaceans due to pollutants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Enrique M; Medesani, Daniel A; Fingerman, Milton

    2007-04-01

    The main endocrine-regulated processes of crustaceans have been reviewed in relation to the effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Molting has been shown to be inhibited by several organic pollutants, such as xenoestrogens and related compounds, as well as by some pesticides. Most of these disrupters are thought to interfere with ecdysone at target tissues, although only for a few has this action been demonstrated in vitro. The heavy metal cadmium appears to inhibit some ecdysone secretion. Juvenoid compounds have also been shown to inhibit molting, likely by interfering with the stimulatory effect of methyl farnesoate. A molt-promoting effect of emamectin benzoate, a pesticide, has also been reported. As for reproduction, a variety of organic compounds, including xenoestrogens, juvenoids and ecdysteroids, has produced abnormal development of male and female secondary sexual characters, as well as alteration of the sex ratio. Cadmium and copper have been shown to interfere with hormones that stimulate reproduction, such as methyl farnesoate, as well as with secretion of the gonad inhibiting hormone, therefore affecting, for example, ovarian growth. Several heavy metals were able to produce hyperglycemia in crustaceans during short times of exposure; while a hypoglycemic response was noted after longer exposures, due to inhibition of secretion of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone. The ecological relevance of EDCs on crustaceans is discussed, mainly in relation to the identification of useful biomarkers and sentinel species. New experimental approaches are also proposed.

  20. Differential regulation of hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression by two putative molt-inhibiting hormones (MIH1/2) in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xing; Chen, Ting; Zhong, Ming; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lvping; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-06-01

    Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a peptide member of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family, is commonly considered as a negative regulator during the molt cycle in crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis of CHH family peptides in penaeidae shrimps suggested that there is no significant differentiation between MIH and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH, another peptide member of CHH family), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean vitellogenesis known. Thus, MIH may also play a role in regulating vitellogenesis. In this study, two previously reported putative MIHs (LivMIH1 and LivMIH2) in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and further confirmed by western blot. Regulation of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression by recombinant LivMIH1 and LivMIH2 challenge was performed by both in vitro hepatopancreatic primary cells culture and in vivo injection approaches. In in vitro primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 administration could improve the mRNA expression of VTG. In in vivo injection experiments, similarly, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 could stimulate hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression and induce ovary maturation. Our study may provide evidence for one isoform of MIH (MIH2 in L. vannamei) may serve as one of the mediators of the physiological progress of molting and vitellogenesis. Our study may also give new insight in CHH family peptides regulating reproduction in crustaceans, in particular penaeidae shrimps.

  1. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

    2008-10-25

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  2. Xenotransplantation of piscine islets into hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.; Weil, R. III; McIntosh, R.; Hogle, H.; Warden, G.; Reemtsma, K.

    1975-02-01

    Xenotransplantation of piscine islets into hyperglycemic rats usually lowers the blood sugar level of the recipient. The duration of this effect is prolonged by irradiation of the host or by enclosing donor tissue in synthetic envelopes. This prolongation appears to be related to interference with the host's ability to reject the graft; the duration of the prolongation may be limited by the host tissue reaction surrounding the envelope. The availability of anatomically separate piscine islet tissue makes it potentially useful for xenotransplantation into mammals.

  3. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  4. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Machado Ramírez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

  5. Isolation and primary structure of two peptides with cardioacceleratory and hyperglycemic activity from the corpora cardiaca of Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, R M; Jamieson, G C; Kalish, F; Kramer, S J; McEnroe, G A; Miller, C A; Schooley, D A

    1984-01-01

    Two cardioacceleratory peptides from the corpora cardiaca of Periplaneta americana have been purified by gel filtration and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, Based on analysis of the intact factors and their chymotryptic fragments, we have assigned the primary structure of these octapeptides as pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2, designated periplanetin CC-1, and pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2, designated periplanetin CC-2. They represent new members of a family of invertebrate peptides that includes locust adipokinetic hormone and crustacean red-pigment concentrating hormone. Both peptides show adipokinetic activity in grasshoppers and hyperglycemic activity in cockroaches. One of these peptides (CC-2) has provocative sequence homology with the NH2-terminal portion of glucagon. Images PMID:6591205

  6. The hepatic protection effects of hepassocin in hyperglycemic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Horng-Yih; Wu, Hung-Tsung; Lin, Ching-Han; Du, Ye-Fong; Hu, Che-Yuan; Hung, Hao-Chang; Wu, Pansee; Li, Hung-Yuan; Wang, Shu-Huei; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2017-04-11

    High glucose generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributes to glucotoxicity in hepatocytes, and hyperglycemia causes structural and functional damage to the liver. However, only a mild hepatic dysfunction was observed in subjects with hyperglycemic crisis, implying a factor exists to exert a hepatic protective effect. Hepassocin is a hepatokine that modulates the proliferation and metabolism of hepatocytes, and also exerts protective activity in liver injury. However, its role in hyperglycemic crisis-induced hepatic dysfunction remains unknown. To investigate the possible hepatic protection effects of hepassocin in hyperglycemic crisis. Plasma hepassocin concentrations and routine biochemistry were measured in twenty-one patients with hyperglycemic crisis before and after standard treatments. The effects of hepassocin on hepatic functions were evaluated in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic mice (STZ mice). HepG2 cells were used to clarify the possible mechanisms regulating hepassocin expression. Plasma hepassocin concentrations decreased significantly in subjects with hyperglycemic crisis after standard treatment accompanied by improved hepatic functions. Correction of hyperglycemia in STZ mice also decreased the hepatic hepassocin expression. Injection of recombinant hepassocin improved hepatic functions and histologic changes, and increased the expression of anti-oxidative stress proteins, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). In HepG2 cells, high glucose increased hepassocin expression through STAT3 and hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-related pathways. We also demonstrated that hepassocin increased SOD1 expression through an ERK1/2-NRF2 pathway, decreasing ethyl acetate-induced ROS production, and improving cell viability. Increased hepassocin secretion in hyperglycemic crisis might offset the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia on hepatocytes.

  7. A multi-scale strategy for discovery of novel endogenous neuropeptides in the crustacean nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenxi; Lietz, Christopher B; Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Yu, Qing; Yoo, Sujin; Li, Lingjun

    2013-10-08

    The conventional mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategy is often inadequate for the comprehensive characterization of various size neuropeptides without the assistance of genomic information. This study evaluated sequence coverage of different size neuropeptides in two crustacean species, blue crab Callinectes sapidus and Jonah crab Cancer borealis using conventional MS methodologies and revealed limitations to mid- and large-size peptide analysis. Herein we attempt to establish a multi-scale strategy for simultaneous and confident sequence elucidation of various sizes of peptides in the crustacean nervous system. Nine novel neuropeptides spanning a wide range of molecular weights (0.9-8.2kDa) were fully sequenced from a major neuroendocrine organ, the sinus gland of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. These novel neuropeptides included seven allatostatin (A- and B-type) peptides, one crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide, and one crustacean hyperglycemic hormone. Highly accurate multi-scale characterization of a collection of varied size neuropeptides was achieved by integrating traditional data-dependent tandem MS, improved bottom-up sequencing, multiple fragmentation technique-enabled top-down sequencing, chemical derivatization, and in silico homology search. Collectively, the ability to characterize a neuropeptidome with vastly differing molecule sizes from a neural tissue extract could find great utility in unraveling complex signaling peptide mixtures employed by other biological systems. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based neuropeptidomics aims to completely characterize the neuropeptides in a target organism as an important first step toward a better understanding of the structure and function of these complex signaling molecules. Although liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with data-dependent acquisition is a powerful tool in peptidomic research, it often lacks the capability for de novo sequencing of

  8. Review of Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Tinospora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerawut KLANGJAREONCHAI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora crispa (Borapet or Wan kab hoi yai is a climbing plant belonging to family Menispermaceae. In traditional medicine, an extract from the stems of T. crispa has been used for anti-hyperglycemic activity. The mechanisms of the anti-hyperglycemic actions of T. crispa are due to the stimulation of insulin secretion, enhancement of glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and reduction of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Borapetoside A and C are active ingredients for lower plasma glucose. In human studies, T. crispa extract possesses a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect in metabolic syndrome but this effect is abolished in type 2 diabetes mellitus. More clinical studies are recommended to evaluate the beneficial effect of T. crispa in human models.

  9. Hemolymph proteins in marine crustaceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W Sylvester Fredrick; S Ravichandran

    2012-01-01

    This study is done with the aim to bring together the various antimicrobial peptides that are present in the crustacean hemolymph and their sources along with its characteristics. Invertebrates lack immune systems that involve antigen-antibody reactions and do not have an immune memory, therefore most invertebrate species show no evidence of acquired immunity. Crustaceans possess an open circulatory system, where nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and cells are distributed in the hemolymph. They lack adaptive immune system and rely exclusively on their innate immune mechanisms that include both cellular and humoral responses. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins form an important means of host defense in eukaryotes. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have functions in inflammation, wound repair and regulation of the adaptive immune system. Over the past several years, many antimicrobial peptides have been found and characterized in crabs.

  10. Hemolymph proteins in marine crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Sylvester Fredrick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is done with the aim to bring together the various antimicrobial peptides that are present in the crustacean hemolymph and their sources along with its characteristics. Invertebrates lack immune systems that involve antigen-antibody reactions and do not have an immune memory, therefore most invertebrate species show no evidence of acquired immunity. Crustaceans possess an open circulatory system, where nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and cells are distributed in the hemolymph. They lack adaptive immune system and rely exclusively on their innate immune mechanisms that include both cellular and humoral responses. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins form an important means of host defense in eukaryotes. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have functions in inflammation, wound repair and regulation of the adaptive immune system. Over the past several years, many antimicrobial peptides have been found and characterized in crabs.

  11. Decapod crustacean chelipeds: an overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pitchaimuthu Mariappan; Chellam Balasundaram; Barbara Schmitz

    2000-09-01

    The structure, growth, differentiation and function of crustacean chelipeds are reviewed. In many decapod crustaceans growth of chelae is isometric with allometry level reaching unity till the puberty moult. Afterwards the same trend continues in females, while in males there is a marked spurt in the level of allometry accompanied by a sudden increase in the relative size of chelae. Subsequently they are differentiated morphologically into crusher and cutter making them heterochelous and sexually dimorphic. Of the two, the major chela is used during agonistic encounters while the minor is used for prey capture and grooming. Various biotic and abiotic factors exert a negative effect on cheliped growth. The dimorphic growth pattern of chelae can be adversely affected by factors such as parasitic infection and substrate conditions. Display patterns of chelipeds have an important role in agonistic and aggressive interactions. Of the five pairs of pereiopods, the chelae are versatile organs of offence and defence which also make them the most vulnerable for autotomy. Regeneration of the autotomized chelipeds imposes an additional energy demand called “regeneration load” on the incumbent, altering energy allocation for somatic and/or reproductive processes. Partial withdrawal of chelae leading to incomplete exuviation is reported for the first time in the laboratory and field in Macrobrachium species.

  12. Demonstration of expression of a neuropeptide-encoding gene in crustacean hemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-Hua; Chen, Yan-Jhou; Huang, Shao-Yen; Tsai, Wei-Shiun; Wu, Hsin-Ju; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2012-04-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) was originally identified in a neuroendocrine system-the X-organ/sinus gland complex. In this study, a cDNA (Prc-CHH) encoding CHH precursor was cloned from the hemocyte of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Analysis of tissues by a CHH-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the presence of CHH in hemocytes, the levels of which were much lower than those in the sinus gland, but 2 to 10 times higher than those in the thoracic and cerebral ganglia. Total hemocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation into layers of hyaline cell (HC), semi-granular cell (SGC), and granular cell (GC). Analysis of extracts of each layer using ELISA revealed that CHH is present in GCs (202.8±86.7 fmol/mg protein) and SGCs (497.8±49.4 fmol/mg protein), but not in HCs. Finally, CHH stimulated the membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity of hemocytes in a dose-dependent manner. These data for the first time confirm that a crustacean neuropeptide-encoding gene is expressed in cells essential for immunity and its expression in hemocytes is cell type-specific. Effect of CHH on the membrane-bound GC activity of hemocyte suggests that hemocyte is a target site of CHH. Possible functions of the hemocyte-derived CHH are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomineralizations: insights and prospects from crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Luquet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For growing, crustaceans have to molt cyclically because of the presence of a rigid exoskeleton. Most of the crustaceans harden their cuticle not only by sclerotization, like all the arthropods, but also by calcification. All the physiology of crustaceans, including the calcification process, is then linked to molting cycles. This means for these animals to find regularly a source of calcium ions quickly available just after ecdysis. The sources of calcium used are diverse, ranging from the environment where the animals live to endogenous calcium deposits cyclically elaborated by some of them. As a result, crustaceans are submitted to an important and energetically demanding calcium turnover throughout their life. The mineralization process occurs by precipitation of calcium carbonate within an organic matrix network of chitin-proteins fibers. Both crystalline and stabilized amorphous polymorphs of calcium carbonate are found in crustacean biominerals. Furthermore, Crustacea is the only phylum of animals able to elaborate and resorb periodically calcified structures. Notably for these two previous reasons, crustaceans are more and more extensively studied and considered as models of choice in the biomineralization research area.

  14. EsGLUT4 and CHHBP are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in the crustacean Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Tian, Jin-Ze; Wang, Mo-Ran; Zhu, Li-Na; Sun, Jin-Sheng

    2017-09-15

    Glucose is an essential energy source for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, glucose uptake is mediated primarily by glucose transporters (GLUTs), members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of passive transporters. Among the GLUTs, GLUT4 is the main glucose transporter in muscles and adipocytes. In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 interacts with the lipid raft protein flotillin to transport glucose upon stimulation by insulin. Although several studies have examined GLUT4 function in mammals, few have been performed in crustaceans, which also use glucose as their main energy source. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a multifunctional neurohormone found only in arthropods, and one of its roles is to regulate glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies CHH regulation and whether GLUT4 is involved in its regulation in crustaceans remain unclear. In the present study, we identified a full-length GLUT4 cDNA sequence (defined herein as EsGLUT4) from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and analyzed its tissue distribution and cellular localization. By the ForteBio Octet system, two large hydrophilic regions within EsGLUT4 were found to interact with the CHH binding protein (CHHBP), an E. sinensis flotillin-like protein. Interestingly, live-cell imaging indicated that EsGLUT4 and CHHBP responded simultaneously upon stimulation by CHH, resulting in glucose release. In contrast to insulin-dependent GLUT4, however, EsGLUT4 and CHHBP were present within cytoplasmic vesicles, both translocating to the plasma membrane upon CHH stimulation. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence for the involvement of EsGLUT4 and CHHBP in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in crustacean carbohydrate metabolism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Intersite epibiosis characterization on dominant mangrove crustacean species from Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Hanamura, Y.; Siow, R.; Chee, P.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Epibiosis was studied in dominant mangrove crustacean species in several areas in Malaysia. The observed basibionts were the crustaceans Mesopodopsis orientalis, Acetes japonicus, Acetes sibogae, Acetes indicus and Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and the epibionts found were the protozoan ciliates Acinet

  16. Intersite epibiosis characterization on dominant mangrove crustacean species from Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Hanamura, Y.; Siow, R.; Chee, P.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Epibiosis was studied in dominant mangrove crustacean species in several areas in Malaysia. The observed basibionts were the crustaceans Mesopodopsis orientalis, Acetes japonicus, Acetes sibogae, Acetes indicus and Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and the epibionts found were the protozoan ciliates

  17. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state secondary to neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanobu, Keisuke; Okazaki, Daisuke; Ogawa, Tomoo; Watanabe, Shinya; Oka, Matsuhiko; Murakami, Shinichi; Ura, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is often considered to be a precipitating factor for diabetic coma, such as a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). The combination of NMS and a systemic illness such as HHS can be difficult to diagnose because NMS may mask the coexisting condition. Although this coexistence is rare, it may be fatal if not detected early. We report a case of HHS in a 47-year-old male patient that developed after the distinguishing features of NMS had subsided. After the diagnosis of HHS, his recovery was a result of intravenous administration of soluble human insulin and fluid supplementation. Physicians caring for patients with diabetes who are also treated with neuroleptic agents should be aware that NMS may precipitate the development of secondary hyperglycemia despite a history of well-controlled blood glucose levels.

  18. Aggressive Fluid Resuscitation in Severe Pediatric Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharara-Chami Rana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This report describes a severe case of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome complicated by rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, hyperthermia, and hypovolemic shock, with management centred upon fluid administration. Design. Case report. Setting. Pediatric intensive care unit in university teaching hospital. Patients. 12 years old adolescent female presenting with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome with a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Intervention. Aggressive fluid resuscitation and insulin. Main results. The patient had a good outcome, discharged home on hospital day 6. Conclusions. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome is associated with a number of complications. Management strategies are undefined, given the rarity of its presentation, and further studies are warranted.

  19. Aggressive Fluid Resuscitation in Severe Pediatric Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Murthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This report describes a severe case of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome complicated by rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, hyperthermia, and hypovolemic shock, with management centred upon fluid administration. Design. Case report. Setting. Pediatric intensive care unit in university teaching hospital. Patients. 12 years old adolescent female presenting with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome with a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Intervention. Aggressive fluid resuscitation and insulin. Main results. The patient had a good outcome, discharged home on hospital day 6. Conclusions. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome is associated with a number of complications. Management strategies are undefined, given the rarity of its presentation, and further studies are warranted.

  20. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. Microvascular Blood Flow Improvement in Hyperglycemic Obese Adult Patients by Hypocaloric Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mastantuono, T; Di Maro, M.; Chiurazzi, M.; Battiloro, L.; Starita, N.; Nasti, G; Lapi, D.; Iuppariello, L.; M. Cesarelli; D’Addio, G.; Colantuoni, A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the changes in skin microvascular blood flow (SBF) in newly diagnosed hyperglycemic obese subjects, administered with hypocaloric diet. Adult patients were recruited and divided in three groups: NW group (n=54), NG (n=54) and HG (n=54) groups were constituted by normal weight, normoglycemic and hyperglycemic obese subjects, respectively. SBF was measured by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring technique and oscillations in blood flow were analyzed by spectr...

  2. Optimality of Metachronal Paddling in Crustacean Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Robert; Zhang, Calvin; Lewis, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Crayfish and other long-tailed crustaceans swim by rhythmically moving four or five pairs of limbs. Despite variations in limb size and stroke frequency, movements of ipsilateral limbs always maintain a tail-to-head metachronal rhythm with an approximate quarter-period inter-limb phase difference. Relatively few studies have examined the fluid dynamics of metachronal limb stroke for the range of Reynolds numbers at which crustaceans operate. Here, we use a computational fluid dynamics model to explore the performance of different paddling rhythms. We show that the natural tail-to-head metachronal rhythm with an approximate quarter-period phase difference is the most effective and efficient rhythm across a wide range of Reynolds numbers.

  3. Regulation of calcium currents and secretion by magnesium in crustacean peptidergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J E; Sher, E; Keller, R; Haylett, B; Reichwein, B; Cooke, I M

    1995-12-01

    The effect of varying the external Mg2+ concentration on Ca2+ currents through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels has been examined with the patch-clamp technique in acutely isolated neuronal somata from the X-organ-sinus gland (XOSG) of the crab, Cardisoma carnifex. Neurons from this neurosecretory system were selected for morphology associated with crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) content. In parallel, the effects of Mg2+ concentration on K(+)-evoked secretion of CHH from isolated, intact XOSGs have been assayed by ELISA. At physiological Ca2+ levels the high-voltage-activated Ca2+ currents were attenuated with increasing Mg2+ concentration, with 50% inhibition at approximately 75 mM. Mg2+ block was voltage-dependent, relief from block occurring with increasing depolarization. Thus, in 24 mM Mg2+ inhibition of the Ca2+ current was approximately 55% at -10 mV. Secretion of CHH varied almost linearly with the log of Mg2+ concentration; in 2.4 mM Mg2+ it was double that in 24 mM Mg2+ and almost completely inhibited in 100 mM. Thus, Mg2+ produces a parallel inhibition of Ca2+ currents and CHH secretion and may play a role as a physiological modulator of neuronal activity and secretion in the XOSG of these crabs.

  4. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  5. An insect-like mushroom body in a crustacean brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Gabriella Hannah; Thoen, Hanne Halkinrud; Marshall, Justin; Sayre, Marcel E

    2017-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects. However, neuroanatomy-based cladistics suggesting close phylogenetic proximity of insects and stomatopod crustaceans conflicts with genomic evidence showing hexapods closely related to simple crustaceans called remipedes. We discuss whether corresponding anatomical phenotypes described here reflect the cerebral morphology of a common ancestor of Pancrustacea or an extraordinary example of convergent evolution. PMID:28949916

  6. The eyes have it: A brief history of crustacean neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Penny M

    2012-02-01

    To help celebrate the 50th anniversary of General and Comparative Endocrinology, the history of only a small portion of crustacean endocrinology is presented here. The field of crustacean endocrinology dates back to the decades prior to the establishment of General and Comparative Endocrinology and the first article about crustacean endocrinology published in this journal was concerned with the anatomy of neurosecretory and neurohemal structures in brachyuran crabs. This review looks at the history of neuroendocrinology in crustaceans during that time and tries to put perspective on the future of this field.

  7. Epidemiology of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome in children hospitalized in USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdure, Dayanand; Rewers, Arleta; Campagna, Elizabeth; Sills, Marion R

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) in children are limited to case series or single-institution reviews, which describe HHS primarily in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To estimate the incidence and describe the epidemiologic characteristics of HHS among children in USA. All discharges in the Kids' Inpatient Database - a triennial, nationwide, stratified probability sample of hospital discharges for years 1997-2009 - with age 0-18 yr and a diagnosis of HHS. Using sample weights, we calculated the incidence and population rate of hospitalization with a diagnosis of HHS. Our sample included 1074 HHS hospitalizations; of these, 42.9% were 16-18 yr, 70.6% had type 1 diabetes (T1D), and 53.0% had major or extreme severity of illness. The median length of stay was 2.6 d, 2.7% of hospitalizations ended in death, and median hospital charge was $10 882. When comparing HHS hospitalizations by diabetes type, the proportion with T1D fell steadily with age, from 89.1% among children 0-9 yr, to 65.1% in 16-18 yr olds. Patients with T1D had a shorter length of stay by 0.9 d, and had a lower median charge by $5311. There was no difference in mortality by diabetes type. Population rates for HHS hospitalization rose 52.4% from 2.1 to 3.2 per 1 000 000 children from 1997 to 2009. Hospitalizations for a diagnosis of HHS have high morbidity and are increasing in incidence since 1997. In contrast to prior reports, we found a substantial percentage of HHS hospitalizations occurred among children with T1D. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Annotated checklist of marine Algerian Crustacean Decapods

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    S. GRIMES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sampling surveys (1976-2013 of soft-bottom communities and some hard bottom communities along the Algerian coast (1,180 km have allowed the collection of 114 species of crustacean decapods of which of 37 were reported for the first time for the Algerian decapods fauna; for these species additional comments concerning their ecological and geographical patterns are given. The inventory of all benthic and pelagic decapods recorded along the Algerian coast reaches 253 species. Three families on a total of 57 families were highly diversified: Paguridae (17 species, Polybiidae (16 species and Processidae (13 species. The presence of the 253 recorded species along the Algerian coast has been compared with eight other areas from the Mediterranean Sea. The decapods fauna of the Algerian coast is among the most richest of the Mediterranean Sea and comparable of that of Italy.

  9. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules in mice

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    Ankush Gunjal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Triphalādi granules have significant hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in mice with minimal effect on BSL below normal range. The studies suggest the potential role of Triphalādi granules as an alternative adjuvant therapy in diabetic individuals for the control of the blood glucose level.

  10. CcpA Affects Infectivity of Staphylococcus aureus in a Hyperglycemic Environment

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    Markus Bischoff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria regulate the expression of virulence factors via carbon catabolite responsive elements. In Gram-positive bacteria, the predominant mediator of carbon catabolite repression is the catabolite control protein A (CcpA. Hyperglycemia is a widespread disorder that predisposes individuals to an array of symptoms and an increased risk of infections. In hyperglycemic individuals, the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus causes serious, life-threatening infections. The importance of CcpA in regulating carbon catabolite repression in S. aureus suggests it may be important for infections in hyperglycemic individuals. To test this suggestion, hyperglycemic non-obese diabetic (NOD; blood glucose level ≥20 mM mice were challenged with the mouse pathogenic S. aureus strain Newman and the isogenic ccpA deletion mutant (MST14, and the effects on infectivity were determined. Diabetic NOD mice challenged with the ccpA deletion mutant enhanced the symptoms of infection in an acute murine pneumonia model relative to the parental strain. Interestingly, when diabetic NOD mice were used in footpad or catheter infection models, infectivity of the ccpA mutant decreased relative to the parental strain. These differences greatly diminished when normoglycemic NOD mice (blood glucose level ≤ 10 mM were used. These data suggest that CcpA is important for infectivity of S. aureus in hyperglycemic individuals.

  11. An invertebrate hyperglycemic model for the identification of anti-diabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sumiya, Eriko; Sugita, Takuya; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2011-03-30

    The number of individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is caused by insulin resistance and/or abnormal insulin secretion, is increasing worldwide, creating a strong demand for the development of more effective anti-diabetic drugs. However, animal-based screening for anti-diabetic compounds requires sacrifice of a large number of diabetic animals, which presents issues in terms of animal welfare. Here, we established a method for evaluating the anti-diabetic effects of compounds using an invertebrate animal, the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Sugar levels in silkworm hemolymph increased immediately after feeding silkworms a high glucose-containing diet, resulting in impaired growth. Human insulin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, decreased the hemolymph sugar levels of the hyperglycemic silkworms and restored growth. Treatment of the isolated fat body with human insulin in an in vitro culture system increased total sugar in the fat body and stimulated Akt phosphorylation. These responses were inhibited by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3 kinase. Moreover, AICAR stimulated AMPK phosphorylation in the silkworm fat body. Administration of aminoguanidine, a Maillard reaction inhibitor, repressed the accumulation of Maillard reaction products (advanced glycation end-products; AGEs) in the hyperglycemic silkworms and restored growth, suggesting that the growth defect of hyperglycemic silkworms is caused by AGE accumulation in the hemolymph. Furthermore, we identified galactose as a hypoglycemic compound in jiou, an herbal medicine for diabetes, by monitoring its hypoglycemic activity in hyperglycemic silkworms. These results suggest that the hyperglycemic silkworm model is useful for identifying anti-diabetic drugs that show therapeutic effects in mammals.

  12. An invertebrate hyperglycemic model for the identification of anti-diabetic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The number of individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is caused by insulin resistance and/or abnormal insulin secretion, is increasing worldwide, creating a strong demand for the development of more effective anti-diabetic drugs. However, animal-based screening for anti-diabetic compounds requires sacrifice of a large number of diabetic animals, which presents issues in terms of animal welfare. Here, we established a method for evaluating the anti-diabetic effects of compounds using an invertebrate animal, the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Sugar levels in silkworm hemolymph increased immediately after feeding silkworms a high glucose-containing diet, resulting in impaired growth. Human insulin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activator, decreased the hemolymph sugar levels of the hyperglycemic silkworms and restored growth. Treatment of the isolated fat body with human insulin in an in vitro culture system increased total sugar in the fat body and stimulated Akt phosphorylation. These responses were inhibited by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3 kinase. Moreover, AICAR stimulated AMPK phosphorylation in the silkworm fat body. Administration of aminoguanidine, a Maillard reaction inhibitor, repressed the accumulation of Maillard reaction products (advanced glycation end-products; AGEs in the hyperglycemic silkworms and restored growth, suggesting that the growth defect of hyperglycemic silkworms is caused by AGE accumulation in the hemolymph. Furthermore, we identified galactose as a hypoglycemic compound in jiou, an herbal medicine for diabetes, by monitoring its hypoglycemic activity in hyperglycemic silkworms. These results suggest that the hyperglycemic silkworm model is useful for identifying anti-diabetic drugs that show therapeutic effects in mammals.

  13. Uric Acid Is Protective After Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Hyperglycemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia, Carles; Salas-Perdomo, Angélica; Pérez-de-Puig, Isabel; Deddens, Lisette H; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Castellví, Clara; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Chamorro, Ángel; Planas, Anna M

    2016-12-15

    Hyperglycemia at stroke onset is associated with poor long-term clinical outcome in numerous studies. Hyperglycemia induces intracellular acidosis, lipid peroxidation, and peroxynitrite production resulting in the generation of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the ischemic tissue. Here, we studied the effects of acute hyperglycemia on in vivo intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, neutrophil recruitment, and brain damage after ischemia/reperfusion in mice and tested whether the natural antioxidant uric acid was protective. Hyperglycemia was induced by i.p. administration of dextrose 45 min before transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 24 h to measure lesion volume. A group of normoglycemic and hyperglycemic mice received an i.v. injection of micron-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIOs), conjugated with either anti-ICAM-1 antibody or control IgG, followed by T2*w MRI. Neutrophil infiltration was studied by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A group of hyperglycemic mice received an i.v. infusion of uric acid (16 mg/kg) or the vehicle starting after 45 min of reperfusion. ICAM-1-targeted MPIOs induced significantly larger MRI contrast-enhancing effects in the ischemic brain of hyperglycemic mice, which also showed more infiltrating neutrophils and larger lesions than normoglycemic mice. Uric acid reduced infarct volume in hyperglycemic mice but it did not prevent vascular ICAM-1 upregulation and did not significantly reduce the number of neutrophils in the ischemic brain tissue. In conclusion, hyperglycemia enhances stroke-induced vascular ICAM-1 and neutrophil infiltration and exacerbates the brain lesion. Uric acid reduces the lesion size after ischemia/reperfusion in hyperglycemic mice.

  14. Genetic evidence confirms polygamous mating system in a crustacean parasite with multiple hosts.

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    Quentin Jossart

    Full Text Available Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007 proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders. Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus.

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of innate immunity reveals novel and conserved components in crustacean food crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alvina G; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2017-05-18

    Growing global demands for crustacean food crop species have driven large investments in aquaculture research worldwide. However, large-scale production is susceptible to pathogen-mediated destruction particularly in developing economies. Thus, a thorough understanding of the immune system components of food crop species is imperative for research to combat pathogens. Through a comparative genomics approach utilising extant data from 55 species, we describe the innate immune system of the class Malacostraca, which includes all food crop species. We identify 7407 malacostracan genes from 39 gene families implicated in different aspects of host defence and demonstrate dynamic evolution of innate immunity components within this group. Malacostracans have achieved flexibility in recognising infectious agents through divergent evolution and expansion of pathogen recognition receptors genes. Antiviral RNAi, Toll and JAK-STAT signal transduction pathways have remained conserved within Malacostraca, although the Imd pathway appears to lack several key components. Immune effectors such as the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have unique evolutionary profiles, with many malacostracan AMPs not found in other arthropods. Lastly, we describe four putative novel immune gene families, potentially representing important evolutionary novelties of the malacostracan immune system. Our analyses across the broader Malacostraca have allowed us to not only draw analogies with other arthropods but also to identify evolutionary novelties in immune modulation components and form strong hypotheses as to when key pathways have evolved or diverged. This will serve as a key resource for future immunology research in crustacean food crops.

  16. Genetic evidence confirms polygamous mating system in a crustacean parasite with multiple hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossart, Quentin; Wattier, Rémi A; Kastally, Chedly; Aron, Serge; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007) proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders). Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software) as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus.

  17. Crustacean-derived biomimetic components and nanostructured composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Herrera, Steven; Kisailus, David

    2014-08-27

    Over millions of years, the crustacean exoskeleton has evolved into a rigid, tough, and complex cuticle that is used for structural support, mobility, protection of vital organs, and defense against predation. The crustacean cuticle is characterized by a hierarchically arranged chitin fiber scaffold, mineralized predominately by calcium carbonate and/or calcium phosphate. The structural organization of the mineral and organic within the cuticle occurs over multiple length scales, resulting in a strong and tough biological composite. Here, the ultrastructural details observed in three species of crustacean are reviewed: the American lobster (Homarus americanus), the edible crab (Cancer pagurus), and the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus). The Review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of biomimetics with controlled organic scaffolding, mineralization, and the construction of nanoscale composites, inspired by the organization and formation of the crustacean cuticle. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Checklist of the freshwater decapod crustaceans from the Orontes River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Ozcan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provided an annoted list of decapod crustacean fauna of Orontes River, mainly based on previous study works. It included 6 species (3 Natantia, 3 Brachyura belonging 3 families.

  19. Hox genes and study of Hox genes in crustacean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lin; CHEN Zhijuan; XU Mingyu; LIN Shengguo; WANG Lu

    2004-01-01

    Homeobox genes have been discovered in many species. These genes are known to play a major role in specifying regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis of animals from a wide range of phyla.The products of the homeotic genes are a set of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control elaborate developmental processes and specify cell fates in metazoans. Crustacean, presenting a variety of body plans not encountered in any other class or phylum of the Metazoa, has been shown to possess a single set of homologous Hox genes like insect. The ancestral crustacean Hox gene complex comprised ten genes: eight homologous to the hometic Hox genes and two related to nonhomeotic genes presented within the insect Hox complexes. The crustacean in particular exhibits an abundant diversity segment specialization and tagmosis. This morphological diversity relates to the Hox genes. In crustacean body plan, different Hox genes control different segments and tagmosis.

  20. The sensory dorsal organs of crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Meyer, Roland

    2013-05-01

    The cuticle of crustaceans bears numerous organs, of which the functions of many are unknown. One of these, the sensory dorsal organ (SDO), is present in a wide diversity of taxa. Here we critically review the variability, ultrastructure, distribution, and possible function of this enigmatic cuticular organ. Previous data are complemented by new observations on larvae and adults of various malacostracans. The SDO is composed of four sensors arranged as the corners of a square, the centre of which is occupied by a gland. Pores or pegs surrounding this central complex may also form part of the organ. The arrangement and the external aspect of the five main elements varies greatly, but this apparently has little impact on their ultrastructural organisation. The sensors and the gland are associated with a particularly thin cuticle. Each sensor contains four outer dendritic segments and the central gland is made of a single large cell. It is not yet known what this large cell secretes. The SDO is innervated from the tritocerebrum and therefore belongs to the third cephalic segment. A similar organ, here called the posterior SDO, has been repeatedly observed more posteriorly on the carapace. It resembles the SDO but has a greater number of sensors (usually six, but up to ten) apparently associated with only two outer dendritic segments. The SDO and the posterior SDO are known in the Eumalacostraca, the Hoplocarida, and the Phyllocarida. Some branchiopods also possess a 'dorsal organ' resembling both the SDO and the ion-transporting organ more typical of this group. This may indicate a common origin for these two functionally distinct groups of organs. New observations on the posterior SDO support the hypothesis that the SDO and the posterior SDO are homologous to the lattice organ complexes of the costracans. However, the relationship between the SDO and the dorsal cephalic hump of calanoid copepods remains unclear. No correlation can be demonstrated between the presence

  1. Behavioural indicators of pain in crustacean decapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gherardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether invertebrates are able or not to experience pain is a highly controversial issue. An operative way to solve such a controversy might be to investigate their responses to potentially noxious stimuli and to collect evidence of their behavioural complexities as proxies of cognitive capacities. The principle of argument-by-analogy can be then applied to these data: the behaviour displayed by invertebrates is compared with that of "higher" animals, its similarity denoting the former's capacity to have analogous experiences. Here, the author discusses some examples, extracted from the literature on crustacean decapods, that pinpoint their nature of "sentient" animals. This review, however, also shows that research is still scanty in the field. The studies that examine the potential links between stress responses and pain experience are few, and the several papers that help elucidate cognitive abilities in decapods have been limited to a few taxa and are not specifically directed to the question of "sentience". On the contrary, also in the light of the expected revision of the current EU legislation in the matter, more scientific efforts should be expended on exploring the issue of pain experience in invertebrates.

  2. Peptide discovery in the ectoparasitic crustacean Argulus siamensis: identification of the first neuropeptides from a member of the Branchiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have facilitated the generation of large transcriptomic datasets for an ever-growing number of crustaceans, one being the carp louse Argulus siamensis. This and other members of the subclass Branchiura are obligate fish ectoparasites, and as such, are a major concern for commercial aquaculture. Using the extant transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences for A. siamensis, 27 transcripts encoding putative neuropeptide precursors were identified, and their pre/preprohormones deduced and characterized using a well-established bioinformatics workflow. The structures of 105 distinct peptides were predicted from the deduced proteins, including isoforms of adipokinetic hormone (AKH), allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, bursicon α, bursicon β, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide Y, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide. While several of the predicted peptides are known from other crustacean and/or insect species, e.g. RYLPT, a broadly conserved arthropod proctolin isoform, and PFCNAFTGCamide (disulfide bridging between the two cysteines), the stereotypical crustacean CCAP, the vast majority of them are described here for the first time, e.g. pQVNFSTKWamide, a new AKH/red pigment concentrating hormone superfamily member, pQEGLDHMFMRFamide, a novel myosuppressin, and SYKSKPPFNGSIFamide, a new member of the SIFamide family. As the peptides presented here are the only ones thus far described from A. siamensis, or for that matter, any branchiuran, they represent a new resource to begin investigations of peptidergic control of physiology and behavior in this and other related aquacultural pests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early embryonic expression of a putative ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase in the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Daphniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Miki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Ecdysteroids, known as molting hormones, play central roles in the onset of molting, metamorphosis, and reproduction in arthropods. The ecdysteroids stored in eggs also play an important role in embryogenesis. In insects, ecdysteroids are stored as phosphate esters, which are converted to an active form by ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase). Although EPPase is believed to be widely conserved in the Ecdysozoa, little is known about its expression in clades other than Insecta. In this study, we cloned a putative EPPase gene from a small fresh water crustacean known as a water flea, Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera: Daphniidae), and examined its expression during embryogenesis. The amino acid sequence of the putative crustacean EPPase cDNA showed high similarity to insect EPPase and human suppressor of T-cell receptor signaling-1. We also found that the D. magna EPPase was highly expressed during early embryogenesis; its expression rapidly decreased 6 h after oviposition. This timing corresponds to the onset of organogenesis in D. magna. The expression of EPPase could not be detected in diapaused eggs. This is the first report of an EPPase from crustaceans, and the results suggest that the function of EPPase is conserved between insects and crustaceans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Impaired constitutive and regenerative neurogenesis in adult hyperglycemic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsemans, Anne-Claire; Soulé, Stéphanie; Weger, Meltem; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Christian; Meilhac, Olivier; Diotel, Nicolas

    2017-02-15

    A growing body of evidence supports hyperglycemia as a putative contributor to several brain dysfunctions observed in diabetes patients, such as impaired memory capacity, neural plasticity, and neurogenic processes. Thanks to the persistence of radial glial cells acting as neural stem cells, the brain of the adult zebrafish constitutes a relevant model to investigate constitutive and injury-induced neurogenesis in adult vertebrates. However, there is limited understanding of the impact of hyperglycemia on brain dysfunction in the zebrafish model. This work aimed at exploring the impact of acute and chronic hyperglycemia on brain homeostasis and neurogenesis. Acute hyperglycemia was shown to promote gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (il1β, il6, il8, and tnfα) in the brain and chronic hyperglycemia to impair expression of genes involved in the establishment of the blood-brain barrier (claudin 5a, zona occludens 1a and b). Chronic hyperglycemia also decreased brain cell proliferation in most neurogenic niches throughout the forebrain and the midbrain. By using a stab wound telencephalic injury model, the impact of hyperglycemia on brain repair mechanisms was investigated. Whereas the initial step of parenchymal cell proliferation was not affected by acute hyperglycemia, later proliferation of neural progenitors was significantly decreased by chronic hyperglycemia in the injured brain of fish. Taken together, these data offer new evidence highlighting the evolutionary conserved adverse effects of hyperglycemia on neurogenesis and brain healing in zebrafish. In addition, our study reinforces the utility of zebrafish as a robust model for studying the effects of metabolic disorders on the central nervous system. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:442-458, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  6. Bis-Pyrano Prenyl Isoflavone Improves Glucose Homeostasis by Inhibiting Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 in Hyperglycemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofen, Delsi; da Luz, Gabrielle; Frederico, Marisa Jádna Silva; Venzke, Dalila; Brich, Mayara; Vigil, Silvana; Fröde, Tania Silvia; Linares, Carlos Eduardo Blanco; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto

    2017-01-01

    Isoflavones widely distributed in plants prevent diabetes. This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effect of 3',4'-dihydroxy-6″,6″,6″',6″'-tetramethylbis(pyrano[2″,3″:5,6::2″',3″':7,8]isoflavone (bis-pyrano prenyl isoflavone) on glucose homeostasis in hyperglycemic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction from aerial parts of Polygala molluginifolia that contain isoflavones was assayed on glucose tolerance, on in vitro maltase activity and on protein glycation. The isoflavone bis-pyrano prenyl isolated from this fraction was investigated on glucose homeostasis. The in vivo action of the isoflavone exhibits an anti-hyperglycemic effect by improving glucose tolerance, augmenting the liver glycogen, inhibiting maltase activity, and stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and insulin secretion. The in vitro isoflavone inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity since the glucose tolerance was improved in the presence of the isoflavone as much as sitagliptin, an inhibitor of DPP-4. However, the co-incubation with isoflavone and sitagliptin exhibited an additive anti-hyperglycemic action. The isoflavone increased the GLP-1 faster than the positive hyperglycemic group, which shows that the intestine is a potential target. Thus, to clarify the main site of action in which isoflavone improves glucose balance, the in vitro mechanism of action of this compound was tested in intestine using calcium influx as a trigger for the signal pathways for GLP-1 secretion. The isoflavone stimulates calcium influx in intestine and its mechanism involves voltage-dependent calcium channels, phospholipase C, protein kinase C, and stored calcium contributing for GLP-1 secretion. In conclusion, the isoflavone regulates glycaemia by acting mainly in a serum target, the DPP-4 inhibitor. Furthermore, the long-term effect of isoflavone prevents protein glycation. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 92-103, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of three medicinal plants in diabetic pregnancy: modulation of T cell proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Gbenou, Joachim; Grissa, Oussama; Hichami, Aziz; SIMONIN, Anne-Marie; Tabka, Zouhair; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Populations in Africa mostly rely on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care, but so far scientific studies supporting the use of plants in traditional medicine remain poor. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Picralima nitida (seeds), Nauclea latifolia (root and stem) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (leaves) commonly used, in diabetic pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant wistar rats, rendered diabetic by multiple ...

  8. Bilateral cataract formation via acute spontaneous fracture of the lens following treatment of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy V. Sychev

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: Acute transient cataracts that develop during correction of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome are thought to result from osmotic lens swelling. In this case report, internal fracture of the lens was produced by mechanical forces generated in the process of lens swelling occurring as a consequence of initial hyperglycemia and its subsequent correction. This case represents a rare ocular complication of hyperglycemia correction, and provides new evidence that mechanical forces can be part of diabetic cataractogenesis.

  9. Efficacy of treatment for hyperglycemic crisis in elderly diabetic patients in a day hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaiges, D; Chillarón, JJ; Carrera, MJ; Cots, F; Puig de Dou, J; Corominas, E; Pedro-Botet, J; Flores-Le Roux, JA; Claret, C; Goday, A; Cano, JF

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to compare the costs of day hospital (DH) care for hyperglycemic crisis in elderly diabetic patients with those of conventional hospitalization (CH). Secondary objectives were to compare these two clinical scenarios in terms of glycemic control, number of emergency and outpatient visits, readmissions, hypoglycemic episodes, and nosocomial morbidity. Methods The study population comprised diabetic patients aged >74 years consecutively admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital in Spain for hyperglycemic crisis (sustained hyperglycemia [>300 mg/dL] for at least 3 days with or without ketosis). The patients were assigned to DH or CH care according to time of admission and were followed for 6 months after discharge. Exclusion criteria were ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar crisis, hemodynamic instability, severe intercurrent illness, social deprivation, or Katz index >D. Results Sixty-four diabetic patients on DH care and 36 on CH care were included, with no differences in baseline characteristics. The average cost per patient was 1,345.1±793.6 € in the DH group and 2,212.4±982.5 € in the CH group (P<0.001). There were no differences in number of subjects with mild hypoglycemia during follow-up (45.3% DH versus 33.3% CH, P=0.24), nor in the percentage of patients achieving a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <8% (67.2% DH versus 58.3% CH, P=0.375). Readmissions for hyperglycemic crisis and pressure ulcer rates were significantly higher in the CH group. Conclusion DH care for hyperglycemic crises is more cost-effective than CH care, with a net saving of 1,418.4 € per case, lower number of readmissions and pressure ulcer rates, and similar short-term glycemic control and hypoglycemia rates. PMID:24868152

  10. Hyperglycemic crisis precipitated by Lassa fever in a patient with previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, A E; Okaka, E; Ezeani, I U

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemic crisis (HC) is an acute complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is commonly precipitated by infections and non-compliance with therapy. Viral precipitant of HC is uncommon. To report a rare case of HC unmasked by Lassa fever in a patient previously not known to have diabetes mellitus. A 54 year old lady presented with complaints of generalized body weakness, inability to pass stool, and fever. There was no abdominal pain, vomiting and nausea. There were no features of DM. She is not a known case of diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Patient does not drink alcoholic beverages. There was no history of bleeding from any orifices. She was acutely ill-looking, afebrile, not pale, anicteric, nil pedal oedema. Pulse rate was 110 beats per minute, regular, normal volume. Blood pressure was 110/80 mmHg. Respiratory rate was 26 cycles/minute, breath sound was vesicular. Abdomen was full and moved with respiration. There were no areas of tenderness, no organomegaly, no ascites, and bowel sounds were normoactive. Neurologic examination revealed a conscious patient who was restless. Casual blood glucose was 600mg/dl. Urinalysis: Glycosuria (+++), HbA1c was 12.4%. Lassa PCR done was positive. Patient was managed for hyperglycemic crisis with intravenous normal saline and soluble insulin. She was also commenced on Ribavirin but died of complications of lassa fever. Lassa fever should be included as a precipitant of hyperglycemic crisis in endemic countries.

  11. Neurobiology of the Crustacean Swimmeret System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloney, Brian; Smarandache-Wellmann, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean swimmeret system includes a distributed set of local circuits that individually control movements of one jointed limb. These modular local circuits occur in pairs in each segmental ganglion, and normally operate synchronously to produce smoothly coordinated cycles of limb movements on different body segments. The system presents exceptional opportunities for computational and experimental investigation of neural mechanisms of coordination because: a. The system will express in vitro the periodic motor pattern that normally drives cycles of swimmeret movements during forward swimming. b. The intersegmental neurons which encode information that is necessary and sufficient for normal coordination have been identified, and their activity can be recorded. c. The local commissural neurons that integrate this coordinating information and tune the phase of each swimmeret are known. d. The complete set of synaptic connections between coordinating neurons and these commissural neurons have been described. e. The synaptic connections onto each local pattern-generating circuit through which coordinating information tunes the circuit's phase have been discovered. These factors make possible for the first time a detailed, comprehensive cellular and synaptic explanation of how this neural circuit produces an effective, behaviorally-significant output. This paper is the first comprehensive review of the system's neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, its local and intersegmental circuitry, its transmitter pharmacology, its neuromodulatory control mechanisms, and its interactions with other motor systems. Each of these topics is covered in detail in an attempt to provide a complete review of the literature as a foundation for new research. The series of hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the system's properties are reviewed critically in the context of experimental tests of their validity. PMID:22270044

  12. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  13. Hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated immunologic control of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hair Pamela S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk for bacterial infections; these studies provide new insight into the role of the host defense complement system in controlling bacterial pathogens in hyperglycemic environments. Methods The interactions of complement C3 with bacteria in elevated glucose were assayed for complement activation to opsonic forms, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. C3 was analyzed in euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions by mass spectrometry to measure glycation and structural differences. Results Elevated glucose inhibited S. aureus activation of C3 and deposition of C3b and iC3b on the bacterial surface. S. aureus-generated C5a and serum-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils were both decreased in elevated glucose conditions. Interestingly, elevated glucose increased the binding of unactivated C3 to S. aureus, which was reversible on return to normal glucose concentrations. In a model of polymicrobial infection, S. aureus in elevated glucose conditions depleted C3 from serum resulting in decreased complement-mediated killing of E. coli. To investigate the effect of differing glucose concentration on C3 structure and glycation, purified C3 incubated with varying glucose concentrations was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glycation was limited to the same three lysine residues in both euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions over one hour, thus glycation could not account for observed changes between glucose conditions. However, surface labeling of C3 with sulfo-NHS-biotin showed significant changes in the surface availability of seven lysine residues in response to increasing glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of C3 changes in response to hyperglycemic conditions leading to an altered interaction of C3 with bacterial pathogens. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated complement effectors important in the immunological

  14. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British......A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer......) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among...

  15. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer...... parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod...... and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h...

  16. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer...... parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod...... and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h...

  17. Fungal infection in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and in other crustaceans from the Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Purushan, K.S.

    more serious necrotic lesions than Saprolegnia parasitica. In the other crustaceans, Achlya racemosa and another Achlya sp. were also recorded besides S. parasitica. Experimental infection showed that smaller and thin-shelled crustaceans were more...

  18. Folic acid supplementation changes the fate of neural progenitors in mouse embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiuhuan; Zhao, Shidou; Liu, Shangming; Zhang, Yanmin; Fu, Jie; Wang, Fuwu; Liu, Qian; Ling, Eng-Ang; Hao, Aijun

    2013-07-01

    Folic acid has been shown to decrease the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in normal and hyperglycemic conditions, but the influence of folic acid on the development of central nervous system is not fully understood. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of folic acid, especially high dose of folic acid, on the characteristics of neural progenitors in embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic mouse. Hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnant mice were given 3 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg folic acid from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) and were euthanased on E11.5, E13.5 or E18.5. The incidence of NTDs at E13.5 was counted. The proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of neural progenitors and neuronal migration were determined using BrdU incorporation assay, TUNEL assay, immunofluorescence, Western blot and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Both normal and high doses of folic acid decreased the incidence of NTDs, promoted proliferation and reduced apoptosis of neuroepithelial cells in embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic mice. Importantly, folic acid, especially at high dose, might affect the premature differentiation of neural progenitors in embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnancy. This may be attributed to changes of messenger RNA expression levels of some basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors. In addition, folic acid might be involved in regulating neuronal migration in embryos of hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnancy. These findings suggest that periconceptional supplementation of folic acid, especially at high dose, may be a double-edged sword because it may result in undesirable outcomes affecting both the neuronal and glial differentiation in hyperglycemic and diabetic pregnancy.

  19. Crustaceans from the groundwaters of Vratchanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN PANDOURSKI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one Crustacean species from 21 localities are reported from groundwaters of Vratchanska Planina Mountain. The list of species is completed on the basis of available bibliographic sources and original data of authors. Faunal samples are collected at the natural access to underground ecosystem, caves and springs. Eight species are stygobionts: three cyclopoids, one harpacticoid, three isopods and one amphipod, or 6.6 % of all the Bulgarian stygobiont Crustacean fauna. Elaphoidella balkanica Apostolov and Protelsonia lakatnicensis (Buresch & Gueorguiev are local endemic species of the Vratchanska planina Mountains.

  20. 50 CFR 665.640 - PRIA crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PRIA crustacean fisheries. 665.640 Section 665.640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island...

  1. 50 CFR 665.240 - Hawaii crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii crustacean fisheries. 665.240 Section 665.240 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  2. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  3. Interpreting ecology and physiology of fossil decapod crustaceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmann, Rodney M.

    2003-01-01

    Decapods are the most diverse and complex group of crustaceans, adapted for life in all parts of the marine environment, many aquatic habitats, and some terrestrial niches. With this diversity of life styles, a vast range of morphotypes of decapods has evolved, exploiting almost every imaginable var

  4. 50 CFR 665.140 - American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries. 665.140 Section 665.140 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American...

  5. Crustacean hemolymph microbiota: Endemic, tightly controlled, and utilization expectable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Wei; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Increasing number of evidence suggests that the hemolymph of numerous apparently healthy invertebrates is unsterile. Investigation of hemolymph microbiota properties and the homeostasis between host and bacteria is helpful to reveal bacteria pathogenesis, host immunity, and possible utilization in disease control. Crustaceans represent a large family of aquatic animals. Therefore, crustacean fishery is of important economic value worldwide. Research related to crustacean hemolymph microbiota has been performed over the years. In the present study, we conclude currently available information and present a comprehensive analysis regarding homeostasis between host and bacteria. In general, the presence of microbiota in crustacean hemolymph is an endemic event and can be influenced by internal and external factors. Opportunistic bacteria may have generated some changes or mutations under hemolymph stress. Meanwhile, hosts suppress hemolymph microbiota proliferation with the help of some critical antimicrobial peptides and lectins. The hemolymph microbiota may be beneficial for hosts as resistance against external damages. In addition, the hemolymph microbiota may be utilized in aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial and temporal variation in ephemeral pool crustacean communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janette Holtz; Marie A. Simovich; Thomas Philippi

    2005-01-01

    Vernal pool habitat losses in San Diego County, California, are estimated at 95 percent and will increase as development continues. The majority of San Diego’s remaining pools are located at the Marine Corps Air Station, Miramar. Crustacean communities in eight vernal pools in San Diego County were sampled over 3 years that differed in rainfall amount and pattern. In...

  7. Use of plant protein sources in crustacean diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    World production of crustaceans has experienced a steady expansion that is expected to continue as world population increases and demand for quality sea food continues to rise. Paralleling the growth of industry has been an expansion in feed production, which has been primarily dominated by marine s...

  8. Cuticle morphogenesis in crustacean embryonic and postembryonic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, Polona; Bogataj, Urban; Štrus, Jasna; Žnidaršič, Nada

    2017-01-01

    The crustacean cuticle is a chitin-based extracellular matrix, produced in general by epidermal cells and ectodermally derived epithelial cells of the digestive tract. Cuticle morphogenesis is an integrative part of embryonic and postembryonic development and it was studied in several groups of crustaceans, but mainly with a focus on one selected aspect of morphogenesis. Early studies were focused mainly on in vivo or histological observations of embryonic or larval molt cycles and more recently, some ultrastructural studies of the cuticle differentiation during development were performed. The aim of this paper is to review data on exoskeletal and gut cuticle formation during embryonic and postembryonic development in crustaceans, obtained in different developmental stages of different species and to bring together and discuss different aspects of cuticle morphogenesis, namely data on the morphology, ultrastructure, composition, connections to muscles and molt cycles in relation to cuticle differentiation. Based on the comparative evaluation of microscopic analyses of cuticle in crustacean embryonic and postembryonic stages, common principles of cuticle morphogenesis during development are discussed. Additional studies are suggested to further clarify this topic and to connect the new knowledge to related fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exendin-4 protected against cognitive dysfunction in hyperglycemic mice receiving an intrahippocampal lipopolysaccharide injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Jen Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia-associated inflammation plays critical roles in disease initiation and the progression of diabetic complications, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the association of chronic hyperglycemia with acute inflammation of the central nervous system in the progression of AD still needs to be elucidated. In addition, recent evidence suggests that Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R protects against neuronal damage in the brain. Therefore, the neuroprotective effects of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (EX-4 against hyperglycemia/lipopolysaccharides (LPS damage were also evaluated in this study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten days after streptozotocin (STZ or vehicle (sodium citrate treatment in mice, EX-4 treatment (10 µg/kg/day was applied to the mice before intrahippocampal CA1 injection of LPS or vehicle (saline and continued for 28 days. This study examined the molecular alterations in these mice after LPS and EX4 application, respectively. The mouse cognitive function was evaluated during the last 6 days of EX-4 treatment. The results showed that the activation of NF-κB-related inflammatory responses induced cognitive dysfunction in both the hyperglycemic mice and the mice that received acute intrahippocampal LPS injection. Furthermore, acute intrahippocampal LPS injection exacerbated the impairment of spatial learning and memory through a strong decrease in monoaminergic neurons and increases in astrocytes activation and apoptosis in the hyperglycemic mice. However, EX-4 treatment protected against the cognitive dysfunction resulting from hyperglycemia or/and intrahippocampal LPS injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal that both hyperglycemia and intrahippocampal LPS injection induced cognitive dysfunction via activation of NF-κB-related inflammatory responses. However, acute intrahippocampal LPS injection exacerbated the progression of cognitive dysfunction in the

  10. Hyperglycemic emergencies in Indian patients with diabetes mellitus on pilgrimage to Amarnathji yatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ashraf Ganie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS represent two distinct metabolic derangements manifested by insulin deficiency and severe hyperglycemia, with estimated mortality rates of 2.5-9%. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM controlled by diet or oral agents, DKA does not occur unless there is significant severe stress such as severe sepsis, major surgery, trauma, etc. We observed many such emergencies occurring in pilgrims. Objective: We analyzed the data of 13 patients with DM admitted in our endocrine department with hyperglycemic emergencies during 2 years of the annual pilgrimage (yatra to Amarnathji. Materials and Methods: We reviewed and analyzed the case records of 13 yatris with DM who were referred and admitted in our hospital with hyperglycemic emergencies during the yatra season (July-August of 2006 and 2007. Results: Eleven of 13 had DKA and 1 each had HHS and hypoglycemia. After initial clinical assessment and blood sampling for blood counts, electrolytes, blood gases, urinalysis, chest radiography, and electrocardiography, these cases were managed with standard protocol published by American Diabetes Association (ADA for the management of DKA and HHS. Average blood glucose was 466 mg/dl and nine subjects had moderate to severe ketonuria. All the cases, except one, were in stable condition at the time of discharge. Conclusion: High altitude, strenuous exertion of going uphill, withdrawal of insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs, starvation, sepsis, and alcohol intake were recorded as predisposing factors. Therefore, there is an immense need for institution of a special health education program to all the yatris before taking the endeavor.

  11. Nesfatin-1 improves oxidative skin injury in normoglycemic or hyperglycemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Ali; Bahadır, Elif; Gülçiçek, Osman B; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Çelik, Atilla; Karagöz, Ayça; Özsavcı, Derya; Şirvancı, Serap; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is one of the major causes of suppressed angiogenesis and impaired wound healing leading to chronic wounds. Nesfatin-1 a novel peptide was reported to have antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. This study is aimed to investigate the potential healing-promoting effects of nesfatin-1 in non-diabetic or diabetic rats with surgical wounds. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Under anesthesia, dorsum skin tissues of normoglycemic (n=16) and hyperglycemic rats were excised (2 × 2 cm, full-thickness), while control rats (n=16) had neither hyperglycemia nor wounds. Half of the rats in each group were treated ip with saline, while the others were treated with nesfatin-1 (2 μg/kg/day) for 3 days until they were decapitated. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β-1), IL-6 levels, and dermal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and caspase-3 activity were measured. For histological examination, paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was applied. ANOVA and Student's t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Compared to control rats, skin MPO activity, MDA and caspase-3 levels were increased similarly in saline-treated normo- and hyperglycemic rats. Nesfatin-1 depressed MDA, caspase-3, MPO activity and IL-1β with concomitant elevations in dermal GSH and plasma TGF-β-1 levels. Histopathological examination revealed regeneration of epidermis, regular arrangement of collagen fibers in the dermis and a decrease in VEGF immunoreactivity in the epidermal keratinocytes of nesfatin-1-treated groups. Nesfatin-1 improved surgical wound healing in both normo- and hyperglycemic rats via the suppression of neutrophil recruitment, apoptosis and VEGF activation.

  12. Haloperidol-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome complicated by hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Wasseem; Elias, Mazen; Lev, Ami; Saliba, Walid R

    2009-10-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening neurologic emergency that may be caused by neuroleptic agents of any class. The association with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is rare and carries a grave prognosis. We describe the case of a 25-year-old male patient with haloperidol-induced NMS complicated by HHS that culminated in the patient's death despite all treatment efforts. Physicians caring for diabetic psychiatric patients who are treated with neuroleptic agents should be aware of this association that may be prevented by tight glycemic control.

  13. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, N G; Chabot, D; Couturier, C S

    2016-05-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua or whiting Merlangius merlangus and recovered from the stomachs at different post-prandial times. The prey species were krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica; shrimps and prawns Crangon crangon, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus; crabs Liocarcinus depurator and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available.

  14. Analysis of Provincial and Municipal Regulations Governing Crustacean Welfare in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, Gaetano; Rossi, Roberto; Giacometti, Federica; Mescolini, Giulia; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2017-01-24

    The trade in live crustaceans implies keeping these animals alive after capture and/or farming until purchase by the final consumer. Regarding animal welfare, the European Union includes cephalopods in Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, but there are no further regulations on crustaceans in EU legislation. The present study analysed the provisions of Italian municipal regulations on animal welfare applicable to crustaceans. Only 62 of the 110 municipal websites of the provincial capitals reported a regulation safeguarding animal welfare. These regulations contain different rules on: aquaria characteristics (size, volume and shape); management of aquaria; maintenance (preservation and exposure) of live aquatic species; slaughtering and/or suppression of aquatic species and crustaceans; tying of crustacean claws; and crustacean cooking. The analysis on Italian municipal regulations on crustaceans' animal welfare showed that the provisions are vague, lacking uniformity and scientific guidelines.

  15. THE FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING AND ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITIES OF VARIOUS GAMBIERS AVAILABLE IN INDONESIAN MARKET

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    Muhammad Hanafi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gambier (Uncaria gambier is known to have antioxidant properties, and some studies have attributed it to the presenceof polyphenols such as catechin. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of various gambiers availablein Indonesian market as a scavenger of reactive free radicals and evaluate its anti-hyperglycemic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor. Isolation of catechin was done by extraction method with technical grade of ethyl acetate assolvent. Analysis of catechin in the dried gambier extract was carried out with TLC method. The molecular weight andcontent of catechin of dried gambier extract was determined by analyzing its mass spectra and spectrophotometer,respectively. The free radical scavenging activity of catechin of the resultant extracts was measured by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH as stable free radical compound. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of catechin ofethyl acetate extracts was analyzed as α-glucosidase inhibitor. The result showed that various gambiers available in themarket are very active as antioxidant, indicated by IC50 of catechin of ethyl acetate extracts which were 4.6 to 18.2μg/mL for DPPH inhibition. The IC50 for α-glucosidase inhibition is ranged from 40.45 to 52.43 μg/mL, so they can beclassified as anti-diabetic.

  16. Evaluation of Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Kariveppilai Churnam in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    C. Mary Sharmila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The present investigation is undertaken to study the effect of Kariveppilai churnam on changes in Body weight, Plasma glucose, Plasma Insulin, Hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile in alloxan induced Diabetic Rats. Methodology - The raw materials of the compound herbal drug were purchased, identified and pulverized into powder form. The trial drug was administered to alloxan induced diabetic male albino rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups with 6 rats in each group. Group 1, 2 and 3 were normal control, toxic control and diabetic control respectively. Group 4 and 5 received the trial drug at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg orally respectively once a day. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the trial drug was evaluated using the parameters of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides , HDL and phospholipids. Results – The administration of the trial drug at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the body weight of the diabetes induced rats showed significant decrease in the above mentioned elevated parameters. Glipizide (10mg/kg was used as the reference standard. Conclusion- From the results it can be observed that trial drug at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg has protective effect against alloxan induced diabetes and its complications. The findings suggest that kariveppilai churnam possess anti-atherogenic property along with anti hyperglycemic activity.

  17. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  18. Efficacy of treatment for hyperglycemic crisis in elderly diabetic patients in a day hospital

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    Benaiges D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available D Benaiges,1–3 JJ Chillarón,1–3 MJ Carrera,1,3 F Cots,3,4 J Puig de Dou,1 E Corominas,1 J Pedro-Botet,1–3 JA Flores-Le Roux,1–3 C Claret,1 A Goday,1–3 JF Cano1–3 1Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital del Mar, 2Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 3Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques, 4Epidemiology and Evaluation Department, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain Background: The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to compare the costs of day hospital (DH care for hyperglycemic crisis in elderly diabetic patients with those of conventional hospitalization (CH. Secondary objectives were to compare these two clinical scenarios in terms of glycemic control, number of emergency and outpatient visits, readmissions, hypoglycemic episodes, and nosocomial morbidity. Methods: The study population comprised diabetic patients aged >74 years consecutively admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital in Spain for hyperglycemic crisis (sustained hyperglycemia [>300 mg/dL] for at least 3 days with or without ketosis. The patients were assigned to DH or CH care according to time of admission and were followed for 6 months after discharge. Exclusion criteria were ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar crisis, hemodynamic instability, severe intercurrent illness, social deprivation, or Katz index >D.Results: Sixty-four diabetic patients on DH care and 36 on CH care were included, with no differences in baseline characteristics. The average cost per patient was 1,345.1±793.6 € in the DH group and 2,212.4±982.5 € in the CH group (P<0.001. There were no differences in number of subjects with mild hypoglycemia during follow-up (45.3% DH versus 33.3% CH, P=0.24, nor in the percentage of patients achieving a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c <8% (67.2% DH versus 58.3% CH, P=0.375. Readmissions for hyperglycemic crisis and pressure ulcer rates were significantly higher in the CH group

  19. Detection of tropomyosin and determination of proteins in crustacean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Birthe; Mæhre, Hanne K; Jensen, Ida-J; Olsen, Ragnar L

    2013-11-01

    Tropomyosin is known to be the main allergen in crustaceans and the objective of this study was to investigate if this protein could be detected in commercial crustacean oils from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and the zooplankton Calanus finmarchicus. We also examined the possibility of determining the protein content in the oils by direct amino acid analysis. Western blotting showed that a commercial antibody against shrimp tropomyosin cross-reacted with a protein of similar size in Antarctic krill and C. finmarchicus. The protein tentatively identified as tropomyosin, was also detected in krill oil products, but not in oils from C. finmarchicus. The acetone-heptane method used for extracting proteins in the oils is however not optimal. Other extraction methods should therefore be considered when investigating the presence of allergenic proteins in oils. Direct amino acid analysis on oils should be further explored as a method for determining the total amount of proteins present.

  20. The role of lysosomal cysteine proteases in crustacean immune response

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    FL Garcia-Carreño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the long course of evolution and under the selective pressure exerted by pathogens and parasites, animals have selectively fixed a number of defense mechanisms against the constant attack of intruders. The immune response represents a key component to optimize the biological fitness of individuals. Two decades ago, prevention and control of diseases in crustacean aquaculture systems were considered priorities in most shrimp-producing countries, but knowledge was scarce and various pathogens have severely affected aquaculture development around the world. Scientific contributions have improved our understanding of the crustacean immune response. Several studies confirm the central role played by proteases in the immune response of animals, and the cooperative interaction of these enzymes in a wide variety of organisms is well known. This review summarizes the current information regarding the role of cysteine proteases in the immune system of Crustacea and points to aspects that are needed to provide a better integration of our knowledge.

  1. Phylogenetic position of the pentastomida and [pan]crustacean relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-31

    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda, however the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete, or nearly complete, mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus), and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans likely related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacos tracans and insects.

  2. Phylogenetic position of the Pentastomida and (pan)crustacean relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda; however, the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus) and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans probably related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacostracans and hexapods. PMID:15129965

  3. Crustaceans as a model for microgravity-induced muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykles, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Atrophy of skeletal muscles is a serious problem in a microgravity environment. It is hypothesized that the unloading of postural muscles, which no longer must resist gravity force, causes an accelerated breakdown of contractile proteins, resulting in reduction in muscle mass and strength. A crustacean model using the land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, to assess the effects of spaceflight on protein meatabolism is presented. The model is compared to a developmentally-regulated atrophy in which a premolt reduction in muscle mass allows the withdrawal of the large claws at molt. The biochemical mechanisms underlying protein breakdown involves both Ca2(+) -dependent and multicatalytic proteolytic enzymes. Crustacean claw muscle can be used to determine the interactions between shortening and unloading at the molecular level.

  4. Decapod crustaceans of the Sinu River Basin, Cordoba, Colombia

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    Jorge Alexander Quirós Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To review the composition, abundance and distribution of decapod crustaceans in the Sinu river basin, Department of Cordoba (Colombia eight locations were studied: four on the Sinu River and four in the Low Complex Swampy Sinu. For that, six samplings between April 2005 and May 2006 were made. In total 458 decapod crustaceans were recorded distributed into three families, six genus and eight species. The family best represented was Trichodactylidae with four genus and four species, followed by Palaemonidae with one genus and three species, while family Atyidae recorded only one species. Species such as Macrobrachium carcinus and M. acanthurus presented the wider range of distribution for both the Sinu River as the  Low Complex Swampy Sinu.  Among the identified species Atya crassa in the Sinu River and Trichodactylus quinquedentatus in the Low Complex Swampy Sinu are new records for the Department of Cordoba.

  5. SHELF LIFE OF THAWED CRUSTACEANS TREATED WITH SULPHITES

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    G. Smaldone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish and fish products is closely related to their freshness. Aim of this research was to evaluate the shelf life of thawed crustaceans (Aristeomorpha foliacea and Nefrops norvegicus which had been treated with sulphites and frozen on board. Organoleptic characteristics and microbiological and chemical parameters were judged favourably up to day 6 and 7 for the shrimps and Norway lobsters, respectively.

  6. Neural mechanism of optimal limb coordination in crustacean swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Calvin; Guy, Robert D; Mulloney, Brian; Zhang, Qinghai; Lewis, Timothy J

    2014-09-23

    A fundamental challenge in neuroscience is to understand how biologically salient motor behaviors emerge from properties of the underlying neural circuits. Crayfish, krill, prawns, lobsters, and other long-tailed crustaceans swim by rhythmically moving limbs called swimmerets. Over the entire biological range of animal size and paddling frequency, movements of adjacent swimmerets maintain an approximate quarter-period phase difference with the more posterior limbs leading the cycle. We use a computational fluid dynamics model to show that this frequency-invariant stroke pattern is the most effective and mechanically efficient paddling rhythm across the full range of biologically relevant Reynolds numbers in crustacean swimming. We then show that the organization of the neural circuit underlying swimmeret coordination provides a robust mechanism for generating this stroke pattern. Specifically, the wave-like limb coordination emerges robustly from a combination of the half-center structure of the local central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) that drive the movements of each limb, the asymmetric network topology of the connections between local CPGs, and the phase response properties of the local CPGs, which we measure experimentally. Thus, the crustacean swimmeret system serves as a concrete example in which the architecture of a neural circuit leads to optimal behavior in a robust manner. Furthermore, we consider all possible connection topologies between local CPGs and show that the natural connectivity pattern generates the biomechanically optimal stroke pattern most robustly. Given the high metabolic cost of crustacean swimming, our results suggest that natural selection has pushed the swimmeret neural circuit toward a connection topology that produces optimal behavior.

  7. The role of lysosomal cysteine proteases in crustacean immune response

    OpenAIRE

    FL Garcia-Carreño; MA Navarrete del Toro; A Muhlia-Almazan

    2014-01-01

    Over the long course of evolution and under the selective pressure exerted by pathogens and parasites, animals have selectively fixed a number of defense mechanisms against the constant attack of intruders. The immune response represents a key component to optimize the biological fitness of individuals. Two decades ago, prevention and control of diseases in crustacean aquaculture systems were considered priorities in most shrimp-producing countries, but knowledge was scarce and various pathog...

  8. Aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum decreases levels of blood glucose in induced hyperglycemic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amilcar Arenal; Leonardo Martn; Nestor M Castillo; Dainier de la Torre; Ubaldo Torres; Reinaldo Gonzlez

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate, in hyperglycemic tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus)], the effect of this aqueous extract on blood glucose levels.Methods:The hyperglycemia inO. niloticus was induced by adding glucose to fish pond water.An aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum (O. tenuiflorum) was prepared by boiling fresh leaves and the doses of0,40,80,200 and400 mg per liter of pond water were tested.Results:The blood sugar concentration for tilapia with hyperglycemic induced was an average of50% higher than the control group.The blood glucose levels in tilapia after the induction of hyperglycemia were higher than the control group for 90 min after the treatment.The treatment with the aqueous extract ofO. tenuiflorum dropped the serum glucose level of hyperglycemic tilapia until it was similar to that of the control group and was dose dependent.Conclusions:The results indicated that O. tenuiflorum was endowed with anti-hyperglycemic activity.To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of fish as a diabetes model to test natural extracts from plants.

  9. Distribution pattern of crustacean ectoparasites of freshwater fish from Brazil

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use the informations relating to parasite crustaceans species that was published over the course of one century (1913 to 2013, in order to search for infestation and distribution patterns among these ectoparasites in Brazilian freshwater fish species. This search was carried out on 445 samples of 119 host fish of 27 families within the orders Characiformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes, Mugiliformes, Osteoglossiformes, Symbranchiformes, Tetraodontiformes and Siluriformes from various regions of Brazil. We organized different host-parasite systems into matrices grouping species at different taxonomic and infestation levels and according to host parameters. Five families of parasites (Ergasilidae, Argulidae, Lernaeidae, Lernaeopodidae and Cymothoidae distributed into 76 species of 27 genera were analyzed in the host samples, which presented dominance of Ergasilidae species, mainly from the genus Ergasilus. Some crustaceans are host and site-specific, especially in relation to fish in particular habitats and lifestyles (e.g. Perulernaea gamitanae, Anphira branchialis and Riggia paranensis, while other parasites frequently have no preference (e.g. Lernaea cyprinacea and Braga patagonica. We found broadly similar distribution patterns for some crustacean species among the different localities, whereas other species showed well-defined geographical patterns, and these findings were discussed.

  10. Toxicity of five anilines to crustaceans, protozoa and bacteria

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    MARILIIS SIHTMÄE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines (anilines and related derivates are an important class of environmental pollutants that can be released to the aquatic environment as industrial effluents or as breakdown products of pesticides and dyes. The toxicity of aniline, 2-chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, 4-chloroaniline and 3,5-dichloroaniline towards a multitrophic test battery comprised of bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri (formerly Vibrio fischeri, a ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila and two crustaceans (Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus were investigated. Under the applied test conditions, the toxicity of the anilines notably varied among the test species. The bacteria and protozoa were much less sensitive towards the anilines than the crustaceans: EC50 values 13–403 mg L-1 versus 0.13–15.2 mg L-1. No general tendency between toxicity and the chemical structure of the anilines (the degree of chloro-substitution and the position of the chloro-substituents was found in the case of all the tested aquatic species. The replacement of the artificial test medium (ATM by the river water remarkably decreased the toxicity of anilines to crustaceans but not to protozoa. This research is part of the EU 6th Framework Integrated Project OSIRIS, in which ecotoxicogenomic studies of anilines (e.g., for Daphnia magna will also be performed that may help to clarify the mechanisms of toxicity of different anilines.

  11. Light and vision in the deep-sea benthos: II. Vision in deep-sea crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke; Cronin, Thomas W

    2012-10-01

    Using new collecting techniques with the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, eight species of deep-sea benthic crustaceans were collected with intact visual systems. Their spectral sensitivities and temporal resolutions were determined shipboard using electroretinography. Useable spectral sensitivity data were obtained from seven species, and in the dark-adapted eyes, the spectral sensitivity peaks were in the blue region of the visible spectrum, ranging from 470 to 497 nm. Under blue chromatic adaptation, a secondary sensitivity peak in the UV portion of the spectrum appeared for two species of anomuran crabs: Eumunida picta (λ(max)363 nm) and Gastroptychus spinifer (λ(max)383 nm). Wavelength-specific differences in response waveforms under blue chromatic adaptation in these two species suggest that two populations of photoreceptor cells are present. Temporal resolution was determined in all eight species using the maximum critical flicker frequency (CFF(max)). The CFF(max) for the isopod Booralana tricarinata of 4 Hz proved to be the lowest ever measured using this technique, and suggests that this species is not able to track even slow-moving prey. Both the putative dual visual pigment system in the crabs and the extremely slow eye of the isopod may be adaptations for seeing bioluminescence in the benthic environment.

  12. A Case of Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Presenting as Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome

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    Christina E. Brzezniak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that mainly arise in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and bronchi. Bronchopulmonary carcinoids have been associated with Cushing syndrome, which results from ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH secretion. We report the case of a 65-year-old man, a colonel in the US Air Force, with metastatic bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors treated on a clinical trial who was hospitalized for complaints of increasing thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, weakness, and visual changes. Decompensated hyperglycemia suggested a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS. Additional findings, which included hypokalemia, hypernatremia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, moon facies, and striae, raised a red flag for an ectopic ACTH syndrome. Elevated ACTH levels confirmed Cushing syndrome. Treatment with a fluid replacement and insulin drip resulted in immediate symptomatic improvement. Cushing syndrome should be considered in carcinoid patients with physical stigmata such as moon facies and striae. HHNS may be the presenting clinical feature in patients with impaired glucose metabolism.

  13. In vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic extract from Tecomella undulata

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    Kumar Suresh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undergone to evaluate the in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tecomella undulata Seem. on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 minutes after the i.p administration of 110 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The extract has shown significant blood glucose lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. The blood glucose level, cholesterol, glycogen contents, glycosylated hemoglobin, and antioxidant parameters (Malondialdehyde and Glutathione level were estimated from the blood plasma by using standard kits to demonstrate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in treated animals. The data showed that the extract have significant influence on the above biochemical parameters. Thus ethanolic fraction of the plant Tecomella undulata can be used as new candidate for antihyperglycemic and antioxidant.

  14. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  15. A Case of Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Presenting as Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezniak, Christina E; Vietor, Nicole; Hogan, Patricia E; Oronsky, Bryan; Thilagar, Bennett; Ray, Carolyn M; Caroen, Scott; Lybeck, Michelle; Oronsky, Neil; Carter, Corey A

    2017-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that mainly arise in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and bronchi. Bronchopulmonary carcinoids have been associated with Cushing syndrome, which results from ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion. We report the case of a 65-year-old man, a colonel in the US Air Force, with metastatic bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors treated on a clinical trial who was hospitalized for complaints of increasing thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, weakness, and visual changes. Decompensated hyperglycemia suggested a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). Additional findings, which included hypokalemia, hypernatremia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, moon facies, and striae, raised a red flag for an ectopic ACTH syndrome. Elevated ACTH levels confirmed Cushing syndrome. Treatment with a fluid replacement and insulin drip resulted in immediate symptomatic improvement. Cushing syndrome should be considered in carcinoid patients with physical stigmata such as moon facies and striae. HHNS may be the presenting clinical feature in patients with impaired glucose metabolism.

  16. Crustacean fauna of a mussel cultivated raft system in the Black Sea

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    Murat Sezgin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to make a faunistic analysis of the crustaceans associated with cultivated mussels grown on ropes. Mussel samples from 30 cm ropes were collected from rope-grown mussel beds by hand. The crustacean fauna associated with mussel population were quantified. The density of crustacean fauna associated with mussels was significantly greater within rope-grown mussel assemblages than on other biotopes around.

  17. Toward crustacean without chemicals: a descriptive analysis of consumer response using price comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala; Bono, Gioacchino; Pipitone, Vito; Vitale, Sergio; Cannizzaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, there seems to be limited-to-zero emphasis about how consumers perceive crustacean products subject to either chemical and or non-chemical preservative treatments. In addition, studies that investigated price comparisons of crustacean products subject to either chemical or chemical-free preservative methods seem unreported.Objective: This study focused on providing some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that are either...

  18. Hyperglycemic switch from mitochondrial nitric oxide to superoxide production in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Sergey V; Gao, Shujuan; Li, Hong; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2002-11-01

    The accumulated ultrastructural and biochemical evidence is highly suggestive of the existence of mitochondrial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (mtNOS), where local production of NO regulates the electron transport along the respiratory chain. Here, the functional competence of mtNOS in situ in a living cell was examined using an intravital fluorescent NO indicator, 4,5-diaminofluorescein, employing a new procedure for loading it into the mitochondria to demonstrate local NO generation in undisrupted endothelial cells and in isolated mitochondria as well as in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing endothelial NOS. With the use of this approach, we showed that endothelial cells incubated in the presence of high concentration of D-glucose (but not L-glucose) are characterized by the reduced NO synthetic function of mitochondria despite the unaltered abundance of the enzyme. In parallel, mitochondrial generation of superoxide was augmented in endothelial cells incubated in the presence of a high concentration of D-glucose. Both the NO generation and superoxide production in hyperglycemic environment could be restored to control levels by treating cells with a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic. In addition, enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production could be suppressed with an inhibitor of NOS in stimulated endothelial cells. In conclusion, the data 1) provide direct evidence of mitochondrial NO production in endothelial cells, 2) demonstrate its suppression and enhanced superoxide generation in hyperglycemic environment, and 3) provide evidence that "uncoupled" mtNOS represents an important source of superoxide anions in endothelial cells incubated in high glucose-containing medium.

  19. Myocardial glucose transporters and glycolytic metabolism during ischemia in hyperglycemic diabetic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, W C; Hall, J L; Smith, K R; Cartee, G D; Hacker, T A; Wisneski, J A

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the effects of 4 weeks of streptozocin-induced diabetes on regional myocardial glycolytic metabolism during ischemia in anesthetized open-chest domestic swine. Diabetic animals were hyperglycemic (12.0 +/- 2.1 v 6.6 +/- .5 mmol/L), and had lower fasting insulin levels (27 +/- 8 v 79 +/- 19 pmol/L). Myocardial glycolytic metabolism was studied with coronary flow controlled by an extracorporeal perfusion circuit. Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow was decreased by 50% for 45 minutes and left circumflex (CFX) flow was constant. Myocardial glucose uptake and extraction were measured with D-[6-3H]-2-deoxyglucose (DG) and myocardial blood flow was measured with microspheres. The rate of glucose conversion to lactate and lactate uptake and output were assessed with a continuous infusion of [6-14C]glucose and [U-13C]lactate into the coronary perfusion circuit. Both diabetic and nondiabetic animals had sharp decreases in subendocardial blood flow during ischemia (from 1.21 +/- .10 to 0.43 +/- .08 mL.g-1.min-1 in the nondiabetic group, and from 1.30 +/- .15 to 0.55 +/- .11 in the diabetic group). Diabetes had no significant effect on myocardial glucose uptake or glucose conversion to lactate under either well-perfused or ischemic conditions. Forty-five minutes of ischemia resulted in significant glycogen depletion in the subendocardium in both nondiabetic and diabetic animals, with no differences between the two groups. Glycolytic metabolism is not impaired in hyperglycemic diabetic swine after 1 month of the disease when compared with that in normoglycemic nondiabetic animals. The myocardial content of the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT 4) was measured in left ventricular biopsies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Anti-oxidant effect of gold nanoparticles restrains hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom SooHyun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is imperative for its morbidity towards diabetic complications, where abnormal metabolic milieu as a result of hyperglycemia, leads to the onset of several complications. A biological antioxidant capable of inhibiting oxidative stress mediated diabetic progressions; during hyperglycemia is still the need of the era. The current study was performed to study the effect of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs to control the hyperglycemic conditions in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results The profound control of AuNPs over the anti oxidant enzymes such as GSH, SOD, Catalase and GPx in diabetic mice to normal, by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation during hyperglycemia evidence their anti-oxidant effect during hyperglycemia. The AuNPs exhibited an insistent control over the blood glucose level, lipids and serum biochemical profiles in diabetic mice near to the control mice provokes their effective role in controlling and increasing the organ functions for better utilization of blood glucose. Histopathological and hematological studies revealed the non-toxic and protective effect of the gold nanoparticles over the vital organs when administered at dosage of 2.5 mg/kilogram.body.weight/day. ICP-MS analysis revealed the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in the vital organs showing accumulation of AuNPs in the spleen comparatively greater than other organs. Conclusion The results obtained disclose the effectual role of AuNPs as an anti-oxidative agent, by inhibiting the formation of ROS, scavenging free radicals; thus increasing the anti-oxidant defense enzymes and creating a sustained control over hyperglycemic conditions which consequently evoke the potential of AuNPs as an economic therapeutic remedy in diabetic treatments and its complications.

  1. The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences for Stomatopod Crustaceans: Implications for Phylogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinstrom, Kirsten; Caldwell, Roy; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-09-07

    We report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of stomatopods and compare their features to each other and to those of other crustaceans. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding sequences were used to explore relationships within the Stomatopoda, within the malacostracan crustaceans, and among crustaceans and insects. Although these analyses support the monophyly of both Malacostraca and, within it, Stomatopoda, it also confirms the view of a paraphyletic Crustacea, with Malacostraca being more closely related to insects than to the branchiopod crustaceans.

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Reception and Perireception in Crustacean Chemoreception: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Charles D; Kozma, Mihika T; Senatore, Adriano; Schmidt, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    This review summarizes our present knowledge of chemoreceptor proteins in crustaceans, using a comparative perspective to review these molecules in crustaceans relative to other metazoan models of chemoreception including mammals, insects, nematodes, and molluscs. Evolution has resulted in unique expansions of specific gene families and repurposing of them for chemosensation in various clades, including crustaceans. A major class of chemoreceptor proteins across crustaceans is the Ionotropic Receptors, which diversified from ionotropic glutamate receptors in ancient protostomes but which are not present in deuterostomes. Representatives of another major class of chemoreceptor proteins-the Grl/GR/OR family of ionotropic 7-transmembrane receptors-are diversified in insects but to date have been reported in only one crustacean species, Daphnia pulex So far, canonic 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, the principal chemoreceptors in vertebrates and reported in a few protostome clades, have not been identified in crustaceans. More types of chemoreceptors are known throughout the metazoans and might well be expected to be discovered in crustaceans. Our review also provides a comparative coverage of perireceptor events in crustacean chemoreception, including molecules involved in stimulus acquisition, stimulus delivery, and stimulus removal, though much less is known about these events in crustaceans, particularly at the molecular level. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Dscam Homologue of the Crustacean Daphnia Is Diversified by Alternative Splicing Like in Insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brites, Daniela; McTaggart, Seanna; Morris, Krystalynne; Anderson, Jobriah; Thomas, Kelley; Colson, Isabelle; Fabbro, Thomas; Little, Tom J; Ebert, Dieter; Du Pasquier, Louis

    2008-01-01

    .... How this situation evolved is best understood through comparative studies. We describe structural, expression, and evolutionary aspects of a Dscam homolog in 2 species of the crustacean Daphnia...

  4. Spatial distribution of decapod crustaceans in the Galician continental shelf (NW Spain) using geostatistical analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freire, J; Fernandez, L; Gonzalez-Gurriaran, E

    1991-01-01

    Geostatistical methodology was applied to analyze spatial structure and distribution of the epibenthic crustaceans Liocarcinus depurator, Macropipus tuberculatus, Polybius henslowii, Munida intermedia...

  5. Differential expression profiling of components associated with exoskeletal hardening in crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuballa Anna V

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exoskeletal hardening in crustaceans can be attributed to mineralization and sclerotization of the organic matrix. Glycoproteins have been implicated in the calcification process of many matrices. Sclerotization, on the other hand, is catalysed by phenoloxidases, which also play a role in melanization and the immunological response in arthropods. Custom cDNA microarrays from Portunus pelagicus were used to identify genes possibly associated with the activation pathways involved in these processes. Results Two genes potentially involved in the recognition of glycosylation, the C-type lectin receptor and the mannose-binding protein, were found to display molt cycle-related differential expression profiles. C-type lectin receptor up-regulation was found to coincide with periods associated with new uncalcified cuticle formation, while the up-regulation of mannose-binding protein occurred only in the post-molt stage, during which calcification takes place, implicating both in the regulation of calcification. Genes presumed to be involved in the phenoloxidase activation pathway that facilitates sclerotization also displayed molt cycle-related differential expression profiles. Members of the serine protease superfamily, trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like, were up-regulated in the intermolt stage when compared to post-molt, while trypsin-like was also up-regulated in pre-molt compared to ecdysis. Additionally, up-regulation in pre- and intermolt stages was observed by transcripts encoding other phenoloxidase activators including the putative antibacterial protein carcinin-like, and clotting protein precursor-like. Furthermore, hemocyanin, itself with phenoloxidase activity, displayed an identical expression pattern to that of the phenoloxidase activators, i.e. up-regulation in pre- and intermolt. Conclusion Cuticle hardening in crustaceans is a complex process that is precisely timed to occur in the post-molt stage of the molt cycle

  6. Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: A hematopoietic connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the 1st- generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors coexist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the 1st-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of 2nd-generation cells from the niche, the population of 1st-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition. PMID:21929622

  7. MIO-PLIOCENE CRUSTACEANS FROM THE CANARY ISLANDS, SPAIN

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    JUAN FRANCISCO BETANCORT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are few previous references to fossil crustaceans for the Neogene marine layers of the Canary Islands (Spain. The Mio-Pliocene marine sedimentary layers in the eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were previously characterised by the presence of numerous fossil fauna, mainly anthozoans and molluscs, which correspond to an equatorial-typepalaeoclimate, warmer than the present climate. This Mio-Pliocene transition dated between 9.3 and 4.1 Ma. In this paper, 12 fossil crustacean taxa are identified and classified, including decapods and barnacles: Balanus concavus Bronn, 1831, Balanus spongicola Brown, 1827, Balanus perforatus Bruguière, 1789, Chenolobia testudinaria Linnè, 1767, Tetraclita cf. rubescens Darwin, 1854, Callianassa matsoni Rathbun, 1935, Callianassa sp., Upogebia sp, Eriphia aff. verrucosa (Forskal, 1775 , Maja sp., Scylla michelini Milne-Edwards, 1861 and Ocypode sp. Some of these taxa mean new references for the Atlantic islands and the North African Atlantic and definitely enlarge the palaeographic distribution of Neogene crustaceans beyond the Mediterranean region, extending it to the North Atlantic. Particularly significant are the presence of Tetraclita cf. rubescens ,this being the first reported fossil occurrence of this barnacle outside the North America Pacific coasts, and Chenolobia testudinaria , indicating for the first time the existence of marine turtles in these islands during the Neogene. These results are coherent with previous research hypothesising the existence of a flow of surface water between the Pacific and Atlantic in the Mio-Pliocene transition (Central American Seaway, CAS which explains the arrival of organisms, in larval stage, from Central America to the Canary Islands.

  8. Diabetes-specific enteral nutrition formula in hyperglycemic, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a prospective, open-label, blind-randomized, multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Mesejo, Alfonso; Montejo-González, Juan Carlos; Vaquerizo-Alonso, Clara; Lobo-Tamer, Gabriela; Zabarte-Martinez, Mercedes; Herrero-Meseguer, Jose Ignacio; Acosta-Escribano, Jose; Blesa-Malpica, Antonio; Martinez-Lozano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although standard enteral nutrition is universally accepted, the use of disease-specific formulas for hyperglycemic patients is still controversial. This study examines whether a high-protein diabetes-specific formula reduces insulin needs, improves glycemic control and reduces ICU-acquired infection in critically ill, hyperglycemic patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods This was a prospective, open-label, randomized (web-based, blinded) study conducted at nine Spanish ...

  9. Design, synthesis and in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity of gem-dimethyl-bearing C-glucosides as SGLT2 inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jing Zhao; Yong Heng Shi; Gui Long Zhao; Yu Li Wang; Hua Shao; Li Da Tang; Jian Wu Wang

    2011-01-01

    A series of gem-dimethyl-bearing C-glucosides were designed and synthesized as SGLT2 inhibitors, with anhydrous aluminum chloride-mediated Friedel-Crafts alkylation to construct the gem-dimethyl functionality being the key step. The in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity was evaluated with mice oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and all the synthesized compounds showed significant but less potent anti-hyperglycemic activity than the positive control dapagliflozin.

  10. Knockdown of Parhyale Ultrabithorax recapitulates evolutionary changes in crustacean appendage morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubicich, Danielle M; Serano, Julia M; Pavlopoulos, Anastasios; Kontarakis, Zacharias; Protas, Meredith E; Kwan, Elaine; Chatterjee, Sandip; Tran, Khoa D; Averof, Michalis; Patel, Nipam H

    2009-08-18

    Crustaceans possess remarkably diverse appendages, both between segments of a single individual as well as between species. Previous studies in a wide range of crustaceans have demonstrated a correlation between the anterior expression boundary of the homeotic (Hox) gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and the location and number of specialized thoracic feeding appendages, called maxillipeds. Given that Hox genes regulate regional identity in organisms as diverse as mice and flies, these observations in crustaceans led to the hypothesis that Ubx expression regulates the number of maxillipeds and that evolutionary changes in Ubx expression have generated various aspects of crustacean appendage diversity. Specifically, evolutionary changes in the expression boundary of Ubx have resulted in crustacean species with either 0, 1, 2, or 3 pairs of thoracic maxillipeds. Here we test this hypothesis by altering the expression of Ubx in Parhyale hawaiensis, a crustacean that normally possesses a single pair of maxillipeds. By reducing Ubx expression, we can generate Parhyale with additional maxillipeds in a pattern reminiscent of that seen in other crustacean species, and these morphological alterations are maintained as the animals molt and mature. These results provide critical evidence supporting the proposition that changes in Ubx expression have played a role in generating crustacean appendage diversity and lend general insights into the mechanisms of morphological evolution.

  11. Do decapod crustaceans have nociceptors for extreme pH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Puri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nociception is the physiological detection of noxious stimuli. Because of its obvious importance, nociception is expected to be widespread across animal taxa and to trigger robust behaviours reliably. Nociception in invertebrates, such as crustaceans, is poorly studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: THREE DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN SPECIES WERE TESTED FOR NOCICEPTIVE BEHAVIOUR: Louisiana red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus, and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.. Applying sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, or benzocaine to the antennae caused no change in behaviour in the three species compared to controls. Animals did not groom the stimulated antenna, and there was no difference in movement of treated individuals and controls. Extracellular recordings of antennal nerves in P. clarkii revealed continual spontaneous activity, but no neurons that were reliably excited by the application of concentrated sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Previously reported responses to extreme pH are either not consistently evoked across species or were mischaracterized as nociception. There was no behavioural or physiological evidence that the antennae contained specialized nociceptors that responded to pH.

  12. Decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SANTELLI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge on the distribution of decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef positioned on sandy-mud bottoms in the central Adriatic Sea. The reef is constituted of concrete modules assembled in pyramids and concrete poles. Hard and soft bottom samples were collected from 2001, just after reef construction, to 2005 (4 surveys per year. Regarding the soft seabed, three sites close to a pyramid, three inside the reef area at a distance of 10-15 m from the structures, and three 200 m outside the reef (control sites were randomly sampled during each survey. At the same time, three pyramids (vertical and horizontal walls and three poles were also investigated. After taxonomical analysis, decapod crustaceans were analysed using abundance and species richness. Sites and years were compared using a balanced, fixed effect, 2-way ANOVA and PERMANOVA. In addition, SIMPER analysis was performed to identify those species typifying each community inhabiting both the soft bottom and the artificial substrates. The results showed that the artificial reef induced an increase in both abundance and diversity of the decapods of the natural habitat. In fact, man-made substrates may offer new available space for biological colonization and allow the settlement of new species usually living on hard bottoms, thus increasing the complexity of the original benthic communities.

  13. Null point of discrimination in crustacean polarisation vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Martin J; Christy, John; Roberts, Nicholas W; Marshall, N Justin

    2014-07-15

    The polarisation of light is used by many species of cephalopods and crustaceans to discriminate objects or to communicate. Most visual systems with this ability, such as that of the fiddler crab, include receptors with photopigments that are oriented horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. Photoreceptors in such an orthogonal array are maximally sensitive to polarised light with the same fixed e-vector orientation. Using opponent neural connections, this two-channel system may produce a single value of polarisation contrast and, consequently, it may suffer from null points of discrimination. Stomatopod crustaceans use a different system for polarisation vision, comprising at least four types of polarisation-sensitive photoreceptor arranged at 0, 45, 90 and 135 deg relative to each other, in conjunction with extensive rotational eye movements. This anatomical arrangement should not suffer from equivalent null points of discrimination. To test whether these two systems were vulnerable to null points, we presented the fiddler crab Uca heteropleura and the stomatopod Haptosquilla trispinosa with polarised looming stimuli on a modified LCD monitor. The fiddler crab was less sensitive to differences in the degree of polarised light when the e-vector was at -45 deg than when the e-vector was horizontal. In comparison, stomatopods showed no difference in sensitivity between the two stimulus types. The results suggest that fiddler crabs suffer from a null point of sensitivity, while stomatopods do not. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly.

  15. Decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SANTELLI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge on the distribution of decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef positioned on sandy-mud bottoms in the central Adriatic Sea. The reef is constituted of concrete modules assembled in pyramids and concrete poles. Hard and soft bottom samples were collected from 2001, just after reef construction, to 2005 (4 surveys per year. Regarding the soft seabed, three sites close to a pyramid, three inside the reef area at a distance of 10-15 m from the structures, and three 200 m outside the reef (control sites were randomly sampled during each survey. At the same time, three pyramids (vertical and horizontal walls and three poles were also investigated. After taxonomical analysis, decapod crustaceans were analysed using abundance and species richness. Sites and years were compared using a balanced, fixed effect, 2-way ANOVA and PERMANOVA. In addition, SIMPER analysis was performed to identify those species typifying each community inhabiting both the soft bottom and the artificial substrates. The results showed that the artificial reef induced an increase in both abundance and diversity of the decapods of the natural habitat. In fact, man-made substrates may offer new available space for biological colonization and allow the settlement of new species usually living on hard bottoms, thus increasing the complexity of the original benthic communities.

  16. Redox chemistry of the molecular interactions between tea catechins and human serum proteins under simulated hyperglycemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Hazal; Luna, Carolina; Estévez, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Carbonylation is an irreversible modification in oxidized proteins that has been directly related to a number of health disorders including Type 2 diabetes. Dietary antioxidants have been proposed to counteract the oxidative stress occurring under hyperglycemic conditions. An understanding of the nature and consequences of the molecular interactions between phytochemicals and human plasma proteins is of utmost scientific interest. Three tea catechins namely epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) were tested for (i) their affinity to bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and human hemoglobin (HH) and (ii) their ability to inhibit tryptophan (Trp) depletion and for the formation of specific protein carbonyls and pentosidine in the aforementioned proteins. Both proteins (20 mg mL(-1)) were allowed to react with postprandial plasmatic concentrations of the catechins (EC: 0.7 μM, EGC: 1.8 μM, and EGCG: 0.7 μM) under simulated hyperglycemic conditions (12 mM glucose/0.2 mM Fe(3+)/37 °C/10 days). The three catechins were able to inhibit Trp oxidation and protein carbonylation in both plasma proteins. Some anti-glycation properties were linked to their binding affinities. The molecular interactions reported in the present study may explain the alleged beneficial effects of tea catechins against the redox impairment linked to hyperglycemic conditions.

  17. The influence of snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract to increase hyperglycemic mice fertility based on spermatogenic cell composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Lukitasari, Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is recognized as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. Previous study revealed that snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract can repairing the pancreas histological structure which by that decreasing the blood glucose levels. Further research was conducted to determine the influence of snakehead fish extract (SHFE) to increasing the fertility of hyperglycemic mice based on spermatogenic cell composition. Twenty five adult mice (Mus musculus) were induced intraperitoneally to be hyperglycemic using alloxan monohydrate single dose of 190 mg/kg body weight. Hyperglycemic mice treated orally for 14 days using SHFE which grouped into five treatment dosages. Testicular histology were prepared using the paraffin methods and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. According to ANOVA and Tukey's test, it was found that spermatogenic cells population as well as its composition in the testis of mice that treated with SHFE are significantly higher than hyperglichemic mice. The highest dose of SHFE (0.15 ml/day), showed highest spermatogenic cell. All hyperglichemic mice that treated with SHFE exhibited the ratio composition of spermatogonia: spermatocytes: spermatids as same as with control (healthy mice) i.e. 1:1:3 respectively.

  18. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus--Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Roncalli

    Full Text Available Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival.

  19. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus – Contributors to Cellular Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Passamaneck, Yale; Christie, Andrew E.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival. PMID:25945801

  20. Identification of potential antioxidant indices by biogenic gold nanoparticles in hyperglycemic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengani, Manimegalai; V, Devi Rajeswari

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a crucial factor in diabetes, where the abnormal metabolic ambience leads to hyperglycemia resulting in the onset of several vascular complications. Under homeostasis, innate antioxidants efficiently inhibit the oxidative stress, thereby restrain further progression of diabetes. In the present study, a potential antioxidant marker was identified from hepatic tissue of diabetic Wistar rats after oral administration of biogenic gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Diabetic animals treated with GNPs showed increase in insulin level and subsequently reduced the concentration of blood glucose level to normal. Further, GNPs favoured to retain the hepatic enzymatic markers, serum lipid levels and followed by renal biochemical profile in the rats. In addition, GNPs treated rats displayed an elevated level of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymatic activity. Consequently, GNPs treated rats showed diminished level of histological injury in the hepatic, renal, and pancreatic tissues. Taken together, these results suggested that among the several antioxidant enzymes, catalase elucidated the highest area under curve (AUC) with 0.80 accomplished by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Collectively, our findings enlighten that GNPs treated rat able to alleviate the hyperglycemic condition due to the enzymatic activity of catalase.

  1. Aqueous-ozone irrigation of bone monocortical wounds in hyperglycemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Viana Frascino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of aqueous ozone irrigation over bone healing in hyperglycemia-induced rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were allocated into Group H (hyperglycemic or Group N (control. Monocortical bone wound were performed on femurs' anterolateral face. Wounds were treated with a trans-operatory single irrigation of 100ml of aqueous ozone [0.004mg/ml] whereas control groups received 100ml of pure water (Milli-Q®. Histomorphological and histomorphometrical analyses were accomplished after seven, 14 and 21 days. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests were applied for bone neoformation quantification and assessment. RESULTS: Aqueous ozone wounds irrigated revealed diffuse hemorrhage and increased neoformed of blood vessels number. There was no statistical significant difference in bone trabeculae neoformation. After seven and 14 days, the number of osteoclasts was higher in aqueous ozone groups than in those treated with pure water. CONCLUSION: Independently of blood glucose levels, aqueous ozone allowed an increase in blood vessels neoformation and osteoclast migration, without affect bone trabeculae neoformation.

  2. Predictors of Recurrent Hospital Admission for Patients Presenting With Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Annabel L.; Crider, Courtney Champagne; Xu, Xizheng; Naqvi, Syed Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are two serious, preventable complications of diabetes mellitus. Analysis of variables associated with recurrent DKA and HHS admission has the potential to improve patient outcomes by identifying possible areas for intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential predictors of recurrent DKA or HHS admission. Methods This was a retrospective case-control study of 367 patients presenting during a 5-year period with DKA or HHS at a US tertiary academic medical center. Six potential readmission risk factors identified via literature review were coded as “1” if present and “0” if absent. Readmission odds ratios (ORs) for each risk factor and for the combined score of significant risk factors were calculated by logistic regression. Results Readmission odds were significantly increased for patients with age 10.6% on admission and ethnic minority status did not significantly increase readmission odds, with inadequate study power for these variables. A total “ABCD” score, based on Age (< 35 years), Behavioral health (depression), insurance Coverage (self-pay/publicly funded insurance), and Drug/alcohol abuse, also had a significant effect on readmission odds. Conclusions Consideration of individual risk factors and the use of a scoring system based on objective predictors of recurrent DKA and HHS admission could be of value in helping identify patients with high readmission risk, allowing interventions to be targeted most effectively to reduce readmission rates, associated morbidity, and mortality. PMID:27924173

  3. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of guava leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) is used not only as food but also as folk medicine in subtropical areas around the world because of its pharmacologic activities. In particular, the leaf extract of guava has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Moreover, the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extract has been reported in some animal models. However, little is known regarding the therapeutic activity of the extract in human clinical trials as well as its underlying therapeutic mechanisms and safety. In Japan, Guava Leaf Tea (Bansoureicha®, Yakult Honsha, Tokyo, Japan) containing the aqueous leaf extract from guava has been approved as one of the Foods for Specified Health Uses and is now commercially available. This review describes the active component of the aqueous guava leaf extract and its inhibition of alpha-glucosidase enzymes in vitro, safety of the extract and Guava Leaf Tea, reduction of postprandial blood glucose elevation, and improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in murine models and several clinical trials. It is suggested that the chronic suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation is important in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that Guava Leaf Tea is considered useful as an alimentotherapy for chronic treatment. PMID:20181067

  4. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.

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    Jain Kusum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Family-Asteraceae; common name-Dhaman grass is common herb found in India. Traditionally, the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India uses the leaf powder (along with other herb orally to treat diabetes. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of whole plant of T. procumbens using 50%methanol. The extract was tested for acute and sub-chronic anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats and for acute toxicity test among normal rats. Observations on body weight as well as on the oral glucose tolerance levels were also recorded. Results Oral administration of acute and sub chronic doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. of T. procumbens extract showed a significant (p T. procumbens were compared with the reference standard drug Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.wt.. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, T. procumbens for the treatment of diabetes mellitus with corrections in body weight and oral glucose tolerance and no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicating a high margin of safety. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  5. C-peptide protects against hyperglycemic memory and vascular endothelial cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Mahendra Prasad; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Jung, Se-Hui; Kim, Yong Ho; Hwang, Jong Yun; Han, Eun-Taek; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2016-10-01

    C-peptide exerts protective effects against diabetic complications; however, its role in inhibiting hyperglycemic memory (HGM) has not been elucidated. We investigated the beneficial effect of C-peptide on HGM-induced vascular damage in vitro and in vivo using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and diabetic mice. HGM induced apoptosis by persistent generation of intracellular ROS and sustained formation of ONOO(-) and nitrotyrosine. These HGM-induced intracellular events were normalized by treatment with C-peptide, but not insulin, in endothelial cells. C-peptide also inhibited persistent upregulation of p53 and activation of mitochondrial adaptor p66(shc) after glucose normalization. Further, C-peptide replacement therapy prevented persistent generation of ROS and ONOO(-) in the aorta of diabetic mice whose glucose levels were normalized by the administration of insulin. C-peptide, but not insulin, also prevented HGM-induced endothelial apoptosis in the murine diabetic aorta. This study highlights a promising role for C-peptide in preventing HGM-induced intracellular events and diabetic vascular damage.

  6. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of selenium nanoparticles in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Al-Quraishy S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saleh Al-Quraishy,1 Mohamed A Dkhil,1,2 Ahmed Esmat Abdel Moneim2 1Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The study was designed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Fifty-five mg/kg of streptozotocin was injected in rats to induce diabetes. Animals either treated with SeNPs alone or with insulin (6 U/kg showed significantly decreased fasting blood glucose levels after 28 days of treatment. The serum insulin concentration in untreated diabetic animals was also enhanced by SeNPs. The results demonstrated that SeNPs could significantly decrease hepatic and renal function markers, total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity. At the same time, SeNPs increased malic enzyme, hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, liver and kidney glycogen contents, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, SeNPs were able to prevent the histological injury in the hepatic and renal tissues of rats. However, insulin injection also exhibited a significant improvement in diabetic animals after 28 days of treatment. This study suggests that SeNPs can alleviate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, possibly by eliciting insulin-mimetic activity. Keywords: diabetes, selenium, liver, kidney, toxicity

  7. DNA Damage and Its Cellular Response in Mother and Fetus Exposed to Hyperglycemic Environment

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    Jusciele Brogin Moreli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS plays a key role in pathogenesis of diabetic complications. ROS are generated by exogenous and endogenous factors such as during hyperglycemia. When ROS production exceeds the detoxification and scavenging capacity of the cell, oxidative stress ensues. Oxidative stress induces DNA damage and when DNA damage exceeds the cellular capacity to repair it, the accumulation of errors can overwhelm the cell resulting in cell death or fixation of genome mutations that can be transmitted to future cell generations. These mutations can lead to and/or play a role in cancer development. This review aims at (i understanding the types and consequences of DNA damage during hyperglycemic pregnancy; (ii identifying the biological role of DNA repair during pregnancy, and (iii proposing clinical interventions to maintain genome integrity. While hyperglycemia can damage the maternal genetic material, the impact of hyperglycemia on fetal cells is still unclear. DNA repair mechanisms may be important to prevent the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia both in mother and in fetus DNA and, as such, prevent the development of diseases in adulthood. Hence, in clinical practice, maternal glycemic control may represent an important point of intervention to prevent the deleterious effects of maternal hyperglycemia to DNA.

  8. Unusual duplication of the insulin-like receptor in the crustacean Daphnia pulex

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    Dufresne France

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insulin signaling pathway (ISP has a key role in major physiological events like carbohydrate metabolism and growth regulation. The ISP has been well described in vertebrates and in a few invertebrate model organisms but remains largely unexplored in non-model invertebrates. This study is the first detailed genomic study of this pathway in a crustacean species, Daphnia pulex. Results The Daphnia pulex draft genome sequence assembly was scanned for major components of the ISP with a special attention to the insulin-like receptor. Twenty three putative genes are reported. The pathway appears to be generally well conserved as genes found in other invertebrates are present. Major findings include a lower number of insulin-like peptides in Daphnia as compared to other invertebrates and the presence of multiple insulin-like receptors (InR, with four genes as opposed to a single one in other invertebrates. Genes encoding for the Dappu_InR are likely the result of three duplication events and bear some unusual features. Dappu_InR-4 has undergone extensive evolutionary divergence and lacks the conserved site of the catalytic domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase. Dappu_InR-1 has a large insert and lacks the transmembranal domain in the β-subunit. This domain is also absent in Dappu_InR-3. Dappu_InR-2 is characterized by the absence of the cystein-rich region. Real-time q-PCR confirmed the expression of all four receptors. EST analyses of cDNA libraries revealed that the four receptors were differently expressed under various conditions. Conclusions Duplications of the insulin receptor genes might represent an important evolutionary innovation in Daphnia as they are known to exhibit extensive phenotypic plasticity in body size and in the size of defensive structures in response to predation.

  9. Neuropeptide Signaling in Crustaceans Probed by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhidan

    Neuropeptides are one of the most diverse classes of signaling molecules whose identities and functions are not yet fully understood. They have been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes, including feeding-related and motivated behaviors, and also environmental adaptations. In this work, improved mass spectrometry-based analytical platforms were developed and applied to the crustacean systems to characterize signaling molecules. This dissertation begins with a review of mass spectrometry-based neuropeptide studies from both temporal- and spatial-domains. This review is then followed by several chapters detailing a few research projects related to the crustacean neuropeptidomic characterization and comparative analysis. The neuropeptidome of crayfish, Orconectes rusticus is characterized for the first time using mass spectrometry-based tools. In vivo microdialysis sampling technique offers the capability of direct sampling from extracellular space in a time-resolved manner. It is used to investigate the secreted neuropeptide and neurotransmitter content in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, in this work. A new quantitation strategy using alternative mass spectrometry data acquisition approach is developed and applied for the first time to quantify neuropeptides. Coupling of this method with microdialysis enables the study of neuropeptide dynamics concurrent with different behaviors. Proof-of-principle experiments validating this approach have been carried out in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis to study feeding- and circadian rhythm-related neuropeptide changes using micoridialysis in a time-resolved manner. This permits a close correlation between behavioral and neurochemical changes, providing potential candidates for future validation of regulatory roles. In addition to providing spatial information, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technique enables the characterization of signaling molecules while preserving the temporal resolution. A

  10. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the stomatopod crustacean Squilla mantis

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    Cook Charles E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are physically separate from the much larger nuclear genomes and have proven useful both for phylogenetic studies and for understanding genome evolution. Within the phylum Arthropoda the subphylum Crustacea includes over 50,000 named species with immense variation in body plans and habitats, yet only 23 complete mitochondrial genomes are available from this subphylum. Results I describe here the complete mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Squilla mantis (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Stomatopoda. This 15994-nucleotide genome, the first described from a hoplocarid, contains the standard complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region that is found in most other metazoans. The gene order is identical to that considered ancestral for hexapods and crustaceans. The 70% AT base composition is within the range described for other arthropods. A single unusual feature of the genome is a 230 nucleotide non-coding region between a serine transfer RNA and the nad1 gene, which has no apparent function. I also compare gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage of the S. mantis genome and eight other malacostracan crustaceans. A translocation of the histidine transfer RNA gene is shared by three taxa in the order Decapoda, infraorder Brachyura; Callinectes sapidus, Portunus trituberculatus and Pseudocarcinus gigas. This translocation may be diagnostic for the Brachyura. For all nine taxa nucleotide composition is biased towards AT-richness, as expected for arthropods, and is within the range reported for other arthropods. Codon usage is biased, and much of this bias is probably due to the skew in nucleotide composition towards AT-richness. Conclusion The mitochondrial genome of Squilla mantis contains one unusual feature, a 230 base pair non-coding region has so far not been described in any other malacostracan. Comparisons with other

  12. Chronobiology of deep-water decapod crustaceans on continental margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Company, Joan B

    2010-01-01

    Species have evolved biological rhythms in behaviour and physiology with a 24-h periodicity in order to increase their fitness, anticipating the onset of unfavourable habitat conditions. In marine organisms inhabiting deep-water continental margins (i.e. the submerged outer edges of continents), day-night activity rhythms are often referred to in three ways: vertical water column migrations (i.e. pelagic), horizontal displacements within benthic boundary layer of the continental margin, along bathymetric gradients (i.e. nektobenthic), and endobenthic movements (i.e. rhythmic emergence from the substrate). Many studies have been conducted on crustacean decapods that migrate vertically in the water column, but much less information is available for other endobenthic and nektobenthic species. Also, the types of displacement and major life habits of most marine species are still largely unknown, especially in deep-water continental margins, where steep clines in habitat factors (i.e. light intensity and its spectral quality, sediment characteristics, and hydrography) take place. This is the result of technical difficulties in performing temporally scheduled sampling and laboratory testing on living specimens. According to this scenario, there are several major issues that still need extensive research in deep-water crustacean decapods. First, the regulation of their behaviour and physiology by a biological clock is almost unknown compared to data for coastal species that are easily accessible to direct observation and sampling. Second, biological rhythms may change at different life stages (i.e. size-related variations) or at different moments of the reproductive cycle (e.g. at egg-bearing) based on different intra- and interspecific interactions. Third, there is still a major lack of knowledge on the links that exist among the observed bathymetric distributions of species and selected autoecological traits that are controlled by their biological clock, such as the

  13. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  14. A crustacean lobula plate: Morphology, connections, and retinotopic organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea, Mercedes; Berón de Astrada, Martín; Tomsic, Daniel; Sztarker, Julieta

    2017-09-07

    The lobula plate is part of the lobula complex, the third optic neuropil, in the optic lobes of insects. It has been extensively studied in dipterous insects, where its role in processing flow-field motion information used for controlling optomotor responses was discovered early. Recently, a lobula plate was also found in malacostracan crustaceans. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the neuroarchitecture, the input and output connections and the retinotopic organization of the lobula plate in a crustacean, the crab Neohelice granulata using a variety of histological methods that include silver reduced staining and mass staining with dextran-conjugated dyes. The lobula plate of this crab is a small elongated neuropil. It receives separated retinotopic inputs from columnar neurons of the medulla and the lobula. In the anteroposterior plane, the neuropil possesses four layers defined by the arborizations of such columnar inputs. Medulla projecting neurons arborize mainly in two of these layers, one on each side, while input neurons arriving from the lobula branch only in one. The neuropil contains at least two classes of tangential elements, one connecting with the lateral protocerebrum and the other that exits the optic lobes toward the supraesophageal ganglion. The number of layers in the crab's lobula plate, the retinotopic connections received from the medulla and from the lobula, and the presence of large tangential neurons exiting the neuropil, reflect the general structure of the insect lobula plate and, hence, provide support to the notion of an evolutionary conserved function for this neuropil. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hyperglycemic clamp-derived disposition index is negatively associated with metabolic syndrome severity in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sapna S; Ramirez, Claudia E; Powers, Alvin C; Yu, Chang; Shibao, Cyndya A; Luther, James M

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance and increased future risk of type 2 diabetes. This study investigates the relationship between insulin secretion, insulin resistance and individual metabolic syndrome components in subjects without a prior diagnosis of diabetes. We assessed insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamps by infusing dextrose to maintain hyperglycemia (200mg/dL), followed by L-arginine administration. Studies in 98 individuals (mean age 45.3±1.2years, 56% female, 22% African-American, 49% with metabolic syndrome) were analyzed. We tested the association between the number of metabolic syndrome components and individual outcome variables using linear mixed-effects models to adjust for potential confounding effects of age, sex, and race. Insulin sensitivity index was reduced in the presence of 1 or more metabolic syndrome components. Insulin sensitivity was independently associated with age, waist circumference, male gender and decreased HDL cholesterol. The acute insulin response was greater with two or more metabolic syndrome components, and late glucose-stimulated and L-arginine-stimulated insulin responses exhibited a similar trend. In contrast, the disposition index, a measure of beta cell compensation for insulin resistance, was linearly lower with the number of metabolic syndrome components, and was negatively associated with age, Caucasian race, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and decreased HDL cholesterol. The insulin secretory response in metabolic syndrome is inadequate for the worsening insulin sensitivity, as demonstrated by a decline in disposition index. A dysfunctional insulin secretory response is evident in non-diabetic individuals and worsens with accumulation of metabolic syndrome components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Real-time ischemic condition monitoring in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Kang, Sung Wook; Lee, Gi-Ja; Choi, Seok Keun; Chae, Su-Jin; Park, Hun-Kuk; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2010-03-01

    An increase in excitotoxic amino acid glutamate (GLU) concentration associated with neuronal damage might be the cause of the ischemic damage observed in stroke patients suffering from hyperglycemia. However, the effect has never been investigated by real-time in vivo monitoring. Therefore, this study examined the effects of the functional responses of ischemia-evoked electroencephalography (EEG), cerebral blood flow (%CBF) and DeltaGLU in hyperglycemia through real-time in vivo monitoring. Five Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with streptozocin (hyperglycemia) and five normal rats were used as the controls. Global ischemia was induced using an 11-vessel occlusion model. The experimental protocols consisting of 10 min pre-ischemic, 10 min ischemic and 40 min reperfusion periods were applied to both groups. Under these conditions, the responses of the ischemia-evoked EEG, %CBF and DeltaGLU were monitored in real time. The EEG showed flat patterns during ischemia followed by poor recovery during reperfusion. The peak reperfusion %CBF was decreased significantly in the hyperglycemia group compared to the control group (p < 0.05, n = 5). The extracellular DeltaGLU releases increased significantly during ischemia (p < 0.0001, n = 5) and reperfusion (p < 0.001, n = 5) in the hyperglycemia group compared to the control group. The decrease in reperfusion %CBF during short-term hyperglycemia might be related to the increased plasma osmolality, decreased adenosine levels and swollen endothelial cells with decreased vascular luminal diameters under hyperglycemic conditions. And, the increase in DeltaGLU during short-term hyperglycemia might be related to the neurotoxic effects of the high extracellular concentrations of DeltaGLU and the inhibition of GLU uptake.

  17. Cyanobacterial pigments as natural anti-hyperglycemic agents: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonmoy Ghosh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia includes herbs and plant extracts as well as synthetic drugs like acarbose. Synthetic drug molecules frequently have side effects such as flatulence and diarrhea. Cyanobacterial pigments have excellent anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Thus, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of purified pigments and crude extracts from three cyanobacterial species, Lyngbya, Microcoleus and Synechocystis sp., were investigated. Lyngbya extract had the highest total anti-oxidant activity (TAC before digestion (48.26 ± 0.04 µg AAE ml-1 while purified lycopene had the highest TAC after digestion (154.16 ± 0.96 µg AAE ml-1. The Microcoleus extract had the highest ABTS scavenging activity before digestion (98.23 ± 0.25 % while purified C-phycocyanin (C-PC had the highest ABTS scavenging after digestion (99.69 ±0.04 %. None of the digested or undigested extracts performed better than acarbose in inhibiting α-amylase but the digested Microcoleus extract was able to inhibit its activity by ~35 %. The purified pigments gave inhibitory activities ranging from ~ 8 – 16 %. The Lyngbya extract had the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase both before and after digestion (62.22 ± 0.02 and 97.82 ± 0.03 % respectively. Purified C-phycoerythrin (C-PE, C-PC, lycopene and myxoxanthophyll could inhibit α-glucosidase in a range of ~83 – 96 %. Considering the potent inhibitory activities of purified pigments against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase, cyanobacterial pigments could be used as food additives for their dual advantage of anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE AGONISTTS ON METAMORPHOSIS AND REPRODUCTION IN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (JHAs) (methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater ...

  19. Sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic individuals can indicate allergy to molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; Rodríguez, V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic patients according to tolerance to molluscs. Thirty-one patients with anaphylaxis to crustaceans (14 with mollusc allergy and 17 with mollusc tolerance) were studied using skin prick tests (SPTs), specific IgEs (sIgEs) and SDS......-PAGE immunoblotting. IgE-reactive shrimp proteins were identified by proteomic analyses. Patients with mollusc allergy presented more frequently SPTs positive to molluscs and higher sIgE titres in response to both molluscs and crustaceans. Shrimp-sIgE and rPen a1-sIgE values of 1.57 kUA /l and 4.38 kUA /l...... = 14) was not different between the two groups. Among patients with crustacean anaphylaxis, patients with mollusc allergy and mollusc tolerance show a different pattern of sensitization, something that may help identify them....

  20. A cost effective light trap for sampling tropical fish and crustacean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 81651 Mombasa, Kenya. 2Department of ... In addition to fish larvae, the traps have potential use in qualitative sampling of crustacean larvae ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Design.

  1. Seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton in Wular Lake of the Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Javaid Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken on Wular Lake, a Ramsar Site in Kashmir Himalaya, to study the seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 42 crustacean taxa belonging to Cladocera (23, Copepoda (16 and Ostracoda (3 were identified at five different sampling sites. Among the crustaceans, Cladocera was numerically the most dominant group at sites III, IV and V, followed by Copepoda at sites I and II. On an average basis total crustacean density ranged from 416 ind./l in winter to 1567.6 ind./l in summer. On the basis of Sorensen’s similarity index, study sites IV and V showed close similarity (88.13%.

  2. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects, annelids... reproduction and growth and development due primarily to their limited mobility. They can be rendered unfit...

  3. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts.

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    Gary C B Poore

    Full Text Available The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species

  4. Biodegradation of the chitin-protein complex in crustacean cuticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hof, C.H.J.; Bierstedt, A.; Flannery, M.B.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Evershed, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. After 8 weeks tyrosine, tryptophan and valine are the most prominent amino acid moieties, showing their resistance to degradation. The presence of cyclic ketones in the pyrolysates indicates that mucopolysaccharides or other bound non-chitinous carbohydrates are also resistant to decay. There is no evidence of structural degradation of chitin prior to 8 weeks when FTIR revealed a reduction in chitin-specific bands. The chemical changes are paralleled by structural changes in the cuticle, which becomes an increasingly open structure consisting of loose chitinous fibres. The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative

  5. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  6. Effect of VCO to leucocyte differential count, glucose levels and blood creatinine of hyperglycemic and ovalbumin sensitized Mus musculus Balb/c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBEN DHARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Handajani NS, Dharmawan R. 2009. Effect of VCO to leucocyte differential count, glucose levels and blood creatinine of hyperglycemic and ovalbumin sensitized Mus musculus Balb/c. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 1-8. Chemical medicines and insulin can decrease glucose blood level on hyperglycemic patients with macro vascular side effect. Diabetes and allergy incidences are influenced by quality and quantity of leucocytes. Lauric acid within VCO reports decreased glucose blood level of diabetes and some allergy incidents. The purpose of the study is to know the effect of VCO on glucose blood level, differential leucocytes count and creatinine blood level on hyperglycemic and normoglicemic ovalbumin sensitized mice. Forty five (45 male (mice of Mus musculus Balb/c with average weight of 35 g are divided into 9 groups with 5 repetitions, those are 4 non alloxan groups and 5 alloxan induced hyperglycemic groups. On 22nd day to 36th day they are sensitize to ovalbumin as allergen. Blood sample was obtained by orbital vena using heparin as anti coagulant in order measuring glucose blood level by GOD method to 6 times, on 1st, 4th, 18th, 22nd, 32nd and 37th days, then are tested by ANOVA followed by DMRT 0.05. On 37th day, differential leucocytes are determined, blood level are counted, and then compared to normal value. The result of this study were that within differential leucocytes count of hyperglycemic mice, neutrophile percentage were much lower than the normal value (3.22%, and lymphocyte percentage were much higher than the normal value (94.54%. Consumed 0.003 mL/35 g VCO more 18 days decreased glucose blood level on hyperglycemic mice, decreased basophile percentage of ovalbumin sensitized mice, normalized neutrophile percentage no increased creatinine blood level.

  7. A shape-anisotropic reflective polarizer in a stomatopod crustacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas M.; Wilby, David; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Feller, Kathryn D.; Caldwell, Roy L.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2016-02-01

    Many biophotonic structures have their spectral properties of reflection ‘tuned’ using the (zeroth-order) Bragg criteria for phase constructive interference. This is associated with a periodicity, or distribution of periodicities, parallel to the direction of illumination. The polarization properties of these reflections are, however, typically constrained by the dimensional symmetry and intrinsic dielectric properties of the biological materials. Here we report a linearly polarizing reflector in a stomatopod crustacean that consists of 6-8 layers of hollow, ovoid vesicles with principal axes of ~550 nm, ~250 nm and ~150 nm. The reflection of unpolarized normally incident light is blue/green in colour with maximum reflectance wavelength of 520 nm and a degree of polarization greater than 0.6 over most of the visible spectrum. We demonstrate that the polarizing reflection can be explained by a resonant coupling with the first-order, in-plane, Bragg harmonics. These harmonics are associated with a distribution of periodicities perpendicular to the direction of illumination, and, due to the shape-anisotropy of the vesicles, are different for each linear polarization mode. This control and tuning of the polarization of the reflection using shape-anisotropic hollow scatterers is unlike any optical structure previously described and could provide a new design pathway for polarization-tunability in man-made photonic devices.

  8. Experimental investigation of crustacean swimming with variation of limb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Donnell, Geoffrey; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Guy, Robert; Lewis, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Crustaceans such as crayfish and krill swim by rhythmically paddling a set of four to five limbs (known as swimmerets or pleopods) originating from their abdomen. The limb motion in these animals has been observed to follow tail-to-head metachronal wave pattern with an approximate quarter-period inter-limb phase difference. The goal of this study is to investigate the hydrodynamics of this swimming mechanism as a function of inter-limb phase difference, inclusion of hinges in the limbs, and Reynolds number (Re). 2D PIV measurements were conducted on a scaled robotic model of metachronal paddling, consisting of a rectangular tank fitted with stepper motors coupled to a four-bar linkage that actuated four paddles immersed in water-glycerin fluid medium. The inter-limb phase difference was varied from 0% (synchronous paddling) through 50% across Re range of O(10-1000). Two types of limb models were used, including a simple flat plate and a `split-paddle' structure with two flat plates connected halfway with hinges. The results of the study show that limb models with hinges generated increased horizontal (thrust-producing direction) fluid velocity compared to the simple flat plate paddles, suggesting that asymmetry between power and return strokes is important to augment thrust.

  9. It takes guts to locate elusive crustacean prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasley-Rasher, R. S.; Brady, D. C.; Smith, B. E.; Jumars, P. A.

    2016-02-01

    Mobile crustacean prey, i.e., crangonid, euphausiid, mysid, and pandalid shrimp, are vital links in marine food webs. Their intermediate sizes and characteristic caridoid escape responses lead to chronic underestimation when sampling at large spatial scales with either plankton nets or large trawl nets. Here, as discrete sampling units, we utilize individual fish diets (i.e., fish biosamplers) collected by the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service and Northeast Fisheries Science Center to examine abundance and location of these prey families over large spatial and temporal scales in the northeastern U.S. shelf large ecosystem. Fish biosamplers revealed significant spatial shifts in prey in early spring. Distributions of mysids and crangonids in fish diets shoaled significantly from February to March. Distributions of euphausiids and pandalids in fish diets shifted northward during March. Of multiple hypotheses for these shifts, prey migration is most strongly supported. Future efforts can apply this method to address questions regarding temporal patterns or shifts in prey distribution and abundance that may be driven by large-scale stressors such as food-web shifts or climate change

  10. Agonist-mediated assembly of the crustacean methyl farnesoate receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaley, Elizabeth K. Medlock; Wang, Helen Y.; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2017-01-01

    The methyl farnesoate receptor (MfR) orchestrates aspects of reproduction and development such as male sex determination in branchiopod crustaceans. Phenotypic endpoints regulated by the receptor have been well-documented, but molecular interactions involved in receptor activation remain elusive. We hypothesized that the MfR subunits, methoprene-tolerant transcription factor (Met) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC), would be expressed coincident with the timing of sex programming of developing oocytes by methyl farnesoate in daphnids. We also hypothesized that methyl farnesoate activates MfR assembly. Met mRNA was expressed rhythmically during the reproductive cycle, with peak mRNA accumulation just prior period of oocytes programming of sex. Further, we revealed evidence that Met proteins self-associate in the absence of methyl farnesoate, and that the presence of methyl farnesoate stimulates dissociation of Met multimers with subsequent association with SRC. Results demonstrated that the Met subunit is highly dynamic in controlling the action of methyl farnesoate through temporal variation in its expression and availability for receptor assembly.

  11. Neocaridina denticulata: A Decapod Crustacean Model for Functional Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykles, Donald L; Hui, Jerome H L

    2015-11-01

    A decapod crustacean model is needed for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological processes, such as reproduction, sex determination, molting and growth, immunity, regeneration, and response to stress. Criteria for selection are: life-history traits, adult size, availability and ease of culture, and genomics and genetic manipulation. Three freshwater species are considered: cherry shrimp, Neocaridina denticulata; red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii; and redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. All three are readily available, reproduce year round, and grow rapidly. The crayfish species require more space for culture than does N. denticulata. The transparent cuticle of cherry shrimp provides for direct assessment of reproductive status, stage of molt, and tissue-specific expression of reporter genes, and facilitates screening of mutations affecting phenotype. Moreover, a preliminary genome of N. denticulata is available and efforts toward complete genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing have been initiated. Neocaridina denticulata possesses the best combination of traits that make it most suitable as a model for functional genomics. The next step is to obtain the complete genome sequence and to develop molecular technologies for the screening of mutants and for manipulating tissue-specific gene expression.

  12. Bacteria-Induced Dscam Isoforms of the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus.

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    Apiruck Watthanasurorot

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, also known as Dscam, is a member of the immunoglobulin super family. Dscam plays an essential function in neuronal wiring and appears to be involved in innate immune reactions in insects. The deduced amino acid sequence of Dscam in the crustacean Pacifastacus leniusculus (PlDscam, encodes 9(Ig-4(FNIII-(Ig-2(FNIII-TM and it has variable regions in the N-terminal half of Ig2 and Ig3 and the complete Ig7 and in the transmembrane domain. The cytoplasmic tail can generate multiple isoforms. PlDscam can generate more than 22,000 different unique isoforms. Bacteria and LPS injection enhanced the expression of PlDscam, but no response in expression occurred after a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection or injection with peptidoglycans. Furthermore, PlDscam silencing did not have any effect on the replication of the WSSV. Bacterial specific isoforms of PlDscam were shown to have a specific binding property to each tested bacteria, E. coli or S. aureus. The bacteria specific isoforms of PlDscam were shown to be associated with bacterial clearance and phagocytosis in crayfish.

  13. Downregulation of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young Pathways in Human Pancreatic Islets from Hyperglycemic Donors

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    Jalal Taneera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several molecular pathways have been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D pathogenesis, it is uncertain which pathway has the most implication on the disease. Changes in the expression of an entire pathway might be more important for disease pathogenesis than changes in the expression of individual genes. To identify the molecular alterations in T2D, DNA microarrays of human pancreatic islets from donors with hyperglycemia n=20 and normoglycemia n=58 were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA. About 178 KEGG pathways were investigated for gene expression changes between hyperglycemic donors compared to normoglycemic. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY pathways are downregulated in hyperglycemic donors, while proteasome and spliceosome pathways are upregulated. The mean centroid of gene expression of T2DM and MODY pathways was shown to be associated positively with insulin secretion and negatively with HbA1c level. To conclude, downregulation of T2DM and MODY pathways is involved in islet function and might be involved in T2D. Also, the study demonstrates that gene expression profiles from pancreatic islets can reveal some of the biological processes related to regulation of glucose hemostats and diabetes pathogenesis.

  14. Influence of Melatonin on the Proliferative and Apoptotic Responses of the Prostate under Normal and Hyperglycemic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Gobbo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antitumor properties of melatonin (MLT are known for prostate cancer cells. This study investigated whether MLT affects prostate maturation and interferes with tissue injuries induced by diabetes. MLT was administered to Wistar rats from 5 weeks of age in the drinking water (10 μg/kg b.w., and diabetes was induced at the 13th week by streptozotocin (4.5 mg/100g b.w., i.p.. The animals were euthanized in the 14th and 21st weeks. MLT reduced the immunostained cells for androgen receptor (AR by 10% in younger rats. Diabetes decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. MLT treatment impeded apoptosis p=0.02 and augmented proliferation p=0.0008 and PCNA content in prostate following long-term diabetes due to restoration of testosterone levels and expression of melatonin receptor type 1B. The effect of MLT (500 µM, 5 mM, and 10 mM on androgen-dependent (22Rv1 and androgen-independent (PC3 cancer cells and human prostate epithelial cells (PNTA1 under normal and hyperglycemic conditions (HG, 450 mg/dL was analyzed. Contrary to PNTA1 and 22Rv1 cells, MLT improved the proliferation of PC3 cells in hyperglycemic medium. The combined data indicated that MLT had proliferative and antiapoptotic effects in prostate cells subjected to HG levels and it seems to involve specific MLT pathways rather than AR.

  15. Inhibition of ALDH2 by O-GlcNAcylation contributes to the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshan; Wang, Jiali; Li, Minghua; Yuan, Qiuhuan; Xue, Mengyang; Xu, Feng; Chen, Yuguo

    2016-12-27

    Although hyperglycemia is causally related to adverse outcomes after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether excessive O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an important cardioprotective enzyme, was a mechanism for the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial I/R injury. Both acute hyperglycemia (AHG) and diabetes (DM)-induced chronic hyperglycemia increased cardiac dysfunction, infarct size and apoptosis index compared with normal saline (NS)+I/R rats (PO-GlcNAc modification was increased whereas its activity was decreased in AHG+I/R and DM+I/R rats. High glucose (HG, 30mmol/L) markedly increased ALDH2 O-GlcNAc modification compared with Con group (5mmol/L) (PO-GlcNAc modification was increased by 62.9% in Con+PUGNAc group whereas it was decreased by 44.1% in Con+DON group compared with Con group (PO-GlcNAc modification and improved infarct size, apoptosis index and cardiac dysfunction induced by I/R combined with hyperglycemia. These findings demonstrate that ALDH2 O-GlcNAc modification is a key mechanism for the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial I/R injury and Alda-1 has therapeutic potential for inducing cardioprotection.

  16. Ultraviolet filters in stomatopod crustaceans: diversity, ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Michael J; Porter, Megan L; Cronin, Thomas W

    2015-07-01

    Stomatopod crustaceans employ unique ultraviolet (UV) optical filters in order to tune the spectral sensitivities of their UV-sensitive photoreceptors. In the stomatopod species Neogonodactylus oerstedii, we previously found four filter types, produced by five distinct mycosporine-like amino acid pigments in the crystalline cones of their specialized midband ommatidial facets. This UV-spectral tuning array produces receptors with at least six distinct spectral sensitivities, despite expressing only two visual pigments. Here, we present a broad survey of these UV filters across the stomatopod order, examining their spectral absorption properties in 21 species from seven families in four superfamilies. We found that UV filters are present in three of the four superfamilies, and evolutionary character reconstruction implies that at least one class of UV filter was present in the ancestor of all modern stomatopods. Additionally, postlarval stomatopods were observed to produce the UV filters simultaneously alongside development of the adult eye. The absorbance properties of the filters are consistent within a species; however, between species we found a great deal of diversity, both in the number of filters and in their spectral absorbance characteristics. This diversity correlates with the habitat depth ranges of these species, suggesting that species living in shallow, UV-rich environments may tune their UV spectral sensitivities more aggressively. We also found additional, previously unrecognized UV filter types in the crystalline cones of the peripheral eye regions of some species, indicating the possibility for even greater stomatopod visual complexity than previously thought. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Ecophysiological perspectives on engineered nanomaterial toxicity in fish and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; MacCormack, Tyson James

    2017-03-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are incorporated into numerous industrial, clinical, food, and consumer products and a significant body of evidence is now available on their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Environmental ENM concentrations are difficult to quantify, but production and release estimates suggest wastewater treatment plant effluent levels ranging from 10(-4) to >10(1)μgL(-1) for the most common formulations by production volume. Bioavailability and ENM toxicity are heavily influenced by water quality parameters and the physicochemical properties and resulting colloidal behaviour of the particular ENM formulation. ENMs generally induce only mild acute toxicity to most adult fish and crustaceans under environmentally relevant exposure scenarios; however, sensitivity may be considerably higher for certain species and life stages. In adult animals, aquatic ENM exposure often irritates respiratory and digestive epithelia and causes oxidative stress, which can be associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and the activation of immune responses. Direct interactions between ENMs (or their dissolution products) and proteins can also lead to ionoregulatory stress and/or developmental toxicity. Chronic and developmental toxicity have been noted for several common ENMs (e.g. TiO2, Ag), however more data is necessary to accurately characterize long term ecological risks. The bioavailability of ENMs should be limited in saline waters but toxicity has been observed in marine animals, highlighting a need for more study on possible impacts in estuarine and coastal systems. Nano-enabled advancements in industrial processes like water treatment and remediation could provide significant net benefits to the environment and will likely temper the relatively modest impacts of incidental ENM release and exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Remarkable diversity of endogenous viruses in a crustacean genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thézé, Julien; Leclercq, Sébastien; Moumen, Bouziane; Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies in paleovirology have uncovered myriads of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) integrated in the genome of their eukaryotic hosts. These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance. So far, most studies have used a virus-centered approach, whereby endogenous copies of a particular group of viruses were searched in all available sequenced genomes. Here, we follow a host-centered approach whereby the genome of a given species is comprehensively screened for the presence of EVEs using all available complete viral genomes as queries. Our analyses revealed that 54 EVEs corresponding to 10 different viral lineages belonging to 5 viral families (Bunyaviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Totiviridae) and one viral order (Mononegavirales) became endogenized in the genome of the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa. Furthermore, 30 A. vulgare EVEs have uninterrupted open reading frames, suggesting they result from recent endogenization of viruses likely to be currently infecting isopod populations. Overall, our work shows that isopods have been and are still infected by a large variety of viruses. It also extends the host range of several families of viruses and brings new insights into their evolution. More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Strong adverse prognostic impact of hyperglycemic episodes during adjuvant chemoradiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Arnulf; Vaupel, Peter; Stockinger, Marcus; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Medical Center, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Mainz (Germany); Struss, Hans-Garlich [University Medical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Giese, Alf [University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In comparison to normal brain tissue, glioblastomas exhibit significantly increased glucose uptake. Brain edema is a common complication during adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, leading to a requirement for glucocorticoid treatment. Glucocorticoid treatment frequently causes considerable deregulation of blood glucose levels. Therefore, episodes of hyperglycemia may contribute to radio- and/or chemoresistance. This study comprises a retrospective analysis of the influence of hyperglycemic episodes (HEs) during adjuvant therapy on the overall survival of 106 glioblastoma multiforme patients. The occurrence of one or more deregulated blood glucose value(s) > 10 mM is associated with a reduction in median overall survival from 16.7 to 8.8 months. A significantly poorer overall survival of patients with hyperglycemia could also be detected in subgroup analyses of patients with complete tumor resection and complete treatment according to the EORTC 22891/26891 trial protocol, as well as in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. A history of diabetes mellitus had no influence on prognosis. Our data suggest that the observed negative impact of elevated blood glucose levels on overall survival may not solely be explained by the patients' poorer general condition; the elevated blood glucose concentration itself may play a pathogenetic role. This could be due to increased activity of antioxidant systems, elevated expression of DNA damage response proteins and protection of hypoxic tumor cells against apoptosis combined with hypoxia-mediated radioresistance. A possible prognostic impact of elevated blood glucose levels during the period of adjuvant (chemo-) radiotherapy of glioblastoma should be evaluated in a prospective clinical trial. (orig.) [German] Glioblastome zeigen im Vergleich mit normalem Gehirngewebe eine deutlich vermehrte Glukoseaufnahme. Im Rahmen der adjuvanten Radio(chemo)therapie von Glioblastomen treten vielfach Hirnoedeme auf, die eine

  20. Relation between physico-chemical limnology and crustacean community in Wular Lake of Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Javaid Ahmad; Pandit, Ashok K

    2013-10-01

    The present study scrutinizes the seasonal variation in the distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical liminology of Wular lake. Water samples were collected from five study sites during September 2010-August 2011. Remarkable spatial and temporal variations were observed among the different study sites. Among the parameters recorded water temperature showed positive correlation with pH (p<0.01) and orthophosphate (p<0.05).Transparency showed a significant negative correlation with total alkalinity (p<0.01), free carbon dioxide (p<0.01) and ammonical nitrogen (p<0.01). Crustacean zooplankton were collected by filtering 100 L lake water through a 30 microm nytal mesh and preserved in 4% formalin. A total of 42 taxa of crustacean were recorded, among them 23 species belonged to Cladocera, 16 to Copepoda and only 3 to Ostracoda. Species diversity and density depicted an abrupt up surge on the advent of warmer period (extending from March). Among the various sites a maximum of 40 species were recorded from a single biotope (site III) against the minimum of only 17 species being recorded from site I. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis showed close similarity (0.928-0.944%) between summer and autumn in terms of species diversity. Pearson correlation coefficient of the various physico-chemical parameters of water with crustacean zooplankton depicted that not only a single but multiple factors govern over the distribution and diversity of crustacean in the lake.

  1. Surviving environmental stress: the role of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in marine crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NA Stephens-Camacho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH family, an ancestral group of enzymes responsible for aldehyde detoxification in several organisms. The BADH enzyme catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine (GB an important osmoptrotector and osmoregulator accumulated in response to cellular osmotic stress. The BADH enzymes have been extensively described in terrestrial organisms, but information in marine crustaceans remains scarce. Research on crustacean stress-adaptive capacity to environmental stressors relates GB accumulation in response to salinity variations. Although GB de novo synthesis is confirmed on crustaceans, its metabolic pathways and regulation mechanism are unexplored. In this work, the state of the knowledge of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes in marine crustaceans is summarized, as a mechanism to overcome the deleterious effects of changes in temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration in seawater. The purpose of this review is to provide a more comprehensive overview to set the basis for exploring novel functions and properties of BADHs on the response of crustaceans to environmental stress.

  2. The non-native seaweed Asparagopsis armata supports a diverse crustacean assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacios, I; Guerra-García, J M; Baeza-Rojano, E; Cabezas, M P

    2011-05-01

    This is the first study describing the crustacean fauna associated to Asparagopsis armata, a non-native, red seaweed widely distributed along western Mediterranean coasts. First found in Australia and New Zealand, it was introduced naturally through the Strait of Gibraltar and rapidly spread out. A one-year spatio-temporal study (Feb 08-Feb 09) was carried out in the Strait of Gibraltar to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of the associated crustacean fauna. Maximum biomass of A. armata was measured during April-June, whereas the maximum crustacean abundances were registered from June-October. In total 41 crustacean species were identified. The caprellid Caprella penantis, traditionally associated to non-polluted areas, was more abundant on Tarifa Island (higher values of dissolved oxygen and pH) than in Algeciras (lower oxygen and pH). The gammarid Podocerus variegatus was dominant in Algeciras Bay while Hyale schmidti and Apherusa mediterranea were the most abundant on Tarifa Island. Among isopods, Synisoma nadejda was only found on Tarifa Island. When compared with literature of native algae of the intertidal and shallow sublittoral, the species richness of associated crustaceans was similar in A. armata and the natives. Very little is known about the influence of this algae on altering marine communities, so complete faunistic studies dealing with other groups such as polychaetes or molluscs are necessary to properly address biogeographical, ecological and management programmes dealing with this non-native species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Undesirable Enzymatic Browning in Crustaceans: Causative Effects and Its Inhibition by Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat; Ahmad, Mehraj; Arfat, Yasir Ali; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable enzymatic browning mediated by polyphenol oxidase (E.C. 1.14.18.1) on the surface of seafood from crustaceans have been a great concern to food processors, causing quality losses of seafood products. Seafoods especially from crustaceans are worldwide consumed due to their delicacy and nutritional value. However, black spot formation (melanosis) is the major problem occurring in crustaceans during postmortem handling and refrigerated storage induce deleterious changes in organoleptic properties and, therefore, decreases commercial value. Polyphenoloxidase (PPO), the copper-containing metalloprotein involved in oxidation of phenol to quinone is the major biochemical reaction of melanosis formation. This enzymatic mechanism causes unappealing blackening in postharvest crustaceans. To alleviate the melanosis formation in crustaceans, use of phenolic compounds from plant extract can serve as antimelanotics and appears to be a good alternative to the conventional sulfites which are associated with health-related disorders. In this review, we focuses on the unique features about the structure, distribution, and properties of PPO as well as mechanism of melanosis formation and provide a comprehensive deeper insight on the factors affecting melanosis formation and its inhibition by various antimelanotics including newly discovered plant phenolic compounds.

  4. [Diversity and faunal analysis of crustaceans in Potatso National Park, Shangri-La, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shu-Sen; Chen, Fei-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Xing; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Potatso National Park was the first national park in mainland China, preceded by the earlier Bitahai Nature Reserve. Located in the northwest of Yunnan and on the southeast of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Potatso is a typical low latitude and high elevation wetland nature reserve, with large areas of coniferous forest around alpine lakes and both wetland and water area ecosystems. In August, 2011, we undertook a survey of crustaceans in the park, sampling lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers throughout Potatso. We found a total of 29 species (including varieties) belonging to 24 genera and 11 families. Notable discoveries include Parartemiopsis sp, Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Simocephalus congener, which are the first examples of these species to be recorded in China. Likewise, Gammarus bitaensis is a unique crustacean found only in Potatso National Park and Thermocyclops dumonti and Gammarus paucispinus are both endemic species to northwestern Yunnan. The overall faunal characteristics of crustaceans in the park also revealed several things about Potatso: (1) Cosmopolitan and Palaearctic elements reach 48.27% and 37.93%, clearly showing the Palaearctic element as the dominant fauna; (2) most of the crustacean, such as Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Gammarus, are typical alpine types, confirming that Potatso has feature typical of alpine and plateau fauna; and (3) the proportion of endemic and rare crustacean species in Potatso National Park is approximately 10%, suggesting that the Potatso National Park in particular and the northwest of Yunnan in general have a unique geological and evolutionary history.

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: function and putative signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Omri; Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

    2013-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are highly conserved members of the tyrosine kinase receptor superfamily found in metazoans and plants. In arthropods, EGFRs are vital for the proper development of embryos and of adult limbs, gonads, and eyes as well as affecting body size. In searching for genes involved in the growth and development of our model organism, the decapod crustacean (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), a comprehensive transcript library was established using next-generation sequencing. Using this library, the expression of several genes assigned to the signal transduction pathways mediated by EGFRs was observed, including a transcript encoding M. rosenbergii EGFR (Mr-EGFR), several potential ligands upstream to the receptor, and most of the putative downstream signal transducer genes. The deduced protein encoded by Mr-EGFR, representing the first such receptor reported thus far in crustaceans, shows sequence similarity to other arthropod EGFRs. The M. rosenbergii gene is expressed in most tested tissues. The role of Mr-EGFR was revealed by temporarily silencing the transcript through weekly injections of double-stranded Mr-EGFR RNA. Such treatment resulted in a significant reduction in growth and a delay in the appearance of a male secondary sexual characteristic, namely the appendix masculina. An additional function of Mr-EGFR was revealed with respect to eye development. Although the optic ganglion appeared to have retained its normal morphology, Mr-EGFR-silenced individuals developed abnormal eyes that presented irregular organization of the ommatidia, reflected by unorganized receptor cells occupying large areas of the dioptric portion and by a shortened crystalline tract layer.

  6. Non-insect crustacean models in developmental genetics including an encomium to Parhyale hawaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamataki, Evangelia; Pavlopoulos, Anastasios

    2016-08-01

    The impressive diversity of body plans, lifestyles and segmental specializations exhibited by crustaceans (barnacles, copepods, shrimps, crabs, lobsters and their kin) provides great material to address longstanding questions in evolutionary developmental biology. Recent advances in forward and reverse genetics and in imaging approaches applied in the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis and other emerging crustacean model species have made it possible to probe the molecular and cellular basis of crustacean diversity. A number of biological and technical qualities like the slow tempo and holoblastic cleavage mode, the stereotypy of many cellular processes, the functional and morphological diversity of limbs along the body axis, and the availability of various experimental manipulations, have made Parhyale a powerful system to study normal development and regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wnt repertoire and developmental expression patterns in the crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Savvas J; Pace, Ryan M; Stangl, A J; Nagy, Lisa M; Williams, Terri A

    2016-12-01

    Wnt genes are a family of conserved glycoprotein ligands that play a role in a wide variety of cell and developmental processes, from cell proliferation to axis elongation. There are 13 Wnt subfamilies found among metazoans. Eleven of these appear conserved in arthropods with a pattern of loss during evolution of as many as six subfamilies among hexapods. Here we report on Wnt genes in the branchiopod crustacean, Thamnocephalus platyurus, including the first documentation of the expression of the complete Wnt gene family in a crustacean. Our results suggest fewer Wnt genes were retained in Thamnocephalus than in the related crustacean, Daphnia, although the Thamnocephalus Wnt repertoire is larger than that found in insects. We also find an intriguing pattern of staggered expression of Wnts-an anterior-posterior stagger within the posterior growth zone and a dorsal-ventral stagger in the developing segments-suggesting a potential for subfunctionalization of Wnts in these regions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of the eyestalk of precocious juvenile Chinese mitten crab reveals putative neuropeptides and differentially expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Muzi; Li, Xuguang; Lu, Quanping; Li, Yuehua; Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianlin

    2015-09-15

    Chinese mitten crabs that reach maturity 1 year earlier than normal crabs are known as precocious juvenile crabs. The molecular mechanisms underlying the precocity of the Chinese mitten crab are poorly understood. To identify the genes that may be involved in the control of precocity in Chinese mitten crab, we measured the expression profile of eyestalk genes in precocious and normally developed juvenile crabs using high-throughput sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. We obtained 56,446,284 raw reads from the precocious crabs and 58,029,476 raw reads from the normally developed juvenile crabs. Reads from the two libraries were combined into a single data set. De novo assembly of the combined read set yielded 78,777 unigenes with an average length of 1563 bp. A total of 41,405 unigenes with predicted ORFs were selected for functional annotation. Among these genes, we identified three neuropeptide genes belonging to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family and two neuropeptide genes encoding the chromatophorotropic hormones. Transcriptome comparison between the two libraries revealed 42 genes that exhibited significant differential expression, of which 29 genes were up-regulated and 13 genes were down-regulated in the precocious crabs. To confirm the sequencing data, six differentially expressed genes with functional annotations were selected and validated by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, we obtained the comprehensive transcriptome of the eyestalk tissues of precocious juvenile crabs. The sequencing results may provide new insights into the biomolecular basis of precocity in the Chinese mitten crab.

  9. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Punj Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control, Group II (diabetic control, Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP, and Group IV (control mice fed with SP. Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%, estrus (84.21%, and metestrus (164.15% with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05 when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action.

  10. Inhibition of bromophenols against PTP1B and anti-hyperglycemic effect of Rhodomela confervoides extract in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI DaYong; XU Feng; HE Juan; LI Jing; FAN Xiao; HAN LiJun

    2008-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays an important role as s negative regulator in insulin signaling pathways.PTP1B is an effective target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.Four bromophenol derivatives from red algae Rhodomela confervoides,2,2',3,3'-tetrabromo-4,4',5,5"-tetra-hydroxydiphenyl methane (1),3-bormo-4,5-bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) pyrocatechol (2),bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (3) and 2,2",3-tribromo-3",4,4",5-tetrahydroxy-6"-ethyloxy-methyldiphenylmethane (4) showed significant inhibitory activity against PTP1B (IC50 were 2.4,1.7,1.5 and 0.84 μmol/L,respectively) as potential therapeutical agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.The anti-hyperglycemic effects of the ethanol extracts from R.confervoides on streptozoto-cin-induced diabetes (STZ-diabetes) in male Wistar rats fed with high fat diet were investigated.The STZ-diabetic rats treated with medium-dose and high-dose alga extracts showed remarkable reductions in fasting blood glucose (FBG) as compared with the STZ-diabetic control.The results indicate that the in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity of the R.confervoides extracts can be partially attributed to the in-hibitory actions against PTP1B of the bromophenol derivatives and that may be of clinical importance in improving the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action. PMID:26285837

  12. The eyes of a tiny 'Orsten' crustacean - a compound eye at receptor level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenemann, Brigitte

    2013-01-14

    Among the oldest fossil crustaceans are those of the Late Cambrian (Furongian 499 ± 0.3-488.3 ± 1.7 Ma) of Västergötland, central Sweden and the lower Ordovician (Tremadocian 488.3 and 478.6 Ma) of the island of Őland. These are three-dimensionally preserved in nodules from the so called 'stinkstone' ('Orsten') limestone. 'Orsten'-like fossils represent tiny, often meiobenthic organsisms (Haug, Maas, & Waloszek, 2009) smaller than 2mm, which mainly were arthropods, especially crustaceans close to the stemline. As a result of phosphatisation, hairs, bristles and even cellular structures up to 0.3 μm are preserved (Walossek, 1993), especially compound eyes, as typical for all visually orientated crustaceans (Schoenemann et al., 2011). We show a miniscule prototype of a compound eye (∼40 μm) in a small crustacean, which lived almost half a billion years ago. The eye is close to but comfortably established above being limited in its resolving power by diffraction, but it is too small to be an apposition eye, normally regarded as the basal form of all compound eyes, as is found in bees, dragonflies, crustaceans and many other arthropods still living today. The facets of this compound eye are ∼8 μm in size, the surface structure indicates the relicts of a tiny lens covering each facet. In order to work functionally and to ensure that that diffraction and waveguide problems were avoided, it seems reasonable to suppose that the compound eye consisted of visual units, each with a single photoreceptor cell directly below a weak lens for capturing and slightly focusing the light. The entire unit has a diameter similar to that of a normal sensory cell as found in compound eyes. Thus, the early compound eye analysed here may be interpreted as a prototype representing the earliest stages of the evolution of crustacean compound eyes.

  13. Toward crustacean without chemicals: a descriptive analysis of consumer response using price comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Bono, Gioacchino; Pipitone, Vito; Vitale, Sergio; Cannizzaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    To date, there seems to be limited-to-zero emphasis about how consumers perceive crustacean products subject to either chemical and or non-chemical preservative treatments. In addition, studies that investigated price comparisons of crustacean products subject to either chemical or chemical-free preservative methods seem unreported. This study focused on providing some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that are either chemical-treated and or free of chemicals, incorporating price comparisons using a descriptive approach. The study design employed a questionnaire approach via interview using a computer-assisted telephone system and sampled 1,540 participants across five key locations in Italy. To actualize consumer sensitivity, 'price' was the focus given its crucial role as a consumption barrier. Prior to this, variables such as demographic characteristics of participants, frequency of purchasing, quality attributes/factors that limit the consumption of crustaceans were equally considered. By price comparisons, consumers are likely to favor chemical-free (modified atmosphere packaging) crustacean products amid a price increase of up to 15%. But, a further price increase such as by 25% could markedly damage consumers' feelings, which might lead to a considerable number opting out in favor of either chemical-treated or other seafood products. Comparing locations, the studied variables showed no statistical differences (p>0.05). On the contrary, the response weightings fluctuated across the studied categories. Both response weightings and coefficient of variation helped reveal more about how responses deviated per variable categories. This study has revealed some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that were either chemical-treated or subject to chemical-free preservative up to price sensitivity using Italy as a reference case, which is applicable to other parts

  14. Toward crustacean without chemicals: a descriptive analysis of consumer response using price comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, there seems to be limited-to-zero emphasis about how consumers perceive crustacean products subject to either chemical and or non-chemical preservative treatments. In addition, studies that investigated price comparisons of crustacean products subject to either chemical or chemical-free preservative methods seem unreported. Objective: This study focused on providing some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that are either chemical-treated and or free of chemicals, incorporating price comparisons using a descriptive approach. Design: The study design employed a questionnaire approach via interview using a computer-assisted telephone system and sampled 1,540 participants across five key locations in Italy. To actualize consumer sensitivity, ‘price’ was the focus given its crucial role as a consumption barrier. Prior to this, variables such as demographic characteristics of participants, frequency of purchasing, quality attributes/factors that limit the consumption of crustaceans were equally considered. Results: By price comparisons, consumers are likely to favor chemical-free (modified atmosphere packaging crustacean products amid a price increase of up to 15%. But, a further price increase such as by 25% could markedly damage consumers’ feelings, which might lead to a considerable number opting out in favor of either chemical-treated or other seafood products. Comparing locations, the studied variables showed no statistical differences (p>0.05. On the contrary, the response weightings fluctuated across the studied categories. Both response weightings and coefficient of variation helped reveal more about how responses deviated per variable categories. Conclusions: This study has revealed some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that were either chemical-treated or subject to chemical-free preservative up to price

  15. Microcystins derived from lysing Microcystis cells do not cause negative effects on crustacean zooplankton in Lake Taihu, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, F.; Dai, X.; Shu, T.; Gulati, R.D.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) have a toxic effect on crustacean zooplankton in the laboratory, but there is little or no unequivocal evidence in the literature of their lethal effects on crustacean zooplankton in the field. We used the natural microcystins extracted from Microcystis spp. to test if they could

  16. [Effects of large bio-manipulation fish pen on community structure of crustacean zooplankton in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhi-Xin; Xie, Ping; Guo, Long-Gen; Xu, Jun; Zhou, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, a large bio-manipulation pen with the stock of silver carp and bighead carp was built to control the cyanobacterial bloom in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake. This paper investigated the seasonal variation of the community structure of crustacean zooplankton and the water quality within and outside the pen. There were no significant differences in the environmental parameters and phytoplankton biomass within and outside the pen. The species composition and seasonal dynamics of crustacean zooplankton within and outside the pen were similar, but the biomass of crustacean zooplankton was greatly suppressed by silver carp and bighead carp. The total crustacean zooplankton biomass and cladocerans biomass were significantly lower in the pen (P crustacean zooplankton was observed in the Bay. Many crustacean species were only dominated in given seasons. Large-sized crustacean (mainly Daphnia sp. and Cyclops vicnus) dominated in winter and spring, while small-sized species (mainly Bosmina sp., Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and Limnoithona sinensis) dominated in summer and autumn. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that water transparency, temperature, and phytoplankton biomass were the most important factors affecting the seasonal succession of the crustacean.

  17. Anticholinesterase effect of eserine (physostigmine in fish and crustacean species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Monserrat

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic characteristic (Km of cholinesterase from the crab Chasmagnathus granulata, the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the fish Odontesthes bonaeriensis were compared and correlated with the anticholinesterasic effect of eserine (physostigmine. For the crustaceans, the estimated Km values were about 5-8 times higher than that estimated for the fish (0.04 mM. In the crab and the shrimp, the concentration of eserine which inhibited 50% of cholinesterase activity (IC50 was estimated as 5.33x10-4 and 4.33x10-4 mM, respectively. In both cases, it was significantly higher (P As caraterísticas cinéticas (Km de colinesterases do caranguejo Chasmagnathus granulata, o camarão Farfantepenaeus paulensis e o peixe Odontesthes bonaeriensis foram comparadas e correlacionadas com os efeitos anticolinesterásicos da eserina (fisostigmina. Nos crustáceos, o valores estimados de Km foram aproximadamente 5-8 vezes maiores do que aquele estimado para a espécie de peixe (0.04 mM. No caranguejo e camarão, a concentração de eserina que inibiu 50% da atividade colinesterásica (CI50 foi estimada em 5.33x10-4 e 4.33x10-4 mM, respectivamente. Estes valores foram significativamente maiores (P < 0.05 que aquele estimado para as larvas de peixes (7.43x10-5 mM. Um valor de Km mais elevado poderia refletir uma menor afinidade da colinesterase pelo seu substrato natural, acetilcolina, ou análogos tais como inseticidas carbamatos e fosforados. Se a CI50 para eserina é considerada como um índice da susceptibilidade da enzima a inibição por inseticidas, logo a colinesterase de larvas de peixes poderiam ser uma ferramenta mais útil no monitoramento de inseticidas do que aquelas das espécies de crustáceos.

  18. Respiratory and Metabolic Impacts of Crustacean Immunity: Are there Implications for the Insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Karen G; Burnett, Louis E

    2015-11-01

    Extensive similarities in the molecular architecture of the crustacean immune system to that of insects give credence to the current view that the Hexapoda, including Insecta, arose within the clade Pancrustacea. The crustacean immune system is mediated largely by hemocytes, relying on suites of pattern recognition receptors, effector functions, and signaling pathways that parallel those of insects. In crustaceans, as in insects, the cardiovascular system facilitates movement of hemocytes and delivery of soluble immune factors, thereby supporting immune surveillance and defense along with other physiological functions such as transport of nutrients, wastes, and hormones. Crustaceans also rely heavily on their cardiovascular systems to mediate gas exchange; insects are less reliant on internal circulation for this function. Among the largest crustaceans, the decapods have developed a condensed heart and a highly arteriolized cardiovascular system that supports the metabolic demands of their often large body size. However, recent studies indicate that mounting an immune response can impair gas exchange and metabolism in their highly developed vascular system. When circulating hemocytes detect the presence of potential pathogens, they aggregate rapidly with each other and with the pathogen. These growing aggregates can become trapped in the microvasculature of the gill where they are melanized and may be eliminated at the next molt. Prior to molting, trapped aggregates of hemocytes also can impair hemolymph flow and oxygenation at the gill. Small shifts to anaerobic metabolism only partially compensate for this decrease in oxygen uptake. The resulting metabolic depression is likely to impact other energy-expensive cellular processes and whole-animal performance. For crustaceans that often live in microbially-rich, but oxygen-poor aquatic environments, there appear to be distinct tradeoffs, based on the gill's multiple roles in respiration and immunity. Insects have

  19. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliveira de Almeida

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815 and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836, M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862, M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836, M. jelskii (Miers, 1877, M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and Palaemon (Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871. The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral

  20. The role of crustacean fisheries and aquaculture in global food security: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Josupeit, Helga; Cai, Junning; Zhou, Xiaowei

    2012-06-01

    The 1996 World Food Summit defined food security as "Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". This paper looks at the status of production from both shrimp capture fisheries and shrimp aquaculture, as well as trade, in order to understand the contribution of the crustacean sector to overall fish production and thus to global food security. This paper also examines some sustainability issues that will potentially affect the contribution of the crustacean sector (particularly shrimp) to food security. These include sustainable shrimp capture fisheries, sustainable shrimp trade and sustainable shrimp aquaculture. The paper concludes that crustaceans are an important source of aquatic food protein. Production (as food and ornamental) and trade are extremely important for developing countries. It provides both economic development and empowerment in terms of contribution to GDP, consumption, employment, catch value and exports. The crustacean sector generates high value export products which enables producers to buy lower value products in the world market - thus a positive contribution to food security in both producing and exporting countries.

  1. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stentiford, G.D.; Neil, D.M.; Peeler, E.J.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Flegel, T.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Jones, B.; Morado, F.; Moss, S.; Lotz, J.; Bartholomay, L.; Behringer, D.C.; Hauton, C.; Lightner, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquacu

  2. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed ta

  3. Chitinous palynomorphs and palynodebris representing crustacean exoskeleton remains from sediments of the Banda Sea (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waveren, van I.M.

    1994-01-01

    Palynological residues from surface sediments in the Banda Sea (Indonesia) are characterised by the presence of chitinous palynomorph types that can be correlated with exoskeletons of crustaceans, notably calanoid copepods. A series of 27 palynomorph types are described and informally categorised. A

  4. PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in crustaceans from different French coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, N.; Abarnou, A. [IFREMER, Brest (France); Defour, S.; Fraisse, D. [CARSO, Lyon (France)

    2004-09-15

    There is very few information on the presence of persistent organo-halogenated contaminants in crustaceans from the French coast. A previous report pointed out high levels of dioxins in seafood marketed in France, particularly in large crustaceans. However, these data were very limited and the dioxin concentrations were reported on a fat basis. In this paper new data on PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in crustaceans will be discussed. Our first objective was to obtain an estimation of the concentration ranges of those contaminants in large crustaceans from the French coast. For that purpose, three areas were selected: the first one in the Bay of Seine, the others along the Brittany coast. According to results obtained within the French marine pollution monitoring programme (RNO), these sites are assumed to represent very opposite situations: on the one hand the coasts of Brittany which are very little contaminated by such man-made contaminants of industrial origin, on the other hand the Bay of Seine where highest PCB levels are currently measured in mussels and other species living close to the Seine Estuary. The second objective was to contribute to a better understanding of the factors acting on the distribution of these contaminants. Our approach is based on a detailed examination and comparison of the contaminant fingerprints in biological tissues according to either the origin of the samples, or the type of species in relation with their trophic position, feeding mode or metabolising capacities.

  5. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stentiford, G.D.; Neil, D.M.; Peeler, E.J.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Flegel, T.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Jones, B.; Morado, F.; Moss, S.; Lotz, J.; Bartholomay, L.; Behringer, D.C.; Hauton, C.; Lightner, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global

  6. Feeding guilds of western Mediterranean demersal fish and crustaceans: an analysis based in a spring survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Cartes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The MEDITS-99 sampling was performed along all the Iberian Peninsula coasts of the western Mediterranean (from the Alborán Sea to Cape Creus in a space-scale of 1000 Km N-S, at depths ranging between 27-790 m. Fish and decapod crustaceans were dominant in the megafaunal compartment sampled by trawling. Based on both the fish and the decapod crustacean compositions, a comparison of trophic guilds has been attempted, with fish and decapods classified as: 1 migrator macroplankton feeders (mM, 2 non-migrator macroplankton feeders (nmM, 3 nektobenthos-suprabenthos feeders (NS, 4 epibenthos feeders (Epib, 5 large detritus-scavengers (Sca, 6 infaunal feeders (Inf, 7 deposit feeders (Dep and 8 small detritivorous feeders (Det. Multivariate techniques showed the following differences in the trophodynamics of the megafaunal assemblages along the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula: 1 crustaceans (mainly decapods have different trophic structures on the shelf and on the slope; 2 on the slope, fish exhibited more clear changes as a function of the geographical gradient than crustaceans; and 3 trophodynamics of bathyal fish showed some geographic variations between the Alborán Sea, the Catalano-Balearic Basin, and the Algerian Basin (Vera Gulf and Alicante sectors, with a progressive north-south increase in planktophagous species.

  7. Sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic individuals can indicate allergy to molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; Rodríguez, V; Armisén, M; Linneberg, A; González-Quintela, A

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic patients according to tolerance to molluscs. Thirty-one patients with anaphylaxis to crustaceans (14 with mollusc allergy and 17 with mollusc tolerance) were studied using skin prick tests (SPTs), specific IgEs (sIgEs) and SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. IgE-reactive shrimp proteins were identified by proteomic analyses. Patients with mollusc allergy presented more frequently SPTs positive to molluscs and higher sIgE titres in response to both molluscs and crustaceans. Shrimp-sIgE and rPen a1-sIgE values of 1.57 kUA /l and 4.38 kUA /l, respectively, showed positive likelihood ratios of 4.3 and 10.9 for the identification of mollusc allergy. Patients with mollusc allergy reacted more frequently to tropomyosin in immunoblots than did patients without it (93% vs 35%, respectively, P = 0.004). Reactivity to proteins other than tropomyosin (n = 14) was not different between the two groups. Among patients with crustacean anaphylaxis, patients with mollusc allergy and mollusc tolerance show a different pattern of sensitization, something that may help identify them. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of a Method for Crustacean Allergens Using Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroyuki; Minatani, Tomiaki; Goto, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    An LC/MS/MS analysis method was developed for crustacean allergens, tropomyosin, and arginine kinase. A protein extract from shrimp was reduced, alkylated, and digested by trypsin. Peptide spectra were obtained using full scan analysis by LC/MS/MS, and we determined a sequence through a protein search. 22ADTLEQQNK30, 92IQLLEEDLER101, 113LAEASQAADESER125, 134SLSDEER140, 153FLAEEADR160, and 190IVELEEELR198 of tropomyosin and 152VSSTLSSLEGELK164 and 217TFLVWVNEEDHLR229 of arginine kinase were selected as the specific peptides, and optimal multiple-reaction monitoring conditions were used. The results obtained through the LC/MS/MS analysis correlated well with those using the ELISA method for various crustacean samples (r2>0.9). Moreover, unregulated species, such as krill or insects, which produce positive results in some crustacean ELISA assays, can be differentiated by LC/MS/MS. These findings suggest that LC/MS/MS analysis may be effective for crustacean food allergen analysis.

  9. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed

  10. Exceptionally preserved crustaceans from western Canada reveal a cryptic Cambrian radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Thomas H. P.; Vélez, Maria I.; Butterfield, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The early history of crustaceans is obscured by strong biases in fossil preservation, but a previously overlooked taphonomic mode yields important complementary insights. Here we describe diverse crustacean appendages of Middle and Late Cambrian age from shallow-marine mudstones of the Deadwood Formation in western Canada. The fossils occur as flattened and fragmentary carbonaceous cuticles but provide a suite of phylogenetic and ecological data by virtue of their detailed preservation. In addition to an unprecedented range of complex, largely articulated filtering limbs, we identify at least four distinct types of mandible. Together, these fossils provide the earliest evidence for crown-group branchiopods and total-group copepods and ostracods, extending the respective ranges of these clades back from the Devonian, Pennsylvanian, and Ordovician. Detailed similarities with living forms demonstrate the early origins and subsequent conservation of various complex food-handling adaptations, including a directional mandibular asymmetry that has persisted through half a billion years of evolution. At the same time, the Deadwood fossils indicate profound secular changes in crustacean ecology in terms of body size and environmental distribution. The earliest radiation of crustaceans is largely cryptic in the fossil record, but "small carbonaceous fossils" reveal organisms of surprisingly modern aspect operating in an unfamiliar biosphere.

  11. Zoological detective stories: the case of the facetotectan crustacean life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    The reconstruction of complete animal life cycles is sometimes a considerable problem, even though the knowledge of the full life cycle may have far-reaching evolutionary implications. A new study published in BMC Biology on artificially induced metamorphosis in an enigmatic crustacean group that was only known from larval stages sheds new light on the evolution of parasitism.

  12. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  13. Association of Sleep Deprivation With Reduction in Insulin Sensitivity as Assessed by the Hyperglycemic Clamp Technique in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardi Rodrigues, Ana Maria; da Silva, Cleliani de Cassia; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Camilo, Daniella Fernandes; Barreiro, Francieli; Cassani, Roberta Soares Lara; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Antonio, Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro; Geloneze, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The association between short sleep duration and decreased insulin sensitivity in adolescents has been described. However, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated this association measuring insulin sensitivity by the hyperglycemic clamp technique. To compare the distributions of parameters of insulin resistance in adolescents with sleep deprivation vs adequate sleep, and to investigate the association between sleep deprivation and insulin sensitivity. Cross-sectional multicenter study using data from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study conducted from June 29, 2011, to December 3, 2014, at an obesity outpatient clinic at the University of Campinas and public schools, with a convenience sample of 615 adolescents aged 10 to 19.9 years with a body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) for age and sex at the fifth percentile or higher. A subsample of 81 adolescents underwent the hyperglycemic clamp technique. The self-reported sleep duration was used to classify the population into 2 groups: adolescents with sleep deprivation (sleep (≥8 hours/night). Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the hyperglycemic clamp technique. Among the 615 adolescents (56.3% female; median age, 15.9 years [interquartile range, 12.9-17.8 years]) included in the sample, the mean (SD) sleep duration was 7.9 (1.7) hours/night. The adolescents with sleep deprivation (n = 257) compared with those with adequate sleep (n = 358) had a higher median (interquartile range) age (17.0 [15.4-18.3] vs 14.1 [11.8-16.9] years), BMI (25.0 [21.2-29.3] vs 23.1 [19.5-27.6]), waist circumference (83.0 [73.5-95.4] vs 79.0 [68.5-91.0] cm), sagittal abdominal diameter (17.9 [15.8-20.8] vs 17.0 [15.0-19.8] cm), neck circumference (35.2 [33.0-38.0] vs 33.0 [30.0-35.5] cm), uric acid level (4.9 [4.0-5.8] vs 4.5 [3.7-5.5] mg/dL), and white blood cell count (7000 [5900-8200] vs 6600 [5600-7800] cells/μL) (all P sleep deprivation had a lower median

  14. Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H

    2012-05-01

    The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm.

  15. Crustaceans from a tropical estuarine sand-mud flat, Pacific, Costa Rica, (1984-1988) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Zamora, José A; Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A; Vargas-Castillo, Rita

    2012-12-01

    The availability of data sets for time periods of more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the description of population oscillations. Using recent taxonomic literature and software we have updated and re-analized the information on crustacean diversity and population fluctuations from a set of cores collected at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (1984-1988). A total of 112 morphological species of macroinvertebrates was found, of which 29 were crustaceans. Taxonomic problems, maily with the peracarids, prevented the identification of a group of species. The abundance patterns of the crab Pinnixa valerii, the ostracod Cyprideis pacifica, and the cumacean Coricuma nicoyensis were analized with the Generalized Additive Models of the free software R. The models evidenced a variety of population oscillations during the sampling period. These oscillations probably included perturbations induced by external factors, like the strong red tide events of 1985. In additon, early on 1984 the populations might have been at an altered state due to the inpact of El Niño 1982-83. Thus, the oscillations observed during the study period departed from the expected seasonality (dry vs rainy) pattern and are thus considered atypical for this tropical estuarine tidal-flat. Crustacean diversity and population peaks were within the range of examples found in worldwide literature. However, abundances of the cumacean C. nicoyensis, an endemic species, are the highest reported for a tropical estuary. Comparative data from tropical tidal flat crustaceans continues to be scarce. Crustaceans (total vs groups) had population changes in response to the deployment of predator exclusion cages during the dry and rainy seasons of 1985. Temporal and spatial patchiness characterized the abundances of P. valeri, C. pacifica and C. nicoyenis.

  16. Genome size in arthropods; different roles of phylogeny, habitat and life history in insects and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfsnes, Kristian; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Hessen, Dag Olav

    2017-08-01

    Despite the major role of genome size for physiology, ecology, and evolution, there is still mixed evidence with regard to proximate and ultimate drivers. The main causes of large genome size are proliferation of noncoding elements and/or duplication events. The relative role and interplay between these proximate causes and the evolutionary patterns shaped by phylogeny, life history traits or environment are largely unknown for the arthropods. Genome size shows a tremendous variability in this group, and it has a major impact on a range of fitness-related parameters such as growth, metabolism, life history traits, and for many species also body size. In this study, we compared genome size in two major arthropod groups, insects and crustaceans, and related this to phylogenetic patterns and parameters affecting ambient temperature (latitude, depth, or altitude), insect developmental mode, as well as crustacean body size and habitat, for species where data were available. For the insects, the genome size is clearly phylogeny-dependent, reflecting primarily their life history and mode of development, while for crustaceans there was a weaker association between genome size and phylogeny, suggesting life cycle strategies and habitat as more important determinants. Maximum observed latitude and depth, and their combined effect, showed positive, and possibly phylogenetic independent, correlations with genome size for crustaceans. This study illustrate the striking difference in genome sizes both between and within these two major groups of arthropods, and that while living in the cold with low developmental rates may promote large genomes in marine crustaceans, there is a multitude of proximate and ultimate drivers of genome size.

  17. [Diversity and distribution of crustaceans and echinoderms and their relation with sedimentation levels in coral reefs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella

    2003-03-01

    Seven reef formations were studied in South Caicos, Turks & Caicos, to determine the species richness, patterns of diversity and patterns of distribution of crustaceans and echinoderms, and to evaluate the relationship between these parameters and the degree of sedimentation of the different sites. The reefs showed a gradient from a high sedimentation level, almost totally covered by algae, to places with no sediment particles deposited over the corals. Sites were classified as with high, low or null sedimentation, and species richness, abundance, diversity, spatial distribution of species and similarity among sites were estimated. No unique pattern was found: for crustaceans as well as for echinoderms, the site with the highest diversity value and high equitability, presumably associated to the environmental heterogeneity of this reef formation, showed null sedimentation and an uniform and random pattern of distribution, crustaceans and echinoderms respectively. The two sites with the lowest diversity for both animal groups, although with different sedimentation levels, showed the lowest equitability value and were the only sites with an aggregated pattern of distribution. The next sites in diversity for crustaceans were those with high sedimentation, probably because most species present inhabit empty conchs, in the sediment, or among seagrass. For the echinoderms, on the contrary, the intermediate sites in diversity had low sedimentation; the habitat requirements for these species (inside sponges, over the corals or among rocks) may have determined this result. The sites with lowest diversity had high sedimentation levels. In these, crustaceans showed the lowest equitability values and an aggregated spatial distribution, while the community of echinoderms was dominated by one single species. Although only general descriptions can be elucidated with the present results, knowledge about the basic population characteristics and natural history of these reef

  18. Crustaceans from a tropical estuarine sand-mud flat, Pacific, Costa Rica, (1984-1988 revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Vargas-Zamora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of data sets for time periods of more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the description of population oscillations. Using recent taxonomic literature and software we have updated and re-analized the information on crustacean diversity and population fluctuations from a set of cores collected at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (1984-1988. A total of 112 morphological species of macroinvertebrates was found, of which 29 were crustaceans. Taxonomic problems, maily with the peracarids, prevented the identification of a group of species. The abundance patterns of the crab Pinnixa valerii, the ostracod Cyprideis pacifica, and the cumacean Coricuma nicoyensis were analized with the Generalized Additive Models of the free software R. The models evidenced a variety of population oscillations during the sampling period. These oscillations probably included perturbations induced by external factors, like the strong red tide events of 1985. In additon, early on 1984 the populations might have been at an altered state due to the inpact of El Niño 1982-83. Thus, the oscillations observed during the study period departed from the expected seasonality (dry vs rainy pattern and are thus considered atypical for this tropical estuarine tidal-flat. Crustacean diversity and population peaks were within the range of examples found in worldwide literature. However, abundances of the cumacean C. nicoyensis, an endemic species, are the highest reported for a tropical estuary. Comparative data from tropical tidal flat crustaceans continues to be scarce. Crustaceans (total vs groups had population changes in response to the deployment of predator exclusion cages during the dry and rainy seasons of 1985. Temporal and spatial patchiness characterized the abundances of P. valeri, C. pacifica and C

  19. The Responses of Hyperglycemic Dividing Mesangial Cells to Heparin Are Mediated by the Non-reducing Terminal Trisaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina P; Hascall, Vincent C; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Abbadi, Amina; Wang, Aimin

    2015-11-27

    Our previous studies showed: (i) that growth-arrested G0/G1 rat mesangial cells stimulated to divide in hyperglycemic medium initiate intracellular hyaluronan synthesis that induces autophagy and the cyclin D3-induced formation of a monocyte-adhesive extracellular hyaluronan matrix after completing cell division; and (ii) that heparin inhibits the intracellular hyaluronan and autophagy responses, but after completing division, induces hyaluronan synthesis at the plasma membrane with the formation of a larger monocyte-adhesive hyaluronan matrix. This study shows: (i) that the non-terminal trisaccharide of heparin is sufficient to initiate the same responses as intact heparin, (ii) that a fully sulfated tetrasaccharide isolated from bacterial heparin lyase 1 digests of heparin that contains a Δ-2S-iduronate on the non-reducing end does not initiate the same responses as intact heparin, and (iii) that removal of the Δ-2S-iduronate to expose the fully sulfated trisaccharide (GlcNS(6S)-IdoUA(2S)-GlcNS(6S)) does initiate the same responses as intact heparin. These results provide evidence that mammalian heparanase digestion of heparin and heparan sulfate exposes a cryptic motif on the non-reducing termini that is recognized by a receptor on dividing cells.

  20. Sampling Daphnia's expressed genes: preservation, expansion and invention of crustacean genes with reference to insect genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Darren J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and comparative studies of insect genomes have shed light on the complement of genes, which in part, account for shared morphologies, developmental programs and life-histories. Contrasting the gene inventories of insects to those of the nematodes provides insight into the genomic changes responsible for their diversification. However, nematodes have weak relationships to insects, as each belongs to separate animal phyla. A better outgroup to distinguish lineage specific novelties would include other members of Arthropoda. For example, crustaceans are close allies to the insects (together forming Pancrustacea and their fascinating aquatic lifestyle provides an important comparison for understanding the genetic basis of adaptations to life on land versus life in water. Results This study reports on the first characterization of cDNA libraries and sequences for the model crustacean Daphnia pulex. We analyzed 1,546 ESTs of which 1,414 represent approximately 787 nuclear genes, by measuring their sequence similarities with insect and nematode proteomes. The provisional annotation of genes is supported by expression data from microarray studies described in companion papers. Loci expected to be shared between crustaceans and insects because of their mutual biological features are identified, including genes for reproduction, regulation and cellular processes. We identify genes that are likely derived within Pancrustacea or lost within the nematodes. Moreover, lineage specific gene family expansions are identified, which suggest certain biological demands associated with their ecological setting. In particular, up to seven distinct ferritin loci are found in Daphnia compared to three in most insects. Finally, a substantial fraction of the sampled gene transcripts shares no sequence similarity with those from other arthropods. Genes functioning during development and reproduction are comparatively well conserved between

  1. Occurrence and molecular characterisation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustaceans commercialised in Venice area, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, Greta; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Toson, Marica; Fasolato, Luca; Antonetti, Paolo; Zambon, Michela; Manfrin, Amedeo

    2016-03-02

    Infections due to the pathogenic human vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus, are mainly associated with consumption of raw or partially cooked bivalve molluscs. At present, little is known about the presence of Vibrio species in crustaceans and the risk of vibriosis associated with the consumption of these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and concentration of the main pathogenic Vibrio spp. in samples of crustaceans (n=143) commonly eaten in Italy, taking into account the effects of different variables such as crustacean species, storage conditions and geographic origin. Subsequently, the potential pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans (n=88) was investigated, considering the classic virulence factors (tdh and trh genes) and four genes coding for relevant proteins of the type III secretion systems 2 (T3SS2α and T3SS2β). In this study, the presence of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus was never detected, whereas 40 samples (28%) were positive for V. parahaemolyticus with an overall prevalence of 41% in refrigerated products and 8% in frozen products. The highest prevalence and average contamination levels were detected in Crangon crangon (prevalence 58% and median value 3400 MPN/g) and in products from the northern Adriatic Sea (35%), with the samples from the northern Venetian Lagoon reaching a median value of 1375 MPN/g. While genetic analysis confirmed absence of the tdh gene, three of the isolates contained the trh gene and, simultaneously, the T3SS2β genes. Moreover three possibly clonal tdh-negative/trh-negative isolates carried the T3SS2α apparatus. The detection of both T3SS2α and T3SS2β apparatuses in V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans emphasised the importance of considering new genetic markers associated with virulence besides the classical factors. Moreover this study represents the first report dealing with Vibrio spp. in

  2. Putative archaeal viruses from the mesopelagic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Dean R; Roux, Simon; Brum, Jennifer R; Bolduc, Ben; Emerson, Joanne B; Padilla, Cory C; Stewart, Frank J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce "MArVD", for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify putative archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset. Application of MArVD to 10 viral metagenomes from two depth profiles in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) oxygen minimum zone revealed 43 new putative archaeal virus genomes and large genome fragments ranging in size from 10 to 31 kb. Network-based classifications, which were consistent with marker gene phylogenies where available, suggested that these putative archaeal virus contigs represented six novel candidate genera. Ecological analyses, via fragment recruitment and ordination, revealed that the diversity and relative abundances of these putative archaeal viruses were correlated with oxygen concentration and temperature along two OMZ-spanning depth profiles, presumably due to structuring of the host Archaea community. Peak viral diversity and abundances were found in surface waters, where Thermoplasmata 16S rRNA genes are prevalent, suggesting these archaea as hosts in the surface habitats. Together these findings provide a baseline for identifying archaeal viruses in sequence datasets, and an initial picture of the ecology of such viruses in non-extreme environments.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of crustacean zooplankton community structure in Erhai Lake, a plateau lake, with reference to phytoplankton and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Deng, Daogui; Zhang, Sai; Hu, Cuilin

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal dynamics of a crustacean zooplankton community in Erhai Lake was investigated from May 2010 to April 2011. In total, 11 species were recorded, including six (6 genera) cladoceran and five (5 genera) copepod species. The crustacean zooplankton densities ranged from 24.3 to 155.4 ind./L. In winter and spring, the large-bodied cladoceran Daphnia galeata dominated the crustacean plankton community. In summer and autumn, when the colonial or filamentous algae dominated the phytoplankton communities, the small-bodied species (e.g. B osmina fatalis, Ceriodaphnia quadrangular, and Mesocyclops leuckarti) replaced the large-bodied ones. One-way ANOVA and redundancy analysis revealed that community structure was dependent upon total nitrogen, total phosphorus, water temperature, transparency, and the biomass of small algae. The variation in both phytoplankton structure and environmental variables were important factors in the seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton structure in Erhai Lake.

  4. Chitin Extraction from Crustacean Shells Using Biological Methods – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassila Arbia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After cellulose, chitin is the most widespread biopolymer in nature. Chitin and its derivatives have great economic value because of their biological activities and their industrial and biomedical applications. It can be extracted from three sources, namely crustaceans, insects and microorganisms. However, the main commercial sources of chitin are shells of crustaceans such as shrimps, crabs, lobsters and krill that are supplied in large quantities by the shellfish processing industries. Extraction of chitin involves two steps, demineralisation and deproteinisation, which can be conducted by two methods, chemical or biological. The chemical method requires the use of acids and bases, while the biological method involves microorganisms. Although lactic acid bacteria are mainly applied, other microbial species including proteolytic bacteria have also been successfully implemented, as well as mixed cultures involving lactic acid-producing bacteria and proteolytic microorganisms. The produced lactic acid allows shell demineralisation, since lactic acid reacts with calcium carbonate, the main mineral component, to form calcium lactate.

  5. Seasonal Patterns in the Fish and Crustacean Community of a Turbid Temperate Estuary (Zeeschelde Estuary, Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, J.; Taillieu, A.; Van Damme, P. A.; Cottenie, K.; Ollevier, F.

    1998-08-01

    Fish and crustaceans were sampled for 1 year in the upper reaches of a temperate estuary characterized by high turbidity and a tidal range of up to 5 m. Samples were taken in the cooling-water circuit of the Doel Nuclear Power station (Zeeschelde, Belgium). Between July 1994 and June 1995, 55 fish species, two shrimp species and four crab species were recorded. The fish community was composed of 36 marine species, 16 freshwater species and three diadromous species. Shrimps, Gobiidae and Clupeidae dominated the samples both in numbers and biomass. An exceptionally clear seasonal succession was observed in the species composition. It is argued that young fish and crustaceans use the highly turbid Zeeschelde Estuary as a refuge from predators.

  6. Prevalence of Colacium vesiculosum (Colaciales: Euglenophyceae on planktonic crustaceans in a subtropical shallow lake of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Zalocar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colacium vesiculosum (Euglenophyceae is an epibiont common on planktonic microcrustaceans of continental waters. The interaction between epibionts and substrate organisms is not very well known, particularly in subtropical environments of South America. In the present work, we analyzed the prevalence, density, biomass and attachment sites of C. vesiculosum on planktonic microcrustaceans from Paiva Lake, a subtropical lake of Argentina. With the aim to evaluate whether epibionts affect the filtering rates of Notodiaptomus spiniger, the dominant planktonic crustacean, we carried out bioassays using phytoplankton <53µm. Crustaceans were sampled using a PVC tube (1.2m long and 10cm in diameter, filtering 50L of water through a 53µm-mesh. Microcrustaceans were counted in Bogorov chambers under a stereoscopic microscope. The infested organisms were separated and observed with a photonic microscope to determine density and biovolume of epibionts, by analyzing their distribution on the exoskeleton. The prevalence of C. vesiculosum was higher in adult crustaceans than in their larvae and juveniles. The most infested group was that of calanoid copepods, related to their high density. The attachment sites on the exoskeleton were found to be the portions of the body which have a higher probability of encounter with epibionts during locomotion and feeding, i.e., antennae and thoracic legs in copepods, and thoracic legs and postabdomen in cladocerans. The similar values found in the filtering rate of infested and uninfested individuals of N. spiniger and the constant prevalence (<40% of epibiont algae, suggest that C. vesiculosum does not condition the life of planktonic crustaceans of Paiva Lake. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1295-1306. Epub 2011 September 01.

  7. Industrialization of crustaceans for obtaining chitosan in effect ointment wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    García Zapata, Teonila; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Roca Ortega, Johana Melissa; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Between 20 to 30, the weight of the kind of crust,Crustaceans is used human food, no human is the rest consisting of viceras and exoskeleton, especially the carapaces of hairy crab, crab raped her ceo, jaivas, lobster, shrimp that are found in greater numbers along the coasts of thePeruvian coast,which are regarded as environmental pollutants (waste ) These compounds are commercially valuable untapped, which can be used to obtain two biopolymers specialized high valueadded established worldwi...

  8. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Hauser, Frank; Kobberup, Sune

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila Genome Project website (www.flybase.org) contains the sequence of an annotated gene (CG6111) expected to code for a G protein-coupled receptor. We have cloned this receptor and found that its gene was not correctly predicted, because an annotated neighbouring gene (CG14547) was als....... Furthermore, we identified a gene sequence in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that very likely codes for a crustacean cardioactive peptide receptor....

  9. Molecular and mass spectral identification of the broadly conserved decapod crustacean neuropeptide pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF: the first PISCF-allatostatin (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatin) from a non-insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Bruns, Emily A.; Cashman, Christopher R.; Dickinson, Patsy S.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    The PISCF-allatostatins (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatins) are a family of pentadecapeptides characterized by a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, an unamidated –PISCF C-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues. Several isoforms of PISCF-AST are known, all from holometabolous insects. Using a combination of transcriptomics and mass spectrometry, we have identified the first PISCF-type peptides from a non-insect species. In silico analysis of crustacean ESTs identified several Litopenaeus vannamei (infraorder Penaeidea) transcripts encoding putative PISCF-AST precursors. Translation of these ESTs, with subsequent prediction of their putative post-translational processing, revealed the existence of as many as three PISCF-type peptides, including pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridging between Cys7 and Cys14). Although none of the predicted isoforms was detected by mass spectrometry in L. vannamei, MALDI-FTMS mass profiling identified an m/z signal corresponding to pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridge present) in neural tissue from 28 other decapods, which included members of six infraorders (Stenopodidea, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Achelata, Anomura and Brachyura). Further characterization of the peptide using SORI-CID and chemical derivatization/enzymatic digestion supported the theorized structure. In both the crab Cancer borealis and the lobster Homarus americanus, MALDI-based tissue surveys suggest that pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF is broadly distributed in the nervous system; it was also detected in the posterior midgut caecum. Collectively, our data show that members of the PISCF-AST family are not restricted to the holometabolous insects, but instead may be broadly conserved within the Pancrustacea. Moreover, our data suggest that one highly conserved PISCF-type peptide, pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF, is present in decapod crustaceans, functioning as a brain-gut paracrine/hormone. PMID:19467234

  10. The Environmental-Endocrine Basis of Gynandromorphism (Intersex in a Crustacean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W. Olmstead, Gerald A. LeBlanc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Commensurate with the decline in many crustacean populations has been an accumulation in reports of sexually ambiguous individuals within these populations. The cause of gynandromorphism or intersex among crustaceans is unknown. We show that gynandromorphism in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna is initiated by the sex-determining hormone methyl farnesoate when levels of the hormone are intermediate between low levels that stimulate the production of broods containing all female offspring and high levels that stimulate the production of broods of all male offspring. The incidence of hormonally-induced gynandromorphism was low (0.14% at the maximum stimulatory hormone concentrations but was significantly increased (46-fold when the animals were hormone-treated at 30oC. Some environmental chemicals also can stimulate the gynandromorphic phenotype as we demonstrated with the insecticide pyriproxyfen. Gynandromorphism occurs due to inadequate signaling of male-sex determination since: a gynandromorphs did not occur in a population that was producing only female offspring; and, b conditions that stimulated gynandromorphism also reduced the incidence of male offspring. We suggest that male sex determination normally occurs prior to the first embryonic cleavage. Elevated temperature may alter the timing of sex determination such that methyl farnesoate signaling occurs after the first embryonic cleavage and bilateral gynandromorphism occurs as a consequence of signaling to only one of the daughter cells. These results demonstrate that environmental factors can cause aberrant sex determination via perturbations in methyl farnesoate signaling.

  11. A taxonomic review of viruses infecting crustaceans with an emphasis on wild hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, K S; Stentiford, G D

    2017-07-01

    Numerous infections by viral pathogens have been described from wild and cultured crustacean hosts, yet relatively few of these pathogens have been formally characterised and classified. To date viruses have generally been tentatively assigned to families based upon morphological and developmental characteristics and their location of infection within the host cell. Often nucleotide sequence information is unavailable. Some of these viral infections have caused well-documented devastating consequences on the global crustacean farming industry whilst their effects on wild populations remain largely unstudied. This paper provides an up to date review of all known viruses described infecting crustacean hosts. Full characterisation and harmonisation of these descriptions utilising specifications proposed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is required to synonymise numerous examples of differential naming or abbreviation of naming, of the same virus in some cases. Development and application of techniques such as viral purification and high throughput sequencing of viral genomes will assist with these full descriptions and, provide appropriate diagnostic targets for surveillance of known and novel relatives. This review also highlights the importance of comparative study with viruses infecting insects and other arthropods to assist this process. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PCR-based detection of white spot syndrome virus in cultured and captured crustaceans in India.

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    Vaseeharan, B; Jayakumar, R; Ramasamy, P

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) among cultured and captured penaeid shrimps and crustaceans in the east coast of India was determined from November 1999 to April 2002 using PCR as a diagnostic tool. A total of 630 cultured samples consisting of 280 postlarvae collected from nine different hatcheries and 350 juvenile shrimps (40-60-day-old) collected from 18 different culture ponds were screened for WSSV. Of these cultured samples tested 53% were found to be single-step PCR positive. A total of 419 samples of captured crustaceans viz., Penaeus monodon brooders, P. indicus juveniles, Metapenaeus spp., crab Scylla serrata and Squilla mantis were also screened for WSSV by PCR, 23% of them were infected with WSSV. This study concluded that WSSV could be widespread in cultured and captured shrimps and other crustaceans in India. The results indicate that PCR screening of WSSV infection and rejection of infected stocks greatly assists shrimp aquaculture farmers for successful production and harvest.

  13. Mass spectrometric analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of crustacean neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OuYang, Chuanzi; Liang, Zhidan; Li, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptides represent one of the largest classes of signaling molecules used by nervous systems to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. Over the past several years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies have revolutionized the discovery of neuropeptides in numerous model organisms, especially in decapod crustaceans. Here, we focus our discussion on recent advances in the use of MS-based techniques to map neuropeptides in the spatial domain and monitoring their dynamic changes in the temporal domain. These MS-enabled investigations provide valuable information about the distribution, secretion and potential function of neuropeptides with high molecular specificity and sensitivity. In situ MS imaging and in vivo microdialysis are highlighted as key technologies for probing spatio-temporal dynamics of neuropeptides in the crustacean nervous system. This review summarizes the latest advancement in MS-based methodologies for neuropeptide analysis including typical workflow and sample preparation strategies as well as major neuropeptide families discovered in decapod crustaceans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology.

  14. Pyrokinin neuropeptides in a crustacean. Isolation and identification in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, P; Nieto, J; Cerstiaens, A; Boon, D; Baggerman, G; Poulos, C; Waelkens, E; Derua, R; Calderón, J; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    2001-01-01

    Identification of substances able to elicit physiological or behavioural processes that are related to reproduction would greatly contribute to the domestication of commercially important crustaceans that do not reproduce easily in captivity. Crustaceans are thought to release urine signals used for chemical communication involved in courtship behaviour. In contrast to insects, very little is known about the endocrinological processes underlying this phenomenon. Therefore, an extract of 3500 central nervous systems of female white shrimp Penaeus vannamei was screened for myotropic activity in order to purify pyrokinin-like peptides that belong to the pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide family. Members of this family regulate reproductive processes in insects, including pheromone biosynthesis. Purification of these pyrokinins was achieved by a combination of reversed-phase and normal-phase chromatography. Subsequent characterization by mass spectrometry, Edman degradation and peptide synthesis resulted in the elucidation of two novel peptides. Pev-PK 1 has the primary sequence DFAFSPRL-NH(2) and a second peptide (Pev-PK 2) is characterized as the nonapeptide ADFAFNPRL-NH(2). Pev-PK 1 contains the typical FXPRL-NH(2) (X = G, S, T or V) C-terminal sequence that characterizes members of the versatile pyrokinin/PBAN family. Pev-PK 2 displays an Asn residue at the variable X position of the core pyrokinin sequence. These crustacean pyrokinins are the first to be found in a noninsect. The synthetic peptides display myotropic activity on the Leucophaea maderae as well as on the Astacus leptodactylus hindgut.

  15. Fast Real-Time PCR for the Detection of Crustacean Allergens in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaclara, Francisco J; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    Crustaceans are one of the most common allergens causing severe food reaction. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with seafood intake are one of the most common food allergies in adults. Crustaceans including shrimps, prawns, crabs, lobster, and crayfish are a common cause of anaphylaxis or hypersensitivity, with shrimps and crabs being the most common causes of allergy. Symptoms occur most often when food or cooking water are ingested.These food allergens are a health problem, and they have become very important; as evidenced by the existence of several regulations that establish that labeling must be present regarding these allergens to warn consumers.The methodology herein exposed allows the detection of crustaceans in any type of product, including those where very aggressive treatments of temperature and pressure are used during the manufacturing process.The main features of this method are its high sensitivity and specificity, and reduced analysis time of real-time PCR (40 min). This assay is a potential tool in issues related to the labeling of products and food security to protect the allergic consumer.

  16. Analysis of Annotation and Differential Expression Methods used in RNA-seq Studies in Crustacean Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sunetra; Shyamal, Sharmishtha; Durica, David S

    2016-12-01

    In the field of crustacean biology, usage of RNA-seq to study gene expression is rapidly growing. Major advances in sequencing technology have contributed to the ability to examine complex patterns of genome activity in a wide range of organisms that are extensively used for comparative physiology, ecology and evolution, environmental monitoring, and commercial aquaculture. Relative to insect and vertebrate model organisms, however, information on the organization of crustacean genomes is virtually nonexistent, making de novo transcriptome assembly, annotation and quantification problematic and challenging. We present here a summary of the methodologies and software analyses employed in 23 recent publications, which describe de novo transcriptome assembly, annotation, and differential gene expression in a variety of crustacean experimental systems. We focus on establishing a series of best practices that will allow for investigators to produce datasets that are understandable, reproducible, and of general utility for related analyses and cross-study comparisons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. One precursor, three apolipoproteins: the relationship between two crustacean lipoproteins, the large discoidal lipoprotein and the high density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, Stefanie; Roth, Ziv; Dal Magro, Christina; Fischer, Sabine; Butz, Eric; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam; Lieb, Bernhard; Schenk, Sven; Hoeger, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The novel discoidal lipoprotein (dLp) recently detected in the crayfish, differs from other crustacean lipoproteins in its large size, apoprotein composition and high lipid binding capacity, We identified the dLp sequence by transcriptome analyses of the hepatopancreas and mass spectrometry. Further de novo assembly of the NGS data followed by BLAST searches using the sequence of the high density lipoprotein/1-glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) of Astacus leptodactylus as query revealed a putative precursor molecule with an open reading frame of 14.7 kb and a deduced primary structure of 4889 amino acids. The presence of an N-terminal lipid bind- ing domain and a DUF 1943 domain suggests the relationship with the large lipid transfer proteins. Two-putative dibasic furin cleavage sites were identified bordering the sequence of the HDL-BGBP. When subjected to mass spectroscopic analyses, tryptic peptides of the large apoprotein of dLp matched the N-terminal part of the precursor, while the peptides obtained for its small apoprotein matched the C-terminal part. Repeating the analysis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed a similar protein with identical domain architecture suggesting that our findings do not represent an isolated instance. Our results indicate that the above three apolipoproteins (i.e HDL-BGBP and both the large and the small subunit of dLp) are translated as a large precursor. Cleavage at the furin type sites releases two subunits forming a heterodimeric dLP particle, while the remaining part forms an HDL-BGBP whose relationship with other lipoproteins as well as specific functions are yet to be elucidated.

  18. Identification and developmental expression of the enzymes responsible for dopamine, histamine, octopamine and serotonin biosynthesis in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C; Lenz, Petra H

    2014-01-01

    Neurochemicals are likely to play key roles in physiological/behavioral control in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus, the biomass dominant zooplankton for much of the North Atlantic Ocean. Previously, a de novo assembled transcriptome consisting of 206,041 unique sequences was used to characterize the peptidergic signaling systems of Calanus. Here, this assembly was mined for transcripts encoding enzymes involved in amine biosynthesis. Using known Drosophila melanogaster proteins as templates, transcripts encoding putative Calanus homologs of tryptophan-phenylalanine hydroxylase (dopamine, octopamine and serotonin biosynthesis), tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine biosynthesis), DOPA decarboxylase (dopamine and serotonin biosynthesis), histidine decarboxylase (histamine biosynthesis), tyrosine decarboxylase (octopamine biosynthesis), tyramine β-hydroxylase (octopamine biosynthesis) and tryptophan hydroxylase (serotonin biosynthesis) were identified. Reverse BLAST and domain analyses show that the proteins deduced from these transcripts possess sequence homology to and the structural hallmarks of their respective enzyme families. Developmental profiling revealed a remarkably consistent pattern of expression for all transcripts, with the highest levels of expression typically seen in the early nauplius and early copepodite. These expression patterns suggest roles for amines during development, particularly in the metamorphic transitions from embryo to nauplius and from nauplius to copepodite. Taken collectively, the data presented here lay a strong foundation for future gene-based studies of aminergic signaling in this and other copepod species, in particular assessment of the roles they may play in developmental control.

  19. Increased risk of ischemic stroke after hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state: a population-based follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although much attention has been focused on the association between chronic hyperglycemia and cerebrovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients, there is no data regarding the risk of ischemic stroke after a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS attack. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of ischemic stroke in type 2 DM patients after an HHS attack. METHODS: From 2004 to 2008, this retrospective observational study was conducted on a large cohort of Taiwanese using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD. We identified 19,031 type 2 DM patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of HHS and 521,229 type 2 DM patients without an HHS diagnosis. Using the propensity score generated from logistic regression models, conditional on baseline covariates, we matched 19,031 type 2 DM patients with an HHS diagnosis with the same number from the comparison cohort. The one-year cumulative rate for ischemic stroke was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. After adjusting covariates, Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compute the adjusted one-year rate of ischemic stroke. RESULTS: Of the patients sampled, 1,810 (9.5% of the type 2 DM patients with HHS and 996 (5.2% of the comparison cohort developed ischemic stroke during the one-year follow-up period. After adjusting for covariates, the adjusted HR for developing ischemic stroke during the one-year follow-up period was 1.8 (95% C.I., 1.67 to 1.95, P<0.001 for type 2 DM patients with HHS compared with those without HHS. CONCLUSION: Although DM is a well-recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis, type 2 DM patients that have suffered a HHS attacks are at an increased risk of developing ischemic stroke compared with those without HHS.

  20. [Faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-Rong; Sun, Dian-Rong; Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Zhang, Han-Hua; Wang, Xue-Hui; Wang, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Hong-Da; Dong, Yan-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Based on the data of bottom trawl surveys in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary in August (summer), October (autumn), December (winter) 2006, and April (spring) 2007, the faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans were analyzed. A total of 54 species belonging to 25 genera, 17 families, and 2 orders were collected, including 22 species of shrimps, 22 species of crabs, and 10 species of squills. Most of the crustaceans were tropical-subtropical warm-water species, a few of them were eurythermal species, and no warm-water and cold-water species occurred. Euryhaline species were most abundant, followed by halophile species, and the low-salinity species were the least. Most of the crustacean species belonged to the fauna of Indian Ocean-western Pacific Ocean. The faunal assemblages were closer to those of the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Indonesia Sea, and the Japan Sea, and estranger with those of the Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, and Korea Sea. The dominant species were Metapenaeus joyner, Oratosquilla oratoria, Charybdis miles, Portunus sanguinolentus, Harpiosquilla harpax, Charybdis feriatus, Charybdis japonica, Oratosquilla nepa, Solenocera crassicornis, Portunus trituberculatus, and Calappa philargius. The crustaceans had the largest species number (33) in autumn and the least one (26) in spring, and the highest stock density at the water depth of < 40 m, especially at 10-20 m. The average stock density of the crustaceans was estimated to be 99.60 kg x km(-2), with the highest (198.93 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest (42.35 kg x km(-2)) in spring. Of the 3 species groups, crabs had the highest stock density (41.81 kg x km(-2)), followed by shrimps (38.91 kg x km(-2)), and squills (18.88 kg x km(-2)). The stock densities of the 3 species groups showed an obvious seasonal variation. Shrimps had the highest stock density (120.32 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest density (0.67 kg x km(-2)) in spring, while crabs and squills had the highest

  1. Ten Putative Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Emily J.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Keith, Scott W.; Aronne, Louis J.; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth M.; Biggio, Joseph; Boggiano, Mary M.; Eisenmann, Joe C.; Elobeid, Mai; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Gluckman, Peter; Hanlon, Erin C.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Redden, David T.; Ruden, Douglas M.; Wang, Chenxi; Waterland, Robert A.; Wright, Suzanne M.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic. PMID:19960394

  2. Risk of Vibrio Transmission Linked to the Consumption of Crustacean in Coastal Towns of Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRAORÉ, S. G.; BONFOH, B.; KRABI, R.; ODERMATT, P.; UTZINGER, J.; ROSE, K.-N.; TANNER, M.; FREY, J.; QUILICI, M.-L.; KOUSSÉMON, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of Vibrio spp. transmission from crustaceans to humans in two coastal towns of Côte d’Ivoire. Bacteriologic analysis was performed on 322 crustacean samples obtained from six markets in Abidjan and one in Dabou. Suspected colonies of Vibrio spp. were identified by morphological, cultural, biochemical and molecular tests, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to further characterize Vibrio strains. Additionally, a survey on consumption of crustaceans was conducted among 120 randomly selected households in Abidjan. Overall, Vibrio spp. were isolated from 7.8% of the crustacean samples studied, at concentrations as high as 6.3 Log colony forming unit per gram. Vibrio strains identified were divided into 40% Vibrio alginolyticus, 36% Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and 24% non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae with the latter two species potentially causing mild to severe forms of seafood-associated gastroenteritis. Among interviewed households, 11.7% reported daily consumption of crustaceans, confirming the high probability of exposure of human population to Vibrio spp., and 7.5% reported symptoms of food poisoning after consumption of crustaceans. The absence of genes encoding major virulence factors in the studied strains, i.e., cholera toxin (ctxA and ctxB) for V. cholerae and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and tdh-related haemolysin (trh) for V. parahaemolyticus, does not exclude the possibility of a potential exposure to pathogenic strains. However, food preparation practices prevent human infections, as most households boil crustaceans before consumption (96.7%), usually for at least 45 min (85.9%). PMID:22691466

  3. De novo assembly and characterization of a maternal and developmental transcriptome for the emerging model crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Victor; Villanueva, Karina E; Ewen-Campen, Ben S; Alwes, Frederike; Browne, William E; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2011-11-25

    Arthropods are the most diverse animal phylum, but their genomic resources are relatively few. While the genome of the branchiopod Daphnia pulex is now available, no other large-scale crustacean genomic resources are available for comparison. In particular, genomic resources are lacking for the most tractable laboratory model of crustacean development, the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis. Insight into shared and divergent characters of crustacean genomes will facilitate interpretation of future developmental, biomedical, and ecological research using crustacean models. To generate a transcriptome enriched for maternally provided and zygotically transcribed developmental genes, we created cDNA from ovaries and embryos of P. hawaiensis. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we sequenced over 1.1 billion bases of this cDNA, and assembled them de novo to create, to our knowledge, the second largest crustacean genomic resource to date. We found an unusually high proportion of C2H2 zinc finger-containing transcripts, as has also been reported for the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Consistent with previous reports, we detected trans-spliced transcripts, but found that they did not noticeably impact transcriptome assembly. Our assembly products yielded 19,067 unique BLAST hits against nr (E-value cutoff e-10). These included over 400 predicted transcripts with significant similarity to D. pulex sequences but not to sequences of any other animal. Annotation of several hundred genes revealed P. hawaiensis homologues of genes involved in development, gametogenesis, and a majority of the members of six major conserved metazoan signaling pathways. The amphipod P. hawaiensis has higher transcript complexity than known insect transcriptomes, and trans-splicing does not appear to be a major contributor to this complexity. We discuss the importance of a reliable comparative genomic framework within which to consider findings from new crustacean models such as D. pulex and P

  4. De novo assembly and characterization of a maternal and developmental transcriptome for the emerging model crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Victor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropods are the most diverse animal phylum, but their genomic resources are relatively few. While the genome of the branchiopod Daphnia pulex is now available, no other large-scale crustacean genomic resources are available for comparison. In particular, genomic resources are lacking for the most tractable laboratory model of crustacean development, the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis. Insight into shared and divergent characters of crustacean genomes will facilitate interpretation of future developmental, biomedical, and ecological research using crustacean models. Results To generate a transcriptome enriched for maternally provided and zygotically transcribed developmental genes, we created cDNA from ovaries and embryos of P. hawaiensis. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we sequenced over 1.1 billion bases of this cDNA, and assembled them de novo to create, to our knowledge, the second largest crustacean genomic resource to date. We found an unusually high proportion of C2H2 zinc finger-containing transcripts, as has also been reported for the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Consistent with previous reports, we detected trans-spliced transcripts, but found that they did not noticeably impact transcriptome assembly. Our assembly products yielded 19,067 unique BLAST hits against nr (E-value cutoff e-10. These included over 400 predicted transcripts with significant similarity to D. pulex sequences but not to sequences of any other animal. Annotation of several hundred genes revealed P. hawaiensis homologues of genes involved in development, gametogenesis, and a majority of the members of six major conserved metazoan signaling pathways. Conclusions The amphipod P. hawaiensis has higher transcript complexity than known insect transcriptomes, and trans-splicing does not appear to be a major contributor to this complexity. We discuss the importance of a reliable comparative genomic framework within which to consider findings

  5. Putative Nitrogen Sensing Systems in Higher Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hon-Ming Lam; Ying Ann Chiao; Man-Wah Li; Yuk-Kwong Yung; Sang Ji

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) metabolism is essential for the biosynthesis of vital biomolecules. N status thus exerts profound effects on plant growth and development, and must be closely monitored. In bacteria and fungi, a few sophisticated N sensing systems have been extensively studied. In animals, the ability to receive amino acid signals has evolved to become an integral part of the nervous coordination system. In this review, we will summarize recent developments in the search for putative N sensing systems in higher plants based on homologous systems in bacteria, fungi, and animals. Apparently, although plants have separated and diversified from other organisms during the evolution process, striking similarities can be found in their N sensing systems compared with those of their counterparts; however, our understanding of these systems is still incomplete. Significant modifications of the N sensing systems (including cross-talk with other signal transduction pathways) in higher plants may be a strategy of adaptation to their unique mode of life.

  6. Putative respiratory chain of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuric, Vincent; Rouillon, Astrid; Chandad, Fatiha; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The electron transfer chain in Porphyromonas gingivalis, or periodontopathogens, has not yet been characterized. P. gingivalis, a strict anaerobic bacteria and the second colonizer of the oral cavity, is considered to be a major causal agent involved in periodontal diseases. Primary colonizers create a favorable environment for P. gingivalis growth by decreasing oxygen pressure. Oxygen does not appear to be the final electron acceptor of the respiratory chain. Fumarate and cytochrome b have been implicated as major components of the respiratory activity. However, the P. gingivalis genome shows many other enzymes that could be implicated in aerobic or nitrite respiration. Using bioinformatic tools and literature studies of respiratory pathways, the ATP synthesis mechanism from the sodium cycle and nutrients metabolism, the putative respirasome of P. gingivalis has been proposed.

  7. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D; Neil, D M; Peeler, E J; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Flegel, T W; Vlak, J M; Jones, B; Morado, F; Moss, S; Lotz, J; Bartholomay, L; Behringer, D C; Hauton, C; Lightner, D V

    2012-06-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquaculture industry. It is significant in supporting rural livelihoods and alleviating poverty in producing nations within Asia and Latin America while forming an increasing contribution to aquatic food supply in more developed countries. Nations with marine borders often also support important marine fisheries for crustaceans that are regionally traded as live animals and commodity products. A general separation of net producing and net consuming nations for crustacean seafood has created a truly globalised food industry. Projections for increasing global demand for seafood in the face of level or declining fisheries requires continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture while ensuring best utilisation of captured stocks. Furthermore, continued pressure from consuming nations to ensure safe products for human consumption are being augmented by additional legislative requirements for animals (and their products) to be of low disease status. As a consequence, increasing emphasis is being placed on enforcement of regulations and better governance of the sector; currently this is a challenge in light of a fragmented industry and less stringent regulations associated with animal disease within producer nations. Current estimates predict that up to 40% of tropical shrimp production (>$3bn) is lost annually, mainly due to viral pathogens for which standard preventative measures (e.g. such as vaccination) are not feasible. In light of this problem, new approaches are urgently required to enhance yield by improving broodstock and larval sourcing, promoting best management practices by farmer outreach and supporting cutting-edge research that aims to harness the natural

  8. Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates contamination of crustaceans and fishes from the Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fulvio; Fabietti, Fabio; Delise, Mirella; Funari, Enzo

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the occurrence of alkylphenols (APs) and their ethoxylates (APEs) in 8 edible marine species from the Adriatic Sea and tries to estimate the corresponding intake for the Italian population. Two crustaceans, Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster) and Squilla mantis (spottail mantis shrimp), plus six fish species, Engraulis enchrascicolus (anchovy), Scomber scombrus (Atlantic mackerel), Merluccius merluccius (European hake), Mullus barbatus (red mullet), Solea vulgaris (common sole) and Lophius piscatorius (angler) were analyzed for their content of nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP) and octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEs). These compounds were found in all analysed samples. NP was detected at the highest concentrations: 118-399 and 9.5-1431 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) respectively in crustaceans and fish. OP was found at respective levels of 2.7-4.7 and 0.3-3.8 ng g(-1) fw in crustaceans and fish, whereas OPE was determined at respective concentrations of 1.2-16.8 and 0.2-21.1 ng g(-1) fw in the same species. These results, together with those from a previous study on 4 edible mollusc, allow to estimate respective daily intakes for NP, OP, and OPE of about 12, 0.1, and 0.1 microg day(-1) for an Italian adult living along the Adriatic Coast. In relation to NP and OP, these intakes are much lower than the doses associated with toxic effects in laboratory animals (9 mg kg(-1) bw for rats). Nevertheless, data of exposure from other sources to these chemicals and others with similar biological characteristics are needed.

  9. Habitats and biodiversity of decapod crustaceans in the SE Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, M E

    1996-08-01

    Samples of benthic macro-fauna were obtained in different habitats along and off the coast of Southern Sinaloa, Gulf of California, Mexico, from 1978 to 1991. Occurrence of species of decapod crustaceans was registered for six habitats, from the interidal to depth of 1200 m. A total of 299 species were collected, belonging to 53 families and including 17 species of Penaeoidea, 45 of Caridea, 6 of Thalassinidea, 5 of Palinura, 1 of Astacidea, 63 of Anomura, and 162 of Brachyura. Number of species varied considerably from one habitat to another. Highest biodiversity was observed in the Bay of Mazatlán, with 121 species, followed by the continental shelf and the rocky interidal (107 species each), the estuarine/coastal lagoons (48 species), the upper slope (18 species) and the sandy beaches (9 species). One species was found to be strictly insular-terrestrial and two are primarily associated with the flotsam. The results of this survey were compared with distribution data available for decapod crustaceans fauna from the SE Gulf of California and the Eastern Tropical Pacific zoogeographic region (ETP). The fauna collected represents 82% of the species cited for the area for coastal and shallow subtidal habitats (to ca. 115 m depth) and 57.6% of deep water (> 200 m) species known to occur in the Gulf of California. Except in two cases, similarity indices (SI) based on the number of species common to any pair of habitats were all very low. Continental shelf and the Bay of Mazatlán have 57 species in common (SI = 0.50), while rocky shore habitat and the Bay of Mazatlán share 27 species (SI = 0.24). Comparative studies of decapod crustaceans communities for the ETP are almost lacking altogether. Available data, however, indicate that biodiversity observed on Southern Sinaloa is so far the highest on record for marine and brackish-water habitants for a given section of this tropical zoogeographic region.

  10. Soft-sediment crustacean diversity and distribution along the Portuguese continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Leandro; Mamede, Renato; Ricardo, Fernando; Magalhães, Luísa; Rocha, Hélder; Martins, Roberto; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2016-11-01

    This study analyzed the crustacean diversity, distribution and relationship with environmental factors in the western and the southern Portuguese continental shelf, between 10 and 200 m depth. A total of 10,639 specimens belonging to 242 taxa from 90 families were identified, mostly amphipods (55.8% of the total taxa). The mysid Gastrosaccus spinifer and the amphipods Socarnes erythrophthalmus and Cheirocratus sundevallii were the most abundant and the amphipods Ampelisca brevicornis, Leucothoe incisa and Autonoe spiniventris were the most frequent species. The highest abundance and diversity was found in coarser sediments with up to 306 individuals per 0.1 m2. Alpha diversity ranged from 1 to 28 sp./0.1 m2. Moreover, this study confirmed six previously doubtful first records and added an additional 19 new records to the Portuguese fauna. The results also confirmed the Portuguese coast as a transition zone of mixed Atlantic and Mediterranean faunas and exposed a noticeable North African and Macaronesian influence. A multivariate analysis based on the abundance of crustaceans revealed six affinity groups characterized by: (a) C. sundevallii, Guernea (Guernea) coalita and Sarsinebalia cristoboi on very coarse sands; (b) G. spinifer, Nototropis falcatus and Pontocrates arenarius on coarse sands; (c) Othomaera othonis, Processa modica modica and Animoceradocus semiserratus on heterogeneous medium sands; (d) A. brevicornis, Urothoe pulchella and Necalianassa truncata on fine sands; (e) Ampelisca pectenata, Bodotria scorpioides and Astacilla dilatata on heterogeneous fine sands and (f) Callianassa subterranea, Ampelisca tenuicornis and Ampelisca typica on muddy fine sands. Sediment grain-size and depth were the variables best related to the benthic crustacean spatial distribution patterns along the Portuguese continental shelf.

  11. Exploring developmental gene toolkit and associated pathways in a potential new model crustacean using transcriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Guzman, Frank; Paese, Christian L B; Margis, Rogerio; Nazari, Evelise M; Ammar, Dib; Müller, Yara Maria Rauh

    2016-09-01

    The crustaceans are one of the largest, most diverse, and most successful groups of invertebrates. The diversity among the crustaceans is also reflected in embryonic development models. However, the molecular genetics that regulates embryonic development is not known in those crustaceans that have a short germ-band development with superficial cleavage, such as Macrobrachium olfersi. This species is a freshwater decapod and has great potential to become a model for developmental biology, as well as for evolutionary and environmental studies. To obtain sequence data of M. olfersi from an embryonic developmental perspective, we performed de novo assembly and annotation of the embryonic transcriptome. Using a pooling strategy of total RNA, paired-end Illumina sequencing, and assembly with multiple k-mers, a total of 25,636,097 pair reads were generated. In total, 99,751 unigenes were identified, and 20,893 of these returned a Blastx hit. KEGG pathway analysis mapped a total of 6866 unigenes related to 129 metabolic pathways. In general, 21,845 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories: molecular function (19,604), cellular components (10,254), and biological processes (13,841). Of these, 2142 unigenes were assigned to the developmental process category. More specifically, a total of 35 homologs of embryonic development toolkit genes were identified, which included maternal effect (one gene), gap (six), pair-rule (six), segment polarity (seven), Hox (four), Wnt (eight), and dorsoventral patterning genes (three). In addition, genes of developmental pathways were found, including TGF-β, Wnt, Notch, MAPK, Hedgehog, Jak-STAT, VEGF, and ecdysteroid-inducible nuclear receptors. RT-PCR analysis of eight genes related to embryonic development from gastrulation to late morphogenesis/organogenesis confirmed the applicability of the transcriptome analysis.

  12. The anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of a lipid-lowering drug Daming capsule and the underlying signaling mechanisms in a rat model of diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Jiamin; Zhang, Qingwei; Chen, Xiaohui; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Haiying; Yang, Huan; Hu, Yingying; Wu, Xianxian; Li, Xin; Ju, Jiaming; Yang, Baofeng

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder manifested by hyperglycemia. Daming Capsule (DMC), a combination of traditional Chinese herbs, is used clinically as a lipid-lowering drug. This study was designed to evaluate if DMC possesses an anti-hyperglycemic effect and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Compared to diabetic rats, the rats received DMC (200 mg/kg/d) had significantly lower blood lipid and glucose levels. DMC markedly restored the decreased secretion of GLP-1 and GIP as well as the coding gene GCG and GIP in ileum. Moreover, DMC normalized depressed GCG and GIP transcription by significantly enhancing the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway and expression of TCF7L2, a transactivator of GCG and GIP in diabetic rats. DMC possesses an anti-hyperglycemic property characterized by preservation/stimulation of GLP-1 and GIP secretion in DM rats. Here, we proposed DMC → GSK-3β/β-catenin↑ → TCF7L2↑ → GLP-1, GIP secretion↑ → blood glucose↓ as a regulatory pathway of blood glucose homeostasis. Our findings suggest DMC as a promising therapeutic drug in the clinical treatment of diabetes. PMID:27721485

  13. The anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of a lipid-lowering drug Daming capsule and the underlying signaling mechanisms in a rat model of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Jiamin; Zhang, Qingwei; Chen, Xiaohui; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Haiying; Yang, Huan; Hu, Yingying; Wu, Xianxian; Li, Xin; Ju, Jiaming; Yang, Baofeng

    2016-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder manifested by hyperglycemia. Daming Capsule (DMC), a combination of traditional Chinese herbs, is used clinically as a lipid-lowering drug. This study was designed to evaluate if DMC possesses an anti-hyperglycemic effect and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Compared to diabetic rats, the rats received DMC (200 mg/kg/d) had significantly lower blood lipid and glucose levels. DMC markedly restored the decreased secretion of GLP-1 and GIP as well as the coding gene GCG and GIP in ileum. Moreover, DMC normalized depressed GCG and GIP transcription by significantly enhancing the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway and expression of TCF7L2, a transactivator of GCG and GIP in diabetic rats. DMC possesses an anti-hyperglycemic property characterized by preservation/stimulation of GLP-1 and GIP secretion in DM rats. Here, we proposed DMC → GSK-3β/β-catenin↑ → TCF7L2↑ → GLP-1, GIP secretion↑ → blood glucose↓ as a regulatory pathway of blood glucose homeostasis. Our findings suggest DMC as a promising therapeutic drug in the clinical treatment of diabetes.

  14. Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma induced by methylprednisolone pulse therapy for acute rejection after liver transplantation: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jian Zhou,* Weiqiang Ju,* Xiaopeng Yuan, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dongping Wang, Xiaoshun HeOrgan Transplant Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma (HNKHC is a serious, rare complication induced by methylprednisolone (MP pulse therapy for acute rejection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 58-year-old woman who experienced acute rejection at 30 months after OLT, only one case in which HNKHC resulted in MP pulse therapy for acute rejection in all 913 recipients in our center. The general morbidity of HNKHC was 1.09‰ in this study. HNKHC is characterized by rapid onset, rapid progression, and a lack of specific clinical manifestations. High-dose MP management was a clear risk factor. The principle of treatment included rapid rehydration, low-dose insulin infusion, and correcting disorders of electrolytes and acidosis. In conclusion, clinicians considering MP pulse therapy after OLT should be alert to the occurrence of HNKHC. Keywords: liver transplantation, complications, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma, methylprednisolone pulse therapy, principle of treatment

  15. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Gel Formulation of n-Hexane Fraction of Curcuma longa in Wound Healing of Hyperglycemic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietje Wientarsih

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa (turmeric is one of the tropical plant belong to Zingiberaceae family. It has beneficialeffects in healing of variety diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of  atopical gel formulation of n-hexane fraction of Curcuma longa in the wound healing of hyperglycemic mice.A total of 30 hyperglycemic mice were divided into three groups. They were given topical application, NC asa negative control (gel base, PC as a positive control (Neomycine sulfate 5%, treated groups (HF = n-hexane gel. Histopathological examination of the skin was performed to evaluate the wound healing.  Theresult showed that, there were no changes on tha appearance of the gel preparation, physically.  Evethoughupon the pH determination of the gel at six month of storage at 40ºC there were significant difference.  Theeffect of n-hexane gel, in terms of decreasing the surface area of wound and histopathological characteristicswere significantly (p <0.05 different between the PC group and HF group.  Skin irritant test showedneither rashes, swelling, inflammation, redness, irritation, itching nor any other toxicity  symptoms followingapplication of the gel. Significant effect of n hexane fraction of C. longa gel on wounds without any adversedermal toxic effects sounds very promising and it may be employed in the management of diabetic wound.

  16. Mixture and single-substance toxicity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors toward algae and crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Munch; Faaborg-Andersen, S.; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    with an identical mechanism of action in mammals (inhibit reuptake of serotonin), and they have been found in different aqeous as well as biological samples collected in the environment. In the present study, we tested the toxicities of five SSRIs (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline......) as single substances and of citalopram, fluoxetine. and sertraline in binary mixtures in two standardized bioassays. Test organisms were the freshwater algae Pseudo-kirchneriella subcapitata and the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. In algae, test median effect concentrations (EC50s) ranged from 0...

  17. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  18. New records of Decapod Crustaceans (Decapoda: Pontoniinae and Inachidae associated with sea anemones in Turkish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. DURIS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three anemone-associated decapod crustaceans, two shrimp species, Periclimenes amethysteus and P. aegylios (Caridea: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, and the crab Inachus phalangium (Brachyura: Inachidae, all collected from the Dardanelles, are reported for the first time from Turkish coasts. Another inachid crab, Macropodia czernjawskii is also reported for the first time to occur in association with the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. Periclimenes scriptus was the fifth decapod species recorded associated with sea anemones within the present study, and while this species has already been reported from Turkish waters, this is the first time it is recorded from the Dardanelles (the Turkish Straits System.

  19. Records of new localities and hosts for crustacean parasites in fish from the eastern Amazon in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Corrêa, Lincoln Lima; Oliveira Ferreira, Drielly; Neves, Lígia Rigor; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate parasites crustacean fauna in Arapaima gigas, Cichla monoculus, Cichla ocellaris, Cichla jariina, Satanoperca jurupari, Leporinus friderici, Leporinus fasciatus, Hoplias malabaricus, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, Serrasalmus altispinis, Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum and Potamotrygon motoro of the State Amapá and Pará, in northern Brazil. A total of 242 parasites, including Argulus elongatus, Argulus multicolor,Argulus juparanaensis, Argulus nattereri, Dolops discoidalis, Dolops longicauda, Braga patagonica, Braga fluviatilis, Livoneca guianensis and undetermined Lernaeidae, were collected from these hosts. The Argulus species had the greatest richness among the community of parasitic crustaceans. There was a low abundance of parasites among the hosts, other than D. discoidalis, was most abundant in the integument of A. gigas and P. tigrinum. Finally, the present study reported nine new hosts for the crustacean parasite species and expanded knowledge of the occurrence of some parasite species in the Jari River basin, in eastern Amazon.

  20. Induced metamorphosis in crustacean y-larvae: towards a solution to a 100-year-old riddle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens T; Grygier, Mark J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The y-larva, a crustacean larval type first identified more than 100 years ago, has been found in marine plankton samples collected in the arctic, temperate and tropical regions of all oceans. The great species diversity found among y-larvae (we have identified more than 40 species......-larvae into a novel, highly reduced juvenile stage by applying the crustacean molting hormone 20-HE. The new stage is slug-like, unsegmented and lacks both limbs and almost all other traits normally characterizing arthropods, but it is capable of vigorous peristaltic motions. CONCLUSION: From our observations on live...

  1. Putative bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.

  2. The Biogeography of Putative Microbial Antibiotic Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Morlon

    Full Text Available Understanding patterns in the distribution and abundance of functional traits across a landscape is of fundamental importance to ecology. Mapping these distributions is particularly challenging for species-rich groups with sparse trait measurement coverage, such as flowering plants, insects, and microorganisms. Here, we use likelihood-based character reconstruction to infer and analyze the spatial distribution of unmeasured traits. We apply this framework to a microbial dataset comprised of 11,732 ketosynthase alpha gene sequences extracted from 144 soil samples from three continents to document the spatial distribution of putative microbial polyketide antibiotic production. Antibiotic production is a key competitive strategy for soil microbial survival and performance. Additionally, novel antibiotic discovery is highly relevant to human health, making natural antibiotic production by soil microorganisms a major target for bioprospecting. Our comparison of trait-based biogeographical patterns to patterns based on taxonomy and phylogeny is relevant to our basic understanding of microbial biogeography as well as the pressing need for new antibiotics.

  3. Mechanosensory neurons, cutaneous mechanoreceptors, and putative mechanoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, M E; Cobo, T; Cobo, J L; Vega, J A

    2012-08-01

    The mammalian skin has developed sensory structures (mechanoreceptors) that are responsible for different modalities of mechanosensitivity like touch, vibration, and pressure sensation. These specialized sensory organs are anatomically and functionally connected to a special subset of sensory neurons called mechanosensory neurons, which electrophysiologically correspond with Aβ fibers. Although mechanosensory neurons and cutaneous mechanoreceptors are rather well known, the biology of the sense of touch still remains poorly understood. Basically, the process of mechanosensitivity requires the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into an electrical signal through the activation of ion channels that gate in response to mechanical stimuli. These ion channels belong primarily to the family of the degenerin/epithelium sodium channels, especially the subfamily acid-sensing ion channels, and to the family of transient receptor potential channels. This review compiles the current knowledge on the occurrence of putative mechanoproteins in mechanosensory neurons and mechanoreceptors, as well as the involvement of these proteins on the biology of touch. Furthermore, we include a section about what the knock-out mice for mechanoproteins are teaching us. Finally, the possibilities for mechanotransduction in mechanoreceptors, and the common involvement of the ion channels, extracellular membrane, and cytoskeleton, are revisited.

  4. Skeletal adaptations for forwards and sideways walking in three species of decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Gadea, A G; Rinehart, M D; Belanger, J H

    2008-03-01

    Crustaceans have been successfully employed to study legged locomotion for decades. Most studies have focused on either forwards-walking macrurans, or sideways-walking brachyurans. Libinia emarginata is a Majoid crab (Brachyura) and as such belongs to the earliest group to have evolved the crab form from homoloid ancestors. Unlike most brachyurans, Libinia walks forwards 80% of the time. We employed standard anatomical techniques and motion analysis to compare the skeleton, stance, and the range of motion of the legs of Libinia to the sideways-walking green shore crab (Carcinus maenas), and to the forwards-walking crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). We found animals tended to have greater ranges of motion for joints articulating in the preferred direction of locomotion. Leg segments proximal to such joints were comparatively longer. Thorax elongation, leg length and placement at rest also reflected walking preference. Comparative studies of walking in Libinia and other brachyurans may shed light on the neuroethology of legged locomotion, and on the anatomical and physiological changes necessary for sideways-walking in crustaceans.

  5. Decapod crustaceans associated with the snakelock anemone Anemonia sulcata. Living there or just passing by?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies the decapod crustaceans that associate with Anemonia sulcata on the southwestern Atlantic coast of Portugal and characterises their host use pattern. It determines whether the anemone is monopolised by any species, resulting in the exclusion of conspecifics or other decapods and, under laboratory conditions, it evaluates the degree of association between each species and A. sulcata. From all sampled anemones, 79% harboured at least 1 decapod crustacean, with the majority displaying either one or two specimens (32 and 24%, respectively. The most abundant species were the shrimp Periclimenes sagittifer and the crab Inachus phalangium (representing 36 and 31% of collected specimens, respectively, which displayed lasting associations and were commonly recorded among the tentacles of the host. The species Eualus occultus, E. complex cranchii, Clibanarius erythropus, Maja brachydactyla, Pilumnus hirtellus and Polybius (Necora puber displayed short-term associations, were mainly present on the substratum near the base, and avoided the tentacles of A. sulcata. Periclimenes sagittifer and I. phalangium were only recorded alone or in heterosexual pairs, appearing to efficiently defend their host against conspecifics. The majority of recorded species only seem to temporarily associate with A. sulcata, in order to seek protection from predators when other shelters are unavailable.

  6. On the distribution of decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and the Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Boschi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of decapod crustaceans in the southernmost areas of South America and the Antarctic is assessed considering the Magellan Biogeographic Province instead of the antiboreal region. Possible associations between decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and those from the Antarctic region are analysed. Species records were assigned to seven geographic regions that were clustered using multivariate analyses based on species presence/absence and Bray-Curtis similarity. The results showed two well-established clusters, one of which included the Pacific and Atlantic areas of the Magellan Province, the southern tip of South America and the Kerguelen Arc islands, with the highest similarity between the southern tip and the Atlantic area. Another cluster was well separated and included the Antarctic and South Georgia with the highest similarity index. Earlier studies and results obtained here suggest that the faunas of southern Chile and southern Argentina are biogeographically related. There is a low level of association among decapod species from the circum-Antarctic region and the Magellan Province.

  7. Effects of chlordecone on 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Geraudie, Perrine; Dodet, Nathalie; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship. The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the 20-HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure. The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. rosenbergii by disturbing the 20-HE concentration and the activity of chitobiase, suggesting consequences at the long term on the shrimp development. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates.

  8. Self-Assembled, Iridescent, Crustacean-Mimetic Nanocomposites with Tailored Periodicity and Layered Cuticular Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baochun; Walther, Andreas

    2015-11-24

    Natural high-performance materials inspire the pursuit of ordered hard/soft nanocomposite structures at high fractions of reinforcements and with balanced molecular interactions. Herein, we develop a facile, waterborne self-assembly pathway to mimic the multiscale cuticle structure of the crustacean armor by combining hard reinforcing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with soft poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). We show iridescent CNC nanocomposites with cholesteric liquid-crystal structure, in which different helical pitches and photonic band gaps can be realized by varying the CNC/PVA ratio. We further show that multilayered crustacean-mimetic materials with tailored periodicity and layered cuticular structure can be obtained by sequential preparation pathways. The transition from a cholesteric to a disordered structure occurs for a critical polymer concentration. Correspondingly, we find a transition from stiff and strong mechanical behavior to materials with increasing ductility. Crack propagation studies using scanning electron microscopy visualize the different crack growth and toughening mechanisms inside cholesteric nanocomposites as a function of the interstitial polymer content for the first time. Different extents of crack deflection, layered delamination, ligament bridging, and constrained microcracking can be observed. Drawing of highly plasticized films sheds light on the mechanistic details of the transition from a cholesteric/chiral nematic to a nematic structure. The study demonstrates how self-assembly of biobased CNCs in combination with suitable polymers can be used to replicate a hierarchical biological structure and how future design of these ordered multifunctional nanocomposites can be optimized by understanding mechanistic details of deformation and fracture.

  9. The embryonic development of the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Carsten

    2009-12-01

    To examine the evolution of development and put it into a phylogenetic context, it is important to have, in addition to a model organism like Drosophila, more insights into the huge diversity of arthropod morphologies. In recent years, the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804 has become a popular animal for studies in evolutionary and developmental biology, but a detailed and complete description of its embryonic development is still lacking. Therefore, the embryonic development of the woodlouse P. scaber is described in a series of discrete stages easily identified by examination of living animals and the widely used technique of nuclei staining on fixed specimens. It starts with the first cleavage of the zygote and ends with a hatched manca that eventually leaves the mother's brood pouch. Classical methods like normal light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy are used, in addition to confocal LCM and computer-aided 3D reconstruction in order to visualise important processes during ontogeny. The purpose of these studies is to offer an easy way to define the different degrees of development for future comparative analyses of embryonic development amongst crustaceans in particular, as well as between different arthropod groups. In addition, several aspects of Porcellio embryonic development, such as the mouth formation, limb differentiations and modifications or the formation of the digestive tract, make this species particularly interesting for future studies in evolutionary and developmental biology.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of Hox gene expression in the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serano, Julia M; Martin, Arnaud; Liubicich, Danielle M; Jarvis, Erin; Bruce, Heather S; La, Konnor; Browne, William E; Grimwood, Jane; Patel, Nipam H

    2016-01-01

    Hox genes play crucial roles in establishing regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis in bilaterian animals, and have been implicated in generating morphological diversity throughout evolution. Here we report the identification, expression, and initial genomic characterization of the complete set of Hox genes from the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Parhyale is an emerging model system that is amenable to experimental manipulations and evolutionary comparisons among the arthropods. Our analyses indicate that the Parhyale genome contains a single copy of each canonical Hox gene with the exception of fushi tarazu, and preliminary mapping suggests that at least some of these genes are clustered together in the genome. With few exceptions, Parhyale Hox genes exhibit both temporal and spatial colinearity, and expression boundaries correlate with morphological differences between segments and their associated appendages. This work represents the most comprehensive analysis of Hox gene expression in a crustacean to date, and provides a foundation for functional studies aimed at elucidating the role of Hox genes in arthropod development and evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass spectrometric elucidation of the neuropeptidome of a crustacean neuroendocrine organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Limei; Xiang, Feng; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    The blue crab Callinectes sapidus has been used as an experimental model organism for the study of regulation of cardiac activity and other physiological processes. Moreover, it is an economically and ecologically important crustacean species. However, there was no previous report on the characterization of its neuropeptidome. To fill in this gap, we employed multiple sample preparation methods including direct tissue profiling, crude tissue extraction and tissue extract fractionation by HPLC to obtain a complete description of the neuropeptidome of C. sapidus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) and MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF were utilized initially to obtain a quick snapshot of the neuropeptide profile, and subsequently nanoflow liquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) tandem MS analysis of neuropeptide extracts was conducted for de novo sequencing. Simultaneously, the pericardial organ (PO) tissue extract was labeled by a novel N, N-dimethylated leucine (DiLeu) reagent, offering enhanced fragmentation efficiency of peptides. In total, 130 peptide sequences belonging to 11 known neuropeptide families including orcomyotropin, pyrokinin, allatostatin A (AST-A), allatostatin B (AST-B), FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), and orcokinin were identified. Among these 130 sequences, 44 are novel peptides and 86 are previously identified. Overall, our results lay the groundwork for future physiological studies of neuropeptides in C. sapidus and other crustaceans. PMID:22627023

  12. Melatonin: Neuritogenesis and neuroprotective effects in crustacean x-organ cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Gregory A.; Cuttler, Anne S.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Kusema, Escar T.; Myers, Jennifer A.; Tilden, Andrea R.

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin has both neuritogenic and neuroprotective effects in mammalian cell lines such as neuroblastoma cells. The mechanisms of action include receptor-coupled processes, direct binding and modulation of calmodulin and protein kinase C, and direct scavenging of free radicals. While melatonin is produced in invertebrates and has influences on their physiology and behavior, little is known about its mechanisms of action. We studied the influence of melatonin on neuritogenesis in well-differentiated, extensively-arborized crustacean x-organ neurosecretory neurons. Melatonin significantly increased neurite area in the first 24 h of culture. The more physiological concentrations, 1 nM and 1 pM, increased area at 48 h also, whereas the pharmacological 1μM concentration appeared to have desensitizing effects by this time. Luzindole, a vertebrate melatonin receptor antagonist, had surprising and significant agonist-like effects in these invertebrate cells. Melatonin receptors have not yet been studied in invertebrates. However, the presence of membrane-bound receptors in this population of crustacean neurons is indicated by this study. Melatonin also has significant neuroprotective effects, reversing the inhibition of neuritogenesis by 200 and 500 μM hydrogen peroxide. Because this is at least in part a direct action not requiring a receptor, melatonin’s protection from oxidative stress is not surprisingly phylogenetically-conserved. PMID:22200560

  13. Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  14. Prevalence and distribution of covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) in cultured crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingli; Xu, Tingting; Wan, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Xiuhua; Li, Xiaoping; Dong, Xuan; Yang, Bing; Huang, Jie

    2017-04-02

    An emerging covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) was proved to be the infectious agent of shrimp viral covert mortality disease (VCMD). Prevalence and distribution of CMNV were investigated by using the methods of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), nested reverse transcription PCR, gene sequencing, histopathology, in situ RNA hybridization (ISH) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) in this study. RT-LAMP results showed that CMNV positive samples appeared in the cultured crustaceans including Litopenaeus vannamei, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and mostly distributed the coastal provinces in China. The prevalence rates of CMNV among the collected samples in 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 45.93% (130/283), 27.91% (84/301) and 20.85% (54/259), respectively. CMNV infection in M. japonicas and P. monodon was verified by ISH. The presence of CMNV particles were confirmed by TEM analysis in the CMNV positive samples diagnosed by RT-LAMP. The high prevalence and wide epidemic distribution of CMNV in this investigation revealed that it was necessary to pay close attention to the high risk of CMNV transmission in farmed crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Unconventional Approach for Demineralization of Deproteinized Crustacean Shells for Chitin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is a versatile environmentally friendly modern material. It has a wide range of applications in areas such as water treatment, pulp and paper, biomedical devices and therapies, cosmetics, membrane technology and biotechnology and food applications. Crustacean waste is the most important chitin source for commercial use. Demineralization is an important step in the chitin purification process from crustacean waste. The conventional method of demineralization includes the use of strong acid (commonly HCl that harms the physiochemical properties of chitin, results in a harmful effluent wastewater and increases the cost of chitin purification process. The current study proposes the use of organic acids (lactic and acetic produced by cheese whey fermentation to demineralize microbially deproteinized shrimp shells. The effects of acid type, demineralization condition, retention time and shells to acid ratio were investigated. The study showed that the effectiveness of using lactic and/or acetic acids for demineralization of shrimp shells was comparable to that of using hydrochloric acid. Using organic acids for demineralization is a promising concept, since organic acids are less harmful to the environment, can preserve the characteristics of the purified chitin and can be produced from low cost biomass such as cheese whey. In addition, the resulted organic salts from the demineralization process can be used as a food preservative and/or an environmentally friendly de-icing/anti-icing agents.

  16. Host-parasite interaction between crustaceans of six fish species from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann Carllo Gentil Vasconcelos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions between crustaceans and six fish species (Psectrogaster falcata, Ageneiosus ucayalensis, Acestrorhynchus falcirostris, Hemiodus unimaculatus, Serrasalmus gibbus and Geophagus proximus from a reservoir in eastern Amazon, northern Brazil, were investigated. Eight hundred and seventy-eight parasites belonging to three crustacean species, Excorallana berbicensis, Argulus chicomendesi and Ergasilus turucuyus, which parasitized the hosts’ mouth, gills and tegument, were collected from 295 fish and examined. High infestation levels were caused by E. berbicensis on the body surface of the hosts. Excorallana berbicensis showed aggregate dispersion, except in S. gibbus, while E. turucuyus showed random dispersion in A. falcirostris. The host’s sex did not influence infestation by E. berbicensis, and high parasitism failed to affect the body conditions of the fish. In the case of some hosts, rainfall rates, temperature, dissolved oxygen levels and water pH affected the prevalence and abundance of E. berbicensis, the dominant parasite species. Results revealed that the environment and life-style of the hosts were determining factors in infestations by parasites. Current assay is the first report on E. berbicensis for the six hosts, as well as on A. chicomendesi for G. proximus and P. falcata.

  17. Evolutionary variation in neural gene expression in the developing sense organs of the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Marleen; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2017-02-24

    Arthropods have numerous sense organs, which are adapted to their habitat. While some sense organs are similar in structure and function in all arthropod groups, structural differences in functionally related sense organs have been described, as well as the absence of particular sense organ subtypes in individual arthropod groups. Here we address the question of how the diverse structures of arthropod sense organs have evolved by analysing the underlying molecular developmental processes in a crustacean, an arthropod group that has been neglected so far. We have investigated the development of four types of chemo- and mechanosensory sense organs in the branchiopod Daphnia magna (Cladocera) that either cannot be found in arthropods other than crustaceans or represent adaptations to an aquatic environment. The formation of the sensory organ precursors shows greater similarity to the arthropod taxa Chelicerata and Myriapoda than to the more closely related insects. All analysed sense organ types co-express the proneural genes ASH and atonal regardless of their structure and function. In contrast, in Drosophila melanogaster, ASH and atonal expression does not overlap and the genes confer different sense organ subtype identities. We performed experimental co-expression studies in D. melanogaster and found that the combinatorial expression of ato and ASH can change the external structure of sense organs. Our results indicate a central role for ASH and Atonal family members in the emergence of structural variations in arthropod sense organs.

  18. Parasite transfer from crustacean to fish hosts in the Lübeck Bight, SW Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C. D.; Groenewold, S.; Strohbach, U.

    1994-03-01

    Four helminth parasites out of 19 species found in the Lübeck Bight, Baltic Sea, were chosen for investigations on the transfer from invertebrate to small-sized fish hosts: larvae of the tapeworms Schistocephalus sp. and Bothriocephalus sp. (Cestoda) living in planktonic copepods as primary hosts; Podocotyle atomon (Digenea) and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda) were found in benthic crustaceans, especially Gammarus spp. These hosts were the prey of 3 gobiid fishes, Gobiusculus flavescens (feeding mainly on plankton), Pomatoschistus minutus (preferring benthos), and P. pictus (feeding more on plankton than benthos). Because the fishes selected smaller sizes of crustaceans, they ingested all stages of the copepods but only the smaller-sized groups of gammarids which were often less infested by parasites. In order to evaluate the probability for a fish to be parasitized by a helminth, an infestation potential index (IP) was calculated. Podocotyle atomon and Hysterothylacium sp. revealed an IP which was far lower in gobies than expected when the prevalences of the previous hosts were taken into consideration. The IP of tapeworm larvae was mainly influenced by the feeding pressure of the gobiid predators, which might change with developmental stage and season. It is concluded that parasite transfer to the next host decreases when sizes of prey and predator differ only moderately. This mechanism can reduce the numbers of parasites transferred to less suitable or wrong hosts.

  19. Epibiosis in decapod crustaceans by stalked barnacle Octolasmis lowei (Cirripedia: Poecilasmatidae

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    Glauco B. de O. Machado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stalked barnacles Octolasmis lowei Darwin, 1851 are frequently found attached to decapod crustaceans. Their epibiotic association depends on many factors, which are mainly related to characteristics of the host's biology. This study evaluated the infestation and distribution of stalked barnacles in the branchial chambers of crabs, and analyzed the data with respect to the host's sex, maturity stage, molt cycle and size. The crab species Arenaeus cribrarius Lamarck, 1818, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, Hepatus pudibundus Herbst, 1785, Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871, and Persephona punctata Linnaeus, 1758 were sampled and found to be infested by O. lowei. No juvenile crabs were infested. The prevalence of infestation by O. lowei was significantly different among C. danae, C. ornatus, and H. pudibundus males and females. All infested hosts were in the intermolt period. The mean size of infested crabs was larger than that observed for non-infested individuals. Internally, stalked barnacles were concentrated on the central gills or walls and floor of branchial chambers, suggesting that these gills provide more favorable conditions for the settlement and development of these epibionts. These results highlight the relationship between epibiont infestation and host biology, as well as the role of decapod crustaceans as a suitable substrate for the development of stalked barnacle O. lowei.

  20. Benthic decapod crustaceans associated with captures of Munida spp. (Decapoda: Anomura in the Beagle Channel, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pérez Barros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Benthic decapod crustacean assemblages in the Beagle Channel are dominated by the galatheid crabs Munidasubrugosa and Munida gregaria. This study deals with the bathymetric and spatial distribution, density and diversity of the assemblage of decapod species that co-occur with Munida spp. in the Beagle Channel. A total of 131 samples were obtained using an epibenthic trawl from February 1999 to December 2000. They were taken monthly from two depth strata separated by the 40 m isobath (range: 4-262 m, and from three different sites: Bahía Lapataia, Ushuaia and Punta Segunda. Sixteen of the 36 recorded species of decapod crustaceans from the Beagle Channel were caught. Munidasubrugosa and M. gregaria contributed 94% to the total decapod material. Of the remaining 6%, Austropandalusgrayi (Caridea was the most abundant species, constituting 43% of the non-galatheid decapod fraction. Some species, namely Paguruscomptus and Eurypodius spp., were characteristic of shallow waters ( 40 m. The average density and diversity of non-galatheid decapods varied with depth and location. Decapod diversity correlated positively with the density of algae and polychaete tubes. The influence of three-dimensional bottom structure on decapod diversity in the Beagle Channel is discussed.

  1. Axogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, Petra; Geppert, Maria; Wolff, Carsten

    2011-03-01

    We describe the formation of the major axon pathways in the embryonic central and peripheral nervous systems of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana Heller, 1865 by means of antibody staining against acetylated alpha-tubulin. The data add to a long list of previous studies of various other aspects of development in Orchestia and provide a basis for future studies of neurogenesis on a deeper cellular and molecular level. Orchestia exhibits a tripartite dorsal brain, which is a characteristic feature of euarthropods. Its anlagen are the first detectable structures in the developing nervous system and can be traced back to distinct neuronal cell clusters in the early embryo. The development of the ventral nervous system proceeds with an anteroposterior gradient of development. In each trunk segment, the longitudinal connectives and the anterior commissure form first, followed by the intersegmental nerve, the posterior commissure and segmental nerves, respectively. A single commissure of a vestigial seventh pleonal segment is found. In the peripheral nervous system we observe a spatial and temporal pattern of leg innervation, which is strikingly similar in both limb types, the uniramous pereopods and the biramous pleopods. A proximal leg nerve splitting distally into two separated nerves probably reflects a general feature of crustaceans.

  2. Future prospects for prophylactic immune stimulation in crustacean aquaculture - the need for improved metadata to address immune system complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauton, Chris; Hudspith, Meggie; Gunton, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Future expansion of the crustacean aquaculture industry will be required to ensure global food security. However, this expansion must ensure: (a) that natural resources (including habitat use and fish meal) are sustainably exploited, (b) that the socio-economic development of producing nations is safeguarded, and (c) that the challenge presented by crustacean diseases is adequately met. Conventionally, the problem of disease in crustacean aquaculture has been addressed through prophylactic administration of stimulants, additives or probiotics. However, these approaches have been questioned both experimentally and philosophically. In this review, we argue that real progress in the field of crustacean immune stimulants has now slowed, with only incremental advances now being made. We further contend that an overt focus on the immune effector response has been misguided. In light of the wealth of new data reporting immune system complexity, a more refined approach is necessary - one that must consider the important role played by pattern recognition proteins. In support of this more refined approach, there is now a much greater requirement for the reporting of essential metadata. We propose a broad series of recommendations regarding the 'Minimum Information required to support a Stimulant Assessment experiment' (MISA guidelines) to foster new progression within the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlling of crustacean zooplankton reproduction in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters by strengthen operation and management of conventional process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-jun; ZHANG Jin-song; LI Xiao-wei; HE Jun-guo

    2010-01-01

    To counter the mass reproduction and penetration of crustacean zooplankton in Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) filters which may result in the presence of organisms in potable water and water pollution,this paper analyzed the factors affecting organisms' reproduction in BAC filters.A comparative study was performed on the density and composition of crustacean zooplankton of the concerned water treatment units of two advanced water plants (Plant A and B) which with the same raw water and the same treatment technique in southern China.The results obtained show that the crustaceans' density and composition was very different between the sand filtered water of Plant A and Plant B.which Harpacticoida bred sharply in the sediment tanks and penetrated sand filter into BAC falters was the primary reason of crustaceans reproduce in BAC filters of Plant A.For prevention of the organisms reproduction in BAC,some strengthen measures was taken including pre-chlorination,cleaning coagulation tanks and sediment tanks completely,increasing sludge disposal frequency to stop organisms enter BAC filters,and the finished water quality was improved and enhanced.

  4. Decapod crustaceans inhabiting live and dead colonies of three species of Acropora in the Roques Archipelago, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grajal, P. Alejandro; Laughlin, G. Roger

    1984-01-01

    A systematic account is given of the decapod crustaceans found in live and dead colonies of three species of the scleractinian coral Acropora (A. cervicornis, A. palmata, A. prolifera), collected during a 9 month period in a shallow reef flat in the southwestern portion of the Archipelago Los Roques

  5. Hypothesis for heritable, anti-viral immunity in crustaceans and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flegel Timothy W

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that crustaceans and insects can persistently carry one or more viral pathogens at low levels, without signs of disease. They may transmit them to their offspring or to naïve individuals, often with lethal consequences. The underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated, but the process has been called viral accommodation. Since tolerance to one virus does not confer tolerance to another, tolerance is pathogen-specific, so the requirement for a specific pathogen response mechanism (memory was included in the original viral accommodation concept. Later, it was hypothesized that specific responses were based on the presence of viruses in persistent infections. However, recent developments suggest that specific responses may be based on viral sequences inserted into the host genome. Presentation of the hypothesis Non-retroviral fragments of both RNA and DNA viruses have been found in insect and crustacean genomes. In addition, reverse-transcriptase (RT and integrase (IN sequences are also common in their genomes. It is hypothesized that shrimp and other arthropods use these RT to recognize "foreign" mRNA of both RNA and DNA viruses and use the integrases (IN to randomly insert short cDNA sequences into their genomes. By chance, some of these sequences result in production of immunospecific RNA (imRNA capable of stimulating RNAi that suppresses viral propagation. Individuals with protective inserts would pass these on to the next generation, together with similar protective inserts for other viruses that could be amalgamated rapidly in individual offspring by random assortment of chromosomes. The most successful individuals would be environmentally selected from billions of offspring. Conclusion This hypothesis for immunity based on an imRNA generation mechanism fits with the general principle of invertebrate immunity based on a non-host, "pattern recognition" process. If proven correct, understanding the

  6. Aktivitas Penyembuhan Luka oleh Gel Fraksi Etil Asetat Rimpang Kunyit pada Mencit Hiperglikemik (WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF AETHYL ACETATE OF CURCUMA LONGA GEL IN HYPERGLYCEMIC MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietje Wientarsih

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional remedies generally use plant based therapies for treatments. The availability of plantfor treatments is relatively abundant in Indonesia, whether as treatments for diabetic wounds or antiinflammation. Curcuma longa Linn has been reported as an alternative treatment for several diseasesincluding wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effect on wound healing ofethyl acetate of C.longa gel in skin hyperglycemic mice. The ethyl acetate of C.longa gel was evaluated toassess its healing efficiency on excision wound. Thirty mice were used in this study. The mice were dividedinto three groups i.e.: KN as a negative control (without treatment, KP as a positive control (Neomycinsulfate, and treated groups (GE= ethyl acetate gel. There was a significant effect on histopathologicalcharacteristics in wound healing of treated mice with ethyl acetate gel compared with KN mice. It seemthat C.longa gel is a potential for phyto-therapeutic agent in management of wound healing.

  7. Murine hyperglycemic vasculopathy and cardiomyopathy: whole-genome gene expression analysis predicts cellular targets and regulatory networks influenced by mannose binding lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhui eZou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia, in the absence of type 1 or 2 diabetes, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have previously demonstrated a central role for mannose binding lectin (MBL-mediated cardiac dysfunction in acute hyperglycemic mice. In this study, we applied whole genome microarray data analysis to investigate MBL’s role in systematic gene expression changes. The data predict possible intracellular events taking place in multiple cellular compartments such as enhanced insulin signaling pathway sensitivity, promoted mitochondrial respiratory function, improved cellular energy expenditure and protein quality control, improved cytoskeleton structure and facilitated intracellular trafficking, all of which may contribute to the organismal health of MBL null mice against acute hyperglycemia. Our data show a tight association between gene expression profile and tissue function which might be a very useful tool in predicting cellular targets and regulatory networks connected with in vivo observations, providing clues for further mechanistic studies.

  8. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of aqueous Lenzites betulina extracts from the Philippines on the blood glucose levels of the ICR mice(Mus musculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faizal Rajeeb Mangudadatu Hussin; Rodel Jonathan Santos Vitor Ⅱ; Julie Ann Oraa Joaquin; Melody Mendoza Clerigo; Anamy Ma.Caterial Paano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the anti-hyperglycemic effects of aqueous Lenzites betulina(L. betulina) extracts on normoglycemic glucose-loaded mice.Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract from L. betulina were administered to 45 ICR mice(Mus musculus) to determine whether there was an effect of L. betulina extracts on the blood glucose level of the ICR mice. Aqueous extracts of L. betulina were orally gavaged to mice using oral glucose tolerance test. A total of five groups were used to determine the effect of the fungi on blood glucose of the mice. Group A(positive control)was given 16.7 mg/kg glimepiride; Group B(negative control) was given distilled water;Group C(low dosage) was given 200 mg/kg aqueous extract; Group D(mid dosage) was given 400 mg/kg aqueous extract and Group E(high dosage) was given 800 mg/kg aqueous extract. Baseline blood glucose value was firstly acquired before induction of hyperglycemia through D-glucose, after which another check on blood glucose was made after 0.5 h. Immediately, after the acquisition of hyperglycemic blood glucose level, the individual administration of treatments were done. After that, three blood collections were done spanning 3 h with 1 h interval.Results: The low dose(200 mg/kg) and the mid dose(400 mg/kg) of L. betulina extracts were significantly different(P 0.05) from its corresponding baseline value, acting faster than the positive control(glimepiride), which only became significantly different(P < 0.05) at the 2nd hour.Conclusions: Aqueous L. betulina extract is able to produce hypoglycemic effects on the mice with all doses, which are able to normalize blood glucose levels at varying times.

  9. Reduced CGP12177 binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in hyperglycemic high-fat-diet-fed, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, James T.; Parsa-Nezhad, Maryam; Kenk, Miran; Thorn, Stephanie L. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); Kolajova, Maria [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Beanlands, Rob S.B. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); DaSilva, Jean N., E-mail: jdasilva@ottawaheart.ca [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Abnormal sympathetic nervous system and {beta}-adrenoceptor ({beta}-AR) signaling is associated with diabetes. [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 is a nonselective {beta}-AR antagonist that can be labeled with carbon-11 for positron emission tomography. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of this tracer for evaluation of altered {beta}-AR expression in diabetic rat hearts. Methods: Ex vivo biodistribution with [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 was carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats for evaluation of specific binding and response to continuous {beta}-AR stimulation by isoproterenol. In a separate group, high-fat-diet feeding imparted insulin resistance and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle evoked hyperglycemia (blood glucose >11 mM). [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 biodistribution was assessed at 2 and 8 weeks post-STZ to measure {beta}-AR binding in heart, 30 min following tracer injection. Western blotting of {beta}-AR subtypes was completed in parallel. Results: Infusion of isoproterenol over 14 days did not affect cardiac binding of [{sup 3}H]CGP12177. Approximately half of rats treated with STZ exhibited sustained hyperglycemia and progressive hypoinsulinemia. Myocardial [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding was unchanged at 2 weeks post-STZ but significantly reduced by 30%-40% at 8 weeks in hyperglycemic but not euglycemic STZ-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Western blots supported a significant decrease in {beta}{sub 1}-AR in hyperglycemic rats. Conclusions: Reduced cardiac [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding in the presence of sustained hyperglycemia corresponds to a decrease in relative {beta}{sub 1}-AR expression. These data indirectly support the use of [{sup 11}C]CGP12177 for assessment of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes.

  10. Interactions between mesenchymal stem cells, adipocytes, and osteoblasts in a 3D tri-culture model of hyperglycemic conditions in the bone marrow microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Torri E; Hammoudi, Taymour M; Kemp, Melissa L; Lu, Hang; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have found that uncontrolled diabetes and consequential hyperglycemic conditions can lead to an increased incidence of osteoporosis. Osteoblasts, adipocytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are all components of the bone marrow microenvironment and thus may have an effect on diabetes-related osteoporosis. However, few studies have investigated the influence of these three cell types on each other, especially in the context of hyperglycemia. Thus, we developed a hydrogel-based 3D culture platform engineered to allow live-cell retrieval in order to investigate the interactions between MSCs, osteoblasts, and adipocytes in mono-, co-, and tri-culture configurations under hyperglycemic conditions for 7 days of culture. Gene expression, histochemical analysis of differentiation markers, and cell viability were measured for all cell types, and MSC-laden hydrogels were degraded to retrieve cells to assess their colony-forming capacity. Multivariate models of gene expression data indicated that primary discrimination was dependent on the neighboring cell type, validating the need for co-culture configurations to study conditions modeling this disease state. MSC viability and clonogenicity were reduced when mono- and co-cultured with osteoblasts at high glucose levels. In contrast, MSCs showed no reduction of viability or clonogenicity when cultured with adipocytes under high glucose conditions, and the adipogenic gene expression indicates that cross-talk between MSCs and adipocytes may occur. Thus, our unique culture platform combined with post-culture multivariate analysis provided a novel insight into cellular interactions within the MSC microenvironment and highlights the necessity of multi-cellular culture systems for further investigation of complex pathologies such as diabetes and osteoporosis.

  11. Anti-atherogenic effect of trivalent chromium-loaded CPMV nanoparticles in human aortic smooth muscle cells under hyperglycemic conditions in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Rituparna; Wen, Amy M.; Myer, Ashley B.; Czech, Tori; Sahu, Soumyadip; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Raman, Priya

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis, a major macrovascular complication associated with diabetes, poses a tremendous burden on national health care expenditure. Despite extensive efforts, cost-effective remedies are unknown. Therapies for atherosclerosis are challenged by a lack of targeted drug delivery approaches. Toward this goal, we turn to a biology-derived drug delivery system utilizing nanoparticles formed by the plant virus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). The aim herein is to investigate the anti-atherogenic potential of the beneficial mineral nutrient, trivalent chromium, loaded CPMV nanoparticles in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) under hyperglycemic conditions. A non-covalent loading protocol is established yielding CrCl3-loaded CPMV (CPMV-Cr) carrying 2000 drug molecules per particle. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that CPMV-Cr is readily taken up by HASMC in vitro. In glucose (25 mM)-stimulated cells, 100 nM CPMV-Cr inhibits HASMC proliferation concomitant to attenuated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, proliferation marker) expression. This is accompanied by attenuation in high glucose-induced phospho-p38 and pAkt expression. Moreover, CPMV-Cr inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), in glucose-stimulated HASMCs. Finally glucose-stimulated lipid uptake is remarkably abrogated by CPMV-Cr, revealed by Oil Red O staining. Together, these data provide key cellular evidence for an atheroprotective effect of CPMV-Cr in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) under hyperglycemic conditions that may promote novel therapeutic ventures for diabetic atherosclerosis.

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). These findings suggested that Cucumaria-PC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities through up-regulating PI3K/PKB signal pathway mediated by insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus.

  13. Effect of pregabalin administration upon reperfusion in a rat model of hyperglycemic stroke: Mechanistic insights associated with high-mobility group box 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young; Jun, Ji-Hae; Shin, Eun-Jung; Kwak, Young-Lan; Shin, Jeon-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, which reduces the efficacy of treatments and worsens clinical outcomes, is common in stroke. Ability of pregabalin to reduce neuroexcitotoxicity may provide protection against stroke, even under hyperglycemia. We investigated its protective effect against hyperglycemic stroke and its possible molecular mechanisms. Male Wistar rats administered dextrose to cause hyperglycemia, underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 h and subsequent reperfusion. Rats were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg pregabalin or an equal amount of normal saline at the onset of reperfusion (n = 16 per group). At 24 h after reperfusion, neurological deficit, infarct volume, and apoptotic cell count were assessed. Western blot analysis was performed to determine protein expression of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (p-NF-κB), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), phosphorylated inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-iNOS, p-eNOS), Bcl-2, Bax, Cytochrome C, and caspase-3 in the brain. Pregabalin-treated rats showed significantly improved neurological function (31% decrease in score), reduced infarct size (by 33%), fewer apoptotic cells (by 63%), and lower expression levels of HMGB1, TLR4, p-NF-κB, IL-1β, and TNF- α, compared with control rats. Decreased p-iNOS and increased p-eNOS expressions were also observed. Expression of Bax, Cytochrome C, and cleaved caspase-3/caspase3 was significantly downregulated, while Bcl-2 expression was increased by pregabalin treatment. Pregabalin administration upon reperfusion decreased neuronal death and improved neurological function in hyperglycemic stroke rats. Cogent mechanisms would include attenuation of HMGB1/TLR-4-mediated inflammation and favorable modulation of the NOS. PMID:28152042

  14. [Community characteristics of crustacean zooplankton and its relationship with environmental factors in Suzhou Industrial Park, Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Ya; Xu, Long; Zhao, Lei; Qian, Wen-jie; Chang, Qing; Wang, Guo-xiang; Chen, Jian-qin

    2015-08-01

    The monthly sampling data from June 2012 to May 2013 were used to study the composition and structure of the crustacean zooplankton community in the lakes and rivers of Suzhou Industrial Park. The variations in density and biomass of the crustacean zooplankton and their relationship with the environment factors were investigated. The results showed that a total of 42 species of crustacean zooplankton were found, including 24 species of cladocerans which belonged to 6 families and 12 genera, and 18 copepods which belonged to 7 families and 13 genera. The dominant species were Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Bosmina longirostris, Sinocalanus dorrii and Cyclops vicinus in all seasons of the year both in the rivers and the lakes. The density and biomass of the crustacean zooplankton in summer and autumn were higher than that in winter and spring, and there were two peaks in summer and autumn respectively both in the lakes and the rivers. The average density and biomass of cladocerans in the rivers were significantly higher than that in the lakes. There was no significant difference in the average density of Copepods between the rivers and the lakes, but the biomass in the rivers was higher than that in the lakes significantly. There were significant differences in dissolved oxygen, pH, Secchi depth, total dissolved solids, salinity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen between the lakes and the rivers. Redundancy analysis showed that the distribution of most of crustacean zooplankton was positively correlated with water temperature, the salinity, COD(Mn) and total phosphorus concentrations and only the distribution of the species belonging to genus Daphnia and Scapholeberis was positively correlated with O2 concentration, pH, and Secchi depth in both the rivers and the lakes in Suzhou Industrial Park.

  15. LTR-retrotransposons in R. exoculata and other crustaceans: the outstanding success of GalEa-like copia elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Piednoël

    Full Text Available Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. They can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. LTR-retrotransposons have been reported in many diverse eukaryote species, describing a ubiquitous distribution. Given their abundance, diversity and their extended ranges in C-values, environment and life styles, crustaceans are a great taxon to investigate the genomic component of adaptation and its possible relationships with TEs. However, crustaceans have been greatly underrepresented in transposable element studies. Using both degenerate PCR and in silico approaches, we have identified 35 Copia and 46 Gypsy families in 15 and 18 crustacean species, respectively. In particular, we characterized several full-length elements from the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata that is listed as a model organism from hydrothermal vents. Phylogenic analyses show that Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons likely present two opposite dynamics within crustaceans. The Gypsy elements appear relatively frequent and diverse whereas Copia are much more homogeneous, as 29 of them belong to the single GalEa clade, and species- or lineage-dependent. Our results also support the hypothesis of the Copia retrotransposon scarcity in metazoans compared to Gypsy elements. In such a context, the GalEa-like elements present an outstanding wide distribution among eukaryotes, from fishes to red algae, and can be even highly predominant within a large taxon, such as Malacostraca. Their distribution among crustaceans suggests a dynamics that follows a "domino days spreading" branching process in which successive amplifications may interact positively.

  16. Crustacean peptidergic neurons in culture show immediate outgrowth in simple medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, I; Graf, R; Grau, S; Haylett, B; Meyers, D; Ruben, P

    1989-01-01

    The survival and outgrowth of neurons in culture has usually required conditioning factors. We now report that crustacean neurons, taken from the peptidergic neurosecretory system of the eyestalk of crabs (Cardisoma carnifex) and lobsters (Panulirus marginatus), show immediate outgrowth, sustained for a week or more, in defined medium as simple as physiological saline with glucose and glutamine. The neurons show peptide hormone immunoreactivity that is prominent at growth cones, exhibit differences in form correlated with their immunoreactivity, release peptides to the medium, and have voltage-dependent currents, including a well-sustained Ca current. Cd blocks secretion, growth, and the Ca current. Peptidergic secretory neurons may be able to utilize existing membrane from their store of granules and already active synthetic, transport, and secretory mechanisms for immediate outgrowth.

  17. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Galaviz José Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  18. Crustacean zooplankton in aerated wastewater treatment lagoons as a potential feedstock for biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Stefanie A; Xia, Xiaoyan; Powers, Susan E; Twiss, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton biomass productivity was estimated for two 64,000 m3 (1.7 ha) facultative aerated wastewater treatment lagoons to evaluate potential biodiesel production from zooplankton biomass. Lagoons were monitored bi-weekly during summer 2010. Lipid accumulated by crustacean zooplankton was considered the most efficient means by which to collect lipid produced by phytoplankton owing to the greater ease in the collection of these organisms (>0.153mm) compared with unicellular algae (size algae, that can serve as a biofuel feedstock. Additionally, this research expands the current knowledge of facultative aerated wastewater lagoon ecology and waste stream-derived biofuel. Future research should include complete life cycle and economic analyses to determine if harvesting zooplankton from wastewater lagoons is a sustainable endeavour.

  19. Physiological thermoregulation in a crustacean? Heart rate hysteresis in the freshwater crayfish Cherax destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudkamp, Jacqueline E; Seebacher, Frank; Ahern, Mark; Franklin, Craig E

    2004-07-01

    Differential heart rates during heating and cooling (heart rate hysteresis) are an important thermoregulatory mechanism in ectothermic reptiles. We speculate that heart rate hysteresis has evolved alongside vascularisation, and to determine whether this phenomenon occurs in a lineage with vascularised circulatory systems that is phylogenetically distant from reptiles, we measured the response of heart rate to convective heat transfer in the Australian freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor. Heart rate during convective heating (from 20 to 30 degrees C) was significantly faster than during cooling for any given body temperature. Heart rate declined rapidly immediately following the removal of the heat source, despite only negligible losses in body temperature. This heart rate 'hysteresis' is similar to the pattern reported in many reptiles and, by varying peripheral blood flow, it is presumed to confer thermoregulatory benefits particularly given the thermal sensitivity of many physiological rate functions in crustaceans.

  20. Crustacean zooplankton species richness in Chilean lakes and ponds (23°-51°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chilean inland-water ecosystems are characterized by their low species-level biodiversity. This study analyses available data on surface area, maximum depth, conductivity, chlorophyll-α concentration, and zooplankton crustacean species number in lakes and ponds between 23° and 51°S. The study uses multiple regression analysis to identify the potential factors affecting the species number. The partial correlation analysis indicated a direct significant correlation between chlorophyll-α concentration and species number, whereas the multiple regression analysis indicated a direct significant response of species number to latitude and chlorophyll-α concentration. These results agree with findings from comparable ecosystems in Argentina and New Zealand.

  1. Valorization of raw glycerol and crustacean waste into value added products by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdouli, Sara; Guedri, Tayssir; Tarek, Rouissi; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Blais, Jean François

    2017-11-01

    Crude glycerol has been widely investigated as a renewable carbon source for biodiesel production. In the present study, this feedstock was supplemented by various inducers: surfactants and oils to enhance lipid and lipase production by the newly isolated yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica. Results have shown that a culture medium composed of olive oil could enhance lipase activity at 25U/mL and lipid content up to 35% (w/w). The fortification of the medium with crustacean waste increased the lipase activity up to 38U/mL. The hydrolytic activity of the extracellular lipases produced in mentioned medium was satisfactory and opened avenues for other biotechnological processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity tests with crustaceans for detecting sublethal effects of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah

    of effective concentrations (ECx). After having demonstrated that larval development of A. tonsa was a very sensitive endpoint for evaluating effects of chemicals that might interfere with the endocrine system of crustaceans, the larval development test has been applied to two groups of emerging environmental...... of in vitro assays and (sub)chronic copepod tests, as applied in this study, is a valuable tool when screening chemicals suspected to be specifically toxic, in particular, to interfere with the endocrine system. The results of the experimental work as well as the literature survey demonstrated clearly......New and updated test methods to detect and characterise endocrine disrupting chemicals are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment. Although endocrine disruption in invertebrates has not been studied as extensive as in vertebrates, in particular in fish, numerous reports...

  3. Foreseeing fates: a commentary on Manton (1928) 'On the embryology of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Michael

    2015-04-19

    Sidnie Manton became best known for her work on arthropod locomotion, and for proposing radical views on the evolution of arthropods that were accepted for a generation. However, her early training was as an embryologist, and the work that she carried out at the beginning of her career still stands as one of the major twentieth century contributions to the study of crustacean embryology. Here, I review her first major paper, largely completed while she was a graduate student, describing embryonic development in Hemimysis lamornae, a small shrimp-like animal found in the seas around the UK. The clarity of her writing and the quality of her figures set a standard that laid the basis for subsequent work, and although not all of her conclusions have stood the test of time, they remain a standard reference for work today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  4. High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerenius, Lage; Liu, Haipeng; Zhang, Yanjiao; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Gunnar Andersson, M; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these domains evolve rapidly. A few conserved positions, e.g. six invariant cysteines were present in all domain sequences whereas the position of P1 amino acid, a determinant for substrate specificity, varied highly. A study with a single crayfish animal suggested that even at the individual level considerable sequence variability among hemocyte KPIs produced exist. Expression analysis of four crayfish KPI transcripts in hematopoietic tissue cells and different hemocyte types suggest that some of these KPIs are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis or hemocyte release as they were produced in particular hemocyte types or maturation stages only.

  5. Transforming nanostructured chitin from crustacean waste into beneficial health products: a must for our society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, P; Morganti, G; Morganti, A

    2011-01-01

    Chitin, obtained principally from crustacean waste, is a sugar-like polymer that is available at low cost. It has been shown to be bio- and ecocompatible, and has a very low level of toxicity. Recently, it has become possible to industrially produce pure chitin crystals, named "chitin nanofibrils" (CN) for their needle-like shape and nanostructured average size (240 × 5 × 7 nm). Due to their specific chemical and physical characteristics, CN may have a range of industrial applications, from its use in biomedical products and biomimetic cosmetics, to biotextiles and health foods. At present, world offshore disposal of this natural waste material is around 250 billion tons per year. It is an underutilized resource and has the potential to supply a wide range of useful products if suitably recycled, thus contributing to sustainable growth and a greener economy.

  6. Structural prediction and analysis of VIH-related peptides from selected crustacean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Ganji Purna Chandra; Kumari, Nunna Siva; Prasad, Ganji Lakshmi Vara; Rajitha, Balney; Meenu, Madan; Rao, Manam Sreenivasa; Naik, Bannoth Reddya

    2009-08-17

    The tentative elucidation of the 3D-structure of vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone (VIH) peptides is conversely underprivileged by difficulties in gaining enough peptide or protein, diffracting crystals, and numerous extra technical aspects. As a result, no structural information is available for VIH peptide sequences registered in the Genbank. In this situation, it is not surprising that predictive methods have achieved great interest. Here, in this study the molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) is used, to predict the structure of four VIHrelated peptides in the crustacean species. The high similarity of the 3D-structures and the calculated physiochemical characteristics of these peptides suggest a common fold for the entire family.

  7. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical studies of the crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusy, J J; Martin, G; Soyez, D; van Deijnen, J E; Gallo, J M

    1987-09-01

    Immunochemical investigations, using dot immunobinding assay (DIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunocytochemical studies reveal the following new information about crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH): (1) The structure of VIH is sufficiently different from that of the other sinus gland neuropeptides to allow a selective recognition of VIH by polyclonal antibodies. (2) From immunochemical criteria, VIH does not seem strictly species specific. The antisera raised against VIH of Homarus americanus cross-react with sinus gland extracts of Palaemonetes varians, Palaemon serratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Carcinus maenas, and Porcellio dilatatus. (3) In the sinus gland of H. americanus, VIH immunoreactivity is localized mainly in electron-dense granules of medium size (110-185 nm in diameter) while, in P. dilatatus, the labeling is mostly on the largest granules (200-270 nm in diameter).

  8. An epipodite-bearing crown-group crustacean from the Lower Cambrian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-guang; Siveter, David J; Waloszek, Dieter; Maas, Andreas

    2007-10-04

    Crown-group crustaceans (Eucrustacea) are common in the fossil record of the past 500 million years back to the early Ordovician period, and very rare representatives are also known from the late Middle and Late Cambrian periods. Finds in Lower Cambrian rocks of the Phosphatocopina, the fossil sister group to eucrustaceans, imply that members of the eucrustacean stem lineage co-occurred, but it remained unclear whether crown-group members were also present at that time. 'Orsten'-type fossils are typically tiny embryos and cuticle-bearing animals, of which the cuticle is phosphatized and the material is three-dimensional and complete with soft parts. Such fossils are found predominantly in the Cambrian and Ordovician and provide detailed morphological and phylogenetic information on the early evolution of metazoans. Here we report an Orsten-type Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Lower Cambrian of China that contains at least three new arthropod species, of which we describe the most abundant form on the basis of exceptionally well preserved material of several growth stages. The limb morphology and other details of this new species are markedly similar to those of living cephalocarids, branchiopods and copepods and it is assigned to the Eucrustacea, thus representing the first undoubted crown-group crustacean from the early Cambrian. Its stratigraphical position provides substantial support to the proposition that the main cladogenic event that gave rise to the Arthropoda was before the Cambrian. Small leaf-shaped structures on the outer limb base of the new species provide evidence on the long-debated issue of the origin of epipodites: they occur in a set of three, derive from setae and are a ground-pattern feature of Eucrustacea.

  9. Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton in German lakes: Distribution, motility and bacterivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lynn Bickel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and reattachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from one to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate-1 h-1 and 24.33 μl ciliate-1 h-1, respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations.

  10. Mapping of Neuropeptides in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Nervous System by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Kellersberger, Katherine; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) with great emphasis on comprehensive analysis and mapping distribution of its diverse neuropeptide complement. Previously, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been applied to this endeavor, yet with identification accuracy and throughput compromised. Therefore, molecular imaging methods are pursued to unequivocally determine the identity and location of the neuropeptides at a high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a novel, multi-faceted mass spectrometric strategy combining profiling and imaging techniques to characterize and map neuropeptides from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus STNS at the network level. In total, 55 neuropeptides from 10 families were identified from the major ganglia in the C. sapidus STNS for the first time, including the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), the esophageal ganglion (OG), and the connecting nerve stomatogastric nerve ( stn) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and the MS/MS capability of this technique. In addition, the locations of multiple neuropeptides were documented at a spatial resolution of 25 μm in the STG and upstream nerve using MALDI-TOF/TOF and high-mass-resolution and high-mass-accuracy MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument. Furthermore, distributions of neuropeptides in the whole C. sapidus STNS were examined by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Different isoforms from the same family were simultaneously and unambiguously mapped, facilitating the functional exploration of neuropeptides present in the crustacean STNS and exemplifying the revolutionary role of this novel platform in neuronal network studies.

  11. POST-EXERCISE LACTATE PRODUCTION AND METABOLISM IN THREE SPECIES OF AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial crustaceans are dependent on both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism for energy production during exercise. Anaerobic energy production is marked by an accumulation of lactate in both muscle tissue and haemolymph, but the metabolic fate of lactate is not clear. Lactate recycling via gluconeogenesis and the potential role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in supplying bicarbonate for the carboxylation of pyruvate were investigated in three species of decapod crustaceans: Callinectes sapidus (aquatic), Cardisoma guanhumi (semi-terrestrial) and Gecarcinus lateralis (terrestrial). CA activity was found in mitochondria and cytoplasmic fractions of gill, hepatopancreas and muscle of all three species. Significant activities of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis (e.g. pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and fructose bisphosphatase), however, could not be detected. Exercise to exhaustion produced a species-specific pattern of accumulation and clearance of lactate in tissue and haemolymph, indicating a differential degree of reliance on anaerobic energy production. Treatment with acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, did not significantly alter the pattern of lactate dynamics in animals given repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise interspersed with periods of recovery. Injection of [U-14C]lactate resulted in the appearance of label in both muscle glycogen and excreted carbon dioxide, suggesting multiple metabolic fates for lactate. Lactate turnover rates for G. lateralis were similar to those reported for fish. In these animals, gluconeogenesis possibly proceeds via the reversal of pyruvate kinase, or via the typical Cori cycle but so slowly that the uncatalysed supply of bicarbonate is sufficient to keep pace with the low activities of pyruvate carboxylase and the subsequent low rates of pyruvate carboxylation.

  12. Astakine 2--the dark knight linking melatonin to circadian regulation in crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiruck Watthanasurorot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily, circadian rhythms influence essentially all living organisms and affect many physiological processes from sleep and nutrition to immunity. This ability to respond to environmental daily rhythms has been conserved along evolution, and it is found among species from bacteria to mammals. The hematopoietic process of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is under circadian control and is tightly regulated by astakines, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK domain. The expression of AST1 and AST2 are light-dependent, and this suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for PROK domain proteins in mediating circadian rhythms. Vertebrate PROKs are transmitters of circadian rhythms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN in the brain of mammals, but the mechanism by which they function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that high AST2 expression is induced by melatonin in the brain. We identify RACK1 as a binding protein of AST2 and further provide evidence that a complex between AST2 and RACK1 functions as a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. By DNA mobility shift assay, we showed that the AST2-RACK1 complex will interfere with the binding between BMAL1 and CLK and inhibit the E-box binding activity of the complex BMAL1-CLK. Finally, we demonstrate by gene knockdown that AST2 is necessary for melatonin-induced inhibition of the complex formation between BMAL1 and CLK during the dark period. In summary, we provide evidence that melatonin regulates AST2 expression and thereby affects the core clock of the crustacean brain. This process may be very important in all animals that have AST2 molecules, i.e. spiders, ticks, crustaceans, scorpions, several insect groups such as Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Blattodea, but not Diptera and Coleoptera. Our findings further reveal an ancient evolutionary role for the prokineticin superfamily protein that links melatonin to direct regulation of the core clock gene feedback loops.

  13. Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton in german lakes: distribution, motility, and bacterivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Samantha L; Tang, Kam W; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and re-attachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from 1 to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate(-1) h(-1) and 24.33 μl ciliate(-1) h(-1), respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations.

  14. Analysis of DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation in the Genome of Crustacean Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strepetkaitė, Dovilė; Alzbutas, Gediminas; Astromskas, Eimantas; Lagunavičius, Arūnas; Sabaliauskaitė, Rasa; Arbačiauskas, Kęstutis; Lazutka, Juozas

    2015-12-31

    The aim of our study was to analyze the presence of 5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine (5-hmC) in the genome of crustacean Daphnia pulex. First, the presence of 5-mC and 5-hmC in genomic DNA was demonstrated by using antibodies specific to either 5-mC or 5-hmC. Then, analysis of 5-mC and 5-hmC using pairs of restriction enzymes with different sensitivity to methylation and hydroxymethylation confirmed the presence of both modifications in selected regions of three genes (Cox4, Cand2 and Ephx1). To get a detailed picture of 5-hmC distribution over the D. pulex genome, we performed 5-hmC enrichment and sequenced the enriched fraction using next generation sequencing and non-enriched library (input) as a control. Comparison of input and enriched libraries showed that 5-hmC in exons is twice as frequent as in introns. Functional analysis indicated that 5-hmC abundance is associated with genes that are involved in the adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, molting cycles, morphogenesis and cell fate determination. Genes that lack 5-hmC tend to be involved in the regulation of the transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway and in many mRNA-related processes. Our results suggest that epigenetic modifications are present in the genome of D. pulex and most likely are involved in the regulation of gene expression of this crustacean.

  15. A Phylogenomic Solution to the Origin of Insects by Resolving Crustacean-Hexapod Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwentner, Martin; Combosch, David J; Pakes Nelson, Joey; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2017-06-19

    Insects, the most diverse group of organisms, are nested within crustaceans, arguably the most abundant group of marine animals. However, to date, no consensus has been reached as to which crustacean taxon is the closest relative of hexapods. A majority of studies have proposed that Branchiopoda (e.g., fairy shrimps) is the sister group of Hexapoda [1-7]. However, these investigations largely excluded two equally important taxa, Remipedia and Cephalocarida. Other studies suggested Remipedia [8-11] or Remipedia + Cephalocarida [12, 13] as potential sister groups of hexapods, but they either did not include Cephalocarida or used only Sanger sequence data and morphology [9, 12]. Here we present the first phylogenomic study specifically addressing the origins of hexapods, including transcriptomes for two species each of Cephalocarida and Remipedia. Phylogenetic analyses of selected matrices, ranging from 81 to 1,675 orthogroups and up to 510,982 amino acid positions, clearly reject a sister-group relationship between Hexapoda and Branchiopoda [1-7]. Nonetheless, support for a hexapod sister-group relationship to Remipedia or to Cephalocarida-Remipedia was highly dependent on the employed analytical methodology. Further analyses assessing the effects of gene evolutionary rate and targeted taxon exclusion support Remipedia as the sole sister taxon of Hexapoda and suggest that the prior grouping of Remipedia + Cephalocarida is an artifact, possibly due to long branch attraction and compositional heterogeneity. We further conclude that terrestrialization of Hexapoda probably occurred in the late Cambrian to early Ordovician, an estimate that is independent of their proposed sister group [4, 8, 12, 14]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell lineage, axis formation, and the origin of germ layers in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Carsten; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2002-10-01

    Embryos of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana are examined during cleavage, gastrulation, and segmentation by using in vivo labelling. Single blastomeres of the 8- and 16-cell stages were labelled with DiI to trace cell lineages. Early cleavage follows a distinct pattern and the a/p and d/v body axes are already determined at the 4- and 8-cell stages, respectively. In these stages, the germinal rudiment and the naupliar mesoderm can be traced back to a single blastomere each. In addition, the ectoderm and the postnaupliar mesoderm are separated into right and left components. At the16-cell stage, naupliar ectoderm is divided from the postnaupliar ectoderm, and extraembryonic lineages are separated from postnaupliar mesoderm and endoderm. From our investigation, it is evident that the cleavage pattern and cell lineage of Orchestia cavimana are not of the spiral type. Furthermore, the results of the labelling show many differences to cleavage patterns and cell lineages in other crustaceans, in particular, other Malacostraca. The cleavage and cell lineage patterns of the amphipod Orchestia are certainly derived within Malacostraca, whose ancestral cleavage mode was most likely of the superficial type. On the other hand, Orchestia exhibits a stereotyped cell division pattern during formation and differentiation of the germ band that is typical for malacostracans. Hence, a derived (apomorphic) early cleavage pattern is the ontogenetic basis for an evolutionarily older cell division pattern of advanced developmental stages. O. cavimana offers the possibility to trace the lineages and the fates of cells from early developmental stages up to the formation of segmental structures, including neurogenesis at a level of resolution that is not matched by any other arthropod system.

  17. The global diversity of parasitic isopods associated with crustacean hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Williams

    Full Text Available Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ~7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species and intermediate (pelagic copepod host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species, with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species, East Asian Sea (120 species, and Central Indian Ocean (44 species. The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively. Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species and North East Atlantic (8 species. Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago hold a wealth of

  18. Analysis of DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation in the Genome of Crustacean Daphnia pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovilė Strepetkaitė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the presence of 5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC and 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine (5-hmC in the genome of crustacean Daphnia pulex. First, the presence of 5-mC and 5-hmC in genomic DNA was demonstrated by using antibodies specific to either 5-mC or 5-hmC. Then, analysis of 5-mC and 5-hmC using pairs of restriction enzymes with different sensitivity to methylation and hydroxymethylation confirmed the presence of both modifications in selected regions of three genes (Cox4, Cand2 and Ephx1. To get a detailed picture of 5-hmC distribution over the D. pulex genome, we performed 5-hmC enrichment and sequenced the enriched fraction using next generation sequencing and non-enriched library (input as a control. Comparison of input and enriched libraries showed that 5-hmC in exons is twice as frequent as in introns. Functional analysis indicated that 5-hmC abundance is associated with genes that are involved in the adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, molting cycles, morphogenesis and cell fate determination. Genes that lack 5-hmC tend to be involved in the regulation of the transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway and in many mRNA-related processes. Our results suggest that epigenetic modifications are present in the genome of D. pulex and most likely are involved in the regulation of gene expression of this crustacean.

  19. Toxicity on crustaceans and endocrine disrupting activity on Saccharomyces cerevisiae of eight alkylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Nardelli, Angela; Parrella, Alfredo

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years many concerns have been raised regarding the environmental safety of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants (APnEOs). They are widely used in detergents, paints, herbicides and many other formulated products. It has been estimated that 60% of APnEOs end up in the aquatic environment; they are biodegradable and transformed into alkylphenols, such as nonylphenol and octylphenol that are hydrophobic and tend to accumulate. In the present study, acute and chronic aquatic toxicity and the estrogenic activity of the following eight alkylphenols were assessed: 4-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate, 4-tert-octylphenol, POE (1 to 2)-nonylphenol, POE (6)-nonylphenol, POE (3)-tert-octylphenol and POE (9 to 10)-tert-octylphenol. The toxic potential was measured on the crustaceans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the estrogenic activity was determined by using the YES-test with the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae RMY326. The results showed that the exposure of crustaceans to the eight xenoestrogens investigated caused both acute and chronic effects. The EC50 values found for C. dubia at 48 h were compared to D. magna at 24h and, gave a first indication about the toxic activity of the compounds investigated, that is better expressed in the long-term. In fact, chronic data showed a strong increase in toxicity with EC50 values one or two orders of magnitude lower than the acute values. The results of the YES-test showed that nonylphenol, octylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were the most estrogenic and the bioassay was able to detect their estrogenicity at very low concentrations (ng-microg/l).

  20. The putative-farnesoic acid O-methyl transferase (FAMeT) gene of Ceratitis capitata: characterization and pre-imaginal life expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Laura; Ciolfi, Silvia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Panti, Cristina; Frati, Francesco; Dallai, Romano

    2010-02-01

    Farnesoic acid O-methyl transferase (FAMeT) is the enzyme involved in the penultimate step of insect juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis and is thus a key regulator in insect development and reproduction. We report the characterization of the putative-FAMeT in the medfly or Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. This gene was identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization and completely sequenced by the screening of a medfly cDNA library. The obtained sequence was analyzed for conserved protein domain identification and its expression profile was evaluated by quantitative Real-Time PCR in medfly pre-imaginal life. The tissue expression of the isolated gene was verified by in situ hybridization on third instar larvae sections. The characterization of the isolated gene pointed out several typical features of methyl transferase genes. The pre-imaginal putative-FAMeT expression levels were consistent with JH titer change in Diptera. As recognized in some crustaceans, this gene seems to be widely expressed in the medfly as well. Ceratitis capitata is one of the most relevant agricultural pests against which insecticides and the sterile insect technique (SIT) are extensively used in spite of the well-known limitations of these approaches. Although results are not conclusive for the physiological role of the isolated gene, they suggest the characterization of a new gene in the Mediterranean fruit fly potentially involved in JH biosynthesis and may, therefore, have implications for pest control. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Putative Corneal Neuralgia Responding to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Singman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A patient with putative corneal neuralgia was incidentally discovered to have hypovitaminosis D. Supplementation of vitamin D appears to have led to a resolution of the patient's pain, whereas other efforts to treat the patient were unsuccessful.

  2. Here We Are, But Where Do We Go? A Systematic Review of Crustacean Transcriptomic Studies from 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havird, Justin C; Santos, Scott R

    2016-12-01

    Despite their economic, ecological, and experimental importance, genomic resources remain scarce for crustaceans. In lieu of genomes, many researchers have taken advantage of technological advancements to instead sequence and assemble crustacean transcriptomes de novo However, there is little consensus on what standard operating procedures are, or should be, for the field. Here, we systematically reviewed 53 studies published during 2014-2015 that utilized transcriptomic resources from this taxonomic group in an effort to identify commonalities as well as potential weaknesses that have applicability beyond just crustaceans. In general, these studies utilized RNA-Seq data, both novel and publicly available, to characterize transcriptomes and/or identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between treatments. Although the software suite Trinity was popular in assembly pipelines and other programs were also commonly employed, many studies failed to report crucial details regarding bioinformatic methodologies, including read mappers and the utilized parameters in identifying and characterizing DEGs. Annotation percentages for assembled transcriptomic contigs were low, averaging 32% overall. While other metrics, such as numbers of contigs and DEGs reported, correlated with the number of sequence reads utilized per sample, these did reach apparent saturation with increasing sequencing depth. Most disturbingly, a number of studies (55%) reported DEGs based on non-replicated experimental designs and single biological replicates for each treatment. Given this, we suggest future RNA-Seq experiments targeting transcriptome characterization conduct deeper (i.e., 50-100 M reads) sequencing while those examining differential expression instead focus more on increased biological replicates at shallower (i.e., ∼10-20 M reads/sample) sequencing depths. Moreover, the community must avoid submitting for review, or accepting for publication, non-replicated differential expression

  3. Crustaceans from a tropical estuarine sand-mud flat, Pacific, Costa Rica, (1984-1988 revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Vargas-Zamora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of data sets for time periods of more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the description of population oscillations. Using recent taxonomic literature and software we have updated and re-analized the information on crustacean diversity and population fluctuations from a set of cores collected at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (1984-1988. A total of 112 morphological species of macroinvertebrates was found, of which 29 were crustaceans. Taxonomic problems, maily with the peracarids, prevented the identification of a group of species. The abundance patterns of the crab Pinnixa valerii, the ostracod Cyprideis pacifica, and the cumacean Coricuma nicoyensis were analized with the Generalized Additive Models of the free software R. The models evidenced a variety of population oscillations during the sampling period. These oscillations probably included perturbations induced by external factors, like the strong red tide events of 1985. In additon, early on 1984 the populations might have been at an altered state due to the inpact of El Niño 1982-83. Thus, the oscillations observed during the study period departed from the expected seasonality (dry vs rainy pattern and are thus considered atypical for this tropical estuarine tidal-flat. Crustacean diversity and population peaks were within the range of examples found in worldwide literature. However, abundances of the cumacean C. nicoyensis, an endemic species, are the highest reported for a tropical estuary. Comparative data from tropical tidal flat crustaceans continues to be scarce. Crustaceans (total vs groups had population changes in response to the deployment of predator exclusion cages during the dry and rainy seasons of 1985. Temporal and spatial patchiness characterized the abundances of P. valeri, C. pacifica and C

  4. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  5. Ingestion and selection of suprabenthic crustaceans by small-sized fishes in a lower saltmarsh system

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    Yoko Wakabara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in the lower saltmarsh system of the Arrozal, in the Cananéia lagoon estuarine region (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brazil. Suprabenthic fauna was surveyed Wlth a small sledge and fishes were captured with casting and set nets to analyse: crustacean fauna as food for local fish species; difference in the diet at different times of the year; if there is diet overlap between species and the feeding behaviour of the species analysed. The fauna of Arrozal is poor in species, dominated mainly by Metamysidopsis alongata atlantica, Acartia lilljeborgi, Atylus minikoi, decapod larvae, and reveals a strong seasonal variation. The fishes were ali camivorous with suprabenthic crustacean as their main food resource. Seasonal changes in food supply are also reflected in the diet. Of the 12 flSh species collected six were opportunistlc feeders whereas six others were selective feeders. Food overlap value of 0.08 for ali of the fish community indicates an almost completely distinct food niches. The increased overlapping of summer food between Cathorops spixii and species of Group 11 and between Oligoplites sp and species of Group I seems to have two different explanations: 1 the mmIDishing of food supply for species feeding on benthic originated suprabenthic crustaceans and 2 overabundance of planktonic forms of suprabenthos as well as a period of high feeding activity of fishes with such diet.O presente estudo foi realizado no infralitoral contíguo à marisma, na Ponta do Arrozal, região estuarina lagunar de Cananéia (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brasil. A fauna suprabêntica foi amostrada com uma pequena draga e os peixes capturados com tarrafa e rede de espera, com a finalidade de analisar: a composição de espécies dos crustáceos suprabênticos como itens alimentares dos peixes; diferenças na dieta em diferentes época do ano; se ocorre sobreposição alimentar entre as espécies e o comportamento alimentar: das espécies de peixes

  6. The genome of the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis, a model for animal development, regeneration, immunity and lignocellulose digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Damian; Lai, Alvina G; Stamataki, Evangelia; Rosic, Silvana; Konstantinides, Nikolaos; Jarvis, Erin; Di Donfrancesco, Alessia; Pouchkina-Stancheva, Natalia; Semon, Marie; Grillo, Marco; Bruce, Heather; Kumar, Suyash; Siwanowicz, Igor; Le, Andy; Lemire, Andrew; Eisen, Michael B; Extavour, Cassandra; Browne, William E; Wolff, Carsten; Averof, Michalis; Patel, Nipam H; Sarkies, Peter; Pavlopoulos, Anastasios; Aboobaker, Aziz

    2016-11-16

    The amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis is a blossoming model system for studies of developmental mechanisms and more recently regeneration. We have sequenced the genome allowing annotation of all key signaling pathways, transcription factors, and non-coding RNAs that will enhance ongoing functional studies. Parhyale is a member of the Malacostraca clade, which includes crustacean food crop species. We analysed the immunity related genes of Parhyale as an important comparative system for these species, where immunity related aquaculture problems have increased as farming has intensified. We also find that Parhyale and other species within Multicrustacea contain the enzyme sets necessary to perform lignocellulose digestion ('wood eating'), suggesting this ability may predate the diversification of this lineage. Our data provide an essential resource for further development of Parhyale as an experimental model. The first malacostracan genome will underpin ongoing comparative work in food crop species and research investigating lignocellulose as an energy source.

  7. Distribution of centrifugal neurons targeting the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain among decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M

    1997-03-28

    To determine the distribution of two systems of centrifugal neurons innervating the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain across decapod crustaceans, brains of the following nine species comprising most infraorders were immunostained with antibodies against dopamine and the neuropeptides substance P and FMRFamide: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Homarus americanus, Cherax destructor, Orconectes limosus, Procambarus clarkii, Astacus leptodactylus, Carcinus maenas, Eriocheir sinensis and Pagurus bernhardus. One system consisting of several neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity that originate in the eyestalk ganglia was present in the four crayfish but not in any other species. These neurons project mainly into the lateral soma clusters (cluster 10) comprising the somata of ascending olfactory projection neurons and innervate very sparsely the medial soma clusters (clusters 9 and 11) containing the somata of local interneurons. In the innervation pattern of the lateral cluster, the dopamine-immunoreactive neurons showed large species-specific differences. The other system comprises a pair of giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity. These neurons have somata in the median protocerebrum of the central brain and major projections into the lateral clusters and the core of the olfactory lobes, the neuropils that are the first synaptic relay in the central olfactory pathway of decapods; minor arborizations are present in the medial clusters. The system of substance P-immunoreactive giant neurons was present and of great morphological similarity in all studied species. Only in one species, the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii, evidence for co-localization of FMRFamide-like with substance P-like immunoreactivity in these neurons was obtained. These and previously collected data indicate that the centrifugal neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity may be associated with the presence of an accessory lobe, a second-order neuropil that receives input from the

  8. A compilation of quantitative functional traits for marine and freshwater crustacean zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Marie-Pier; Beisner, Beatrix E; Maranger, Roxane

    2016-04-01

    This data compilation synthesizes 8609 individual observations and ranges of 13 traits from 201 freshwater and 191 marine crustacean taxa belonging to either Copepoda or Cladocera, two important zooplankton groups across all major aquatic habitats. Most data were gathered from the literature, with the balance being provided by zooplankton ecologists. With the aim of more fully assessing zooplankton effects on elemental processes such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) stocks and fluxes in aquatic ecosystems, this data set provides information on the following traits: body size (length and mass), trophic group, elemental and biochemical corporal composition (N, P, C, lipid and protein content), respiration rates, N- and P-excretion rates, as well as stoichiometric ratios. Although relationships for zooplankton metabolism as a function of body mass or requirements have been explored in the past three decades, data have not been systematically compiled nor examined from an integrative and large-scale perspective across crustacean taxa and habitat types. While this contribution likely represents the most comprehensive assembly of traits for both marine and freshwater species, this data set is not exhaustive either. As a result, this compilation also identifies knowledge gaps: a fact that should encourage researchers to disclose information they may have to help complete such databases. This trait matrix is made available for the first time in this data paper; prior to its release, the data set has been analyzed in a meta-analysis published as a companion paper. This data set should prove extremely valuable for aquatic ecologists for trait-based characterization of plankton community structure as well as biogeochemical modeling. These data are also well-suited for deriving shortcut relationships that predict more difficult to measure trait values, most of which can be directly related to ecosystem properties (i.e., effect traits), from simpler traits (e

  9. Biodiversity patterns of crustacean suprabenthic assemblages along an oligotrophic gradient in the bathyal Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana; Frutos, Inmaculada; Tecchio, Samuele; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Company, Joan B.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Cunha, Marina R.

    2017-03-01

    Crustacean suprabenthic abundance, community structure, α-diversity (both taxonomic and trophic) and β-diversity were studied along a West-East gradient of oligotrophy in the deep Mediterranean Sea. The assemblages were sampled with a suprabenthic sledge in three regions (western, central and eastern basins) at three water depths (1200, 2000 and 3000 m) in May-June 2009. Environmental data were obtained at each sampling location including sediment properties, oceanographic variables near the seafloor and in the water column, and proxies of epipelagic productivity at the surface. Our results, concerning the crustacean component of the suprabenthos, showed complex trends in community structure and biodiversity across different spatial scales (longitudinal, bathymetric, and near-bottom distribution). A decrease in the number of species and abundance, accompanied by changes in the trophic structure of the assemblages were observed from West to East. In the eastern region the assemblages were impoverished in number of trophic guilds and trophic diversity. The West-East oligotrophic gradient was identified as the main driver in community structure as shown by the significant correlation with trophic environmental variables. Differences in community structure across regions were more marked at greater depths, while at the shallower sites assemblages were more similar. Within each basin, abundance, number of species and number of trophic groups decreased with depth, showing high turnover rates between 1200 and 2000 m depths. The small-scale (0-150 cm) vertical distribution of the suprabenthos was interpreted in relation to the species' functional traits (e.g. swimming activity, migratory behaviour, bottom dependence, feeding habits). Bottom-dependent and more mobile components of the suprabenthos were apparently responding differently to the various environmental challenges imposed by the large-scale longitudinal and bathymetric gradients. We propose that the bathyal

  10. A long-term study on crustacean plankton of a shallow tropical lake: the role of invertebrate predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene S. Arcifa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary factor that governs the size and species composition of zooplankton is still a controversial issue and temperature is considered the main factor responsible for latitudinal differences. In waters with a narrow temperature range, such as in the tropics, predation may be a more important factor. Nearly three decades of intermittent studies of the crustacean plankton in a shallow tropical lake revealed that the main event that led to their restructuring was the appearance of a second predator, the water mite Krendowskia sp. The new predator and larvae of the dipteran Chaoborus brasiliensis Theobald exerted a combined, although asymmetrical effect on microcrustaceans. The period when the mite was detected was followed by the restructuring of the crustacean plankton community. Predation by these two invertebrates emerged as the factor responsible for community changes, involving an increased contribution of copepods and decreases in the relative abundance of smaller cladoceran species. In the short term, the mite caused a decrease in species richness and the annual mean instantaneous composition of cladocerans, a predominance of large-sized species (Daphnia ambigua Scourfield and Daphnia gessneri Herbst and the virtual disappearance of small species (e.g., Bosmina tubicen Brehm. The long-term impact resulted in increased species richness and the dominance of large and medium-sized cladocerans, such as D. gessneri and Ceriodaphnia richardi Sars. The larger body size of three cladocerans, the two Daphnia species and B. tubicen, in the long term, may be a response to the dominant predator, Chaoborus. The seasonal variation in the predator abundance, mainly Chaoborus larvae, allowed the prey to recover during the cool season. The copepods Tropocyclops prasinus meridionalis (Fischer and Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer were less affected by predation than the cladocerans; their contribution to the crustacean plankton increased 12-28% after the

  11. ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF SIMVASTATIN ALONE (THERAPEUTIC DOSE AND COMBINATION OF SIMVASTATIN AND GLIPIZIDE (SUB THERAPEUTIC DOSES ON ALLOXAN INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIA IN ALBINO RATS

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    V.S. Harish Kumar*, N.R. Sindhu, Rajashri S. Patil and Umakant Patil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate anti-hyperglycemic activity of simvastatin alone and the combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide. Hyperglycemia was induced experimentally in albino rats by subcutaneous injection of alloxan in a dose of 175 mg/kg body weight. After 72 hours of alloxan treatment, rats showing hyperglycemia (blood glucose level of 400 mg/dl and above were included in the study. They were divided into four groups of 6 animals each (n=24. Oral administration of normal saline 0.5 ml, glipizide 2.5 mg/kg body weight, simvastatin 10 mg/kg body weight and sub therapeutic doses of both test (simvastatin 5 mg/kg body weight and standard (glipizide 1.25 mg/kg body weight drugs, was done respectively into each of the four groups for 30 consecutive days in order to assess the effect in terms of reduction in blood glucose level. Blood glucose was estimated on 0th, 10th, 20th, and 30th days of study in fixed time intervals. In the test group, there was a gradual fall in the blood glucose level which reached up to 308.3 mg/dl by 30th day of study (P < 0.001. In case of combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide, the fall in blood glucose level was gradual and sustained and it reached up to 201.5 mg/dl by the 30th day (P < 0.001. These observations are comparable with the results obtained in case of glipizide treated rats, the standard group. Simvastatin appreciably lowered the blood glucose level, but the combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide, by virtue of their possible synergistic effect produced further reduction in the blood glucose level. This study provides evidence in support of a potential anti-hyperglycemic effect of simvastatin and its combination with glipizide. Thus the combined treatment of simvastatin and glipzide may have added benefit for the diabetic patients associated with hyperlipidemia.

  12. Low-Level Laser and Light-Emitting Diode Therapy for Pain Control in Hyperglycemic and Normoglycemic Patients Who Underwent Coronary Bypass Surgery with Internal Mammary Artery Grafts: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study with Follow-Up.

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    Lima, Andréa Conceição Gomes; Fernandes, Gilderlene Alves; Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse; de Barros Araújo, Raimundo; de Oliveira, Rauirys Alencar; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for reducing pain in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery with internal mammary artery grafts. This study was conducted on 120 volunteers who underwent elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The volunteers were randomly allocated to four different groups of equal size (n = 30): control, placebo, LLLT [λ = 640 nm and spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) = 1.06 J/cm(2)], and LED (λ = 660 ± 20 nm and SAEF = 0.24 J/cm(2)). Participants were also divided into hyperglycemic and normoglycemic subgroups, according to their fasting blood glucose test result before surgery. The outcome assessed was pain during coughing by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The patients were followed for 1 month after the surgery. The LLLT and LED groups showed a greater decrease in pain, with similar results, as indicated by both the VAS and the McGill questionnaire (p ≤ 0.05), on the 6th and 8th postoperative day compared with the placebo and control groups. The outcomes were also similar between hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients. One month after the surgery, almost no individual reported pain during coughing. LLLT and LED had similar analgesic effects in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients, better than placebo and control groups.

  13. Dormant stages of crustaceans as a mechanism of propagation in the extreme and unpredictable environment in the Crimean hypersaline lakes

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    Shadrin, Nickolai V.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Amat, Francisco; Eremin, Oleg Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A pool of dormant stages of planktonic organisms in saline lakes is a substantial component in the plankton communities; we need to take it into account to understand plankton dynamics. Hypersaline water bodies in Crimea, the largest peninsula in the Black Sea, constitute a very characteristic and peculiar habitat type in the region. We examined the presence of crustacean resting stages in sediments of dried up sites of the Crimean hypersaline lakes. Sediment samples were taken in 9 different lakes. Experiments performed on the hatching of these resting stages showed the presence of Moina salina (Cladocera), parthenogenetic Artemia and Artemia urmiana (Anostraca), Eucypris mareotica ( inflata) (Ostracoda), and Cletocamptus retrogressus (Harpacticoida). Comparing the experimental results obtained with clean dried brine shrimp cysts and those kept in sediment samples, it was noted that clean cysts hatched much faster than those from sediments did. Some components in bottom sediments slow down and desynchronize hatching from resting eggs in different groups of crustaceans. The sediments of different lakes inhibited the nauplii output from Artemia and ostracod resting eggs to different degrees. More data are needed before we can discuss the reasons of this inhibition. The nonsynchronous output of active stages from the bottom resting ones may be an adaptation that allows crustacean species to exist in extreme and unpredictably changing environments, avoiding the risk that all may emerge at once under unsuitable conditions.

  14. Virulence and Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Crustaceans and Shellfish in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiongxia; Chen, Lanming

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can cause serious human seafoodborne gastroenteritis and even death. In this study, we isolated and characterized 208 V. parahaemolyticus strains from 10 species of commonly consumed crustaceans and shellfish available in fish markets in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, in 2014. Most of these aquatic species had not been detected previously. The results revealed an extremely low occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus carrying the toxin gene trh (1.9%). However, a high level of resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin (94.2%), rifampin (93.3%), and streptomycin (77.9%) was found. Approximately 74.5% of the isolates had multidrug-resistant phenotypes. Tolerance to the heavy metals Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+) was detected in the majority of antibiotic resistant isolates. The resistance patterns differed depending on the tested samples. The crustaceans Penaeus monodon and Marsupenaeus japonicus harbored more antibiotic-resistant bacteria, whereas the isolates from the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei and the shellfish Busycon canaliculatus had high tolerance to eight heavy metals tested. In contrast to the wide distribution of multidrug resistance and tolerance to heavy metals, lower percentages of plasmid DNA (22.6%) and SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative elements (4.8%) were detected in the isolates, suggesting that V. parahaemolyticus in these aquatic species may have adopted some other molecular mechanisms that mediated the high prevalence of resistance determinants. The results of this study support the need for food safety risk assessment of aquatic products.

  15. CYP450s analysis across spiny lobster metamorphosis identifies a long sought missing link in crustacean development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Bose, Utpal; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Smith, Gregory G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Cummins, Scott F; Elizur, Abigail

    2017-07-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) are a rapidly evolving family of enzymes, making it difficult to identify bona fide orthologs with notable lineage-specific exceptions. In ecdysozoans, a small number of the most conserved orthologs include enzymes which metabolize ecdysteroids. Ecdysone pathway components were recently shown in a decapod crustacean but with a notable absence of shade, which is important for converting ecdysone to its active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), suggesting that another CYP450 performs a similar function in crustaceans. A CYPome temporal expression analysis throughout metamorphosis performed in this research highlights several un-annotated CYP450s displaying differential expression and provides information into expression patterns of annotated CYP450s. Using the expression patterns in the Eastern spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi, followed by 3D modelling and finally activity assays in vitro, we were able to conclude that a group of CYP450s, conserved across decapod crustaceans, function as the insect shade. To emphasize the fact that these genes share the function with shade but are phylogenetically distinct, we name this enzyme system Shed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crustacean communities in coastal ephemeral pools in the Araucanía region (38° S, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Ríos-Escalante, P; Acevedo, P

    2016-01-01

    The fauna communities of ephemeral pools in southern Chile are characterized by heterogeneity of crustacean taxa; nevertheless, no detailed studies exist of their community structure. The aim of the present study was to analyze the crustacean community structure in two groups of ephemeral pools (Puaucho and Nigue pools) in the coastal zone of the Araucanía region. A correlation matrix was made by species abundance against temperature, conductivity, pH and total dissolved solids. In a second step, a null model for species co-occurrence was applied to the total data and to each group. The results for total data revealed a significant direct relation between the abundance of H. costera, C. dubia and Mesocyclops. For the Puaucho pools, the same results were found together with direct associations with total dissolved solids, conductivity and pH. Finally, different results were found for the Nigue pools, with no clear significant associations, either direct or indirect, between the abundance of different crustacean taxa and abiotic parameters. These results were supported by the co-occurrence null model analysis, which revealed the presence of regulator factors for the total data, and for each of the two groups. Ecological topics are discussed with emphasis on meta-community dynamics.

  17. Composition and distribution of subtidal and intertidal crustacean assemblages in soft-bottoms of the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain

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    Eva Cacabelos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The intertidal and subtidal soft-bottoms of the inner area of the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain were sampled in November and December 1999, and spatial distribution of crustacean species was examined. Environmental variables from water and sediment were measured at each sampling site. Amphipods and myocopids were the numerically dominant orders (49.9 and 26.9% dominance, amphipods accounting for more than 54% of identified taxa. The highest crustacean densities occurred with 55-41 species and 5953.6-4346.4 ind. m–2 in external areas, where the diversity index reached the maximum values. Multivariate techniques revealed that distribution of crustaceans in the inlet was highly dependent on depth. Ordination analysis determined three major assemblages: Intertidal bottoms colonized by seagrasses and subjected to strong variations of salinity were dominated by the amphipod Melita palmata, harpacticoids and the isopod Idotea baltica (Group A. The amphipod Corophium cf. runcicorne and the cumacean Iphinoe tenella predominated in the muddy bottoms of central areas (Group B. These species were also present in the deep muddy bottoms of the mouth of the inlet, with high carbonate and gravel contents, and with the myocopids and the amphipod Microdeutopus cf. armatus displaying maximum dominances (Group C.

  18. The crustacean central nervous system in focus: subacute neurodegeneration induces a specific innate immune response.

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    Paula Grazielle Chaves da Silva

    Full Text Available To date nothing is known about the subacute phase of neurodegeneration following injury in invertebrates. Among few clues available are the results published by our group reporting hemocytes and activated glial cells at chronic and acute phases of the lesion. In vertebrates, glial activation and recruitment of immunological cells are crucial events during neurodegeneration. Here, we aimed to study the subacute stage of neurodegeneration in the crab Ucides cordatus, investigating the cellular/molecular strategy employed 48 hours following ablation of the protocerebral tract (PCT. We also explored the expression of nitric oxide (NO and histamine in the PCT during this phase of neurodegeneration. Three immune cellular features which seem to characterize the subacute phase of neurodegeneration were revealed by: 1 the recruitment of granulocytes and secondarily of hyalinocytes to the lesion site (inducible NO synthase- and histamine-positive cells; 2 the attraction of a larger number of cells than observed in the acute phase; 3 the presence of activated glial cells as shown by the round shaped nuclei and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. We suggest that molecules released from granulocytes in the acute phase attract the hyalinocytes thus moving the degeneration process to the subacute phase. The importance of our study resides in the characterization of cellular and biochemical strategies peculiar to the subacute stage of the neurodegeneration in invertebrates. Such events are worth studying in crustaceans because in invertebrates this issue may be addressed with less interference from complex strategies resulting from the acquired immune system.

  19. The functional relationship between ectodermal and mesodermal segmentation in the crustacean, Parhyale hawaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Patel, Nipam H

    2012-01-15

    In arthropods, annelids and chordates, segmentation of the body axis encompasses both ectodermal and mesodermal derivatives. In vertebrates, trunk mesoderm segments autonomously and induces segmental arrangement of the ectoderm-derived nervous system. In contrast, in the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster, the ectoderm segments autonomously and mesoderm segmentation is at least partially dependent on the ectoderm. While segmentation has been proposed to be a feature of the common ancestor of vertebrates and arthropods, considering vertebrates and Drosophila alone, it is impossible to conclude whether the ancestral primary segmented tissue was the ectoderm or the mesoderm. Furthermore, much of Drosophila segmentation occurs before gastrulation and thus may not accurately represent the mechanisms of segmentation in all arthropods. To better understand the relationship between segmented germ layers in arthropods, we asked whether segmentation is an intrinsic property of the ectoderm and/or the mesoderm in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis by ablating either the ectoderm or the mesoderm and then assaying for segmentation in the remaining tissue layer. We found that the ectoderm segments autonomously. However, mesoderm segmentation requires at least a permissive signal from the ectoderm. Although mesodermal stem cells undergo normal rounds of division in the absence of ectoderm, they do not migrate properly in respect to migration direction and distance. In addition, their progeny neither divide nor express the mesoderm segmentation markers Ph-twist and Ph-Even-skipped. As segmentation is ectoderm-dependent in both Parhyale and holometabola insects, we hypothesize that segmentation is primarily a property of the ectoderm in pancrustacea.

  20. Tellurium-speciation in seawater and accumulation by marine phytoplankton and crustaceans

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    Nolan, C.; Whitehead, N.; Teyssie, J.-L. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco-Ville (Monaco). Lab. of Marine Radioactivity)

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the speciation of tellurium (using {sup 129m}Te as a radiotracer) in seawater and the extent of its accumulation by cultures of marine phytoplankton and crustaceans. Tellurite Te(IV) added to distilled water and to sterile filtered seawater was gradually transformed to the tellurate Te(VI) form, whereas Te(IV) tracer added to phytoplankton cultures was almost instantaneously transformed to a neutral form. Accumulation of radiotracer by phytoplankton (Dunaliella tertiolecta and Thallassiosira pseudonana) was moderate and for Dunaliella was greater in static cultures than in those which were actively dividing. Equilibrium concentration factors of 20 and 8 were established respectively after up to seven days' exposure of the herbivorous brine shrimp (Artemia salina) to labelled seawater with and without added phytoplankton. The loss of radionuclide upon transfer to uncontaminated running seawater was extensive and complete after one day, indicating that no true assimilation occurred. Transfer of radioactivity from Artemia salina to a predator, the Monaco shrimp (Lysmata seticaudata), was not observed. (author).

  1. The role of feeding morphology and competition in governing the diet breadth of sympatric stomatopod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deVries, Maya S

    2017-04-01

    Competition for food drives divergence and specialization in feeding morphology. Stomatopod crustaceans have two kinds of highly specialized feeding appendages: either elongate spear-like appendages (spearers) used to ambush soft-bodied evasive prey or hammer-like appendages (smashers) that produce extremely high forces used both to break hard-shelled prey and to capture evasive prey. To evaluate associations between appendage type and feeding ecology, the diet of two small smasher and spearer species (size range: 21-27 mm) that co-occur were compared. Stable isotope analysis and the Bayesian mixing model MixSIAR were used to estimate the proportional contributions of prey types to the diet. Both species had relatively wide diets that included hard-shelled and soft-bodied prey, albeit in different proportions; the smasher consumed a greater proportion of hard-shelled prey, and the spearer consumed mostly soft-bodied prey. Appendage kinematics in stomatopods is known to scale linearly across species. These two small species may produce similar kinematics allowing them both to capture evasive prey and hammer hard-shelled prey, thereby widening their diets. Yet, the spearer species is more highly adept at capturing evasive prey, indicating that small spearers are stronger competitors for soft-bodied prey. These findings suggest that a smasher's ability to access hard prey reduced competition for soft prey, and therefore conferred an important benefit favouring the evolution of the impressive smashing strike. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Distribution of presumptive chemosensory afferents with FMRFamide- or substance P-like immunoreactivity in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M

    1997-01-23

    In five species of decapod crustaceans--Cherax destructor (crayfish), Carcinus maenas (crab), Homarus americanus (clawed lobster), Eriocheir sinensis (crab), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (shrimp)--immunocytochemical stainings revealed the presence of sensory afferents with FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system. These afferents were extremely thin, very numerous, and innervated all sensory neuropils except the optic and olfactory lobes. In their target neuropils they gave rise to condensed net- or ball-like terminal structures. Only in Homarus americanus but not in any other studied species immunocytochemistry revealed a separate, non-overlapping class of sensory afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity. Also the afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity were very thin and numerous, innervated all sensory neuropils except optic and olfactory lobes, and gave rise to condensed terminal structures. From their morphological characteristics it can be concluded that likely both classes of afferents are chemosensory. The substance P-like immunoreactivity suggests a link with the nociceptor afferents of vertebrates, with which both classes of afferents share several other morphological features.

  3. Taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarid crustaceans in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico

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    Luz Veronica Monroy-Velázquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP, and their relationship with depth. Methods Three reef sites were selected: (1 Bonanza, (2 Bocana, and (3 Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef, 6–8 m (fore-reef, and 10–12 m (fore-reef. Results A total of 8,887 peracarid crustaceans belonging to 200 taxa distributed over five orders and 63 families was obtained; 70% of the taxa were identified to species and 25% to genus level. Fifty species of those collected represent new records for the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Isopoda was the most speciose order while Tanaidacea was the most abundant. Discussion Cryptic peracarid taxonomic richness and abundance were related to depth with higher values of both parameters being found in the shallow (3 m back-reef, possibly due to a higher reef development and a greater accumulation of coral rubble produced during hurricanes. Peracarid data obtained in the present study can be used as a baseline for future monitoring programs in the PMRNP.

  4. Proteomic investigation of male Gammarus fossarum, a freshwater crustacean, in response to endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Judith; Armengaud, Jean; Pible, Olivier; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Abbaci, Khedidja; Habtoul, Yassine; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier

    2015-01-02

    While the decrease in human sperm count in response to pollutants is a worldwide concern, little attention is being devoted to its causes and occurrence in the biodiversity of the animal kingdom. Arthropoda is the most species-rich phyla, inhabiting all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. During evolution, key molecular players of the arthropod endocrine system have diverged from the vertebrate counterparts. Consequently, arthropods may have different sensitivities toward endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here alteration of sperm quality in a crustacean, Gammarus fossarum, a popular organism in freshwater risk assessment, was investigated after laboratory exposure to various concentrations of three different xenobiotics: cadmium, methoxyfenozide, and pyriproxyfen. The integrity of the reproductive process was assessed by means of sperm-quality markers. For each substance, semiquantitative/relative proteomics based on spectral counting procedure was carried out on male gonads to observe the biological impact. The changes in a total of 871 proteins were monitored in response to toxic pressure. A drastic effect was observed on spermatozoon production, with a dose-response relationship. While exposure to EDCs leads to strong modulations of male-specific proteins in testis, no induction of female-specific proteins was noted. Also, a significant portion of orphans proved to be sensitive to toxic stress.

  5. Uptake and effects of microplastic textile fibers on freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Horvat, Petra; Kunej, Urban; Bele, Marjan; Kržan, Andrej

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic fibers (MP) from textile weathering and washing are increasingly being recognized as environmental pollutants. The majority of studies on the bioavailability and effects of microplastic focused on small polystyrene spherical plastic particles, while less data are available for fibers and for other materials besides polystyrene. We investigated the ingestion and effects of ground polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile microfibers (length range: 62-1400 μm, width 31-528 μm, thickness 1-21.5 μm) on the freshwater zooplankton crustacean Daphnia magna after a 48 h exposure and subsequent 24 h of recovery in MP free medium and algae. The majority of ingested fibers by D. magna were around 300 μm, but also some very large twisted MP fibers around 1400 μm were found inside the gut. Exposure to these fibers results in increased mortality of daphnids after 48 h only in the case where daphnids were not pre-fed with algae prior to experiment, but no effect was found when daphnids were fed before the experiments. Regardless of the feeding regime, daphnids were not able to recover from MP exposure after additional 24 h incubation period in a MP free medium with algae. The uptake and effects of PET textile MP on D. magna are presented here for the first time.

  6. Symbiotic bacteria contribute to increasing the population size of a freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Tsukada, Koji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    The filter-feeding crustacean Daphnia is a key organism in freshwater ecosystems. Here, we report the effect of symbiotic bacteria on ecologically important life history traits, such as population dynamics and longevity, in Daphnia magna. By disinfection of the daphniid embryos with glutaraldehyde, aposymbiotic daphniids were prepared and cultured under bacteria-free conditions. Removal of bacteria from the daphniids was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The population of aposymbiotic daphniids was reduced 10-folds compared with that of the control daphniids. Importantly, re-infection with symbiotic bacteria caused daphniids to regain bacteria and increase their fecundity to the level of the control daphniids, suggesting that symbiotic bacteria regulate Daphnia fecundity. To identify the species of symbiotic bacteria, 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in daphniids were sequenced. This revealed that 50% of sequences belonged to the Limnohabitans sp. of the Betaproteobacteria class and that the diversity of bacterial taxa was relatively low. These results suggested that symbiotic bacteria have a beneficial effect on D. magna, and that aposymbiotic Daphnia are useful tools in understanding the role of symbiotic bacteria in the environmental responses and evolution of their hosts. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Seaweed, fish and Crustaceans as bioindicators for {sup 99}Tc released to marine environment[Radioecology

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    Jerpetjoen, A.; Oughton, D.; Skipperud, l. [Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    Along the Norwegian coast, {sup 99}Tc discharged from nuclear installations is found in seaweed, Crustaceans and fish. The activity concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in seaweed peaked around July 2002, giving a concentration ratio (CF) for the stems up to 121 m{sup 3}/Kg. The CF in different marine organisms differs between species, and within species; however, the CF is found to be highest for lobster, 4210 and 3755 m{sup 3}/Kg in the Irish Sea and 68 to 158 m{sup 3}/Kg along the Norwegian coast. {sup 99}Tc activity concentrations in Crabs from the Norwegian coast ranged from 0.12 to 0.61 Bq/kg giving CF's in Crab ranging from 0.24 to 1.22 m{sup 3}/Kg. Salmon filet collected from Norwegian fish farms showed CF levels ranging from 0.21 to 1.39 m{sup 3}/Kg, whereas Herring showed CF values of 0.08 and 0.16 m{sup 3}/Kg. Overall the data varies a lot, which is a problem when measuring natural organisms. Habitat, growth, and eating habits are among many different factors influencing the uptake of {sup 99}Tc. Further investigation on CF and how {sup 99}Tc are obtained by different species in the marine environment, and also different organs of the organisms, is needed. (au)

  8. Ovary and embryo proteogenomic dataset revealing diversity of vitellogenins in the crustacean Gammarus fossarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Judith; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Pible, Olivier; Armengaud, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Ovaries and embryos from sexually mature Gammarus fossarum were sampled at different stages of the reproductive cycle. The soluble proteome was extracted for five biological replicates and samples were subjected to trypsin digestion. The resulting peptides were analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry with a LTQ-Orbitrap XL instrument. The MS/MS spectra were assigned with a previously described RNAseq-derived G. fossarum database. The proteins highlighted by proteogenomics were monitored and their abundance kinetics over the different stages revealed a large panel of vitellogenins. Criteria were i) accumulation during oogenesis, ii) decrease during embryogenesis, iii) classified as female-specific, and iv) sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis. The data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis ("High-throughput proteome dynamics for discovery of key proteins in sentinel species: unsuspected vitellogenins diversity in the crustacean Gammarus fossarum" by Trapp et al. [1]) have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange via the PRIDE repository with identifiers PRIDE: PXD001002.

  9. Biomechanical properties of predator-induced body armour in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppert, Sebastian; Horstmann, Martin; Weiss, Linda C; Witzel, Ulrich; Schaber, Clemens F; Gorb, Stanislav N; Tollrian, Ralph

    2017-08-29

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia is known for its ability to develop inducible morphological defences that thwart predators. These defences are developed only in the presence of predators and are realized as morphological shape alterations e.g. 'neckteeth' in D. pulex and 'crests' in D. longicephala. Both are discussed to hamper capture, handling or consumption by interfering with the predator's prey capture devices. Additionally, D. pulex and some other daphniids were found to armour-up and develop structural alterations resulting in increased carapace stiffness. We used scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to identify predator-induced structural and shape alterations. We found species specific structural changes accompanying the known shape alterations. The cuticle becomes highly laminated (i.e. an increased number of layers) in both species during predator exposure. Using nano- and micro-indentation as well as finite element analysis (FEA) we determined both: the structure's and shape's contribution to the carapace's mechanical resistance. From our results we conclude that only structural alterations are responsible for increased carapace stiffness, whereas shape alterations appear to pose handling difficulties during prey capture. Therefore, these defences act independently at different stages during predation.

  10. Clotting protein - An extracellular matrix (ECM) protein involved in crustacean hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkunlo, Kingkamon; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2017-09-21

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells in crustaceans are organized in lobule-like structures surrounded by different types of cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in a Hematopoietic tissue (HPT). Here we show that the clotting protein (CP) is part of the ECM in HPT and is secreted during HPT cell culture. The formation of a filamentous network of CP was observed in HPT cell culture. A high amount of CP protein was detected at the surfaces of undifferentiated cells (round-shaped) compared with migrating cells (spindle shaped). Co-localization of the CP protein and TGase activity was observed on the cell surface and filamentous network between cells. A role for CP together with collagen was revealed in a 3D culture in which a collagen-I matrix was immobilized with CP or supplemented with CP. The results showed possible functions of CP, collagen, TGase and cytokine Ast1 in the regulation of HPT progenitor cell behavior. This is the first study to provide insight into the role of CP, which probably not only participates in clot formation but also functions as an ECM component protein controlling hematopoietic stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarid crustaceans in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Velázquez, Luz Veronica; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa Elisa; Alvarez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP), and their relationship with depth. Three reef sites were selected: (1) Bonanza, (2) Bocana, and (3) Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef), 6-8 m (fore-reef), and 10-12 m (fore-reef). A total of 8,887 peracarid crustaceans belonging to 200 taxa distributed over five orders and 63 families was obtained; 70% of the taxa were identified to species and 25% to genus level. Fifty species of those collected represent new records for the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Isopoda was the most speciose order while Tanaidacea was the most abundant. Cryptic peracarid taxonomic richness and abundance were related to depth with higher values of both parameters being found in the shallow (3 m) back-reef, possibly due to a higher reef development and a greater accumulation of coral rubble produced during hurricanes. Peracarid data obtained in the present study can be used as a baseline for future monitoring programs in the PMRNP.

  12. Heading which way? Y-maze chemical assays: not all crustaceans are alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, Matthes; Lehmann, Philipp; Lindström, Magnus; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-09-01

    In a world full of chemicals, many crustaceans rely on elaborate olfactory systems to guide behaviors related to finding food or to assess the presence of conspecifics and predators. We analyzed the responses of the isopod Saduria entomon to a range of stimuli by which the animal is likely to encounter in its natural habitat using a Y-maze bioassay. In order to document the efficiency of the experimental design, the same bioassay was used to test the behavior of the crayfish Procambarus fallax whose ability to track odors is well documented. The crayfish performed well in the Y-maze and were able to locate the source of a food-related odor with high fidelity. The isopod S. entomon reacted indifferently or with aversion to most of the stimuli applied. In 1800 trials, only four out of 15 different stimuli yielded statistically significant results, and only one odorant was found to be significantly attractive. The findings raise several questions whether the stimuli presented and/or the experimental setup used represents an ecologically relevant situation for S. entomon. In each instance, our experiments illustrate that established methods cannot be readily transferred from one species to another.

  13. Decapod crustaceans from a marine tropical mangrove ecosystem on the Southern Western Atlantic, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurinete Oliveira Negromonte

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodiversity, relative abundance and frequency of decapod crustaceans in the marine mangrove ecosystem at Gaibu Beach, Pernambuco State, Brazil. A total of eight samples were taken: four in the rainy season (August 2010 and four in the dry season (February 2011, during spring low tides and according to the phases of the moon. In all, 352 decapods were sampled. These specimens belonged to 17 species, 14 genera and 13 families. Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850, P. gracilis (Saussure, 1858, Panopeus americanus Saussure, 1857 and Uca (Leptuca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 were very frequent. The three latter species occurred in all samples. The most abundant species was P. americanus. The Shannon-Wiener index (H' showed that, in general, the diversity level was medium for all samples. However, the sample taken at the time of the new moon during the rainy season was classified as highly diverse. These results contribute to the knowledge of the decapod fauna inhabiting mangroves associated with fringe reefs.

  14. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of crustacean proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; De la Mora, Eugenio; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, interacts specifically with DNA replication and repair proteins through a small peptide motif called the PCNA-interacting protein or PIP box. PCNA is recognized as one of the key proteins involved in DNA metabolism. In the present study, the recombinant PCNA from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPCNA) was heterologously overexpressed and purified using metal ion-affinity chromatography. Crystals suitable for diffraction grew overnight using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. LvPCNA crystals belong to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 144.6, b = 83.4, c = 74.3 Å, β = 117.6°. One data set was processed to 3 Å resolution, with an overall R meas of 0.09 and a completeness of 93.3%. Initial phases were obtained by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvPCNA as the search model. Refinement and structural analysis are underway. This report is the first successful crystallographic analysis of a marine crustacean decapod shrimp (L. vannamei) proliferating cell nuclear antigen. PMID:23143251

  15. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Jason E; Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay.

  16. Transforming nanostructured chitin from crustacean waste into beneficial health products: a must for our society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morganti P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available P Morganti1, G Morganti2, A Morganti3,41Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Centre of Nanoscience, Mavi Sud s.r.l, Aprilia, Italy; 3Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law, Munich, Germany; 4Lextray, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Chitin, obtained principally from crustacean waste, is a sugar-like polymer that is available at low cost. It has been shown to be bio- and ecocompatible, and has a very low level of toxicity. Recently, it has become possible to industrially produce pure chitin crystals, named "chitin nanofibrils" (CN for their needle-like shape and nanostructured average size (240 × 5 × 7 nm. Due to their specific chemical and physical characteristics, CN may have a range of industrial applications, from its use in biomedical products and biomimetic cosmetics, to biotextiles and health foods. At present, world offshore disposal of this natural waste material is around 250 billion tons per year. It is an underutilized resource and has the potential to supply a wide range of useful products if suitably recycled, thus contributing to sustainable growth and a greener economy.Keywords: chitin nanofibrils, biomimetic cosmetics, biomedical products, food, nanotechnology, waste

  17. Molecular and cellular specificity of post-translational aminoacyl isomerization in the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivaux, Céline; Gallois, Dominique; Amiche, Mohamed; Boscaméric, Maryse; Soyez, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    D-aminoacyl residues have been detected in various animal peptides from several taxa, especially vertebrates and arthropods. This unusual polymorphism was shown to occur in isoforms of the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) of the American lobster because a D-phenylalanyl residue was found in position 3 of the sequence (CHH and D-Phe3 CHH). In the present study, we report the detailed strategy used to characterize, in the lobster neuroendocrine system, isomers of another member of the CHH family, vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone (VIH). We have demonstrated that the fourth residue is either an L- or a D- tryptophanyl residue (VIH and D-Trp4 VIH). Furthermore, use of antisera specifically recognizing the epimers of CHH and VIH reveals that aminoacyl isomerization occurs in specialized cells of the X organ-sinus gland neurosecretory system and that the D-forms of the two neuropeptides are not only present in the same cells, but, importantly, also are co-packaged within the same secretory vesicles.

  18. Description of two new associated infaunal decapod crustaceans (Axianassidae and Alpheidae from the tropical eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Anker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of infaunal decapod crustaceans are described based on material collected in Bahía Málaga, Pacific coast of Colombia, in 2009. The mud-shrimp Axianassa darrylfelderi sp. nov. (Axianassidae appears to be most closely related to A. australis Rodrigues & Shimizu, 1992, A. canalis Kensley & Heard, 1990, and A. jamaicensis Kensley & Heard, 1990. The new species may be distinguished from each of them by a combination of morphological features, mainly on the uropodal exopod, antennal acicle, third maxilliped and first pleonite. The shrimp Leptalpheus canterakintzi sp. nov. (Alpheidae, associated with burrows of A. darrylfelderi sp. nov., undoubtedly represents the eastern Pacific sister species of the western Atlantic L. axianassae Dworschak & Coelho, 1999, which lives exclusively in burrows of A. australis. The two species are reliably distinguishable only by the proportions of the merus and propodus of the third pereiopod. Leptalpheus azuero Anker, 2011, previously known only from the Pacific coast of Panama, is reported for the first time from Bahía Málaga, Colombia.

  19. On some interesting marine decapod crustaceans (Alpheidae, Laomediidae, Strahlaxiidae) from Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur; Pratama, Idham Sumarto; Firdaus, Muhammad; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo

    2015-01-20

    Several rare or uncommon, mostly infaunal decapod crustaceans are reported from intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats of Lombok, Indonesia. The alpheid shrimps Alpheus angustilineatus Nomura & Anker, 2005, Athanas shawnsmithi Anker, 2011, Jengalpheops rufus Anker & Dworschak, 2007, Salmoneus alpheophilus Anker & Marin, 2006, Salmoneus colinorum De Grave, 2004, and the laomediid mud-shrimp Naushonia carinata Dworschak, Marin & Anker, 2006, are reported for the first time since their original descriptions and represent new records for the marine fauna of Indonesia. The alpheid shrimps Alpheus macellarius Chace, 1988, Alpheus platyunguiculatus (Banner, 1953), Athanas japonicus Kubo, 1936, Athanas polymorphus Kemp, 1915, Leptalpheus denticulatus Anker & Marin, 2009, Richalpheus palmeri Anker & Jeng, 2006, Salmoneus gracilipes Miya, 1972, Salmoneus tricristatus Banner, 1959 and the laomediid mudshrimps Laomedia astacina De Haan, 1841 and Naushonia lactoalbida Berggren, 1992 are new records for Indonesian waters. The remaining alpheid shrimps, namely Alpheopsis yaldwyni Banner & Banner, 1973, Alpheus savuensis De Man, 1908, Automate anacanthopus De Man, 1910, Automate dolichognatha De Man, 1888, Salmoneus serratidigitus (Coutière, 1896), and the strahlaxiid mud-shrimp Neaxius glyptocercus (von Martens, 1869), all previously known from Indonesia, are recorded for the first time from Lombok. Colour photographs are provided for all species reported, some shown in colour for the first time. 

  20. Neurogenesis in the water flea Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) suggests different mechanisms of neuroblast formation in insects and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, Petra; Eriksson, Bo Joakim; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2011-09-01

    Within euarthropods, the morphological and molecular mechanisms of early nervous system development have been analysed in insects and several representatives of chelicerates and myriapods, while data on crustaceans are fragmentary. Neural stem cells (neuroblasts) generate the nervous system in insects and in higher crustaceans (malacostracans); in the remaining euarthropod groups, the chelicerates (e.g. spiders) and myriapods (e.g. millipedes), neuroblasts are missing. In the latter taxa, groups of neural precursors segregate from the neuroectoderm and directly differentiate into neurons and glial cells. In all euarthropod groups, achaete-scute homologues are required for neuroblast/neural precursor group formation. In the insects Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum achaete-scute homologues are initially expressed in clusters of cells (proneural clusters) in the neuroepithelium but expression becomes restricted to the future neuroblast. Subsequently genes such as snail and prospero are expressed in the neuroblasts which are required for asymmetric division and differentiation. In contrast to insects, malacostracan neuroblasts do not segregate into the embryo but remain in the outer neuroepithelium, similar to vertebrate neural stem cells. It has been suggested that neuroblasts are present in another crustacean group, the branchiopods, and that they also remain in the neuroepithelium. This raises the questions how the molecular mechanisms of neuroblast selection have been modified during crustacean and insect evolution and if the segregation or the maintenance of neuroblasts in the neuroepithelium represents the ancestral state. Here we take advantage of the recently published Daphnia pulex (branchiopod) genome and identify genes in Daphnia magna that are known to be required for the selection and asymmetric division of neuroblasts in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. We unambiguously identify neuroblasts in D. magna by molecular marker gene expression and

  1. The plant Extracts of Momordica Charantia and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Have Antioxidant and Anti-Hyperglycemic Properties for Cardiac Tissue During Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Nath Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. There is an increasing demand of natural anti-diabetic agents, as continuous administration of existing drugs and insulin are associated with many side effects and toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG extracts (aqueous on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into six groups (I-VI of five animals in each, experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day and TFG (9 g seeds powder/kg body weight/day extracts in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (p<0.001 and significant increase in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH contents in heart tissue of diabetic rats were observed (group V and VI upon MC and TFG treatment. Our studies demonstrate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative potential of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum, which could exert beneficial effects against the diabetes and associated free radicals complications in heart tissue.

  2. Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of cinnamaldehyde via altered ghrelin secretion and functional impact on food intake and gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-21

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention.

  3. A putative viral defence mechanism in archaeal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillestøl, Reidun K; Redder, Peter; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2006-01-01

    in cells, and that both the mode of inhibition of viral propagation and the mechanism of adding spacer-repeat units to clusters, are dependent on RNAs transcribed from the clusters. Moreover, the putative inhibitory apparatus (piRNA-based) may be evolutionarily related to the interference RNA systems (si...

  4. Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-15

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of "Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe.".  Created: 10/15/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2015.

  5. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, R.M.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Hof, BE van 't; Maltha, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-six adult laypeople

  6. Advances in recording scattered light changes in crustacean nerve with electrical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Rector, D. M. (David M.); Martinez, A. T. (Anne T.); Guerra, F. M. (Francisco M.); George, J. S. (John S.)

    2002-01-01

    We investigated optical changes associated with crustacean nerve stimulation using birefringent and large angle scattered light. Improved detection schemes disclosed high temporal structure of the optical signals and allowed further investigations of biophysical mechanisms responsible for such changes. Most studies of physiological activity in neuronal tissue use techniques that measure the electrical behavior or ionic permeability of the nerve, such as voltage or ion sensitive dyes injected into cells, or invasive electric recording apparatus. While these techniques provide high resolution, they are detrimental to tissue and do not easily lend themselves to clinical applications in humans. Electrical and chemical components of neural excitation evoke physical responses observed through changes in scattered and absorbed light. This method is suited for in-vivo applications. Intrinsic optical changes have shown themselves to be multifaceted in nature and point to several different physiological processes that occur with different time courses during neural excitation. Fast changes occur concomitantly with electrical events, and slow changes parallel metabolic events including changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Previous experiments with isolated crustacean nerves have been used to study the biophysical mechanisms of fast optical changes. However, they have been confounded by multiple superimposed action potentials which make it difficult to discriminate the temporal signatures of individual optical responses. Often many averages were needed to adequately resolve the signal. More recently, optical signals have been observed in single trials. Initially large angle scattering measurements were used to record these events with much of the signal coming from cellular swelling associated with water influx during activation. By exploiting the birefringent properties derived from the molecular stiucture of nerve membranes, signals appear larger with a greater contrast

  7. Comparative phylogeography of two marine species of crustacean: Recent divergence and expansion due to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daizhen; Ding, Ge; Ge, Baoming; Zhang, Huabin; Tang, Boping; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-15

    Environmental changes, such as changes in the coastal topography due to Eurasian plate movements, climate oscillation during the Pleistocene, and alteration of ocean currents, have complicated the geographical structure of marine species and deepened their divergence between populations. As two widely distributed species of crustacean (Oratosquilla oratoria and Eriocheir japonica), weak differences were expected due to their high dispersal potential of planktonic larvae with ocean currents. However, results showed a significant genetic divergence between north of China and south of China in the study. In addition, the estimated north-south divergence time (27-30.5 Myr) of mantis shrimp was near the time of the Himalayan movement, and the China-Japan clade divergence time (10.5-11.9 Myr) of mitten crabs was also coincident with the time of the opening of the Sea of Japan. Thus, we hypothesized that environmental changes in the coastal topography contributed to the marine species divergence. Furthermore, based on phylogenetic analysis, network analysis and haplotype distribution, we surmised that mitten crabs originated from a population with the oldest haplotype (H6) and then divided into the north and south populations due to the recent Eurasian plate movements and ocean currents. And lineage of Japan originated from the north population for the opening of the Sea of Japan. While O. oratoria was guessed to originate from two separate populations in the China Sea. The results of "star-like" network, negative values in neutral test, and Tajima's D statistics of two marine species supported a recent rapid population expansion event after the Pleistocene glaciations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exoskeleton anchoring to tendon cells and muscles in molting isopod crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Žnidaršič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Specialized mechanical connection between exoskeleton and underlying muscles in arthropods is a complex network of interconnected matrix constituents, junctions and associated cytoskeletal elements, which provides prominent mechanical attachment of the epidermis to the cuticle and transmits muscle tensions to the exoskeleton. This linkage involves anchoring of the complex extracellular matrix composing the cuticle to the apical membrane of tendon cells and linking of tendon cells to muscles basally. The ultrastructural arhitecture of these attachment complexes during molting is an important issue in relation to integument integrity maintenance in the course of cuticle replacement and in relation to movement ability. The aim of this work was to determine the ultrastructural organization of exoskeleton – muscles attachment complexes in the molting terrestrial isopod crustaceans, in the stage when integumental epithelium is covered by both, the newly forming cuticle and the old detached cuticle. We show that the old exoskeleton is extensively mechanically connected to the underlying epithelium in the regions of muscle attachment sites by massive arrays of fibers in adult premolt Ligia italica and in prehatching embryos and premolt marsupial mancas of Porcellio scaber. Fibers expand from the tendon cells, traverse the new cuticle and ecdysal space and protrude into the distal layers of the detached cuticle. They likely serve as final anchoring sites before exuviation and may be involved in animal movements in this stage. Tendon cells in the prehatching embryo and in marsupial mancas display a substantial apicobasally oriented transcellular arrays of microtubules, evidently engaged in myotendinous junctions and in apical anchoring of the cuticular matrix. The structural framework of musculoskeletal linkage is basically established in described intramarsupial developmental stages, suggesting its involvement in animal motility within the marsupium.

  9. Simultaneous Sampling of Flow and Odorants by Crustaceans can Aid Searches within a Turbulent Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Pravin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and crayfish use dispersing odorant molecules to determine the location of predators, prey, potential mates and habitat. Odorant molecules diffuse in turbulent flows and are sensed by the olfactory organs of these animals, often using a flicking motion of their antennules. These antennules contain both chemosensory and mechanosensory sensilla, which enable them to detect both flow and odorants during a flick. To determine how simultaneous flow and odorant sampling can aid in search behavior, a 3-dimensional numerical model for the near-bed flow environment was created. A stream of odorant concentration was released into the flow creating a turbulent plume, and both temporally and spatially fluctuating velocity and odorant concentration were quantified. The plume characteristics show close resemblance to experimental measurements within a large laboratory flume. Results show that mean odorant concentration and it’s intermittency, computed as dc/dt, increase towards the plume source, but the temporal and spatial rate of this increase is slow and suggests that long measurement times would be necessary to be useful for chemosensory guidance. Odorant fluxes measured transverse to the mean flow direction, quantified as the product of the instantaneous fluctuation in concentration and velocity, v’c’, do show statistically distinct magnitude and directional information on either side of a plume centerline over integration times of <0.5 s. Aquatic animals typically have neural responses to odorant and velocity fields at rates between 50 and 500 ms, suggesting this simultaneous sampling of both flow and concentration in a turbulent plume can aid in source tracking on timescales relevant to aquatic animals.

  10. Crystallinity of chitin and carbonate mineral components independently record crustacean biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Michel, F. M.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Some of the earliest evidence for crustacean organisms is attributed to the discovery of Peytoia nathorsti, a predatory arthropod from 500 Ma (Cong, P. et al., 2014). These animals presumably began with a soft exoskeleton and evolved to fill diverse ecological niches while adopting a mineralized skeleton that is rarely preserved in its entirety (Klompmaker, A.A. et al., 2015). That is, one or more of the primary skeleton components (calcium carbonate minerals, the polysaccharide chitin, and minor proteins) were subject to decomposition during fossilization and preservation. These missing pieces present a significant obstacle to reconstructing ecosystem variability over long time periods. Our recent study of the exoskeletons from ten Malacostraca species suggests the physical and chemical structure of chitin holds promise as a secondary proxy for reconstructing skeleton reinforcement. Using high-energy X-ray diffraction and a novel Raman spectroscopy technique to enhance resolution, we determined the detailed nanostructures of chitin and the associated calcium carbonate minerals that comprise the cuticles of multiple body parts. Crab cuticles from the order Brachyura (Dungeness and Rock crabs) exhibit elevated crystallinities of the chitin and calcite in the more reinforced structures (such as the claw). In contrast, the cuticle of lobster body parts show a much greater variability of calcium carbonate crystallinity and a very consistent crystallinity of chitin. Calcite and chitin crystallinity exhibit a dependency within a species (body part to body part), but these dependencies can be different between taxa. Insights from this study suggest high resolution structural analyses hold promise for developing new proxies for the paleo-environment and paleo-ecology of specific Malacostraca animals, regardless of how well the specimen is preserved.

  11. Nucleic Acid Content in Crustacean Zooplankton: Bridging Metabolic and Stoichiometric Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although ‘fast-growth’ cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to ‘slow-growth’ copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

  12. Trophic transfer of trace metals: Subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical form of accumulated trace metal in prey is important in controlling the bioavailataility of dietary metal to a predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of radiolabelled Ag, Cd and Zn from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. We used 2 populations of worms with different proportions of accumulated metals in different subcellular fractions as prey, and loaded the worms with radiolabelled metals either from sediment or from solution. Accumulated radiolabelled metals were fractionated into 5 components : metal-rich granules (MRG), cellular debris, organelles, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP), and other (heat-sensitive) proteins (HSP). Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of the metals by P. varians were measured from the 4 categories of prey (i.e. 2 populations, radiolabelled from sediment or solution). There were significant differences for each metal between the AEs from the different prey categories, confirming that origin of prey and route of uptake of accumulated trace metal will cause intraspecific differences in subsequent metal assimilation. Correlations were sought between AEs and selected fractions or combinations of fractions of metals in the prey-MRG, Trophically Available Metal (TAM = MTLP + HSP + organelles) and total protein (MTLP + HSP). TAM explained 28% of the variance in AEs for Ag, but no consistent relationships emerged between AEs and TAM or total protein when the metals were considered separately. AEs did, however, show significant positive regressions with both TAM and total protein when the 3 metals were considered together, explaining only about 21 % of the variance in each case. A significant negative relationship was observed between MRG and AE for all metals combined. The predator (P. varians) can assimilate dietary metal from a range of the fractions binding metals in the prey (N. diversicolor), with different assimilation efficiencies summated across these

  13. Exoskeleton Heterogeneity in Crustaceans: Quantifying Compositional and Structural Variations Across Body Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, R. N.; Mergelsberg, S. T.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Crustacean exoskeletons are a complex biocomposite of organic macromolecules and calcium carbonate minerals. The highly divergent functions and diverse morphologies of these biominerals across taxa raise the question of whether these differences are systematically reflected in exoskeleton composition and structure. Previous studies that investigated element concentrations in exoskeletons used spectroscopic methods. However, the findings were largely inconclusive because of analytical limitations and most studies concluded that magnesium, phosphorus, and other trace elements are mostly contained in the mineral fraction because concentrations in the organic framework could not be resolved. This experimental study was designed to quantify the distributions of Ca, P, Mg, and Sr in the mineral versus organic fractions of exoskeletons from the American Lobster (H. americanus), Dungeness Crab (M. magister), and Red Rock Crab (M. productus). Samples of exoskeleton from 10 body parts were collected in triplicate and dissolved using three procedures specific to extracting the 1) mineral, 2) protein, and 3) chitin phases separately. Chemical analyses of the resulting effluents using ICP-OES show the mineral fraction of the skeleton can contain significant amounts of mineralized Mg and P particularly for body parts associated with a significant difference in mineral structural ordering. The protein fraction contains more Mg and P than expected based on estimates from previous studies (Hild et al., 2008). While the element distributions vary greatly depending on the location, in body parts with thicker cuticle (e.g. claw) the mineral component appears to control overall composition. The findings have implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions based upon exoskeleton composition. First, the chemical composition of an exoskeleton cannot be assumed constant across the different body parts of an entire organism. This is particularly true when the exoskeleton of the claw is

  14. Ecology of ontogenetic body-mass scaling of gill surface area in a freshwater crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Douglas S; Paul, David A

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have documented ecological effects on intraspecific and interspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate. However, little is known about how various ecological factors may affect the scaling of respiratory structures supporting oxygen uptake for metabolism. To our knowledge, our study is the first to provide evidence for ecological effects on the scaling of a respiratory structure among conspecific populations of any animal. We compared the body-mass scaling of gill surface area (SA) among eight spring-dwelling populations of the amphipod crustacean Gammarus minus Although gill SA scaling was not related to water temperature, conductivity or G. minus population density, it was significantly related to predation regime (and secondarily to pH). Body-mass scaling slopes for gill SA were significantly lower in four populations inhabiting springs with fish predators than for four populations in springs without fish (based on comparing means of the population slopes, or slopes calculated from pooled raw data for each comparison group). As a result, gill SA was proportionately smaller in adult amphipods from springs with versus without fish. This scaling difference paralleled similar differences in the scaling exponents for the rates of growth and resting metabolic rate. We hypothesized that gill SA scaling is shallower in fish-containing versus fishless spring populations of G. minus because of effects of size-selective predation on size-specific growth and activity that in turn affect the scaling of oxygen demand and concomitantly the gill capacity (SA) for oxygen uptake. Although influential theory claims that metabolic scaling is constrained by internal body design, our study builds on previous work to show that the scaling of both metabolism and the respiratory structures supporting it may be ecologically sensitive and evolutionarily malleable. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Heterodimeric TALENs induce targeted heritable mutations in the crustacean Daphnia magna

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    Akiko Naitou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are artificial nucleases harboring a customizable DNA-binding domain and a FokI nuclease domain. The high specificity of the DNA-binding domain and the ease of design have enabled researchers to use TALENs for targeted mutagenesis in various organisms. Here, we report the development of TALEN-dependent targeted gene disruption in the crustacean Daphnia magna, the emerging model for ecological and toxicological genomics. First, a reporter transgene DsRed2 (EF1α-1::DsRed2 was targeted. Using the Golden Gate method with a GoldyTALEN scaffold, we constructed homodimeric and heterodimeric TALENs containing wild-type and ELD/KKR FokI domains. mRNAs that coded for either the customized homodimeric or heterodimeric TALENs were injected into one-cell-stage embryos. The high mortality of embryos injected with homodimeric TALEN mRNAs prevented us from detecting mutations. In contrast, embryos injected with heterodimeric TALEN mRNAs survived and 78%–87% of the adults lost DsRed2 fluorescence in a large portion of cells throughout the body. In addition, these adults produced non-fluorescent progenies, all of which carried mutations at the dsRed2 locus. We also tested heterodimeric TALENs targeted for the endogenous eyeless gene and found that biallelic mutations could be transmitted through germ line cells at a rate of up to 22%. Both somatic and heritable mutagenesis efficiencies of TALENs were higher than those of the CRISPR/Cas9 system that we recently developed. These results suggest that the TALEN system may efficiently induce heritable mutations into the target genes, which will further contribute to the progress of functional genomics in D. magna.

  16. Macroscale patterns in body size of intertidal crustaceans provide insights on climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Dugan, Jenifer E; Hubbard, David M; Contreras, Heraldo; Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Emilio; Schoeman, David S

    2017-01-01

    Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA. We focused on ecologically important species representing different tidal zones, trophic guilds and developmental modes, including a high-shore macroalga-consuming talitrid amphipod (Orchestoidea tuberculata), two mid-shore scavenging cirolanid isopods (Excirolana braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda), and a low-shore suspension-feeding hippid crab (Emerita analoga) with an amphitropical distribution. Significant latitudinal patterns in body sizes were observed for all species in Chile (21° - 42°S), with similar but steeper patterns in Emerita analoga, in California (32°- 41°N). Sea surface temperature was a strong predictor of body size (-4% to -35% °C-1) in all species. Beach characteristics were subsidiary predictors of body size. Alterations in ocean temperatures of even a few degrees associated with global climate change are likely to affect body sizes of important intertidal ectotherms, with consequences for population demography, life history, community structure, trophic interactions, food-webs, and indirect effects such as ecosystem function. The consistency of results for body size and temperature across species with different life histories, feeding modes, ecological roles, and microhabitats inhabiting a single widespread coastal

  17. Response of rotifer functional groups to changing trophic state and crustacean community

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    Marina MANCA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Information based on taxon-based indices is species-specific while information gained from function-based research can give a comprehensive view of ecosystem processes. We applied the guild-ratio, an index based on the proportion of functional groups of rotifers (i.e. microphagous and raptorial species, on a long-term data set of Lago Maggiore. By applying seasonal trend decomposition based on smoothing techniques and non-metrical multidimensional scaling, we assessed the response of rotifer functional groups to changes in trophic state and climate. While the taxon-based indices showed smooth changes, the function-based index showed a dramatic shift from a raptorial to a microphagous dominance, with a back-shift to raptorial dominance starting in 2000. The seasonal peak of microphagous and raptorial dry weight was clearly separated in the pre-eutrophication period. When mesotrophic conditions prevailed both peaks overlapped, only to be separated again with re-oligotrophication. We attributed these alterations of rotifer functional groups to changes in competition with crustacean zooplankton and to decreased phytoplankton algal abundance and size while altered seasonality in functional groups could be related to inter-group competition for food. We hypothesise that the effects of trophic state (i.e. altered phytoplankton and climate (i.e. altered cladoceran community were transferred across trophic levels to rotifer functional groups. Our study highlights that functional groups are valid instruments for illustrating unifying principles in ecology through a better understanding of ecosystem processes and the interrelationship between trophic levels.

  18. Mechanisms of animal diapause: recent developments from nematodes, crustaceans, insects, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Steven C; Denlinger, David L; Podrabsky, Jason E; Roy, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Life cycle delays are beneficial for opportunistic species encountering suboptimal environments. Many animals display a programmed arrest of development (diapause) at some stage(s) of their development, and the diapause state may or may not be associated with some degree of metabolic depression. In this review, we will evaluate current advancements in our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the remarkable phenotype, as well as environmental cues that signal entry and termination of the state. The developmental stage at which diapause occurs dictates and constrains the mechanisms governing diapause. Considerable progress has been made in clarifying proximal mechanisms of metabolic arrest and the signaling pathways like insulin/Foxo that control gene expression patterns. Overlapping themes are also seen in mechanisms that control cell cycle arrest. Evidence is emerging for epigenetic contributions to diapause regulation via small RNAs in nematodes, crustaceans, insects, and fish. Knockdown of circadian clock genes in selected insect species supports the importance of clock genes in the photoperiodic response that cues diapause. A large suite of chaperone-like proteins, expressed during diapause, protects biological structures during long periods of energy-limited stasis. More information is needed to paint a complete picture of how environmental cues are coupled to the signal transduction that initiates the complex diapause phenotype, as well as molecular explanations for how the state is terminated. Excellent examples of molecular memory in post-dauer animals have been documented in Caenorhabditis elegans It is clear that a single suite of mechanisms does not regulate diapause across all species and developmental stages. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Heterodimeric TALENs induce targeted heritable mutations in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitou, Akiko; Kato, Yasuhiko; Nakanishi, Takashi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2015-02-13

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are artificial nucleases harboring a customizable DNA-binding domain and a FokI nuclease domain. The high specificity of the DNA-binding domain and the ease of design have enabled researchers to use TALENs for targeted mutagenesis in various organisms. Here, we report the development of TALEN-dependent targeted gene disruption in the crustacean Daphnia magna, the emerging model for ecological and toxicological genomics. First, a reporter transgene DsRed2 (EF1α-1::DsRed2) was targeted. Using the Golden Gate method with a GoldyTALEN scaffold, we constructed homodimeric and heterodimeric TALENs containing wild-type and ELD/KKR FokI domains. mRNAs that coded for either the customized homodimeric or heterodimeric TALENs were injected into one-cell-stage embryos. The high mortality of embryos injected with homodimeric TALEN mRNAs prevented us from detecting mutations. In contrast, embryos injected with heterodimeric TALEN mRNAs survived and 78%-87% of the adults lost DsRed2 fluorescence in a large portion of cells throughout the body. In addition, these adults produced non-fluorescent progenies, all of which carried mutations at the dsRed2 locus. We also tested heterodimeric TALENs targeted for the endogenous eyeless gene and found that biallelic mutations could be transmitted through germ line cells at a rate of up to 22%. Both somatic and heritable mutagenesis efficiencies of TALENs were higher than those of the CRISPR/Cas9 system that we recently developed. These results suggest that the TALEN system may efficiently induce heritable mutations into the target genes, which will further contribute to the progress of functional genomics in D. magna.

  20. Islands beneath islands: phylogeography of a groundwater amphipod crustacean in the Balearic archipelago

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    Juan Carlos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda, Crustacea is an enigmatic continental subterranean water family of marine origin (thalassoid. One of the species in the genus, Metacrangonyx longipes, is endemic to the Balearic islands of Mallorca and Menorca (W Mediterranean. It has been suggested that the origin and distribution of thalassoid crustaceans could be explained by one of two alternative hypotheses: (1 active colonization of inland freshwater aquifers by a marine ancestor, followed by an adaptative shift; or (2 passive colonization by stranding of ancestral marine populations in coastal aquifers during marine regressions. A comparison of phylogenies, phylogeographic patterns and age estimations of clades should discriminate in favour of one of these two proposals. Results Phylogenetic relationships within M. longipes based on three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and one nuclear marker revealed five genetically divergent and geographically structured clades. Analyses of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 mtDNA data showed the occurrence of a high geographic population subdivision in both islands, with current gene flow occurring exclusively between sites located in close proximity. Molecular-clock estimations dated the origin of M. longipes previous to about 6 Ma, whereas major cladogenetic events within the species took place between 4.2 and 2.0 Ma. Conclusions M. longipes displayed a surprisingly old and highly fragmented population structure, with major episodes of cladogenesis within the species roughly correlating with some of the major marine transgression-regression episodes that affected the region during the last 6 Ma. Eustatic changes (vicariant events -not active range expansion of marine littoral ancestors colonizing desalinated habitats-explain the phylogeographic pattern observed in M. longipes.

  1. Abundance and diversity of amphipod crustaceans in the Upper Songkhla Lagoon

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    Ruensirikul, J.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A bimonthly investigation of amphipod crustaceans in the Upper Songkhla Lagoon from April 2003 to February 2004 was undertaken to determine the abundance and species richness. The mean density of amphipods among stations ranged from 233 to 4937 ind.m-2, while the monthly densities ranged from 600 to 3620 ind.m-2. A total 10 families, 14 genera and 16 species were identified. The diversity among stationsranged from 2-12 species while varying from 8-15 species during the different months. Kamaka cf. taditadi is the most dominant amphipod with 89.2% of total (max. 16486 ind.m-2 in December. It distributed widely and in every sampling month. Photis longicaudata (36-338 ind.m-2 Grandidierella taihuensis (28-65 ind.m-2 Cerapus sp. (3-95 ind.m-2 and Perioculodes cf. acuticoxa (19-54 ind.m-2 distributed widely in all months but with lower densities. The other 11 species were occasionally found and had narrow distribution with low densities (< 20 ind.m-2. The density and diversity of amphipods were higher at the shallower stations nearby the bank (mean depth 1.1 m. than at the deeper stations in the middle area (mean depth 2.5 m.. The species richness among seasons was not different but the density tended to increase in the rainy season in December and markedly decrease in the post-rainy season in February. The best fitting of the environmental variables to explain the amphipod community pattern of the Upper Songkhla Lagoon for 6 months was a 4-variable combination of pH, salinity, %sand and %organic carbon and a 3-variable combination of depth, DO and %sand for 11 stations (harmonic rank correlation coefficient, ρw = 0.56 and 0.51 respectively.

  2. Size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles to bacteria, yeast, algae, crustaceans and mammalian cells in vitro.

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    Angela Ivask

    Full Text Available The concept of nanotechnologies is based on size-dependent properties of particles in the 1-100 nm range. However, the relation between the particle size and biological effects is still unclear. The aim of the current paper was to generate and analyse a homogenous set of experimental toxicity data on Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs of similar coating (citrate but of 5 different primary sizes (10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 nm to different types of organisms/cells commonly used in toxicity assays: bacterial, yeast and algal cells, crustaceans and mammalian cells in vitro. When possible, the assays were conducted in ultrapure water to minimise the effect of medium components on silver speciation. The toxic effects of NPs to different organisms varied about two orders of magnitude, being the lowest (∼0.1 mg Ag/L for crustaceans and algae and the highest (∼26 mg Ag/L for mammalian cells. To quantify the role of Ag ions in the toxicity of Ag NPs, we normalized the EC50 values to Ag ions that dissolved from the NPs. The analysis showed that the toxicity of 20-80 nm Ag NPs could fully be explained by released Ag ions whereas 10 nm Ag NPs proved more toxic than predicted. Using E. coli Ag-biosensor, we demonstrated that 10 nm Ag NPs were more bioavailable to E. coli than silver salt (AgNO3. Thus, one may infer that 10 nm Ag NPs had more efficient cell-particle contact resulting in higher intracellular bioavailability of silver than in case of bigger NPs. Although the latter conclusion is initially based on one test organism, it may lead to an explanation for "size-dependent" biological effects of silver NPs. This study, for the first time, investigated the size-dependent toxic effects of a well-characterized library of Ag NPs to several microbial species, protozoans, algae, crustaceans and mammalian cells in vitro.

  3. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

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    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  4. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  5. Single and multi-gene phylogeny of Hepatospora (Microsporidia) - a generalist pathogen of farmed and wild crustacean hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, K S; Wiredu-Boakye, D; Kerr, R; Williams, B A P; Stentiford, G D

    2016-07-01

    Almost half of all known microsporidian taxa infect aquatic animals. Of these, many cause disease in arthropods. Hepatospora, a recently erected genus, infects epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas of wild and farmed decapod crustaceans. We isolated Hepatospora spp. from three different crustacean hosts, inhabiting different habitats and niches; marine edible crab (Cancer pagurus), estuarine and freshwater Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and the marine mussel symbiont pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum). Isolates were initially compared using histology and electron microscopy revealing variation in size, polar filament arrangement and nuclear development. However, sequence analysis of the partial SSU rDNA gene could not distinguish between the isolates (~99% similarity). In an attempt to resolve the relationship between Hepatospora isolated from E. sinensis and C. pagurus, six additional gene sequences were mined from on-going unpublished genome projects (RNA polymerase, arginyl tRNA synthetase, prolyl tRNA synthetase, chitin synthase, beta tubulin and heat shock protein 70). Primers were designed based on the above gene sequences to analyse Hepatospora isolated from pea crab. Despite application of gene sequences to concatenated phylogenies, we were unable to discriminate Hepatospora isolates obtained from these hosts and concluded that they likely represent a single species or, at least subspecies thereof. In this instance, concatenated phylogenetic analysis supported the SSU-based phylogeny, and further, demonstrated that microsporidian taxonomies based upon morphology alone are unreliable, even at the level of the species. Our data, together with description of H. eriocheir in Asian crab farms, reveal a preponderance for microvariants of this parasite to infect the gut of a wide array of decapods crustacean hosts and the potential for Hepatospora to exist as a cline across wide geographies and habitats.

  6. CRISPR/Cas9 Mutagenesis Reveals Versatile Roles of Hox Genes in Crustacean Limb Specification and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Arnaud; Serano, Julia M; Jarvis, Erin; Bruce, Heather S; Wang, Jennifer; Ray, Shagnik; Barker, Carryn A; O'Connell, Liam C; Patel, Nipam H

    2016-01-11

    Crustaceans possess a diverse array of specialized limbs. Although shifts in Hox gene expression domains have been postulated to play a role in generating this limb diversity, little functional data have been provided to understand the precise roles of Hox genes during crustacean development. We used a combination of CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis and RNAi knockdown to decipher the function of the six Hox genes expressed in the developing mouth and trunk of the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis. These experimentally manipulated animals display specific and striking homeotic transformations. We found that abdominal-A (abd-A) and Abdominal-B (Abd-B) are required for proper posterior patterning, with knockout of Abd-B resulting in an animal with thoracic type legs along what would have been an abdomen, and abd-A disruption generating a simplified body plan characterized by a loss of specialization in both abdominal and thoracic appendages. In the thorax, Ubx is necessary for gill development and for repression of gnathal fate, and Antp dictates claw morphology. In the mouth, Scr and Antp confer the part-gnathal, part-thoracic hybrid identity of the maxilliped, and Scr and Dfd prevent antennal identity in posterior head segments. Our results allow us to define the role Hox genes play in specifying each appendage type in Parhyale, including the modular nature by which some appendages are patterned by Hox gene inputs. In addition, we define how changes in Hox gene expression have generated morphological differences between crustacean species. Finally, we also highlight the utility of CRISPR/Cas9-based somatic mutagenesis in emerging model organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trace metal contamination in commercial fish and crustaceans collected from coastal area of Bangladesh and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tokumura, Masahiro; Sekine, Makoto; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    Trace metals contamination in commercial fish and crustaceans have become a great problem in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to determine seven trace metals concentration (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) in some commercial fishes and crustaceans collected from coastal areas of Bangladesh. Trace metals in fish samples were in the range of Cr (0.15 - 2.2), Ni (0.1 - 0.56), Cu (1.3 - 1.4), Zn (31 - 138), As (0.76 - 13), Cd (0.033 - 0.075), and Pb (0.07 - 0.63 mg/kg wet weight (ww)), respectively. Arsenic (13 mg/kg ww) and Zn (138 mg/kg ww) concentrations were remarkably high in fish of Cox's Bazar due to the interference of uncontrolled huge hatcheries and industrial activities. The elevated concentrations of Cu (400), Zn (1480), and As (53 mg/kg ww) were also observed in crabs of Cox's Bazar which was considered as an absolutely discrepant aquatic species with totally different bioaccumulation pattern. Some metals in fish and crustaceans exceeded the international quality guidelines. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and target cancer risk (TR) revealed high dietary intake of As and Pb, which was obviously a matter of severe public health issue of Bangladeshi coastal people which should not be ignored and concentrate our views to solve this problem with an integrated approaches. Thus, continuous monitoring of these toxic trace elements in seafood and immediate control measure is recommended.

  8. Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, K S; Tew, I; French, C; Hicks, R J; Martin, P; Munro, J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-07-01

    Despite almost two decades since its discovery, White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp. For this reason, WSSV has recently been listed in European Community Council Directive 2006/88. Using principles laid down by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) we applied an array of diagnostic approaches to provide a definitive statement on the susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in seven ecologically or economically important crustacean species from Europe. We chose four marine species: Cancer pagurus, Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus and Carcinus maenas; one estuarine species, Eriocheir sinensis and two freshwater species, Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus. Exposure trials based upon natural (feeding) and artificial (intra-muscular injection) routes of exposure to WSSV revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in these hosts. However, the relative degree of susceptibility (measured by progression of infection to disease, and mortality) varied significantly between host species. In some instances (Type 1 hosts), pathogenesis mimicked that observed in penaeid shrimp hosts whereas in other examples (Types 2 and 3 hosts), infection did not readily progress to disease, even though hosts were considered as infected and susceptible according to accepted principles. Results arising from challenge studies are discussed in relation to the potential risk posed to non-target hosts by the inadvertent introduction of WSSV to European waters via trade. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for

  9. Evaluation of methanol extract of Gongronema latifolium leaves singly and in combination with glibenclamide for antihyperglycemic effects in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats.

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    Eke Ifeanyi Gabriel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of the methanol extract of Gongronema latifolium leaves singly and in combination with an oral hypoglycemic agent; glibenclamide. Materials and methods: the plant material was extracted with methanol for 48 h using cold maceration and concentrated in vacuo in a rotary evaporator. The methanol extract of G.latifolium at the doses of 200, 300, 400, 500 and 800 mg/kg were studied for antihyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. More so the extract at the doses of 400 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg glibenclamide and 500 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg glibenclamide were studied for possible additive effects. Results: The 300 mg/kg of the extract decreased blood glucose at 1 h post treatment though not significantly (p>0.05 compared with 5 ml/kg distilled water, but failed to lower the blood glucose at 3 and 6 h post-treatment. The 400 and 500 mg/kg decreased the blood glucose level from 1 to 6 h post-treatment. However the decrease in blood glucose was only significant (p0.05 difference between the effects of the combination protocol and glibenclamide 5 mg/kg alone though the effects of the combination protocol were better than that of glibenclmide 5 mg/kg alone. Conclusion: our studies suggest that there is treatment benefit of combining extract of G.latifolium leaves and glibenclamide over G.latifolium or glibenclamide alone. Key words: G.latifolium, glibenclamide, combination, additive [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 119-122

  10. Minimally processed foods are more satiating and less hyperglycemic than ultra-processed foods: a preliminary study with 98 ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony

    2016-05-18

    Beyond nutritional composition, food structure is increasingly recognized to play a role in food health potential, notably in satiety and glycemic responses. Food structure is also highly dependent on processing conditions. The hypothesis for this study is, based on a data set of 98 ready-to-eat foods, that the degree of food processing would correlate with the satiety index (SI) and glycemic response. Glycemic response was evaluated according to two indices: the glycemic index (GI) and a newly designed index, the glycemic glucose equivalent (GGE). The GGE indicates how a quantity of a certain food affects blood glucose levels by identifying the amount of food glucose that would have an effect equivalent to that of the food. Then, foods were clustered within three processing groups based on the international NOVA classification: (1) raw and minimally processed foods; (2) processed foods; and (3) ultra-processed foods. Ultra-processed foods are industrial formulations of substances extracted or derived from food and additives, typically with five or more and usually many (cheap) ingredients. The data were correlated by nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficient on quantitative data. The main results show strong correlations between GGE, SI and the degree of food processing, while GI is not correlated with the degree of processing. Thus, the more food is processed, the higher the glycemic response and the lower its satiety potential. The study suggests that complex, natural, minimally and/or processed foods should be encouraged for consumption rather than highly unstructured and ultra-processed foods when choosing weakly hyperglycemic and satiating foods.

  11. The novel mitochondria-targeted hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donors AP123 and AP39 protect against hyperglycemic injury in microvascular endothelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerő, Domokos; Torregrossa, Roberta; Perry, Alexis; Waters, Alicia; Le-Trionnaire, Sophie; Whatmore, Jacqueline L; Wood, Mark; Whiteman, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    The development of diabetic vascular complications is initiated, at least in part, by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in endothelial cells. Hyperglycemia induces superoxide production in the mitochondria and initiates changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential that leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) supplementation has been shown to reduce the mitochondrial oxidant production and shows efficacy against diabetic vascular damage in vivo. However, the half-life of H2S is very short and it is not specific for the mitochondria. We have therefore evaluated two novel mitochondria-targeted anethole dithiolethione and hydroxythiobenzamide H2S donors (AP39 and AP123 respectively) at preventing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and metabolic changes in microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Hyperglycemia (HG) induced significant increase in the activity of the citric acid cycle and led to elevated mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial oxidant production was increased and the mitochondrial electron transport decreased in hyperglycemic cells. AP39 and AP123 (30-300nM) decreased HG-induced hyperpolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane and inhibited the mitochondrial oxidant production. Both H2S donors (30-300nM) increased the electron transport at respiratory complex III and improved the cellular metabolism. Targeting H2S to mitochondria retained the cytoprotective effect of H2S against glucose-induced damage in endothelial cells suggesting that the molecular target of H2S action is within the mitochondria. Mitochondrial targeting of H2S also induced >1000-fold increase in the potency of H2S against hyperglycemia-induced injury. The high potency and long-lasting effect elicited by these H2S donors strongly suggests that these compounds could be useful against diabetic vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Nucleotide sequence of a crustacean 18S ribosomal RNA gene and secondary structure of eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, L; Fang, B L; Volckaert, G; Vandenberghe, A; De Wachter, R

    1984-12-11

    The primary structure of the gene for 18 S rRNA of the crustacean Artemia salina was determined. The sequence has been aligned with 13 other small ribosomal subunit RNA sequences of eukaryotic, archaebacterial, eubacterial, chloroplastic and plant mitochondrial origin. Secondary structure models for these RNAs were derived on the basis of previously proposed models and additional comparative evidence found in the alignment. Although there is a general similarity in the secondary structure models for eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the evidence seems to indicate a different topology in a central area of the structures.

  13. Concerning calculation methods and limitations of proxy-estimates of Proteins, Carbohydrates and Lipids in crustacean zooplankton from CHN analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. VOLLENWEIDER

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The present comments resulted from a discussion I had with Dr. Riccardi about the validity of proxy estimates of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid in various zooplankton species of Northern Italian lakes (Riccardi & Mangoni 1999. For these estimates the authors used a calculation method proposed by Gnaiger & Bitterlich (1984; below referred to as G&B. The reason why I questioned the application of the unmodified G&B model to zooplankton was that carbohydrate in crustaceans is mostly present in form of chitin. The argumentation grow rapidly beyond a simple dispute about modes of calculation, leading to some more principle considerations about the limits of proxy estimates.

  14. Next-Generation Sequencing and the Crustacean Immune System: The Need for Alternatives in Immune Gene Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K F; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing has been a huge benefit to investigators studying non-model species. High-throughput gene expression studies, which were once restricted to animals with extensive genomic resources, can now be applied to any species. Transcriptomic studies using RNA-Seq can discover hundreds of thousands of transcripts from any species of interest. The power and limitation of these techniques is the sheer size of the dataset that is acquired. Parsing these large datasets is becoming easier as more bioinformatic tools are available for biologists without extensive computer programming expertise. Gene annotation and physiological pathway tools such as Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology enable the application of the vast amount of information acquired from model organisms to non-model species. While noble in nature, utilization of these tools can inadvertently misrepresent transcriptomic data from non-model species via annotation omission. Annotation followed by molecular pathway analysis highlights pathways that are disproportionately affected by disease, stress, or the physiological condition being examined. Problems occur when gene annotation procedures only recognizes a subset, often 50% or less, of the genes differently expressed from a non-model organisms. Annotated transcripts normally belong to highly conserved metabolic or regulatory genes that likely have a secondary or tertiary role, if any at all, in immunity. They appear to be disproportionately affected simply because conserved genes are most easily annotated. Evolutionarily induced specialization of physiological pathways is a driving force of adaptive evolution, but it results in genes that have diverged sufficiently to prevent their identification and annotation through conventional gene or protein databases. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight some of the challenges faced when annotating crustacean immune genes by using an American lobster

  15. Tapping the Power of Crustacean Transcriptomics to Address Grand Challenges in Comparative Biology: An Introduction to the Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykles, Donald L; Burnett, Karen G; Durica, David S; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2016-12-01

    Crustaceans, and decapods in particular (i.e., crabs, shrimp, and lobsters), are a diverse and ecologically and commercially important group of organisms. Understanding responses to abiotic and biotic factors is critical for developing best practices in aquaculture and assessing the effects of changing environments on the biology of these important animals. A relatively small number of decapod crustacean species have been intensively studied at the molecular level; the availability, experimental tractability, and economic relevance factor into the selection of a particular species as a model. Transcriptomics, using high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS, coupled with RNA sequencing or RNA-seq) is revolutionizing crustacean biology. The 11 symposium papers in this volume illustrate how RNA-seq is being used to study stress response, molting and limb regeneration, immunity and disease, reproduction and development, neurobiology, and ecology and evolution. This symposium occurred on the 10th anniversary of the symposium, "Genomic and Proteomic Approaches to Crustacean Biology", held at the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2006 meeting. Two participants in the 2006 symposium, the late Paul Gross and David Towle, were recognized as leaders who pioneered the use of molecular techniques that would ultimately foster the transcriptomics research reviewed in this volume. RNA-seq is a powerful tool for hypothesis-driven research, as well as an engine for discovery. It has eclipsed the technologies available in 2006, such as microarrays, expressed sequence tags, and subtractive hybridization screening, as the millions of "reads" from NGS enable researchers to de novo assemble a comprehensive transcriptome without a complete genome sequence. The symposium series concludes with a policy paper that gives an overview of the resources available and makes recommendations for developing better tools for functional annotation and pathway and network analysis in

  16. Direct evidence for the function of crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG): total chemical synthesis of IAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hidekazu; Kubota, Nozomi; Hojo, Hironobu; Okada, Ayumi; Kotaka, Sayaka; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Ohira, Tsuyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) is presumed to be a sex differentiation factor so-called androgenic gland hormone (AGH) in decapod crustacean, although the function of IAG peptide has not yet been reported. In this study, we synthesized IAG from the prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, and its function was assessed by an in vitro bioassay. As a result, IAG with the insulin-type disulfide bond arrangement showed biological activity, whereas its disulfide isomer did not. These results strongly suggest that the native IAG peptide has an insulin-type disulfide, and it is the decapod AGH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FRESHWATER FISH AND DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN POPULATIONS ON RÉUNION ISLAND, WITH AN ASSESSMENT OF SPECIES INTRODUCTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEITH P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams of Réunion Island shelter with 26 fish species and 11 decapod crustacean species. Some species have been introduced (18%, some other are endemic to the island or to the Madagascar-Mascarenes region (16.2%, are originated from Indo-Pacific area (35.2% or from Indo-African area (27%. Gobiidae and Palaemonidae are the prevailing family in freshwaters, with the highest number of species. 16 species were introduced, mainly fishes, beginning at the turn of the 19th century, but only 4 of those have become acclimatised, while 7 have disappeared and the status of the other is uncertain.

  18. A new chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.;

    2016-01-01

    critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures...... interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based...

  19. BIODIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS (DECAPODA: NATANTIA FROM VANUATU, A COMPARISON WITH FIJI AND NEW CALEDONIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUET G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive study of freshwater decapoda crustaceans from Vanuatu. Of the nineteen species collected during this study, eighteen appear to be new records for the archipelago. However none of these species is endemic to Vanuatu, nine having a Pacific distribution and ten an Indo-Pacific distribution. Half of the species recorded were widely distributed in Vanuatu, whereas the others were more restricted. A comparison is made with the freshwater decapoda fauna of the two neighbouring archipelagoes namely, those of Fiji and New Caledonia, which have already been thoroughly surveyed.

  20. External morphology of Lightiella monniotae (Crustacea, Cephalocarida) in the light of Cambrian 'Orsten' crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T.; Maas, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    not hold only for cephalocarids. Retention of its plesiomorphic shape and function in the Cephalocarida remains, however, noteworthy. Cephalocarids are still little studied and incompletely known, especially their external morphology. By examining several adults and one young specimen of Lightiella......-divided into a number of smaller sclerotized areas as in various exceptionally 3D preserved fossil crustaceans from Cambrian ‘Orsten’ faunal assemblages; (3) a small transitional portion on the post-maxillulary limbs in the area where the endopod and basipod connect is discussed as either a reduced, proximal endopod...

  1. A review of crustacean sensitivity to high amplitude underwater noise: Data needs for effective risk assessment in relation to UK commercial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Nathan J; Firmin, Christopher J; Goldsmith, Denise; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Wood, Daniel T

    2016-07-15

    High amplitude anthropogenic noise is associated with adverse impacts among a variety of organisms but detailed species-specific knowledge is lacking in relation to effects upon crustaceans. Brown crab (Cancer pagurus), European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) together represent the most valuable commercial fishery in the UK (Defra, 2014). Critical evaluation of literature reveals physiological sensitivity to underwater noise among N. norvegicus and closely related crustacean species, including juvenile stages. Current evidence supports physiological sensitivity to local, particle motion effects of sound production in particular. Derivation of correlative relationships between the introduction of high amplitude impulsive noise and crustacean distribution/abundance is hindered by the coarse resolution of available data at the present time. Future priorities for research are identified and argument for enhanced monitoring under current legislative frameworks outlined. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fish and crustaceans in northeast Greenland lakes with special emphasis on interactions between Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Lepidurus arcticus and benthic chydorids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, E.; Christoffersen, K.; Landkildehus, F.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the trophic structure in the pelagial and crustacean remains in the surface 1 cm of the sediment of 13 shallow, high arctic lakes in northeast Greenland (74 N). Seven lakes were fishless, while the remaining six hosted a dwarf form of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). In fishless lakes...... sp. in lakes with Lepidurus, while they were abundant in lakes with fish. The low abundance in fishless lakes could not be explained by damage of crustacean remains caused by Lepidurus feeding in the sediment, because remains of the more soft-shelled, pelagic-living Daphnia were abundant...... in the sediment of these lakes. No significant differences between lakes with and without fish were found in chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, conductivity or temperature, suggesting that the observed link between Lepidurus arcticus and the benthic crustacean community is causal. Consequently...

  3. Putative melatonin receptors in a human biological clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reppert, S.M.; Weaver, D.R.; Rivkees, S.A.; Stopa, E.G.

    1988-10-07

    In vitro autoradiography with /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin was used to examine melatonin binding sites in human hypothalamus. Specific /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin binding was localized to the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the site of a putative biological clock, and was not apparent in other hypothalamic regions. Specific /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin binding was consistently found in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of hypothalami from adults and fetuses. Densitometric analysis of competition experiments with varying concentrations of melatonin showed monophasic competition curves, with comparable half-maximal inhibition values for the suprachiasmatic nuclei of adults (150 picomolar) and fetuses (110 picomolar). Micromolar concentrations of the melatonin agonist 6-chloromelatonin completely inhibited specific /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin binding, whereas the same concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine caused only a partial reduction in specific binding. The results suggest that putative melatonin receptors are located in a human biological clock.

  4. Trypanosoma brucei: a putative RNA polymerase II promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayele, Henry K

    2009-12-01

    RNA polymerase II (pol II) promoters are rare in the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei because gene regulation in the parasite is complex and polycistronic. Here, we describe a putative pol II promoter and its structure-function relationship. The promoter has features of an archetypal eukaryotic pol II promoter including putative canonical CCAAT and TATA boxes, and an initiator element. However, the spatial arrangement of these elements is only similar to yeast pol II promoters. Deletion mapping and transcription assays enabled delineation of a minimal promoter that could drive orientation-independent reporter gene expression suggesting that it may be a bidirectional promoter. In vitro transcription in a heterologous nuclear extract revealed that the promoter can be recognized by the basal eukaryotic transcription complex. This suggests that the transcription machinery in the parasite may be very similar to those of other eukaryotes.

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Putative Susceptibility Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant genetic component as shown by family and twin studies. However, only a few genes have repeatedly been shown to be involved in the development of ASDs. The aim of this study has been...... to identify possible ASD susceptibility genes. Genome screens in ASD patients suggest possible susceptibility gene regions on almost every chromosome. We identified four ASD patients with chromosomal rearrangements, two of which were familial rearrangements involving one of these putative susceptibility gene......) was performed for all four patients. By combination of these methods we identified several putative susceptibility genes for ASDs. Expression patterns were established for several of these genes by Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) or in situ hybridization and one gene was sequenced in 157 ASD patients. Our results...

  6. Novel circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in marine invertebrates reveal high sequence diversity and consistent predicted intrinsic disorder patterns within putative structural proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyna eRosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral metagenomics has recently revealed the ubiquitous and diverse nature of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that encode a conserved replication initiator protein (Rep in the marine environment. Although eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA viruses were originally thought to only infect plants and vertebrates, recent studies have identified these viruses in a number of invertebrates. To further explore CRESS-DNA viruses in the marine environment, this study surveyed CRESS-DNA viruses in various marine invertebrate species. A total of 27 novel CRESS-DNA genomes, with Reps that share less than 60.1% identity with previously reported viruses, were recovered from 21 invertebrate species, mainly crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep revealed a novel clade of CRESS-DNA viruses that included approximately one third of the marine invertebrate associated viruses identified here and whose members may represent a novel family. Investigation of putative capsid proteins (Cap encoded within the eukaryotic CRESS-DNA viral genomes from this study and those in GenBank demonstrated conserved patterns of predicted intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs, which can be used to complement similarity-based searches to identify divergent structural proteins within novel genomes. Overall, this study expands our knowledge of CRESS-DNA viruses associated with invertebrates and explores a new tool to evaluate divergent structural proteins encoded by these viruses.

  7. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor sequence from fish

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Kumaresan; T Venugopal; A Vikas; T J Pandian; S M Athavan

    2000-03-01

    A search for the presence of mariner-like elements in the Labeo rohita genome by polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a partial DNA sequence coding for a putative transmembrane domain of gonadotropin hormone receptor. The amplified DNA sequence shows a high degree of homology to the available turkey and human luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone receptor coding sequences. This is the first report on cloning such sequences of piscine origin.

  8. A putative role for apelin in the etiology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Krieg, Paul A; Cox, Christopher M; Robins, Allan; Baile, Clifton A

    2008-04-11

    Apelin, the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled APJ receptor has been shown to promote tumor angiogenesis. However, the effect of apelin on inducing angiogenesis in adipose tissue has not been investigated. In this review, we propose a putative role for apelin in promoting angiogenesis in adipose tissue. We further propose that targeting adipose tissue vasculature by blocking apelin signaling with anti-apelin antibodies will lead not only to inhibition of angiogenesis in adipose tissue but also to decreased adiposity.

  9. Occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustacean shellfishes in coastal parts of Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Das, Suresh Chandra; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the study was to isolate and characterize pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from crustacean shellfishes (crab and shrimp) commonly retailed in coastal parts of eastern India. Materials and Methods: Samples were processed by bacteriological isolation followed by biochemical characterization in Kaper’s medium. Presumptively identified isolates were confirmed by species-specific Vp-toxR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Virulence and pandemic property of the confirmed V. parahaemolyticus isolates were determined by specific PCR assays. Results: On screening of 167 samples comprising crabs (n=82) and shrimps (n=85) by the standard bacteriological cultural method, V. parahaemolyticus was presumptively identified in 86.6% (71/82) and 82.3% (70/85) of respective samples. Of these, 46 (56%) and 66 (77.6%) isolates from crab and shrimp, respectively, were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by biochemical characterization (Kaper’s reaction) followed by specific Vp-toxR PCR assay. About 10 isolates each from crab and shrimp was found to carry the virulence gene (tdh). It denotes that 12.2% of crab and 11.7% of shrimp in the study area are harboring the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. Such tdh+ isolates (n=20) were subjected for screening of pandemic genotype by pandemic group specific (PGS) - PCR (PGS-PCR) and GS-PCR (toxRS gene) where 11 (6.5%) isolates revealed the pandemic determining amplicon (235 bp) in PGS-PCR and belonged to crab (7.3%) and shrimp (6%) samples; however, 2 (2.4%) isolates were positive in GS-PCR and belonged to crab samples only. These two GS-PCR+ isolates from crab were also positive in PGS-PCR. Conclusion: The findings of the study conclusively indicated that a considerable percentage of crab and shrimp in these areas were harboring pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus posing a public health risk in consumption of improperly processed such shellfishes. Cross contamination of other marine and fresh water market

  10. Comparative cation dependency of sugar transport by crustacean hepatopancreas and intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Duka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is transported in crustacean hepatopancreas and intestine by Na+-dependent co-transport, while Na+-dependent D-fructose influx has only been described for the hepatopancreas. It is still unclear if the two sugars are independently transported by two distinct cation-dependent co-transporter carrier systems. In this study, lobster (Homarus americanus hepatopancreas brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV were used to characterize, in detail, the cation-dependency of both D-[3H]-glucose and D-[3H]-fructose influxes, while in vitro perfused intestines were employed to determine the nature of cation-dependent sugar transport across this organ. Over the sodium concentration range of 0–100 mM, both [3H]-glucose and [3H]-fructose influxes (0.1 mM; 1 min uptakes by hepatopancreatic BBMV were hyperbolic functions of [Na+]. [3H]-glucose and [3H]-fructose influxes by hepatopancreatic BBMV over a potassium concentration range of 15–100 mM were hyperbolic functions of [K+]. Both sugars displayed significant (p<0.01 Na+/K+-dependent and cation-independent uptake processes. Transepithelial 25 µM [3H]-glucose and [3H]-fructose fluxes across lobster intestine over luminal sodium and potassium concentration ranges of 0–50 mM and 5–100 mM, respectively, were hyperbolic functions of luminal [Na+] and [K+]. As with hepatopancreatic sugar transport, transepithelial intestinal sugar transport exhibited both significant (p<0.01 Na+/K+-dependent and cation-independent processes. Results suggest that both D-glucose and D-fructose are transported by a single SGLT-type carrier in each organ with sodium being the “preferred”, high affinity, cation for both sugars in the hepatopancreas, and potassium being the “preferred”, high affinity, cation for both sugars in the intestine.

  11. Occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustacean shellfishes in coastal parts of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthasarathy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The objective of the study was to isolate and characterize pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from crustacean shellfishes (crab and shrimp commonly retailed in coastal parts of eastern India. Materials and Methods: Samples were processed by bacteriological isolation followed by biochemical characterization in Kaper’s medium. Presumptively identified isolates were confirmed by species-specific Vp-toxR polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Virulence and pandemic property of the confirmed V. parahaemolyticus isolates were determined by specific PCR assays. Results: On screening of 167 samples comprising crabs (n=82 and shrimps (n=85 by the standard bacteriological cultural method, V. parahaemolyticus was presumptively identified in 86.6% (71/82 and 82.3% (70/85 of respective samples. Of these, 46 (56% and 66 (77.6% isolates from crab and shrimp, respectively, were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by biochemical characterization (Kaper’s reaction followed by specific Vp-toxR PCR assay. About 10 isolates each from crab and shrimp was found to carry the virulence gene (tdh. It denotes that 12.2% of crab and 11.7% of shrimp in the study area are harboring the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. Such tdh+ isolates (n=20 were subjected for screening of pandemic genotype by pandemic group specific (PGS - PCR (PGS-PCR and GS-PCR (toxRS gene where 11 (6.5% isolates revealed the pandemic determining amplicon (235 bp in PGS-PCR and belonged to crab (7.3% and shrimp (6% samples; however, 2 (2.4% isolates were positive in GS-PCR and belonged to crab samples only. These two GS-PCR+ isolates from crab were also positive in PGS-PCR. Conclusion: The findings of the study conclusively indicated that a considerable percentage of crab and shrimp in these areas were harboring pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus posing a public health risk in consumption of improperly processed such shellfishes. Cross contamination of other marine and fresh water

  12. Prevalence of Colacium vesiculosum (Colaciales: Euglenophyceae on planktonic crustaceans in a subtropical shallow lake of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Zalocar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colacium vesiculosum (Euglenophyceae is an epibiont common on planktonic microcrustaceans of continental waters. The interaction between epibionts and substrate organisms is not very well known, particularly in subtropical environments of South America. In the present work, we analyzed the prevalence, density, biomass and attachment sites of C. vesiculosum on planktonic microcrustaceans from Paiva Lake, a subtropical lake of Argentina. With the aim to evaluate whether epibionts affect the filtering rates of Notodiaptomus spiniger, the dominant planktonic crustacean, we carried out bioassays using phytoplankton Colacium vesiculosum Ehrenberg (Euglenophyceae es un epibionte común en microcrustáceos del plancton de aguas continentales. La interacción epibiontes y organismo substrato es poco conocida, particularmente en ambientes subtropicales de América del Sur. Se analiza la prevalencia, densidad, biomasa y sitios de adhesión de C. vesiculosum en microcrustáceos planctónicos de un lago subtropical de Argentina. Con el fin de evaluar si los epibiontes afectan la tasa de filtración de Notodiaptomus spiniger Brian, crustáceo dominante del zooplancton, se realizaron bioensayos utilizando el fitoplancton <53µm. Los crustáceos fueron muestreados con un tubo de PVC (1m de largo, 10cm de diámetro filtrándose 50L de agua a través de una red de 53µm de abertura de malla. El recuento de los microcrustáceos se realizó en cámaras de Bogorov bajo microscopio estereoscópico. Los organismos infectados fueron separados y observados al microscopio fotónico para determinaciones de densidad y biovolumen de los epibiontes, y su distribución en el exoesqueleto. La prevalencia de C. vesiculosum fue mayor en crustáceos adultos que en estadíos larvales y juveniles. El grupo más infestado fue el de los copépodos calanoideos en relación con su alta densidad. Los sitios de adhesión sobre el exoesqueleto fueron las regiones del cuerpo que durante la

  13. A novel function of red pigment-concentrating hormone in crustaceans: Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) as a model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zralá, Jana; Kodrík, Dalibor; Zahradnícková, Helena; Zemek, Rostislav; Socha, Radomír

    2010-04-01

    The RP HPLC and LC/MS QTOF analyses of the methanolic CNS extract from isopod crustacean the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber revealed a presence of the red pigment-concentrating hormone (Panbo-RPCH) in this species. It has been shown that this neuropeptide plays a role in mobilization of energy stores: topical treatments of P. scaber individuals by Panbo-RPCH in a concentration 20 pmol/microl increased the level of glucose in haemolymph about 4 times, while the level of trehalose was only doubled. The results demonstrated that glucose was the main carbohydrate mobilized by the Panbo-RPCH treatment: glucose was responsible for about 97% of total carbohydrate increasing. Despite the demonstration of hyperglycaemic activity of Panbo-RPCH, no stimulatory effect of this hormone on the locomotory activity of P. scaber was observed. The present study is the first discovery of an occurrence of Panbo-RPCH and its hyperglycaemic activity in the representative of the isopod crustaceans. The relationship of the function of Panbo-RPCH in P. scaber to the role of this neuropeptide and adipokinetic hormones in insects is discussed.

  14. First Insights into the Subterranean Crustacean Bathynellacea Transcriptome: Transcriptionally Reduced Opsin Repertoire and Evidence of Conserved Homeostasis Regulatory Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Kang, Seunghyun; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ahn, Inhye; Lee, Chi-Woo; Cho, Joo-Lae; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae) are subterranean aquatic crustaceans that typically inhabit freshwater interstitial spaces (e.g., groundwater) and are occasionally found in caves and even hot springs. In this study, we sequenced the whole transcriptome of Allobathynella bangokensis using RNA-seq. De novo sequence assembly produced 74,866 contigs including 28,934 BLAST hits. Overall, the gene sequences were most similar to those of the waterflea Daphnia pulex. In the A. bangokensis transcriptome, no opsin or related sequences were identified, and no contig aligned to the crustacean visual opsins and non-visual opsins (i.e. arthropsins, peropsins, and melaopsins), suggesting potential regressive adaptation to the dark environment. However, A. bangokensis expressed conserved gene family sets, such as heat shock proteins and those related to key innate immunity pathways and antioxidant defense systems, at the transcriptional level, suggesting that this species has evolved adaptations involving molecular mechanisms of homeostasis. The transcriptomic information of A. bangokensis will be useful for investigating molecular adaptations and response mechanisms to subterranean environmental conditions. PMID:28107438

  15. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick T; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T; Weidel, Brian C; Zwart, Jacob A; Jones, Stuart E

    2016-08-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L(-1) in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Role of cellular compartmentalization in the trophic transfer of mercury species in a freshwater plant-crustacean food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Chaumot, Arnaud; Gimbert, Frédéric; Quéau, Hervé; Geffard, Olivier; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) represents an important risk for human health through the food webs contamination. Macrophytes bioaccumulate Hg and play a role in Hg transfer to food webs in shallow aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, the compartmentalization of Hg within macrophytes, notably major accumulation in the cell wall and its impact on trophic transfer to primary consumers are overlooked. The present work focusses on the trophic transfer of inorganic Hg (IHg) and monomethyl-Hg (MMHg) from the intracellular and cell wall compartments of the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii - considered a good candidate for phytoremediation - to the crustacean Gammarus fossarum. The results demonstrated that Hg accumulated in both compartments was trophically bioavailable to gammarids. Besides IHg from both compartments were similarly transferred to G. fossarum, while for MMHg, uptake rates were ∼2.5-fold higher in G. fossarum fed with the cell wall vs the intracellular compartment. During the depuration phase, Hg concentrations in G. fossarum varied insignificantly suggesting that both IHg and MMHg were strongly bound to biological ligands in the crustacean. Our data imply that cell walls have to be considered as an important source of Hg to consumers in freshwater food webs when developing procedures for enhancing aquatic environment protection during phytoremediation programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk assessment of pet-traded decapod crustaceans in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the leading country in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uderbayev Talgat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pet trade with decapod crustaceans has been considered one of the main pathway of introduction of these animals worldwide. As the leading markets in this regards are the Czech Republic, Germany and the USA. Central Asia is not perceived as an important market with ornamental decapod crustaceans. Despite this assumption, we found at least 16 species of freshwater shrimp, crayfish and crab species pet-traded in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the largest country in this region. Considering computed risk assessment, the origin of particular species, their availability on the market, the probability of establishment and further aspects, we identified two crayfish Procambarus clarkii and Procambarus fallax f. virginalis being the seriously hazardous taxa with high potential to threaten native crayfish species as well as inhabited ecosystems. To prevent their introductions and to minimize the risks of mentioned species, similarly as in the case of European Union, we recommend the total ban of import, trade and keeping of these high-risk taxa within Central Asia.

  18. Negative effects of Microcystis blooms on the crustacean plankton in an enclosure experiment in the subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei-zhou; XIE Ping; TANG Hui-juan; LIU Hong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of Microcystis blooms on the crustacean plankton were studied using enclosure experiments during July-September,2000. Eight enclosures were set in the hypereutrophic Donghu Lake. Different nutrient concentrations through additional nutrient and sediment in enclosures were expected to result in different abundance of Microcystis. From July to early August, the phytoplankton community was dominated by Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta other than Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa showed a rapid increase during early August in all enclosures and predominated. Crustacean plankton was dominated by the herbivorous Moina micrura, Diaphanosoma brachyurum and Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and the predaceous Mesocyclops sp. and Thermocyclops taihokuensis. During the pre-bloom period, the dynamics of M. micrura population appeared to be mainly affected by the predaceous cyclopoids. With the development of Microcystis blooms, such interaction between M. micrura and cyclopoids seemed weakened, especially when the Microcystis biomass was high. But there was no apparent influence on the interaction between Leptodora kindti and its zooplanktonic prey. The density of two cyclopoids decreased with the enhancement of Microcystis. The density decline of M. micrura was caused by both predation and inhibition by Microcystis. The low food availability of other edible phytoplankton during the blooms led to low densities of both C. comuta and D. brachyurum by late August. lt appears that dense Microcystis blooms exert strong negative effects on the herbivorous cladocerans and the predaceous cyclopoids.

  19. Spatial distribution of calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate in the cuticle of the terrestrial crustaceans Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Sabine; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    The crustacean cuticle is an interesting model to study the properties of mineralized bio-composites. The cuticle consists of an organic matrix composed of chitin-protein fibres associated with various amounts of crystalline and amorphous calcium carbonate. It is thought that in isopods the relative amounts of these mineral polymorphs depend on its function and the habitat of the animal. In addition to the composition, the distribution of the various components should affect the properties of the cuticle. However, the spatial distribution of calcium carbonate polymorphs within the crustacean cuticle is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the mineralized cuticles of the terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio scaber using scanning electron-microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and confocal mu-Raman spectroscopic imaging. We show for the first time that the mineral phases are arranged in distinct layers. Calcite is restricted to the outer layer of the cuticle that corresponds to the exocuticle. Amorphous calcium carbonate is located within the endocuticle that lies below the exocuticle. Within both layers mineral is arranged in rows of granules with diameters of about 20 nm. The results suggest functional implications of mineral distribution that accord to the moulting and escape behaviour of the animals.

  20. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Zwart, Jacob A.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L−1 in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning).

  1. The early life history of tissue oxygenation in crustaceans: the strategy of the myodocopid ostracod Cylindroleberis mariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Laure; Carbonel, Pierre; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2005-02-01

    We studied basic principles of respiratory physiology in Cylindroleberididae, Cylindroleberis mariae Baird 1850, which are millimetre-sized crustaceans (myodocop ostracod) having a fossil record dating back to about 425 millions years ago. Facing experimental changes of O2 partial pressures in the range 2-40 kPa (normoxia is 21 kPa), C. mariae lack any regulatory mechanism to adapt their ventilatory and circulatory activity. Thus, the oxygenation status of their internal milieu must follow, as a dependent variable, the ambient oxygenation. Freely behaving C. mariae exhibit a marked diurnal activity rhythm. They are actively swimming in the water column during night, where they inspire in normoxic-normocapnic water. They are resting in self-made nests during daytime, where they are rebreathing in a confined and hypoxic environment. By analogy to extensive previous literature data, we suggest that these changes of respiratory gas content, and the associated tissue gas status, participate to the shaping of their metabolic activity and behaviour. To conclude, as Cylindroleberididae are early crustaceans exhibiting a remarkable stasis since the Palaeozoic, present data illustrates how principles of tissue oxygenation strategy can cover an impressive time scale.

  2. Induced metamorphosis in crustacean y-larvae: Towards a solution to a 100-year-old riddle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygier Mark J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The y-larva, a crustacean larval type first identified more than 100 years ago, has been found in marine plankton samples collected in the arctic, temperate and tropical regions of all oceans. The great species diversity found among y-larvae (we have identified more than 40 species at our study site alone indicates that the adult organism may play a significant ecological role. However, despite intense efforts, the adult y-organism has never been identified, and nothing is therefore known about its biology. Results We have successfully and repeatedly induced metamorphosis of y-larvae into a novel, highly reduced juvenile stage by applying the crustacean molting hormone 20-HE. The new stage is slug-like, unsegmented and lacks both limbs and almost all other traits normally characterizing arthropods, but it is capable of vigorous peristaltic motions. Conclusion From our observations on live and preserved material we conclude that adult Facetotecta are endoparasitic in still to be identified marine hosts and with a juvenile stage that represents a remarkable convergence to that seen in parasitic barnacles (Crustacea Cirripedia Rhizocephala. From the distribution and abundance of facetotectan y-larvae in the world's oceans we furthermore suggest that these parasites are widespread and could play an important role in the marine environment.

  3. A New Chytridiomycete Fungus Intermixed with Crustacean Resting Eggs in a 407-Million-Year-Old Continental Freshwater Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Goral, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E; Olesen, Jørgen; Kenrick, Paul; Edgecombe, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based on its size, consistent formation of papillae, and the presence of an internal rhizoidal system. It is the most pristine fossil Chytridiomycota known, especially in terms of rhizoidal development and closely resembles living species in the Rhizophydiales. The spiny resting eggs are attributed to the crustacean Lepidocaris rhyniensis, dating branchiopod adaptation to life in ephemeral pools to the Early Devonian. The new fungal interaction suggests that, as in modern freshwater environments, chytrids were important to the mobilisation of nutrients in early aquatic foodwebs.

  4. Isolation and Identification of Putative Oral Cancer Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; ZHAO Yan-Hua; TANG Xiao-Fei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and characterize putative cancer stem cells in Tea8113 oral squmous cell carcinoma cell line. Methods: Putative cancer stem cells were isolated by limited dilution assay in Tea8113 cell line. Biological features of putative cancer stem cells were detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, Colony Forming Efficiency assays, cell motility assay and in vivo tumor formation experiment. Results: Compared with untreated Tea8113 cells, the putative cancer stem cells proliferated more quickly and showed heteroploid cell cycle,higher G0/G1-arrested cells, higher CFE and higher expression levels of ABCG2 belonged to tumor stem cell phenotypes. The putative cancer stem cells had stronger capacity to generate tumors in vivo. Conclusion: The holoclone cells have higher proliferation and self-renewal abilities, which may be cancer stem cells existed in Tea8113 oral squmous cell carcinoma cell line.%目的:分离鉴定口腔鳞癌细胞系Tca8113中的肿瘤干细胞.方法:利用有限稀释的方法分离Tca8113细胞系中的肿瘤干细胞.通过MTT法、流式细胞技术、细胞免疫荧光、克隆形成率分析、细胞迁移能力检测和裸鼠皮下成瘤实验确定分离得到的肿瘤干细胞的生物学特点.结果:分离得到的紧密型克隆肿瘤细胞表现为异倍体样细胞周期,大部分细胞处于G0/G1期,增殖能力、克隆形成率和体外迁移能力都明显高于未分离的肿瘤细胞.紧密型克隆肿瘤细胞肿瘤干细胞标记物ABCG2表达也高于未分离的肿瘤细胞,并且具有更强的裸鼠皮下成瘤能力.结论:我们分离得到的紧密型克隆细胞具有较强的细胞增殖和自我更新能力,可能就是口腔鳞癌细胞系Tca8113中的肿瘤干细胞.

  5. Anti-proliferative activity of oral anti-hyperglycemic agents on human vascular smooth muscle cells: thiazolidinediones (glitazones have enhanced activity under high glucose conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Dios Stephanie T

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC proliferation by oral anti-hyperglycemic agents may have a role to play in the amelioration of vascular disease in diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs inhibit vSMC proliferation but it has been reported that they anomalously stimulate [3H]-thymidine incorporation. We investigated three TZDs, two biguanides and two sulfonylureas for their ability of inhibit vSMC proliferation. People with diabetes obviously have fluctuating blood glucose levels thus we determined the effect of media glucose concentration on the inhibitory activity of TZDs in a vSMC preparation that grew considerably more rapidly under high glucose conditions. We further explored the mechanisms by which TZDs increase [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Methods VSMC proliferation was investigated by [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell counting. Activation and inhibition of thymidine kinase utilized short term [3H]-thymidine uptake. Cell cycle events were analyzed by FACS. Results VSMC cells grown for 3 days in DMEM with 5% fetal calf serum under low (5 mM glucose and high (25 mM glucose increased in number by 2.5 and 4.7 fold, respectively. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone showed modest but statistically significantly greater inhibitory activity under high versus low glucose conditions (P 3H]-thymidine into DNA but did not increase cell numbers. Troglitazone inhibited serum mediated thymidine kinase induction in a concentration dependent manner. FACS analysis showed that troglitazone and rosiglitazone but not pioglitazone placed a slightly higher percentage of cells in the S phase of a growing culture. Of the biguanides, metformin had no effect on proliferation assessed as [3H]-thymidine incorporation or cell numbers whereas phenformin was inhibitory in both assays albeit at high concentrations. The sulfonylureas chlorpropamide and gliclazide had no inhibitory effect on vSMC proliferation assessed by either [3H

  6. Endothelial cells derived from the blood-brain barrier and islets of Langerhans differ in their response to the effects of bilirubin on oxidative stress under hyperglycemic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime eKapitulnik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB is a neurotoxic degradation product of heme. Its toxic effects include induction of apoptosis, and ultimately neuronal cell death. However, at low concentrations, UCB is a potent antioxidant that may protect cells and tissues against oxidative stress by neutralizing toxic metabolites such as reactive oxygen species (ROS. High glucose levels (hyperglycemia generate reactive metabolites. Endothelial cell dysfunction, an early vascular complication in diabetes, has been associated with hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Both glucose and UCB are substrates for transport proteins in microvascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In the current study we show that UCB (1-40 M induces apoptosis and reduces survival of bEnd3 cells, a mouse brain endothelial cell line which serves as an in vitro model of the BBB. These deleterious effects of UCB were enhanced in the presence of high glucose (25 mM levels. Interestingly, the bEnd3 cells exhibited an increased sensitivity to the apoptotic effects of UCB when compared to the MS1 microcapillary endothelial cell line. MS1 cells originate from murine pancreatic islets of Langherans, and are devoid of the barrier characteristics of BBB-derived endothelial cells. ROS production was increased in both bEnd3 and MS1 cells exposed to high glucose, as compared with cells exposed to normal (5.5 mM glucose levels. While UCB (0.1-40 M did not alter ROS production in cells exposed to normal glucose, relatively low ('physiological' UCB concentrations (0.1-5 M attenuated ROS generation in both cell lines exposed to high glucose levels. Most strikingly, higher UCB concentrations (20-40 M increased ROS generation in bEnd3 cells exposed to high glucose, but not in similarly treated MS1 cells. These results may be of critical importance for understanding the vulnerability of the BBB endothelium upon exposure to increasing UCB levels under hyperglycemic conditions.

  7. Extended parental care in crustaceans: an update Cuidado parental extendido en crustáceos: conocimiento actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN THIEL

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Many crustacean species show extended parental care (XPC for fully developed juvenile offspring. Herein, the present state of knowledge of the major patterns and consequences of XPC is reviewed, and furthermore important future research topics are identified. Crustaceans with XPC are found in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments, but care for late juvenile stages appears to be more common in terrestrial environments. In all species, females participate or even take the main share of XPC activities. Crustaceans that carry their offspring during XPC commonly release early juvenile stages, while species inhabiting particular microhabitats may host offspring until these have reached subadult or adult stages. Apart from providing a suitable and safe microhabitat to small offspring, parents share food with, groom or actively defend their juveniles. Some of the most important benefits of XPC include improved juvenile growth and survival. XPC may also lead to conflicts among developing offspring or between parents and offspring, especially during later phases of XPC when resources (food and space become increasingly limiting. Similarly, during long-lasting cohabitation, epibionts (e.g., parasites may be transferred from parents to offspring, as is indicated by observational evidence. For several species, local recruitment, where juveniles recruit in the immediate vicinity of their parents, has been observed. Under these conditions, local populations may rapidly increase, potentially leading to intra-specific competition for space, thereby possibly causing a decrease in reproductive activity or a reduction in length of XPC. Another consequence of XPC and local recruitment could be limited dispersal potential, but some marine crustaceans with XPC and local recruitment nevertheless have a wide geographic distribution. It is hypothesized that the existence of suitable dispersal vectors such as floating macroalgae or wood can lead to a substantial

  8. Molecular genetics: DNA analysis of a putative dog clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G; Kruglyak, Leonid; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2006-03-09

    In August 2005, Lee et al. reported the first cloning of a domestic dog from adult somatic cells. This putative dog clone was the result of somatic-cell nuclear transfer from a fibroblast cell of a three-year-old male Afghan hound into a donor oocyte provided by a dog of mixed breed. In light of recent concerns regarding the creation of cloned human cell lines from the same institution, we have undertaken an independent test to determine the validity of the claims made by Lee et al..

  9. 甲壳动物渗透调节生理学研究进展%Review on the osmoregulation of crustacean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘鲁青; 刘泓宇

    2005-01-01

    Osmoregulation involves many aspects of physiological function in crustacean. Crustacean species exhibit almost all possible patterns of osmotic regulation and they are widely distributed in most of known biotopes. With the changes of liquid environment, the structure and function of the osmoregulation organs( such as gills, antennary glands) ,haemolymph osmotic pressure and ionic transport will turn to maintain the well-balanced metabolism, which are under the neuroendocrine regulation. The current research status of physiological mechanism of crustacean osmoregulation was reviewed in the following aspects. 1 ) Structure and function of gills and antennal glands(maxillary glands). The gills are very important organs and play a prominenet role in osmoregulatien; 2)Regulafien of ion transport in branchial epithelium. Ion transport enzymes (Na+ -K+ -ATPase, V-ATPase,HCO3--ATPase and carbonicanhydrase)stimulated by bioamines and cAMP may participate in the ion transport of branchial epithelium in crustacean; 3 )Haemolymph composition and osmoregulation. Haemolymph concentration of ion and free amino acid accompanied by metabolites of blood can contribute to the most of haemolymph osmotic pressure; 4)Neuroendocrine control. Many neuropeptides may regulate the osraotic pressure of haemolymph and proteinsases activity of epithelial gill cells. Bioamines, cAMP and CaM have been proved to stimulate the uptake of Na+ and transport of Cl-.

  10. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Whittington, Richard J.; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

    2016-01-01

    reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation...

  11. Monthly variation in crustacean assemblage (decapod and stomatopod) and its relationships with environmental variables in Laizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Ruisheng; Jin, Xianshi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the community structure of crustaceans (decapod and stomatopod) inhabiting the sandy mud bottoms of Laizhou Bay (northeastern China) monthly from May 2011 to April 2012. Investigation was stopped from December 2011 to February 2012 because of the extreme weather and sea ice. A total of 205,057 specimens belonging to 31 species (shrimp, 15; crab, 15; and stomatopod, 1) were collected in 148 hauls. From 2011 to 2012, Oratosquilla oratoria was the dominant biomass species (47.80%), followed by Charybdis japonica (15.49%), Alpheus japonicas (12.61%), Portunus trituberculatus (6.46%), and Crangon spp. (4.19%). Crangon spp. was the most dominant species by individual (32.55%). O. oratoria was the most-frequently encountered species (81.76%), followed by Palaemon gravieri (70.95%), C. japonica (65.54%), A. japonicas (62.16%), and P. trituberculatus (54.73%). The biomass density increased from August to September 2011 and decreased from March 2012 to April 2012. The dynamics of the ecological indices evolve in a similar manner, with high values of diversity and evenness and rich species from May to June 2011 and low values from September to October 2011. O. oratoria, C. japonica, and P. trituberculatus differed by biomass data between groups I (samples obtained from September to October 2011) and II (samples in other months). These species contributed more than 70% to the similarity of the crustacean community structure. Furthermore, the subsets of environmental variables that best matched the crustacean-assemblage structure were as follows: water depth (WD) in summer (June to August); sea surface temperature (SST), dissolved oxygen (DO), and WD in autumn (September to November); and DO, salinity, and WD in spring (March to May). The calculated correlation coefficients and significance level were higher in the period of July to August 2011 than in other months. Comparing 2011 to 2012 with 1982 to 1983, the species composition remained stable

  12. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html New Year, Fresh Recipes Enjoy these free recipes and meal plans to start 2017 on a healthy note. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's Sabores de Cuba - 2016-08-book-sabores-de-cuba.html More from diabetes.org ...

  13. Putative cryptoendolithic life in Devonian pillow basalt, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, J; Bach, W; Behrens, K; Reitner, J

    2008-03-01

    Middle Devonian (Givetian) pillow basalt and inter-pillow breccia from the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge in Germany were found to contain putative biogenic filaments that indicate that life once proliferated within these volcanic rocks. Mineralized filaments are found in carbonate amygdules (vesicles filled by carbonate cement) in the volcanic rock, where they started to form on the internal surface of the once water-filled vesicles. Biogenicity of the filaments is indicated by (1) their size and shape resembling modern microorganisms including a constant diameter along the length of curved filaments, (2) their independence of crystal faces or cleavage planes, (3) branching patterns reminiscent of modern microorganisms, and (4) their spatial clustering and preferential occurrence close to the margin of pillows and in the inter-pillow breccias. A time lag between the deposition of pillow basalt and the activity of endoliths is revealed by the sequence of carbonate cements filling the amygdules. The putative filamentous microorganisms thrived after the formation of early fibrous rim cement, but before later equant calcite spar filled most of the remaining porosity. Microbial clay authigenesis analogous to the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments led to the preservation of filaments. The filaments predominantly consist of the clay minerals chamosite and illite. Having dwelled in water-filled vesicles, the Devonian basalt-hosted filaments apparently represent cryptoendoliths. This finding suggests that a previously unrecognized niche for life exists within volcanic rock.

  14. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Rosemie M A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; van 't Hof, Martin A; van 't Hof, Bep E; Maltha, Jaap C

    2008-10-01

    In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. Seventy-six adult laypeople evaluated sets of photographs of 64 adolescents on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100. The facial esthetic value of each subject was calculated as a mean VAS score. Three observers recorded the position of 13 facial landmarks included in 19 putative golden proportions, based on the golden proportions as defined by Ricketts. The proportions and each proportion's deviation from the golden target (1.618) were calculated. This deviation was then related to the VAS scores. Only 4 of the 19 proportions had a significant negative correlation with the VAS scores, indicating that beautiful faces showed less deviation from the golden standard than less beautiful faces. Together, these variables explained only 16% of the variance. Few golden proportions have a significant relationship with facial esthetics in adolescents. The explained variance of these variables is too small to be of clinical importance.

  15. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

  16. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

  17. Behavioral plasticity, behavioral syndromes and animal personality in crustacean decapods: An imperfect map is better than no map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesca GHERARDI; Laura AQUILONI; Elena TRICARICO

    2012-01-01

    Despite their key role as model organisms in many behavioral studies,crustacean decapods have been only slightly touched upon by the recent surge of scientific interest in animal personality.Only seven articles investigated the issue in a handful of species among hermit crabs,crabs,and crayfish.Obviously,a limited number of publications does not mean that personality is rare in decapods.On the contrary,few studies might be the result of a form of reluctance by behavioral ecologists to deal with such a phenomenon in these and other invertebrates.This reluctance contrasts with the enthusiasm shown in tackling the behavioral plasticity issue.Here we discuss the possible theoretical and methodological difficulties raised by applying the animal personality perspective to decapods and analyze implications of personality studies for their ecology,conservation,and welfare.By highlighting gaps in knowledge and directions of future research,our intention is to increase scientific emphasis on the issue.

  18. A new chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.

    2016-01-01

    The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide...... critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures...... interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based...

  19. Foreseeing fates: a commentary on Manton (1928) ‘On the embryology of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sidnie Manton became best known for her work on arthropod locomotion, and for proposing radical views on the evolution of arthropods that were accepted for a generation. However, her early training was as an embryologist, and the work that she carried out at the beginning of her career still stands as one of the major twentieth century contributions to the study of crustacean embryology. Here, I review her first major paper, largely completed while she was a graduate student, describing embryonic development in Hemimysis lamornae, a small shrimp-like animal found in the seas around the UK. The clarity of her writing and the quality of her figures set a standard that laid the basis for subsequent work, and although not all of her conclusions have stood the test of time, they remain a standard reference for work today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750244

  20. Development and validation of a lateral flow assay for the detection of crustacean protein in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Daisuke; Shirota, Kazuya; Akita, Ryoko; Oda, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    We developed and validated a novel lateral flow assay for the detection of crustacean protein in processed foods. This assay had high sensitivity; the visual detection limit for shrimp protein extract was 25μg/L, equivalent to 1μg/g protein in a food sample, and results could be obtained within 20min without sophisticated procedures or expensive equipment. Concordance between our assay and another validated quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 97% for commercially processed foods. This assay is rapid, simple, reliable, and highly correlated with validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and is thus suitable for monitoring of food products, especially in food-processing facilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are Cirripedia hopeful monsters? Cytogenetic approach and evidence for a Hox gene cluster in the cirripede crustacean Sacculina carcini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géant, Elodie; Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Deutsch, Jean S

    2006-01-01

    The "hopeful monster" has haunted evolutionary thinking since Richard Goldschmidt coined the phrase in 1933. The phrase is directly related to genetic mechanisms in development and evolution. Cirripedes are peculiar crustaceans in that they all lack abdomens as adults. In a previous study aimed at describing the repertoire of Hox genes of the Cirripedia, we failed to isolate the abdominal-A gene in three species representative of all three cirripede orders. To address the question of whether the cirripede ancestor could have been a "hopeful monster" arising from a rearrangement of the Hox complex, we have performed a cytogenetic analysis of the Hox complex of the cirripede Sacculina carcini. We present here molecular and cytogenetic evidence for the grouping of the Hox genes on a single chromosome. This is the first direct evidence reported for the grouping of Hox genes on the same chromosome in a non-insect arthropod species.

  2. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  3. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak

    Full Text Available Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1 are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1 produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  4. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1) are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1) produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  5. Bioaccumulation of Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium by the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum: Involvement in biomonitoring surveys and trophic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Clivot, Aurélie; Palos Ladeiro, Mélissa; Lepoutre, Alexandra; Bastien, Fanny; Bonnard, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Geffard, Olivier; François, Adeline; Geffard, Alain

    2016-11-01

    The protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are public health priorities because their oocysts can persist in recreational, surface, drinking, river, and sea water sources for a long time. To evaluate the capacity of the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum to accumulate T. gondii and C. parvum oocysts, gammarids were exposed to 200, 2000 or 20,000 oocysts per gammarid and per day for 21 days followed by 5 days of depuration. C. parvum DNA was detected by qPCR in G. fossarum in only one out of four pools for the highest concentration and after 14 days of exposure, and T. gondii DNA was detected after 7 days of exposure to the two highest concentrations. Our results document the capacity of G. fossarum to accumulate T. gondii in its tissues proportionally to the ambient concentration; the maximum number of oocysts was detected in gammarid tissues after exposure to 20,000 oocysts per day. Mean values of 3.26 (±3), 21.71 (±15.18), and 17.41 (±10.89) oocysts were detected in gammarids after 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively, and after 5 days of depuration, T. gondii oocysts were still present in gammarid tissues. These results show for the first time that a freshwater crustacean can bioaccumulate T. gondii oocysts, suggesting that G. fossarum is a potential effective bioindicator of protozoan contamination in biomonitoring studies. Moreover, due to its key position in freshwater food webs, G. fossarum could also play a role in the trophic transfer of protozoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How a low tissue O2 strategy could be conserved in early crustaceans: the example of the podocopid ostracods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Laure; Carbonel, Pierre; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2004-12-01

    An adaptation strategy whereby O(2) partial pressure, P(O(2)), in the tissues is maintained within a low, narrow range of 1-3 kPa, largely independent of the inspired P(O(2)), has been reported in water- and air-breathing poikilotherms and in homeotherms. Based on the postulate that this basic cellular mechanism has been established since the early stages of evolution, it has been hypothesized that it could be the consequence of an early adaptation strategy to maintain cellular oxygenation within the same low and primitive range. To test this hypothesis we studied the basic mechanisms of oxygen regulation in podocopid ostracods, minute crustaceans that have existed on earth for at least 500 million years. Podocopids lack any regulatory mechanism for adapting their ventilation to cope with changes in water oxygenation, and instead adjust their tissue oxygenation status by migrating through the O(2) gradient to sediment layers where the P(O(2)) of the water is 3-5 kPa. Experimental manipulation of the O(2) profile induced their vertical migration to follow this precise water P(O(2)) and demonstrates the existence of a regulation strategy. This strategy must be associated with the lower P(O(2)) values within the animal's carapace valves, showing that podocopids can actively regulate their tissue P(O(2)) at constant but even lower values than the water. In conclusion, the low tissue P(O(2)) strategy could have existed in early crustaceans and, by extension, in early animals.

  7. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-12-29

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system

  8. Exceptional error minimization in putative primordial genetic codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard genetic code is redundant and has a highly non-random structure. Codons for the same amino acids typically differ only by the nucleotide in the third position, whereas similar amino acids are encoded, mostly, by codon series that differ by a single base substitution in the third or the first position. As a result, the code is highly albeit not optimally robust to errors of translation, a property that has been interpreted either as a product of selection directed at the minimization of errors or as a non-adaptive by-product of evolution of the code driven by other forces. Results We investigated the error-minimization properties of putative primordial codes that consisted of 16 supercodons, with the third base being completely redundant, using a previously derived cost function and the error minimization percentage as the measure of a code's robustness to mistranslation. It is shown that, when the 16-supercodon table is populated with 10 putative primordial amino acids, inferred from the results of abiotic synthesis experiments and other evidence independent of the code's evolution, and with minimal assumptions used to assign the remaining supercodons, the resulting 2-letter codes are nearly optimal in terms of the error minimization level. Conclusion The results of the computational experiments with putative primordial genetic codes that contained only two meaningful letters in all codons and encoded 10 to 16 amino acids indicate that such codes are likely to have been nearly optimal with respect to the minimization of translation errors. This near-optimality could be the outcome of extensive early selection during the co-evolution of the code with the primordial, error-prone translation system, or a result of a unique, accidental event. Under this hypothesis, the subsequent expansion of the code resulted in a decrease of the error minimization level that became sustainable owing to the evolution of a high