Vasil, Martina; McCall, Joyce M.
The purpose of this autoethnographic multiple case study was to compare experiences of two first-generation college students pursuing doctoral degrees in music education. Motivations for pursuing an advanced degree were to enact change in the field of music education and fulfill personal ambitions. Participants encountered two challenges,…
The purpose of this study was to determine what factors were motivating Latino/a students in the southern San Joaquin Valley to pursue STEM degrees and whether these factors were specific to the Latino/a culture. A 12-question survey was administered to STEM majors at California State University, Bakersfield and California State University, Fresno and interviews were conducted with those survey respondents who agreed to be part of the process. The results of the survey suggested that factors such as STEM subject matter, STEM career knowledge, the possibility of a high paying salary, high school STEM grades, and family influence were significant in motivating Latino/a students to pursue STEM degrees. The results of the Chi Square Test suggested the Latino/a students' responses about college STEM degree granting statistics, the possibility of a high salary, and the effects of setbacks were significantly different to those of their non-Latino/a counterparts.
Bukiet, Bruce; Thomas, Gordon
We discuss a Math and Physics Day for high school students and teachers, with hands-on activities and seminars involving mathematics and physics. Participants also learn about careers for those who go on to major in physics and mathematics in college. The New York State Section of the APS has provided generous support for this workshop through its Outreach grant program. Approximately a dozen high schools and 100 students attend each year. The program, which runs from 9:15 AM until 2:15 PM, includes an introduction to undergraduate degree programs in Mathematics, Statistics, Optics, Actuarial Science and Applied Physics, a group physics experiment/contest, brief talks over lunch by speakers from industry who have degrees in Math or Physics, and an afternoon seminar. Teachers earn Professional Development credit.
Thomas, Cynthia M; McIntosh, Constance E; Mensik, Jennifer S
Health care has become very complex and is in a constant state of change. As a result of the evolving change and increasing complexity, a more educated nursing workforce is needed (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010). It is now becoming necessary for registered nurses to earn an advanced degree to work at the highest level of their practice authority (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010.). Preparing to reenter college may be an overwhelming prospect for some registered nurses seeking an advanced degree. However, there are some simple strategies that may help sort out the many degree options, financial obligations, decisions about brick and mortar versus online learning, commitment to degree completion, and changing career paths. This article will provide the registered nurse valuable information that will assist in the exciting process of returning to college.
Full Text Available This is an exploratory study which investigates the reasons influencing Diploma in Accountancy (DIA students’ intention to pursue or not pursue a Bachelor of Accountancy (BAcc degree programme. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA is used as a basis for the study. The research involves collecting primary data through survey questionnaires. 250 questionnaires were distributed to the final year DIA students in MARA Professional College. Based on the findings, the reasons that influence students’ intention to pursue are: the hope to earn a good salary, higher future earnings potential and greater employability in the future. In contrast, the reasons for non-pursuance of a BAcc programme are because students think that they can develop their potential for personal growth and career development with other degree programmes or they want to get jobs and start working after obtaining the DIA. These findings would be useful to the Ministry of Education, the universities as well as the professional bodies to ensure that the students continue their studies in the accounting discipline to achieve their full potential.
The author examined the types of extrinsic motivation for Asian international graduate students pursuing graduate degrees. The theoretical framework used was extrinsic motivation within Self-Determination Theory. Even though the presence of Asian international graduate students is steadily increasing worldwide, research into their extrinsic motivation is scarce. It is important for educators to explore and understand Asian international graduate students’ extrinsic motivation since such stude...
Full Text Available The author examined the types of extrinsic motivation for Asian international graduate students pursuing graduate degrees. The theoretical framework used was extrinsic motivation within Self-Determination Theory. Even though the presence of Asian international graduate students is steadily increasing worldwide, research into their extrinsic motivation is scarce. It is important for educators to explore and understand Asian international graduate students’ extrinsic motivation since such students would provide unique, distinctive cultural aspects in the classroom in their host countries. The research design employed was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 graduate students from four Asian countries. The identified themes were a faculty influence, b personal recognition, and c utility for careers. Asian international graduate students expressed that their ultimate extrinsic motivation was to get professional jobs in academia. The author discussed the implications of these findings for instructors.
Javier Sierra Sánchez
and sources of information that define his choice of the University and the Faculty of Communication Sciences and analyze if there is an adequate marketing specifically university.Originality/value: Today’s universities must operate in much the same manner as businesses and corporations in order to survive. This new scenario pits one university against another in a race to attract the highest number of incoming students.Knowing the preferences of college-age students and the factors that influence their choice of a university has become increasingly crucial for institutions of higher education. This study sets out to determine not only the overall factors that determine a student’s choice in Spain, but also specifically what students who have chosen to pursue a university career in communications science look for when deciding where they will earn a degree in that discipline.
Although parents, high school students, and most civic leaders in this country and around the world see a college degree as important, this perspective has been attacked over the last five years. Once the Great Recession began in December 2007, there were far fewer good jobs available for new college graduates. The soaring price of college had…
Deutsch, Francine M.; Riffin, Catherine A.
Underpaid and overworked, preschool teachers face multiple barriers in pursuing higher education. In the present study, we explored how logistical and financial barriers hinder early childhood education teachers and teacher's aides from taking college courses, as well as how academic self-concept and social support influence current enrollment.…
Wheeler, Rebecca McCombs; Eichelberger, Lisa Wright
Increasing the number of nurses with doctorates is a goal of the nursing profession. The Georgia Nursing Leadership Coalition developed a survey to understand the perspectives of nurses pursuing doctoral degrees in Georgia to improve recruitment and retention strategies. A 26-item online survey was distributed to all students enrolled in Georgia-based doctoral programs in nursing in spring 2014. One hundred fifty responses were received (54% response rate). Most students first seriously considered doctoral education during their master's programs or more than 5 years into practice. For most, obtaining a doctoral degree was a personal life goal. Work-life balance was the most significant barrier. Recruitment of nurses to doctoral programs should focus on messaging, timing, and highlighting the unique aspects of programs. Schools should work to reduce barriers. Understanding students' perspectives of doctoral education in nursing can improve recruitment strategies and increase the number of nurses graduating with doctorates in Georgia. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(8):466-470.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Maria E. Canon; Charles S. Gascon
The benefits of a college diploma are many, including higher pay, lower unemployment, maybe even better health. Yet many high school graduates still do not pursue a college degree. This article examines several key reasons why more people aren’t making this investment in themselves.
Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C
The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents.
The purpose of this paper is to describe Georgia Power Company's on-site college degree program for nuclear power plant personnel. In February 1986, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a policy statement concerning engineering expertise on shift (Generic Letter 86-04), which appeared in Volume 50, Number 208 of the October 28, 1985 Federal Register. One of the options available to nuclear power plant personnel to meet the requirement was the combined senior reactor operator/shift technical adviser position. One of the methods for meeting the option included a bachelor's degree in engineering technology for an accredited institution, including course work in the physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences
Fowler-Brown, Angela G.; Ngo, Long H.; Phillips, Russell S.; Wee, Christina C.
The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14–18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also a...
Serapiglia, Constance Patricia; Lenox, Terri L.
The declining participation of women in the computer-related professions is a concern to academia and business. There appears to be a complex set of factors influencing the selection of a major and completing the degree. A case study of 25 undergraduate women explored, in detail, the events, conditions, and relationships that affected the decision…
Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun
The purpose of the study was to determine how work-family-school role conflict and social support influence psychological well-being among registered nurses pursuing an advanced degree. A cross-sectional, correlational study design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 320 registered nurses pursuing an advanced nursing degree at 13 hospitals in Korea, from June to October 2011. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with the AMOS program. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the measurement model prior to the testing of study hypotheses before and after controlling for extraneous variables. The fit parameters of the modified model (χ(2)/df=2.01, GFI=0.91, AGFI=0.89, CFI=0.92, SRMR=0.068, and RMSEA=0.065) indicated its suitability as the research model. This model explained 45% of the variance in work-related psychological well-being and 52% of the variance in general psychological well-being. Both social support and work-family-school role conflict exerted significant effects on work-related psychological well-being and general psychological well-being. The findings of the present study imply that work-family-school role conflict influences the psychological well-being of registered nurses pursuing an advanced degree. It is necessary for nursing administrators to develop strategies to help registered nurses to manage their multiple roles and improve both their work-related psychological well-being and their general psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mutwali, Ismat Mohammed; Omer, Aisha Ibrahim A.; Abdalhalim, Sadigh Mohammed
Introduction: Career selection and decision to pursue a medical career is a multi factorial process. It is influenced by the personal capabilities and the available resources as well as the social, educational, economical and cultural factors. Sudan is one of the African countries with a high number of medical colleges and an increasing number of…
Joshua Goodman; Michael Hurwitz; Jonathan Smith
Does access to four-year colleges affect degree completion for students who would otherwise attend two-year colleges? Admission to Georgia’s four-year public sector requires minimum SAT scores. Regression discontinuity estimates show that access to this sector increases four-year college enrollment and college quality, largely by diverting students from two-year colleges. Access substantially increases bachelor’s degree completion rates for these relatively low-skilled students. SAT retaking ...
Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan
Does access to 4-year colleges affect degree completion for students who would otherwise attend 2-year colleges? Admission to Georgia’s 4-year public sector requires minimum SAT scores. Regression discontinuity estimates show that access to this sector increases 4-year college enrollment and college quality, largely by diverting students from 2-year colleges. Access substantially increases bachelor’s degree completion rates for these relatively low-skilled students. SAT retaking behavior sugg...
Rulifson, Gregory A.
Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future. This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students' ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas, (ii) how students see themselves as future socially responsible engineers and how this idea changes over their first three years of college, and (iii) what social responsibility-related reasons students who leave engineering have for choosing a new major. Results show that students are complicated and have varied paths through and out of engineering studies. Students came up with their own ideas about socially responsible engineering that converged over the years on legal and safety related aspects of the profession. Relatedly, students identified with the engineering profession through internships and engineering courses, and rarely described socially responsible aspirations that could be accomplished with engineering. More often, those students who desired to help the disadvantaged through their engineering work left engineering. Their choice to leave was a combination of an unsupportive climate, disinterest in their classes, and a desire to combine their personal and professional social responsibility ambitions. If we want engineering students to push the engineering profession forward to be more socially responsible, we can identify the effective influences and develop a curriculum that encourages critical thinking about the social context and impacts of engineering. Additionally, a social
In 1971, the Board of Regents of The University of The State of New York created Regents College Degrees to assess academic knowledge of working adults and award college degrees based on demonstrated knowledge rather than time spent in a college classroom. It was founded on a basic premise that seemed radical to some but which is now widely accepted: What a person knows is more important than how or where that knowledge was acquired. Regents College degrees, therefore, are a different concept of a college: one that is an assessing institution rather than a teaching institution. It has no campus and offers no courses. Students can combine college credits from a variety of different sources int an accredited degree program. Staff and faculty evaluate that credit according to the requirements of the particular degree program. When all requirements are met, the Board or Regents of The University of The State of New York confers the degree
Staats, Sara; Partlo, Christie
Examined reliability and validity of Perceived Quality of Academic Life (PQAL) instrument with data collected from 218 midwestern commuter college students. Extended existing research by studying PQAL scores as predictors of intent to remain in college. Findings showed that the PQAL was reliable, valid, and predictive of future intent to obtain a…
Associate degree programs at community colleges in small business/entrepreneurship were examined in this article. The study examined the community college programs in entrepreneurship and small business related, small business administration and entrepreneurship listed in "Perterson's Guide to Two-Year Colleges" (Oram, 2005). Current catalogs…
Data mining hinges on one reality about life on the Web: What you do there leaves behind a trail of digital bread crumbs. Companies scoop them up to tailor services, like the matchmaking of eHarmony or the book recommendations of Amazon. Now colleges, eager to get students out the door more efficiently, are awakening to the opportunities of…
Doyle, William R.
Rouse [Rouse, C. E. (1995). "Democratization or diversion--the effect of community-colleges on educational-attainment." "Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 13"(2), 217-224] finds that enrollment in a community college may divert students from attaining a bachelor's degree. However, this result may be due to selection…
Ortagus, Justin C.
Research has suggested that changes in rankings have an impact on admissions outcomes at colleges and universities. This study incorporates organization theory to explain these mechanisms and other external forces driving the pursuit of prestige in higher education. Beyond updating and replicating previous findings related to the impact of college…
Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; O'Connor, Lisa
Community colleges (CC) are obvious places to recruit more women into computer science. Enrollment at CCs has grown in response to a struggling economy, and students are more likely to be from underrepresented groups than students enrolled in 4-year universities (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). However, we know little about why so…
Johnson, A.; Jearld, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Huggans, M.; Ricciardi, L.; Thomas, S. H.; Jansma, P. E.
In 2011 the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S)® initiative launched its newest activity entitled the MS PHD'S "Beyond the PhD (B-PhD) Professional Development Program." This exciting new program was designed to facilitate the development of a new community of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral candidates and recent doctorate degree recipients in Earth system science (ESS)-related fields. The MS PHD'S B-PhD provides customized support and advocacy for MS PHD'S B-PhD participants in order to facilitate smoother and informed transitions from graduate school, to postdoctoral and tenure-track positions, as well as other "first" jobs in government, industry, and non-profit organizations. In November 2011 the first cohort of MS PHD'S B-PhD participants engaged in intensive sessions on the following topics: "Toolkits for Success for Academia, Business/Industry, Federal Government and Non-Profits", "Defining Short, Mid and Long Term Career Goals", "Accessing and Refining Skill Sets and Other Door Openers", "International Preparation and Opportunities", "Paying it Forward/Lifting as You Climb", and "Customized Strategies for Next Steps". This pilot event, which was hosted by the University of Texas at Arlington's (UTA) College of Science, also provided opportunities for participants to serve as guest lecturers in the UTA's Colleges of Science and Engineering and included one-on-one discussions with MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers who are well established within their individual ESS fields. Insights regarding opportunities, challenges and obstacles commonly faced by URMs within the ESS fields, as well as strategies for success were shared by MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers. Survey results indicate that MS PHD'S B-PhD participants appreciated not only the material covered during this pilot activity, but also appreciated the opportunity to become part of a community of young URM ESS
Jeffrey R. Stokes
The value of a college degree is often quantified as the difference in earnings between those with and without a degree. The research presented here operationalizes this idea in two important ways. First, since future income and tuition are uncertain, a contingent claims model is developed and the appropriate discount rate for valuing future earnings is, therefore, endogenized given an economy that does not permit arbitrage. Second, the model is sensitive to the valuation of the real option t...
This study explores the influence of religion as a support factor for a group of Latina and African-American women majoring in science. The current project is a part of a larger study that investigated persistence factors of underrepresented woman who were enrolled as science majors at United States colleges and universities. This paper focuses on…
Scholars have long recognized that higher education brings knowledge and skills that translate into economic gains and enhanced political engagement, but little attention has been paid to the shifting impact of U.S. policies on college attendance by men and women. Once a male bastion, American higher education has become much more welcoming to women since the mid twentieth century. Starting in 1981, women earned the majority of bachelor’s degrees, and by 2003 U.S. colleges enrolled 1.3 women ...
Federal natural resource agencies are facing a human resource crisis. Many natural resource professionals are reaching retirement and attracting young adults to fill vacancies may prove difficult. Although currently on the rise from a recent fall, enrollment in natural resource degree programs has not increased overall in the past three decades,…
Headley-Walker, L.; DeSain, G.
Within the last few years, an evident need has surfaced in the nuclear industry regarding the necessity for degreed individuals on shift. While nuclear utility management has attempted to accommodate this direction in a variety of ways, none is as unique as the collaborative model developed by the University of the State of New York (USNY) Regents College Degrees (RCDs). This paper reviews USNY's collaborative efforts to provide degree programs for senior reactor operators to utilities and presents three models for degree completion used at Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, New York Power Authority, and Pacific Gas and Electric. Several other utilities are utilizing the collaboration model, and while these are not discussed in detail, information about their progress is available
This study explores the influence of religion as a support factor for a group of Latina and African-American women majoring in science. The current project is a part of a larger study that investigated persistence factors of underrepresented woman who were enrolled as science majors at United States colleges and universities. This paper focuses on one theme that emerged among six participants who disclosed how religion was a significant influence on their persistence in science fields. The strength and support offered by religious values is certainly not specific to science content; however, the support received from their beliefs highlights a potential area for further exploration. Given the importance of increasing participation by students from diverse backgrounds into science fields, it is critical to recognize how some of these differences may be the key factors influencing the way these students look at the world. This study offers evidence that science educators need to consider what role religious beliefs have for students who may be considering science or science education as a future career, particularly for those students from underrepresented groups.
Krupat, Edward; Dienstag, Jules L; Kester, W Carl; Finkelstein, Stan N
Increasingly, health care is being delivered in large, complex organizations, and physicians must learn to function effectively in them. As a result, several medical and business schools have developed joint programs to train physician leaders who receive both medical degree (MD) and master of business administration (MBA) degrees. We examined several themes in relation to these programs, revolving around concerns about who is attracted to them and whether exposure to the differing cultures of medicine and business have an impact on the professional identities of their graduates as manifested in their motivations, aspirations, and careers. We addressed these issues by studying students in the joint MD/MBA program at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and Harvard Business School (HBS). Our data came from several internal sources and a survey of all students enrolled in the joint program in spring 2013. We found relatively few differences between joint program students and equivalent cohorts of HMS students in terms of personal characteristics, preadmission performance, and performance at HMS and HBS. Contrary to the concerns that such programs may draw students away from medicine, the vast majority embraced careers involving extensive postgraduate medical training, with long-term plans that leveraged their new perspectives and skills to improve health care delivery. © The Author(s) 2016.
Stein, Rachel S.
Latino/as are an increasingly large subset of the United States population; however, they continue to be underrepresented in science careers. Because of this increase, research regarding Latino/as has improved, but there are still many gaps in regards to gender-specific predictors to pursue science careers. To address this lack of literature, the purpose of this study is to extend previous research and to develop a model of variables that significantly contribute to science career choice among Latino and Latina students when they graduate from high school. In particular the study addressed the following research questions: (1) What are the differences in science outcomes for Latino and Latina students? (2) What are the differences in factors involved in science outcomes for Latino and Latina students? (3) For Latino and Latina students what are the differences in the factors that predict students' choice to pursue a science degree and/or high scores on the Future Plans in Science Scale? (4) What are the differences in how Latino and Latina students experience science, which account for high achieving students to choose to pursue a science major? This study utilized an explanatory mixed-method approach to examine how cognitive, institutional, and motivational factors may be interrelated and play a role in Latino/as choice to pursue science. The first phase of the study incorporated the collection of survey and database information from 12th grade students at two Southern California high schools. The second phase of the study utilized follow-up focus group interviews to explore the specific differential experiences and views of Latino and Latina students. The results of the study demonstrated multiple significant predictors. Science self-concept and views towards science outside of school were the most significant predictors of students' choice to pursue science. Male students also had major predictors of Spanish proficiency, teacher encouragement, religious views
... not leading to a standard college degree. 21.7672 Section 21.7672 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Assistance for Members of the Selected Reserve Course Assessment § 21.7672 Measurement of courses not leading to a standard college degree. (a) Overview. (1) Courses not leading to a standard college degree may...
Currier, Charles W.
This qualitative case study explores the process community college senior administrators employ when assessing the complex strategic decision to confer community college baccalaureate degrees. Strategic opportunities, such as conferring baccalaureate degrees, occur infrequently thus community college leaders must be prepared to act quickly and…
Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte
implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...
Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela
This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.
Nyquist, Ewald B.; And Others
Nontraditional methods of qualifying for a college degree are described in this student guide to off-campus study and examination. The three external degree institutions in the United States that offer these programs are discussed. They include: Regents External Degree Program of the University of the State of New York; Thomas A. Edison College of…
Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.
College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…
Menard, Lauren Ann
Dwindling American financial satisfaction and growing college degree attainment were revealed in national social survey data spanning more than four decades (N = 57,061). Against these backdrops, associations between being financially satisfied and having a college degree grew stronger in each decade, with the strongest association between…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement of courses leading to a standard, undergraduate college degree. 21.7670 Section 21.7670 Pensions, Bonuses, and... leading to a standard, undergraduate college degree. Except as provided in § 21.7672, VA will measure a...
Existing studies on the returns to college selectivity have mixed results, mainly due to the difficulty of controlling for selection into more-selective colleges based on unobserved ability. Moreover, researchers have not considered graduate degree attainment in the analysis of labour market returns to college selectivity. In this paper, I estimate the effect of a U.S. four-year undergraduate programâ€™s selectivity on wages, including graduate degree attainment. I control for both observed a...
Dressel, Paul L.
The history of the Doctor of Arts (D.A.) degree and issues related to its development are briefly traced, and D.A. programs presently available and the success of degree recipients are addressed. Attention is also directed to other types of degree programs that are available, including their advantages and disadvantages, factors involved in…
Colleges Ontario, 2010
Ontario needs to expand nursing education options to improve access to the nursing profession, create better pathways amongst all nursing occupations, and build Ontario's capacity to meet the province's long-term nursing needs. Ontario's colleges are capable of playing a larger role within a long-term provincial strategy for sustaining and…
Irlen, Harvey S.; Gulluni, Frank D.
States that although manufacturing remains a viable sector in Connecticut, it is experiencing skills shortages in the workforce. Describes the machine technology program's purpose, the development of the Asnuntuck Community College's (Connecticut) partnership with private sector manufacturers, the curriculum, the outcomes, and benefits of…
Horstschräer, Julia; Sprietsma, Maresa
We estimate the short-term effects of the introduction of the Bachelor degree system in Germany, a change in degree regulations such that students need less time to earn a first degree, on college enrollment and dropout rates. We use variation in the timing of the reform at the university department level to identify the effects of the reform…
Lesser, G.; Berthelote, A. R.
A new Hydrology Degree Program was developed at Salish and Kootenai College in western Montana. This program will begin to address the fact that our nation only awards 20 to 30 Geoscience degrees annually to Native American students. Previously absent from SKC and the other 36 Tribal Colleges or Universities (TCU) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related programs are specific Geoscience disciplines, particularly those focusing on hydrological and water based sciences. Though 23 TCU’s offer some classes to supplement their environmental science or natural resource programs. This program is timely and essential for addressing the concerns that Native Americans have who maintain sovereignty over approximately 20% of our nation’s fresh water resources which are becoming more stressed each year. The overall objective of this new SKC Hydrology degree program is to produce students who are able to “give voice” to the perspectives of Native peoples on natural resources and particularly water-related issues, including water rights, agriculture, environmental health (related to water), beliefs and spirituality related to water, and sustainability of water resources. It will provide the opportunity for interdisciplinary study in physical, chemical, and biological water resources and their management. Students will gain theoretical, conceptual, computational, and practical knowledge/experiences in quantifying, monitoring, qualifying, and managing today’s water resource challenges with particular emphasis on Tribal lands. Completion of the Associate of Science Degree will provide the student with the necessary skills to work as a hydrology- water quality- or geo-technician within the Reservation area, the U. S. Forest Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Bureau of Reclamation, the United States Geological Society, and other earth science disciplines. The Bachelor’s Degree program provides students with a broad-based theoretical
Thornton, Robert J.
Calculating the expected rate of return to their own college degree and comparing it to those of students with other majors can be an interesting and fruitful project for students in a labor economics course. Data from the surveys of the National Association of Colleges and Employers (not all that well known but available in most college…
Colleges Ontario, 2015
This report argues that Ontario must expand the educational options for people who want to become registered nurses (RNs). It argues that the change Ontario requires is to authorize colleges to offer their own high-quality nursing degrees. Until 2005, about 70 per cent of Ontario's RNs were educated at colleges. Today, tens of thousands of RNs who…
The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) works with community colleges across the nation to uphold the value of the education they provide, in states where proposals to devaluate associate-degree education are openly discussed up to the conference rooms of state legislatures as well as in states where the risk is not yet apparent.…
Stevens, Stacy Mckimm
There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.
In this article, the author presents a list of colleges and universities with degree or certificate bearing programs in creativity. Since this focuses only on degree bearing programs, an individual might also focus on creativity by working with a specific faculty member in a more general program such as industrial-organizational psychology or…
Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Harskamp, Evert
Many theories on college retention recognize the significance of student satisfaction as a positive factor in students' persistence. Yet, there are few theories that address the relationship of degree program satisfaction to study behaviour and dropout. This paper explores the impact of degree
Lobo, Bento J.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.
We generate selection-adjusted NPV and IRR estimates for a bachelor's degree in the U.S. which account for time-to-graduation, debt financing and tuition levels. We find that a college degree is generally worthwhile, but the private value of the investment is a declining function of time-to-graduation. Selection-adjustments show that for students…
Griffiths, Colin; Lloyd, Mary Golding
Widening participation initiatives led by the government encourage non-traditional students to enrol in higher education courses usually offered through a franchising arrangement between a Higher Education Institution (HEI) and a local Further Education Institution (FEI). The focus has been on the development of foundation degrees with most…
Alicia C. Dowd
Full Text Available This study examined the distribution of financial aid among financially dependent four-year college students and the effectiveness of different types of financial aid in promoting student persistence and timely bachelor’s degree attainment. The findings of descriptive statistical and logistic regression analyses using the NCES Beginning Postsecondary Students (1990-94 data show that subsidized loans taken in the first year of college have a positive effect on persistence. The first-year distribution of aid does not close the income gap in bachelor’s degree attainment. Living on campus and first-year grade point average are the most important predictors of timely degree completion.
Economic Mobility Project, 2013
This report examines whether a college degree protected recent graduates from a range of poor employment outcomes during the recession, including unemployment, low-skill jobs, and lesser wages. The report draws upon data from the 2003-2011 Current Population Survey (CPS) to examine the early labor market outcomes of 21- through 24-year-olds. The…
Townsend, Barbara K.
This study focused on degree-seeking baccalaureate-degree holders at one two-year technical institute in the Midsouth to determine why they chose to study at the two-year college and how they compared their two-year college experience with their baccalaureate educational experience. Findings indicated the technical college was their first choice…
The overwhelming majority of students at 2-year colleges take geoscience courses (e.g. physical geology or physical geography) to fulfill part of the general education requirements of the Associates in Arts degree or General Education certificates for transfer to a 4-year school. It is common in community college earth science programs to have a relatively small number of students continuing on to major in geoscience programs at their transfer 4-year institution. To increase interest and retention in geosciences courses, we have developed a two prong approach - one aimed at students looking to transfer to a 4-year institution and the other aimed at students in the often overlooked career and technical education (CTE) programs. In the case of transfer students, we employ a "high touch" approach in introductory Physical Geology courses. This includes raising awareness of geoscience related careers combined with faculty mentor and advisor activities for students who express interest in science on their admission forms or in discussions of potential careers in science in first-year experience courses. Faculty mentorships have been very effective, not only in recruiting students to consider careers in geology, but also in advising a curriculum for students necessary to be successful upon transfer to a 4-year institution (such as completing college level chemistry, physics, and calculus courses prior to transfer). The second approach focuses on students pursuing certificates and degrees in CTE energy-related programs (such as HVAC, industrial engineering technology, electrician, and utility linemen). To increase awareness of vocational related geoscience careers, many of which require a good foundation in the vocational training students are currently pursing, we developed a foundation energy course - Energy and the Environment - which fulfills both the science general education component of the AA degree for students looking to transfer as well as CTE students. The
Eitel, Susan J.; Martin, Jennifer
First-generation female college students (FGFCS) make up a large portion of the diversity in higher education. Unfortunately "access" to education does not translate to success. Persistence and degree completion for these students is often undermined by seemingly insurmountable obstacles. The purposes of this study were to identify the financial…
The purpose of this non-experimental cross-sectional quantitative study was to examine the relationship between mental health and academic performance among associate degree nursing (ADN) students at a Midwest technical college by identifying incidence of positive mental health, mental illness symptoms/distress, and mental illness; the…
Ng, Chenny; Rosenbaum, James E.
Sub-baccalaureate degrees represent a growing and distinctive sector of American higher education. However, policymakers and community colleges lack a clear understanding of the specific competencies learned in these programs that are useful in graduates' careers. In particular, they overlook non-academic skills. This study uses qualitative…
In seeking to expand research on the actual effects of diversity on college students, this study investigated whether various multi-cultural and feminism-related variables at the individual, peer, and institutional levels significantly influenced educational degree ambitions among women. The study used data from the Cooperative Institutional…
DuRose, Lisa; Stebleton, Michael J.
The authors contend that many undergraduate students lack the ability to deftly articulate the value of their college degree, including the competencies they acquire through classroom learning and extracurricular activities. Despite the positive impact of experiential education opportunities such as service learning and internships, there is a…
Blackwell, Edith; Pinder, Patrice Juliet
The pathway to college is not equal for all students. Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds and minorities often face difficult challenges in trying to obtain a college education. Thus, this study utilized a qualitative grounded theory approach to explore and to understand how first-generation minority college students are motivated to…
Hopkins, Barbara L.
Only one in five graduates of Baltimore City Public Schools matriculates to a four-year college; the vast majority enroll in community college or look for a full-time job. Baltimore graduates and job-seekers need postsecondary training that works. "The Path to Baltimore's 'Best Prospect' Jobs without a College Degree: Career Credentialing…
Felder, Andrea Darlene
Transfer and bachelor's degree attainment rates of low-income community college beginners lag behind their middle- and high-income peers. As community college continues to be an affordable and accessible route to higher education, consideration should be given to how to close the gap in transfer and bachelor's degree attainment rates of low-income…
Full Text Available As a unique and versatile undergraduate degree program, a Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSPS is offered by a number of colleges/schools of pharmacy. These provide a bachelor's degree concentrated in pharmaceutical sciences, and can be a non-Doctor of Pharmacy option, possibly before progressing to graduate degree studies. Recently implemented at the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UTCPPS, one such BSPS major is Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design. This new undergraduate major was created to serve the needs of the cosmetic and personal care industry, with a great need identified for well-trained new professionals with basic knowledge in the sciences and business. This Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design major was added to four other BSPS majors at UTCPPS. Introduced in 2013, this major is the only functioning undergraduate degree in Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design in the United States. Preliminary job placement data provides promising evidence that this undergraduate major has helped graduates launch a career in the cosmetic and personal care, or pharmaceutical industries. Based on our experience from the past three years, we believe that this cosmetic science major has been worth its resource investment. We hope others designing new undergraduate pharmaceutical sciences programs might integrate advice from this experience into their impending programs. Type: Idea Paper
Eduarda de Lima Amarante
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the electrical activity of masseter muscles, bilaterally, according to the presence or absence of Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD in college students with a high degree of anxiety. Methods: the study was conducted with a randomized sample of 31 Speech Therapy students aged between 17 and 32 years; 61.3% (n = 19 were females and 38.7% (n = 12 were males. They were divided into two groups, Group 1 (G1, comprising 11 students with TMD, and Group 2 (G2, composed of 20 students without TMD. The college students answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI for anxiety investigation, and were evaluated by the protocol Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD for TMD diagnosis. The evaluation of muscular electrical activity took into account the records in the conditions of rest, Sustained Maximum Voluntary Activity (SMVA and habitual chewing (HC. The data were analyzed using the version 22 IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. The statistical analysis was performed using Student t test to compare means between groups, considering < 0,05 as the significant p-value. Results: college students, of both groups, presented high levels of anxiety traits. Significant statistical differences were observed on the percentage of electrical activity of right masseter muscle in chewing function, as well as muscle fibers recruitment during chewing, which were higher on the group without TMD. Conclusion: college students with TMD and a high degree of anxiety presented lower means of masseter muscle electromyografic activity during chewing, in most conditions assessed, as compared to volunteers without TMD, except for the left masseter muscle in rest and chewing.
Greenstone, Michael; Looney, Adam
As the college class of 2011 graduates in the aftermath of the Great Recession, some graduates are struggling to find a good job--or any job at all. As a result, many are questioning whether the time and expense of college was worth it. The authors try to answer this question by comparing the economic benefits of a college degree to its costs, as…
Dadgar, Mina; Trimble, Madeline Joy
This study provides one of the first estimates of the returns to different types of community college credentials--short-term certificates, long-term certificates, and associate degrees--across different fields of study. We exploit a rich data set that includes matched, longitudinal college transcripts and Unemployment Insurance records for…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
This study reviewed in this report used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) to examine the effects of dual enrollment programs for high school students on college degree attainment. The study further reported on whether the impacts of dual enrollment were different for first generation college students. Dual enrollment…
Alon, Sigal; Domina, Thurston; Tienda, Marta
We assess the intergenerational educational mobility of recent cohorts of high school graduates to consider whether Hispanics' lagging postsecondary attainment reflects a temporary lull due to immigration of low education parents or a more enduring pattern of unequal transmission of social status relative to whites. Using data from three national longitudinal studies, a recent longitudinal study of Texas high school seniors and a sample of students attending elite institutions, we track post-secondary enrollment and degree attainment patterns at institutions of differing selectivity. We find that group differences in parental education and nativity only partly explain the Hispanic-white gap in college enrollment, and not evenly over time. Both foreign- and native-born college-educated Hispanic parents are handicapped in their ability to transmit their educational advantages to their children compared with white parents. We conclude that both changing population composition and unequal ability to confer status advantages to offspring are responsible for the growing Hispanic-white degree attainment gap.
Phillips, Brad C.; Spurling, Steven; Armstrong, William A.
California faces a severe nursing shortage, with the number of registered nurses far below what is required to avert a potential state health care crisis. The Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Project is a joint project involving scholars, educational researchers, and analysts from the Center for Student Success (CSS) housed at City College of San…
Seaman, Jayson; Bell, Brent J.; Trauntvein, Nate
In this article, we report on research undertaken in 2016 to assess a number of trends influencing the current status of degree-granting outdoor programs in the United States, including factors that bear on the value of degrees. We analyze data provided by the U.S. Department of Education's College Scorecard and results of a survey comparing 59…
Smith, Hayden; Michelsen, Niall
Utilizing a web-based simulation Statecraft, we explore the relative influence of ideology (realism and idealism) on student behavior and learning. By placing students into ideologically cohesive groups, we are able to demonstrate the effect of their ideology on the goals they pursue and identify the constraints imposed on the system by the…
Webber, Douglas A.
This paper examines the financial value over the course of a lifetime of pursuing a college degree under a variety of different settings (e.g. major, student loan debt, individual ability). Using a lifecycle simulation approach, I account for ability/selection bias and the substantial probability that entering college freshmen will not eventually graduate, two critically important factors when evaluating the value of pursuing a college degree. I find that financial proposition of attending co...
Teles, Elizabeth J.; Hovis, R. Corby
Describes recent federal legislation (H.R. 3394) that charges the National Science Foundation with offering more grants to colleges and universities for degree programs in computer and network security, and to establish trainee programs for graduate students who pursue doctoral degrees in computer and network security. Discusses aspects of…
A project was undertaken to research and acquire the instructional sources needed for a course in ethics for community college associate degree nursing students and to develop such a course. Addressed in the individual units of the course were the following topics: bioethics and ethical decision making, basic ethical concepts and principles,…
The purpose of the Salish Koontenai College (SKC) Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing was to increase the numbers of Native American registered nurses providing health care to the Native American population of Montana and the northwest mountain states. Recruitment and retention efforts targeted…
Post-secondary education has been correlated to an individual's self-esteem and quality of life. With this commodity being accessible in a variety of formats, there continue to be discrepancies in attainment for males and females. Current research has documented that the number of females who are earning a college degree has surpassed that of…
Gillen, Andrew; Selingo, Jeffrey; Zatynski, Mandy
As a knowledge-based workforce has transformed the American economy over the last several decades, few people have questioned the value of higher education. Enrollment has surged at all types of colleges--up by more than one-third in just the last decade--as the college credential has become the ticket to a better life. From a purely economic…
The Pathways Program allows juniors and seniors in high school who have a high school GPA of 3.0, a demonstrated capacity for college work, and a recommendation of the high school guidance counselor, to pursue their associate degrees at Thomas College in Waterville, Maine, while completing the requirements for their high school diploma at…
Salazar, Amy M
Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.
In order to prepare the large number of postsecondary-educated youth our economy demands, high schools and higher education must break through the boundaries that have traditionally separated them and assume joint responsibility for student success. This brief describes an unusual school district partnership with colleges that has achieved…
More U.S. college students are enrolling in power- and energy-engineering courses, but the increase is not enough to meet the need, says a new report by the IEEE, the professional association of electrical engineers. About 45% of engineers at electric utilities are expected to retire or leave their jobs within five years, creating as many as…
Gayles, Joy Gaston; Ampaw, Frim D.
Although more women than men are enrolled in college within the United States, women remain underrepresented in critical areas of study such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This is particularly concerning given that STEM fields of study are vital to the economic growth and workforce development within the United…
Wang, Winnie W.; Chang, June C.; Lew, Jonathan W.
This study examined how the academic aspirations of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) attending community colleges are influenced by their demographic and educational background, reasons for attending, and obstacles they expect to encounter. The sample consisted of 846 APAs out of a total student sample of 5,000 in an urban community college…
An, Brian P.
Dual enrollment in high school is viewed by many as one mechanism for widening college admission and completion of low-income students. However, little evidence demonstrates that these students discretely benefit from dual enrollment and whether these programs narrow attainment gaps vis-a-vis students from middle-class or affluent family…
Salazar, Amy M.
Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…
Godofredo E. Peteza, Jr.
Full Text Available This research determined the impact of the master’s degree programs offered in the Graduate School such as Master in Business Administration, Master in Public Administration, Master in Management majors in Human Resource Management and Educational Planning and Management on its graduates from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive-survey method supplemented by interview was employed to identify specifically the profile of the graduates of master’s degree programs in terms of age, sex, civil status, level of appointment before and after taking the master’s degree program, monthly income before and after taking the master’s degree program, number of promotions after graduation, and years in service and the impact of the CNSC Graduate School’s Master’s Degree Programs along professional practice, career development; and employment. Results show that majority of the respondents are in the middle age from 31 -37 years old, married, mostly females, 6-10 years in service and have one promotion after they have graduated from their respective master’s degrees. The level of appointment of the respondents has a positive movement from rank and file to supervisory and managerial levels positions. The Graduate School’s Master’s degree programs provided high impact on the graduates’ professional practice, and on employment while average impact on career development.
Godofredo E. Peteza, Jr.
This research determined the impact of the master’s degree programs offered in the Graduate School such as Master in Business Administration, Master in Public Administration, Master in Management majors in Human Resource Management and Educational Planning and Management on its graduates from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive-survey method supplemented by interview was employed to identify specifically the profile of the graduates of master’s degree programs in terms of age, sex, civil ...
Weeks, William B; Lazarus, Arthur; Wallace, Amy E
In a survey of 568 physician members of the American College of Physician Executives (ACPE), most of whom had advanced management degrees (MBA, MMM, MPH), approximately 90% of respondents reported that their investment in the education was "worth it." The return on investment was independent of the quality of the academic institution, although primary care physicians stood to gain more relative to specialists. Salary comparisons showed that female physicians had approximately 20% lower incomes than male physicians, confirming the presence of a "glass ceiling" for female physician executives as seen in other medical specialties. These findings have implications for early and mid-career physicians and physician recruiters.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Independent Study and Programs Development.
A guide is presented for students on the policies and practices of public and private New York colleges and universities in regard to granting credit, course waiver, or advanced standing to those who pass the College Proficiency Examinations (CPEs) and the Regents External Degree Examinations (REDEs). A chart indicates, for each institution and…
Frank, Jennifer Vest
This study uses benefit-cost analysis to compare three alternative scenarios for implementing the Associate of Arts in Teaching (AAT) degree in Maryland community colleges. The first policy scenario is that community colleges retain their traditional role in K-12 teacher preparation by providing lower-division transfer courses and programs for…
Kelly, Andrew P.
The path to economic mobility increasingly runs through postsecondary education. Although the combination of rising tuition prices and a difficult labor market have raised questions about the value of education after high school, degree and certificate holders are still better off than those with just a high school diploma. As a group, young…
Mason, Brandon; Smithey, Martha
This study examines Merton's Classical Strain Theory (1938) as a causative factor in intimate partner violence among college students. We theorize that college students experience general life strain and cumulative strain as they pursue the goal of a college degree. We test this strain on the likelihood of using intimate partner violence. Strain…
Ana Heloísa da Costa Lemos
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of college education on the professional insertion of undergraduates from the Business Administration Course. In order to help achieve its objectives, a study was launched in 2007, 2008 and 2009 with business administration students that studied at a famous private university in RJ, which intended to understand the possible relation in obtaining a diploma, the social status of those who get a diploma and its insertion in the job market. The students chosen to participate at this survey were attending the last semester and different variables were taken into consideration such as socioeconomic status, parents educational level and current occupation. The study intended to identify possible differences between the opportunities to find a job among the participants with higher or lower income. The research results did not indicate that there is any difference between the two groups as possibilities of insertion in the market place, reinforcing the idea that the decisive factor in regard to social and professional insertion is related to education.
Hagos, Esietu Gebregazabher; Asfeha, Gebrekidan Gebregzabher; Berihu, Birhane Alem
Substance abuse (SA) refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The most common substances which are usually abused are alcohol and tobacco. Herein, we assessed the prevalence of SA among regular degree health science students of the Sheba University College (SUC). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1076 SUC students using self-administered structured questionnaire. The simple sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. The overall prevalence of "ever used substance" for at least one was 45.5%. The most commonly used drugs in descending order were alcohol (25.1%), cigarette (11.4%), and khat (9.2%). Male participants, urban setting, peer pressure, personal pleasure, and academic dissatisfaction and pocket money were highly associated with SA. This study showed a lower magnitude (45.6% ever use and 21% still using) of SA among students' compared to other studies. Even if a considerable decrease in SA among study subjects, the creation of awareness and health education should be continued to fully combat the problem of abuse.
Esietu Gebregazabher Hagos
Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse (SA refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The most common substances which are usually abused are alcohol and tobacco. Herein, we assessed the prevalence of SA among regular degree health science students of the Sheba University College (SUC. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1076 SUC students using self-administered structured questionnaire. The simple sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. Results: The overall prevalence of “ever used substance” for at least one was 45.5%. The most commonly used drugs in descending order were alcohol (25.1%, cigarette (11.4%, and khat (9.2%. Male participants, urban setting, peer pressure, personal pleasure, and academic dissatisfaction and pocket money were highly associated with SA. Conclusion: This study showed a lower magnitude (45.6% ever use and 21% still using of SA among students' compared to other studies. Even if a considerable decrease in SA among study subjects, the creation of awareness and health education should be continued to fully combat the problem of abuse.
Fink, John; Jenkins, Davis; Kopko, Elizabeth; Ran, Florence Xiaotao
Community college transfer students encounter challenges progressing toward a bachelor's degree, leading to widespread transfer credit loss. This in turn may lower students' chances of credential completion and increase the time and costs for students, their families, and taxpayers. In this study we review three definitions of credit transfer…
Moreno, Melissa Gearhart
Women are underrepresented in technology careers because they pursue technology degrees less frequently and leave technology careers at greater numbers than do men. By analyzing a representative dataset of college graduates with degrees in computer science, computer engineering, and management information systems, this study identified…
Jenkins, Davis; Fink, John
Increasing the effectiveness of two- to four-year college transfer is critical for meeting national goals for college attainment and promoting upward social mobility. Efforts to improve institutional effectiveness in serving transfer students and state transfer policy have been hampered by a lack of comparable metrics for measuring transfer…
Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.; Raacke, John
Research has been conducted on individual's knowledge and attitudes toward older adult sexuality. This includes investigating attitudes and knowledge of nursing home staff, college students, and the elderly themselves. The current experiment sought to replicate previous research findings by comparing college students' attitudes and knowledge of…
Reviews Book: Enjoyable Physics Equipment: SEP Colorimeter Box Book: Pursuing Power and Light Equipment: SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher Equipment: Sciencescope GLE Datalogger Equipment: EDU Logger Book: Physics of Sailing Book: The Lightness of Being Software: Logotron Insight iLog Studio iPhone Apps Lecture: 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture Web Watch
WE RECOMMEND Enjoyable Physics Mechanics book makes learning more fun SEP Colorimeter Box A useful and inexpensive colorimeter for the classroom Pursuing Power and Light Account of the development of science in the 19th centuary SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher An excellent resource for teaching about projectiles GLE Datalogger GPS software is combined with a datalogger EDU Logger Remote datalogger has greater sensing abilities Logotron Insight iLog Studio Software enables datlogging, data analysis and modelling iPhone Apps Mobile phone games aid study of gravity WORTH A LOOK Physics of Sailing Book journeys through the importance of physics in sailing The Lightness of Being Study of what the world is made from LECTURE The 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture presents the physics of fusion WEB WATCH Planet Scicast pushes boundaries of pupil creativity
Petersen, Anne Marie
In the United States, careers in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) are increasing yet there are not enough trained personnel to meet this demand. In addition, of those that seek to pursue STEM fields in the United States, only 26% are female. In order to increase the number of women seeking STEM based bachelor's degrees, K-12 education must provide a foundation that prepares students for entry into these fields. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to determine the perceived K-12 experiences that influenced females to pursue a STEM field. Twelve college juniors or seniors seeking a degree in Biology, Mathematics, or Physics were interviewed concerning their K-12 experiences. These interviews were analyzed and six themes emerged. Teacher passion and classroom characteristics such as incorporating challenging activities played a significant role in the females' decisions to enter STEM fields. Extra-curricular activities such as volunteer and mentor opportunities and the females' need to benefit others also influenced females in their career choice. Both the formal (within the school) and informal (outside of the traditional classroom) pipeline opportunities that these students encountered helped develop a sense of self-efficacy in science and mathematics; this self-efficacy enabled them to persist in pursuing these career fields. Several participants cited barriers that they encountered in K-12 education, but these barriers were primarily internal as they struggled with overcoming self-imposed obstacles in learning and being competitive in the mathematics and science classrooms. The experiences from these female students can be used by K-12 educators to prepare and encourage current female students to enter STEM occupations.
Shea, Jennifer Dawn
This study examined the experiences of first-generation college students who were enrolled in online degree programs at a traditional brick-and-mortar university located in the western United States. These students were viewed as "double first-generation" because they were not only the first in their family to pursue a bachelor's degree,…
Cruce, Ty M.; Wolniak, Gregory C.; Seifert, Tricia A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
This study estimated separately the unique effects of three dimensions of good practice and the global effects of a composite measure of good practices on the cognitive development, orientations to learning, and educational aspirations of students during their first year of college. Analyses of longitudinal data from a representative sample of…
Since the mid-20th century, the standard U.S. high school and college math curriculum has been based on two years of algebra and a year of geometry, preparing students to take classes in pre-calculus followed by calculus. Students' math pursuits have been differentiated primarily by how far or how rapidly they proceed along a clearly defined…
In rural areas, a lack of motivation to pursue a postsecondary degree continues to affect Hmong students at the postsecondary education level. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to create a model based on the exploration of the lack of motivation to pursue postsecondary education among Hmong high school students.…
Rosenbaum, James E.; Ahearn, Caitlin; Rosenbaum, Janet
Efforts to promote college for all for all has opened college doors to a broad range of students. But college--and career success after college--doesn't have to mean a bachelor's degree. Community college credentials, such as associate's degrees and one-year certificates, can lead to further degrees or jobs that offer more benefits than students…
Bunch, Seleta LeAnn
Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…
Leaders in Christian higher education are often unaware of how adult degree completion programs (ADCPs) impact a school's organizational behavior, and no research has examined employees' perceptions of its impact. This nonexperimental, descriptive study examined differences in employees' perceptions of the impact on organizational climate of the…
Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Smith, Danielle J.; Dockens, Ashley L.; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Azios, Jamie H.
Problem: Although many young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are intellectually capable of pursuing college degrees, a high percentage either do not enroll in or do not graduate from two-year or four-year institutions. Online student support services may uniquely support the higher education goals of this population. Understanding…
Gándara, Fernanda; Silva, Monica
This study seeks to develop a better understanding of the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering by analyzing the gender gaps (a) in the interest in pursuing a science degree and (b) on science achievement. We use national-level college admissions data to examine gender differences and to explore the association between these…
Hoepner, Cynthia Colon
President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country.…
Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie
This study compared the effectiveness of ACT[R] Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours earned), degree completion, and cumulative grade point average (GPA) at 150% of normal time to degree…
Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying
The aims of this study were to explore depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency functions among normal internet users, mild internet addictions and severe internet addictions. The survey sample consisted of 316 college students, and their internet addiction symptoms, depression and self-esteem symptoms were assessed using the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. From this sample, 16 students with non-addictions, 19 students with mild internet addiction (sub-MIA) and 15 students with severe internet addiction (sub-SIA) were recruited and subjected to the classical verbal fluency tests, including the semantic and phonemic fluency task. The results indicated that severe internet addiction in the survey sample showed the highest tendency towards depressive symptoms and lowest self-esteem scores, and sub-SIA showed poor performance on the semantic fluency task. In conclusion, severe internet addiction was significantly associated with depression, low self-esteem and semantic verbal fluency problems. Copyright Â© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo; Hong, Wan Soo; Kim, Dong Geon; Hong, Yang Hee; Hong, In Sun; Chang, Un Jae
Cooking processes that gelatinize granules or disrupt structure might increase the glucose and insulin responses because a disruption of the structure of starch by gelatinization increases its availability for digestion and absorption in the small intestine. We hypothesized that the uncooked form of rice, which has a relatively low degree of gelatinization even though in powder form, would result in lower metabolic glucose and insulin responses compared with cooked rice (CR). To assess the effects of the gelatinization of rice on metabolic response of glucose and insulin, we investigated the glucose and insulin responses to 3 rice meals of different gelatinization degree in female college students (n = 12): CR (76.9% gelatinized), uncooked rice powder (UP; 3.5% gelatinized), and uncooked freeze-dried rice powder (UFP; 5.4% gelatinized). Uncooked rice powders (UP and UFP) induced lower glucose and insulin responses compared with CR. The relatively low gelatinization degree of UPs resulted in low metabolic responses in terms of the glycemic index (CR: 72.4% vs UP: 49.7%, UFP: 59.8%) and insulin index (CR: 94.8% vs UP: 74.4%, UFP: 68.0%). In summary, UPs that were less gelatinized than CR induced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses.
Harris, Douglas N
One of the key barriers in accessing postsecondary opportunities for many students is financial aid. This chapter begins by providing a review of prior evidence on the relationship between financial aid and postsecondary outcomes. One type of financial aid intervention that challenges traditional aid and scholarship options are "promise programs." These programs make commitments to low-income students when they are much younger than when students typically apply for aid and have the potential to encourage students to better prepare during high school, develop the social capital they need to navigate the path to college, and pay for growing college costs. In this chapter, the author describes the design and rationale for The Degree Project (TDP), which is the first randomized trial of a promise scholarship in the United States. In addition to the important new evidence the demonstration program will generate, TDP also shows how educators and researchers can work together to provide the insight and answers policy makers need to address very real education gaps. © WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
Puncreobutr, Vichian; Malee; Somjate
The objective of this research was to study the level of work integrated learning (WIL), and the competency of the teaching profession based on the standards of knowledge of the graduates at St. Theresa International College. The study group consisted of 115 graduates pursuing Graduate Diploma in Teaching Profession Program. The questionnaire was…
Degree of vertical integration between the undergraduate program and clinical internship with respect to cervical and cranial diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught at the canadian memorial chiropractic college.
Leppington, Charmody; Gleberzon, Brian; Fortunato, Lisa; Doucet, Nicolea; Vandervalk, Kyle
The purpose of this study was to determine if diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cervical and cranial spine taught to students during the undergraduate program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College are required to be used during their internship by their supervising clinicians and, if so, to what extent these procedures are used. Course manuals and course syllabi from the Applied Chiropractic and Clinical Diagnosis faculty of the undergraduate chiropractic program for the academic year 2009-2010 were consulted and a list of all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cranial and cervical spine was compiled. This survey asked clinicians to indicate if they themselves used or if they required the students they were supervising to use each procedure listed and, if so, to what extent each procedure was used. Demographic information of each clinician was also obtained. In general, most diagnostic procedures of the head and neck were seldom used, with the exception of postural observation and palpation. By contrast, most cervical orthopaedic tests were often used, with the exception of tests for vertigo. Most therapeutic procedures were used frequently with the exception of prone cervical and "muscle" adjustments. There was a low degree of vertical integration for cranial procedures as compared to a much higher degree of vertical integration for cervical procedures between the undergraduate and clinical internship programs taught. Vertical integration is an important element of curricular planning and these results may be helpful to aid educators to more appropriately allocate classroom instruction.
Baia, Patricia; Strang, Aimee F
Objective. To investigate motives of pharmacy educators who pursue pedagogical knowledge through professional development programs and to develop a model of motivation to inform future development. Methods. A mixed-methods approach was used to study both qualitative and quantitative data. Written narratives, postmodule quizzes, and survey data were collected during a 5-year period (2010-2014) from pharmacy educators who participated in an online professional development program titled Helping Educators Learn Pedagogy (HELP). Grounded theory was used to create a model of motivation for why pharmacy educators might pursue pedagogical knowledge. Results. Participants reported being driven intrinsically by a passion for their own learning (self-centered motivation) and by the need to improve student learning (student-centered motivation) and extrinsically by program design, funding, and administrator encouragement. Conclusion. A new model of pharmacy educator motivation to pursue pedagogy knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge Acquisition Theory (PKAT), emerged as a blended intrinsic and extrinsic model, which may have value in developing future professional development programs.
Kimberlee A. Shauman
Full Text Available The presence of baccalaureates who have specialized in fields not traditional for their gender represents the potential momentum each cohort may contribute to labor-force integration and equity. I examine the extent to which this momentum is present and realized among four cohorts of baccalaureates from the late 1970s through the late 2000s. The results show that the potential equalizing effects of increasing gender equity in postsecondary education are not being fully developed or realized. Gender segregation of majors remains significant, and labor-market outcomes continue to be strongly associated with the sex type of a college graduate's degree field. The negative relationship between female representation in a major and both the rate of full-time employment and earnings persisted across the four cohorts, and the negative gradient for earnings intensified. Educational use is slightly depressed among graduates in fields not traditional for their gender, and gender differences in earnings are already sizable within a year of graduation.
Bárbara Garay Lara
Full Text Available Objective: To interpret the perception of the motivational factors presented by students who decide to pursue a career in healthcare in the Faculty of Medicine at the Catholic University of the Most Holy Conception, Chile during 2015. Material and Methods: Through a qualitative design and using a phenomenological approach, a semi-structured interview was applied to 55 new students. They were all pursuing a degree in the fields of Medicine, Nursing, Nutrition and Dietetics, Physical Therapy or Medical Technology of the School of Medicine at Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile, in 2015. The results were subject to triangulation of informants, and were analyzed using the technique of discourse analysis. Results: Vocation for public service, the career field once graduated or the experience of personal /familiar experiences when facing a health condition are perceived as an important part of the motivational factors for pursuing a degree in healthcare. Family, school where they graduated from or friends are not identified as an influence when deciding what professional field to pursue. This situation is not necessarily linked to a specific area of expertise. Conclusions: Altruism and vocation for public service are perceived as the main conditioning factor when deciding to pursue a degree in healthcare.
Byrne, Bobbi J; Katakam, Shesha K; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L
Choosing career paths can be difficult decisions for residents contemplating fellowship training. This study compares the experiences of early career pediatricians who did and did not pursue fellowships. We analyzed national, weighted data from pediatricians 8 to 10 years after residency (n = 842). Work environment, work-life balance, and satisfaction were compared for pediatricians who had pursued fellowship training (fellowship trained) and those who did not pursue fellowship training (generalist trained). Logistic and linear regression examined the independent effects of fellowship training while controlling for demographic differences. A total of 39% of the pediatricians (328/842) pursued fellowship training. The fellowship-trained group was less likely than the generalist-trained group to spend time in direct patient care and more likely to report learning opportunities in their work environment. This group was also more likely to report an income of ≥$150,000, although no difference was found when only full-time pediatricians were examined. Generalist-trained pediatricians were more likely to work hours per week, have flexibility with their schedules, and be satisfied with time spent with their own children. Pediatricians in both the fellowship-trained and generalist-trained groups generally found their work to be rewarding and were satisfied with their lives. Although residents need to consider important life and career differences when contemplating fellowship training and general care, pediatricians in both groups can achieve overall life and career satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Perez-Felkner, Lara; Thomas, Kirby; Hopkins, Jordan; Nix, Samantha
Given the explosion of theoretical and empirical interest in the STEM gender gap in recent years, almost exclusively focused on four-year colleges, this paper primarily investigates the following question: How does the nature of the gender gap differ among two- and four-year college students, if at all? This study seeks to answer the following…
Rend Lake College (RLC) has participated in several Pathways to Results (PTR) projects over the last five years. The PTR model has been an essential tool to drive evidence-based changes throughout the College. In 2015, RLC used the PTR Model to evaluate institutional processes related to the Perkins Career and Technical Education (CTE) Student…
Towards the Education Nation: Revisiting the Impact of Financial Aid, College Experience, and Institutional Context on Baccalaureate Degree Attainment Using a Propensity Score Matching, Multilevel Modeling Approach
To compete in the global marketplace, the U.S. economy heavily relies on higher education institutions to educate the college graduates and knowledge workers needed to create the innovative products and services of tomorrow. And yet, where once America led the world in educational attainment, recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development indicates that the U.S. now ranks only 15th among major industrialized nations in college completion rates. As a result, increas...
Degree of vertical integration between the undergraduate program and clinical internship with respect to lumbopelvic diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught at the canadian memorial chiropractic college.
Vermet, Shannon; McGinnis, Karen; Boodham, Melissa; Gleberzon, Brian J
The objective of this study was to determine to what extent the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught in the undergraduate program used for patients with lumbopelvic conditions are expected to be utilized by students during their clinical internship program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College or are being used by the clinical faculty. A confidential survey was distributed to clinical faculty at the college. It consisted of a list of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used for lumbopelvic conditions taught at that college. Clinicians were asked to indicate the frequency with which they performed or they required students to perform each item. Seventeen of 23 clinicians responded. The following procedures were most likely required to be performed by clinicians: posture; ranges of motion; lower limb sensory, motor, and reflex testing; and core orthopedic tests. The following were less likely to be required to be performed: Waddell testing, Schober's test, Gillet tests, and abdominal palpation. Students were expected to perform (or clinicians performed) most of the mobilization (in particular, iliocostal, iliotransverse, and iliofemoral) and spinal manipulative therapies (in particular, the procedures referred to as the lumbar roll, lumbar pull/hook, and upper sacroiliac) taught at the college. This study suggests that there was considerable, but not complete, vertical integration between the undergraduate and clinical education program at this college.
Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan
The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…
To, W. M.; Lai, Linda S. L.; Lung, Jane W. Y.; Lai, T. M.
The number of students pursuing graduate qualifications has increased, especially in Asian countries and cities, such as China, Macao and Hong Kong. This paper examines the intent to pursue further studies among Chinese students according to the theory of planned behaviour. Based on responses from 321 final-year students in higher education…
Background: Many factors play a role in the decision of a medical student to pursue a career in surgery. With a decline in numbers of applications into surgical programmes seen globally, the aim of this study was to determine the factors that influence medical students in pursuing a career in surgery. Methods: A descriptive ...
Babcock, Michael Jason
Community colleges are a prominent academic pathway for future scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, and serve as a gateway to higher education for traditionally marginalized student populations. Because of this, community colleges are uniquely positioned to combat the underrepresentation of African American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students in STEM. Research on students of color in STEM, however, has traditionally focused on K-12 schools and four-year colleges and universities, leaving a gap in our understanding about the role of community colleges in shaping student intentions to pursue STEM careers. To address that gap, this study examined students as they pursued a degree in STEM at a community college, for the purposes of contributing to our understandings of students of color in these environments. Utilizing science identity framing and longitudinal multi-case study methods, this study followed thirteen students as they navigated the community college and made decisions regarding their pursuit of a future in STEM fields. Specifically, this study illuminates the racialized nature of STEM at a community college, student thinking around choices to opt into or out of STEM, and the decision-making around choices to persist. Insight into the social and contextual factors underlying students' persistence demonstrates that students of color (especially women of color) do encounter hostile experiences within STEM contexts at community colleges, but how they respond to those hostilities influences persistence. Students who attribute hostilities such as micro-aggressions to the biases of others are more likely to persist. Students who do not attribute those hostilities to others are more likely to assume their experiences are attributable to the fact they do not belong in STEM. The findings establish the importance of recognizing and acknowledging the racialized and gendered nature of STEM, both in academic settings and at home, for those
The implementation of the Adult Degree Completion Program (ADCP) at Antioch-Yellow Springs is described. The ADCP is a transfer program designed to enable adults who have never finished colege to complete their undergraduate degree work, often without having to abandon their obligations to families or to professions. To enroll in the program,…
Yu, Hongwei; Campbell, Dale; Mendoza, Pilar
Prior research studies associated the employment of part-time faculty with student degree and/or certificate completion (Benjamin, 2002; Ehrenberg & Zhang, 2005; Jacoby, 2006; Leslie & Gappa, 2002; Umbach, 2008; Umbach & Wawrzynski, 2005). To date, institutional-level data have been utilized to investigate whether such employment…
Najjar, Yahya W; Hdaib, Maha T; Al-Momany, Siham M
Care for patients with indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most important factors in preventing problems associated with indwelling urinary catheters. Caregiver education about caring of indwelling urinary catheters is important the same as patient education to prevent urinary catheters problems. A pre test post test control group design was used with nursing students of Zarqa University College. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire. Experimental group did not do better in the posttest than the control group after they joined an educational session about caring for patients with indwelling urinary catheter. Level of student (first year vs. second year) has been identified as a covariate that may have distorted the results. One educational session is insufficient to change level of knowledge regarding caring for patients with indwelling urinary catheter, in addition to considering the level of nursing student when conducting the educational session.
Wentling, Rose Mary; Camacho, Cristina
Research on women in engineering confirms the presence of gender barriers that affect the recruitment and retention of women in engineering. These barriers stop some women from choosing engineering as a field of study, and impede some women from completing a degree in engineering. However, there are some young female students who complete their engineering education despite the presence of obstacles throughout their college years. This study addressed the factors that have hindered, motivated, and assisted women who graduated with a degree in engineering. By studying and understanding the barriers that hinder women in deciding to pursue and in completing a degree in engineering, as well as the factors that assist and encourage them, we can learn how to break down the barriers and how to facilitate the educational journey of female engineering students. This study provides valuable insights and created a framework from which high schools, universities, researchers, and female students can directly benefit.
Alves de Araújo, Maria Erivânia; Bezerra da Silva, Elirez; Bragade Mello, Danielli; Cader, Samária Ali; Shiguemi Inoue Salgado, Afonso; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin
To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates with regard to the degree of scoliosis, flexibility and pain. The study included 31 female students divided into two groups: a control group (CG = 11), which had no therapeutic intervention, and an experimental group (EG = 20), which underwent Pilates-based therapy. We used radiological goniometry measurements to assess the degree of scoliosis, standard goniometry measurements to determine the degree of flexibility and the scale of perceived pain using the Borg CR 10 to quantify the level of pain. The independent t test of the Cobb angle (t = - 2.317, p = 0.028), range of motion of trunk flexion (t = 3.088, p = 0.004) and pain (t = -2.478, p = 0.019) showed significant differences between the groups, with best values in the Pilates group. The dependent t test detected a significant decrease in the Cobb angle (Δ% = 38%, t = 6.115, p = 0.0001), a significant increase in trunk flexion (Δ% = 80%, t = -7.977, p = 0.0001) and a significant reduction in pain (Δ% = 60%, t = 7.102, p = 0.0001) in the EG. No significant difference in Cobb angle (t = 0.430, p = 0.676), trunk flexion, (t = 0.938p = 0.371) or pain (t = 0.896, p = 0.391) was found for the CG. The Pilates group was better than control group. The Pilates method showed a reduction in the degree of non-structural scoliosis, increased flexibility and decreased pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The author describes the growing movement toward accreditation for human resources development professionals. She covers the issue of diversity, undergraduate versus graduate degrees, and future trends. (CH)
The nuclear industry is looking for ways to maximize the dollars spent to train licensed reactor operators and other personnel and, at the same time, upgrade their educational level. The prospects of college credit and/or degree requirements imposed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have provided a significant driving force behind this search. The task is complicated, however, because shift schedules do not permit reactor operators to pursue higher education through the traditional classroom route, and the need for plant-specific training and requalification programs dictate against uniformly adapting college-based courses for training use. The National Program on Noncollegiate Sponsored Instruction (National PONSI) has been of considerable help to the nuclear industry in meeting these challenges. Through its college credit recommendation service, National PONSI has assessed the comparability of certain industry training activities to college-level instruction and has been instrumental in gaining academic recognition of these activities. The program has become a vital means for the industry to achieve its dual mission of preparing employees to successfully perform their jobs and providing them with ways to obtain college degrees in the shortest possible time
The nuclear industry is looking for ways to maximize the dollars spent to train licensed reactor operators and other personnel and, at the same time, upgrade their educational level. The prospects of college credit and/or degree requirements imposed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have provided a significant driving force behind this search. The task is complicated, however, because shift schedules do not permit reactor operators to pursue higher education through the traditional classroom route, and the need for plant-specific training and requalification programs dictate against uniformly adapting college-based courses for training use. The National Program on Noncollegiate Sponsored Instruction (National PONSI) has been of considerable help to the nuclear industry in meeting these challenges. Through its college credit recommendation service, National PONSI has assessed the comparability of certain industry training activities to college-level instruction and has been instrumental in gaining academic recognition of these activities. The program has become a vital means for the industry to achieve its dual mission of preparing employees to successfully perform their jobs and providing them with ways to obtain college degrees in the shortest possible time.
In the early 1980s, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (WPSC) made a firm commitment to pursue development and subsequent delivery of an appropriate, academically accredited program leading to a baccalaureate degree in nuclear science for its nuclear operations personnel. Recognizing the formidable tasks to be accomplished, WPSC worked closely with the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) in curriculum definition, specific courseware development for delivery by computer-aided instruction, individual student evaluation, and overall program implementation. Instruction began on our nuclear plant site in the fall of 1984. The university anticipates conferring the first degrees from this program at WPSC in the fall of 1989. There are several notable results that WPSC achieved from this degree program. First and most importantly, an increase in the level of education of our employees. It should be stated that this program has been well received by WPSC operator personnel. These employees, now armed with plant experience, a formal degree in nuclear science, and professional education in management are real candidates for advancement in our nuclear organization
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014
In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.
Drawing on Eccles and her colleagues' Expectancy-Value model of academic behavior and choice, this dissertation study set out to serve three purposes: (1) to understand how high achieving high school students who aspire to science college degrees compare, in terms of motivational beliefs and social experiences, with other high achievers who do not aspire to science college degrees; (2) to understand why some high school students who excel in the hard sciences are unsure about pursuing a science degree in college; and (3) to examine whether gender differences in motivational beliefs and social experiences found in previous research on math (see Eccles 1984) exist for science among high achieving high school students. Survey and interview data showed that gender differences previously found in Eccles' research on math exist for science among a select group of high achieving high school students. Yet, these gender differences did not explain students' aspirations for science. Motivation, classroom perceptions, science engagement, as well as other science-related experiences at home and school, including parent and teacher influences, were also important factors associated with students' aspirations for science. Results and implications for this study are encouraging because they suggest that both parents and educators can help more high achievers become interested in science. Parents can expose their children, male and female alike, to science at home early on in their childhood and teachers can help students sustain and further develop an interest in science at school. In this manner, both parents and teachers can work together as a team to encourage more high achievers to aspire to science degrees in their future. Lastly, it is important to note that this study found Eccles' model of motivation and choice helpful in understanding not only gender differences in math and the hard sciences, but also aspiration differences that cut across gender among students
Chew, Shi Hao; Ibrahim, Irwani; Yong, Yan Zhen; Shi, Lu Ming; Zheng, Qi Shi; Samarasekera, Dujeepa D; Ooi, Shirley Beng Suat
The introduction of the residency programme in Singapore allows medical students to apply for residency in their graduating year. Our study aimed to determine the interest levels and motivating factors for pursuing emergency medicine (EM) as a career among medical students in Singapore. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to Year 1-5 medical students in 2012. Participants indicated their interest in pursuing EM as a career and the degree to which a series of variables influenced their choices. Influencing factors were analysed using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 800 completed questionnaires were collected. 21.0% of the participants expressed interest in pursuing EM. Perceived personality fit and having done an elective in EM were strongly positive influencing factors. Junior medical students were more likely to cite the wide diversity of medical conditions and the lack of a long-term doctor-patient relationship to be negative factors, while senior medical students were more likely to cite personality fit and perceived prestige of EM as negative factors. Careful selection of EM applicants is important to the future development of EM in Singapore. Our study showed that personality fit might be the most important influencing factor in choosing EM as a career. Therefore, greater effort should be made to help medical students explore their interest in and suitability for a particular specialty. These include giving medical students earlier exposure to EM, encouraging participation in student interest groups and using appropriate personality tests for career guidance. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Lewis, Luanne Woods
Environmental sustainability dominates the global conversation seeking to increase awareness and change the culture of thinking concerning the relationship between humans and the Earth. Because many universities offer programs relative to environmental sustainability, a need exists to understand why students pursue these programs. This study…
Arnold, Shannon; Place, Nick
The qualitative study reported here explored why agricultural agents pursue an Extension career. A purposive sample was used to select twelve Florida agricultural agents. Interviews investigated positive and negative influences that affected agents' employment decisions. Grounded theory was used as the primary data analysis method (Strauss &…
Oreopoulos, Philip; Petronijevic, Uros
Despite a general rise in the return to college, likely due to technological change, the cost-benefit calculus facing prospective students can make the decision to invest in and attend college dauntingly complex. Philip Oreopoulos and Uros Petronijevic review research on the varying costs and benefits of higher education and explore in full the complexity of the decision to invest in and attend college. Optimal college attainment decisions are different for all prospective students, who diverge in terms of what they are likely to get out of higher education and what specific options might be best for them. Earnings of college graduates depend in important measure on the program of study and eventual occupation they choose. Students uninterested in or unable to complete a four-year college degree appear to benefit from completing a two-year degree. Prospective students may also face both financial constraints, which prohibit them from taking advantage of more education, and information problems and behavioral idiosyncrasies, such as reluctance to take on debt, which keep them from making optimal decisions about attending college. In their discussion of how student debt figures in the college investment, the authors note that some students borrow too little and, as a result, underinvest in their education. Carefully calculating the return on the college investment can help determine the "appropriate" amount of debt. Students are more likely to benefit from postsecondary education the more informed they are about the expenses associated with college and the potential options for financial aid, which can be extremely complex. To make the best college investment, Oreopoulos and Petronijevic stress, prospective students must give careful consideration to selecting the institution itself, the major to follow, and the eventual occupation to pursue. For any particular program at a particular school, anticipated future labor market earnings, the likelihood of completion, the
Clauson, Kevin A.; Latif, David A.
Objectives. To examine pharmacist-targeted master of business administration (MBA) degree programs and investigate pharmacists’ perceptions regarding them. Methods. Specialized MBA programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management offered at US colleges and schools of pharmacy were identified in the literature and compared. Pharmacists’ perceptions of MBA programs were evaluated through a survey of clinical preceptors affiliated with a school of pharmacy. Results. Seven US universities that offer an MBA program in pharmaceutical marketing and management were identified. Thirty-three percent of the 57 pharmacist preceptors who responded to the survey reported plans to pursue an MBA degree program. Respondents preferred MBA programs related to healthcare or pharmacy (66%) over general MBA programs (33%). Conclusion. An MBA in pharmaceutical marketing and management could provide pharmacists with advanced knowledge of the operational and strategic business aspects of pharmacy practice and give pharmacy graduates an advantage in an increasingly competitive job market. PMID:22611273
Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Latif, David A
To examine pharmacist-targeted master of business administration (MBA) degree programs and investigate pharmacists' perceptions regarding them. Specialized MBA programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management offered at US colleges and schools of pharmacy were identified in the literature and compared. Pharmacists' perceptions of MBA programs were evaluated through a survey of clinical preceptors affiliated with a school of pharmacy. Seven US universities that offer an MBA program in pharmaceutical marketing and management were identified. Thirty-three percent of the 57 pharmacist preceptors who responded to the survey reported plans to pursue an MBA degree program. Respondents preferred MBA programs related to healthcare or pharmacy (66%) over general MBA programs (33%). An MBA in pharmaceutical marketing and management could provide pharmacists with advanced knowledge of the operational and strategic business aspects of pharmacy practice and give pharmacy graduates an advantage in an increasingly competitive job market.
Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A
Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in educational attainment and the near-gender parity in math performance, women pursue science and engineering (S/E) degrees at much lower rates than their male peers do. Current efforts to increase the number of women in these fields focus on different life-course periods but lack a clear understanding of the importance of these periods and how orientations toward S/E fields develop over time. In this article, we examine the gendered pathways to a S/E bachelor's degree from middle school to high school and college based on a representative sample from the 1973 to 1974 birth cohort. Using a counterfactual decomposition analysis, we determine the relative importance of these different life-course periods and thereby inform the direction of future research and policy. Our findings confirm previous research that highlights the importance of early encouragement for gender differences in S/E degrees, but our findings also attest to the high school years as a decisive period for the gender gap, while challenging the focus on college in research and policy. Indeed, if female high school seniors had the same orientation toward and preparation for S/E fields as their male peers, the gender gap in S/E degrees would be closed by as much as 82 percent.
Full Text Available Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in educational attainment and the near–gender parity in math performance, women pursue science and engineering (S/E degrees at much lower rates than their male peers do. Current efforts to increase the number of women in these fields focus on different life-course periods but lack a clear understanding of the importance of these periods and how orientations toward S/E fields develop over time. In this article, we examine the gendered pathways to a S/E bachelor’s degree from middle school to high school and college based on a representative sample from the 1973 to 1974 birth cohort. Using a counterfactual decomposition analysis, we determine the relative importance of these different life-course periods and thereby inform the direction of future research and policy. Our findings confirm previous research that highlights the importance of early encouragement for gender differences in S/E degrees, but our findings also attest to the high school years as a decisive period for the gender gap, while challenging the focus on college in research and policy. Indeed, if female high school seniors had the same orientation toward and preparation for S/E fields as their male peers, the gender gap in S/E degrees would be closed by as much as 82 percent.
Sierra, Caroline M.
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Walmart Scholars Program on mentees’ attitudes towards and decision to pursue a career in academia. Upon completion of the AACP Walmart* Scholars Program, wherein mentor-mentee pairs attend the AACP Annual Meeting to learn about academic pharmacy careers, mentees wrote essays evaluating the program. Their views on academic pharmacy careers were analyzed for themes in the evaluations. Of the mentees who addressed the impact of the program on their perspectives on a career in academic pharmacy, over half stated the program positively influenced pursuit of such a career. This reinforces the importance of mentorship for those interested in or new to academic pharmacy. PMID:28289293
Sierra, Caroline M; Adams, Jennifer
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Walmart Scholars Program on mentees' attitudes towards and decision to pursue a career in academia. Upon completion of the AACP Walmart Scholars Program, wherein mentor-mentee pairs attend the AACP Annual Meeting to learn about academic pharmacy careers, mentees wrote essays evaluating the program. Their views on academic pharmacy careers were analyzed for themes in the evaluations. Of the mentees who addressed the impact of the program on their perspectives on a career in academic pharmacy, over half stated the program positively influenced pursuit of such a career. This reinforces the importance of mentorship for those interested in or new to academic pharmacy.
Malone, Laurell Coleman M.S.
Increases in the employment of women in administrative and managerial careers have drawn attention to a need for research that examines the interdependency of work and family roles, a need that is particularly crucial in the area of academic administration. This was a qualitative study of the strategies and support systems women educational administrators use to deal with the multiple roles they perform in life and work while pursuing doctoral studies. Forty-four women educational admini...
Hagan, Eric J.
This qualitative case study investigated how adult graduates of online Bachelor's degree programs describe the online aspect of their degree. Online education is promoted as a method for adult students to access the benefits of a college degree. Therefore, it is important for prospective online students, higher education institutions and…
Continuing Education for Adults, 1970
Briefly describes Bachelor of Liberal Studies programs at six colleges and universities, the Master of Liberal Studies program at Boston University, and the Master of Engineering degree at the University of California at Los Angeles, as well as programs being conducted on a graduate level by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for government and industrial…
Philip A. Trostel
This study quantifies one important part of the economic return to public investment in college education, namely, the fiscal benefits associated with greater college attainment. College graduates generally pay much more in taxes than those not going to college. Government expenditures are also generally much less for college graduates than for those without a college education. Indeed, over an average lifetime, total government spending per college degree is negative. That is, direct savings...
Bruno, B. C.; Wren, J. L.; Ayau, J. F.
undergraduates from diverse backgrounds serve as teaching assistants. Pre-college and community college students can more easily relate to these young role models, which can make pursuing an ocean or earth science career seem more attainable. (7) Organizing career fairs and informal career mixers, to promote one-on-one interactions between students of all ages and diverse career professionals in a range of ocean, earth and environmental science occupations. (8) Forming relationships with minority-serving recruiting organizations and programs to ensure we reach our intended audience. Through such partnerships, we have reached students from underrepresented communities in Hawai';i and throughout the Pacific.
Schmidt, Lauren E; Cooper, Clairice A; Guo, Weidun Alan
Interest and applications to surgery have steadily decreased over recent years in the United States. The goal of this review is to collect the current literature regarding US medical students' experience in surgery and factors influencing their intention to pursue surgery as a career. We hypothesize that multiple factors influence US medical students' career choice in surgery. Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched. The inclusion criteria were studies published after the new century related to factors influencing surgical career choice among US medical students. Factors influencing US medical student surgical career decision-making were recorded. A quality index score was given to each article selected to minimize risk of bias. We identified 38 relevant articles of more than 1000 nonduplicated titles. The factors influencing medical student decision for a surgical career were categorized into five domains: mentorship and role model (n = 12), experience (clerkship n = 9, stereotype n = 4), timing of exposure (n = 9), personal (lifestyle n = 8, gender n = 6, finance n = 3), and others (n = 2). This comprehensive systemic review identifies mentorship, experience in surgery, stereotypes, timing of exposure, and personal factors to be major determinants in medical students' decisions to pursue surgery. These represent areas that can be improved to attract applicants to general surgery residencies. Surgical faculty and residents can have a positive influence on medical students' decisions to pursue surgery as a career. Early introduction to the field of surgery, as well as recruitment strategies during the preclinical and clinical years of medical school can increase students' interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phillips, Larry; And Others
Investigates 31 colleges and 1 state system of 21 colleges that addressed privatizing counseling services. A small number of colleges were found to have adopted different models of outsourcing, and some had considered outsourcing but not pursued it. Discusses advantages, disadvantages, factors affecting decision making, and levels of success. (JPS)
Currie, Charles L.
In the mid-1990s, several hundred Catholic educators gathered at the University of St. Thomas, attempting to move the discussion of Catholic mission and identity away from a debate about juridical relationships and toward mission-inspired work for social and civil responsibility, with a commitment to research and teaching in Catholic studies.…
Whitten, Leah S.; Sanders, Anthony R.; Stewart, J. Gary
While engaged in academic reading, a college provost converged on an idea to use a preferential approach to students' selection of college courses, similar to the recommendation ideas based on Netflix and Amazon. The result of this idea came to be known as Degree Compass and was implemented on the campus of Austin Peay State University in 2011.…
Borden, Victor M. H.
Recently, some critics and policymakers have started to question the value of a college education given the increasing costs of attending and the commensurate high debt levels of college graduates. Past and present studies also demonstrate that the average value masks important variation by degree level and field of study. This paper focuses on…
Lee, Mary W; Clay, Patrick G; Kennedy, W Klugh; Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Sifontis, Nicole M; Simonson, Dana; Sowinski, Kevin M; Taylor, William J; Teply, Robyn M; Vardeny, Orly; Welty, Timothy E
In 2008, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy appointed the Task Force on Research in the Professional Curriculum to review and make recommendations on the essential research curriculum that should be part of doctor of pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree programs. The essential research curriculum provides all students with critical and analytical thinking and lifelong learning skills, which will apply to current and future practice and stimulate some students to pursue a career in this field. Eight key curricular competencies are as follows: identifying relevant problems and gaps in pharmacotherapeutic knowledge; generating a research hypothesis; designing a study to test the hypothesis; analyzing data results using appropriate statistical tests; interpreting and applying the results of a research study to practice; effectively communicating research and clinical findings to pharmacy, medical, and basic science audiences; interpreting and effectively communicating research and clinical findings to patients and caregivers; and applying regulatory and ethical principles when conducting research or using research results. Faculty are encouraged to use research-related examples across the curriculum in nonresearch courses and to employ interactive teaching methods to promote student engagement. Examples of successful strategies used by Pharm.D. degree programs to integrate research content into the curriculum are provided. Current pharmacy school curricula allow variable amounts of time for instructional content in research, which may or may not include hands-on experiences for students to develop research-related skills. Therefore, an important opportunity exists for schools to incorporate the essential research curriculum. Despite the challenges of implementing these recommendations, the essential research curriculum will position pharmacy school graduates to understand the importance of research and its applications to practice. This perspective is provided as an aid
Chan, Mercedes; Pratt, Dan; Poole, Gary; Sidhu, Ravi
Many newly qualified specialists and subspecialists pursue additional training. Although their motivations are many, the pursuit of further training as an alternative to unemployment is an emerging trend. Paradoxically, doctors continue as trainees with a consultant's credentials, and without the guarantee of eventual employment. This study explores seven doctors' experiences, the effects of further training on their professional identity formation (PIF), and how these effects are reconciled on a personal and professional level. This phenomenological study involved interviews with seven qualified Canadian specialists (three were female) who pursued additional training in response to a lack of available positions in their respective specialties. Template analysis generated theoretical constructs of influences on their PIF, and characteristics of their lived experiences. Four themes shaped PIF: setting and context; language and communication; responsibilities and privileges; and participants' visions of their future selves. Professional identity formation (PIF) continued to develop in further training, but was inconsistently affirmed by participants' communities of practice. Four major themes characterised training experiences: prescription; managing multiple masters; limiting access to others and community ties; and constantly questioning the value of extra training. Qualified doctors traverse professional paradoxes as they seek further education with no guarantee of employment and provide consultant-level care as 'trainees'. An identity dissonance emerges that may continue until a clear identity is prescribed for them. Although disruptive to these doctors' PIF and personal and professional lives, the long-term effects of additional training are unknown. Its utility and influence on securing employment and future job satisfaction are areas for further research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Hendricks, Lutz; Leukhina, Oksana
This paper is motivated by the fact that nearly half of U.S. college students drop out without earning a bachelorâ€™s degree. Its objective is to quantify how much uncertainty college entrants face about their graduation outcomes. To do so, we develop a quantitative model of college choice. The innovation is to model in detail how students progress towards a college degree. The model is calibrated using transcript and financial data. We find that more than half of college entrants can predict...
Hoepner, Cynthia Colon
President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country. Although research studies offer several contributing factors that point to a higher attrition rate of women in STEM than their male counterparts, no study has investigated the role that high school advanced placement (AP) math and science courses play in preparing students for the challenges of college STEM courses. The purpose of this study was to discover which AP math and science courses and/or influential factors could encourage more students, particularly females, to consider pursuing STEM fields in college. Further, this study examined which, if any, AP math or science courses positively contribute to a student's overall preparation for college STEM courses. This retrospective study combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey sample consisted of 881 UCLA female and male students pursuing STEM majors. Qualitative data was gathered from four single-gender student focus groups, two female groups (15 females) and two male groups (16 males). This study examined which AP math and science courses students took in high school, who or what influenced them to take those courses, and which particular courses influenced student's choice of STEM major and/or best prepared her/him for the challenges of STEM courses. Findings reveal that while AP math and science course-taking patterns are similar of female and male STEM students, a significant gender-gap remains in five of the eleven AP courses. Students report four main influences on their choice of AP courses; self, desire for math/science major, higher grade point average or class rank, and college admissions. Further, three AP math and science courses were
DWYER, RACHEL E.; HODSON, RANDY; MCLOUD, LAURA
For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college ...
This paper examines why Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields are becoming "immigrant" fields of study as native students shift from STEM fields to law, medicine and business. Using data from the 2010 National Survey of College Graduates, the analyses find that foreign college-educated immigrants with STEM degrees tend to remain in STEM fields, while natives are more likely to shift from STEM fields to law, medicine and business in graduate school. Among those who moved into law, medicine and business, the gains in earnings are larger for natives than for foreign educated immigrants. These results have important implications for the social mobility of highly educated natives and immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Natalia A. Kolesnikova
This paper examines the role of community colleges in the U.S. higher education system and their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, it discusses the population of community college students and economic returns to community college education for various demographic groups. It offers new evidence on the returns to an associate's degree. Furthermore, the paper uses data from the National Survey of College Graduates to compare educational objectives, progress, and labor market outcomes ...
The government policy in the sphere of funding colleges should pursue the following two goals: first, to improve the mechanism of funding colleges from the budget, and second, to diversify the sources of funding for the sector. The article analyzes different means and models for the funding of colleges. The drawbacks of the current mechanism for funding colleges from the budget are considered, and the reasons for these problems are discussed. The problems of establishing standards of per capi...
Blackstone, Elaine Grant
This study was designed to ascertain current trends in associate degree nursing programs and to discover innovative ideas and techniques which could be applied to the existing program at Miami-Dade Community College (Florida). Data was compiled from interviews with representatives of ten associate degree nursing programs in six states. Information…
Philadelphia Youth Network, 2009
The financial benefits of a college degree are clear. Philadelphians with 1-3 years of college earn a third more than high school graduates over a working lifetime, and four-year degree-holders earn twice as much. Furthermore, college-goers contribute substantially more in tax revenues to support services provided through local, state and federal…
The UK state-owned nuclear utility, Nuclear Electric, is actively pursuing a major initiative inherited from its predecessor the Central Electricity Generating Board, known as the Station Enhancement Programme. The Enhancement Programme is a multi-million pound project and covers all Nuclear Electric's stations (including relevant aspects of the de-commissioning site at Berkeley). Its fundamental objective is to enhance the arrangements, practices and attitudes on the power stations to create an overall environment likely to promote ever safer and more reliable operation, and to take full account of the best international practices. The four year programme started in the spring of 1989, and is expected to be completed in 1993. Key elements of the programme include quality assurance based management systems; improvements to site and plant material conditions; a more formal approach to training; additional resources and controls to aid the management of maintenance defects; higher profile for the feedback of operational experience; management targets; a station evaluation programme; and formal feedback of lessons learned from the IAEA operational and safety review team visit to the Oldbury-on-Severn station in 1989. (author)
Phillips, William R
New researchers often face difficulty finding and focusing research questions. I describe a new tool for research mentoring, the Pursuing Personal Passion (P3) interview, and a systematic approach to help learners organize their curiosity and develop researchable questions aligned with their personal and professional priorities. The learner-centered P3 research interview parallels the patient-centered clinical interview. This paper reviews experience with 27 research mentees over the years 2009 to 2016, using the P3 approach to identify their initial research topics, classify their underlying passions and track the evolution into their final research questions. These researchers usually identified one of three personal passions that provided lenses to focus their research: problem, person, or process. Initial research topics focused on: problem (24%, 6), person (48%, 12) and process (28%, 7). Final research questions evolved into: problem (20%, 5), person (32%, 8) and process (48%, 12). Identification of the underlying passion can lead researchers who start with one general topic to develop it into very different research questions. Using this P3 approach, mentors can help new researchers focus their interests into researchable questions, successful studies, and organized programs of scholarship.
Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R.; Erwin, D.; Kunc, J.
The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science degree program in Astronautics combines basic science and engineering classes with specialized astronautics classes. The Master of Science degree program in Astronautics offers classes in various areas of space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. We show how the transformation of distance learning and particularly the introduction of webcasting transform organization of the program and class delivery. We will describe in detail the academic focus of the program, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.
Broh, C. Anthony; Ansel, Dana
Parents and students recognize the value of a college degree. Increasingly, they are borrowing large sums of money to invest in the future. Their choices about how to save for college, where to attend college, how much and from where to borrow for college, and how to repay their loans, have grown more complex. Yet families work with incomplete…
Motivations for study abroad have been studied mostly from a quantitative point of view. This study attempted to understand those motivations through qualitative methodology, by getting "into the heads" of international students using a multiple case study approach. Participants were 15 Israeli Hebrew-speaking graduates. Data sources…
Shores, Kindal A; West, Stephanie T
While considerable attention has been given to quantifying leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among subpopulations, less attention has focused on the perception of the experience as leisure. The current study describes the prevalence of leisure-like experiences during LTPA among college students. We describe the social contexts and activity settings that contribute to participant enjoyment of LTPA since enjoyment has been linked to participation and adherence. Data were collected from 192 undergraduate students using a short questionnaire and 2 days of time diaries. Respondents spent nearly equal time working, sleeping, and engaged in discretionary activities. Students reported 512 minutes of discretionary time each day, of which 77 minutes were spent in LTPA and 68% was classified by respondents as leisure. Active sports/exercise (including aerobics and weight lifting), walking, and dancing at bars or parties were the most frequent LTPA choices. When LTPA involved the presence of human companions, activities were more likely to be perceived by respondents as leisure experiences. Physical activities undertaken at public parks, bars/dance clubs and private recreation centers were also more likely to be perceived as leisure experiences. Findings indicate that social instead of traditional exercise activities may motivate LTPA participation among college students. For example, results suggest the importance of dancing in this population.
Pre-college education efforts are many and varied, involving the teachers, students, parents, museums, and youth groups. However, it is necessary to reach out to school administration at all levels if teachers are to be innovative in their approaches. This introductory meeting clearly indicated that more interaction between the participants would be profitable. It is clear that the science pipeline leading from kindergarten to college entry needs to be filled with students. What is not clear is how we can do it. The plethora of projects being pursued by the NASA Space Grant College Fellowship (NSGC) programs to accomplish that goal are heartening and exciting. However, this large gamut of programs may also indicate how new we are in this game and how little anyone knows about creating a pre-college interest in science and engineering. In a way, it resembles the situation of the common cold--there is no known cure yet, so there are many so-called remedies. Unfortunately, the time we had together was entirely too short to address the evaluation situation, so that we can in the future zero in on the most effective approaches. This report is a summary of the many ways the different NSGC' s are approaching pre-college education and a list of suggestions.
Meere, Patrick; Hendrix, Marc; Strecker, Manfred; Berger, Andreas
The Department of Geology at University College Cork (UCC), Ireland, in conjunction with the Universities of Montana (UM) and Potsdam (UP) launched a new BSc in International Field Geosciences in Autumn 2008. In this program superb natural field geoscience laboratories available in Europe and the western United States are utilized as learning environments forming the basis for a ‘Joint' Bachelor of Science undergraduate degree. This programme focuses on the documentation, interpretation, and synthesis of critical geological issues in the field. It rests upon a backbone of existing modules that are the foundation of current geology programs at three partner institutions complemented by an emphasis on the development of field-based learning in an intercultural setting. The core curriculum is identical to that required for the existing BSc Geology at UCC except the third Year is spent abroad at UM while additional courses are taken at the UP at the start the fourth year. The mobility component of the programme is funded as part of a joint EU/US ATLANTIS project. The motivation for the new programme was primarily driven by the growing international demand for geoscientists with integrated field skills. Over the last two decades existing geoscience programmes in Europe and the US have tended to progressively reduce their field based learning components. One of the major reasons for this neglect is the increasing cost associated with physically transporting students into the field and maintaining a safe outdoor working environment. Heath and safety considerations in an increasingly litigious society have led to increasingly limited choices for suitable field areas in the last few decades. Lastly, recent technological advances such as GIS and various other forms of remote sensing have led to new ways of analyzing geospatial data that, while certainly useful, divert the attention of the Geoscience community away from collecting ‘ground truth' data and making direct
Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa
those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their work around them. © 2015 Milbank Memorial Fund.
Cabrera, Alberto F.; Burkum, Kurt R.; La Nasa, Steven M.
The High School Sophomore Cohort of 1980 followed nine different pathways to a 4-year college degree. These paths were formed by a combination of different levels of academic preparation secured in high school and the first type of postsecondary institution attended. The pathway most likely to lead to a 4-year degree is one defined by acquiring…
The debate on degree education for radiographers began in earnest in the mid-1970s. Initially the debate hinged around whether a degree education was necessary for radiographers. One argument was that it was felt that a degree would separate academic and clinical training but eventually when degrees were introduced practical skills were assessed formally for the first time; something that had not been achieved with the Diploma of the College of Radiographers (DCR). The DCR itself became a barrier to degree education as the College of Radiographers (CoR) insisted that it was the only qualification recognised for state registration and as such would have to remain embedded as a distinct qualification within a degree. A major breakthrough came when the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) recognised the DCR at the same level as an ordinary degree. Around the same time the CoR published its Degree Rationale which announced a change in policy by not insisting that the DCR was sacrosanct. Developments followed rapidly and the first honours degree in radiography was validated in 1989 despite opposition from scientific officers at the Department of Health. Degrees were approved for state registration and radiography became a graduate profession by 1993 following years of debate and after overcoming opposition from both within and external to the profession.
Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...
Castleman, Benjamin; Goodman, Joshua
Though counseling is one commonly pursued intervention to improve college enrollment and completion for disadvantaged students, there is relatively little causal evidence on its efficacy. We use a regression discontinuity design to study the impact of intensive college counseling provided by a Massachusetts program to college-seeking, low-income…
Shah, Amita Roy
This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…
Peltier, James W.; Cummins, Shannon; Pomirleanu, Nadia; Cross, James; Simon, Rob
Students' desire and intention to pursue a career in sales continue to lag behind industry demand for sales professionals. This article develops and validates a reliable and parsimonious scale for measuring and predicting student intention to pursue a selling career. The instrument advances previous scales in three ways. The instrument is…
McGraw-Hill Continuing Education Center, Washington, DC.
A study on proposed accreditation standards grew out of a need to (1) stimulate the growth of quality correspondence degree programs; and (2) provide a policy for accreditation of correspondence degree programs so that graduates would be encouraged to pursue advanced degree programs offered elsewhere by educational institutions. The study focused…
Regents College, created by the Board of Regents of the University of The State on New York in 1971, has been offering, since January 1985, AS and BS degrees in nuclear technology. The impetus for establishing the nuclear technology degrees came from nuclear utility management and had to do with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission proposed rule regarding degreed operators on shift. There are a variety of ways to earn credits in Regents College degree programs: (1) college courses taken for degree-level credit from regionally accredited colleges; (2) courses sponsored by business, industry, or government that have been evaluated and recommended for credit by the New York National or American Council on Education (ACE's) Program on Noncollegiate Sponsored Instruction (PONSI); (3) military education that has been evaluated by ACE PONSI; (4) approved college-proficiency examinations; and (5) special assessment: an individualized examination of college-level knowledge gained from experience or independent study. Nuclear technology students primarily use college course work, evaluated military education, and proficiency examinations to complete degree programs. However, an increasing number of utilities are having training programs PONSI evaluated, resulting in an increased use of these courses in the nuclear technology degrees. Quality control is a function of several factors described in the paper
This chapter explores the tremendous growth in the use of the Internet to deliver distance education at community colleges. The author examines various definitions of online education, including the types of courses, programs, and degrees available and the types of community colleges that offer greater amounts of online programming. Considerations…
Ruggirello, Rachel; Flohr, Linda
This forum explores contradictions that arose within the partnership between Teach for America (TFA) and a university teacher education program. TFA is an alternate route teacher preparation program that places individuals into K-12 classrooms in low-income school districts after participating in an intense summer training program and provides them with ongoing support. This forum is a conversation about the challenges we faced as new science teachers in the TFA program and in the Peace Corps program. We both entered the teaching field with science degrees and very little formal education in science education. In these programs we worked in a community very different from the one we had experienced as students. These experiences allow us to address many of the issues that were discussed in the original paper, namely teaching in an unfamiliar community amid challenges that many teachers face in the first few years of teaching. We consider how these challenges may be amplified for teachers who come to teaching through an alternate route and may not have as much pedagogical training as a more traditional teacher education program provides. The forum expands on the ideas presented in the original paper to consider the importance of perspectives on socially just science education. There is often a disconnect between what is taught in teacher education programs and what teachers actually experience in urban classrooms and this can be amplified when the training received through alternate route provides a different framework as well. This forum urges universities and alternate route programs to continue to find ways to authentically partner using practical strategies that bring together the philosophies and goals of all stakeholders in order to better prepare teachers to partner with their students to achieve their science learning goals.
Dynarski, Susan; Hyman, Joshua; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore
This paper examines the effect of early childhood investments on college enrollment and degree completion. We used the random assignment in Project STAR (the Tennessee Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio experiment) to estimate the effect of smaller classes in primary school on college entry, college choice, and degree completion. We improve on…
All but one (n = 18) nursing educators who obtained a degree as first qualification are educators in the private sector that include both universities as well as nursing colleges of private hospital groups. Data further revealed that most nurse educators and those in managerial positions were degree prepared. More degree ...
De Leon, John E.
A study examined the perceptions of four key constituent groups from the Southeast College Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program regarding institutional goal priorities. (Southeast College manages the ADN program for the Houston Community College System.) The study involved 23 ADN faculty, 13 college administrators, 128 ADN students, and 5 ADN…
Diggs, Gwendolyn Smith
In Texas, there is an increase in the enrollment of men of various ethnicities in nursing schools, especially Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs. As these men strive to complete the nursing education, they face many concerns that center on barriers that are encountered in what is still a predominately Caucasian and female environment. In…
Rossmeier, Joseph G.
Research shows that neither centralization nor decentralization of decision-making authority in multiunit community colleges is a primary determinant of organizational effectiveness; rather it is the degree of participation in decision-making by staff members at all hierarchical levels. (BB)
Lowes, S; Bydder, M; Sinnatamby, R
To investigate UK radiology trainees' perceptions of breast radiology and the factors that influenced their decision whether or not to choose breast radiology as an area of special interest. An online survey was compiled and distributed to all UK specialty trainees in clinical radiology via the Royal College of Radiologists Junior Radiologists' Forum (JRF) regional representatives. There were 275 respondents, representing 22% of all UK radiology trainees. Responses were received from all regions. A significant factor identified in influencing whether or not trainees decide to pursue advanced training in breast radiology is the timing and quality of their initial core training experience. Specific positive aspects of breast radiology that were repeatedly identified included the high level of patient contact and frequent use of interventional procedures. Recurring negative aspects of breast radiology included isolation from general radiology and finding the subject matter boring. Breast radiology faces a significant workforce shortfall that is predicted to worsen in the coming years. There has never been a greater need to recruit specialty trainees into this field, and action is urgently needed to help ensure the sustainability of breast services and drive further improvements to patient care. The findings from this survey should be regarded as a challenge to all breast radiologists to engage with trainees from an early stage in their training and to enthuse them with the many positive aspects of a career in breast radiology. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barth, Michael M.; Karagiannidis, Iordanis
Many universities have implemented tuition differentials for certain undergraduate degree programs, citing higher degree costs or higher demand. However, most college accounting systems are unsuited for measuring cost differentials by degree program. This research outlines a method that can convert commonly available financial data to a more…
Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research, 2013
This AIR Data Brief breaks down the "cost per degree" estimates for 28 disciplines, including those in the STEM fields, which among the most expensive degrees to produce. The brief points to ways colleges can change their tuition structure to finance STEM degrees more affordably. This data brief is the fourth of four in the series. (See…
Meyer, E. E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Dade, W. B.; Sonder, L. J.; Renshaw, C. E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hawley, R. L.; Chipman, J. W.; Mikucki, J.; Posmentier, E. S.; Moore, J. R.
spend several weeks conducting traditional multiday mapping of complexly-deformed sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks, and also collect and interpret geobiological, geochemical, geophysical, paleoclimatological, paleontological, and remote-sensing data outside the context of traditional mapping. During the Mono Lake segment, for example, students examine the interaction of ecology and chemistry in alkaline lakes. During the Canadian Rockies segment, students reconstruct Holocene paleoclimate using tree stumps and fossil wood detritus marking former positions of an alpine glacier. While a mobile, wide-ranging field program requires complicated logistics and potentially high per-student costs, the diversity of research topics, geological environments, and field techniques have made it a successful cornerstone of the Dartmouth Earth Sciences major. After the Stretch experience, significant fractions of our students become involved in ongoing faculty research, pursue senior theses, and go on to pursue Earth Sciences graduate degrees.
Hagler, LaTesha R.
As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.
Success in college is built upon classroom success, but success in the classroom does not in itself ensure college completion. Completion arises from success in a sequence of classes one after another over time. It does so most frequently when students are presented with coherent course pathways to degree completion, are able to gain degree credit…
The fact that nearly one-half of recent college graduates are unemployed or underemployed has once again raised questions about the value of a college degree. This article will attempt to answer these questions by analyzing such issues as labor markets, student debt, human capital along with examining the less apparent aspects of degrees and…
Ahl, David H.
The "College Explorer" is a software package (for the 64K Apple II, IBM PC, TRS-80 model III and 4 microcomputers) which aids in choosing a college. The major features of this package (manufactured by The College Board) are described and evaluated. Sample input/output is included. (JN)
, empirical data relevant to the development of the degree adverb function is presented and possible relevant constructions identified. It is argued that the degree adverb function of that possibly occurs later than the historical dictionaries indicate. The degree adverb function of this is challenging...
Sheldon, Kennon M; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L; Kasser, Tim
The assertion that both the content of goals and the motives behind goals affect psychological well-being has been controversial. Three studies examined this issue directly, showing that both what goals people pursue (i.e., whether they strive for extrinsic vs. intrinsic goal contents) and why people pursue them (i.e., whether they strive for autonomous vs. controlled motives) make significant independent contributions to psychological well-being. The pattern emerged in between-person and within-person studies of cross-sectional well-being and also emerged in a year-long study of prospective change in well-being. Implications for prescriptive theories of happiness are discussed.
Fogel, Alexander L; Jaju, Prajakta D; Li, Shufeng; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y
Across cancers, the decision to pursue genetic testing is influenced more by subjective than objective factors. However, skin cancer, which is more prevalent, visual, and multifactorial than many other malignancies, may offer different motivations for pursuing such testing. The primary objective was to determine factors influencing the decision to receive genetic testing for skin cancer risk. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of priming with health questions on the decision to receive testing. We distributed anonymous online surveys through ResearchMatch.org to assess participant health, demographics, motivations, and interest in pursuing genetic testing for skin cancer risk. Two surveys with identical questions but different question ordering were used to assess the secondary objective. We received 3783 responses (64% response rate), and 85.8% desired testing. Subjective factors, including curiosity, perceptions of skin cancer, and anxiety, were the most statistically significant determinants of the decision to pursue testing (P < .001), followed by history of sun exposure (odds ratio 1.85, P < .01) and history of skin cancer (odds ratio 0.5, P = .01). Age and family history of skin cancer did not influence this decision. Participants increasingly chose testing if first queried about health behaviors (P < .0001). The decision to pursue hypothetical testing may differ from in-clinic decision-making. Self-selected, online participants may differ from the general population. Surveys may be subject to response bias. The decision to pursue genetic testing for skin cancer is primarily determined by subjective factors, such as anxiety and curiosity. Health factors, including skin cancer history, also influenced decision-making. Priming with consideration of objective health factors can increase the desire to pursue testing. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Some of today's most successful Internet entrepreneurs didn't graduate from college. Many young people today followed the same path to pursue their dreams however ended up failing, not a surprise because 80% of the startups fail in first 5 years. As technology innovation and market competition on Internet continue to accelerate, college students…
Joy, Stephen P.
College graduation rates are a source of concern; many students fail to complete degree programs and therefore miss out on the socioeconomic benefits accruing to college graduates. Some have proposed that colleges be evaluated based on their graduation rates, with financial aid dollars directed away from poor performers. However, none of these…
Mohammed Saleh Shenaifi
was recommended that a counseling program should be implemented to better identify and retain students who are interested in pursuing degrees from the College of Agriculture.
García, Yeni Violeta
The future of this country depends on utilizing human intellectual resources from varying viewpoints to make informed decisions on issues from conservation biology to biotechnology, or even bioengineering. An increase in Latina/o students in the biological sciences would bring a variety of viewpoints, as well as personal and cultural experiences that would advance the field. To insure that we have enough experts in biology that represent changes in demographic trends, we must look into utilizing the expertise of students in our current educational system to continue and complete careers in biology. In this study, a career in biology referred to careers that require an expertise in biology that is gained by completing a bachelor's degree in biology or an affiliated field. Using case study methodology, I explored the experiences of two Latina students, one who is undocumented, and focused on the nature of the experiences and how they related to the young women's decision to pursue a career in biology. This study is grounded on a theoretical framework of critical systems theory and the notion that there are systems and components within those systems that either facilitate or hinder students' ability to pursue various pathways. Data were generated from semi-structured interviews, artifacts, life narratives, and cultural descriptors to gain an understanding of the girls' past, present, and future decisions regarding the feasibility of pursuing a degree in biology. Four common themes emerged: (1) experiences that made a lasting positive or negative impact early in life; (2) an intrinsic desire to serve their community or people in need; (3) sociocultural support networks; and (4) opportunities or circumstances within the cultural commons associated with their legal status in the United States, which caused the girls to continue or to deviate from their path towards pursuing a career in biology.
Pender, Matea; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Howell, Jessica
Empirical research on the returns to postsecondary education provides a near universal consensus that college confers numerous advantages for both individuals and society. Not only do individuals with a college degree earn more money than their peers with only a high school degree, they lead healthier lifestyles, experience greater job…
Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Le, Daisy; Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Wang, Min Qi
Minority populations are underrepresented in fields of science, perhaps limiting scientific perspectives. Informed by recent studies using social cognitive career theory, this study examined whether three conceptual constructs: self-efficacy, perceived adult support, and perceived barriers, along with several discrete and immutable variables,…
Daly, Mary C.; Bengali, Leila
Earning a four-year college degree remains a worthwhile investment for the average student. Data from U.S. workers show that the benefits of college in terms of higher earnings far outweigh the costs of a degree, measured as tuition plus wages lost while attending school. The average college graduate paying annual tuition of about $20,000 can recoup the costs of schooling by age 40. After that, the difference between earnings continues such that the average college graduate earns over $800,00...
Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and four-year colleges continues to grow, and these courses are well-populated with students who already took pre-calculus in high school. We examine student performance in college calculus, using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of taking college pre-calculus or not, in a national US sample of 5507 students at 132 institutions. We find that students who take college pre-calculus do not earn higher calculus grades.
This chapter traces the history, purposes, and distinctive features of the foundation degree, a short-cycle higher education qualification introduced in England in 2000-2001 and offered by both universities and further education colleges. The key characteristics of the foundation degree are discussed: employer involvement in curriculum development…
Black Issues in Higher Education, 1999
Data on the colleges and universities producing the highest numbers of minority master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees in 1996-1997 are presented. Rankings are organized by degree level, ethnic group (African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, Native American), discipline group, and overall graduation rate. Breakouts are also…
Nov 2, 2016 ... 4College of Science, Qi Lu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, Shandong, China ... cal methods used usually to describe the degree correlation in the ... Most social networks show assorta- .... a clear but only qualitative description of the degree ... is difficult to give quantitative relation between DCC.
Mayer, Alexander K.; Patel, Reshma; Gutierrez, Melvin
A college degree is often viewed as a key step toward better employment and higher earnings. Many community college students, however, never graduate and cannot reap the financial benefits associated with a college degree. Although existing research suggests that financial aid interventions can modestly improve students' short-term academic…
Dynarski, Susan; Hyman, Joshua M.; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore
This paper examines the effect of early childhood investments on college enrollment and degree completion. We use the random assignment in the Project STAR experiment to estimate the effect of smaller classes in primary school on college entry, college choice, and degree completion. We improve on existing work in this area with unusually detailed…
, with opportunities to study at colleges and universities outside Ladakh. As a result, a large number of young Ladakhis pursue higher education outside Ladakh, while dealing with intense competition, heightened expectations and academic demands. This paper explores the links between one’s background and mental health......, amongst Ladakhi college students studying in Leh and Delhi. Statistical analysis reveals that gender and parental level of education are significant predictors of anxiety and depression levels....
Dworsky, Amy; Perez, Alfred
The economic benefits of a college education are well documented; however, data from studies of young people transitioning out of foster care indicate that the college graduation rate for this population is very low. The child welfare system has traditionally done a poor job of encouraging foster youth to pursue postsecondary education. Although…
Lesk, Cherish Christina Clark
Active learning methodologies (ALM) are associated with student success, but little research on this topic has been pursued at the community college level. At a local community college, students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses exhibited lower than average grades. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the use…
Taha, Consuelo Byrd
This study is considered to represent an attempt to examine conditions which inhibit the education of many minority group college students, by pursuing three specific objectives. They are: (1) to identify common indicators of the lack of self-discipline among minority group college students and analyze them in terms of their nature and magnitude;…
Zeedyk, Sasha M.; Tipton, Leigh Ann; Blacher, Jan
This article provides direction for educational decision making specifically for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who have the cognitive and adaptive capabilities required to pursue postsecondary college education. The purpose is to draw attention to the available postsecondary pathways, 2- and 4-year college options, by addressing…
Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R. F.; Erwin, D. A.; Kunc, J. A.
The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degree programs in Astronautics combine basic science and engineering classes with specialized classes in space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available entirely through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers while earning their degrees. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. Distance learning, and particularly the introduction of webcasting, transform the organization of the graduate program and class delivery. We describe in detail the program's academic focus, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.
Saint Petersburg College (SPC) (Florida) has begun to enroll students in bachelor's degree programs in education and technology management, and a B.S. program in nursing. This article presents critics' arguments against community colleges offering bachelor's degrees, suggesting that community college B.A.s are inferior degrees, and that offering…
This study explores what motivates 19 international students to pursue a Ph.D. at a public research university in the U.S. and, more importantly, what motivates them to persist despite unsatisfying socialization. Based on value-expectancy achievement motivation theory, four motivations emerged: intrinsic interest in research, intrinsic interest in…
Heidemann, Gretchen; Fertig, Ralph; Jansson, Bruce; Kim, Hansung
Schools of social work are mandated to train students for policy practice. A new instructional approach is needed so that social workers skillfully engage in policy change to address the growing economic, social, and cultural problems that affect our clients. This article presents the Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social…
Goldacre, Michael J; Goldacre, Raph; Lambert, Trevor W
To report doctors' rejection of specialties as long-term careers and reasons for rejection. Postal questionnaires. United Kingdom. Graduates of 2002, 2005 and 2008 from all UK medical schools, surveyed one year after qualification. Current specialty choice; any choice that had been seriously considered but not pursued (termed 'rejected' choices) with reasons for rejection. 2573 of 9155 respondents (28%) had seriously considered but then not pursued a specialty choice. By comparison with positive choices, general practice was under-represented among rejected choices: it was the actual choice of 27% of respondents and the rejected choice of only 6% of those who had rejected a specialty. Consideration of 'job content' was important in not pursuing general practice (cited by 78% of those who considered but rejected a career in general practice), psychiatry (72%), radiology (69%) and pathology (68%). The surgical specialties were the current choice of 20% of respondents and had been considered but rejected by 32% of doctors who rejected a specialty. Issues of work-life balance were the single most common factor, particularly for women, in not pursuing the surgical specialties, emergency medicine, the medical hospital specialties, paediatrics, and obstetrics and gynaecology. Competition for posts, difficult examinations, stressful working conditions, and poor training were mentioned but were mainly minority concerns. There is considerable diversity between doctors in their reasons for finding specialties attractive or unattractive. This underlines the importance of recruitment strategies to medical school that recognize diversity of students' interests and aptitudes.
Levisohn, Jon A.
This article builds on Greenstein's advocacy of a "pragmatic pedagogy of Bible" by pursuing four issues. First, do we select among methodological approaches to Bible according to our desired interpretive outcome but not according to any internal criteria? Is it merely a matter of "choice"? Second, in what sense are interpretive approaches usefully…
Kung, LeeAnn; Kung, Hsiang-Jui
This paper identifies factors that motivate students to pursue a vendor-endorsed ERP award by integrating concepts from motivation theory and constructs from technology acceptance literature. We developed a web-based survey with closed- and open-ended questions to collect both quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Students in…
Allen, Concha; Kumar, Poonam; Tarasi, Crina; Wilson, Holt
With a better understanding of the typical sales student, sales educators can design and deliver curriculum with a more customer-oriented approach. In order to better understand the decision to pursue sales education, more than 500 undergraduate business students at a large Midwestern university participated in a survey that examined the factors…
Richards, K. Andrew R.; Padaruth, Sookhenlall
Research related to the occupational socialization of physical education teachers has found that students have been primarily motivated to pursue careers in physical education because they have developed interests related to teaching and/or coaching extracurricular sport. However, recent trends within physical education--and in society more…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to…
Dhar, Rajib Lochan
This study tries to examine the causes which have led to the rise in the number of students pursuing an MBA in India. Qualitative methods have been used to collect the data. Data were collected via six focused group discussions with 60 postgraduate students associated with different management institutes in western India. In addition, data were…
Transit-oriented development strategies (TODS) are widely pursued by planners and policy makers. However, there is a lack of0clarity on how institutional innovation and learning accompanying0institutional change0facilitates an explicit shift towards a conducive context for TODS. This is evident in
Ramnarain, U.; Molefe, P.
A high failure rate at first year physics is often attributed to the lack of readiness of high school students to pursue such studies. This research explores this issue and reports on the perceptions of five physics lecturers at a South African university on the preparedness of high school students for first year physics. Qualitative data was…
Eells, Gregory T.
Over the past decade, there has been considerable attention given to college students' experience of pressure to pursue perfection through hyper-achievement and the psychological and emotional toll this process takes on them. The popular press has highlighted this phenomenon and raised specific questions about some of the related consequences like…
Winter, Paul A.; Kjorlien, Chad L.
The purpose of this study was to: (1) conduct an empirical examination of applicant reactions to faculty jobs described in recruitment advertisements for business faculty vacancies at community colleges; and (2) assess factors that potentially impact applicant decisions to apply for and pursue position vacancies. The results of this study have…
Grimm, Lars J; Lowell, Dorothy A; Cater, Sarah W; Yoon, Sora C
The purpose of this study is to determine how the motivations to pursue a career in radiology differ by gender. In addition, the influence of medical school radiology education will be assessed. Radiology applicants to our institution from the 2015-2016 interview season were offered an online survey in February 2016. Respondents scored the influence of 24 aspects of radiology on their decision to pursue radiology. Comparisons were made between male and female respondents. Respondents were also asked the type of medical school radiology education they received and to score the influence this experience had on their decision to pursue radiology. There were 202 total respondents (202/657) including 47 women and 155 men. Compared to men, the following factors had a more negative impact on women: flexible work hours (P = 0.04), work environment (P = 0.04), lifestyle (P = 0.04), impact on patient care (P = 0.05), high current debt load (P = 0.02), gender distribution of the field (P = 0.04), and use of emerging/advanced technology (P = 0.02). In contrast, women felt more favorably about the opportunities for leadership (P = 0.04) and research (P < 0.01). Dedicated radiology exposure was as follows: 20% (n = 20) none, 48% (n = 96) preclinical exposure, 55% (n = 111) elective rotation, and 18% (n = 37) core rotation. More intensive radiology exposure via a core rotation had a significantly positive impact on the decision to pursue radiology (P < 0.01). Male and female radiology applicants are motivated by different aspects of radiology, which may influence residency recruitment practices. In addition, more intensive radiology exposure has a net positive impact on the decision to pursue radiology. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and…
American Association of Community Colleges, 2017
In fall 2015, U.S community colleges enrolled about 7.2 million for-credit students. During the same year, community colleges awarded 806,766 associate degrees and 516,820 certificates. The new Humanities Indicators report from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences shows a significant increase in associate degrees awarded in the humanities,…
This paper presents the postgraduate degree in nuclear engineering jointly organised by four universities of the French Community of Belgium, and its possible evolution towards an European degree. The project includes the location of the programme outside the partner universities at the premises of the SCK.CEN, a modular structure of the curriculum, and an increased co-operation of the teaching staff within small groups of experts including academics, researchers and practitioners from the nuclear industry. This programme would favour the exchange of students and professors through a network of top quality European institutions pursuing the same teaching objectives. (author)
Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia
special counseling services and a small stipend of $150 per semester when they used those services. And researchers are conducting experimental performance-based financial aid programs at community colleges to test their effectiveness. Goldrick-Rab and Sorensen conclude that more effective support could enable unmarried students to complete college degree and certificate programs.
Background: In terms of high school graduation, college entry, and persistence to earning a college degree, young women now consistently outperform their male peers. Yet most research on gender inequalities in education continues to focus on aspects of education where women trail men, such as women's underrepresentation at top-tier institutions…
The nation's community colleges share a common and vital purpose: preparing students--young and working adults--for jobs and continued academic study. Today, over 7 million community college students strive to attain a degree that will expand their opportunity, whether they aim to graduate directly into the workforce or continue on to seek a…
Lyman, Bret; Cowan, Lisa A; Hoyt, Hannah C
College of nursing leaders can foster organizational learning as a means of achieving their desired organizational outcomes. Organizational learning has not previously been studied in colleges of nursing, leaving college administrators and faculty little guidance as they strive to improve outcomes in their own colleges. The purpose of this study was to discover new insights related to organizational learning in a college of nursing. The learning history method was used to document and describe organizational learning in a college of nursing. This study was conducted with a college of nursing situated in a private, religious-based university in the western United States. Six stakeholders and 16 individuals familiar with the college's history were purposively recruited for this study. Participants included college administrators, faculty, students, alumni, and individuals with university-level responsibilities related to the college. Semi-structured interviews and college artifacts were used to gather data. Data was reviewed and themes identified through a process called "distillation." The college's vision, "Learning the Healer's Art" provides purpose and motivation within the college. Four themes provide additional insight into how the college established a learning culture and fosters behavior conducive to organizational learning: (1) Character and Quality, (2) Long-Term Perspective, (3) Collaborative Leadership and Adaptation, and (4) Mentoring. College of nursing leaders can foster organizational learning and pursue improvement within their colleges. Recommended actions include developing a shared vision for the college, building a cadre of qualified faculty and students who have strong personal character, maintaining a long-term perspective, using a collaborative approach to leadership and adaptation, and facilitating mentoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reich, Warren A; Kressel, Kenneth; Scanlon, Kathleen M; Weiner, Gary A
Clients (N = 185) involved in civil court cases completed the CPR Institute's Mediation Screen, which is designed to assist in making a decision about pursuing mediation. The authors modeled data using hierarchical classes analysis (HICLAS), a clustering algorithm that places clients into 1 set of classes and CPRMS items into another set of classes. HICLAS then links the sets of classes so that any class of clients can be identified in terms of the classes of items they endorsed. HICLAS-derived item classes reflected 2 underlying themes: (a) suitability of the dispute for a problem-solving process and (b) potential benefits of mediation. All clients who perceived that mediation would be beneficial also believed that the context of their conflict was favorable to mediation; however, not all clients who saw a favorable context believed they would benefit from mediation. The majority of clients who agreed to pursue mediation endorsed items reflecting both contextual suitability and perceived benefits of mediation.
Goldberg, Abbie E; Downing, Jordan B; Moyer, April M
The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in part reflect their adoptive status. Men named age, finances, and relationship factors, as well as unique contextual factors such as the need to find and move to gay-friendly neighborhoods, as influencing their readiness to pursue parenthood at the current time. Gay men's motivations to parent echo normative life course decision-making processes, but also reflect concerns that are uniquely informed by their sexual minority status.
Hummels, David; Jørgensen, Rasmus; Munch, Jakob R.
With stagnating wages and lingering unemployment, income inequality is back in the headlines. Is globalisation to blame for this inequality? Is more education a solution? This column argues that focusing on university education misses important effects. It presents evidence that wage effects vary...
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Hanson, Andrew R.
In an American economy where the advancement of technology and globalization means that a high school diploma alone is no longer able to provide family-sustaining earnings to many, certificates represent one piece of a multi-pronged solution on the road to a workforce with 60 percent postsecondary attainment. Though certificates currently aren't…
De Marco, N
Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.
Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive
Gavin, T A
Justification for a board committee's existence is its ability to devote time to issues judged to be important by the full board. This seems to have happened. Multiple committees pursue more functions than the other committee structures. Boards lacking an FA/IC committee pursue significantly fewer functions than their counterparts with committees. Substantial respondent agreement exists on those functions most and least frequently pursued, those perceived to be most and least important, and those perceived to be most and least effectively undertaken. Distinctions between committee structures and the full board, noted in the previous paragraph, hold true with respect to the importance of functions. All board structures identified reviewing the budget and comparing it to actual results as important. Committee structures are generally more inclined to address functions related to the work of the independent auditor and the effectiveness of the hospital's system and controls than are full board structures. Functions related to the internal auditor are pursued least frequently by all FA/IC board structures. The following suggestions are made to help boards pay adequate attention to and obtain objective information about the financial affairs of their hospitals. Those boards that do not have some form of an FA/IC committee should consider starting one. Evidence shows chief financial officers have been a moving force in establishing and strengthening such committees. Boards having a joint or single committee structure should consider upgrading their structure to either a single committee or multiple committees respectively. The complexity of the healthcare environment requires that more FA/IC functions be addressed by the board. The board or its FA/IC committee(s) should meet with their independent CPA's, fiscal intermediary auditors, and internal auditors. Where the hospital lacks an internal audit function a study should be undertaken to determine the feasibility of
Majamäki, Liisa; Akpinar, Murat
Despite increasing acknowledgment of disruptive innovations for their potential to generate high growth, their high rate of failure necessitates research on what kind of challenges start-ups pursuing disruptive innovations face and how they overcome them. This study contributes to increase understanding in this field by studying the case of a Finnish high-tech start-up’s successful new-market disruption in business-to-business context. Identifying disruptive innovations that have market poten...
von Kuerthy, Corinna; Ros, Albert F H; Taborsky, Michael
Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), which can be plastic or fixed for life, may be characterized by distinct hormonal profiles. The relative plasticity hypothesis predicts flexible androgen regulation for adult males pursuing plastic tactics, but a less flexible regulation for males using a fixed tactic throughout life. Furthermore, androgen profiles may respond to changes in the social environment, as predicted by the social reciprocity models of hormone/behaviour interactions. The cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus provides a rare opportunity to study the roles of androgens for male ARTs within a single species, because fixed and plastic ARTs coexist. We experimentally exposed males to competitors pursuing either the same or different tactics to test predictions of the relative plasticity and the social reciprocity models. Androgen profiles of different male types partly comply with predictions derived from the relative plasticity hypothesis: males of the plastic bourgeois/sneaker male trajectory showed different 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels when pursuing either bourgeois or parasitic sneaker male behaviours. Surprisingly, males pursuing the fixed dwarf male tactic showed the highest free and conjugated 11-KT and testosterone (T) levels. Our experimental social challenges significantly affected the free 11-KT levels of bourgeois males, but the androgen responses did not differ between challenges involving different types of competitors. Furthermore, the free T-responses of the bourgeois males correlated with their aggressive behaviour exhibited against competitors. Our results provide new insights into the endocrine responsiveness of fixed and plastic ARTs, confirming and refuting some predictions of both the relative plasticity and the social reciprocity models. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Robinson, Mike J.F.; Warlow, Shelley M.; Berridge, Kent C.
Choosing one reward above another is important for achieving adaptive life goals. Yet hijacked into excessive intensity in disorders such as addiction, single-minded pursuit becomes maladaptive. Here, we report that optogenetic channelrhodopsin stimulation of neurons in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), paired with earning a particular sucrose reward in rats, amplified and narrowed incentive motivation to that single reward target. Therefore, CeA rats chose and intensely pursued only the las...
Vulperhorst, Jonne Pieter; Wessels, Koen Rens; Bakker, Arthur; Akkerman, Sanne Floor
Interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has lately received attention in research due to a gap between the number of STEM students and the needs of the labour market. As interest seems to be one of the most important factors in deciding what to study, we focus in the present study on how STEM-interested students weigh multiple interests in making educational choices. A questionnaire with both open-ended and closed-ended items was administered to 91 STEM-interested students enrolled in a STEM programme of a Dutch University for secondary school students. Results indicate that students find it important that a study programme allows them to pursue multiple interests. Some students pursued multiple interests by choosing to enrol in two programmes at the same time. Most students chose one programme that enabled them to combine multiple interests. Combinations of pursued interests were dependent on the disciplinary range of interests of students. Students who were interested in diverse domains combined interests in an educational programme across academic and non-academic domains, whilst students who were mainly interested in STEM combined only STEM-focused interests. Together these findings stress the importance of taking a multiple interest perspective on interest development and educational choice.
Potvin, Patrice; Hasni, Abdelkrim
This research aimed at identifying student profiles of perceptions by means of a clustering method using a validated questionnaire. These profiles describe students' attraction to science and technology (S&T) studies and careers as a variable driven by school S&T self-concept and interest in school S&T. In addition to three rather predictable student profiles (confident enthusiast, average ambitious, and pessimistic dropout), the fourth fairly well-populated profile called confident indifferent was produced. Our second and third research questions allowed us to describe each profile in terms of the instructional methods to which their population was exposed (including the degree to which they were actively involved) and the instructional methods to which they would like more exposure. An analysis of the evolution of the profiles' population over time is also presented. The results suggest that pedagogical variety and active involvement in the decision to pursue S&T are important. The perception of the utility and importance of S&T both in and out of school may also play an important role in these decisions. Minor pedagogical preferences were also found in certain age groups.
In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…
Full Text Available Christian Cable,1,2 Mary Knab,3,4 Kum Ying Tham,5,6 Deborah D Navedo,3 Elizabeth Armstrong3,7,81Scott and White Healthcare, Temple, 2Texas A&M University Health Science Center, TAMHSC College of Medicine, Bryan, TX, 3MGH Institute of Health Professions, 4Physical and Occupational Therapy Services Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Emergency Department, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 6Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 7Harvard Macy Institute, 8Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Little is known about the nature of faculty development that is needed to meet calls for a focus on quality and safety with particular attention to the power of interprofessional collaborative practice. Through grounded-theory methodology, the authors describe the motivation and needs of 20 educator/clinicians in multiple disciplines who chose to enroll in an explicitly interprofessional master's program in health profession education. The results, derived from axial coding described by Strauss and Corbin, revealed that faculty pursue such postprofessional master's degrees out of a desire to be better prepared for their roles as educators. A hybrid-delivery model on campus and online provided access to graduate degrees while protecting the ability of participants to remain in current positions. The added benefit of a community of practice related to evidence-based and innovative models of education was valued by participants. Authentic, project-based learning and assessment supported their advancement in home institutions and systems. The experience was described by participants as a disruptive innovation that helped them attain their goal of leadership in health profession education.Keywords: health education
This study utilizes a national survey of college newspaper advisers to assess the internal workings of the college newspaper and its value as a pedagogical tool. It finds significant differences between the degree of audience and marketing coupling occurring within college and U.S. daily newspapers as well as differences in student autonomy among…
Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer
The published prices on which the analysis in "Trends in College Pricing" is based come from data reported by institutions on the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges. This survey, which is distributed to nearly 4,000 postsecondary institutions across the country, collects a wealth of data on enrollment, admission, degrees and majors,…
The value of a college degree is well documented. College graduates earn at least 60% more than high school graduates. Beyond the economic value, college graduates show higher rates of civic participation, engage in volunteer work and even have a much higher likelihood of being "happy." Students who drop out without attaining a college…
Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai
Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.
The Community College as Change Agent: How Community Colleges Address Health Issues in Counties Served by the Healthy Places North Carolina Initiative. A Report to the Kate B. Reynolds Charitable Trust
MDC, Inc., 2015
Community colleges serve a unique purpose in American higher education. For many students, these institutions present the best opportunity for the postsecondary credential needed to pursue a living-wage job with career potential. For others, a community college represents the gateway to a four-year institution or beyond, and potential career paths…
Powell, Torence J.
The California Community College system, as an open access institution, is tasked with helping students who possess math skills far below college-level complete math course requirements for obtaining an associate degree or transfer to a university. Colleges have created various developmental math programs to achieve this mission; this paper…
The White House, 2015
In January, 2015, the President unveiled the America's College Promise proposal, which would make two years of community college free for responsible students, letting students earn the first half of a bachelor's degree and earn skills needed in the workforce at no cost. This proposal will require everyone to do their part: community colleges must…
Orsolini-Hain, Liana; Waters, Verle
Exploring the inception and growth of associate degree nursing education informs our understanding of what led to such explosive growth so that most of the nursing workforce is currently educated at the associate degree level. The success of associate degree nursing programs led to many divisive years in nursing education of differentiation of practice debates that were hardly productive. Work world practices and patient needs are creating pressures on community colleges to join forces with universities to increase the percentage of baccalaureate-educated nurses. Associate degree nursing education continues to evolve to meet the demands of a higher educated nursing workforce.
Williamson, J. Peter
The Task Force on College and University Endowment Policy examines endowment policy in a broad context. They feel that it is important to preserve private colleges and universities and develop a sense of mission about how best to pursue this objective. The Task Force reviews policy issues faced by managers of endowment funds for institutions of…
Hafner, Dedra; Moffatt, Courtney; Kisa, Nutullah
Cutting-Edge provides inclusion in college for students with intellectual disabilities (SWID). Cutting-Edge students attended college by taking undergraduate courses, resided in student housing, and engaged in student-life events as well as pursued community service, internships and employment. Undergraduate students were the best means to teach…
Sawatsky, Adam P; Parekh, Natasha; Muula, Adamson S; Bui, Thuy
There is a critical shortage of healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and Malawi has one of the lowest physician densities in the region. One of the reasons for this shortage is inadequate retention of medical school graduates, partly due to the desire for specialization training. The University of Malawi College of Medicine has developed specialty training programs, but medical school graduates continue to report a desire to leave the country for specialization training. To understand this desire, we studied medical students' perspectives on specialization training in Malawi. We conducted semi-structured interviews of medical students in the final year of their degree program. We developed an interview guide through an iterative process, and recorded and transcribed all interviews for analysis. Two independent coders coded the manuscripts and assessed inter-coder reliability, and the authors used an "editing approach" to qualitative analysis to identify and categorize themes relating to the research aim. The University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Board and the University of Malawi College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee approved this study and authors obtained written informed consent from all participants. We interviewed 21 medical students. All students reported a desire for specialization training, with 12 (57%) students interested in specialties not currently offered in Malawi. Students discussed reasons for pursuing specialization training, impressions of specialization training in Malawi, reasons for staying or leaving Malawi to pursue specialization training and recommendations to improve training. Graduating medical students in Malawi have mixed views of specialization training in their own country and still desire to leave Malawi to pursue further training. Training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa need to understand the needs of the country's healthcare workforce and the needs of their graduating medical students to be able to
Criswell, David R.
Space Grant Colleges and Universities must build the space curriculum of the future on the firm basis of deep knowledge of an involvement with the present operating programs of the nation and an on-going and extensive program of leading edge research in the aerospace sciences and engineering, management, law, finance, and the other arts that are integral to our planetary society. The Space Grant College and Fellowship Program must create new academic fields of enquiry, which is a long and difficult process that will require deeper and broader interaction between NASA and academia than has previously existed.
College Algebra, Second Edition is a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental concepts and techniques of algebra. The book incorporates some improvements from the previous edition to provide a better learning experience. It provides sufficient materials for use in the study of college algebra. It contains chapters that are devoted to various mathematical concepts, such as the real number system, the theory of polynomial equations, exponential and logarithmic functions, and the geometric definition of each conic section. Progress checks, warnings, and features are inserted. Every chapter c
Verma, Nupur; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien; Bhargava, Puneet
Radiologists serve in leadership roles throughout their career, making leadership education an integral part of their development. A maxim of leadership style is summarized by 360-Degree Leadership, which highlights the ability of a leader to lead from any position within the organization while relying on core characteristics to build confidence from within their team. The qualities of leadership discussed can be learned and applied by radiologists at any level. These traits can form a foundation for the leader when faced with unfavorable events, which themselves allow the leader an opportunity to build trust. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men’s motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in pa...
The ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity of the USA is not reflected in its healthcare and biomedical workforce. Undergraduate research programs are used to encourage underrepresented minorities to pursue training for biomedical careers, but there is limited published data on doctoral degree compl...
Yakaboski, Tamara; Sheridan, Robyn Stout; Dade, Kristin
The article examines improved marriage opportunities as an unexplored motivator for pursuing international education via U.S. graduate engineering degrees and stresses the need to centralize gender in analyzing academic mobility and international education. This interdisciplinary qualitative study explores how South Indian men and women's…
Dulski-Bucholz, Andrea L.
Professional identity development encompasses concepts of personal identity and self-efficacy while continued education supports a teacher's change in perspective and practices leading to professional growth. A combination of motivation and personal goals guide teachers' behaviors as they interact within their social and cultural environments. The…
Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie
There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education.
Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie
There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844
Mayer, Alexander K.; Patel, Reshma; Gutierrez, Melvin
A college degree is often viewed as a key step toward better employment and higher earnings. Many community college students, however, never graduate and cannot reap the financial benefits associated with a college degree. Although existing research suggests that financial aid interventions can modestly improve students' short-term academic…
While research has consistently found strong positive earnings returns to the bachelor's degree, recent evidence also highlights heterogeneity in post-college outcomes. Combined with increases in the proportions of students borrowing to enroll, heterogeneity in college outcomes introduces the risk that some students with college degrees may…
Li, X. Z.; Wei, Q. M.; Liu, B.; Zhu, X. G.; Ren, S. L.
Pursuing nuclear energy with no nuclear contamination has been a long endeavor since the first fission reactor in 1942. Four major concepts have been the key issues: i.e. resonance, negative feed back, self-sustaining, nuclear radiation. When nuclear energy was just discovered in laboratory, the key issue was to enlarge it from the micro-scale to the macro-scale. Slowing-down the neutrons was the key issue to enhance the fission cross-section in order to build-up the neutron flux through the chain-reactions using resonance between neutron and fissile materials. Once the chain-reaction was realized, the negative feed-back was the key issue to keep the neutron flux at the allowable level. The negative reaction coefficient was introduced by the thermal expansion, and the resonant absorption in cadmium or boron was used to have a self-sustaining fission reactor with neutron flux. Then the strong neutron flux became the origin of all nuclear contamination, and a heavy shielding limits the application of the nuclear energy. The fusion approach to nuclear energy was much longer; nevertheless, it evolved with the similar issues. The resonance between deuteron and triton was resorted to enlarge the fusion cross section in order to keep a self-sustaining hot plasma. However, the 14 MeV neutron emission became the origin of all nuclear contamination again. Deuteron plus helium-3 fusion reaction was proposed to avoid neutron emission although there are two more difficulties: the helium-3 is supposed to be carried back from the moon; and much more higher temperature plasma has to be confined while 50 years needed to realized the deuteron-triton plasma already. Even if deuteron plus helium-3 fusion plasma might be realized in a much higher temperature plasma, we still have the neutron emission from the deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction in the deuteron plus helium-3 fusion plasma. Polarized deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction was proposed early in 1980's to select the neutron
Lumadue, Richard T.
Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…
Bachman, Jane T.; Kota, Dena H.; Kota, Aaron J.
Encouraging students at all grade levels to consider pursuing a career in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields i s a national focus. In 2005, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), a Department of Defense laboratory located in Da hlgren, Virginia, began work on the Virginia Demonstration Project (VDP) with the goal of increasing more student interest in STEM educatio n and pursuing STEM careers. This goal continues as the program enters its sixth year. This project has been successful through the partici pation of NSWCDD's scientists and engineers who are trained as mentor s to work in local middle school classrooms throughout the school year, As an extension of the in-class activities, several STEM summer aca demies have been conducted at NSWCDD, These academies are supported by the Navy through the VDP and the STEM Learning Module Project. These projects are part of more extensive outreach efforts offered by the National Defense Education Program (NDEP), sponsored by the Director, Defense Research and Engineering. The focus of this paper is on the types of activities conducted at the summer academy, an overview of the academy planning process, and recommendations to help support a nati onal plan of integrating modeling and simulation-based engineering and science into all grade levels. based upon the lessons learned
Robinson, Mike J F; Warlow, Shelley M; Berridge, Kent C
Choosing one reward above another is important for achieving adaptive life goals. Yet hijacked into excessive intensity in disorders such as addiction, single-minded pursuit becomes maladaptive. Here, we report that optogenetic channelrhodopsin stimulation of neurons in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), paired with earning a particular sucrose reward in rats, amplified and narrowed incentive motivation to that single reward target. Therefore, CeA rats chose and intensely pursued only the laser-paired sucrose reward while ignoring an equally good sucrose alternative. In contrast, reward-paired stimulation of basolateral amygdala did not hijack choice. In a separate measure of incentive motivation, CeA stimulation also increased the progressive ratio breakpoint or level of effort exerted to obtain sucrose reward. However, CeA stimulation by itself failed to support behavioral self-stimulation in the absence of any paired external food reward, suggesting that CeA photo-excitation specifically transformed the value of its external reward (rather than adding an internal reinforcement state). Nor did CeA stimulation by itself induce any aversive state that motivated escape. Finally, CeA stimulation also failed to enhance 'liking' reactions elicited by sucrose taste and did not simply increase the general motivation to eat. This pattern suggests that CeA photo-excitation specifically enhances and narrows incentive motivation to pursue an associated external reward at the expense of another comparable reward. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416567-14$15.00/0.
Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.
Naveed R. KHAN
Full Text Available The study highlighted the significance of e-recruitment in the firms. In current epoch technology integrated the information in a sophisticated manner and has influenced on every setting of daily affaires. Hence job seekers are also get benefited with the internet era and start searching the jobs on internet. This study examined the relationship between the recruitment sources, job seekers’ perception and intention to pursue the job. Data was collected from 257 respondents and analysed in relation with the research objectives. The findings of the study showed that internet is the most preferred source to search the job among other recruitment sources. Furthermore, it is also suggested that the effectiveness of e-recruitment depends upon the placement of advertisement and salary is the most influential motivator to find interest in the job applied. Lastly, statistics of the study found that the recruitment sources and applicant’s perceptions of job significantly influence the intention to pursue the position applied by the job seeker.
Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M
To develop and validate an instrument to assess subjective ratings of the perceived value of various postgraduate training paths followed using expectancy-value as a theoretical framework; and to explore differences in value beliefs across type of postgraduate training pursued and type of pharmacy training completed prior to postgraduate training. A survey instrument was developed to sample 4 theoretical domains of subjective task value: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and perceived cost. Retrospective self-report methodology was employed to examine respondents' (N=1,148) subjective task value beliefs specific to their highest level of postgraduate training completed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to evaluate and validate value belief constructs. Intrinsic, attainment, utility, cost, and financial value constructs resulted from exploratory factor analysis. Cross-validation resulted in a 26-item instrument that demonstrated good model fit. Differences in value beliefs were noted across type of postgraduate training pursued and pharmacy training characteristics. The Postgraduate Training Value Instrument demonstrated evidence of reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument can be used to assess value beliefs regarding multiple postgraduate training options in pharmacy and potentially inform targeted recruiting of individuals to those paths best matching their own value beliefs.
Deterding, Nicole M.
Nearly all young people in the United States aspire to a college degree, but many fail to complete college in a timely manner. Does this lack of attainment reflect abandoned college plans? I analyze mixed-methods data from a five-year study of 700 low-income mothers at two Louisiana community colleges. Hurricane Katrina displaced respondents and…
Recognizing the educational and economic benefits of a college degree, education policymakers at the federal, state, and local levels have made college preparation a priority. There are many ways to measure college readiness, but one key component is rigorous high school coursework. California has not yet adopted a statewide college readiness…
Sinatra, Richard; Lanctot, Melissa Kim
A university partnered with the New York City Department of Homeless Services (NYC DHS) to provide cohorts of adults a 60-credit Associate Degree Program in Business Administration over a 2-year period. Results of two cohorts of 30 Advantage Academy Program graduates revealed significant improvement in College Board AccuPlacer (ACPL) Arithmetic…
Full Text Available People have tended to load their different conceptions of democracy with their own political ideals; in this paper it is argued that normative and definitional questions should rather be separated, so that political philosophers and political scientists may adopt the same concept of democracy, even if they disagree normatively or politically. Moreover, it is argued that we should replace an absolute notion of democracy by a relativized notion, which allows for different degrees of democraticity. This facilitates the separation of normative and conceptual issues and it is convenient in contexts in which “democratic deficits” are discussed – as e.g. when democracy is to be implemented on a supranational level. Moreover, it has the consequence that democratic deficits are not necessarily bad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837342
The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr
Rickels, Heather Anne
The demand for STEM college graduates is increasing. However, recent studies show there are not enough STEM majors to fulfill this need. This deficiency can be partially attributed to a gender discrepancy in the number of female STEM graduates and to the high rate of attrition of STEM majors. As STEM attrition has been associated with students being unprepared for STEM coursework, it is important to understand how STEM graduates change in achievement levels from middle school through high school and to have accurate readiness indicators for first-year STEM coursework. This study aimed to address these issues by comparing the achievement growth of STEM majors to non-STEM majors by gender in Science, Math, and Reading from Grade 6 to Grade 11 through latent growth models (LGMs). Then STEM Readiness Benchmarks were established in Science and Math on the Iowas (IAs) for typical first-year STEM courses and validity evidence was provided for the benchmarks. Results from the LGM analyses indicated that STEM graduates start at higher achievement levels in Grade 6 and maintain higher achievement levels through Grade 11 in all subjects. In addition, gender differences were examined. The findings indicate that students with high achievement levels self-select as STEM majors, regardless of gender. In addition, they suggest that students who are not on-track for a STEM degree may need to begin remediation prior to high school. Results from the benchmark analyses indicate that STEM coursework is more demanding and that students need to be better prepared academically in science and math if planning to pursue a STEM degree. In addition, the STEM Readiness Benchmarks were more accurate in predicting success in STEM courses than if general college readiness benchmarks were utilized. Also, students who met the STEM Readiness Benchmarks were more likely to graduate with a STEM degree. This study provides valuable information on STEM readiness to students, educators, and college
Galvin, William F
After years of discussion, debate, and study, the respiratory care curriculum has evolved to a minimum of an associate degree for entry into practice. Although programs are at liberty to offer the entry-level or advanced level associate degree, most are at the advanced level. The most popular site for sponsorship of the associate degree in respiratory care is the community college. The basis for community college sponsorship seems to be its comprehensive curriculum, which focuses on a strong academic foundation in writing, communication, and the basic sciences as well as supporting a career-directed focus in respiratory care. Issues facing the community college are tied to literacy, outcomes, assessment, placement,cooperation with the community, partnerships with industry, and articulation arrangements with granting institutions granting baccalaureate degrees. Community colleges must produce a literate graduate capable of thriving in an information-saturated society. Assessment and placement will intensify as the laissez-faire attitudes toward attendance and allowing students to select courses without any accountability and evaluation of outcome become less acceptable. Students will be required to demonstrate steady progress toward established outcomes. Maintaining relations and cooperation with the local community and the health care industry will continue to be a prominent role for the community college. The challenge facing associate degree education in respiratory care at the community college level is the ability to continue to meet the needs of an expanding professional scope of practice and to provide a strong liberal arts or general education core curriculum. The needs for a more demanding and expanding respiratory care curriculum and for a rich general education core curriculum have led to increased interest in baccalaureate and graduate degree education. The value of associate degree education at the community college level is well established. It is
Parker, Emily; Sarubbi, Molly
Many students have concerns about the affordability of college, which may interfere with their potential success. However, foster care alumni have unique needs when making the transition into postsecondary enrollment. Compared to completion rates for the general population, postsecondary education outcomes for youth with foster care experience lag…
Dwyer, Rachel E; Hodson, Randy; McLoud, Laura
For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the national longitudinal Survey of youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system.
Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Green, Lindsey M; Negru-Subtirica, Oana
Identity research has mainly focused on the degree to which adolescents and emerging adults engage in exploration and commitment to identity goals and strivings. Somewhat lacking from this research tradition is an explicit focus on the content of the identity goals that individuals deem important and pursue. The present manuscript describes two longitudinal studies sampling college students in which we examine how exploration and commitment processes relate to intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuits as defined in Self-Determination Theory. Study 1 was a two-wave longitudinal study spanning 6 months (N = 370; 77.4% women; mean age 18.24 years); Study 2 was a three-wave longitudinal study spanning 6 months (N = 458 students; 84.9% women; mean age 18.25 years). Using cross-lagged path analyses, hypotheses were supported to various degrees of convergence between studies, pointing to the extent of which results were replicated across our two independent longitudinal samples. Whereas an intrinsic goal orientation positively predicted commitment making (Study 1) and identification with commitment over time (Studies 1 and 2), an extrinsic goal orientation positively predicted ruminative exploration over time, which led to decreases in intrinsic orientation over time (Study 2). Further, an intrinsic goal orientation negatively predicted ruminative exploration over time (Study 1). The findings in for pro-active exploration processes were inconsistent across both studies, being prospectively related to both intrinsic (Study 2) and extrinsic goal orientations (Study 1). Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Tyndorf, Darryl; Martin, Heather
United States' education policy efforts have focused on increasing college graduation rates, with an emphasis on bachelor's degrees, with the expectation of greater economic prosperity. Most community college and university degrees differ in time to completion and should not be viewed as having the same short-term, medium-term, and long-term…
Conley, David T.; Gaston, Paul L.
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS), which aim to assure competency in English/language arts and mathematics through the K-12 curriculum, define necessary but not sufficient preparedness for success in college. The Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP), which describes what a college degree should signify, regardless of major, offers useful but…
Humphrey, Michael; Callahan, Janet; Harrison, Geoff
An emerging promising practice in many universities has been the development of faculty-in-residence programs, in which university faculty members and their family moved into university student residences, sharing common living spaces with students. This case study is centered on two faculty-in-residence living in university residence halls. One was an assistant professor pursuing tenure while raising a young child, while the second was a tenured full professor and associate dean raising two teens. This case study offers the post-experience conclusions of these two faculty-in-residence individuals, noting the benefits and challenges each experienced while living -and working closely with these students outside of the university classroom, all while striving for an optimal balance in managing professional and familial obligations.
Clinical know-how and skills as well as up-to-date scientific evidence are cornerstones for providing effective treatment for patients. However, in order to improve the effectiveness of treatment in ordinary practice, also appropriate documentation of care at the health care units and benchmarking based on this documentation are needed. This article presents the new concept of real-effectiveness medicine (REM) which pursues the best effectiveness of patient care in the real-world setting. In order to reach the goal, four layers of information are utilized: 1) good medical know-how and skills combined with the patient view, 2) up-to-date scientific evidence, 3) continuous documentation of performance in ordinary settings, and 4) benchmarking between providers. The new framework is suggested for clinicians, organizations, policy-makers, and researchers.
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard
There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) on national data (n=7505) drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project, we test five commonly held beliefs including having a single-sex physics class, having a female physics teacher, having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, discussing the work of women scientists in physics class, and discussing the under-representation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including parental education, prior science/math interests, and academic background, thereby controlling for the effect of many confounding variables.
Thompson, Rahmelle C; Monroe-White, Thema; Xavier, Jeffrey; Howell, Courtney; Moore, Myisha Roberson; Haynes, J K
Equal representation within higher education science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and the STEM workforce in the United States across demographically diverse populations is a long-standing challenge. This study uses two-to-one nearest-neighbor matched-comparison group design to examine academic achievement, pursuit of graduate science degree, and classification of graduate institution attended by students participating in the Hopps Scholars Program (Hopps) at Morehouse College. Hopps is a highly structured enrichment program aimed at increasing participation of black males in STEM fields. Morehouse institutional records, Hopps Program records, and National Student Clearinghouse data were used to examine differences between Hopps and non-Hopps STEM graduates of Morehouse. Two-way sample t tests and chi-square tests revealed significant differences in academic achievement, likelihood of STEM degree pursuit, and the classification of graduate institutions attended by Hopps versus non-Hopps students. Hopps Scholars were significantly more likely than non-Hopps STEM graduates both to pursue STEM doctoral degrees and to attend doctoral-granting institutions with higher research activity. The Hopps Program's approach to training black male students for scientific careers is a model of success for other programs committed to increasing the number of black males pursuing advanced degrees in STEM. © 2016 R. C. Thompson et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Hofstad, van der R.W.; Litvak, N.
Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar
van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelly
Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar
Walters, Sabrina Denise
African American males face daunting obstacles as they pursue higher education as research has shown. This study sought to better understand the impact of specific factors--social support, racial identity, perceived racial discrimination, coping, and religious coping--on the academic achievement of African American male college student…
Sahinidis, N V; Harandi, M T; Heath, M T; Murphy, L; Snir, M; Wheeler, R P; Zukoski, C F
The development of the Bioinformatics MS degree program at the University of Illinois, the challenges and opportunities associated with such a process, and the current structure of the program is described. This program has departed from earlier University practice in significant ways. Despite the existence of several interdisciplinary programs at the University, a few of which grant degrees, this is the first interdisciplinary program that grants degrees and formally recognises departmental specialisation areas. The program, which is not owned by any particular department but by the Graduate College itself, is operated in a franchise-like fashion via several departmental concentrations. With four different colleges and many more departments involved in establishing and operating the program, the logistics of the operation are of considerable complexity but result in significant interactions across the entire campus.
Clark Lesko, Cherish Christina
Active learning methodologies (ALM) are associated with student success, but little research on this topic has been pursued at the community college level. At a local community college, students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses exhibited lower than average grades. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of ALM predicted STEM course grades while controlling for academic discipline, course level, and class size. The theoretical framework was Vygotsky's social constructivism. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were performed on data collected through an anonymous survey of 74 instructors of 272 courses during the 2016 fall semester. Results indicated that students were more likely to achieve passing grades when instructors employed in-class, highly structured activities, and writing-based ALM, and were less likely to achieve passing grades when instructors employed project-based or online ALM. The odds ratios indicated strong positive effects (greater likelihoods of receiving As, Bs, or Cs in comparison to the grade of F) for writing-based ALM (39.1-43.3%, 95% CI [10.7-80.3%]), highly structured activities (16.4-22.2%, 95% CI [1.8-33.7%]), and in-class ALM (5.0-9.0%, 95% CI [0.6-13.8%]). Project-based and online ALM showed negative effects (lower likelihoods of receiving As, Bs, or Cs in comparison to the grade of F) with odds ratios of 15.7-20.9%, 95% CI [9.7-30.6%] and 16.1-20.4%, 95% CI [5.9-25.2%] respectively. A white paper was developed with recommendations for faculty development, computer skills assessment and training, and active research on writing-based ALM. Improving student grades and STEM course completion rates could lead to higher graduation rates and lower college costs for at-risk students by reducing course repetition and time to degree completion.
Brod, Richard I.
This report presents the results of the ninth survey of foreign language entrance and degree requirements in United States colleges and universities that grant a bachelor of arts degree. The survey was conducted in 1974 by the Modern Language Association, and was directed at foreign language department chairmen. Responses were received from 98.8…
Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence
For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential
Reilly, K.; Getty, C.; Knief, R.
The Program on Non-Collegiate Sponsored Instruction (PONSI) and similar organizations may be of considerable help to the industry to the extent that college credit can be awarded for certain activities in reactor site training programs. The credit recommendations generally may be used at local colleges. They also may be applied (along with credit for college-level activities such as correspondence and on-campus courses, proficiency testing, and other evaluations) to degrees granted by the Regent's External Degree Program (REX) and other organizations. This paper describes the principle features of the PONSI and REX programs. PONSI's first credit evaluation at a nuclear plant - Consolidated Edison's Indian Point 2 - is summarized. Recent proposals for an explicit nuclear degree through REX are also described briefly
Full Text Available Generation and consumption of information are among the functions unique to higher education. Scholarly communication plays an essential role in this process to such a degree that some consider it as being the cornerstone of science. Thus it could be said that no education could be realized without communication. Scientometrists analyze and assess formal scientific communications by studying the level of citation of such scientific outputs as books, journals and etc. Nevertheless, there is a special type of communication that lacks any external manifestation such as citations. Informal learning and education are indebted to such communication. This kind of informal communication for generating knowledge leads to an informal association among the scholars, which is called as "The invisible college". There are various definitions and interpretations concerning an invisible college. According to Price’s opinion, an invisible college is comprised of over a hundred colleagues that are engaged in communication with one another. He believed that members in such an association are reasonably in touch with and could consult and influence one another. The present paper, by reacquainting with the concept of invisible college, would review the role of informal links in the production of knowledge and higher education system, various assessment methods and critical notes, as well as the impact of modern ICT tools on the concept of invisible college.
Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard
In recent years, students have been paying more to attend college and earning less upon graduation—trends that have led many observers to question whether a college education remains a good investment. However, an analysis of the economic returns to college since the 1970s demonstrates that the benefits of both a bachelor’s degree and an associate’s degree still tend to outweigh the costs, with both degrees earning a return of about 15 percent over the past decade. The return has remained hig...
Brown, Jayna Nicole
Although traditional college students are more prepared for college-level math based on college admissions tests, little data have been collected on nontraditional adult learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between math placement tests and community college students' success in math courses and persistence to degree or certificate completion. Guided by Tinto's theory of departure and student retention, the research questions addressed relationships and predictability of math Computer-adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System (COMPASS) test scores and students' performance in math courses, persistence in college, and degree completion. After conducting correlation and regression analyses, no significant relationships were identified between COMPASS Math test scores and students' performance (n = 234) in math courses, persistence in college, or degree completion. However, independent t test and chi-squared analyses of the achievements of college students who tested into Basic Math (n = 138) vs. Introduction to Algebra (n = 96) yielded statistically significant differences in persistence (p = .039), degree completion (p college students' math competencies and degree achievement.
Sanlo, Ronni; Espinoza, Lily
While some community college campuses acknowledge the presence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students, few institutions pursue research to identify the needs of these students. As a result, many LGBTQ students in higher education are invisible; therefore, their experiences are known only anecdotally. This article…
Leyva, Luis A.
In this article, the author discusses the intersectionality of mathematics experiences for two Latin@ college women pursuing mathematics-intensive STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors at a large, predominantly White university. The author employs intersectionality and poststructural theories to explore and make meaning…
Trevino, Naomi Noel; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft
Hispanic students are pursuing higher education more than in previous years and they often represent their family as the first member to attend college (Strage in "Coll Stud J" 33:198-205, 1999). Past educational research has studied the influence of intrinsic motivation on academic achievement in various ethnically diverse elementary,…
Mathai, Mince John
Many students graduate from high school without adequate proficiency in mathematics, which is necessary to successfully undertake the challenges of college-level mathematics courses. As the underprepared students pursue postsecondary education, these institutions are required to provide remediation in mathematics to equip them with basic…
Rizzo, Monica Ellen
Most American colleges and universities require standardized entrance exams when making admissions decisions. Scores on these exams help determine if, when and where students will be allowed to pursue higher education. These scores are also used to determine eligibility for merit based financial aid. This testing persists even though half of the…
Gardenshire-Crooks, Alissa; Collado, Herbert; Martin, Kasey; Castro, Alma
Community colleges provide access to higher education for millions of Americans who might not otherwise be able to pursue it. However, despite the pivotal role these institutions play in promoting social equity, they continue to struggle with low student persistence and completion rates, particularly among male students of color. It is this…
Integration or connectedness between faith and learning is a core aim of Protestant evangelical colleges and universities. It is pursued in a number of different ways in the academic programs of these institutions, even in commercially oriented courses that they offer, such as graphic design. However, the different ways that practical and…
Tichenor, Richard; Cosgrove, John J.
Community colleges need to adopt a broad conceptual definition of a continuing student in the design and evaluation of their retention strategies, recognizing nondegree goals as legitimate educational achievements and intermittent but persistent attendance as a valid method of pursuing educational goals. (MSE)
Debb, Scott M.; Debb, Sharon M.
Enrolling in an introductory course in psychology is a staple of many community college students' core curriculum. For those students who plan to pursue social science and humanities-related majors in particular, introductory psychology helps provide a solid base upon which future coursework at all academic levels will be built. The goal of any…
Brenner-Shuman, Anna; Waren, Warren
Even though boys and girls in childhood perform similarly in math and spatial thinking, after puberty fewer young women pursue majors that emphasize abilities such as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college. If postpubertal feminization contributes to a lower likelihood of choosing STEM majors, then young women who enter…
Ping, Ng Sau; Maniam, Mahendran
Matriculation a pre-tertiary program offered by Ministry of Education for students who have completed their "Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia's" (SPM) examinations successfully. These excellent students will be required to sit for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET) before pursuing their studies in local colleges and universities. MUET…
Shwartz, Michael; Cramer, Irene E; Holmes, Sally K; Cohen, Alan B; Restuccia, Joseph D; VanDeusen Lukas, Carol; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Charns, Martin P
The goal of the Pursuing Perfection (P2) program was to encourage organizations to push quality improvement to new levels of excellence. As part of an evaluation of P2, we surveyed employees at the 7 participating P2 organizations to (1) assess their perceptions of patient care quality and improvement progress and (2) examine perceived performance on organizational and workgroup characteristics associated with quality. Many survey questions were drawn from existing conceptual models and survey instruments. We used factor analysis to create new scales from questions that were not part of established scales. We used correlation coefficients and multivariable models to examine relationships among variables. Variables most strongly associated with perceived quality included standardized and simplified care processes resulting in coordinated care and smooth handoffs, a clear sense of organizational direction and clear action plans, and communication with staff about reasons for change and improvement progress made. Of those variables with a strong relationship to quality, ones with relatively low mean ratings included workgroup coordination; sufficient resources and support for improvement; training; and efficient use of people, time, and energy. These are important areas on which management should focus to improve employee ratings of quality.
Sandgathe, Scott A.; Eleuterio, Daniel; Warren, Steven
Earth System Prediction Capability Workshop Washington, D. C., 21-23 March 2012 A meeting to advance a federal partnership toward operational prediction of the physical environment at subseasonal to decadal time scales was held in Washington, D. C. Scientists, headquarters representatives, and program managers from the Department of Energy, NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Navy met to discuss pressing agency requirements for extended-range environmental prediction to inform economic, energy, agricultural, national security, and infrastructure decisions. After significant review and discussion, participants agreed that the highest potential for progress was at the interseasonal to interannual (ISI) time scales (Advancing the Science of Climate Change (2010), Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12782). They agreed to pursue a joint effort, identifying five areas for near-term demonstrations of predictability and establishing volunteer coordinators to organize the demonstration efforts. The demonstrations will establish operational extended-range predictive skill, inform further research, enhance interagency collaboration, and push forward environmental prediction technical and computational capabilities.
Lefèvre, Jeremie H; Karila, Laurent; Kerneis, Solen; Rouprêt, Morgan
Analyze the aspirations and personal motivations behind the choice of surgical specialties in a large sample of students in their 6th year of medical school. In December 2008, 2588 students participated in a nation-wide mock exam, before taking the National Ranking Exam. When they looked for their grades on the web, the students were prompted to answer a questionnaire containing socio-demographic questions concerning their choice and motivation to pursue a career in a surgical specialty. The survey called also for listing the three main factors (out of a list of 11) motivating their choice. Students originated from 39 medical schools. Of the 2588 students, 1427 (55%) were women. The response rate to the questionnaire was 1742/2588=67%. Two hundred and twenty students (13%) did not express any specific professional orientation. Of the 1522 responses obtained, 522 students wanted to become surgeons. Gender was a determining factor as 44% of male students (n=252) versus 29% of female students wanted to become a surgeon; Pprivate practice (n=280, 18%) and life style (n=175, 11%) were the motivations most often cited to back their choice. One third of medical students want to become surgeons. Feminization, life style and income are the principal factors influencing the choice of the type of surgical subspecialization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.
Balderas-Medina Anaya, Yohualli; del Rosario, Mithi; Doyle, Lawrence Hy; Hayes-Bautista, David E
There are about 1.8 million young immigrants in the United States who came or were brought to the country without documentation before the age of 16. These youth have been raised and educated in the United States and have aspirations and educational achievements similar to those of their native-born peers. However, their undocumented status has hindered their pursuit of higher education, especially in medical and other graduate health sciences. Under a new discretionary policy, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), many of these young immigrants are eligible to receive permission to reside and work in the United States. DACA defers deportation of eligible, undocumented youth and grants lawful presence in the United States, work permits, Social Security numbers, and, in most states, driver's licenses. These privileges have diminished the barriers undocumented students traditionally have faced in obtaining higher education, specifically in pursuing medicine. With the advent of DACA, students are slowly matriculating into U.S. medical schools and residencies. However, this applicant pool remains largely untapped. In the face of a physician shortage and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, an increase in matriculation of qualified undocumented students would be greatly beneficial. This Perspective is intended to begin discussion within the academic medicine community of the implications of DACA in reducing barriers for the selection and matriculation of undocumented medical students and residents. Moreover, this Perspective is a call to peers in the medical community to support undocumented students seeking access to medical school, residency, and other health professions.
R. Bruce Ward
Full Text Available We report early findings on the efficacy of a technology-based project in increasing self-identification for girls and underserved youth to self-select STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. ITEAMS (Innovative Technology- Enabled Astronomy for Middle Schools – an out-of-schooltime program with online, robotic telescopes as its central focus – targets girls and minority students underrepresented in STEMrelated vocations. The participating students attend urban schools in Eastern Massachusetts. ITEAMS’ twofold goal is to: a provide inspiration for the participants to pursue STEM careers, and b increase the students’ mastery of foundational subject matter so they are prepared for the rigor of further STEM study. We use an online system for surveys and assessments, the former to capture attitudinal changes about career choices, and the latter to assess the students’ subject matter knowledge. Participating students take pre-, intermediate, and post subject-matter tests and career-interest surveys. While we find statistically significant gains in subject matter knowledge free of gender, race, or school bias, we also find girls profess less interest than boys in STEM careers as early as grades five and six, although other attitudinal indicators suggest ways to reverse that trend.
Kane, Suzanne Amador; Zamani, Marjon
This study reports on experiments on falcons wearing miniature videocameras mounted on their backs or heads while pursuing flying prey. Videos of hunts by a gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), gyrfalcon (F. rusticolus)/Saker falcon (F. cherrug) hybrids and peregrine falcons (F. peregrinus) were analyzed to determine apparent prey positions on their visual fields during pursuits. These video data were then interpreted using computer simulations of pursuit steering laws observed in insects and mammals. A comparison of the empirical and modeling data indicates that falcons use cues due to the apparent motion of prey on the falcon's visual field to track and capture flying prey via a form of motion camouflage. The falcons also were found to maintain their prey's image at visual angles consistent with using their shallow fovea. These results should prove relevant for understanding the co-evolution of pursuit and evasion, as well as the development of computer models of predation and the integration of sensory and locomotion systems in biomimetic robots.
In the past few decades, scholars from several disciplines have pursued the curious parallel noted by Darwin between the genetic evolution of species and the cultural evolution of beliefs, skills, knowledge, languages, institutions, and other forms of socially transmitted information. Here, I review current progress in the pursuit of an evolutionary science of culture that is grounded in both biological and evolutionary theory, but also treats culture as more than a proximate mechanism that is directly controlled by genes. Both genetic and cultural evolution can be described as systems of inherited variation that change over time in response to processes such as selection, migration, and drift. Appropriate differences between genetic and cultural change are taken seriously, such as the possibility in the latter of nonrandomly guided variation or transformation, blending inheritance, and one-to-many transmission. The foundation of cultural evolution was laid in the late 20th century with population-genetic style models of cultural microevolution, and the use of phylogenetic methods to reconstruct cultural macroevolution. Since then, there have been major efforts to understand the sociocognitive mechanisms underlying cumulative cultural evolution, the consequences of demography on cultural evolution, the empirical validity of assumed social learning biases, the relative role of transformative and selective processes, and the use of quantitative phylogenetic and multilevel selection models to understand past and present dynamics of society-level change. I conclude by highlighting the interdisciplinary challenges of studying cultural evolution, including its relation to the traditional social sciences and humanities.
In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Current regulatory systems focus on the state of scientific evidence as the predominant factor for how to handle risks to human health and the environment. However, production and assessment of risk information are costly and time-consuming, and firms have an intrinsic disincentive to produce and distribute information about risks of their products as this could endanger their production opportunities and sales. An emphasis on more or better science may result in insufficient thought and attention going into the exploration of technology alternatives, and that risk management policies miss out on the possible achievement of a more favorable set of consequences. In this article, a method is proposed that combines risk assessment with the search for alternative technological options as a part of the risk management procedure. The method proposed is the inherency risk analysis where the first stage focuses on the original agent subject to investigation, the second stage focuses on identifying technological options whereas the third stage reviews the different alternatives, searching for the most attractive tradeoffs between costs and inherent safety. This is then used as a fundament for deciding which technology option to pursue. This method aims at providing a solution-focused, systematic technology-based approach for addressing and setting priorities for environmental problems. By combining risk assessment with a structured approach to identify superior technology options within a risk management system, the result could very well be a win-win situation for both company and the environment.
In the past few decades, scholars from several disciplines have pursued the curious parallel noted by Darwin between the genetic evolution of species and the cultural evolution of beliefs, skills, knowledge, languages, institutions, and other forms of socially transmitted information. Here, I review current progress in the pursuit of an evolutionary science of culture that is grounded in both biological and evolutionary theory, but also treats culture as more than a proximate mechanism that is directly controlled by genes. Both genetic and cultural evolution can be described as systems of inherited variation that change over time in response to processes such as selection, migration, and drift. Appropriate differences between genetic and cultural change are taken seriously, such as the possibility in the latter of nonrandomly guided variation or transformation, blending inheritance, and one-to-many transmission. The foundation of cultural evolution was laid in the late 20th century with population-genetic style models of cultural microevolution, and the use of phylogenetic methods to reconstruct cultural macroevolution. Since then, there have been major efforts to understand the sociocognitive mechanisms underlying cumulative cultural evolution, the consequences of demography on cultural evolution, the empirical validity of assumed social learning biases, the relative role of transformative and selective processes, and the use of quantitative phylogenetic and multilevel selection models to understand past and present dynamics of society-level change. I conclude by highlighting the interdisciplinary challenges of studying cultural evolution, including its relation to the traditional social sciences and humanities. PMID:28739929
Full Text Available The love-pursuing pattern (LPP, or love-initiating behavior, is important in building or maintaining a relationship, but has been less studied. We hypothesize that the LPPs might be modulated by personality traits. Therefore we have administered an adjective-based LPP questionnaire, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS, and the Plutchik – van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP in 164 Chinese undergraduates who were in a current heterosexual-love relationship. We did not find any differences of LPP, ZKPQ, SSS, or PVP scale scores when either referred to gender or initiator/ receiver. In initiators (13 women, 85 men, the SSS Experience Seeking was negatively correlated with LPP Impulsive scale, Disinhibition was positively correlated with Threatening scale, and the PVP was negatively correlated with Persistent scale. In all subjects, the ZKPQ Aggression-Hostility was negatively correlated with the perceived happiness from the relationship, Activity was positively correlated with relationship suitability, and the SSS Experience Seeking was negatively correlated with a future marriage probability. Low SSS Experience Seeking and Disinhibition, ZKPQ Aggression-Hostility, together with high Activity and emotionality would be helpful to initiate a love relationship, and increase chances of the perceived happiness and suitability, and a future marriage.
Mokkenstorm, Jan K; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Smit, Johannes H; Beekman, Aartjan T F
Suicide prevention is a major health care responsibility in need of new perspectives. This study reviews Zero Suicide, an emerging approach to suicide prevention that embraces the aspirational goal of zero suicides among patients treated in health care systems or organizations. Zero Suicide is gaining international momentum while at the same time evoking objections and concerns. Fundamental to Zero Suicide is a multilevel system view on suicide prevention, with three core elements: a direct approach to suicidal behaviors; continual improvement of the quality and safety of care processes; and an organizational commitment to the aspirational goal of zero suicides. The rationale and evidence for these components are clarified and discussed against the backdrop of concerns and objections that focus on possible undesired consequences of the pursuit of zero suicide, in particular for clinicians and for those who are bereaved by suicide. It is concluded that it is rational to pursue zero suicides as an aspirational goal, provided the journey toward zero suicides is undertaken in a systemic and sustained manner, in a way that professionals feel supported, empowered, and protected against blame and inappropriate guilt. © 2017 The Authors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Suicidology.
College Mechanics QueBank has been designed to be different, enthusiastic, interesting and helpful to you. Therefore, it is not just a test bank about mechanics but also it is like a compass in order to find your way in mechanics Each chapter in this book is put in an order to follow a hierarchy of the mechanics topics; from vectors to simple harmonic motion. Throughout the book there are many multiple choice and long answer questions for you to solve. They have been created for YGS, LYS, SAT, IB or other standardized exams in the world because mechanics has no boundaries and so Physics has no country. Learn the main principle of each chapter and explore the daily life applications. Then you can start to solve the questions by planning a problem solving method carefully. Finally, enjoy solving the questions and discover the meachanics of the universe once more.
Yates, Heather N.
This narrative qualitative study focused on the experiences of four women pursuing undergraduate engineering degrees and how the experiences affect their self-efficacy and in turn persistence in the degree. The use of narrative methodologies allowed the addition of the voice of the women engineering students to the study providing a more robust…
Overman, Barbara A; Petri, Linda; Knoki-Wilson, Ursula
bills are paid', making sure their children were not negatively affected by their decision to further their education, and being sure of the worth of further education in the workplace. Several across-interview themes included pursuing many sequential incremental educational and career steps, many interruptions and failed attempts at pursuing advanced education, and informal, verbal information-gathering patterns when seeking career advancement information. Barriers to career advancement and education arise from multiple sources. Supporting career advancement of community-rooted health workers in Indian Country will require partnership and collaboration across the education, health services, and community sectors. Financial management supports, workplace policies designed to support career-oriented education, consistent and accurate information regarding the educational process, and making courses more accessible will be necessary to support these non-traditional students. Health professions schools should regard their community-based graduates as ambassadors and provide them with ongoing accurate information, because they will be sought after to provide information to others. Innovative programs to assist in loan consolidation and financial management are needed to allow native health workers to be able to provide for their families should they wish to advance their careers. Collaboration across disciplines and programs in the education sector to support a limited set of prerequisite courses would help eliminate unnecessary or redundant courses.
Andrew J. Hussey; Omari H. Swinton
Rather than estimating the returns to obtaining a college degree, this paper treats the college education decision as an uncertain investment involving varying likelihoods of successful graduation. We predict earnings conditional on both graduating and not graduating from both selective and non-selective institutions, and incorporate estimated individual-specific graduation rates in calculating the ex ante expected returns from college attendance for individuals across the ability distributio...
Hsu, Vivian M; Tahiri, Youssef; Wes, Ari M; Yan, Chen; Selber, Jesse C; Nelson, Jonas A; Kovach, Stephen J; Serletti, Joseph M; Wu, Liza C
Breast reconstruction is an integral component of breast cancer treatment, often aiding in restoring a patient's sense of femininity. However, many patients choose to have subsequent cosmetic surgery. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons that motivate patients to have cosmetic surgery after breast reconstruction. The authors performed a retrospective study examining patients who had breast reconstruction and subsequent cosmetic surgery at the University of Pennsylvania Health System between January 2005 and June 2012. This cohort received a questionnaire assessing the influences and impact of their reconstructive and cosmetic procedures. A total of 1,214 patients had breast reconstruction, with 113 patients (9.3%) undergoing cosmetic surgery after reconstruction. Of 42 survey respondents, 35 had autologous breast reconstruction (83.3%). Fifty-two cosmetic procedures were performed in survey respondents, including liposuction (26.9%) and facelift (15.4%). The most common reason for pursuing cosmetic surgery was the desire to improve self-image (n = 26, 61.9%), with 29 (69.0%) patients feeling more self-conscious of appearance after reconstruction. Body image satisfaction was significantly higher after cosmetic surgery (P = 0.0081). Interestingly, a multivariate analysis revealed that patients who experienced an improvement in body image after breast reconstruction were more likely to experience a further improvement after a cosmetic procedure (P = 0.031, OR = 17.83). Patients who were interested in cosmetic surgery prior to reconstruction were also more likely to experience an improvement in body image after cosmetic surgery (P = 0.012, OR = 22.63). Cosmetic surgery may improve body image satisfaction of breast reconstruction patients and help to further meet their expectations.
A leaky pipeline is often cited as the cause for the underrepresentation of women in computer-related professions. However, females may not even enter the pipeline; that is, they do not even enroll in creative information technology coursework as early as high school. Creative information technology careers include web design, digital photography, and multimedia. Constructs of the social cognitive career theory---outcome expectations and self-efficacy--provided the theoretical framework for this investigation to determine why young women are not exhibiting interest in these careers. Using an action research structure, a female-segregated technology club was implemented at the high school. The study intended to increase the participants' interest in pursuing careers in the creative information technology field through the components of career choice as outlined in the theoretical framework. The outcome expectations of "With whom will I work?" and "What will I do?" were addressed through the presentation of female role models and career information. Self-efficacy was targeted through technology skills' instruction directly related to the creative information technology fields. Data was collected through the administration of a pretest/posttest survey instrument, researcher observations, individual participant interviews, and an analysis of the participants' creative products. Quantitative findings indicated that there were few statistically significant program effects. The participants' perceptions of those employed in these careers did not change, but their technology self-efficacy increased on three indicators. Analysis of qualitative data yielded a more complete picture: although the young women had little prior knowledge of those employed in these fields, they did enjoy learning technology to develop creative projects in a social atmosphere where they could persevere through the technology frustrations they encountered. All of the data types affirmed that the
The Indian region of Ladakh has recently undergone comprehensive sociocultural changes through the process of acculturation. The present study employs an acculturation psychological framework to assess how two groups of Ladakhi college students navigate through different degrees of exposure...
Whiteside, Richard; Mentz, George S.
A college degree is one of the most expensive purchases an American family can make. While today's costs are higher than ever before, parents have many more options whose sheer number and complexity have given rise to a whole new field-financial planning for college. This article, which is based on materials created for the enrollment management…
Owen, Stephanie; Sawhill, Isabel
In this brief, the authors have corralled existing research to make the point that while on average the return to college is highly positive, there is a considerable spread in the value of going to college. A bachelor's degree is not a smart investment for every student in every circumstance. The authors have outlined three important steps…
McCormick, Marcia, Comp.
The 2005-06 Education Digest includes data on basic student charges, fall enrollments, residence of students, degrees conferred, and faculty and staff. Data is compiled from annual surveys of Pennsylvania colleges and universities. In 2005-06, Pennsylvania had 149 colleges and universities consisting of 33 public and 116 private institutions.…
Reports on development of a consortium, Jesuit Distance Education Network, of 24 Jesuit colleges and universities that will offer online courses. Rather than offer degrees directly, the network will act as a Web portal for participating colleges to market their online programs. Courses will emphasis Jesuit values and the teacher-student…
Ayers, Sharonda C.
The benefits of college education are extensive. In addition to the obvious cognitive advantages, those who obtain a college education experience economic, health, family and neighborhood benefits. These benefits are felt not only within the generation of the individual who completed their degree; but inter-generationally as well. The ability to…
Bastable, Susan B; Markowitz, Marianne
We report the success of a unique articulation Dual Degree Partnership in Nursing (DDPN) model. The process used to establish and implement this approach is described. Unlike typical 2+2 agreements between associate degree (AD) and bachelor degree (BS) nursing education programs, the DDPN is designed with a 1+2+1 sequence. Intended to attract high school students, this model provides the opportunity to earn two degrees (AD and BS) while experiencing a 4-year campus living and learning environment. This configuration was accomplished without compromising the integrity of either of the established programs. After collecting data over the past 6 years, this model demonstrates popularity with the traditional-aged student, as well as success from an academic perspective. Statistics on retention, graduation, and NCLEX® pass rates indicate the feasibility and success of the model. Based on the findings, the potential for replication is promising for other colleges interested in a similar collaboration. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Fenske, Robert H.; And Others
This study examines the background characteristics of two large national samples of first-time enrolled freshmen who (a) attended college within their state of residence but away from their home community, (b) migrated to a college in an adjacent state, (c) migrated to a college in a distant state, and (d) attended college in their home community.…
Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda
Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…
According to a 2000 community college study by Miami Dade College (FL) President Emeritus Robert McCabe, 41 percent of students entering community colleges are underprepared in at least one basic skill area. A three-year study of community college students, published in 2009 by the National Center for Education Statistics, reported that 41 percent…
Webb, Marion Stanton; Allen, Lida Cherie
A survey of 1,499 graduate business students at 7 colleges and universities investigated perceptions of potential benefits of an advanced degree, and their relationships with degree type, school size/type, and student characteristics. Five perceived benefits included research and analytical skills, competitive advantage, monetary reward, career…
Belon, Barbara; Wright, Marie
This paper reports on research into the field of computer security, and undergraduate degrees offered in that field. Research described in the paper reveals only one computer security program at the associate's degree level in the entire country. That program, at Texas State Technical College in Waco, is a 71-credit-hour program leading to an…
Lee, Wincy W. S.
Associate (community college) degrees have expanded rapidly in the past decade in Hong Kong, but their value has been questioned due to the limited number of government-funded articulation opportunities available. This paper argues that associate degrees in Hong Kong are not valued solely for articulation purposes, but also for nurturing students'…
Conrad, Tracey L.; Rosser, Vicki J.
This statewide study examined selected demographic characteristics, worklife experiences, and personal issues that influence the satisfaction of administrators (assistant principals, principals, assistant superintendents) and their intent to leave their positions and careers or pursue career advancement in public school administration. The results…
Mbawuni, Joseph; Nimako, Simon Gyasi
This study principally investigates job-related and personality factors that determine Ghanaian accounting students' intentions to pursue careers in accounting. It draws on a rich body of existing literature to develop a research model. Primary data were collected from a cross-sectional survey of 516 final year accounting students in a Ghanaian…
Penman, Joy; Martinez, Lee; Papoulis, Debra; Cronin, Kathryn
The aims of this study are three-fold: determine the factors that motivate nurses to pursue mental health nursing; identify the strategies that might attract nursing students and practising nurses to pursue mental health nursing as a professional career; and identify the difficulties of nurses in achieving their preferred clinical specialty. A descriptive qualitative study design with semi-structured interviews was used. Fifteen mental health nurses from rural and regional South Australia were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was undertaken. Of the fifteen participants, thirteen were females and two were males; their average age was 50 years. The factors that motivated the participants to pursue mental health nursing were categorized as intrinsic and extrinsic. There were many strategies that might attract nursing students and nurses to the field, but the most popular suggestion was the provision of high quality meaningful clinical placements. Other strategies were to convey the personal satisfaction derived from being a mental health nurse, promote mental health nursing aggressively, and provide employment incentives. The study also highlighted the importance of addressing stigma, and greater education and support for nurses to pursue a mental health career.
Myotte, Theodore; Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Belin, Gayle
Masters-level speech-language pathologists in communication sciences and disorders (n = 122) completed a survey soliciting their reasons for not pursuing doctoral study. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution including one reflecting a lack of interest in doctoral study (Factor 2) and one reflecting practical financial concerns (Factor…
Elliott, Jacquelyn D.; Parks, Rodney
Latinos are the largest growing population in America, and thus, have the potential to have the greatest impact on our nation's economy. However, Latinos also graduate college at a lower rate than their counterparts. This article focuses on the various cultural, social, and financial barriers Latino students face and provides recommendations for…
Examines ways of developing college students' motivation for mathematical training; describes the type of mathematical knowledge required in the geography discipline; and explores an applied approach to mathematics teaching based on a systems concept. For journal availability, see SO 506 224. (Author/AV)
de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.
The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to
Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria
There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…
Making UK undergraduate physics degrees longer must have seemed like a good idea at the time. Back in the early 1990s the standard three-year Bachelor's physics degree (four years in Scotland) was under pressure at both ends. The A-level curriculum - one of the requirements for entry onto a degree course - was being increasingly modularized, and dumbed down. Physics students were arriving at university less well prepared than in the past and there was an increasing awareness that graduates of five-year continental degree courses were better equipped for a professional scientific career than those in the UK. At the same time, local education authorities in the UK were required to provide full funding for a first degree, whether for three or four years.
Dong, Huijuan; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Geng, Yong; Klimont, Zbigniew; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Bunya, Shintaro; Fujii, Minoru; Masui, Toshihiko
Highlights: • China’s future CO 2 reduction and its co-benefits on air pollutants were projected. • GAINS-China and AIM/CGE models were combined for emission and cost estimation. • High GDP regions tended to have higher emission, reduction potential and co-benefit. • Coal ratio and coal quality were also key factors to affect reduction and co-benefit. • Mitigation investment to less developed western regions was more effective. - Abstract: With fast economic development, industrialization and urbanization, China faces increasing pressures on carbon emission reduction, and especially on air pollutants (SO 2 , NOx, PM) reduction, particularly the notorious haze issue caused by air pollution in recent years. Pursuing co-benefits is an effective approach to simultaneously respond to both carbon and air pollutant problems. In this paper, the AIM/CGE (Asia–Pacific Integrated Assessment Model/Computational General Equilibrium) model and GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies)-China model are combined together to project future CO 2 and air pollutants emissions in China, as well as reduction costs and co-benefit effects. Considering implementation of carbon mitigation policy and air pollutant mitigation technologies, four scenarios (S1, S2, S3 and S4) are analyzed. Results indicate that by implementing both carbon and air pollutant mitigation (S4), CO 2 emission per GDP can be reduced by 41% by 2020, compared with the 2005 level, and SO 2 , NOx and PM2.5 emissions would change by a factor 0.8, 1.26 and 1.0 of the 2005 level, respectively in 2030. The real co-benefits of emission reductions (S2 minus S4) for SO 2 , NOx and PM2.5 are 2.4 Mt, 2.1 Mt and 0.3 Mt in 2020, and the corresponding cost reduction co-benefits are 4, 0.11, and 0.8 billion €, respectively. Provincial disparity analysis reveals that regions with higher co-benefits are those with higher GDP such as Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu, energy production bases such as
Full Text Available Focus and scope Publication ethics Journal metrics Frequent asked questions Supporting agencies Contact us Reading tools Print this article Indexing metadata Review policy Email this article Email the author Post a Comment Translate content Powered by Translate Related items Show all ✔ Open access ✔ Global visibility ✔ Rapid publication ✔ Quality peer review ✔ Author retains copyright ✔ Personalised service ✔ Submit online Home About Author Reviewer Reader Support Archives Search Home > Vol 70, No 1 (2014 > Urbaniak Original Research Bookmark and Share Freed by trust, to believe together: Pursuing global ecumenism with Küng and Tracy Jakub Urbaniak HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies; Vol 70, No 1 (2014, 9 pages. doi: 10.4102/hts.v70i1.2047 Submitted: 16 August 2013 Published: 11 April 2014 Abstract In the past decades it has emerged more clearly than before that Christian religion, which has so often contributed to human oppression, has rich theological resources that can be used to restore and perfect human freedom. These resources have been reflected upon not only by liberation theologians, but also within the ecumenically oriented theology of religions which targets what Hans Küng calls global responsibility based on global ethics. World religions have an essential role to play in rendering that global humanity more humane and free. The only way to accomplish this task leads through ongoing dialogue, directed both ad intra and ad extra, in the pursuit of a ‘global ecumenism’ which the present suggests and the future demands. For those liberating and unitive resources inherent in religious theory and praxis to be activated, fundamental trust in the reality of the world and of one’s own self appears indispensable. By deepening the theological insights of Hans Küng and David Tracy, the article seeks to explore the mutual correlation between such fundamental trust in reality and religious faith in God, interpreted
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...
Greene, J. Griffen; Wilson, Steve
This paper describes the Quality Control Program at Daytona Beach Junior College, including course descriptions. The program in quality control required communication between the college and the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC). The college has machinery established for certification of the learning process, and the society has the source of teachers who are competent in the technical field and who are the employers of the educational products. The associate degree for quality control does not have a fixed program, which can serve all needs, any more than all engineering degrees have identical programs. The main ideas which would be common to all quality control programs are the concept of economic control of a repetitive process and the concept of developing individual potentialities into individuals who are needed and productive.
Meister, Jeanne C.
Success factors in establishing corporate-college partnerships include communicating a shared vision for success, defining the degree of customization and flexibility from a university, and mutually devising a marketing and recruitment program. The metrics for success must be defined early and managed throughout the partnership. (JOW)
Homan, Delmar C.
Curriculum reform begun in January 1968 in the English department at Bethany College (Lindsborg, Kansas) is detailed in this article. New offerings feature three "mode" courses: (1) the Romance-Epic, (2) the Comic and Satiric, and (3) the Tragic. Two new majors, the English major and the English teaching major, are examined; degree requirements…
Zumeta, William; Huntington-Klein, Nick
This study examines key aspects of the cost-effectiveness of private nondoctoral (PND) colleges as providers of baccalaureate degrees and explores how states might feasibly make better use of these colleges to produce more degrees efficiently. The study looks at degree production and cost in the PND sector relative to other higher education…
Willingham, Warren W.; Breland, Hunter M.
The extent to which personal and academic factors are important in college admission decisions was studied in 1978, based on data on 25,000 applicants to 9 colleges (Colgate University, Williams College, Ohio Wesleyan University, Kenyon College, Kalamazoo College, Occidental College, Hartwick College, University of Richmond, and Bucknell…
Laura H. McArthur
Full Text Available Objective. To compare on- and off-campus snacking patterns among college students pursuing degrees in health-related fields (HRFs and nonhealth-related fields (NHRFs. Materials and Methods. Snack frequency questionnaire, scales measuring barriers, self-efficacy, and stage of change for healthy snacking, and a snack knowledge test (SKT. Participants. 513 students, 46% HRFs, and 54% NHRFs. The students' mean±SD BMI was 24.1±4.3 kg/m2 (range 14.6 to 43.8, and 32.2% were overweight/obese. Results. Softdrinks (on-campus, lowfat milk (off-campus, and sports drinks were popular among HRFs and NHRFs. Cost and availability were barriers to healthy snacking, students felt least confident to choose healthy snacks when emotionally upset, and 75% (65% of HRFs (NHRFs self-classified in the action stage of change for healthy snacking. The HRFs scored higher on the SKT. Conclusions. Neither location nor field of study strongly influenced snacking patterns, which featured few high-fiber foods.
Gonzalez, Laura M.
Latino students attend 2-year colleges more often than 4-year colleges. This has an impact on the rate of bachelor's degree attainment, because the transfer rate between the 2 levels is low. The author uses national data to identify predictors associated with college-level choice and then uses social-cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, &…
Kirk, Chris M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.
Despite an overall increase in college attendance, low-income youth and particularly those in the foster care system are less likely to attend college (Wolanin, 2005). Although youth in foster care report high educational aspirations, as little as 4% obtain a 4-year college degree (Nixon & Jones, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore…
Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad
The present study aimed at examining the interpersonal aspects of depression among female college students. A sample of 60 undergraduate female college students (50 pairs: 25 depressed and 25 non-depressed subjects along with their best friends) was drawn from Government Degree College for Women, Multan. Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al.,…
In this article, the author describes the college-school district collaboration called the "Academy of Health Sciences," an innovative approach to learning that located a high school on the college campus and gave students the opportunity to earn a college degree, too. The Academy of Health Sciences is just one of a slew of ideas that…
Weissman, Evan; Butcher, Kristin F.; Schneider, Emily; Teres, Jedediah; Collado, Herbert; Greenberg, David
Queensborough Community College and Houston Community College are two large, urban institutions that offer learning communities for their developmental math students, with the goals of accelerating students' progress through the math sequence and of helping them to perform better in college and ultimately earn degrees or certificates. They are…
Banning, James H.
First-generation college students are students whose parents or guardians did not obtain a four year college degree (Davis, 2012). As a group these students make up a large part of the college student population and are often reported to encounter difficulties in their campus experience. While the topic of first-generation student has received…
van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelli
In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and
van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelly
In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and
Analysis methods of scientific and technical information are presented to determine regularities in scientific and technical development. As a rule, the studies are carried out using data base of patent literature. Three methods of are considered. The first one - analysis of data flow, when trends in technique, degree of the technique monopolyzation and its urgency are evaluated. The second one - lexical analysis, consisting in recording new terms and deviations in the number of terms with time. The third one - analysis of quatation networks, which leads to the establisment of author and subject groups, characterizing scientific and technical activity of the object observed, of a firm or subject area for instance
Johnson, Kevin; Haung, Jingrong; Zwicker, Andrew
For many years, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's (PPPL) science education program has run ``Energy in the 21^st Century'' workshops for K-12 teachers and students. These workshops have focused on non fossil fuel sources of energy including solar, hydrogen fuel cells, and fusion. A new program was recently started at a local community college focusing on these same topics. In the first year, new labs will be woven into the existing physics curriculum. These labs explore advantages and disadvantages of each energy source. The goals of the program include increasing students' interest in science with the expectation that they will pursue higher education at a four year college and beyond. In future years, this program will be expanded to include other topics throughout the existing curriculum. This is just the start of expanding the level of education offered at the local community college.
Blumenthal, M D
A group of 29 college students who had been arrested or nominated as having participated in a street disturbance aimed at producing social change were interviewed. The interview schedule was highly similar to one which had been used to investigate attitudes toward violence in a random, representative sample of American men. The data collected from the arrestees are compared with data from college students in the national sample. This study shows that the arrestees are more likely to think that violence is necessary to produce social change than are college students generally, and are more likely to believe that existing social institutions are inadequate. As a group, the arrestees are more identified with white student demonstrators and black protestors than are college students generally. The arrestees are also likely to regard the police as untrusworthy, looking for trouble, and apt to dislike people like themselves. In addition to the negative attitudes toward the police held by the student arrestees, they are more likely to regard police actions as violence (and hence provocative) than are other college students. The arrestees are far more likely than other college students to cleave to humanistic values. However, most of the differences between the arrestees and other American college students could be predicted from a general model of the justification of violence, so that it appears that the student activists' beliefs differ not so much in kind from those of other Americans as they do in degree.
Dolan-Evans, Elliot; Rogers, Gary D
There are some concerns that medical student interest in surgery is suffering. The aims of this project were to investigate the proportion of medical students interested in surgery from years 1 to 4, explore influential attitudinal and demographic factors, and establish baseline data to study the future effects of the Surgical Interest Association. Students were surveyed through an audience response system in year orientation sessions. For a majority of the analyses, respondents were dichotomized based on expressing an interest in surgery or not. There were no significant differences in the interest students had for a surgical career between medical student year levels in a cross-sectional analysis. However, available longitudinal data demonstrated a significant decrease in surgical interest from first years in 2012 to second years in 2013. Lifestyle, working hours and training length concerns had minimal effects as career influences on students interested in surgery, whereas academic interest and career opportunities were motivating factors in choosing this career. The results suggested no difference between levels of interest from first to final year students in surgery as a career, though only 22% of final year students were interested in surgery. This study also suggested that promoting the academic and scientific side of surgery, along with career opportunities available, may be an important avenue to encourage students into surgery. Future research will investigate the changing interests of students in surgery longitudinally throughout the medical school and to analyse the effects of the Surgical Interest Association. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.
Phase relations in the dry condensed system Cu-Rh-S were determined at 900, 700, 540 and 500 degrees C. At 900 degrees C, the system contains digenite, four rhodium sulfides (Rh17S15, Rh3S4, Rh2S3 and RhS similar to 3), three ternary sulfides (CuRh2S4, CuxRhS3+x and a fibrous sulfide in the range...
McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.
This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…
Palmer, James C.; Ludwig, Meredith J.
In a study of the ways colleges and universities regard prior learning of military service members who apply for admission to undergraduate degree programs, 66 colleges evaluated prototype transcripts and assessed problems in awarding degree credit. A number of problems are seen as needing to be addressed by both schools and the military.…
Earn College Credit with REA's Test Prep for CLEP* College Mathematics Everything you need to pass the exam and get the college credit you deserve.CLEP* is the most popular credit-by-examination program in the country, accepted by more than 2,900 colleges and universities. For over 15 years, REA has helped students pass the CLEP* exam and earn college credit while reducing their tuition costs. Our test prep for CLEP* College Mathematics and the free online tools that come with it, allow you to create a personalized CLEP* study plan that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your lea
Savina, M. E.
Carleton College is a small (current enrollment ~1950), four-year, residential liberal arts college that has graduated more than 900 geology majors since the inception of the geology department inception in 1933. Since 1974, an average of more than 20 geology students have graduated each year. The department curriculum aims to educate at least six overlapping groups of students, who, however, may not place themselves into one of these groups until well after graduating. These groups include students in non- science majors who take geology for breadth or because of interest; science majors; geology majors who end up in other professions; and geology majors who pursue careers related to geology, most of whom ultimately earn a higher, professional degree. Goals for these groups of students differ and the department focuses its curriculum on developing skills and providing student experiences that will serve all groups well. The department has a strong focus on field geology and communication skills, solving complex problems in many project-based courses (culminating in a senior independent project for each student), and much group work. These characteristics correlate well with Carleton institutional goals. The senior independent projects (all reported in written, visual and oral forms) form the basis for outcomes assessment. We also regularly survey alumni who are in graduate programs of all kinds (not just geoscience), asking them about how well their undergraduate education has prepared them. Finally, the staff meet at least annually to discuss the curriculum, its goals, values, skills and content, and do a formal self-study with external and internal reviewers at least once a decade. The success of Carleton geology alumni in government, research, industry, education, consulting and other professions is the ultimate assessment tool.
Wolf, John C.
This presentation describes a program being developed at South Plains College (SPC) of Lubbock to train paraprofessional helpers at the two-year degree level. As an interface between the training of helpers at the four-year and graduate degree levels of preparation and the non-degree or extra-degree level of preparation in the helping professions,…
Ika Dewi Hartutik
Full Text Available This purpose of this study is to determine the effect of career motivation, motivation quality, economic motivation, social motivation, and motivation on the interest of accounting students to enroll in education programs designed to produce professional accountants. Data analysis here involves descriptive statistics, classical assumptions, and hypothesis testing with multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the study clearly show (1 the motivation of career affects the interest of accounting students to follow PPAk; (2 quality motivation does not affect the interest of accounting students to follow PPAk; (3 economic motivation does not affect the interest of accounting students to follow PPAk; (4 social motivation does not affect the interest of accounting students to follow PPAk; (5 the degree motivation does not affect the interest of accounting students to follow PPAk. Keywords: motivation, interests, education accounting profession, PPAk
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Cibik, Margaret A.
A survey of a sampling of college-bound high school seniors in Arizona was undertaken to determine students' information needs for college choice. Items, including institutional, student, and program characteristics, are ranked in order of perceived importance. (MSE)
... Health - Learn the facts about HPV, HIV, and birth control. College Women's Social Media Toolkit - Share health tips with your campus community. College Women's Campaign - Find out how your school can join. Sign up for email alerts. Order ...
Full Text Available Although online courses at postsecondary institutions promise adults access, flexibility, and convenience, many barriers to online learning remain. This article presents findings from a qualitative case study, which explored the phenomenon of undergraduate and graduate women learners’ persistence in online degree-completion programs at a college in the Northeast of the United States. Research questions asked why women learners persisted or failed to persist, and how factors supporting or hindering persistence influenced learners. Interviews with a purposeful sample of 20 participants revealed the complexity of variables affecting learners’ persistence to graduation. Findings suggested that multiple responsibilities, insufficient interaction with faculty, technology, and coursework ranked highest as barriers to women’s persistence. Strong motivation to complete degrees, engagement in the learning community, and appreciation for the convenience of an online degree-completion option facilitated persistence.
Hispanics, and women in particular, continue to be underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The purpose of this study was to analyze cognitive and motivational factors that inspired Hispanic female college students to major in STEM programs and aspire to academic success. This mixed methods study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis techniques in a sequential phase. Quantitative data were collected through the use of the 80-item Honey and Mumford Learning Styles Questionnaire, which was focused on the students' learning styles and how they impact Hispanic female students upon engaging in a STEM-related curriculum. Qualitative data were collected during interviews focusing on factors that led students to select, participate in, and make a commitment to some aspect of a STEM-related program. The questions that were asked during the interviews were intended to examine whether the existence of role models and STEM initiatives motivate Hispanic female students to major in STEM-related academic programs and aspire to academic success. The participants in this study were undergraduate Hispanic female students majoring in STEM-related academic programs and at a four-year university. The results indicate that the majority of the participants (88%) identified as reflectors, 4% as activists, 4% as theorists, and 4% as pragmatists. The results from the interviews suggested that the existence of role models (family members, educators, or STEM professionals) was a factor that motivated Hispanic females to major in STEM-related subjects and that exposure to STEM initiatives during K-12 education motivated Hispanic females to pursue a career in STEM.
Harris, Frank, III; Wood, J. Luke
A substantial body of scholarship on men of color in postsecondary education has emerged since the late 1990s. Yet, only recently have scholars begun to pursue empirical insights about the status of men of color who attend community colleges. In an effort to inform future research, this article reviews the published scholarship on student success…
When veteran educator Dr. N. Joyce Payne handed the reins of the organization she founded, the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, to entertainment lawyer and board member Johnny Taylor, Taylor began pursuing a remake of the prestigious group that has turned it on its head in just a matter of months. Today, with just more than a year of leading the…
Tremblay, Christopher W.
College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…
One Feather, Gerald
With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.
This booklet contains answers to questions that students may ask about financial aid for college. The booklet describes the usual costs of college, and suggests ways students can pay for a college education. The types of financial aid available are described, and the application process is outlined. The booklet offers tips for comparing different…
For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…
"Planning for College Success" (PCS) is a curriculum model designed by Sharon Downs, M.S., for a course intended to assist deaf and hard of hearing students during their initial introduction to college life. This program allows students to work one-on-one with a counselor to plan for their college success. The program includes short-term goals and…
Carlos P. Zalaquett; SeriaShia J. Chatters
Cyberbullying is commonly presented as affecting K-12 populations. Current research suggests cyberbullying continues in college. A diverse sample of 613 university students was surveyed to study their cyberbullying experiences in high school and college. Nineteen percent of the sample reported being a victim of cyberbullying in college and 35% of this subsample reported being cyberbullied in high school. Additional fin...
Salta, Katerina; Gekos, Michael; Petsimeri, Irene; Koulougliotis, Dionysios
This study aims at identifying factors that influence students' choice not to pursue a chemistry-related career by analyzing the experiences of secondary education chemistry teachers in Greece and of Greek adults who have not pursued studies related to science. Data collection was done with the method of individual structured interviews. The…
Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario
We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...
Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario
This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...
This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…
Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.
Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; FAJARDO PEÑA, PABLO
Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263
Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.
The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) decided to create the National Geoscience Student Exit Survey in order to identify the initial pathways into the workforce for these graduating students, as well as assess their preparedness for entering the workforce upon graduation. The creation of this survey stemmed from a combination of experiences with the AGI/AGU Survey of Doctorates and discussions at the following Science Education Research Center (SERC) workshops: "Developing Pathways to Strong Programs for the Future", "Strengthening Your Geoscience Program", and "Assessing Geoscience Programs". These events identified distinct gaps in understanding the experiences and perspectives of geoscience students during one of their most profound professional transitions. Therefore, the idea for the survey arose as a way to evaluate how the discipline is preparing and educating students, as well as identifying the students' desired career paths. The discussions at the workshops solidified the need for this survey and created the initial framework for the first pilot of the survey. The purpose of this assessment tool is to evaluate student preparedness for entering the geosciences workforce; identify student decision points for entering geosciences fields and remaining in the geosciences workforce; identify geosciences fields that students pursue in undergraduate and graduate school; collect information on students' expected career trajectories and geosciences professions; identify geosciences career sectors that are hiring new graduates; collect information about salary projections; overall effectiveness of geosciences departments regionally and nationally; demonstrate the value of geosciences degrees to future students, the institutions, and employers; and establish a benchmark to perform longitudinal studies of geosciences graduates to understand their career pathways and impacts of their educational experiences on these decisions. AGI's Student Exit Survey went through
Santiago, Deborah; Soliz, Megan
In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. This initiative included the release of a benchmarking guide for projections of degree attainment disaggregated by race/ethnicity that offered multiple metrics to track…
Within the coming decade, the demand for well-trained pharmacists is expected to only increase, especially with the aging of the United States (US) population. To help fill this growing demand, the University of California, Irvine (UCI) aims to offer a unique pre-pharmacy degree program and has developed a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences to help achieve this goal. In this commentary, we share our experience with our curriculum and highlight its features in an effort to encourage other institutions to enhance the learning experience of their pre-pharmacy students. The efforts of the UCI Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences has resulted in UCI being consistently ranked as one of the top feeder institutions by the Pharmacy College Application Service (PharmCAS) in recent years. The UCI Pharmaceutical Sciences Bachelor of Science offers a unique pre-pharmacy educational experience in an effort to better prepare undergraduates for the rigors of the doctorate of pharmacy curriculum. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Routine delays in the diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) are well known and conceivably attributable to the absence of cues, other than anti-adrenal autoantibodies, to pursue subclinical PAI. Subclinical PAI is latent unless the afflicted patient encounters stress such as an acute illness, surgery, psychosocial burden, etc. It remains to be demonstrated whether a history of stress-related health changes is a useful cue to pursue a diagnosis of latent PAI. The patients were selected for a history of recurrent symptoms, i.e., gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, or lassitude, aggravated by stress and alleviated by the removal of stress, and signs, i.e., weight loss, hypotension, and hyperpigmentation. As the early morning cortisol levels were low or low-normal and the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were within the reference ranges, provocation tests, i.e., insulin-induced hypoglycemia tests and low-dose (1 μg) corticotropin tests (LDTs), were used to estimate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis status. Patients with the HPA axis dysfunction on two provocation tests were supplemented with physiologic doses of glucocorticoids (GCs). The effects of GC supplementation on stress-related health changes were observed. The ACTH levels after insulin-induced hypoglycemia were higher and the cortisol levels were lower in the patients than in the control subjects. The cortisol levels in the patients were increased less significantly by LDT than those observed in the control subjects. Stress-related health changes ceased to recur and signs, i.e., a low body weight, hypotension, and hyperpigmentation, were ameliorated following GC supplementation. A history of stress-related health changes is useful as a cue to pursue latent PAI in patients with low or low-normal early morning cortisol levels.
Jacobs, David M; Daly, Christopher J; Tierney, Sarah-Elizabeth L; O'Brien, Erin; Fiebelkorn, Karl D
Objectives. To understand pharmacy students' reasons for pursuing a dual PharmD/MBA degree and their perceptions of the impact a dual degree will have on their careers. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey of registered students in the University at Buffalo PharmD/MBA program. An electronic survey was developed through collaboration with the UB School of Management and administered in January 2015. Results. A total of 23/24 (96% response rate) students who were enrolled in the PharmD/MBA curriculum responded to the survey. Respondents identified employment opportunities following graduation and career advancement as the most influential determinants in deciding to pursue an MBA degree. All respondents (100%) felt the job marketplace for pharmacy graduates is becoming increasingly difficult, 96% believe they will earn a higher midpoint salary with a PharmD/MBA, and 82% would recommend a PharmD/MBA to first year pharmacy students. Conclusion. Students are increasingly perceptive of the challenges in the current job marketplace and are taking advantage of a dual PharmD/MBA degree.
Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A
Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)
For-Profit Colleges: Undercover Testing Finds Colleges Encouraged Fraud and Engaged in Deceptive and Questionable Marketing Practices. Testimony before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate. GAO-10-948T
Kutz, Gregory D.
Enrollment in for-profit colleges has grown from about 365,000 students to almost 1.8 million in the last several years. These colleges offer degrees and certifications in programs ranging from business administration to cosmetology. In 2009, students at for-profit colleges received more than $4 billion in Pell Grants and more than $20 billion in…
Lott, Joe L., II.; Hernandez, Jose; King, Joe P.; Brown, Tiffany; Fajardo, Ismael
Using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03) of College Graduates, we use structural equation modeling to model the relationships between college major, values held in college, collegiate community service participation, and the post-college political participation of college graduates by public versus private…
Jafarey, Aamir M
The success of degree-level bioethics programmes, a recent development across the world, is generally evaluated on the basis of their quantifiable impact; for instance, the number of publications graduates produce. The author conducted a study of Pakistani graduates who had pursued a higher qualification in bioethics, and on the basis of the respondents' written and verbal narratives, this paper presents an analysis of their perceptions of the internal impact of bioethics degree programmes. Using these narratives, the paper also analyses the reactions of their colleagues to their new qualification.The respondents reported significant changes in their thinking and actions following their education in bioethics. They exhibited more empathy towards their patients and research subjects, and became better "listeners~ They also reported changes in practices,the most significant being the discontinuation of the linkages they had established with pharmaceutical firms to seek support,because of concerns related to conflict of interest. Although some respondents believed that their new qualification was generally welcomed by their colleagues, who considered them aesthetics resources, others reported that their colleagues harboured unreasonable and impractical expectations from them, and that these were impossible to fulfil. They also got the feeling of being ostracized and regarded as "ethics watchdogs~ Whereas the internalisation of bioethics is an encouraging finding in this cohort, the mixed reception that bioethics and those involved in it received indicates a Jack of understanding of the field and is a source of concern.
Full Text Available Over the last decade, qualitative researchers have begun to challenge the domination and universalistic claims of the Global North. Nevertheless, it is still unclear what pursuing qualitative research (QR from the Global South might entail. I advance this effort by situating it in the larger context of the decentering endeavor in social science and decolonizing methodologies in aboriginal scholarship. Informed by their locally-grounded approach in the quest for constructing alternative social science accounts and articulating decolonized knowledge, I argue that writing locally-grounded histories is an essential first step to explore methodologies and epistemologies of QR from the Global South. Noting that no national history of QR has been derived from the Global South, I present an example of writing the history of QR by examining MAO Zedong's legacy of "investigative research" (IR. Specifically, I analyze the practices of IR during China's "Great Leap Forward" (1958-62. In conclusion, I discuss the implications of IR to the development of social science research in contemporary China. I lay out key issues in pursuing QR from the Global South and present how such a pursuit is relevant to social science inquiry in the Global North. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150325
Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Thorpe, Roland J; Griffith, Derek M
Racial disparities in weight-related outcomes among males may be linked to differences in behavioral change efficacy; however, few studies have pursued this line of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which self-efficacy associated with changing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption intake varies by race among male first-year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen males (N = 203) at a medium-sized southern university. Key variables of interest were SSB intake and self-efficacy in reducing consumption of sugared beverages. African American and Whites had similar patterns of SSB intake (10.2 ± 2.8 vs. 10.1 ± 2.6); however, African Americans had lower proportions of individuals who were sure they could substitute sugared beverages with water (42.2% vs. 57.5%, p obesity-related diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.
McIntosh, Daniel H.; Jennings, Derrick H.
Increasing participation by historically underrepresented Americans in the STEM workforce remains a national priority. Existing strategies have failed to increase diversity especially in the physical sciences despite federal mandates. To meet this urgent challenge, it is imperative to immediately identify and support the expansion of effective high school-to-college STEM pipelines. A Bridge to the Stars (ABttS) is a creative and tested pipeline designed to steadily increase the numbers of disadvantaged 15-21 year-olds pursuing and completing 4-year STEM degrees. This unique program offers extended engagement in astronomy, arguably the most accessible window to science, through a 3-tier STEM immersion program of innovative learning (in a freshman science course), authentic research training (in a freshman science lab), and supportive near-peer mentoring at U.Missouri-Kansas City, an urban research university. Each tier of the ABttS pipeline by itself has the potential to broaden student aspirations for careers as technological innovators or STEM educators. Students who elect to transition through multiple tiers will substantially reinforce their successes with STEM activities, and significantly bolster their self-esteem necessary to personally manifest STEM aspirations. We will summarize the impact of this program after 5 years, and share our latest improvements. The long-term mission of ABttS is to see urban educational institutions across the U.S. adopt similar pipelines in all STEM disciplines built on the ABttS model.
Perezchica, Inez G.
Only 9% of U.S Latino males have bachelor's degrees. Community colleges are the preferred choice for Latinas/os entering the higher education pipeline. Almost half of first-year community college students leave college without achieving their educational goals. Racial inequalities in education are a symptom of lingering institutional racism. In…
Fenske, Robert H.; Scott, Craig S.
Recent changes in the background characteristics and attributes of students entering American junior colleges are compared with those of students entering colleges offering baccalaureate and graduate degrees. Comparisons are also made between students entering private and public junior colleges. The characteristics and attributes are: Level of…
Hirschy, Amy S.; Bremer, Christine D.; Castellano, Marisa
Career and technical education (CTE) students pursuing occupational associate's degrees or certificates differ from students seeking academic majors at 2-year institutions in several ways. This article examines several theoretical models of student persistence and offers a conceptual model of student success focused on CTE students in community…
Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara
Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…
Osei-Kofi, Nana; Torres, Lisette E.
Numerous reports on the US economy argue that American higher education institutions must prepare a greater number of workers for employment in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), in order for the US to remain globally competitive. To do so, addressing the underrepresentation of women and people of color who pursue degrees in STEM…
Full Text Available Rajesh Subhash Joshi, Sonal Jayant Muley Department of Ophthalmology, Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College, Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India Purpose: To evaluate the effective phaco time (EPT, cumulative dissipated energy (CDE and nucleus emulsification time (NET as phaco parameters with 0- and 30-degree phaco tip. Patients and methods: This prospective, interventional and observational case series included 294 patients scheduled for cataract removal by phacoemulsification technique. Patients with nuclear cataracts of grade 4 and 5 nuclear opalescence of Lens Opacities Classification System III were included in the study. Patients were consecutively allocated to phaco chop technique with 0-degree (0-degree group, n=147 and combined bevel up and down position using 30-degree phaco tip (combined bevel up/down group, n=147. The 0-degree group had phacoemulsification with 0-degree phaco tip, while the 30-degree group had chopping of the nucleus with bevel down phaco tip and emulsification of nuclear fragments was accomplished with bevel up tip. EPT, CDE, NET and intraoperative complications were noted and compared between the groups using analysis of variance. Results: Average EPT, CDE and NET were lower in the 30-degree group than in the 0-degree group. However, no statistically significant difference was found in EPT (P=0.0733, CDE (P=0.0663 and NET (P=0.0633 between the two groups. No serious intraoperative complications were noted. The anterior chamber was maintained throughout the procedure in both groups. No patients had wound burn and miosis during the procedure. None of the patients developed bullous keratopathy, uveitis and cystoid macular edema during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Combined bevel up and down 30-degree tip can yield effective hard nucleus phacoemulsification. Bevel down tip of 30-degree helps in effective chopping and bevel up tip assists in emulsification of the nuclear fragments. Although combined bevel up and down 30
Carlos P. Zalaquett
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is commonly presented as affecting K-12 populations. Current research suggests cyberbullying continues in college. A diverse sample of 613 university students was surveyed to study their cyberbullying experiences in high school and college. Nineteen percent of the sample reported being a victim of cyberbullying in college and 35% of this subsample reported being cyberbullied in high school. Additional findings and practical implications are presented.
Reynolds, John R; Parrish, Michael
Natural mentors provide advice, moral support, and assistance to adolescents who aspire to obtain a postsecondary degree, but past studies of the benefits of having an informal adult mentor have yet to resolve several issues. Our analyses of a national sample of high school graduates test three hypotheses: (H1) natural mentoring increases the odds of college attendance and completion, (H2) guidance and career advice are more important for college success than encouragement or role modeling, and (H3) students from poor and working-class families benefit more from mentoring than students from middle- and upper-class families. Hypotheses 1 and 3 are clearly supported when examining the odds of attending college, while Hypothesis 2 was not supported-encouragement and role modeling boost attendance, not advice or practical help. None of the hypotheses is supported when predicting degree completion among those who matriculated. As natural mentors do not appreciably increase the odds of completing college, we conclude past studies have overstated the postsecondary educational benefits of natural mentors. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank
This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...
McGhie-Anderson, Rose Lavine
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the social processes associated with the decision of diploma and associate degree nurses to advance academically. Advanced nursing education needs to be pursued along the continuum of the nursing career path. This education process is indispensable to the role of nurses as educator, manager, nurse leader, and researcher who will effect policy changes, assume leadership roles as revolutionary thinkers, and implement paradigmatic shifts. Data were collected from two groups of participants using face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Group 1 consisted of diploma and associate degree nurses; Group 2 consisted of baccalaureate, masters, and doctoral degree nurses who have progressed academically. Emerging from the thick, rich data were core categories of rewarding, motivating, and supporting as critical factors that influence professional advancement. This qualitative study elucidated that professional advancement was the social process that grounds. The emergent theory was the theory of professional advancement.
McIntosh, Daniel H.
The need to grow and diversify the STEM workforce remains a critical national challenge. Less than 40% of college students interested in STEM achieve a bachelor's degree. These numbers are even more dire for women and URMs, underscoring a serious concern about the country's ability to remain competitive in science and tech. A major factor is persistent performance gaps in rigorous 'gateway' and advanced STEM courses for majors from diverse backgrounds leading to discouragement, a sense of exclusion, and high dropout rates. Education research has clearly demonstrated that interactive-engagement (`active learning') strategies increase performance, boost confidence, and help build positive 'identity' in STEM. Likewise, the evidence shows that traditional science education practices do not help most students gain a genuine understanding of concepts nor the necessary skill set to succeed in their disciplines. Yet, lecture-heavy courses continue to dominate the higher-ed curriculum, thus, reinforcing the tired notion that only a small percentage of 'special' students have the inherent ability to achieve a STEM degree. In short, very capable students with less experience and confidence in science, who belong to groups that traditionally are less identified with STEM careers, are effectively and efficiently 'weeded out' by traditional education practices. I will share specific examples for how I successfully incorporate active learning in advanced astrophysics courses to encourage students from all backgrounds to synthesize complex ideas, build bedrock conceptual frameworks, gain technical communication skills, and achieve mastery learning outcomes all necessary to successfully complete rigorous degrees like astrophysics. By creating an inclusive and active learning experience in junior-level extragalactic and stellar interiors/atmospheres courses, I am helping students gain fluency in their chosen major and the ability to 'think like a scientist', both critical to
satisfaction as well as increase their opportunities to pursue technical graduate education. This thesis compares job performance and retention outcomes...degrees. This thesis evaluates other factors that affect retention such as job fit. The high demand for STEM graduates in the civilian labor market is...examined to determine their effects on officer job performance and retention . Previous research has provided inconclusive results on the effects of
'Full text:' The 2005 Rae Report on higher education in Ontario recommended that the Provincial government 'reaffirm the mandate of colleges to focus on occupational education and labour market needs, while continuing to allow applied degrees and institutional evolution. Mandate colleges to reach out to the fifty percent of high school students not going on to further studies...' Another recommendation was 'encourage the distinct evolution of each institution (i.e. colleges and universities) and promote differentiation through the tuition framework, accountability arrangements and the design of the Province's funding formula. At the same time, require that colleges and universities recognize each others' related programming to create clear and efficient pathways for students.' Implementing these recommendations requires major changes in the interfaces among schools, colleges, universities and industry, and also in the attitudes of parents, the teaching profession, and employers. Will it happen? (author)
Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University, 2014
The College Readiness Indicator Systems (CRIS) initiative was developed in response to a troubling pattern: More students than ever are enrolling in college after high school, but many of them are not college ready, as evidenced by persistently low rates of college completion. The sense of urgency to close the gap between college eligibility and…
American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2012
In the summer of 2011, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched a new 21st-Century Initiative. The overall goal of the initiative is to educate an additional 5 million students with degrees, certificates, or other credentials by 2020. Grounded in the enduring commitment of community colleges to improving the lives of students…
... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...
Perceptions from Library School Faculty on Meaningful Matters to Academic Librarians: Additional Degrees, Sabbaticals, Evaluation, and Governance.A Review of: Wyss, P. A. (2010. Library school faculty member perceptions regarding faculty status for academic librarians. College & Research Libraries, 71(4, 375-388.
Full Text Available Objective – To survey the faculty members of American Library Association (ALA-accredited library schools to gain insight into their perceptions on academic librarians obtaining faculty status and how the library school curricula prepare academic librarians for faculty roles.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – An e-survey was distributed online to 57 ALA-accredited library schools during April 2007, using Zoomerang.Subjects – The population consisted of 906 tenure-track or tenured faculty members.Methods – The 24 item survey was designed to answer eight specific research questions and evoke responses scored on a five-point Likert scale that corresponded to (1 Strongly Disagree, (2 Disagree, (3 Neutral, (4 Agree, and (5 Strongly Agree. For the analysis of data in questions 1 and 3 through 8, the perceptions of faculty members of ALA-accredited library schools were determined by calculating the mean and standard deviation. For the analysis of question 2 a t test was used to determine differences in faculty members’ perceptions based on gender and tenure. A one-way analysis of variance, or ANOVA, was used to determine library school faculty members’ perceptions based on academic rank. Main Results – A total of 906 individuals were sent the link to the survey, and 187 individuals completed the survey, making the response rate 20.6%. Of the respondents, 38.5% were professors, 25.7% were associate professors, 33.7% were assistant professors, and 2.1% were lecturers. The majority of respondents were female (60.0% and tenured (65.0%.Faculty members of the ALA-accredited library schools agreed that courses in statistical concepts, procedures, and research (both experimental and non-experimental should be required of those seeking a master’s or doctoral degree. They agreed that the Master of Library Science (MLS degree is insufficient in preparing librarians for faculty status, and that additional graduate degrees improve performance
Neely, Patricia; Tucker, Jan P.; Au, Angela
As concerns about the skyrocketing costs of a college degree have converged with the increasing availability of open educational resources (OER), higher education administrators are asking faculty and curriculum designers to use OERs to design courses and programs. This case study explores the decision making process and outcomes of an online,…
A mounting concern throughout the country is a current and growing nursing shortage. In order to meet the growing demand of nurses, many colleges have created baccalaureate second degree accelerated registered nursing programs. Stressors, experienced by nursing students in these accelerated programs, may affect their retention. A deeper…
Jiji, Latif M.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Smith, George A.
Purpose: This paper aims to describe experience gained with a required six-credit year-long course, the Capstone Interdisciplinary Team Project, a key component of the Master of Science (MS) in Sustainability degree at the City College of New York. A common feature of sustainability problems is their interdisciplinary nature. Solutions to…
Kinneer, James W.
A national survey of health care recruiters was used to compare their attitudes toward four different RN-to-BSN degree options based on the method of instruction (classroom, online) and the type of college (traditional, forprofit). The analysis was based on the data received from 116 respondents who completed the questionnaire. The study findings…
Davidson, Jeffrey Cody
For the United States to maintain national and global economic stability, colleges must graduate more students. Four-year completion rates have declined and less than one-third of full-time, degree-seeking students graduate in 4 years. Some researchers and policymakers have suggested "leading indicators" to track postsecondary…
The debate over the value of a college education appears to be settled, not only do employers value employees with a bachelor's degree, they may actually value them too much. This author believes that there is a dramatic credentials gap in the American workforce between the education levels employers are requesting in job postings and the…
Wise, Phyllis M.; Martin, Carolyn A.; Kinbrough, Walter M.; Hitt, John C.; Urgo, Joseph R.; Lief, Charles G.; Drake, Michael V.; Hellyer, Brenda; Pepicello, William
Lately there has been a great deal of discussion about the importance of measuring a college's "return on investment." Is the point of a college education quantifiable results or personal and intellectual growth? In pursuit of answers, "The Chronicle" asked a selection of higher-education leaders. Phyllis M. Wise, Chancellor of…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…
Regis Coll., Weston, MA.
Regis College policies and procedures are described in this 1976 faculty handbook. Chapter 1 covers college organization and governance, including roles of academic officers and committees. Specific faculty data are presented in Chapter 2, such as definition of academic ranks and titles, recruitment and appointment, promotion, tenure, review,…
Herriott, Scott R.; Dunbar, Steven R.
The common understanding within the mathematics community is that the role of the college algebra course is to prepare students for calculus. Though exceptions are emerging, the curriculum of most college algebra courses and the content of most textbooks on the market both reflect that assumption. This article calls that assumption into question…
Crawford, Corinne; Jervis, Angela
Dr. Jill Biden, Vice President Joe Biden's wife, has been teaching in community colleges for the past 18 years. Dr. Biden believes that community colleges are "…uniquely American institutions where anyone who walks through the door is one step closer to realizing the American dream." This is an inspiring sentiment. However, of all the…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…
Romero, Amanda R.
The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…
The popularity of college ranking surveys published by "U.S. News and World Report" and other magazines is indisputable, but the methodologies used to measure the quality of higher education institutions have come under fire by scholars and college officials. Criticisms have focused on methodological flaws, such as failure to consider…
Study examining the earnings of students accepted by elite colleges but who chose to attend less-selective institutions finds that students do not enhance earnings by graduating from colleges with high average Scholastic Assessment Test scores, suggesting that admissions decisions fail to account for intangibles such as students' ambition,…
Abou Samra, Haifa; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Estes, Tracy
No instrument exists that measures student perceptions of the faculty role. Such a measure is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at attracting students to the faculty career path. We developed the Nurse Educator Scale (NES). The initial scale items were generated using the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) constructs and were reviewed by an expert panel to ensure content validity. Exploratory factor analysis was used. The optimized 25-item, 7-point Likert scale has a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.85, with a total variance of 42%. The underlying factor structure supported three defining characteristics congruent with SCCT: outcome expectations (alpha = 0.79), relevant knowledge (alpha = 0.67), and social influence (alpha = 0.80). A stand-alone, item-measuring goal setting was also supported. The NES provides a valid and reliable measure of students' intentions and motivations to pursue a future career as a nurse educator or scientist. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Rajecki, D W; Borden, Victor M H
Psychology is a very popular undergraduate major. Examining wage data from a range of degree holders reveals much about the expected career trajectories of those with psychology degrees. First, regarding baccalaureates, psychology and other liberal arts graduates-compared with those from certain preprofessional and technical undergraduate programs-generally fall in relatively low tiers of salary levels at both starting and later career points. Salary levels among baccalaureate alumni groups correlate with averaged measures of salary satisfaction, repeated job seeking, and perceptions of underemployment. These patterns seem to stem from the specific occupational categories (job titles) entered by graduates in psychology compared with other graduates, calling into question the employability advantage of so-called generic liberal arts skills. Second, psychology master's degree holders also generally fall in a low tier of salary among their science, engineering, and health counterparts. Third, psychology college faculty (including instructors) fall in low tiers of salary compared with their colleagues from other academic fields. Such broadly based indications of the relative economic disadvantages of psychology degrees have implications for career counseling in the field. © The Author(s) 2011.
Stämpfli, Aline E; Stöckli, Sabrina; Brunner, Thomas A
Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use. Therefore, two laboratory studies were conducted. They examined the Giacometti sculptures' effects on unhealthy and healthy food intake (Study 1) and on the completion of weight- and health-related fragmented words (Study 2). Study 1 indicated that the sculptures are weight-related by showing that they reduced food intake independent of food healthiness. Furthermore, the "Giacometti effect" was moderated by restrained eating. Restrained eaters, who are known for their weight-control goal, ate less after having been exposed to the thin sculptures. The results of Study 2 pointed in the same direction. Restrained eaters completed more weight-related words after being exposed to the sculptures. Overall, these studies suggest that the thin sculptures are primarily weight-related cues and particularly helpful for restrained eaters. Environmental weight-control cues such as the Giacometti sculptures could act as a counterforce to our obesogenic environment and help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal. In this way, they could nudge food decisions in a healthier direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edicreia Andrade dos Santos
Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the intention of 691 students graduating from Accounting courses at public universities in the state of Paraná to pursue a career in the area of accounting, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. For the analysis, the sample was divided into ten mesoregions according to the criteria of the Paranaense Institute for Economic and Social Development (Ipardes. The data collected were treated using descriptive statistics and structural equations techniques. The research hypotheses were corroborated in most of the mesoregions and the main findings show that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control variables affect the students' intention to pursue a career in the area of accounting. The samples for six mesoregions (1. Curitiba Metropolitan Area, 2. East Center, 4. North Central, 5. Northwest, 6. West, and 9. South Center, in which the three hypotheses were corroborated, represent the largest and most developed cities in Paraná. The results in the ten mesoregions studied explain an intention variance of between 27.84% and 64.31%. The findings of this research contribute to understanding the profiles of accounting graduates from public institutions in the state of Paraná, providing elements to support the managers of the institutions in analyzing and elaborating differentiated strategies in relation to course curricula and approaches, according to the particular region. In addition, regulatory agencies can use these findings as a basis for in-depth research on the variables that influence the intentions of future professionals and to develop policies that guide institutions in developing courses with more adequate and consistent content for the market.
Loehr, John F.; Almarode, John T.; Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.
In a climate where increasing numbers of students are encouraged to pursue post-secondary education, the level of preparedness students have for college-level coursework is not far from the minds of all educators, especially high school teachers. Specifically within the biological sciences, introductory biology classes often serve as the…
Majidi, Roya, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788-15811 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
In the present work, we have compared the resistance of the 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain walls in the presence of external magnetic field. The calculations are based on the Boltzmann transport equation within the relaxation time approximation. One-dimensional Neel-type domain walls between two domains whose magnetization differs by angle of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign are considered. The results indicate that the resistance of the 360 Degree-Sign DW is more considerable than that of the 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign DWs. It is also found that the domain wall resistance can be controlled by applying transverse magnetic field. Increasing the strength of the external magnetic field enhances the domain wall resistance. In providing spintronic devices based on magnetic nanomaterials, considering and controlling the effect of domain wall on resistivity are essential.
Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.
This paper focuses on two issues related to ontological emergence: whether it is a coherent notion, and its relation to the doctrine of physicalism. First, it is argued that ontological emergence is best understood as a thesis relying on three fundamental tenets claiming that emergents are basic,...
Sep 7, 2012 ... of public–private partnership in research and education in India. The Institute receives major private funding, side by side with substantial .... We are writing this to say that students who fail to do well in Mathematics Olympiad have no reason to get disheartened and to think that they are not good enough to ...
Hargrove, Patricia M
This paper provides an overview of evidence-based prosodic intervention strategies to facilitate clinicians' inclusion of prosody in their therapeutic planning and to encourage researchers' interest in prosody as an area of specialization. Four current evidence-based prosodic interventions are reviewed and answers to some important clinical questions are proposed. Additionally, the future direction of prosodic intervention research is discussed in recommendations about issues that are of concern to clinicians. The paper ends with a call for participation in an online collaboration at the Clinical Prosody blog at clinicalprosody.wordpress.com.
Petersen, Margit Anne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M
This article presents ethnographic data on the use of prescription stimulants for enhancement purposes by university students in New York City. The study shows that students find stimulants a helpful tool in preventing procrastination, particularly in relation to feeling disinterested, overloaded...
Murray, Christine E.; Kardatzke, Kerrie N.
The authors present a review of literature examining dating violence among college students. They describe 6 key issues related to dating violence among college students that affect college counselors' work. These key issues relate to the incidence and prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence in college students' dating…
The majority of California's students seeking higher education are enrolled in a community college and approximately a third are Latino. Yet as the number of Latinos in community colleges has risen, their degree completion and transfer rates lag in comparison to other major ethnic groups. To investigate the academic aspirations and barriers of community college students, this mixed-methods case study focused on Latinos in a specialized learning community for students entering their first year...
Wei Hu; Feng Li; Li Gan
Based on micro-level student data from one Chinese academic institution, we study the validity of the national college entrance exam from the perspective of student performance in college and employment prospects after graduation. We find that the current college entrance exam could reflect the students¡¯ learning ability to a certain degree, providing a relatively valid evaluation. Demonstration of well-rounded development ability should be an important factor in the evaluation system. Based...
Borrego, Anne Marie
Describes the "slow and steady" approach to growth embraced by the owner of Stratford College, a Virginia-based, for-profit school that offers degrees in the culinary arts, information technology, and hotel and event management and business. (EV)
Jewett, Amy; Bell, Teal; Cohen, Nicole J.; Buckley, Kirsten; Leino, E. Victor; Even, Susan; Beavers, Suzanne; Brown, Clive; Marano, Nina
Objective: Colleges are at risk for communicable disease outbreaks because of the high degree of person-to-person interactions and relatively crowded dormitory settings. This report describes the US college student health screening requirements among US resident and international students for tuberculosis (TB) and vaccine-preventable diseases…
Anderson, Connie; Butt, Catherine
There is limited information on outcomes for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including achievement at college. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 families reporting a degree-seeking college experience for their young adult with ASD. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Four themes…
Harrris, Cortney R.
Research studies show that there is a skills gap in American society today. This research study examined employability perceptions of community college students at a rural community college in Mississippi. Students were asked to complete an online survey that questioned the degree of importance placed on several employability skills, as well as…
Heppner, Frank; And Others
Without a formal mechanism to produce consensus, American colleges generally have come to agree on what constitutes an appropriate set of course requirements for Biology and Zoology majors. This report describes a survey of American four-year colleges and universities offering biology and/or zoology degrees. Questionnaires were sent to 741 biology…
Roberts, Robin A.
People who earn college degrees are more likely positioned socially, occupationally, and economically for consideration of leadership roles and salary increases. Research conducted by Adams (2008) revealed that regardless of a students' gender, race, social, or economic status, the impact of a college education on lifetime earnings is 20%…
Chen, Yu; Starobin, Soko S.
This study examined a psychosocial mechanism of how general self-efficacy interacts with other key factors and influences degree aspiration for students enrolled in an urban diverse community college. Using general self-efficacy scales, the authors hypothesized the General Self-efficacy model for Community College students (the GSE-CC model). A…
Szura, Jean Mary
Given the value of obtaining a college degree, it is the responsibility of educational administrators and faculty to understand what contributes to or detracts from student success in college. Researchers have shown a strong relationship between students' level of integration with the institutions and persistence to graduation. One factor that…
Silver Wolf, David A. Patterson; Perkins, Jacob; Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T.; Walker, Thomas A., Jr.
Educators, policymakers, and institutions have worked for decades to increase rates of college graduation, but about half of students who enter college drop out without completing a bachelor's degree. Although the rate of student attrition is higher in the United States than in any other industrialized nation, about 30% of U.S. students will drop…
Community colleges play an important role in the accessibility of higher education to the American population and developmental coursework is of vital importance to college degree attainment. The large demand for student remediation in math requires optimal commitment of developmental math faculty members. Increased organizational commitment has…
Patel, Reshma; Rudd, Timothy
The passage of the Higher Education Act of 1965, which extended need-based financial assistance to the general population for the first time, has improved college access for American students, but more work remains to be done to improve college success. According to government statistics, in 2006, about one in six students had earned a degree or…
A college education is expensive. While it is clearly worth the investment--and even worth going into at least some debt to achieve--students need to know that not all college degree programs are equal; not all are designed to prepare them for long-term success. This article presents how to bridge the awareness and communications gaps between…
The Adult College Completion Network--funded by Lumina Foundation and facilitated by the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE)--brings together and supports entities working to increase college and certificate completion by adults with prior postsecondary credits but no degree. The network was founded in part on the premise…
A newly compiled analysis by the U.S. Department of Education and obtained by "The Chronicle" shows that 114 private nonprofit degree-granting colleges were in such fragile financial condition at the end of their last fiscal year that they failed the department's financial-responsibility test. Colleges that fail the test are subject to extra…
Hudesman, John; Wiesner, Ezra
Examines whether the degree of facilitating and debilitating test anxiety is different for students who volunteer for test anxiety desensitization workshops than it is for the general college population, whether test anxiety in urban community college students is correlated, and whether either or both of the AAT scales are predictive of student…
Rodriguez, Eric; Rhodes, Kent; Aguirre, Geoffrey
Several factors contribute to a disproportionately lower Latino participation in college education. Foremost among those factors are policies that encourage quick job placement over career development, lack of understanding of the benefits of a college degree, lower expectations for Latino students, poor financial planning, and lack of guidance. A…